WorldWideScience

Sample records for global daily irradiation

  1. Learning Processes to Predict the Hourly Global, Direct, and Diffuse Solar Irradiance from Daily Global Radiation with Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Loutfi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three different topologies of feed forward neural network (FFNN models for generating global, direct, and diffuse hourly solar irradiance in the city of Fez (Morocco. Results from this analysis are crucial for the conception of any solar energy system. Especially, for the concentrating ones, as direct component is seldom measured. For the three models, the main input was the daily global irradiation with other radiometric and meteorological parameters. Three years of hourly data were available for this study. For each solar component’s prediction, different combinations of inputs as well as different numbers of hidden neurons were considered. To evaluate these models, the regression coefficient (R2 and normalized root mean square error (nRMSE were used. The test of these models over unseen data showed a good accuracy and proved their generalization capability (nRMSE = 13.1%, 9.5%, and 8.05% and R = 0.98, 0.98, and 0.99 for hourly global, hourly direct, and daily direct radiation, respectively. Different comparison analyses confirmed that (FFNN models surpass other methods of estimation. As such, the proposed models showed a good ability to generate different solar components from daily global radiation which is registered in most radiometric stations.

  2. Estimation of global daily irradiation in complex topography zones using digital elevation models and meteosat images: Comparison of the results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Durban, M. [Dpto. de Lenguajes y Computacion, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F.; Polo, J. [Dpto. de Energia, CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bosch, J.L.; Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    The knowledge of the solar irradiation in a certain place is fundamental for the suitable location of solar systems, both thermal and photovoltaic. On the local scale, the topography is the most important modulating factor of the solar irradiation on the surface. In this work the global daily irradiation is estimated concerning various sky conditions, in zones of complex topography. In order to estimate the global daily irradiation we use a methodology based on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM), on one hand making use of pyranometer measurements and on the other hand utilizing satellite images. We underline that DTM application employing pyranometer measurements produces better results than estimation using satellite images, though accuracy of the same order is obtained in both cases for Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE). (author)

  3. Comparison of techniques for the estimation of daily global irradiation and a new technique for the estimation of hourly global irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.C.

    1984-03-01

    Global irradiation and sunshine duration data recorded at Trieste (CNR, Istituto Talassografico di Trieste) during the 11 year period 1972-1982 are analyzed using the classical Angstrom equation H=H 0 (a+bS/S 0 ) and the equation H'=H 0 (a+bS/S 0 ') for incorporating the effects of (i) multiple reflections, and (ii) not burning of the sunshine recorder chart for small elevation of the sun. The values of the regression constants and the correlation coefficients are calculated using each yearly data set separately. Correlation coefficients of 0.89 or more are obtained for the 11 years. Substantial unsystematic scatter is obtained in the values of a as well as b for different years. The use of the equation H'=H 0 (a+bS/S 0 ') is not found either to decrease this scatter or to give better values of the correlation coefficients. Hourly global irradiation data are also analyzed. 11 year mean values of the ratio hourly/daily are plotted against the solar time for each of the 12 months of the year. The normal distribution curve is found to fit the data closely. The mean of the normal distribution is taken at the solar noon and the σ values are obtained for each month by matching the experimental and the theoretical values at the solar noon. The σ values so obtained are found to bear an excellent linear correlation (r=0.996) with S 0 , viz. σ=0.461+0.192S 0 . This provides a simple and elegant technique for estimating hourly irradiation from the daily values and may be of universal applicability. The technique enables the estimation of global irradiation for any smaller interval of time as well

  4. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version 003 of Aura-OMI Spectral Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Level-2G data product (Daily level-2 data binned into global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon grids)...

  5. A comparison of the Angstrom-type correlations and the estimation of monthly average daily global irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.; Jain, P.C.

    1985-12-01

    Linear regression analysis of the monthly average daily global irradiation and the sunshine duration data of 8 Zambian locations has been performed using the least square technique. Good correlation (r>0.95) is obtained in all the cases showing that the Angstrom equation is valid for Zambian locations. The values of the correlation parameters thus obtained show substantial unsystematic scatter. The analysis was repeated after incorporating the effects of (i) multiple reflections of radiation between the ground and the atmosphere, and (ii) not burning of the sunshine recorder chart, into the Angstrom equation. The surface albedo measurements at Lusaka were used. The scatter in the correlation parameters was investigated by graphical representation, by regression analysis of the data of the individual stations as well as the combined data of the 8 stations. The results show that the incorporation of none of the two effects reduces the scatter significantly. A single linear equation obtained from the regression analysis of the combined data of the 8 stations is found to be appropriate for estimating the global irradiation over Zambian locations with reasonable accuracy from the sunshine duration data. (author)

  6. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone...

  7. TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The...

  8. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 (OMUVBG) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is Level-2G daily global gridded Aura-OMI Spectral Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose product (OMUVBG). The OMUVBG is a special Level-2 Global Gridded...

  9. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L3 Global Gridded 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree V3 (OMUVBd) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is Level-3 daily global gridded Aura-OMI Spectral Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose product (OMUVBd). The OMUVBd product contains global erythemally...

  10. Performance of the Angstrom-Prescott Model (A-P) and SVM and ANN techniques to estimate daily global solar irradiation in Botucatu/SP/Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maurício Bruno Prado; Francisco Escobedo, João; Juliana Rossi, Taiza; dos Santos, Cícero Manoel; da Silva, Sílvia Helena Modenese Gorla

    2017-07-01

    This study describes the comparative study of different methods for estimating daily global solar irradiation (H): Angstrom-Prescott (A-P) model and two Machine Learning techniques (ML) - Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The H database was measured from 1996 to 2011 in Botucatu/SP/Brazil. Different combinations of input variables were adopted. MBE, RMSE, d Willmott, r and r2 statistical indicators obtained in the validation of A-P and SVM and ANN models showed that: SVM technique has better performance in estimating H than A-P and ANN models. A-P model has better performance in estimating H than ANN.

  11. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L3 Global 1.0x1.0 deg Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura-OMI Daily Gridded Surface UV Irradiance Product (OMUVBd) is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES...

  12. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiances Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 Daily Gridded Data consist of daily, global coverage of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective...

  13. TOMS/Earth-Probe Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 daily global gridded data consist of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective surface...

  14. Food irradiation: global aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinning, G.

    1988-01-01

    As a commercial activity, food irradiation is twenty years old, but is backed by nearly eighty years of research on gamma irradiation and sixty years knowledge of application of the technology to food. An overview is given of the global boom and then the hiatus in its legislative and commercial applications. It is emphasised that in Australia, the overseas experience provides a number of models for proceeding further for food manufacturers, consumers and Government. 13 refs

  15. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  16. TOMS Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008 (TOMSN7L3dery) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. Four TOMS...

  17. TOMS Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008 (TOMSEPL3dery) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format.The Total...

  18. Global Daily Climatology Network: Kazakhstan subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...

  19. Prediction of daily UV-A from daily global solar irradiance using the Ktuv and Kt clearness index; Prediccion de valores diarios de radiacion solar UV-A (295-385 nm) utilizando los indices de transparencia K{sub t}uv y K{sub t} y tecnicas de resdes neuronales artificiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, F. J.; Lopez, G.; Batlles, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    In this work we compare two methodologies in order to estimate daily UV-A from daily global solar irradiance measurements. The first one is based on standard statistical procedures for relating the daily clearness indices Ktuv and Kt and the relative air mass, whereas the second methodology is based on the novel techniques of artificial neuronal networks. In both cases, we employed data recorded at the radiometric station located at the University of Almeria between 1993 and 1996. Both models are checked against data for years not previously used. (Author)

  20. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSID contains daily averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data...

  1. NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset is comprised of downscaled climate scenarios for the globe that are derived from the...

  2. TOMS Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiances Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg V008 (TOMSN7L3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 Daily Gridded Data consist of daily, global coverage of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective...

  3. TOMS Earth-Probe Total Ozone (O3) Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiances Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg V008 (TOMSEPL3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 daily global gridded data consist of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective surface...

  4. Modulation of accelerated repopulation in mouse skin during daily irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.-R.; Shirazi, A.; Heasman, F.

    1999-01-01

    Background and purpose: The timing of acceleration of repopulation in the epidermis during daily irradiation is related to the development of skin erythema and epidermal hypoplasia. Therefore, the relationship between impairment of the epidermal barrier function, the dermal inflammatory response and epidermal hypoplasia with the acceleration of repopulation was investigated.Materials and purpose: Skin fields of approximately 1 cm 2 on the thighs of TUC mice were given five daily fractions of 3 Gy in each week followed by top-up doses at the end of the first, the second, or the third week to determine residual epidermal tolerance and to calculate repopulation rates in weeks 1, 2, or 3. Systemic modulation of repopulation was attempted by daily indomethacine during fractionated irradiation whereas tape stripping or UV-B exposure before the start of fractionated irradiation attempted local modulation. In parallel experiments, the water permeability coefficient of the epidermis was determined ex vivo by studying transepidermal transport of tritiated water.Results: Without modulation, no repopulation was found in the first week of daily fractionation but repopulation compensated 30% of the dose given in week two and 70% of the dose given in week three. Only tape stripping before the start of fractionated irradiation accelerated repopulation in week one. UV-B had no effect on repopulation although it stimulated proliferation as much as tape stripping. Indomethacin did not suppress acceleration of repopulation. A significant increase in transepidermal water loss was found but only after repopulation had already accelerated.Conclusions: Acceleration of repopulation in mouse epidermis during daily-fractionated irradiation is not related to the simultaneous development of an inflammatory response. Also, the loss of the epidermal barrier function is not involved in the development of the acceleration response, which rather seems to be triggered directly by the decreased

  5. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Rapid Orbit Product (daily files, generated daily) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Rapid Orbit Product (daily files, generated daily) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  6. Food irradiation: a global scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, T.; Ross, A.; Leveziel, H.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the foods that will be consumed in the 21st century have not yet been invented. New methods of production need new methods of conservation. Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beam is a new technology. The intensive production methods of today lead to several potential dangers. For example - if just one chicken is diseased this bird can contaminate all of one days' production at the slaughter house - on average 300,000 birds per day. One has to have conservation methods that can decontaminate the poultry meat. Irradiation is a method that achieves this. The consumer is becoming more and more sophisticated and demanding with regard to the quality of food products, rejecting chemical additives for example, irradiation is a physical method of conservation, this means that there is no residue left in the product, and that there are no changes in the physical characteristics of the food. This paper examines the use of irradiation technology as a food conservation method in today's industry. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Study of hourly and daily solar irradiation forecast using diagonal recurrent wavelet neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jiacong; Lin Xingchun

    2008-01-01

    An accurate forecast of solar irradiation is required for various solar energy applications and environmental impact analyses in recent years. Comparatively, various irradiation forecast models based on artificial neural networks (ANN) perform much better in accuracy than many conventional prediction models. However, the forecast precision of most existing ANN based forecast models has not been satisfactory to researchers and engineers so far, and the generalization capability of these networks needs further improving. Combining the prominent dynamic properties of a recurrent neural network (RNN) with the enhanced ability of a wavelet neural network (WNN) in mapping nonlinear functions, a diagonal recurrent wavelet neural network (DRWNN) is newly established in this paper to perform fine forecasting of hourly and daily global solar irradiance. Some additional steps, e.g. applying historical information of cloud cover to sample data sets and the cloud cover from the weather forecast to network input, are adopted to help enhance the forecast precision. Besides, a specially scheduled two phase training algorithm is adopted. As examples, both hourly and daily irradiance forecasts are completed using sample data sets in Shanghai and Macau, and comparisons between irradiation models show that the DRWNN models are definitely more accurate

  8. Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J; Sugden, David

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance...

  9. Pathological consequences of chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.; Miller, A.C.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Fritz, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    The quantitative relationships between the chronic radiation exposure parameters of dose-rate and total dose in relation to associated health risks was examined in dogs. At a dose-rate of 75, 128, and 263 mGy/d the incidence of acute lymphohematopoietic suppression (aplastic anemia) and associated septic complications was 73%, 87%, and 100%, respectively, and it increased in dose-dependent manner. By contrast, at dose-rates below 75 mGy/d, late cancers contributed significantly to the death of relatively long-lived animals, whose mean survival time was 1800 days. Myeloproliferative disease (MPD), mainly myeloid leukemia, was the dominant pathology seen at the higher daily dose-rates (18.8-75 mGy/d). When daily exposure was carried out continuously, the incidence of MPD was quite high. It should be noted that the induction radiation-induced MPD in this study was highly significant, because spontaneous MPD is exceedingly rare in the dog. However, when the daily dose-rate was reduced further or exposure was discontinued, the incidence of MPD declined significantly. At these lower dose-rates, solid tumors contributed heavily to the life-shortening effects of chronic irradiation. The induction and progression of these survival-compromising, late forms of pathology appeared to be driven by the degree of hematopoietic suppression that occurred early during the exposure phase, and in turn by the capacity of hematopoietic system to repair itself, recover, and to accommodate under chronic radiation stress. (K.H.)

  10. Pathological consequences of chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Miller, A.C.; Ramakrishnan, N. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Fritz, T.E.

    2000-07-01

    The quantitative relationships between the chronic radiation exposure parameters of dose-rate and total dose in relation to associated health risks was examined in dogs. At a dose-rate of 75, 128, and 263 mGy/d the incidence of acute lymphohematopoietic suppression (aplastic anemia) and associated septic complications was 73%, 87%, and 100%, respectively, and it increased in dose-dependent manner. By contrast, at dose-rates below 75 mGy/d, late cancers contributed significantly to the death of relatively long-lived animals, whose mean survival time was 1800 days. Myeloproliferative disease (MPD), mainly myeloid leukemia, was the dominant pathology seen at the higher daily dose-rates (18.8-75 mGy/d). When daily exposure was carried out continuously, the incidence of MPD was quite high. It should be noted that the induction radiation-induced MPD in this study was highly significant, because spontaneous MPD is exceedingly rare in the dog. However, when the daily dose-rate was reduced further or exposure was discontinued, the incidence of MPD declined significantly. At these lower dose-rates, solid tumors contributed heavily to the life-shortening effects of chronic irradiation. The induction and progression of these survival-compromising, late forms of pathology appeared to be driven by the degree of hematopoietic suppression that occurred early during the exposure phase, and in turn by the capacity of hematopoietic system to repair itself, recover, and to accommodate under chronic radiation stress. (K.H.)

  11. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V017

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  12. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  13. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, T. M.

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d^-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccommodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high-tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic

  14. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V002 (TCTE3TSID) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSID contains daily averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data...

  15. SORCE XPS Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE XUV Photometer System (XPS) Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) Daily Data Product SOR3XPSD contains solar XUV irradiances in the 0.1 to 27 nm range, as well...

  16. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Daily, Version 1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 1.2 Daily product covers the period October 1998 to the present,...

  17. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3{minus}26.3 cGy d{sup {minus}1}). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity.

  18. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d -1 ). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 ampersand 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity

  19. Estimating the daily solar irradiation on building roofs and facades using Blender Cycles path tracing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilba Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development of an daily solar irradiation algorithm with application of the free software Blender. Considerable attention was paid to the possibilities of simulation of reflections of direct and diffuse solar radiation. For this purpose, the rendering algorithm “Cycles” was used, based on the principle of bi-directional path tracing – tracing random paths of light beams. The value of global radiation in this study is the sum of four components: direct beam radiation, reflected beam radiation, diffuse radiation and reflected diffuse radiation. The developed algorithm allows calculation of solar irradiation for all elements of the 3D model created in Blender, or imported from an external source. One minute is the highest possible time resolution of the analysis, while the accuracy is dependent on the resolution of textures defined for each element of a 3D object. The analysed data is stored in the form of textures that in the algorithm are converted to the value of solar radiance. The result of the analysis is visualization, which shows the distribution of daily solar irradiation on all defined elements of the 3D model.

  20. Creating a global sub-daily precipitation dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley

    2017-04-01

    Extremes of precipitation can cause flooding and droughts which can lead to substantial damages to infrastructure and ecosystems and can result in loss of life. It is still uncertain how hydrological extremes will change with global warming as we do not fully understand the processes that cause extreme precipitation under current climate variability. The INTENSE project is using a novel and fully-integrated data-modelling approach to provide a step-change in our understanding of the nature and drivers of global precipitation extremes and change on societally relevant timescales, leading to improved high-resolution climate model representation of extreme rainfall processes. The INTENSE project is in conjunction with the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)'s Grand Challenge on 'Understanding and Predicting Weather and Climate Extremes' and the Global Water and Energy Exchanges Project (GEWEX) Science questions. The first step towards achieving this is to construct a new global sub-daily precipitation dataset. Data collection is ongoing and already covers North America, Europe, Asia and Australasia. Comprehensive, open source quality control software is being developed to set a new standard for verifying sub-daily precipitation data and a set of global hydroclimatic indices will be produced based upon stakeholder recommendations. This will provide a unique global data resource on sub-daily precipitation whose derived indices, e.g. monthly/annual maxima, will be freely available to the wider scientific community.

  1. SORCE SIM Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V020

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SIM Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SIMD is constructed using measurements from the SIM instruments, which are combined into merged daily...

  2. SORCE SIM Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V022

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SIM Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SIMD is constructed using measurements from the SIM instruments, which are combined into merged daily...

  3. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Rapid Clock Product (30 second resolution, daily files, generated daily) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Rapid Satellite and Receiver Clock Product (30-second granularity, daily files, generated...

  4. Global increasing trends in annual maximum daily precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Seth; Alexander, Lisa; Zwiers, Francis

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily precipitation timeseries in a global dataset of 8326 high quality land-based observing stations with more than 30 years of record over the period from 1900 to 2009. Two complementary statistical techniques were adopted to evaluate the possible non-stationary behaviour of this precipitation data. The first was a Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test, and was used to evaluate the existence of monotonic trends. The second was a non-stationary generalised extreme value analysis, and was used to determine the strength of association between the precipitation extremes and globally averaged near-surface temperature. The outcomes are that statistically significant increasing trends can be detected at the global scale, with close to two-thirds of stations showing increases. Furthermore, there is a statistically significant association with globally averaged near-surface temperature, with the median intensity of extreme precipitation changing in proportion with changes in global mean temperature at a rate of between 5.9% and 7.7% per degree, depending on the method of analysis. This ratio was robust irrespective of record length or time period considered, and was not strongly biased by the uneven global coverage of precipitation data. Finally, there is a distinct meridional variation, with the greatest sensitivity occurring in the tropics and higher latitudes, and minima around 13°S and 11°N. The greatest uncertainty is near the equator due to the limited number of sufficiently long precipitation records, and there remains an urgent need to improve data collection in this region to better constrain future changes in tropical precipitation.

  5. SORCE XPS Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V011 (SOR3XPSD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE XUV Photometer System (XPS) Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) Daily Data Product SOR3XPSD contains solar extreme ultraviolet irradiances in the 0.1 to 27 nm...

  6. Food irradiation; Global aspects and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Akira (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture (Japan). Nodai Research Institute)

    1990-07-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs.

  7. [Comparison of three daily global solar radiation models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Ming; Fan, Wen-Yi; Zhao, Ying-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Three daily global solar radiation estimation models ( Å-P model, Thornton-Running model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al.) were analyzed and compared using data of 13 weather stations from 1982 to 2012 from three northeastern provinces and eastern Inner Mongolia. After cross-validation analysis, the result showed that mean absolute error (MAE) for each model was 1.71, 2.83 and 1.68 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1) respectively, showing that Å-P model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. which used percentage of sunshine had an advantage over Thornton-Running model which didn't use percentage of sunshine. Model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. played a good effect on the situation of non-sunshine, and its MAE and bias percentage were 18.5% and 33.8% smaller than those of Å-P model, respectively. High precision results could be obtained by using the simple linear model of Å-P. Å-P model, Thornton-Running model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. overvalued daily global solar radiation by 12.2%, 19.2% and 9.9% respectively. MAE for each station varied little with the spatial change of location, and annual MAE decreased with the advance of years. The reason for this might be that the change of observation accuracy caused by the replacement of radiation instrument in 1993. MAEs for rainy days, non-sunshine days and warm seasons of the three models were greater than those for days without rain, sunshine days and cold seasons respectively, showing that different methods should be used for different weather conditions on estimating solar radiation with meteorological elements.

  8. Daily CT planning during boost irradiation of prostate cancer. Feasibility and time requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geinitz, H.; Zimmermann, F.B.; Kuzmany, A.; Kneschaurek, P.

    2000-01-01

    Background: In the irradiation of prostate cancer internal organ movement leads to uncertainties in the daily localization of the clinical target volume. Therefore more or less large safety margins are added when designing the treatment portals. With daily CT planning internal organ movement can be compensated to some extent, safety margins can be reduced and irradiated normal tissue can be spared. The feasibility of daily CT-based 3D treatment planning is studied in a patient with localized prostate carcinoma using a new patient positioning system. Methods: Daily CT planning was applied during boost irradiation of a patient with prostate cancer: After patient immobilization the pelvis was scanned in 3 mm CT slices. Planning was done with the BrainSCAN planning system for stereotactic body irradiation. The prostate was contoured in all slices and the safety margins of the micromultileafs were automatically set to the distance chosen by the physician (0.8 cm). Patient positioning was done with the BrainLAB ExacTrac positioning system on the basis of skin attached stereotactic body markers. Before each treatment verification images of the isocenter were taken. Results: The total time requirement for planning and irradiation was about 1 hour 15 minutes. Patient positioning on the treatment couch took about 10 minutes. The accuracy of the positioning system was good (75% of the deviations were smaller than 3 mm). The shift of the single markers from CT scan to CT scan was more extensive than those of the center of all 7 markers combined (47% of the deviations were smaller than 3 mm). The location of the markers seems to influence the magnitude of their dislocation. Conclusion: Daily CT planning is feasible but time consuming. The new patient positioning system ExacTrac is an interesting tool especially for daily CT planning since conventional simulation can be omitted. (orig.) [de

  9. Global solar irradiation in Italy during 1994 : monthly average daily values for 1614 sites estimated from Meteosat images; Radiazione solare globale al suolo in Italia nel 1994 : valori medi mensili per 1.614 localita` italiane stimate a partire dalle immagini fornite dal satellite Meteosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliani, E.; Mancini, M.; Petrarca, S.; Spinelli, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-10-01

    The global solar radiation over Italy is estimated from Meteosat secondary images in the visible band. The stimation method relies on the fact that the cloud cover on a given area of the Earth`s surface statistically determines the amount of solar radiation falling on that area. Estimated values of the monthly average daily global radiation on a horizontal surface for the 1994 have been compared with values computed from data measured by the stations of the two Italian radiation networks: the Meteorological Service of the Italian Air Force and the National Agrometeorological Network (a total of 36 stations have been considered). The mean percentage difference between estimated and computed values over the year is 6 per cent. In the present report, the monthly maps of radiation over Italy and the estimated monthly average daily values for over 1600 sites (having more than 10,000 inhabitants) are given. In the yearly reports to be issued in the years to come, maps and mean values over the period starting with 1994 will be given as well.

  10. Prediction of Daily Global Solar Radiation by Daily Temperatures and Artificial Neural Networks in Different Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I Saedi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Global solar radiation is the sum of direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation. Weather forecasts, agricultural practices, and solar equipment development are three major fields that need proper information about solar radiation. Furthermore, sun in regarded as a huge source of renewable and clean energy which can be used in numerous applications to get rid of environmental impacts of non-renewable fossil fuels. Therefore, easy and fast estimation of daily global solar radiation would play an effective role is these affairs. Materials and Methods This study aimed at predicting the daily global solar radiation by means of artificial neural network (ANN method, based on easy-to-gain weather data i.e. daily mean, minimum and maximum temperatures. Having a variety of climates with long-term valid weather data, Washington State, located at the northwestern part of USA was chosen for this purpose. It has a total number of 19 weather stations to cover all the State climates. First, a station with the largest number of valid historical weather data (Lind was chosen to develop, validate, and test different ANN models. Three training algorithms i.e. Levenberg – Marquardt (LM, Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG, and Bayesian regularization (BR were tested in one and two hidden layer networks each with up to 20 neurons to derive six best architectures. R, RMSE, MAPE, and scatter plots were considered to evaluate each network in all steps. In order to investigate the generalizability of the best six models, they were tested in other Washington State weather stations. The most accurate and general models was evaluated in an Iran sample weather station which was chosen to be Mashhad. Results and Discussion The variation of MSE for the three training functions in one hidden layer models for Lind station indicated that SCG converged weights and biases in shorter time than LM, and LM did that faster than BR. It means that SCG provided the fastest

  11. Monthly Summaries of the Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-D)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly Summaries of Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN)-Daily is a dataset derived from GHCN-Daily. The data are produced by computing simple averages or...

  12. Global trends of acceptance and trade in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Issues as relevant to wide scale application of food irradiation are presented in this paper to provide current status of the technology. Global development on key issues such as public acceptance, public health improvement, safety and wholesomeness, regulatory aspects, potential application of the technology to ease quarantine problems in the trade of food and agricultural commodities as a viable alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide have been presented. Irradiation ensures the hygienic quality of food and extends shelf-life. Many international organizations and respected regional/national bodies agree on the merits of the technique and valuable contribution that the process can offer to safeguard the food supply worldwide. Codex General Standard for irradiated food and the associated Code of Practice for operation of the irradiation facilities used for the treatment of foods adopted in 1983 forms the regulatory basis for commercial utilization of the processing technology. More than 40 countries of the world have Standards/Regulations to process one or more food products by the irradiation process. Efforts are underway to harmonise national regulations on food irradiation to remove obstacles for international trade of irradiated products. There is a rapid development on commercial application of food irradiation in the USA and elsewhere in the past few months. There are already several existing commercial irradiators available for treating food in the USA and many more are planned to be built. Such commercial food irradiation facilities are also in different stage of development in Brazil, India, Mexico, Thailand, People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea. Roles of irradiation ensuring food safety, contributing food security and facilitating trade are more and more recognized in developed and developing countries alike. (author)

  13. Determination of atmospheric parameters to estimate global radiation in areas of complex topography: Generation of global irradiation map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlles, F.J.; Bosch, J.L. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Tovar-Pescador, J. [Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Martinez-Durban, M. [Dpto. Ingenieria Lenguajes y Computacion, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Ortega, R. [Dpto. Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Miralles, I. [Dpto. Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Granada, 28071 Granada (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    Incoming shortwave solar radiation is an important parameter in environmental applications. A detailed spatial and temporal analysis of global solar radiation on the earth surface is needed in many applications, ranging from solar energy uses to the study of agricultural, forest and biological processes. At local scales, the topography is the most important factor in the distribution of solar radiation on the surface. The variability of the elevation, the surface orientation and the obstructions due to elevations are a source of great local differences in insolation and, consequently, in other variables as ground temperature. For this reason, several models based on GIS techniques have been recently developed, integrating topography to obtain the solar radiation on the surface. In this work, global radiation is analyzed with the Solar Analyst, a model implemented on ArcView, that computes the topographic parameters: altitude, latitude, slope and orientation (azimuth) and shadow effects. Solar Analyst uses as input parameters the diffuse fraction and the transmittance. These parameters are not usually available in radiometric networks in mountainous areas. In this work, a method to obtain both parameters from global radiation is proposed. Global radiation data obtained in two networks of radiometric stations is used: one located in Sierra Magina Natural Park (Spain) with 11 stations and another one located on the surroundings of Sierra Nevada Natural Park (Spain) with 14 stations. Daily solar irradiation is calculated from a digital terrain model (DTM), the daily diffuse fraction, K, and daily atmospheric transmittivity, {tau}. Results provided by the model have been compared with measured values. An overestimation for high elevations is observed, whereas low altitudes present underestimation. The best performance was also reported during summer months, and the worst results were obtained during winter. Finally, a yearly global solar irradiation map has been

  14. Determination of atmospheric parameters to estimate global radiation in areas of complex topography: Generation of global irradiation map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batlles, F.J.; Bosch, J.L.; Tovar-Pescador, J.; Martinez-Durban, M.; Ortega, R.; Miralles, I.

    2008-01-01

    Incoming shortwave solar radiation is an important parameter in environmental applications. A detailed spatial and temporal analysis of global solar radiation on the earth surface is needed in many applications, ranging from solar energy uses to the study of agricultural, forest and biological processes. At local scales, the topography is the most important factor in the distribution of solar radiation on the surface. The variability of the elevation, the surface orientation and the obstructions due to elevations are a source of great local differences in insolation and, consequently, in other variables as ground temperature. For this reason, several models based on GIS techniques have been recently developed, integrating topography to obtain the solar radiation on the surface. In this work, global radiation is analyzed with the Solar Analyst, a model implemented on ArcView, that computes the topographic parameters: altitude, latitude, slope and orientation (azimuth) and shadow effects. Solar Analyst uses as input parameters the diffuse fraction and the transmittance. These parameters are not usually available in radiometric networks in mountainous areas. In this work, a method to obtain both parameters from global radiation is proposed. Global radiation data obtained in two networks of radiometric stations is used: one located in Sierra Magina Natural Park (Spain) with 11 stations and another one located on the surroundings of Sierra Nevada Natural Park (Spain) with 14 stations. Daily solar irradiation is calculated from a digital terrain model (DTM), the daily diffuse fraction, K, and daily atmospheric transmittivity, τ. Results provided by the model have been compared with measured values. An overestimation for high elevations is observed, whereas low altitudes present underestimation. The best performance was also reported during summer months, and the worst results were obtained during winter. Finally, a yearly global solar irradiation map has been produced

  15. Comparison of several databases of downward solar daily irradiation data at ocean surface with PIRATA measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolliet, Mélodie; Wald, Lucien

    2017-04-01

    The solar radiation impinging at sea surface is an essential variable in climate system. There are several means to assess the daily irradiation at surface, such as pyranometers aboard ship or on buoys, meteorological re-analyses and satellite-derived databases. Among the latter, assessments made from the series of geostationary Meteosat satellites offer synoptic views of the tropical and equatorial Atlantic Ocean every 15 min with a spatial resolution of approximately 5 km. Such Meteosat-derived databases are fairly recent and the quality of the estimates of the daily irradiation must be established. Efforts have been made for the land masses and must be repeated for the Atlantic Ocean. The Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) network of moorings in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean is considered as a reference for oceanographic data. It consists in 17 long-term Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System (ATLAS) buoys equipped with sensors to measure near-surface meteorological and subsurface oceanic parameters, including downward solar irradiation. Corrected downward solar daily irradiation from PIRATA were downloaded from the NOAA web site and were compared to several databases: CAMS RAD, HelioClim-1, HelioClim-3 v4 and HelioClim-3 v5. CAMS-RAD, the CAMS radiation service, combines products of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) on gaseous content and aerosols in the atmosphere together with cloud optical properties deduced every 15 min from Meteosat imagery to supply estimates of the solar irradiation. Part of this service is the McClear clear sky model that provides estimates of the solar irradiation that should be observed in cloud-free conditions. The second and third databases are HelioClim-1 and HelioClim-3 v4 that are derived from Meteosat images using the Heliosat-2 method and the ESRA clear sky model, based on the Linke turbidity factor. HelioClim-3 v5 is the fourth database and differs from v4 by the

  16. Analysis of Global Solar Irradiance over Climatic Zones in Nigeria for Solar Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ayodotun Osinowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite derived solar irradiance over 25 locations in the 5 climatic zones of Nigeria (tropical rainforest TRF, Guinea savannah GS, Sahel savannah SHS, Sudan savannah SUS, and Mangrove swamp forest MSF was analyzed. To justify its use, the satellite data was tested for goodness of agreement with ground measured solar radiation data using 26-year mean monthly and daily data over 16 locations in the 5 climatic zones. The well-known R2, RMSE, MBE, and MPE statistical tests were used and good agreement was found. The 25 locations were grouped into the 5 climatic zones. Frequency distribution of global solar irradiance was done for each of the climatic zones. This showed that 46.88%, and 40.6% of the number of days (9794 over TRF and MSF, respectively, had irradiation within the range of 15.01–20.01 MJ/m2/day. For the GS, SHS, and SUS, 46.19%, 55.84% and 58.53% of the days had total irradiation within the range of 20.01–25.01 MJ/m2/day, respectively. Generally, in all the climatic zones, coefficients of variation of solar radiation were high and mean values were low in July and August. Contour maps showed that high and low values of global solar irradiance and clearness index were observed in the Northern and Southern locations of Nigeria, respectively.

  17. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  18. Prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in India using various geographical and meteoro- logical parameters. The ANN model employed in their study contains two hidden layers with eight and seven neurons respectively. The results of their study justify the application of artificial neural net- works, the most sophisticated non-linear model for modelling global ...

  19. Regression Model to Predict Global Solar Irradiance in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairuniza Ahmed Kutty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel regression model is developed to estimate the monthly global solar irradiance in Malaysia. The model is developed based on different available meteorological parameters, including temperature, cloud cover, rain precipitate, relative humidity, wind speed, pressure, and gust speed, by implementing regression analysis. This paper reports on the details of the analysis of the effect of each prediction parameter to identify the parameters that are relevant to estimating global solar irradiance. In addition, the proposed model is compared in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE, mean bias error (MBE, and the coefficient of determination (R2 with other models available from literature studies. Seven models based on single parameters (PM1 to PM7 and five multiple-parameter models (PM7 to PM12 are proposed. The new models perform well, with RMSE ranging from 0.429% to 1.774%, R2 ranging from 0.942 to 0.992, and MBE ranging from −0.1571% to 0.6025%. In general, cloud cover significantly affects the estimation of global solar irradiance. However, cloud cover in Malaysia lacks sufficient influence when included into multiple-parameter models although it performs fairly well in single-parameter prediction models.

  20. Optimization of an artificial neural network dedicated to the multivariate forecasting of daily global radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyant, Cyril; Muselli, Marc; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie-Laure

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict daily solar radiation. We look at the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network which is the most used of ANNs architectures. In previous studies, we have developed an ad-hoc time series preprocessing and optimized a MLP with endogenous inputs in order to forecast the solar radiation on a horizontal surface. We propose in this paper to study the contribution of exogenous meteorological data (multivariate method) as time series to our optimized MLP and compare with different forecasting methods: a naive forecaster (persistence), ARIMA reference predictor, an ANN with preprocessing using only endogenous inputs (univariate method) and an ANN with preprocessing using endogenous and exogenous inputs. The use of exogenous data generates an nRMSE decrease between 0.5% and 1% for two stations during 2006 and 2007 (Corsica Island, France). The prediction results are also relevant for the concrete case of a tilted PV wall (1.175 kWp). The addition of endogenous and exogenous data allows a 1% decrease of the nRMSE over a 6 months-cloudy period for the power production. While the use of exogenous data shows an interest in winter, endogenous data as inputs on a preprocessed ANN seem sufficient in summer. -- Research highlights: → Use of exogenous data as ANN inputs to forecast horizontal daily global irradiation data. → New methodology allowing to choice the adequate exogenous data - a systematic method comparing endogenous and exogenous data. → Different referenced mathematical predictors allows to conclude about the pertinence of the proposed methodology.

  1. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Global Snow Water Equivalent EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 daily Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) product includes global SWE on Northern and Southern Hemisphere 25 km EASE-Grids, generated by the GSFC...

  2. MEaSUREs Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze/Thaw Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MEaSUREs Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze/Thaw Status, Version 01 data set is derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite...

  3. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Mixed Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Mixed Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  4. SMAP L4 Global Daily 9 km Carbon Net Ecosystem Exchange V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level-4 (L4) carbon product (SPL4CMDL) provides global gridded daily estimates of net ecosystem carbon (CO2) exchange derived using a satellite data based...

  5. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Climate Data Record (CDR), Version 1.3 (Daily)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GPCP Daily analysis is a companion to the GPCP Monthly analysis, and provides globally complete precipitation estimates at a spatial resolution of one degree...

  6. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Orbit Product (daily files, generated weekly) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Orbit Product (daily files, generated weekly) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  7. SMAP L3 Radiometer Global Daily 36 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily global composite of up-to 30 half-orbit L2_SM_P soil moisture estimates based on radiometer brightness temperature measurements acquired by the SMAP radiometer...

  8. SMAP Enhanced L3 Radiometer Global Daily 9 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily global composite of up to 30 half-orbit L2_SM_P soil moisture estimates based on radiometer brightness temperature measurements acquired by the SMAP radiometer...

  9. Amazon Web Services: NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset is comprised of downscaled climate scenarios that are derived from the General...

  10. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation messages...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Daily L3 Global 25km Equal Area V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Daily L3 Global 25km Equal Area (MYDCSR_D) product contains global, 25-km resolution, daily average data composited from...

  12. A model for diffuse and global irradiation on horizontal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The intensity of the direct radiation and the diffuse radiation at any time on a horizontal surface are each expressed as fractions of the intensity of the extraterrestrial radiation. Using these and assuming a random distribution of the bright sunshine hours and not too wide variations in the values of the transmission coefficients, a number of relations for estimating the global and the diffuse irradiation are derived. Two of the relations derived are already known empirically. The formulation lends more confidence in the use of the already empirically known relations providing them a theoretical basis, and affords more flexibility to the estimation techniques by supplying new equations. The study identifies three independent basic parameters and the constants appearing in the various equations as simple functions of these three basic parameters. Experimental data for the diffuse irradiation, the global irradiation and the bright sunshine duration for Macerata (Italy), Salisbury and Bulawayo (Zimbabwe) is found to show good correlation for the linear equations, and the nature and the interrelationships of the constants are found to be as predicted by the theory

  13. Generation of daily solar irradiation by means of artificial neural net works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Adalberto N.; Tiba, Chigueru; Fraidenraich, Naum [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - CDU, CEP 50.740-540 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The present study proposes the utilization of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as an alternative for generating synthetic series of daily solar irradiation. The sequences were generated from the use of daily temporal series of a group of meteorological variables that were measured simultaneously. The data used were measured between the years of 1998 and 2006 in two temperate climate localities of Brazil, Ilha Solteira (Sao Paulo) and Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul). The estimates were taken for the months of January, April, July and October, through two models which are distinguished regarding the use or nonuse of measured bright sunshine hours as an input variable. An evaluation of the performance of the 56 months of solar irradiation generated by way of ANN showed that by using the measured bright sunshine hours as an input variable (model 1), the RMSE obtained were less or equal to 23.2% being that of those, although 43 of those months presented RMSE less or equal to 12.3%. In the case of the model that did not use the measured bright sunshine hours but used a daylight length (model 2), RMSE were obtained that varied from 8.5% to 37.5%, although 38 of those months presented RMSE less or equal to 20.0%. A comparison of the monthly series for all of the years, achieved by means of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (to a confidence level of 99%), demonstrated that of the 16 series generated by ANN model only two, obtained by model 2 for the months of April and July in Pelotas, presented significant difference in relation to the distributions of the measured series and that all mean deviations obtained were inferior to 0.39 MJ/m{sup 2}. It was also verified that the two ANN models were able to reproduce the principal statistical characteristics of the frequency distributions of the measured series such as: mean, mode, asymmetry and Kurtosis. (author)

  14. Irradiated foodstuff: atom, junk-food and globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Genevieve; Berlan, Jean-Pierre; Desbordes, Roland; Dufour, Francois; Fievet, Yann; Folliard, Thierry; Gallais, Veronique; Hauter, Wenonah; Jacquiau, Christian; Kastler, Guy; Lannoye, Paul; Le Goff, Lylian; Le Rohellec, Catherine; Louchard, Olivier; Marechal, Gilles; Nicolas, Yveline; Remesy, Christian; Trouve, Aurelie; Veillerette, Francois

    2008-01-01

    Food irradiation is officially presented as an ideal technology at the service of worldwide health safety and as an alternative to chemical processing of foodstuff. It is first of all a multi-usage technology for the preservation, disinfestation, ripening slowing down, and germination inhibition of products which serves the interests of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. According to the authors, it is also an instrument for the globalization of foodstuff trade encouraged by the international institutions and by some governments. The book stresses on the health, socio-economic and environmental risks of this technology: vitamins loss, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impact on local employment and economy, risks linked with the use of irradiation devices etc

  15. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V017 (SOR3TSID) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  16. A global gridded dataset of daily precipitation going back to 1950, ideal for analysing precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, S.; Donat, M.; Alexander, L. V.

    2017-12-01

    Reliable observations of precipitation are necessary to determine past changes in precipitation and validate models, allowing for reliable future projections. Existing gauge based gridded datasets of daily precipitation and satellite based observations contain artefacts and have a short length of record, making them unsuitable to analyse precipitation extremes. The largest limiting factor for the gauge based datasets is a dense and reliable station network. Currently, there are two major data archives of global in situ daily rainfall data, first is Global Historical Station Network (GHCN-Daily) hosted by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the other by Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) part of the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD). We combine the two data archives and use automated quality control techniques to create a reliable long term network of raw station data, which we then interpolate using block kriging to create a global gridded dataset of daily precipitation going back to 1950. We compare our interpolated dataset with existing global gridded data of daily precipitation: NOAA Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Global V1.0 and GPCC Full Data Daily Version 1.0, as well as various regional datasets. We find that our raw station density is much higher than other datasets. To avoid artefacts due to station network variability, we provide multiple versions of our dataset based on various completeness criteria, as well as provide the standard deviation, kriging error and number of stations for each grid cell and timestep to encourage responsible use of our dataset. Despite our efforts to increase the raw data density, the in situ station network remains sparse in India after the 1960s and in Africa throughout the timespan of the dataset. Our dataset would allow for more reliable global analyses of rainfall including its extremes and pave the way for better global precipitation observations with lower and more transparent uncertainties.

  17. Structural changes in chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes in monkeys subjected to long-term daily irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosichenko, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    During the period that lasted from 4 to 11 years after the cessation of the long-term daily gamma-irradiation the frequency of chromosome rearrangements in peripheral blood lymphocytes of monkeys exceeded the control level. The number of rearrangements did not change significantly with different total irradiation doses (from 826 to 3677r). The main type of structural chromosome rearrangements were symmetrical chromosome exchanges. Abnormal cell clones in peripheral lymphocytes in monkeys irradiated with low doses exhibited no selective advantages during the periods of investigation

  18. Irradiated foodstuff: atom, junk-food and globalization; Aliments irradies: Atome, malbouffe et mondialisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, Genevieve; Berlan, Jean-Pierre; Desbordes, Roland; Dufour, Francois; Fievet, Yann; Folliard, Thierry; Gallais, Veronique; Hauter, Wenonah; Jacquiau, Christian; Kastler, Guy; Lannoye, Paul; Le Goff, Lylian; Le Rohellec, Catherine; Louchard, Olivier; Marechal, Gilles; Nicolas, Yveline; Remesy, Christian; Trouve, Aurelie; Veillerette, Francois

    2008-07-01

    Food irradiation is officially presented as an ideal technology at the service of worldwide health safety and as an alternative to chemical processing of foodstuff. It is first of all a multi-usage technology for the preservation, disinfestation, ripening slowing down, and germination inhibition of products which serves the interests of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. According to the authors, it is also an instrument for the globalization of foodstuff trade encouraged by the international institutions and by some governments. The book stresses on the health, socio-economic and environmental risks of this technology: vitamins loss, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impact on local employment and economy, risks linked with the use of irradiation devices etc

  19. Modeling of global horizontal irradiance in the United Arab Emirates with artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejase, Hassan A.N.; Al-Shamisi, Maitha H.; Assi, Ali H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs ANN (Artificial Neural Network) models to estimate GHI (global horizontal irradiance) for three major cities in the UAE (United Arab Emirates), namely Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Al-Ain. City data are then used to develop a comprehensive global GHI model for other nearby locations in the UAE. The ANN models use MLP (Multi-Layer Perceptron) and RBF (Radial Basis Function) techniques with comprehensive training algorithms, architectures, and different combinations of inputs. The UAE models are tested and validated against individual city models and data available from the UAE Solar Atlas with good agreement as attested by the computed statistical error parameters. The optimal ANN model is MLP-based and requires four mean daily weather parameters; namely, maximum temperature, wind speed, sunshine hours, and relative humidity. The computed statistical error parameters for the optimal MLP-ANN model in relation to the measured three-cities mean data (referred to as UAE data) are MBE (mean bias error) = −0.0003 kWh/m 2 , RMSE = 0.179 kWh/m 2 , R 2  = 99%, NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe model Efficiency coefficient) = 99%, and t-statistic = 0.005 at 5% significance level. Results prove the suitability of the ANN models for estimating the monthly mean daily GHI in different locations of the UAE. - Highlights: • ANN prediction models for the GHI (global horizontal irradiance) in the UAE. • Models used to estimate the potential of global solar radiation for UAE cities. • Data from the UAE Solar Atlas are used to validate developed ANN models. • ANN models are more efficient than regression models in predicting GHI

  20. Once vs. twice daily thoracic irradiation in limited stage small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Sang; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Ju Ock; Kim, Sun Young; Cho, Moon June

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted comparing single dally fraction (SDF) thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) with twice daily (BID) TRT to determine the potential benefit of BID TRT in limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Endpoints of the study were response, survival, pattern of failure, and acute toxicity. Between November 1989 to December 1996, 78 patients with histologically proven limited-stage SCLC were treated at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital. Of these, 9 were irradiated for palliative intent, and 1 had recurrent disease. Remaining 68 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 26 patients with a median age of 58 years, and 22 (85%) ECOG performance score of less than 1 in SDF TRT. There were 42 patients with a median age of 57 years, and 36 (86%) ECOG performance score of less than 1 in BID TRT. By radiation fractionation regimen, there were 26 in SDF TRT and 42 in BID TRT. SDF TRT consisted of 180 cGy, 5 days a week. BID TRT consisted of 150 cGY BID, 5 days a week in 13 of 42 and 120 cGy BID, in 29 of 42. And the twice daily fractions were separated by at least 4 hours. Total radiotherapy doses were between 5040 and 6940 cGy (median, 5040 cGy) in SDF TRT and was between 4320 and 5100 cGy (median, 4560 cGy) in BID TRT. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) was recommended for patients who achieved a CR. The recommended PCI dose was 2500 cGy/10 fractions. Chemotherapy consisted of CAV (cytoxan 1000 mg/m 2 , adriamycin 40 mg/m 2 , vincristine 1 mg/m 2 ) alternating with VPP (cisplatin 60 mg/m 2 , etoposide 100 mg/m 2 ) every 3 weeks in 25 (96%) of SDF TRT and in 40 (95%) of BID TRT. Median cycle of chemotherapy was six in both group. Timing for chemotherapy was sequential in 23 of SDF TRT and in 3 BID TRT, and concurrent in 3 of SDF TRT and in 39 of BID TRT. Follow-up ranged from 2 of 99 months (median, 14 months) in both groups. Of the 26 SDF TRT, 9 (35%) achieved a complete response (CR) and 14 (54

  1. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  2. DAO V4 Late Look Special Subset Daily Global Climatology Collection 004 and 005 (MODIS Ancillary Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — D4LAXMNT is a Late Look, daily, gridded high time-resolution, global analysis product produced in HDF-EOS format by GMAO for the University of Montana. The daily...

  3. The Effect of Improved Sub-Daily Earth Rotation Models on Global GPS Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Choi, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the various International GNSS Service (IGS) products, strong periodic signals have been observed around the 14 day period. This signal is clearly visible in all IGS time-series such as those related to orbit ephemerides, Earth rotation parameters (ERP) and ground station coordinates. Recent studies show that errors in the sub-daily Earth rotation models are the main factors that induce such noise. Current IGS orbit processing standards adopted the IERS 2010 convention and its sub-daily Earth rotation model. Since the IERS convention had published, recent advances in the VLBI analysis have made contributions to update the sub-daily Earth rotation models. We have compared several proposed sub-daily Earth rotation models and show the effect of using those models on orbit ephemeris, Earth rotation parameters and ground station coordinates generated by the NGS global GPS data processing strategy.

  4. Global life satisfaction predicts ambulatory affect, stress, and cortisol in daily life in working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Juth, Vanessa; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2017-04-01

    Global life satisfaction has been linked with long-term health advantages, yet how life satisfaction impacts the trajectory of long-term health is unclear. This paper examines one such possible mechanism-that greater life satisfaction confers momentary benefits in daily life that accumulate over time. A community sample of working adults (n = 115) completed a measure of life satisfaction and then three subsequent days of ecological momentary assessment surveys (6 times/day) measuring affect (i.e., emotional valence, arousal), and perceived stress, and also provided salivary cortisol samples. Multilevel models indicated that people with higher (vs. lower) levels of life satisfaction reported better momentary affect, less stress, marginally lower momentary levels and significantly altered diurnal slopes of cortisol. Findings suggest individuals with high global life satisfaction have advantageous daily experiences, providing initial evidence for potential mechanisms through which global life satisfaction may help explain long-term health benefits.

  5. Retrieving vertical ozone profiles from measurements of global spectral irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernhard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented to determine vertical ozone profiles from measurements of spectral global (direct Sun plus upper hemisphere irradiance in the ultraviolet. The method is similar to the widely used Umkehr technique, which inverts measurements of zenith sky radiance. The procedure was applied to measurements of a high-resolution spectroradiometer installed near the centre of the Greenland ice sheet. Retrieved profiles were validated with balloon-sonde observations and ozone profiles from the space-borne Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. Depending on altitude, the bias between retrieval results presented in this paper and MLS observations ranges between −5 and +3 %. The magnitude of this bias is comparable, if not smaller, to values reported in the literature for the standard Dobson Umkehr method. Total ozone columns (TOCs calculated from the retrieved profiles agree to within 0.7±2.0 % (±1σ with TOCs measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on board the Aura satellite. The new method is called the Global-Umkehr method.

  6. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Clock Product (30 second resolution, daily files, generated weekly) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Satellite and Receiver Clock Product (30-second granularity, daily files, generated...

  7. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Clock Product (5 minute resolution, daily files, generated weekly) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Satellite and Receiver Clock Product (5-minute granularity, daily files, generated...

  8. 24-hours ahead global irradiation forecasting using Multi-Layer Perceptron

    OpenAIRE

    Voyant, Cyril; Randimbivololona, Prisca; Nivet, Marie Laure; Paoli, Christophe; Muselli, Marc

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The grid integration of variable renewable energy sources implies that their effective production could be predicted, at different times ahead. In the case of solar plants, the driving factor is the global solar irradiation (sum of direct and diffuse solar radiation projected on a plane (Wh/m²)). This paper focuses on the 24-hours ahead forecast of global solar irradiation (i.e. hourly solar irradiation prediction for the day after). A method based on artificial intell...

  9. Test-retest reliability of daily life gait speed as measured by smartphone global positioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Shuichi P; Tsuchiya, Shuichi; Kawai, Hisashi

    2018-01-30

    Gait speed is useful in predicting adverse health outcomes among older adults. In previous studies, gait speed has typically been measured when subjects walk in laboratory settings, where they are able to intentionally change their gait speed. Thus, it is unclear whether the gait speed captured in a laboratory setting is representative of the subjects' actual walking pace in daily life. This study proposes using the more accurate "daily life gait speed" (DGS), measured as the subject's average gait speed over a week-long period using the global positioning system (GPS) in their smartphone. We examined the test-retest reliability of the DGS measure in the present study. Three daily life gait parameters with 186 volunteers (57 men and 129 women), aged 19 to 84 years, were measured using a smartphone application: DGS, average of daily gait cycle during a week (DCY), and average of daily cadence during a week (DCA). Test-retest reliability of the daily gait parameters between test week (T1) and retest week (T2) was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC (2,1), and systematic biases were observed via Bland-Altman plots. The ICCs between the daily gait parameters at T1 and T2 were 0.902 for DGS, 0.916 for DCY, and 0.917 for DCA. The Bland-Altman plots showed no significant fixed or proportional bias between the measurements at T1 and T2. These results verify that the test-retest reliability of the daily gait parameters in the present study was adequate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DAPAGLOCO - A global daily precipitation dataset from satellite and rain-gauge measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangehl, T.; Danielczok, A.; Dietzsch, F.; Andersson, A.; Schroeder, M.; Fennig, K.; Ziese, M.; Becker, A.

    2017-12-01

    The BMBF funded project framework MiKlip(Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen) develops a global climate forecast system on decadal time scales for operational applications. Herein, the DAPAGLOCO project (Daily Precipitation Analysis for the validation of Global medium-range Climate predictions Operationalized) provides a global precipitation dataset as a combination of microwave-based satellite measurements over ocean and rain gauge measurements over land on daily scale. The DAPAGLOCO dataset is created for the evaluation of the MiKlip forecast system in the first place. The HOAPS dataset (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameter and Fluxes from Satellite data) is used for the derivation of precipitation rates over ocean and is extended by the use of measurements from TMI, GMI, and AMSR-E, in addition to measurements from SSM/I and SSMIS. A 1D-Var retrieval scheme is developed to retrieve rain rates from microwave imager data, which also allows for the determination of uncertainty estimates. Over land, the GPCC (Global Precipitation Climatology Center) Full Data Daily product is used. It consists of rain gauge measurements that are interpolated on a regular grid by ordinary Kriging. The currently available dataset is based on a neuronal network approach, consists of 21 years of data from 1988 to 2008 and is currently extended until 2015 using the 1D-Var scheme and with improved sampling. Three different spatial resolved dataset versions are available with 1° and 2.5° global, and 0.5° for Europe. The evaluation of the MiKlip forecast system by DAPAGLOCO is based on ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change and Detection Indices). Hindcasts are used for the index-based comparison between model and observations. These indices allow for the evaluation of precipitation extremes, their spatial and temporal distribution as well as for the duration of dry and wet spells, average precipitation amounts and percentiles on global scale. Besides, an ETCCDI-based climatology of the DAPAGLOCO

  11. Hourly distributions of the diffuse fraction of global solar irradiation in Cordoba (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R.; Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada/UCO, Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    Hourly global irradiations on tilted planes are required for dimensioning PV systems. However, for most sites, only global irradiations on a horizontal plane are available, and, given that to calculate the global irradiation on inclined planes the first step is to determine the diffuse component and this is not collected, we have studied the behaviour of the diffuse component on an hourly basis. Most parametrization models for the derivation of hourly diffuse irradiance from hourly global irradiance involve the clearness index, a parameter that implicitly includes solar altitude. The present paper has focused on the possibility of also including ''mean solar altitude anti {alpha}'' explicitly as a parameter in addition to the clearness index. Several analytical models are proposed, validated and compared here, using solar data collected on our station located in Cordoba (Spain). (author)

  12. SORCE SOLSTICE FUV Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SOLSTICE Far-UV Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SOLFUVD is constructed using measurements from the SOLSTICE FUV instrument, which are...

  13. SORCE SOLSTICE MUV Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SOLSTICE Mid-UV Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SOLMUVD is constructed using measurements from the SOLSTICE MUV instrument, which are...

  14. SORCE SOLSTICE FUV Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SOLSTICE Far-UV Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SOLFUVD is constructed using measurements from the SOLSTICE FUV instrument, which are...

  15. SORCE SOLSTICE MUV Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SOLSTICE Mid-UV Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SOLMUVD is constructed using measurements from the SOLSTICE MUV instrument, which are...

  16. SORCE SOLSTICE FUV Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SOLSTICE Far-UV Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SOLFUVD is constructed using measurements from the SOLSTICE FUV instrument, which are...

  17. Food irradiation: Applications, public acceptance and global trade

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... “the irradiation of any food commodity up to an overall average dose of 10 KGy presents no toxicological hazard”. The benefits of irradiation technology in addressing post-harvest food problems are, in some cases, unique and can improve the quality of a number of food products by eliminating the.

  18. The use of a standardized positioning support cushion during daily routine of breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilmann, Christoph; Adamietz, Irenaeus A.; Saran, Frank; Mose, Stefan; Kostka, A.; Boettcher, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The use of positioning and immobilization techniques during external beam irradiation of the female breast is time consuming and expensive. The currently available standardized positioning devices are insufficient. For this reason, we designed a new and generally useable hard foam positioning support cushion for the use during breast irradiation, and tested its clinical usefulness in a prospective study. Methods and Materials: Fifty-five female breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy following breast-conservative surgery were irradiated either without immobilization (n = 27) or with the positioning support cushion (n = 28). The time necessary for patient setup, the lying subjective comfort and --comparing portal images with simulator images--the reproducibility of the set up were determined. Results: Irradiation reproducibility was significantly improved (average deviation without positioning support cushion: 8.4 mm, with positioning support cushion: 6.1 mm, p < 0.001). The time required for the positioning of the patient with positioning support cushion was in average 73 s, without cushion it was 55 s. A significantly higher proportion of patients (72%) found the position with the positioning support cushion as pleasant, whereas only 46% of patients were pleased with the position without cushion. Conclusion: The positioning support cushion designed in our department makes a substantial contribution to quality assurance in breast irradiation. It significantly increases the patients' comfort in a supine position. In contrast to conventional positioning and fixation aids it may be quickly and easily applied at low costs. Therefore, its use can be recommended

  19. A simple and efficient algorithm to estimate daily global solar radiation from geostationary satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ning; Qin, Jun; Yang, Kun; Sun, Jiulin

    2011-01-01

    Surface global solar radiation (GSR) is the primary renewable energy in nature. Geostationary satellite data are used to map GSR in many inversion algorithms in which ground GSR measurements merely serve to validate the satellite retrievals. In this study, a simple algorithm with artificial neural network (ANN) modeling is proposed to explore the non-linear physical relationship between ground daily GSR measurements and Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) all-channel observations in an effort to fully exploit information contained in both data sets. Singular value decomposition is implemented to extract the principal signals from satellite data and a novel method is applied to enhance ANN performance at high altitude. A three-layer feed-forward ANN model is trained with one year of daily GSR measurements at ten ground sites. This trained ANN is then used to map continuous daily GSR for two years, and its performance is validated at all 83 ground sites in China. The evaluation result demonstrates that this algorithm can quickly and efficiently build the ANN model that estimates daily GSR from geostationary satellite data with good accuracy in both space and time. -- Highlights: → A simple and efficient algorithm to estimate GSR from geostationary satellite data. → ANN model fully exploits both the information from satellite and ground measurements. → Good performance of the ANN model is comparable to that of the classical models. → Surface elevation and infrared information enhance GSR inversion.

  20. New method for estimating daily global solar radiation over sloped topography in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoping; Qiu, Xinfa; Zeng, Yan

    2018-03-01

    A new scheme for the estimation of daily global solar radiation over sloped topography in China is developed based on the Iqbal model C and MODIS cloud fraction. The effects of topography are determined using a digital elevation model. The scheme is tested using observations of solar radiation at 98 stations in China, and the results show that the mean absolute bias error is 1.51 MJ m-2 d-1 and the mean relative absolute bias error is 10.57%. Based on calculations using this scheme, the distribution of daily global solar radiation over slopes in China on four days in the middle of each season (15 January, 15 April, 15 July and 15 October 2003) at a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km are analyzed. To investigate the effects of topography on global solar radiation, the results determined in four mountains areas (Tianshan, Kunlun Mountains, Qinling, and Nanling) are discussed, and the typical characteristics of solar radiation over sloped surfaces revealed. In general, the new scheme can produce reasonable characteristics of solar radiation distribution at a high spatial resolution in mountain areas, which will be useful in analyses of mountain climate and planning for agricultural production.

  1. Interrelations of UV-global/global/diffuse solar irradiance components and UV-global attenuation on air pollution episode days in Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronakis, P.S.; Sfantos, G.K.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of global ultraviolet (G UV ), global (G) and diffuse (G d ) solar intensities, continuously recorded over a period of five years at a station in Athens, Greece, and stored on the basis of hourly time intervals since 1996, has revealed the following: (a) UV-global irradiation, associated with the 290-395 nm wavelength region, constitutes 4.1% of global solar. (b) UV-global irradiance ranges from an average minimum of 2.4 W m -2 and 3.1% of global solar in January to an average maximum of 45 W m -2 and 7.8%, respectively, in June, both considered at 13:00, solar time. (c) There exists a good correlation among the two dimensionless irradiance ratios G UV /G d and G d /G in the form of an exponential relationship. (d) UV-global monthly irradiation data show evidence of temporal variability in Athens, from 1996 to 2000. (e) Anthropogenic and photochemical atmospheric pollutant agents (O 3 , CO, SO 2 , NO x , smoke) causing air pollution episodes seem to affect differently solar irradiance components. The main results of analysis (measurements within ± 2 h from solar noon) indicate that a buildup of O 3 and NO x inside the urban Athens plume during cloudless and windless warm days could cause: (i) UV-global irradiance depletion between 5.4% and 14.4%. (ii) Diffuse solar irradiance enhancement up to 38.1%. (iii) Global solar irradiance attenuation ranging up to 6.3%. (author)

  2. Modelling 1-minute directional observations of the global irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll, Peter; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Direct and diffuse irradiances from the sky has been collected at 1-minute intervals for about a year from the experimental station at the Technical University of Denmark for the IEA project "Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting". These data were gathered by pyrheliometers tracking the Sun, as well as with apertured pyranometers gathering 1/8th and 1/16th of the light from the sky in 45 degree azimuthal ranges pointed around the compass. The data are gathered in order to develop detailed models of the potentially available solar energy and its variations at high temporal resolution in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the solar resource. This is important for a better understanding of the sub-grid scale cloud variation that cannot be resolved with climate and weather models. It is also important for optimizing the operation of active solar energy systems such as photovoltaic plants and thermal solar collector arrays, and for passive solar energy and lighting to buildings. We present regression-based modelling of the observed data, and focus, here, on the statistical properties of the model fits. Using models based on the one hand on what is found in the literature and on physical expectations, and on the other hand on purely statistical models, we find solutions that can explain up to 90% of the variance in global radiation. The models leaning on physical insights include terms for the direct solar radiation, a term for the circum-solar radiation, a diffuse term and a term for the horizon brightening/darkening. The purely statistical model is found using data- and formula-validation approaches picking model expressions from a general catalogue of possible formulae. The method allows nesting of expressions, and the results found are dependent on and heavily constrained by the cross-validation carried out on statistically independent testing and training data-sets. Slightly better fits -- in terms of variance explained -- is found using the purely

  3. Artificial neural network optimisation for monthly average daily global solar radiation prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsina, Emanuel Federico; Bortolini, Marco; Gamberi, Mauro; Regattieri, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Prediction of the monthly average daily global solar radiation over Italy. • Multi-location Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model: 45 locations considered. • Optimal ANN configuration with 7 input climatologic/geographical parameters. • Statistical indicators: MAPE, NRMSE, MPBE. - Abstract: The availability of reliable climatologic data is essential for multiple purposes in a wide set of anthropic activities and operative sectors. Frequently direct measures present spatial and temporal lacks so that predictive approaches become of interest. This paper focuses on the prediction of the Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation (MADGSR) over Italy using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Data from 45 locations compose the multi-location ANN training and testing sets. For each location, 13 input parameters are considered, including the geographical coordinates and the monthly values for the most frequently adopted climatologic parameters. A subset of 17 locations is used for ANN training, while the testing step is against data from the remaining 28 locations. Furthermore, the Automatic Relevance Determination method (ARD) is used to point out the most relevant input for the accurate MADGSR prediction. The ANN best configuration includes 7 parameters, only, i.e. Top of Atmosphere (TOA) radiation, day length, number of rainy days and average rainfall, latitude and altitude. The correlation performances, expressed through statistical indicators as the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), range between 1.67% and 4.25%, depending on the number and type of the chosen input, representing a good solution compared to the current standards.

  4. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) QZSS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from the...

  5. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) SBAS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS) Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files)...

  6. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance Daily L3 Global 500m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) MCD43A4N, MODIS Combined Aqua and Terra Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance is the daily L3 16-day composite global gridded tiled product...

  7. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  8. Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Noon Normalized) Daily L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-Satellite Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (Noon Normalized) Daily L3 Global 5.0deg Lat Zones data product (MSLERNNL3zm) is derived from observations...

  9. MODIS/Aqua Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Daily L3 Global 25km Equal Area V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS daily averaged clear-sky radiance (thermal bands) and reflectance (visible bands) statistics in selected MODIS bands are stored on a global grid map....

  10. SMAP L3 Radar/Radiometer Global Daily 9 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily global composite of up-to 15 half-orbit L2_SM_AP soil moisture estimates based on radiometer brightness temperature and radar backscatter measurements acquired...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  12. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MOD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  14. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MOD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Aerosol Optical Thickness Daily L3 Global 0.05-Deg CMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness (MYD09CMA) is a daily level 3 global product. It is in linear latitude and longitude (Plate Carre) projection with a 0.05??...

  16. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Observation Summary Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Observation Summary Data (30-second sampling, daily files of all distinct navigation...

  17. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GPS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GPS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  18. Improved Synthesis of Global Irradiance with One-Minute Resolution for PV System Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hofmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution global irradiance time series are needed for accurate simulations of photovoltaic (PV systems, since the typical volatile PV power output induced by fast irradiance changes cannot be simulated properly with commonly available hourly averages of global irradiance. We present a two-step algorithm that is capable of synthesizing one-minute global irradiance time series based on hourly averaged datasets. The algorithm is initialized by deriving characteristic transition probability matrices (TPM for different weather conditions (cloudless, broken clouds and overcast from a large number of high resolution measurements. Once initialized, the algorithm is location-independent and capable of synthesizing one-minute values based on hourly averaged global irradiance of any desired location. The one-minute time series are derived by discrete-time Markov chains based on a TPM that matches the weather condition of the input dataset. One-minute time series generated with the presented algorithm are compared with measured high resolution data and show a better agreement compared to two existing synthesizing algorithms in terms of temporal variability and characteristic frequency distributions of global irradiance and clearness index values. A comparison based on measurements performed in Lindenberg, Germany, and Carpentras, France, shows a reduction of the frequency distribution root mean square errors of more than 60% compared to the two existing synthesizing algorithms.

  19. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics...

  20. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) Summary Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Observation Summary Data (30-second sampling, daily files of all distinct...

  1. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) Compact Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS Compact Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from the NASA Crustal...

  2. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation...

  3. Food irradiation: Applications, public acceptance and global trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process involves exposing the packed or bulked food to the rays of the sun. Food irradiation processing that entails combating post-harvest losses, curtailing food-borne disease and overcoming quarantine barriers has been pursued since the mid-50s. The scientific basis and technological adaptation of the process ...

  4. Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the fourth generation of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) burned area data set, which provides global monthly burned area at 0.25° spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and daily burned area for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full

  5. Uncertainty Assessment of the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-GDDP) Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Michaelis, Andrew; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Thrasher, Bridget L.; Dixon, Keith W.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset is comprised of downscaled climate projections that are derived from 21 General Circulation Model (GCM) runs conducted under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and across two of the four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Each of the climate projections includes daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation for the periods from 1950 through 2100 and the spatial resolution is 0.25 degrees (approximately 25 km x 25 km). The GDDP dataset has received warm welcome from the science community in conducting studies of climate change impacts at local to regional scales, but a comprehensive evaluation of its uncertainties is still missing. In this study, we apply the Perfect Model Experiment framework (Dixon et al. 2016) to quantify the key sources of uncertainties from the observational baseline dataset, the downscaling algorithm, and some intrinsic assumptions (e.g., the stationary assumption) inherent to the statistical downscaling techniques. We developed a set of metrics to evaluate downscaling errors resulted from bias-correction ("quantile-mapping"), spatial disaggregation, as well as the temporal-spatial non-stationarity of climate variability. Our results highlight the spatial disaggregation (or interpolation) errors, which dominate the overall uncertainties of the GDDP dataset, especially over heterogeneous and complex terrains (e.g., mountains and coastal area). In comparison, the temporal errors in the GDDP dataset tend to be more constrained. Our results also indicate that the downscaled daily precipitation also has relatively larger uncertainties than the temperature fields, reflecting the rather stochastic nature of precipitation in space. Therefore, our results provide insights in improving statistical downscaling algorithms and products in the future.

  6. Estimation of monthly-mean daily global solar radiation based on MODIS and TRMM products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jun; Chen, Zhuoqi; Yang, Kun; Liang, Shunlin; Tang, Wenjun

    2011-01-01

    Global solar radiation (GSR) is required in a large number of fields. Many parameterization schemes are developed to estimate it using routinely measured meteorological variables, since GSR is directly measured at a limited number of stations. Even so, meteorological stations are sparse, especially, in remote areas. Satellite signals (radiance at the top of atmosphere in most cases) can be used to estimate continuous GSR in space. However, many existing remote sensing products have a relatively coarse spatial resolution and these inversion algorithms are too complicated to be mastered by experts in other research fields. In this study, the artificial neural network (ANN) is utilized to build the mathematical relationship between measured monthly-mean daily GSR and several high-level remote sensing products available for the public, including Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) monthly averaged land surface temperature (LST), the number of days in which the LST retrieval is performed in 1 month, MODIS enhanced vegetation index, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) monthly precipitation. After training, GSR estimates from this ANN are verified against ground measurements at 12 radiation stations. Then, comparisons are performed among three GSR estimates, including the one presented in this study, a surface data-based estimate, and a remote sensing product by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Validation results indicate that the ANN-based method presented in this study can estimate monthly-mean daily GSR at a spatial resolution of about 5 km with high accuracy.

  7. Evaluation of the desert dust effects on global, direct and diffuse spectral ultraviolet irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Román

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of a strong desert dust episode over the Iberian Peninsula, and its effect on the spectral ultraviolet (UV irradiance in Granada, Spain. Remote sensing measurements, forecast models, and synoptic analysis are used to identify a Saharan desert dust outbreak that affected the Iberian Peninsula starting 20 July 2009. Additionally, a Bentham DMc150 spectroradiometer is employed to obtain global, direct and diffuse spectral UV irradiances every 15 minutes in Granada. The desert dust caused a large attenuation of the direct UV irradiance (up to 55%, while the diffuse UV irradiance increased up to 40% at 400 nm. The UVSPEC/LibRadtran radiative transfer model is used to study the spectral dependence of the experimental UV irradiance ratios (ratios of spectral irradiance for the day with the highest aerosol load to that measured in days with low–moderate load. The spectral increase or decrease of the UV direct irradiance ratios depends on a new parameter: a threshold wavelength. The spectral dependence of the UV diffuse irradiance ratio can be explained because under the influence of the intense dust outbreak, the Mie scattering by aerosols at shorter wavelengths is stronger than the Rayleigh scattering by gases. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the aerosol absorption properties shows a substantial attenuation of UV spectral irradiance with a weak spectral dependence.

  8. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using once-daily fractionation: analysis of 312 cases with four years median follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Arif Y

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI using external beam techniques. Moreover, there are recent reports of increased fibrosis and unacceptable cosmesis with APBI using external beam with BID fractionation. We adopted a once daily regimen of APBI with fractionation similar to that shown to be effective in a Canadian randomized trial of whole breast irradiation. It is unclear whether patients with DCIS or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC are suitable for APBI. Methods The retrospective cohort included 310 patients with 312 tumors of T1-T2N0-N1micM0 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, ILC, or Tis (DCIS treated with APBI via external beam. Most patients were treated using IMRT with 16 daily fractions of 270 cGy to a dose of 4320 cGy. The target volume included the lumpectomy cavity plus 1.0 cm to account for microscopic disease and an additional 0.5 to 1.0 cm for setup uncertainty and breathing motion. Ipsilateral breast failure (IBF was pathologically confirmed as a local failure (LF or an elsewhere failure (EF. Results Median follow-up was 49 months. Among the 312 cases, 213 were IDC, 31 ILC, and 68 DCIS. Median tumor size was 1.0 cm. There were 9 IBFs (2.9% including 5 LFs and 4 EFs. The IBF rates among patients with IDC, ILC, and DCIS were 2.4%, 3.2%, and 4.4%, respectively, with no significant difference between histologies. When patients were analyzed by the ASTRO APBI consensus statement risk groups, 32% of treated cases were considered suitable, 50% cautionary, and 18% unsuitable. The IBF rates among suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable patients were 4.0%, 2.6%, and 1.8%, respectively, with no significant difference between risk groups. Acute skin reactions were rare and long-term cosmetic outcome was very good to excellent. Conclusions External beam APBI with once daily fractionation has a low rate of IBF consistent with other published APBI studies. The ASTRO risk stratification did not

  9. Global, Daily, Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F. S.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M. M.; Smith, M. M.; Kettner, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Flooding is the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disaster faced by modern society, and is expected to increase in frequency and damage with climate change and population growth. Some of 2013's major floods have impacted the New York City region, the Midwest, Alberta, Australia, various parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, and central Europe. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we developed and are now operating a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours of events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard within a few hours of satellite overpass. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial daily assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, and more robust assessments after accumulating cloud-free imagery over several days. Cloud cover is the primary limitation in detecting surface water from MODIS imagery. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on many of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these

  10. Improved correlation of monthly mean daily and hourly diffuse radiation with the corresponding global radiation for Indian stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Garg, S.N.

    1985-12-01

    Several existing correlations between radiation monthly mean ratios of global to extraterrestrial and diffuse to global were tried for four Indian stations and found inadequate. New correlations were established for these stations and it was shown that these correlations are highly climate dependent. Classical equation of Liu and Jordon was tried to find hourly diffuse and global radiation from daily sums of diffuse and global radiation respectively. It was suitably modified to suit the Indian data. Equations developed by Collares-Pereira and Rabl have shown excellent agreement with the observed values

  11. Verification of ECMWF and ECMWF/MACC's global and direct irradiance forecasts with respect to solar electricity production forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schroedter-Homscheidt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The successful electricity grid integration of solar energy into day-ahead markets requires at least hourly resolved 48 h forecasts. Technologies as photovoltaics and non-concentrating solar thermal technologies make use of global horizontal irradiance (GHI forecasts, while all concentrating technologies both from the photovoltaic and the thermal sector require direct normal irradiances (DNI. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF has recently changed towards providing direct as well as global irradiances. Additionally, the MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition & Climate near-real time services provide daily analysis and forecasts of aerosol properties in preparation of the upcoming European Copernicus programme. The operational ECMWF/IFS (Integrated Forecast System forecast system will in the medium term profit from the Copernicus service aerosol forecasts. Therefore, within the MACC‑II project specific experiment runs were performed allowing for the assessment of the performance gain of these potential future capabilities. Also the potential impact of providing forecasts with hourly output resolution compared to three-hourly resolved forecasts is investigated. The inclusion of the new aerosol climatology in October 2003 improved both the GHI and DNI forecasts remarkably, while the change towards a new radiation scheme in 2007 only had minor and partly even unfavourable impacts on the performance indicators. For GHI, larger RMSE (root mean square error values are found for broken/overcast conditions than for scattered cloud fields. For DNI, the findings are opposite with larger RMSE values for scattered clouds compared to overcast/broken cloud situations. The introduction of direct irradiances as an output parameter in the operational IFS version has not resulted in a general performance improvement with respect to biases and RMSE compared to the widely used Skartveit et al. (1998 global to direct irradiance

  12. Artificial intelligence techniques applied to hourly global irradiance estimation from satellite-derived cloud index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzalejo, L.F.; Ramirez, L.; Polo, J. [DER-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Renewable Energy Dept.

    2005-07-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic and neural networks, have been used for estimating hourly global radiation from satellite images. The models have been fitted to measured global irradiance data from 15 Spanish terrestrial stations. Both satellite imaging data and terrestrial information from the years 1994, 1995 and 1996 were used. The results of these artificial intelligence models were compared to a multivariate regression based upon Heliosat I model. A general better behaviour was observed for the artificial intelligence models. (author)

  13. Artificial intelligence techniques applied to hourly global irradiance estimation from satellite-derived cloud index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Ramirez, Lourdes; Polo, Jesus

    2005-01-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic and neural networks, have been used for estimating hourly global radiation from satellite images. The models have been fitted to measured global irradiance data from 15 Spanish terrestrial stations. Both satellite imaging data and terrestrial information from the years 1994, 1995 and 1996 were used. The results of these artificial intelligence models were compared to a multivariate regression based upon Heliosat I model. A general better behaviour was observed for the artificial intelligence models

  14. Estimating the daily global solar radiation spatial distribution from diurnal temperature ranges over the Tibetan Plateau in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shaohong; Dai, Erfu; Liu, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bristow–Campbell model was calibrated and validated over the Tibetan Plateau. ► Develop a simple method to rasterise the daily global solar radiation and get gridded information. ► The daily global solar radiation spatial distribution over the Tibetan Plateau was estimated. - Abstract: Daily global solar radiation is fundamental to most ecological and biophysical processes because it plays a key role in the local and global energy budget. However, gridded information about the spatial distribution of solar radiation is limited. This study aims to parameterise the Bristow–Campbell model for the daily global solar radiation estimation in the Tibetan Plateau and propose a method to rasterise the daily global solar radiation. Observed daily solar radiation and diurnal temperature data from eleven stations over the Tibetan Plateau during 1971–2010 were used to calibrate and validate the Bristow–Campbell radiation model. The extra-terrestrial radiation and clear sky atmospheric transmittance were calculated on a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. Results show that the Bristow–Campbell model performs well after adjusting the parameters, the average Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r), Nash–Sutcliffe equation (NSE), ratio of the root mean square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR), and root mean-square error (RMSE) of 11 stations are 0.85, 2.81 MJ m −2 day −1 , 0.3 and 0.77 respectively. Gridded maximum and minimum average temperature data were obtained using Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) and validated by the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) stations’ data. The spatial daily global solar radiation distribution pattern was estimated and analysed by combining the solar radiation model (Bristow–Campbell model) and meteorological interpolation model (PRISM). Based on the overall results, it can be concluded that a calibrated Bristow–Campbell performs well

  15. A New Point of View on the Relationship Between Global Solar Irradiation and Sunshine Quantifiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Badescu, V.; Dumitrescu, A.; Paulescu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 126, March (2016), s. 252-263 ISSN 0038-092X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : global solar irradiation * sunshine quantifiers * sunshine number * Angstrom equation * statistical modeling * regression analysis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2016

  16. The effect of daily low dose gamma irradiation on growth and differentiation of human myeloid leukaemic bone marrow in diffusion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberger, J.S.; Chang, J.M.; King, V.; Fulmer, S.; Balzuno, S.; Moloney, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow from each of 8 untreated patients with myeloproliferative disorders was grown in diffusion chambers in 760 rad total body irradiated rats. Rats were exposed to 11.5, 57.5, or 108.5 rad daily for 14-21 and cell growth compared to that detected in unirradiated chambers. Cells from acute myelogenous leukaemia patients exposed to 11.5 rad per d grew for 11-21 d and there was no consistent stimulation of differentiation of immature granulocytic cells to mature granulocytes that was attributable to irradiation. Cells from a chronic myeloid leukaemia patient in chronic phase or blast crisis, and a polycythaemia vera patient with myeloid metaplasia showed signigicant morphologic differentiation from immature to mature granulocytes in control chambers with no additional effect of daily irradiation. Marrow specimens from 2 AML patients exposed to each of 3 daily dose fractions over 14 d revealed a dose-dependent decrease in immature granulocytes with no persistent increase in mature granulocytes. In both irradiated and control chambers, macrophages increased over 21 d. Thus, cells from patients with myeloprofilerative disorders may not necessarily differentiate to mature granulocytes following in vivo exposure to ionizing irradiation. (author)

  17. The generation of hourly diffuse irradiation: A model from the analysis of the fluctuation of global irradiance series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R.; Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, UCO, Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    An analysis of models for the estimation of hourly diffuse irradiation based on the interrelations between the hourly diffuse fraction k{sub d} and the hourly clearness index k{sub t}, has concluded that k{sub t} is not a sufficient variable for parametrizing the effect of clouds on diffuse irradiation. A detailed study of the dispersion recorded by this diffuse component for a specific clearness index under partly cloudy sky conditions has led to analyzing how the variability in the instantaneous clearness index influences this dispersion. The data sets correspond to 10 years of hourly and instantaneous value records of global and diffuse radiation collected in Cordoba, Spain. In addition to the inclusion of the sine of solar elevation as a variable into the k{sub d}-k{sub t} correlations, this model propose the inclusion of others parameters related to the variability in the normalized clearness index within an hour and with the fluctuations presented by the time series of the instantaneous values of that index. Also presented is the implementation of an algorithm permitting both the determination of the hourly diffuse irradiation and the discrimination between the different sky conditions in those situations known by the designation partly cloudy sky. (author)

  18. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Ultra-Rapid Orbit Product (sub-daily files, generated 4 times/day) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Ultra-Rapid Orbit Product (daily files, generated daily) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  19. TOMS Meteor-3 Total Ozone UV-Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg V008 (TOMSM3L3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Metero-3 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 Daily Gridded Data consist of daily, global coverage of total column ozone and UV-B Lambertian...

  20. TOMS/Meteor-3 Total Ozone UV-Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Metero-3 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 Daily Gridded Data consist of daily, global coverage of total column ozone and UV-B Lambertian...

  1. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MYD11A1) products incorporate 1-km pixels, which are produced daily using the generalized split-window LST...

  2. MODIS/Terra Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MOD08_D3). MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am equator...

  3. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra V5 LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MOD11A1) products incorporate 1-km pixels, which are produced daily using the generalized split-window LST...

  4. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra V5 LST/E L3 Global CMG (Short name: MOD11C1) products incorporate 0.05º (5600 meters at the equator) pixels, which are derived from the MOD11B1 daily...

  5. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra V5 LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MOD11B1) products incorporate 6 km pixels, which are produced daily using the day/night LST algorithm (Wan...

  6. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global 1 km Grid (Short name: MYD11B1) products incorporate 6 km pixels (4.63 km pixels for versions prior to V005), which are produced daily...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 500m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 500m SIN Grid product, MYD09GHK, is a seven-band product computed from the MODIS Level 1B land...

  8. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MYD08_D3). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator...

  9. Calculating spectral direct solar irradiance, diffuse and global in Heredia, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    A spectral model under conditions of clear skies has described the flow of solar irradiation and is verified experimentally in Heredia, Costa Rica. A description of the model is presented by comparing its results with experimental measurements. The model has calculated the spectral flows of the global solar irradiation, direct and diffuse incident on a horizontal surface. Necessary input data include latitude, altitude, surface albedo as characteristics of a locality, and atmospheric characteristics: turbidity, precipitable water vapor, total ozone content and the optical thickness of a particular subject. The results show satisfactory values. (author) [es

  10. Directional and Spectral Irradiance in Ocean Models: Effects on Simulated Global Phytoplankton, Nutrients, and Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of including directional and spectral light in simulations of ocean radiative transfer was investigated using a coupled biogeochemical-circulation-radiative model of the global oceans. The effort focused on phytoplankton abundances, nutrient concentrations and vertically-integrated net primary production. The importance was approached by sequentially removing directional (i.e., direct vs. diffuse) and spectral irradiance and comparing results of the above variables to a fully directionally and spectrally-resolved model. In each case the total irradiance was kept constant; it was only the pathways and spectral nature that were changed. Assuming all irradiance was diffuse had negligible effect on global ocean primary production. Global nitrate and total chlorophyll concentrations declined by about 20% each. The largest changes occurred in the tropics and sub-tropics rather than the high latitudes, where most of the irradiance is already diffuse. Disregarding spectral irradiance had effects that depended upon the choice of attenuation wavelength. The wavelength closest to the spectrally-resolved model, 500 nm, produced lower nitrate (19%) and chlorophyll (8%) and higher primary production (2%) than the spectral model. Phytoplankton relative abundances were very sensitive to the choice of non-spectral wavelength transmittance. The combined effects of neglecting both directional and spectral irradiance exacerbated the differences, despite using attenuation at 500 nm. Global nitrate decreased 33% and chlorophyll decreased 24%. Changes in phytoplankton community structure were considerable, representing a change from chlorophytes to cyanobacteria and coccolithophores. This suggested a shift in community function, from light-limitation to nutrient limitation: lower demands for nutrients from cyanobacteria and coccolithophores favored them over the more nutrient-demanding chlorophytes. Although diatoms have the highest nutrient demands in the model, their

  11. Daily global solar radiation modelling using multi-layer perceptron neural networks in semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawloud GUERMOUI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of Daily Global Solar Radiation (DGSR has been a major goal for solar energy application. However, solar radiation measurements are not a simple task for several reasons. In the cases where data are not available, it is very common the use of computational models to estimate the missing data, which are based mainly of the search for relationships between weather variables, such as temperature, humidity, sunshine duration, etc. In this respect, the present study focuses on the development of artificial neural network (ANN model for estimation of daily global solar radiation on horizontal surface in Ghardaia city (South Algeria. In this analysis back-propagation algorithm is applied. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine duration was used as climatic inputs parameters, while the daily global solar radiation (DGSR was the only output of the ANN. We have evaluated Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP models to estimate DGSR using three year of measurement (2005-2008. It was found that MLP-model based on sunshine duration and mean air temperature give accurate results in term of Mean Absolute Bias Error, Root Mean Square Error, Relative Square Error and Correlation Coefficient. The obtained values of these indicators are 0.67 MJ/m², 1.28 MJ/m², 6.12%and 98.18%, respectively which shows that MLP is highly qualified for DGSR estimation in semi-arid climates.

  12. Comparison of the evolution of tumor cells after unique and multiple (accelerated) daily irradiation in mammary carcinoma of C3H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfersdorff, J.; Sack, H.

    1986-01-01

    The comparison of two fractionation schemes, i.e. the usual irradiation once a day with 2 Gy (SDF) and the fractionation with 3 times 1.6 Gy per day (MDF) at intervals of at least four hours shows the stronger action of higher fractionation on the destruction of tumor cells and the inhibition of their proliferation kinetics. So the number of pycnotic cells is considerably increased in case of multiple daily irradiation, and the mitosis rate as well as the labelling index show a more significant decrease. In case of one irradiation per day, the number of pycnotic cells increases during radiotherapy, too, but the mitosis rate and the labelling index only decrease until the fifth or sixth treatment day, remaining then unchanged or increasing slightly. This suggests a recurring multiplication of tumor cells already during radiotherapy. The higher efficacy of multiple daily fractionation in rapidly proliferating tumors is proved by the measurements of changing tumor volumes in the living animal during irradiation as well as by the observation of the survival time after irradiation. (orig.) [de

  13. OMI/Aura Formaldehyde (HCHO) Total Column Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 (OMHCHOG) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2G daily global gridded product OMHCHOG is based on the pixel level OMI Level-2 HCHO product OMHCHO. OMHCHOG data product is a special Level-2 Global...

  14. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 1 Daily

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  15. International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) Global Land Surface Temperature Databank - Stage 2 Daily

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...

  16. NRT AMSR2 DAILY L3 GLOBAL SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT EASE-GRIDS V0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) instrument on the Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1 (GCOM-W1) provides global passive microwave...

  17. VIIRS/NPP Surface Reflectance Daily L3 Global 0.05 Deg CMG V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) daily surface reflectance Climate Modeling Grid (VNP09CMG) Version 1 product provides an estimate of land...

  18. Determination of the global daily radiation the value during the day; Determinacion de la irradiacion global diaria a partir de un minimo de valores de la irradiancia a lo largo del dia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, M.; Fernandes, F.; Santos, J.; Prado, T.

    2004-07-01

    This paper is about the minimum number of solar irradiance values distributed along a day that lets to estimate the daily solar irradiation with an acceptable margin of error. The final objective of the study is to use the irradiance calculated from Meteosat images for obtaining solar radiation maps. The data base utilised is the radiance (minute radiation) and daily irradiation data base from the meteo-radiometric station of the University of Vigo Solar Lab for the years 2002 and 2003. Acceptable results are found with three values of the irradiance covering the six central hours of the day. In this case it is proposed a second order equation as the optimal regression adjustment. It is found also that it is not necessary to use more than five irradiance values covering the ten central hours of the day given that the optimal lineal regression adjustment is lineal, that is the proposed. (Author)

  19. Therapeutic approaches of hematopoietic syndrome after serious accidental global irradiation. Ex vivo expansion interest of hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry, D.

    1994-01-01

    Aplasia is one of the main syndrome, appearing after one global accidental irradiation by one ionizing radiation source. The hematopoietic syndrome is characterized by a peripheric blood cell number fall; the cell marrow is reduced too

  20. Global impact of asthma on children and adolescents' daily lives : The room to breathe survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildhaber, Johannes; Carroll, William D.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    Objective: To establish children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their asthma and its impact upon their daily lives. Design: A 14-item questionnaire. Setting: Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and South Africa. Participants: Children/adolescents (aged 8-15 years)

  1. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Albedo Daily L3 Global - 500m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS MCD43A3 Version 6 Albedo Model data set is a daily 16-day product. The Julian date in the granule ID of each specific file represents the 9th day of the 16...

  2. Media reporting of global health issues and events in New Zealand daily newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Cussen, Ashleigh; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2011-12-01

    In the context of a globalised world, reports on health that extend personal or country borders have increasing relevance. Media can promote opportunities to identify and address gaps in important global health issues. In light of the potential role of media as an advocacy tool for global health, we examined how global health issues are represented in mainstream media in New Zealand. We conducted a content analysis of media reports on global health issues in the four highest circulation newspapers in New Zealand between June 2007 and May 2009. Search terms included 'global health, 'international health' and 'world health'. Communicable disease was the most frequently reported global health issue in New Zealand newspapers, followed by environment (e.g. climate change), general health risks (unsafe pharmaceuticals) and substance use (tobacco and alcohol). Chronic disease, injury or their determinants were less frequently reported. Mainstream media favours health-related reports based on crisis, epidemic or acute conditions over chronic or non-communicable diseases or disability. Health issues facing the Asia Pacific region increasingly include chronic diseases, which would benefit from greater media coverage to increase advocacy and political awareness of global health challenges.

  3. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily Global Quarter-Degree Gridded Brightness Temperatures, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument on the NASA EOS Aqua satellite provides global passive microwave measurements...

  4. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily Global Quarter-Degree Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument on the NASA EOS Aqua satellite provides global passive microwave measurements...

  5. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices Daily Global 0.05Deg CMG V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using...

  6. SORCE SOLSTICE FUV Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V015 (SOR3SOLFUVD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SOLSTICE Far-UV Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SOLFUVD is constructed using measurements from the SOLSTICE FUV instrument, which are...

  7. SORCE SOLSTICE MUV Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V015 (SOR3SOLMUVD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SOLSTICE Mid-UV Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SOLMUVD is constructed using measurements from the SOLSTICE MUV instrument, which are...

  8. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Semerádová, Daniela; Žalud, Zdeněk; Formayer, Herbert

    2007-10-16

    The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily globalradiation (R G ) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequentcrop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis ofthe R G error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central Europeanclimate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria andthe Czech Republic where measured daily R G values were available as a reference, withseven methods for R G estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the CzechRepublic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five R G estimation methods. In thelatter case the R G values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the ångström-Prescottformula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured R G data. At thesite level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showedthe lowest bias in R G estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs.When the ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate R G , for example, deviationsgreater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 percent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lowerwhen R G estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating R G from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the R G data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that R G estimates based on

  9. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Formayer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily globalradiation (RG values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequentcrop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis ofthe RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central Europeanclimate conditions. The research was conducted i at the eight individual sites in Austria andthe Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, withseven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii for the agricultural areas of the CzechRepublic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In thelatter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the ångström-Prescottformula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At thesite level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showedthe lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs.When the ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviationsgreater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 percent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lowerwhen RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent. The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We

  10. Methods and strategy for modeling daily global solar radiation with measured meteorological data - A case study in Nanchang station, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Tiejun

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical and biological processes on the earth's surface, and complete and accurate solar radiation data at a specific region are quite indispensable to the solar energy related researches. This study, with Nanchang station, China, as a case study, aimed to calibrate existing models and develop new models for estimating missing global solar radiation data using commonly measured meteorological data and to propose a strategy for selecting the optimal models under different situations of available meteorological data. Using daily global radiation, sunshine hours, temperature, total precipitation and dew point data covering the years from 1994 to 2005, we calibrated or developed and evaluated seven existing models and two new models. Validation criteria included intercept, slope, coefficient of determination, mean bias error and root mean square error. The best result (R 2 = 0.93) was derived from Chen model 2, which uses sunshine hours and temperature as predictors. The Bahel model, which only uses sunshine hours, was almost as good, explaining 92% of the solar radiation variance. Temperature based models (Bristow and Campbell, Allen, Hargreaves and Chen 1 models) provided less accurate results, of which the best one (R 2 = 0.69) is the Bristow and Campbell model. The temperature based models were improved by adding other variables (daily mean total precipitation and mean dew point). Two such models could explain 77% (Wu model 1) and 80% (Wu model 2) of the solar radiation variance. We, thus, propose a strategy for selecting an optimal method for calculating missing daily values of global solar radiation: (1) when sunshine hour and temperature data are available, use Chen model 2; (2) when only sunshine hour data are available, use Bahel model; (3) when temperature, total precipitation and dew point data are available but not sunshine hours, use Wu model 2; (4) when only temperature and total precipitation are

  11. Daily and 3-hourly variability in global fire emissions and consequences for atmospheric model predictions of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; Defries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2011-12-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from

  12. Daily and 3-hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003.2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ]derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top ]down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from

  13. Daily and Hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We distributed monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 on a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) active fire observations. We found that patterns of daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of bunting in savannas. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

  14. Global impact of asthma on children and adolescents' daily lives: the room to breathe survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Johannes; Carroll, William D; Brand, Paul L P

    2012-04-01

    To establish children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their asthma and its impact upon their daily lives. A 14-item questionnaire. Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and South Africa. Children/adolescents (aged 8-15 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma. Interviews were conducted by telephone (Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) or face-to-face (South Africa). Asthma symptoms, impact on activities, and quality of life. Of the 943 children/adolescents interviewed, 60% were male. Most (81%) described their asthma as "not too bad" or "I only get it every now and then," with only 4% reporting their asthma as being "very bad"; however, 92% experienced asthma-related coughing and 59% reported nocturnal awakening. Over half (57%) of children/adolescents believed they could predict when their asthma would make them ill; the most common initial symptoms being breathlessness (41%) and bad cough (33%). They considered the worst things about having asthma to be the symptoms of an asthma attack (32%) and not being able to play sport (25%). Almost half (47%) of children/adolescents felt that their asthma affected their ability to play sport or engage in physical activity. One in ten reported they had suffered asthma-related bullying. Children/adolescents underestimate the severity of their asthma, and overestimate its control, indicating that they expect their illness to be symptomatic. Asthma has a substantial impact on their daily lives, particularly on physical activity and social functioning. Efforts are required to improve asthma control and expectations of health in children/adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A nonlinear support vector machine model with hard penalty function based on glowworm swarm optimization for forecasting daily global solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, He; Dong, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Eclat data mining algorithm is used to determine the possible predictors. • Support vector machine is converted into a ridge regularization problem. • Hard penalty selects the number of radial basis functions to simply the structure. • Glowworm swarm optimization is utilized to determine the optimal parameters. - Abstract: For a portion of the power which is generated by grid connected photovoltaic installations, an effective solar irradiation forecasting approach must be crucial to ensure the quality and the security of power grid. This paper develops and investigates a novel model to forecast 30 daily global solar radiation at four given locations of the United States. Eclat data mining algorithm is first presented to discover association rules between solar radiation and several meteorological factors laying a theoretical foundation for these correlative factors as input vectors. An effective and innovative intelligent optimization model based on nonlinear support vector machine and hard penalty function is proposed to forecast solar radiation by converting support vector machine into a regularization problem with ridge penalty, adding a hard penalty function to select the number of radial basis functions, and using glowworm swarm optimization algorithm to determine the optimal parameters of the model. In order to illustrate our validity of the proposed method, the datasets at four sites of the United States are split to into training data and test data, separately. The experiment results reveal that the proposed model delivers the best forecasting performances comparing with other competitors.

  16. Ground-Based Meteorological Data (daily, 24 hour files) from Co-Located Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Receivers from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Meteorological Data (daily, 24 hour files) from instruments co-located with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers...

  17. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Compact Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily, 24 hour files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Compact Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily, 24 hour files) from the NASA...

  18. OMI/Aura Near UV Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo Daily L3 Global 1x1 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI-Aura level-3 daily global gridded (1x1 deg) near-UV Aerosol data product OMAERUVd based on the enhanced algorithm is available from the NASA Goddard Earth...

  19. OMI/Aura TOMS-Like Ozone and Radiative Cloud Fraction Daily L3 Global 0.25x0.25 deg V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-003 of Level-3 Aura/OMI daily global TOMS-Like Total Column Ozone gridded product (OMTO3e) is generated by the NASA OMI science team by picking the best...

  20. OMI/Aura TOMS-Like Ozone, Aerosol Index, Cloud Radiance Fraction Daily L3 Global 1.0x1.0 deg V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level-3 Aura/OMI daily global TOMS-Like Total Column Ozone gridded product (OMTO3d) is generated by the NASA OMI science team by gridding and averaging only good...

  1. Crop model sensitivity to the estimated daily global solar radiation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kapler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the previous studies have suggested that the estimated RG values are loaded with an error, which might compromise the precision of the subsequent crop model applications. Therefore a detailed analysis of the error propagation was made using two crop models i.e. CERES-Barley and CERES-Wheat. Database of meteorological data originating from 8 stations in Austria and Czech Republic was used in order to carry out the analysis. It has been found that even application of the method based on sunshine duration that yield the lowest bias in RG estimates significantly influences number of key crop model outputs. It has been also noted that in 5–6 seasons out of 100 cases the deviation greater than ±10 % is to be expected whilst the occurrence of ±25% could not be also ruled out. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs is lower then expected but still acceptable for most application with mean bias error in range of 2.0–4.1% when estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover are used. In this case yield deviations over ±10% occurred in about 20% cases (depending on the crop whilst the probability of significant yield departure (±25% doubled of that found for the previous method. The methods based on the diurnal temperature range and daily precipitation sum showed an increase of the systematic bias of yield of winter wheat and considerably higher number of seasons with yield departures over ±25%. Utilisation of the methods based on the diurnal temperature range only for the purposes of seasonal yield forecasting or climate change impact assessment is questionable as the probability of significant yield departure is very high (as well as the systematic error. These findings should act as an incentive to the further research aimed at development of more precise and widely applicable methods of estimating daily RG based more on the underlying physical principles and/or remote sensing approach

  2. Concurrent high-dose thoracic irradiation plus daily low-dose cisplatin and vindesine in locally advanced unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kikuo; Hiramoto, Takehiko; Kanehara, Masasi; Doi, Mihoko; Hada, Yosihiro; Nakamura, Kenji [National Hospital of Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Patients with unresectable non-small cell lung cancer were treated to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of high-dose thoracic irradiation (RT) combined with concurrent daily low-dose cisplatin plus vindesine. Twenty five evaluable patients were treated with continuous-course RT (70 Gy in 35 fractions of 2.0 Gy once daily) and concurrent daily intravenous cisplatin (6 mg/m{sup 2}) plus vindesine (3 mg/m{sup 2} on day 1 and day 8). Leukopenia (48%) was the most severe sign of toxicity, but there were no episodes of discontinuation of treatment. Two patients (8%) had a grade 3 acute radiation esophagitis, but there was no severe late radiation esophagitis. Ten patients experienced late radiation pneumonitis and 9 of those were grade 1 or 2. There was only one life-threatening toxicity (grade 5 pneumonitis). The objective response rate was 72%, and one patient achieved a radiographic complete response. The median survival duration for all patients was 14 months, and the 3- and 5-year actuarial survival rates were 27.2% and 27.2%, respectively. We concluded that the regimen of high-dose thoracic RT combined with concurrent daily low-dose cisplatin plus vindesine was a well-tolerated regimen. The survival results were encouraging. (author)

  3. OMI/Aura Near UV Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 (OMAERUVG) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2G daily global gridded product OMAERUVG is based on the pixel level OMI Level-2 AERUV product OMAERUV. This Level-2G daily global gridded product...

  4. The global SMOS Level 3 daily soil moisture and brightness temperature maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mialon, Arnaud; Kerr, Yann H.; Cabot, François; Richaume, Philippe; Jacquette, Elsa; Quesney, Arnaud; Mahmoodi, Ali; Tarot, Stéphane; Parrens, Marie; Al-Yaari, Amen; Pellarin, Thierry; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the multi-orbit (MO) surface soil moisture (SM) and angle-binned brightness temperature (TB) products for the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission based on a new multi-orbit algorithm. The Level 3 algorithm at CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) makes use of MO retrieval to enhance the robustness and quality of SM retrievals. The motivation of the approach is to make use of the longer temporal autocorrelation length of the vegetation optical depth (VOD) compared to the corresponding SM autocorrelation in order to enhance the retrievals when an acquisition occurs at the border of the swath. The retrieval algorithm is implemented in a unique operational processor delivering multiple parameters (e.g. SM and VOD) using multi-angular dual-polarisation TB from MO. A subsidiary angle-binned TB product is provided. In this study the Level 3 TB V310 product is showcased and compared to SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) TB. The Level 3 SM V300 product is compared to the single-orbit (SO) retrievals from the Level 2 SM processor from ESA with aligned configuration. The advantages and drawbacks of the Level 3 SM product (L3SM) are discussed. The comparison is done on a global scale between the two datasets and on the local scale with respect to in situ data from AMMA-CATCH and USDA ARS Watershed networks. The results obtained from the global analysis show that the MO implementation enhances the number of retrievals: up to 9 % over certain areas. The comparison with the in situ data shows that the increase in the number of retrievals does not come with a decrease in quality, but rather at the expense of an increased time lag in product availability from 6 h to 3.5 days, which can be a limiting factor for applications like flood forecast but reasonable for drought monitoring and climate change studies. The SMOS L3 soil moisture and L3 brightness temperature products are delivered using an open licence and

  5. The global SMOS Level 3 daily soil moisture and brightness temperature maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al Bitar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the multi-orbit (MO surface soil moisture (SM and angle-binned brightness temperature (TB products for the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission based on a new multi-orbit algorithm. The Level 3 algorithm at CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS makes use of MO retrieval to enhance the robustness and quality of SM retrievals. The motivation of the approach is to make use of the longer temporal autocorrelation length of the vegetation optical depth (VOD compared to the corresponding SM autocorrelation in order to enhance the retrievals when an acquisition occurs at the border of the swath. The retrieval algorithm is implemented in a unique operational processor delivering multiple parameters (e.g. SM and VOD using multi-angular dual-polarisation TB from MO. A subsidiary angle-binned TB product is provided. In this study the Level 3 TB V310 product is showcased and compared to SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive TB. The Level 3 SM V300 product is compared to the single-orbit (SO retrievals from the Level 2 SM processor from ESA with aligned configuration. The advantages and drawbacks of the Level 3 SM product (L3SM are discussed. The comparison is done on a global scale between the two datasets and on the local scale with respect to in situ data from AMMA-CATCH and USDA ARS Watershed networks. The results obtained from the global analysis show that the MO implementation enhances the number of retrievals: up to 9 % over certain areas. The comparison with the in situ data shows that the increase in the number of retrievals does not come with a decrease in quality, but rather at the expense of an increased time lag in product availability from 6 h to 3.5 days, which can be a limiting factor for applications like flood forecast but reasonable for drought monitoring and climate change studies. The SMOS L3 soil moisture and L3 brightness temperature products are delivered using an

  6. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  7. Daily low-dose/continuous capecitabine combined with neo-adjuvant irradiation reduces VEGF and PDGF-BB levels in rectal carcinoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loven, David (Rappaport School of Medicine, The Technion, Haifa (Israel)); Be' Ery, Einat (Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)); Yerushalmi, Rinat; Koren, Claude; Sulkes, Aaron; Fenig, Eyal (Rabin Medical Center, Inst. of Oncology, Petach Tikva (Israel)); Lavi, Idit (Dept. of Community Medicine and Epidemiology, Carmel Medical Center, Haifa (Israel)); Shaked, Yuval (Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada))

    2008-01-15

    Metronomic low-dose chemotherapy regimen was found to have an antiangiogenic effect in tumors. However, its effect on levels of circulating pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors is not fully explored. Materials and methods. The levels of both VEGF and PDGF-BB were measured in three time points, in the serum of 32 rectal carcinoma patients receiving daily reduced-dose/continuous capecitabine in combination with preoperative pelvic irradiation. Results. We found a significant decrease in VEGF and PDGF-BB serum levels during the combination treatment (p<0.0001), followed by an increase in the successive rest-period (p<0.0001). In addition, substantial changes in platelets counts were observed during treatment in correlation with the changes of VEGF and PDGF-BB serum levels. Discussion. These results suggest that combined chemo-irradiation affect levels of pro-angiogenic factors during treatment, and may reflect an anti-angiogenic window induced during this treatment. The potential implications of this inducible phenomenon, including a possible clinical benefit from the administration of long lasting metronomic chemotherapy immediately following combined chemo-irradiation, would warrant further investigation

  8. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  9. Hyperspectral radiometer for automated measurement of global and diffuse sky irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusk, Joel; Kuusk, Andres

    2018-01-01

    An automated hyperspectral radiometer for the measurement of global and diffuse sky irradiance, SkySpec, has been designed for providing the SMEAR-Estonia research station with spectrally-resolved solar radiation data. The spectroradiometer has been carefully studied in the optical radiometry laboratory of Tartu Observatory, Estonia. Recorded signals are corrected for spectral stray light as well as for changes in dark signal and spectroradiometer spectral responsivity due to temperature effects. Comparisons with measurements of shortwave radiation fluxes made at the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) station at Tõravere, Estonia, and with fluxes simulated using the atmospheric radiative transfer model 6S and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data showed that the spectroradiometer is a reliable instrument that provides accurate estimates of integrated fluxes and of their spectral distribution. The recorded spectra can be used to estimate the amount of atmospheric constituents such as aerosol and column water vapor, which are needed for the atmospheric correction of spectral satellite images.

  10. Global cerebral blood flow changes measured by brain perfusion SPECT immediately after whole brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtawa, Nobuyuki; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Hosono, Makoto; Takahashi, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    Whole brain irradiation (WBI) is still a major treatment option for patients with metastatic brain tumor despite recent advances in chemotherapy and newer techniques of radiation therapy. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) of changes induced by whole brain radiation is not fully investigated, and the aim of the study was to measure CBF changes non-invasively with brain perfusion SPECT to correlate with treatment effect or prognosis. Total of 106 patients underwent WBI during April 1998 to March 2002. Both brain MRI and brain perfusion SPECT could be performed before (less than 1 week before or less than 10 Gy of WBI) and immediately after (between 1 week before and 2 weeks after the completion of WBI) the therapy in 17 of these patients. They, 10 men and 7 women, all had metastatic brain tumor with age range of 45 to 87 (mean of 61.4) years. Tc-99m brain perfusion agent (HMPAO in 4, ECD in 13) was rapidly administered in a 740-MBq dose to measure global and regional CBF according to Matsuda's method, which based on both Patlak plot and Lassens' linearity correction. Brain MRI was used to measure therapeutic response according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification as complete remission (CR), partial response (PR), no change (NC), and progressive disease (PD). Survival period was measured from the completion of WBI. Mean global CBF was 40.6 and 41.5 ml/100 g/min before and immediately after the WBI, respectively. Four patients increased (greater than 10%) their global mean CBF, 10 unchanged (less than 10% increase or decrease), and 3 decreased after the WBI. The WBI achieved CR in none, PR in 8, NC in 6, and PD in 3 on brain MRI. Change in global mean CBF (mean±SD) was significantly larger in PR (4.3±2.0 ml/100 g/min, p=0.002) and in NC (-0.1±4.5) than in PD (-3.9±6.4, P=0.002, P=0.016, respectively). Survival was not significantly (p>0.05) different among the patients with CR (20 weeks), NC (48 weeks), and PD (21 weeks). Change in global CBF and survival was

  11. Ground-Based Meteorological Data (daily, 24 hour files) from Co-Located Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) Receivers from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Meteorological Data (daily, 24 hour files) from instruments co-located with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS...

  12. A Phase 1/2 Trial of a Combination of Paclitaxel and Trastuzumab With Daily Irradiation or Paclitaxel Alone With Daily Irradiation After Transurethral Surgery for Noncystectomy Candidates With Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer (Trial NRG Oncology RTOG 0524)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelson, M. Dror, E-mail: dmichaelson1@partners.org [Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hu, Chen [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sydney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Pham, Huong T. [Virginia Mason CCOP, Seattle, Washington (United States); Dahl, Douglas M.; Lee-Wu, Chin [Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Swanson, Gregory P. [University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Vuky, Jacqueline [Virginia Mason CCOP, Seattle, Washington (United States); Lee, R. Jeffrey [Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah (United States); Souhami, Luis [McGill University, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Chang, Brian [Parkview Cancer Center, Parkview Hospital, Fort Wayne, Indiana (United States); George, Asha [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Shipley, William [Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: Bladder preservation therapy is an effective treatment for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC). In this study we treated noncystectomy candidates with daily radiation and weekly paclitaxel for 7 weeks. Patients whose tumors showed her2/neu overexpression were additionally treated with weekly trastuzumab. Methods and Materials: Sixty-eight evaluable patients were treated with radiation therapy and either paclitaxel + trastuzumab (group 1) or paclitaxel alone (group 2). Groups were assigned on the basis of her2/neu immunohistochemistry results. Patients received 1.8-Gy fractions to a total dose of 64.8 Gy. The primary endpoint of the study was treatment-related toxicity, and secondary endpoints included complete response (CR) rate, protocol completion rate, and survival. Results: A total of 20 evaluable patients were treated in group 1 and 46 patients in group 2. Acute treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were observed in 7 of 20 patients in group 1 (35%) and 14 of 46 patients in group 2 (30.4%). Protocol therapy was completed by 60% (group 1) and 74% (group 2) of patients. Most incompletions were due to toxicity, and the majority of AEs were gastrointestinal, including 1 grade 5 AE (group 1). Two other deaths (both in group 2) were unrelated to protocol therapy. No unexpected cardiac, hematologic, or other toxicities were observed. The CR rate at 1 year was 72% for group 1 and 68% for group 2. Conclusions: In patients with muscle-invasive UC who are not candidates for cystectomy, daily radiation combined with paclitaxel is an effective treatment strategy with a high completion rate and moderate toxicity. In patients with her2/neu-positive tumors, a group generally considered to have worse outcomes, the addition of trastuzumab appears to result in comparable efficacy and toxicity. Further biomarker-driven trials should be undertaken in advancing treatment of this challenging disease.

  13. Investigation of the effect of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Philipp; Rennhofer, Marcus; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Wagner, Jochen; Laube, Wolfgang; Gadermaier, Josef

    2013-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on Photovoltaic module performance. This investigation is performed using continuous hemispherical fish eye photographs of the sky, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and short circuit current measurements of a-Si, c-Si and CdTe PV modules. These measurements have been performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m.a.s.l) located in the southern part of Austria during a period of one and half year. The time resolution of the measurements is one minute, which allows to accurately follow the formation-eventually the disappearance- or the movement of the contrails in the sky. Using the fish eye photographs we identified clear sky days with a high contrail persistence. We especially look at situations where the contrails were shading the sun. Results show that contrails shading the sun may reduce the global radiation by up to 60%. In general we however observe that during days with a high contrail persistence the diffuse irradiance is slightly increased. Finally a statistic of the contrail persistence during the period of measurement is presented and conclusions as to the relevance for the solar energy production are drawn.

  14. Three-year outcomes of a once daily fractionation scheme for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Sharad; Daroui, Parima; Khan, Atif J; Kearney, Thomas; Kirstein, Laurie; Haffty, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report 3-year outcomes of toxicity, cosmesis, and local control using a once daily fractionation scheme (49.95 Gy in 3.33 Gy once daily fractions) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between July 2008 and August 2010, women aged ≥40 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer ≤3 cm in diameter, treated with breast-conserving surgery achieving negative margins, were accrued to a prospective study. Women were treated with APBI using 3–5 photon beams, delivering 49.95 Gy over 15 once daily fractions over 3 weeks. Patients were assessed for toxicities, cosmesis, and local control rates before APBI and at specified time points. Thirty-four patients (mean age 60 years) with Tis 0 (n = 9) and T1N0 (n = 25) breast cancer were treated and followed up for an average of 39 months. Only 3% (1/34) patients experienced a grade 3 subcutaneous fibrosis and breast edema and 97% of the patients had good/excellent cosmetic outcome at 3 years. The 3-year rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) was 0% while the rate of contralateral breast events was 6%. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was 94%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Our novel accelerated partial breast fractionation scheme of 15 once daily fractions of 3.33 Gy (49.95 Gy total) is a remarkably well-tolerated regimen of 3D-CRT-based APBI. A larger cohort of patients is needed to further ascertain the toxicity of this accelerated partial breast regimen

  15. Photosynthesis-irradiance parameters of marine phytoplankton: synthesis of a global data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Heather A.; Platt, Trevor; Doblin, Martina; Figueiras, Francisco G.; Gudmundsson, Kristinn; Gudfinnsson, Hafsteinn G.; Huang, Bangqin; Hickman, Anna; Hiscock, Michael; Jackson, Thomas; Lutz, Vivian A.; Mélin, Frédéric; Rey, Francisco; Pepin, Pierre; Segura, Valeria; Tilstone, Gavin H.; van Dongen-Vogels, Virginie; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    2018-02-01

    The photosynthetic performance of marine phytoplankton varies in response to a variety of factors, environmental and taxonomic. One of the aims of the MArine primary Production: model Parameters from Space (MAPPS) project of the European Space Agency is to assemble a global database of photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) parameters from a range of oceanographic regimes as an aid to examining the basin-scale variability in the photophysiological response of marine phytoplankton and to use this information to improve the assignment of P-E parameters in the estimation of global marine primary production using satellite data. The MAPPS P-E database, which consists of over 5000 P-E experiments, provides information on the spatio-temporal variability in the two P-E parameters (the assimilation number, PmB, and the initial slope, αB, where the superscripts B indicate normalisation to concentration of chlorophyll) that are fundamental inputs for models (satellite-based and otherwise) of marine primary production that use chlorophyll as the state variable. Quality-control measures consisted of removing samples with abnormally high parameter values and flags were added to denote whether the spectral quality of the incubator lamp was used to calculate a broad-band value of αB. The MAPPS database provides a photophysiological data set that is unprecedented in number of observations and in spatial coverage. The database will be useful to a variety of research communities, including marine ecologists, biogeochemical modellers, remote-sensing scientists and algal physiologists. The compiled data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.874087" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.874087 (Bouman et al., 2017).

  16. Error analysis of global satellite precipitation products using daily gauged observations over the upper central Blue Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, Dejene; Moges, Semu; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Hailu, Dereje

    2015-04-01

    Water resource assessment, planning and management in Africa are often constrained due to lack of reliable spatio-temporal rainfall data. Satellite and global reanalysis products are steadily growing and offering useful alternative datasets of rainfall globally. Aim of this paper is to examine the error characteristics of the main available global satellite precipitation products with the view to improve the reliability of wet season (June to September) rainfall datasets over the upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia. The study utilized six satellite derived precipitation datasets at 0.25-deg spatial grid size and daily temporal resolution:1) the near real-time (3B42_RT) and gauge adjusted (3B42_V7) products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), 2) gauge adjusted and unadjusted Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) products and 3) the gauge adjusted and un-adjusted product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH) over the period of 2000 to 2013. The historical daily rainfall data sets are chosen for the same period from 64 gauging stations which are within a mountainous area of about 45,000 km2. The elevation of gauges used in this error study ranged from 1800 to 3000 meters above sea level. The error analysis utilized statistical techniques of missed rainfall volume fraction (MRV), falsely detected rainfall volume fraction (FRV), mean relative error (MRE), bias ratio (Bias), coefficient of variation of error (CVE) and the trends of the error metrics with respect to elevation. The three error metrics, MRE, Bias and CVE are further examined for five rainfall thresholds associated with different percentile categories (2nd, 20th, 50th, 80th and 98th) . Results show that CMORPH has relatively lower MRV (~1.5 %) than the TRMM and PERSIANN products (10 -13 %.). Non-gauge adjusted

  17. Analysis of solar irradiation measurements at Beer Sheva, Israel from 1985 through 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseev, Efim G.; Kudish, Avraham I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In depth analysis of long-term solar irradiation at Beer Sheva, Israel. • Construction of a typical meteorological year for global and beam irradiation. • Statistical analysis of the global and beam irradiation. • Analysis of long-term trends regarding global and beam irradiation. - Abstract: An in-depth analysis of the solar horizontal global, normal incidence beam and solar global incident on a south-facing surface tilted at 40° irradiation monitored at Beer Sheva from 1985 through 2013 has been performed. The horizontal beam irradiation, daily clearness index, daily beam index and beam fraction of the horizontal global irradiation were determined from the measured parameters. A statistical analysis, which included average, median, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values and the coefficient of variation, was performed on the parameters under investigation. The monthly frequency distribution types were determined for the solar global, normal incidence beam and solar global incident on a south-facing surface tilted at 40° irradiation based upon their corresponding skewness and kurtosis values. In addition, typical meteorological years were developed for the solar horizontal global and normal incidence beam irradiation. Beer Sheva is characterized as a site with a high incidence of clear days with global irradiation consisting of a relatively high beam fraction. A relatively steep minimum in the annual average daily normal incidence beam irradiation is observed from 1991 to 1993 and has been attributed to the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines during June 1991. A time series analysis of the both individual monthly and annual average daily global and normal incidence irradiation indicated a slight trend of solar brightening for this region during the time interval 1985 through 2013, but in most cases they were not statistically significant based upon their p values

  18. TOMS/Meteor-3 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Meteor-3 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Meteor-3...

  19. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer...

  20. TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  1. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Aerosol Index Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Aerosol Index Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  2. TOMS/Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Level-3...

  3. TOMS/Earth Probe UV Aerosol Index Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV Aerosol Index Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Level-3...

  4. TOMS/Meteor-3 UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Meteor-3 UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Meteor-3...

  5. TOMS Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008 (TOMSEPL3dref) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format.The Total Ozone Mapping...

  6. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  7. A daily wetness index from satellite gravity for near-real time global monitoring of hydrological extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouweleeuw, Ben; Kvas, Andreas; Gruber, Christian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flechtner, Frank; Hasan, Mehedi; Güntner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Since April 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has been churning out water storage anomaly data, which has been shown to be a unique descriptor of large-scale hydrological extreme events. Nonetheless, efforts to assess the comprehensive information from GRACE on total water storage variations for near-real time flood or drought monitoring have been limited so far, primarily due to its coarse temporal (weekly to monthly) and spatial (> 150.000 km2) resolution and the latency of standard products of about 2 months,. Pending the status of the aging GRACE satellite mission, the Horizon 2020 funded EGSIEM (European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management) project is scheduled to launch a 6 month duration near-real time test run of GRACE gravity field data from April 2017 onward, which will provide daily gridded data with a latency of 5 days. This fast availability allows the monitoring of total water storage variations related to hydrological extreme events, as they occur, as opposed to a 'confirmation after occurrence', which is the current situation. This contribution proposes a global GRACE-derived gridded wetness indicator, expressed as a gravity anomaly in dimensionless units of standard deviation. Results of a retrospective evaluation (April 2002-December 2015) of the proposed index against databases of hydrological extremes will be presented. It is shown that signals for large extreme floods related to heavy/monsoonal rainfall are picked up really well in the Southern Hemisphere and lower Northern Hemisphere (Africa, S-America, Australia, S-Asia), while extreme floods in the Northern Hemisphere (Russia) related to snow melt are often not. The latter is possibly related to a lack of mass movement over longer distances, e.g. when melt water is not drained due to river ice blocking.

  8. Illuminance and global solar irradiation in Northeast Brazil; Iluminancia e irradiacao solar global na regiao Nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Sergio da S.; Tiba, Chigueru [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], Emails: tiba@ufpe.br, chigueru.tiba@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2006-07-01

    In Brazil and particularly in the Northeast of Brazil, illuminance measures are not part of routine meteorological station measures, and therefore they are still rare than solar irradiation measures. In this context, two stations were installed in Pernambuco: one in Recife (maritime tropical climate) in April 2003 and the other in Pesqueira (tropical and semi-arid) in September 2004 for carrying out simultaneous measurements of hourly solar irradiation and illuminance which permit the modeling and the statistic validation of the relationship between these two parameters and with this, makes possible the estimation of illuminance where there existed only information on solar irradiation. The Alados et al. model with local coefficients showed a superior statistical performance, producing a mean bias deviation in the order of 3% and 1% and root mean quadratic deviation of 10% and 3% respectively for Recife and Pesqueira (author)

  9. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  10. Changes in the daily range of the air temperature in the mountainous part of Slovakia within the possible context of global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Damborská

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mean global and regional air temperatures have increased in the last several decades more than at any time during the history of instrumental measurement. Because of changes in the energy balance of the daily regime of the Earth's surface, it seems that the daily minimum temperature will increase more than the daily maximum one. The general theoretical analysis have indicated the daily range (TR of air temperatures decrease, but they are also influenced by several other factors such as topography, wind, solar radiation, cloudiness, humidity, soil moisture, upwind and lee effects, etc. This paper contains a sample from an analysis of past conditions showing changes in TR at several Slovak stations from 1961–2010 and possible changes in TR up to the time frame of the year 2100 using climate change scenarios based on four climatic models adopted in Slovakia (global CGCM3.1 and ECHAM5, regional KNMI and MPI and three emission scenarios (IPCC SRES A2, B1 and A1B. The trends and correlations of daily air temperature ranges with other climatic variables were analyzed.

  11. OMI/Aura Effective Cloud Pressure and Fraction (Raman Scattering) Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 (OMCLDRRG) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2G daily global gridded product OMCLDRRG is based on the pixel level OMI Level-2 CLDRR product OMCLDRR. This level-2G global cloud product (OMCLDRRG)...

  12. Evaluation of high resolution global satellite precipitation products using daily raingauge data over the Upper Blue Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, Dejene; Moges, Semu; Anagnostou, Emmanouil; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios; Hailu, Dereje; Mei, Yiwen

    2017-04-01

    Water resources assessment, planning and management in Africa is often constrained by the lack of reliable spatio-temporal rainfall data. Satellite products are steadily growing and offering useful alternative datasets of rainfall globally. The aim of this paper is to examine the error characteristics of the main available global satellite precipitation products with the view of improving the reliability of wet season (June to September) and small rainy season rainfall datasets over the Upper Blue Nile Basin. The study utilized six satellite derived precipitation datasets at 0.25-deg spatial grid size and daily temporal resolution:1) the near real-time (3B42_RT) and gauge adjusted (3B42_V7) products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), 2) gauge adjusted and unadjusted Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) products and 3) the gauge adjusted and un-adjusted product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH) over the period of 2000 to 2013.The error analysis utilized statistical techniques using bias ratio (Bias), correlation coefficient (CC) and root-mean-square-error (RMSE). Mean relative error (MRE), CC and RMSE metrics are further examined for six categories of 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90thand 95th percentile rainfall thresholds. The skill of the satellite estimates is evaluated using categorical error metrics of missed rainfall volume fraction (MRV), falsely detected rainfall volume fraction (FRV), probability of detection (POD) and False Alarm Ratio (FAR). Results showed that six satellite based rainfall products underestimated wet season (June to September) gauge precipitation, with the exception of non-adjusted PERSIANN that overestimated the initial part of the rainy season (March to May). During the wet season, adjusted CMORPH has relatively better bias ratio (89

  13. NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model assimilating satellite chlorophyll data global daily VR2017 (NOBM_DAY) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the assimilated daily data from NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM). The NOBM is a comprehensive, interactive ocean biogeochemical model coupled with a...

  14. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Global Ascending/Descending .25x.25 deg Ocean Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 daily ocean product includes Sea Surface Temperature, near-surface wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud liquid water over...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11B1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 27, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  16. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11A1.041 dataset was decommissioned as of October 30, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Thermal Anomalies/Fire Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD14A1 version 6 product is produced every 8 days, but contains daily information. The MYD14A1 data file (HDF format) is a 4 dimensional file, which consists of...

  18. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD14A1 version 6 product is produced every 8 days, but contains daily information. The MOD14A1 data file (HDF format) is a 4 dimensional file, which consists of...

  19. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Vegetation Indices Daily Rolling-8-Day L3 Global 500m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) level-3 Vegetation Indices Daily Rolling-8-Day data MOD13A4N, are provided everyday at 500-meter spatial resolution as a gridded...

  20. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Vegetation Indices Daily Rolling-8-Day L3 Global 250m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) level-3 Vegetation Indices Daily Rolling8Day data, MOD13Q4N, are provided everyday at 250-meter spatial resolution as a gridded leve-3...

  1. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11B1.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  2. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11C1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 19, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  3. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11C1.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  4. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Model Parameters Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS MCD43C1 Version 6 Bidirectional reflectance distribution function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Model Parameters data set is a 5600 meter daily 16-day product....

  5. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Model Parameters Daily L3 Global - 500m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS MCD43A1 Version 6 Bidirectional reflectance distribution function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Model Parameters data set is a 500 meter daily 16-day product....

  6. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Ref Daily L3 Global - 500m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS MCD43A4 Version 6 Nadir Bidirectional reflectance distribution function Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data set is a daily 16-day product. The Julian date in...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11C1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 18, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  8. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11C1.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  9. VIIRS/NPP Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 1km and 500m SIN Grid V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) daily surface reflectance (VNP09GA) Version 1 product provides an estimate of land surface reflectance from the...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11A1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 24, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  11. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Surface Radiation Daily/3-Hour L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD18A1 Version 6 is a MODIS Terra and Aqua combined Downward Shortwave Radiation (DSR) gridded L3 product produced daily at 5 kilometer pixel resolution with...

  12. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11B1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 23, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  13. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Photosynthetically Active Radiation Daily/3-Hour L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD18A2 Version 6 is a MODIS Terra and Aqua combined Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) gridded L3 product produced daily at 5 kilometer pixel resolution...

  14. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11A1 version 6 product provides daily, per-pixel land surface temperature (LST) in a 1200 x 1200 kilometer grid. The pixel temperature value is derived from...

  15. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11A1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 20, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  16. ANFIS, SVM and ANN soft-computing techniques to estimate daily global solar radiation in a warm sub-humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quej, Victor H.; Almorox, Javier; Arnaldo, Javier A.; Saito, Laurel

    2017-03-01

    Daily solar radiation is an important variable in many models. In this paper, the accuracy and performance of three soft computing techniques (i.e., adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were assessed for predicting daily horizontal global solar radiation from measured meteorological variables in the Yucatán Peninsula, México. Model performance was assessed with statistical indicators such as root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The performance assessment indicates that the SVM technique with requirements of daily maximum and minimum air temperature, extraterrestrial solar radiation and rainfall has better performance than the other techniques and may be a promising alternative to the usual approaches for predicting solar radiation.

  17. External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-Daily Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashtan, Itai M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brachtel, Elena [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abi-Raad, Rita F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); D' Alessandro, Helen A. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Goldberg, Saveli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-daily fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.

  18. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Albedo Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS MCD43C3 Version 6 Albedo Model data set is a 5600 meter daily 16-day product. The Julian date in the granule ID of each specific file represents the 9th...

  19. NPP/VIIRS Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 1km and 500m SIN Grid NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VNP09GA_NRT is a Near Real Time (NRT) S-NPP/VIIRS 500m and 1km Daily Level 2G Surface Reflectance product. The NPP/ VIIRS surface reflectance products are...

  20. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11B1 version 6 product provides daily, per pixel land surface temperature (LST) in a 1200 X 1200 (km) tile with a pixel size of 5600 meters (m). Each MOD11B1...

  1. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11B1 version 6 product provides daily, per pixel land surface temperature (LST) in a 1200 X 1200 (km) tile with a pixel size of 5600 meters (m). Each MYD11B1...

  2. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Geolocation Angles Daily L2G Global 1km SIN Grid Day

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Global Geolocation Angle (MODMGGAD) files contain information on solar illumination and instrument viewing geometry angles. These data...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Clear Sky Radiance 8-Day Composite Daily L3 Global 25km Equal Area V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS 8-day averaged clear-sky radiance (thermal bands) and reflectance (visible bands) statistics in selected MODIS bands are stored on a global grid map....

  4. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Geolocation Angles Daily L2G Global 1km SIN Grid Day

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Global Geolocation Angle (MODMGGAD) files contain information on solar illumination and instrument viewing geometry angles. These data...

  5. MODIS/Terra Clear Sky Radiance 8-Day Composite Daily L3 Global 25km Equal Area V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS 8-day averaged clear-sky radiance (thermal bands) and reflectance (visible bands) statistics in selected MODIS bands are stored on a global grid map....

  6. Forecasting Global Horizontal Irradiance Using the LETKF and a Combination of Advected Satellite Images and Sparse Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, T. M.; Lorenzo, A.; Holmgren, W.; Morzfeld, M.

    2017-12-01

    The irradiance incident on a solar panel is the main factor in determining the power output of that panel. For this reason, accurate global horizontal irradiance (GHI) estimates and forecasts are critical when determining the optimal location for a solar power plant, forecasting utility scale solar power production, or forecasting distributed, behind the meter rooftop solar power production. Satellite images provide a basis for producing the GHI estimates needed to undertake these objectives. The focus of this work is to combine satellite derived GHI estimates with ground sensor measurements and an advection model. The idea is to use accurate but sparsely distributed ground sensors to improve satellite derived GHI estimates which can cover large areas (the size of a city or a region of the United States). We use a Bayesian framework to perform the data assimilation, which enables us to produce irradiance forecasts and associated uncertainties which incorporate both satellite and ground sensor data. Within this framework, we utilize satellite images taken from the GOES-15 geostationary satellite (available every 15-30 minutes) as well as ground data taken from irradiance sensors and rooftop solar arrays (available every 5 minutes). The advection model, driven by wind forecasts from a numerical weather model, simulates cloud motion between measurements. We use the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) to perform the data assimilation. We present preliminary results towards making such a system useful in an operational context. We explain how localization and inflation in the LETKF, perturbations of wind-fields, and random perturbations of the advection model, affect the accuracy of our estimates and forecasts. We present experiments showing the accuracy of our forecasted GHI over forecast-horizons of 15 mins to 1 hr. The limitations of our approach and future improvements are also discussed.

  7. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global CMG (Short name: MYD11C1) products incorporate 0.05 degree (5600 meters at the equator) pixels, which are derived from the MOD11B1...

  8. Estimation of daily global solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term daily global solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the daily GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of daily maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the Global Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of daily fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term daily GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.

  9. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 (OMTO3G) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2G daily global gridded product OMTO3G is based on the pixel level OMI Level-2 Total Ozone Product OMTO3. The OMTO3 product is from the enhanced TOMS...

  10. A Bayesian modelling method for post-processing daily sub-seasonal to seasonal rainfall forecasts from global climate models and evaluation for 12 Australian catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepen, Andrew; Zhao, Tongtiegang; Wang, Quan J.; Robertson, David E.

    2018-03-01

    Rainfall forecasts are an integral part of hydrological forecasting systems at sub-seasonal to seasonal timescales. In seasonal forecasting, global climate models (GCMs) are now the go-to source for rainfall forecasts. For hydrological applications however, GCM forecasts are often biased and unreliable in uncertainty spread, and calibration is therefore required before use. There are sophisticated statistical techniques for calibrating monthly and seasonal aggregations of the forecasts. However, calibration of seasonal forecasts at the daily time step typically uses very simple statistical methods or climate analogue methods. These methods generally lack the sophistication to achieve unbiased, reliable and coherent forecasts of daily amounts and seasonal accumulated totals. In this study, we propose and evaluate a Rainfall Post-Processing method for Seasonal forecasts (RPP-S), which is based on the Bayesian joint probability modelling approach for calibrating daily forecasts and the Schaake Shuffle for connecting the daily ensemble members of different lead times. We apply the method to post-process ACCESS-S forecasts for 12 perennial and ephemeral catchments across Australia and for 12 initialisation dates. RPP-S significantly reduces bias in raw forecasts and improves both skill and reliability. RPP-S forecasts are also more skilful and reliable than forecasts derived from ACCESS-S forecasts that have been post-processed using quantile mapping, especially for monthly and seasonal accumulations. Several opportunities to improve the robustness and skill of RPP-S are identified. The new RPP-S post-processed forecasts will be used in ensemble sub-seasonal to seasonal streamflow applications.

  11. Analysis of Radiosonde Daily Bias by Comparing Precipitable Water Vapor Obtained from Global Positioning System and Radiosonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Geun Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the precipitable water vapor (PWV data derived from the radiosonde observation data at Sokcho Observatory and the PWV data at Sokcho Global Positioning System (GPS Observatory provided by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, from 0000 UTC, June 1, 2007 to 1200 UTC, May 31, 2009, and analyzed the radiosonde bias between the day and the night. In the scatter diagram of the daytime and nighttime radiosonde PWV data and the GPS PWV data, dry bias was found in the daytime radiosonde observation as known in the previous study. In addition, for all the rainfall events, the tendency that the wet bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV decreased and the dry bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV increased was significantly less distinctive in nighttime than in daytime. The quantitative analysis of the bias and error of the radiosonde PWV data showed that the mean bias decreased in the second year, regardless of nighttime or daytime rainfall, and the non-rainfall root mean square error (RMSE was similar to that of the previous studies, while the rainfall RMSE was larger to a certain extent.

  12. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total...

  13. TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The...

  14. ACRIM III Level 2 Daily Mean Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) III Level 2 Daily Mean Data product consists of Level 2 total solar irradiance in the form of daily means...

  15. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (O2-O2 Absorption) Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 (OMCLDO2G) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2G daily global gridded product OMCLDO2G is based on the pixel level OMI Level-2 CLDO2 product OMCLDO2. This level-2G global cloud product (OMCLDO2G) is...

  16. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) DOAS Total Column Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 (OMDOAO3G) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2G daily global gridded product OMDOAO3G is based on the pixel level OMI Level-2 DOAO3 product OMDOAO3. This Level-2G global total column ozone product is...

  17. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1 evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2 tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles.

    A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts, the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e

  18. Distribution and Validation of CERES Irradiance Global Data Products Via Web Based Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, David; Mitrescu, Cristian; Doelling, David; Kato, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    The CERES SYN1deg product provides climate quality 3-hourly globally gridded and temporally complete maps of top of atmosphere, in atmosphere, and surface fluxes. This product requires efficient release to the public and validation to maintain quality assurance. The CERES team developed web-tools for the distribution of both the global gridded products and grid boxes that contain long term validation sites that maintain high quality flux observations at the Earth's surface. These are found at: http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/order_data.php. In this poster we explore the various tools available to users to sub-set, download, and validate using surface observations the SYN1Deg and Surface-EBAF products. We also analyze differences found in long-term records from well-maintained land surface sites such as the ARM central facility and high quality buoy radiometers, which due to their isolated nature cannot be maintained in a similar manner to their land based counterparts.

  19. Identifying crop specific signals for global agricultural monitoring based on the stability of daily multi-angular MODIS reflectance time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveiller, G.; Lopez-Lozano, R.

    2013-12-01

    Global agricultural monitoring requires satellite Earth Observation systems that maximize the observation revisit frequency over the largest possible geographical coverage. Such compromise has thus far resulted in using a spatial resolution that is often coarser than desired. As a consequence, for many agricultural landscapes across the world, crop status can only be inferred from a mixed signal of the landscape (with a pixel size typically close to 1 km), composed of reflectance from neighbouring fields with potentially different crops, variable phenological behaviours and distinct management practices. MODIS has been providing, since 2000, a higher spatial resolution (~250m) that is closer to the size of individual fields in many agro-ecological landscapes. However, the challenge for operational crop specific monitoring remains to identify in time where a given crop has been sown during the current growing season. An innovative use of MODIS daily data is proposed for crop identification based on the stability of the multi-angular signal. MODIS is a whiskbroom sensor with a large swath. For any given place, consecutive MODIS observations are made with considerably different viewing angles according to the daily change in orbit. Consequently, the footprint of the observation varies considerably, thereby sampling the vicinity around the centre of the grid cell in which the time series is ultimately recorded in. If the consecutive observations that have sampled the vicinity provide similar NDVI values (for which BRDF effects are reduced), the resulting temporal signal is relatively stable. This stability indicated that the signal comes from a spatially homogeneous surface, such as a single large field covered by the same crop with similar agro-management practices. If the resulting temporal signal is noisy, it is probable that the consecutive daily observations have sampled different land uses, thus contaminating the signal. Such time series can therefore be

  20. Baseline disability in activities of daily living predicts dementia risk even after controlling for baseline global cognitive ability and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, Elizabeth B; Schwartz, Sarah; Tschanz, Joann T; Østbye, Truls; Corcoran, Christopher; Norton, Maria C

    2013-06-01

    Late-life disability in activities of daily living (ADL) is theorized to be driven by underlying cognitive and/or physical impairment, interacting with psychological and environmental factors. Although we expect that cognitive deficits would explain associations between ADL disability and dementia risk, the current study examined ADL as a predictor of future dementia after controlling for global cognitive status. The population-based Cache County Memory Study (N = 3547) assessed individuals in four triennial waves (average age 74.9 years, years of education 13.36 years; 57.9% were women). Cox proportional hazards regression models assessed whether baseline ADL disability (presence of 2+ Instrumental ADL and/or 1+ Personal ADL) predicted incident dementia after controlling for APOE status, gender, age, baseline cognitive ability (Modified Mini-mental State Exam, 3MS-R; adjusted for education level), and baseline depressive symptoms (Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Over the course of study, 571 cases of incident dementia were identified through in-depth cognitive assessment, ending in expert consensus diagnosis. Results from Cox models suggest that ADL disability is a statistically significant predictor of incident dementia (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.83, p controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that ADL disability offers unique contributions in risk for incident dementia, even after controlling for global cognitive status. We discuss how physical impairment and executive function may play important roles in this relationship, and how ADL is useful, not just a diagnostic tool at, or after dementia onset, but also as a risk factor for future dementia, even in individuals not impaired on global cognitive tests. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The effect of the global UV irradiance measurement accuracy on the single scattering albedo retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazadzis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of measuring aerosol optical absorption properties in the UV spectral range such as single scattering albedo (SSA, using remote sensing techniques, is currently an open scientific issue. We investigate the limitations on calculating column average SSA using a combination of global UV spectral measurements (that are comon in various UV monitoring stations worldwide with radiative transfer modeling. To point out the difficulties in such a retrieval we have used the travelling reference spectroradiometer QASUME (Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe results from 27 visits to UV monitoring stations around Europe. We have used the QASUME instrument as relative reference, analyzing absolute differences and also temporal and spectral deviations of UV irraidances, that are used as basic input for the SSA retrieval.

    The results comparing the mean SSA derived by all instruments, measuring synchronous UV spectra, showed that 5 were within ± 0.02 difference from the SSA calculated from the QASUME instrument, while 17 were within ± 0.04, for the Solar zenith angle of 60 degrees. As for the uncertainty that has been calculated using the 2σ standard deviation of the spectral measurements, a mean 0.072 and 0.10 (2σ uncertainties have been calculated for 60° and 30°, respectively. Based on the fact that additional uncertainties would be introduced in the SSA retrieval from AOD model input accuracy, assymetry parameter assumptions, we show that only very few instrumnents could be able to detect long term SSA changes. However, such measurements/results ar useful in order to retrieve SSA at UV wavelengths, a product needed for various applications such as, inputs for modeling radiative forcing studies and satellite retrieval algorithms.

  2. k-Nearest Neighbor Neural Network Models for Very Short-Term Global Solar Irradiance Forecasting Based on Meteorological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Rong Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel methodology for very short term forecasting of hourly global solar irradiance (GSI. The proposed methodology is based on meteorology data, especially for optimizing the operation of power generating electricity from photovoltaic (PV energy. This methodology is a combination of k-nearest neighbor (k-NN algorithm modelling and artificial neural network (ANN model. The k-NN-ANN method is designed to forecast GSI for 60 min ahead based on meteorology data for the target PV station which position is surrounded by eight other adjacent PV stations. The novelty of this method is taking into account the meteorology data. A set of GSI measurement samples was available from the PV station in Taiwan which is used as test data. The first method implements k-NN as a preprocessing technique prior to ANN method. The error statistical indicators of k-NN-ANN model the mean absolute bias error (MABE is 42 W/m2 and the root-mean-square error (RMSE is 242 W/m2. The models forecasts are then compared to measured data and simulation results indicate that the k-NN-ANN-based model presented in this research can calculate hourly GSI with satisfactory accuracy.

  3. Fifteen-year results of a randomized prospective trial of hyperfractionated chest wall irradiation versus once-daily chest wall irradiation after chemotherapy and mastectomy for patients with locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Thomas A.; Strom, Eric A.; Oswald, Mary Jane; Perkins, George H.; Oh, Julia; Domain, Delora; Yu, Tse-Kuan; Woodward, Wendy A.; Tereffe, Welela; Singletary, S. Eva; Thomas, Eva; Buzdar, Aman U.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; McNeese, Marsha D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the results of a Phase III clinical trial that investigated whether a hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) schedule could reduce the risk of locoregional recurrence in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with chemotherapy and mastectomy. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1989, 200 patients with clinical Stage III noninflammatory breast cancer were enrolled in a prospective study investigating neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 179 patients treated with mastectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 108 participated in a randomized component of the trial that compared a dose-escalated, hyperfractionated (twice-daily, b.i.d.) chest wall RT schedule (72 Gy in 1.2-Gy b.i.d. fractions) with a once-daily (q.d.) schedule (60 Gy in 2-Gy q.d. fractions). In both arms of the study, the supraclavicular fossa and axillary apex were treated once daily to 50 Gy. The median follow-up period was 15 years. Results: The 15-year actuarial locoregional recurrence rate was 7% for the q.d. arm and 12% for the b.i.d. arm (p = 0.36). The rates of severe acute toxicity were similar (4% for q.d. vs. 5% for b.i.d.), but moist desquamation developed in 42% of patients in the b.i.d. arm compared with 28% of the patients in the q.d. arm (p = 0.16). The 15-year actuarial rate of severe late RT complications did not differ between the two arms (6% for q.d. vs. 11% for b.i.d., p = 0.54). Conclusion: Although the sample size of this study was small, we found no evidence that this hyperfractionation schedule of postmastectomy RT offered a clinical advantage. Therefore, we have concluded that it should not be further studied in this cohort of patients

  4. OMI/Aura Multi-wavelength Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo Daily L2 Global 0.25x0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The second release of Collection 3 OMI/Aura level-2G daily global gridded (0.25x0.25 deg) Aerosol data product OMAEROG (Version 003 has been made available to the...

  5. OMI/Aura Near UV Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo Daily L2 Global 0.25x0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI-Aura level-2G daily global gridded (0.25x0.25 deg) near-UV Aerosol data product OMAERUVG based on the enhanced algorithm is available from the NASA Goddard...

  6. TOMS Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008 (TOMSN7L3dref) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  7. OMI/Aura Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Total Column Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.125 degree x 0.125 degree V3 (OMSO2G) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2G daily global gridded product OMSO2G is based on the pixel level OMI Level-2 SO2 product OMSO2. OMSO2G data product is a special Level-2 gridded product...

  8. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  9. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  10. Irradiação global, direta e difusa, para a região de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná = Global, direct and diffuse irradiation in the region of Cascavel, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aparecida de Oliveira Drechmer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre os níveis das irradiações global, direta e difusa incidentes na superfície terrestre, a irradiação incidente no topo da atmosfera e a insolação relativa mensal, para a cidade de Cascavel-PR. As componentes da radiação solar foram monitoradas entre janeiro de 2001 e fevereiro de 2003 na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Unioeste, Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Na medição da radiação global foi utilizado um piranômetro KIPP & ZONEN-CM3 e para medir a componente direta foiutilizado um pireliômetro EPPLEY-NIP acoplado a um rastreador solar. A radiação difusa foi calculada pela diferença entre as radiações global e direta. Os níveis médios mensais das irradiações global, direta e difusa, foram respectivamente, 51,8%, 31,7% e 20,17% dairradiação incidente no topo da atmosfera. O índice de insolação relativa apresentou valor máximo em agosto (61,43% e mínimo em fevereiro (34,35%, períodos caracterizados respectivamente por dias de céu limpo e nublados no hemisfério sul.This paper reports a study about the diffuse, direct and global radiation levels on surface of earth, the irradiation over the top of atmosphere and the monthly relative sunstroke in the city of Cascavel, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The solar radiation components were monitored from January, 2001 to February, 2003 at Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica of Unioeste, Cascavel, Parana State. Global radiation was monitored by a pyranometer KIPP & ZONEN-CM3 and direct radiation was monitored by a pyrheliometer EPPLEY-NIP coupled to a solar tracer. The diffuse radiation wasmonitored through the difference between global and direct radiation. Monthly average levels of global, direct and diffuse irradiations were 51.8%, 31.7% and 20.17% of the irradiation in the top of atmosphere. The relative isolation index showed the maximum value in August (61.43% and the minimum in February (34.35%. These

  11. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  12. The availability of irradiation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Solar radiation at ground level is a necessary input for performances modeling and sizing of PV systems. This document reports on the needs for data and discusses the problems faced by users when accessing data. It then presents some technological solutions. Users generally need values of global daily or hourly irradiation with a spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Relative errors (RMSE) of daily irradiation should be less than 20 %. Spatial coverage (continent) and temporal coverage are of importance. The data must be available conveniently at low cost. Several regional solar atlases have been made by interpolation of ground measurements, taking into account the local variation of climate. Satellite data produce irradiation maps offering a regular sampling in space and a wide geographical coverage. Time-series are also obtained by weather forecast models. Digital atlases have been created as integrated information system. These comprise a database and software to exploit it. The co-operative systems are connected with other servers that provide necessary weather data to compute solar radiation quantities. This survey of solar databases showed that in a general case, there is a discrepancy between users needs and available databases. This conclusion supports the efforts made in integrating information systems and co-operative systems to overcome the technical limits of measurements by using the information and communication technologies. (au)

  13. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Black Sky Albedo Shortwave Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D51 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Black Sky Albedo near shortwave broadband data set is a daily 16-day...

  14. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Ref Band5 Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D66 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data set is a daily 16-day...

  15. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Ref Band4 Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D65 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data set is a daily 16-day...

  16. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Ref Band1 Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D62 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data set is a daily 16-day...

  17. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Ref Band6 Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D67 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data set is a daily 16-day...

  18. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Ref Band3 Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D64 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data set is a daily 16-day...

  19. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Ref Band7 Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D68 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data set is a daily 16-day...

  20. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Snow-free Model Parameters Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Version 6 Bidirectional reflectance distribution function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Model Snow Free Quality Parameters data set is a 5600 meter daily 16-day product....

  1. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo QA SnowStatus Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D40 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) QA SnowStatus data set is a daily 16-day product. This product...

  2. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Black Sky Albedo VIS Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D49 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Black Sky Albedo visible broadband data set is a daily 16-day...

  3. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Parameter1 Band6 Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D16 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Model Parameter data set is a daily 16-day product. This product...

  4. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Ref Band2 Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D63 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data set is a daily 16-day...

  5. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Parameter2 Band7 Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D20 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Model Parameter data set is a daily 16-day product. This product...

  6. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Parameter1 VIS Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D22 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Model Parameter data set is a daily 16-day product. This product...

  7. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Ref Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS MCD43C4 Version 6 Nadir Bidirectional reflectance distribution function Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) data set is a daily 16-day product. The Julian date in...

  8. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Parameter1 Band2 Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D04 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Model Parameter data set is a daily 16-day product. This product...

  9. UV-B radiation amplification factor determined based on the simultaneous observation of total ozone and global spectral irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Sakoda, Y.; Matsubara, K.; Kajihara, R.; Uekubo, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Shitamichi, M.; Ueno, T.; Ito, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency started the spectral observation of solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance on 1 January 1990 at Tateno, Aerological Observatory in Tsukuba (35 deg N, 140 deg E). The observation has been carried out using the Brewer spectrophotometer for the wavelengths from 290 to 325 nm with a 0.5 nm interval every hour from 30 minutes before sunrise to 30 minutes after sunset throughout a year. Because of remarkable similarity within observed spectra, an observed spectrum can be expressed by a simple combination of a reference spectrum and two parameters expressing the deformation of the observed spectrum from the reference. By use of the relation between one of the deformation parameters and the total ozone simultaneously observed with the Dobson spectrophotometer, the possible increase of UV irradiance due to ozone depletion is estimated. For damaging UV, the irradiance possibly increases about 19 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 percent at noon throughout the year in the northern midlatitudes. DUV at noon on the summer solstice possibly increases about 5.6 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 m atm-cm for all latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.

  10. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  11. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  12. OMI/Aura NO2 Total and Tropospheric Column Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The second Release of Collection 003 of OMI/Aura Global Gridded Nitrogen Dioxide Product 'OMNO2G' is now available, from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  13. Attenuation of global ultraviolet and visible irradiance over Greece during the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kazantzidis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The variability of ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR during the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 was examined in this study. The measurements from NILU-UV multichannel radiometers at 7 stations of the Greek UV Network were used, where the maximum eclipse percentage ranged from 73.1% to 94.8%. In addition, an extra instrument was established at a remote Greek island, Kastelorizo, which was within the Moon's umbral shadow. The reduction of irradiance at 305 and 312 nm relative to non-eclipse conditions at all sites was almost 1.5 times more than the corresponding decrease in the UVA and visible part of the spectrum and reached 98% for eclipse percentage equal to 94%. The availability of several instruments in close proximity to the path of the umbral shadow provided a challenging test for the models. The measured changes in UV and visible irradiance were compared with 1-D model calculations accounting for the limb darkening effect. The agreement between measurements and modeled values at all sites is within 3% for eclipse percentages of less than 30% and becomes worse as the eclipse progresses. The 1-D model reproduced the spectral effect of the eclipse in UVA and PAR wavelength regions within 3% for eclipse percentages up to 50%, but only the half of the observed change was captured as the eclipse progressed. At three sites, where the eclipse maximum was more than 94%, the measured irradiance at 305 nm for eclipse percentages of more than 85% decreased with slower rates than for longer wavelengths. As a result, the total ozone values, derived from the 305/320 nm ratios, apparently decreased significantly for high eclipse percentages. The effect is similar at all three sites, but the interpretation of this observation remains a challenge. Comparison results with 3-D model calculations shortly before, during and shortly after totality were performed for the first time and revealed an agreement with measurements

  14. Attenuation of global ultraviolet and visible irradiance over Greece during the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantzidis, A.; Bais, A. F.; Emde, C.; Kazadzis, S.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2007-12-01

    The variability of ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 was examined in this study. The measurements from NILU-UV multichannel radiometers at 7 stations of the Greek UV Network were used, where the maximum eclipse percentage ranged from 73.1% to 94.8%. In addition, an extra instrument was established at a remote Greek island, Kastelorizo, which was within the Moon's umbral shadow. The reduction of irradiance at 305 and 312 nm relative to non-eclipse conditions at all sites was almost 1.5 times more than the corresponding decrease in the UVA and visible part of the spectrum and reached 98% for eclipse percentage equal to 94%. The availability of several instruments in close proximity to the path of the umbral shadow provided a challenging test for the models. The measured changes in UV and visible irradiance were compared with 1-D model calculations accounting for the limb darkening effect. The agreement between measurements and modeled values at all sites is within 3% for eclipse percentages of less than 30% and becomes worse as the eclipse progresses. The 1-D model reproduced the spectral effect of the eclipse in UVA and PAR wavelength regions within 3% for eclipse percentages up to 50%, but only the half of the observed change was captured as the eclipse progressed. At three sites, where the eclipse maximum was more than 94%, the measured irradiance at 305 nm for eclipse percentages of more than 85% decreased with slower rates than for longer wavelengths. As a result, the total ozone values, derived from the 305/320 nm ratios, apparently decreased significantly for high eclipse percentages. The effect is similar at all three sites, but the interpretation of this observation remains a challenge. Comparison results with 3-D model calculations shortly before, during and shortly after totality were performed for the first time and revealed an agreement with measurements within 20% in the UV-A region

  15. Spatial And Temporal Patterns As Well As Major Influencing Factors Of Global And Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance Over China: 1960-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Sun, F.

    2017-12-01

    Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) on Earth is a central element of climate systems. With changes in the climate and regional development, the patterns and influencing factors of GHI, in addition to presenting global consistency, are increasingly showing regional particularities. Based on data for GHI, Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DHI) and potential impact factors (geographical position, elevation, cloud cover, water vapor, and ground atmospheric transparency related variables) from 1960 to 2014 in China, we analyzed the pattern and major influencing factors of GHI and DHI. The results showed that the major influencing factors of the GHI spatial pattern were the total cloud cover (TCC) and relative humidity (RH) in China. Dividing all of China into two regions, the major factors were the water vapor pressure (WVP) in the northern region and TCC in the southern region. And we divided the GHI and DHI data into two periods (1960-1987 and 1988-2014) due to global dimming and brightening observed in China in the late 1980's. The temporal GHI showed that 31 of 58 decreased significantly with an average decreasing rate of 95 MJ.10yr-1 during the periods of 1960-2014 and 49 of 76 stations decreased significantly with an rate of 342 MJ.10yr-1 during 1960-1987, whereas 57 of 88 stations did not change and 24 stations increased significantly with an rate of 201 MJ.10yr-1 during the period of 1988-2014. The temporal DHI showed that 40 of 61sites did not change significantly from 1960 to 1987. The major influencing factors for temporal changes of GHI in nine typical cities from 1960 to 2013 were as follows: air quality-related variables in super cities, sandstorms and wind in desert oasis cities, clouds in cities with good air quality and a low cloud amount (LCA) and annual fog days (FD) in Chengdu. Overall, we identified characteristics of GHI and DHI based on global climate change and regional urban development and found that the spatial characteristics of GHI results for

  16. Estimation of Daily Average Downward Shortwave Radiation over Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingji Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface shortwave (SW irradiation is the primary driving force of energy exchange in the atmosphere and land interface. The global climate is profoundly influenced by irradiation changes due to the special climatic condition in Antarctica. Remote-sensing retrieval can offer only the instantaneous values in an area, whilst daily cycle and average values are necessary for further studies and applications, including climate change, ecology, and land surface process. When considering the large values of and small diurnal changes of solar zenith angle and cloud coverage, we develop two methods for the temporal extension of remotely sensed downward SW irradiance over Antarctica. The first one is an improved sinusoidal method, and the second one is an interpolation method based on cloud fraction change. The instantaneous irradiance data and cloud products are used in both methods to extend the diurnal cycle, and obtain the daily average value. Data from South Pole and Georg von Neumayer stations are used to validate the estimated value. The coefficient of determination (R2 between the estimated daily averages and the measured values based on the first method is 0.93, and the root mean square error (RMSE is 32.21 W/m2 (8.52%. As for the traditional sinusoidal method, the R2 and RMSE are 0.68 and 70.32 W/m2 (18.59%, respectively The R2 and RMSE of the second method are 0.96 and 25.27 W/m2 (6.98%, respectively. These values are better than those of the traditional linear interpolation (0.79 and 57.40 W/m2 (15.87%.

  17. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA....... It thus explores the systems of reason that educational comparative practices carry through time; focusing on the way configurations are reproduced and transformed, forming the pre-school child as a central curricular variable....

  18. Mapping and Estimation of Monthly Global Solar Irradiation in Different Zones in Souss-Massa Area, Morocco, Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Nait Mensour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation data play an important role in solar energy research. However, in regions where the meteorological stations providing these data are unavailable, strong mapping and estimation models are needed. For this reason, we have developed a model based on artificial neural network (ANN with a multilayer perceptron (MLP technique to estimate the monthly average global solar irradiation of the Souss-Massa area (located in the southwest of Morocco. In this study, we have used a large database provided by NASA geosatellite database during the period from 1996 to 2005. After testing several models, we concluded that the best model has 25 nodes in the hidden layer and results in a minimum root mean square error (RMSE equal to 0.234. Furthermore, almost a perfect correlation coefficient R=0.988 was found between measured and estimated values. This developed model was used to map the monthly solar energy potential of the Souss-Massa area during a year as estimated by the ANN and designed with the Kriging interpolation technique. By comparing the annual average solar irradiation between three selected sites in Souss-Massa, as estimated by our model, and six European locations where large solar PV plants are deployed, it is apparent that the Souss-Massa area is blessed with higher solar potential.

  19. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column Daily L3 Global 0.25deg Lat/Lon Grid NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI science team produces this Level-3 Aura/OMI Global TOMS-Like Total Column Ozone gridded product OMTO3e (0.25deg Lat/Lon grids). The OMTO3e product selects...

  20. OMI/Aura NO2 Cloud-Screened Total and Tropospheric Column Daily L3 Global 0.25deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-3 Global Gridded(0.25x0.25 deg) Nitrogen Dioxide Product "OMNO2d" is now released (Jan 10, 2013) to the public from the NASA Goddard Earth...

  1. Retrieving air humidity, global solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration from daily temperatures: development and validation of new methods for Mexico. Part III: reference evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobit, P.; Gómez Tagle, A.; Bautista, F.; Lhomme, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated two methods to estimate evapotranspiration (ETo) from minimal weather records (daily maximum and minimum temperatures) in Mexico: a modified reduced set FAO-Penman-Monteith method (Allen et al. 1998, Rome, Italy) and the Hargreaves and Samani (Appl Eng Agric 1(2): 96-99, 1985) method. In the reduced set method, the FAO-Penman-Monteith equation was applied with vapor pressure and radiation estimated from temperature data using two new models (see first and second articles in this series): mean temperature as the average of maximum and minimum temperature corrected for a constant bias and constant wind speed. The Hargreaves-Samani method combines two empirical relationships: one between diurnal temperature range ΔT and shortwave radiation Rs, and another one between average temperature and the ratio ETo/Rs: both relationships were evaluated and calibrated for Mexico. After performing a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of different approximations on the estimation of Rs and ETo, several model combinations were tested to predict ETo from daily maximum and minimum temperature alone. The quality of fit of these models was evaluated on 786 weather stations covering most of the territory of Mexico. The best method was found to be a combination of the FAO-Penman-Monteith reduced set equation with the new radiation estimation and vapor pressure model. As an alternative, a recalibration of the Hargreaves-Samani equation is proposed.

  2. Inter-daily variability of a strong thermally-driven wind system over the Atacama Desert of South America: synoptic forcing and short-term predictability using the GFS global model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques-Coper, Martín; Falvey, Mark; Muñoz, Ricardo C.

    2015-07-01

    Crucial aspects of a strong thermally-driven wind system in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile during the extended austral winter season (May-September) are studied using 2 years of measurement data from the Sierra Gorda 80-m meteorological mast (SGO, 22° 56' 24″ S; 69° 7' 58″ W, 2,069 m above sea level (a.s.l.)). Daily cycles of atmospheric variables reveal a diurnal (nocturnal) regime, with northwesterly (easterly) flow and maximum mean wind speed of 8 m/s (13 m/s) on average. These distinct regimes are caused by pronounced topographic conditions and the diurnal cycle of the local radiative balance. Wind speed extreme events of each regime are negatively correlated at the inter-daily time scale: High diurnal wind speed values are usually observed together with low nocturnal wind speed values and vice versa. The associated synoptic conditions indicate that upper-level troughs at the coastline of southwestern South America reinforce the diurnal northwesterly wind, whereas mean undisturbed upper-level conditions favor the development of the nocturnal easterly flow. We analyze the skill of the numerical weather model Global Forecast System (GFS) in predicting wind speed at SGO. Although forecasted wind speeds at 800 hPa do show the diurnal and nocturnal phases, observations at 80 m are strongly underestimated by the model. This causes a pronounced daily cycle of root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and bias in the forecasts. After applying a simple Model Output Statistics (MOS) post-processing, we achieve a good representation of the wind speed intra-daily and inter-daily variability, a first step toward reducing the uncertainties related to potential wind energy projects in the region.

  3. Global measurements of gaseous and aerosol trace species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from daily flights of 747 airliners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP), taking into account the onboard system which collects atmospheric data automatically, the extensive atmospheric measurement capability, and the data handling and distribution procedure. GASP was implemented to assess the environmental impact of aircraft exhaust emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Global air quality data are to be obtained for a period of five to ten years. Measurements of pollutants not related to aircraft exhaust emissions, such as chlorofluoromethanes, are now included. GASP systems are operating on a United Airlines 747, two Pan Am 747s, and a Qantas Airways of Australia 747. Real-time, in-situ measurements are conducted of ozone, water vapor, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Chlorofluoromethanes are measured by laboratory analysis. Typical GASP data show significant changes in ozone, carbon monoxide, and water vapor related to crossings of the tropopause.

  4. TOMS Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008 (TOMSEPL3mery) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format.The...

  5. TOMS Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008 (TOMSN7L3mery) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1 deg x 1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The...

  6. NOAA Daily 25km Global Optimally Interpolated Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) in situ and AVHRR analysis supplemented with AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 climatological SST for inland and coastal pixels, 1981-09-01 through 2010-12-31 (NODC Accession 0071180)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the daily 25km global Optimally Interpolated Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) in situ and AVHRR analysis, supplemented with AVHRR Pathfinder...

  7. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  8. Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Activities of Daily Living Activities of Daily Living Sometimes Parkinson’s disease (PD) can complicate the basic daily activities a person with living with Parkinson’s once did ...

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasiri, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Gives details of sources used for food irradiation, brief description of the process, safety of food irradiation process, practical applications and the amount of doses used for spices, condiments, mangoes etc., limitations of food irradiation, international status of clearance of irradiated foods, versatility of the process

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  12. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily EASE-Grid Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This document pertains to two data sets: AMSR-E/Aqua Daily EASE-Grid Brightness Temperatures (NSIDC-0301) and AMSR-E/Aqua Daily Global Quarter-Degree Gridded...

  13. Effect of acute whole-body neutron gamma irradiation on the dopamine neuronal uptake-sites; Effets d`une irradiation globale aigue a preponderance neutron sur le transporteur de capture neuronale de la dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Mahfoudi, H.; Lambert, F.; Burckhart, M.F.; Fatome, M. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-12-31

    The effects of (neutron-gamma) irradiation on the dopamine uptake sites distribution were investigated, using quantitative autoradiography. Brain ares examined are striatum, lateral septum, substantia nigra, gyrus dentatus, ventral tegmental area, interfascicular nu and antero-ventral thalamic nu. Three hours after exposure at the dose of 4 Gy, a decrease (- 33 %) of dopamine uptake sites was observed in the gyrus dentatus. (authors)

  14. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  16. Potential interest to combine an intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy (I.M.C.R.T.) with a daily repositioning on intra-prostate implants to reduce sexual toxicity induced by exclusive irradiation of prostate cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, O.; Sotton, M.P.; Vial, L.; Belliere, A.; Ardiet, J.M.; Mornex, F.; Sentenac, I.; Romestaing, P.; Bouffard, J.

    2007-01-01

    A reduction in margins defining the forecast target volume thanks to a daily repositioning on intra prostate implants would reduce the doses delivered to the penis bulb, corpora cavernosa penis and a. pudendae internae left and right. An optimization of the I.M.C.R.T. on the same anatomical structures amplifies this earnings. The combination of the two could improve the sexual preservation and be proposed for patients with favourable stage prostate cancer. A study of Phase 2 begins soon. (N.C.)

  17. Determination of daily solar ultraviolet radiation using statistical models and artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Barbero

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methodologies are used to develop two models for estimating daily solar UV radiation. The first is based on traditional statistical techniques whereas the second is based on artificial neural network methods. Both models use daily solar global broadband radiation as the only measured input. The statistical model is derived from a relationship between the daily UV and the global clearness indices but modulated by the relative optical air mass. The inputs to the neural network model were determined from a large number of radiometric and atmospheric parameters using the automatic relevance determination method, although only the daily solar global irradiation, daily global clearness index and relative optical air mass were shown to be the optimal input variables. Both statistical and neural network models were developed using data measured at Almería (Spain, a semiarid and coastal climate, and tested against data from Table Mountain (Golden, CO, USA, a mountainous and dry environment. Results show that the statistical model performs adequately in both sites for all weather conditions, especially when only snow-free days at Golden were considered (RMSE=4.6%, MBE= –0.1%. The neural network based model provides the best overall estimates in the site where it has been trained, but presents an inadequate performance for the Golden site when snow-covered days are included (RMSE=6.5%, MBE= –3.0%. This result confirms that the neural network model does not adequately respond on those ranges of the input parameters which were not used for its development.

  18. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  19. Chromosome instability and global gene expression patterns in proliferating human T-lymphocytes after low dose rate γ-irradiation, and genetic instability in cells from in vivo radiation-exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Kerstin; Faelt, Susann; Wennborg, Anders; Lambert, Bo

    2003-01-01

    relevant stress response pathway(s), we have initiated studies of global gene expression using oligonucleotide arrays (Affymetrix). The results of microarray hybridization analysis showed that the complexity and the number of genes exhibiting a change of expression, increased with time of culturing. There were more genes with increased or decreased expression in the comparison between the time points of culture, than between irradiated or non-irradiated cultures at the same time point. These results provide a basis for further evaluation of the biological significance of changes in gene expression in CI. (author)

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  2. Solar irradiation over Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.C.

    1983-11-01

    Angstroem-Page linear regression equation between global irradiation and sunshine duration is fitted for five Zambian locations for which the direct measured values of the global irradiation exist. Excellent correlation is found to exist for all the five places. The values of the correlation coefficients for Lusaka, Livingstone, Ndola, Mansa and Mongu are found to be 0.99, 0.99, 0.98, 0.97 and 0.95, respectively, and the values of the regression coefficients (a,b) are (0.191, 0.534), (0.177, 0.638), (0.253, 0.434), (0.270, 0.483) and (0.235, 0.506), respectively. The regression coefficients are observed to vary with the elevation of the station above sea level. A linear relationship between the elevation and the coefficient a and a quadratic relationship between the elevation and the coefficient b is assumed and is used to estimate the values of the regression coefficients for 14 other stations in the country. Using the estimated values of the coefficients and the measured values of the sunshine duration, estimates of the global irradiation have been made for these locations. No data for the diffuse irradiation is available. The estimates for diffuse irradiation have been made for all the 19 locations using the expression Hsub(D)=H(0.754-0.654 S/S 0 ) used by Lewis, Solar Energy, 31, no. 1, 125-128 (1983), for estimating diffuse irradiation in Zimbabwean locations. (author)

  3. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  4. Solar Radiation Forecasting, Accounting for Daily Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Langella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiation forecast accounting for daily and instantaneous variability was pursued by means of a new bi-parametric statistical model that builds on a model previously proposed by the same authors. The statistical model is developed with direct reference to the Liu-Jordan clear sky theoretical expression but is not bound by a specific clear sky model; it accounts separately for the mean daily variability and for the variation of solar irradiance during the day by means of two corrective parameters. This new proposal allows for a better understanding of the physical phenomena and improves the effectiveness of statistical characterization and subsequent simulation of the introduced parameters to generate a synthetic solar irradiance time series. Furthermore, the analysis of the experimental distributions of the two parameters’ data was developed, obtaining opportune fittings by means of parametric analytical distributions or mixtures of more than one distribution. Finally, the model was further improved toward the inclusion of weather prediction information in the solar irradiance forecasting stage, from the perspective of overcoming the limitations of purely statistical approaches and implementing a new tool in the frame of solar irradiance prediction accounting for weather predictions over different time horizons.

  5. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  6. Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy: A Global Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yutaka [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Vagge, Stefano; Agostinelli, Stefano [Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro–National Institute for Cancer Research and University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Han, Eunyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Matulewicz, Lukasz [Department of Radiation Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Schubert, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Chityala, Ravishankar [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Minnesota Super Computer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Tournel, Koen [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Penagaricano, Jose A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Florian, Sterzing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Mahe, Marc-Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Integrated Center of Oncology–René Gauducheau, Saint-Herblain Cédex (France); Verneris, Michael R. [Divisions of Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Weisdorf, Daniel J. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); and others

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow irradiation. Methods and Materials: Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results: The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranial–caudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 ± 1.7 mm, 2.6 ± 1.4 mm, and 2.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ≥15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion: Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow irradiation patient localization.

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodburn, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The use of food preservation by irradiation over 30 years is reviewed in outline. Sprout inhibition, soft fruit preservation, suppression of salmonella in poultry, radiolytic products in foods, the detection of irradiated foods and safety studies so far are considered. (U.K.)

  9. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T.; Lang, T.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing tendency worldwide to apply ionizing radiation for food preservation, or for delaying growth or ripening processes. However, research into the effects of such irradiation with ionizing radiation is lagging behind, leaving the knowledge about effects and possible hazards incomplete. The authors very carefully have analysed the available research results and present a detailed account of the current scientific knowledge and assessments. Their conclusion is: irradiated food is to be considered noxious unless its wholesomeness has been unambiguously proven. Consumers so far had not much chance to raise their voice in the debate about the wholesomeness of food irradiation, or have not been heard, the authors say. They call for establishing a European and a worldwide information network to bring together opponents to and information speaking against food irradiation, in order to create a counterweight to the market strategies of the pro-irradiation industry, and to launch initiatives on the political level. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Daily bowel care program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000133.htm Daily bowel care program To use the sharing features on this page, ... Work with your health care provider. Basic Bowel Program Keeping active helps prevent constipation. Try to walk, ...

  13. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  14. Tips for Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips and Gadgets for Daily Activities Dressing Tips Shopping Tips Modifying the Bathroom Driving After Stroke Medication ... and resources. Find a group in your area . Online Support If there is not a support group ...

  15. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  16. Tips for Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chapter Join our online community Tips for Daily Life Coping skills will help you handle day-to- ... challenges, maximize your independence and live a meaningful life with your diagnosis. Accepting changes Creating a coping ...

  17. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  18. Societal benefits of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Food irradiation has a direct impact on society by reducing the occurrence of food-borne illness, decreasing food spoilage and waste, and facilitating global trade. Food irradiation is approved in 40 countries around the world to decontaminate food of disease and spoilage causing microorganisms, sterilize insect pests, and inhibit sprouting. A recent estimate suggests that 500,000 metric of food is currently irradiated worldwide, primarily to decontaminate spices. Since its first use in the 1960s the use of irradiation for food has grown slowly, but it remains the major technology of choice for certain applications. The largest growth sector in recent years has been phytosanitary irradiation of fruit to disinfest fruit intended for international shipment. For many countries which have established strict quarantine standards, irradiation offers as an effective alternative to chemical fumigants some of which are being phased out due to their effects on the ozone layer. Insects can be sterilized at very low dose levels, thus quality of fruit can be maintained. Irradiation is also highly effective in destroying microbial pathogens such as Salmonella spp., E. coli, and Listeria, hence its application for treatment of spices, herbs, dried vegetables, frozen seafood, poultry, and meat and its contribution to reducing foodborne illnesses. Unfortunately the use of irradiation for improving food safety has been under-exploited. This presentation will provide details on the use, benefits, opportunities, and challenges of food irradiation. (author)

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, C.

    1987-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of food irradiation are discussed. Research into food irradiation has been going on for 40 years, yet studies have yet to demonstrate conclusively whether it is safe or harmful. The Australian House of Representatives has established an inquiry into food irradiation conducted by the Standing Committee on Environment and Conservation. It will inquire into the use of ionising radiation for commercial sterilisation, disinfestation, food preservation and other purposes with particular reference to human health and safety, environmental impacts and the adequacy of assessment and regulatory procedures

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  2. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  3. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  4. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  5. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  8. Estimation of global solar radiation by means of sunshine duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, Mazorra Aguiar; Felipe, Diaz Reyes [Electrical Engineering Dept., Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Univ. (U.L.P.G.C.), Campus Univ. Tafira (Spain); Pilar, Navarro Rivero [Canary Islands Technological Inst. (I.T.C.), Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between global solar irradiation and sunshine duration with different estimation models for the island of Gran Canaria (Spain). These parameters were taken from six measurement stations around the Island, and selected for their reliability and the long period of time they covered. All data used in this paper were handed over by the Canary Islands Technological Institute (I.T.C.). As a first approach, it was decided to study the Angstrom lineal model. In order to improve the knowledge on solar resources, a Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) was created from all daily data. TMY shows differences between southern and northern locations, where Trade Winds generate clouds during the summer months. TMY resumes a data bank much longer than a year in duration, generating the characteristics for a year series of each location, for both irradiation and sunshine duration. To create the TMY, weighted means have been used to smooth high or low values. At first, Angstrom lineal model has been used to estimate solar global irradiation from sunshine duration values, using TMY. But the lineal model didn't reproduce satisfactory results when used to obtain global solar radiation from all daily sunshine duration data. For this reason, different models based in both parameters were used. The parameters estimation of this model was achieved both from TMY daily and monthly series and from all daily data for every location. Because of the weather stability all over the year in the Island, most of the daily data are concentrated in a close range, occasioning a deviation in the lineal equations. To avoid this deviation it was proposed to consider a limit condition data, taking into account values out of the main cloud of data. Additionally, different models were proposed (quadratic, cubic, logarithmic and exponential) to make a regression from all daily data. The best results were obtained with the exponential model proposed in this paper. The

  9. OMI/Aura Multi-wavelength Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo Daily L3 Global 0.25x0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI science team produces two Level-3 Aura/OMI Global Aerosol Data Products OMAERUVd (1deg Lat/Lon grids) and OMAEROe (0.25deg Lat/Lon grids). The OMAERUVd...

  10. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  12. UARS Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) Level 3BS V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) Level 3BS data product consists of daily, 1 nm resolution, solar spectral irradiances and selected...

  13. UARS Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) Level 3BS V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) Level 3BS data product consists of daily, 1 nm resolution, solar spectral irradiances and selected solar...

  14. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes, with the ......In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes...... are appropriated and used in the wardrobes of informants. In this way, I point to discrepancies between the production and the dissemination of dress objects that take place in the fashion industry, and to the ways that people use and experience these objects in their everyday lives. In Part III, I conduct...

  15. Daily practices, consumption and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Mazzarino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between daily practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from daily consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the daily consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her daily practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces.O artigo reflete sobre as relações entre as práticas cotidianas e o consumo. Compreender como se geram os conflitos, as resistências e os consensos a partir das práticas de consumo no cotidiano abre possibilidades para refletir sobre a construção da sustentabilidade no contexto de diversidade, uma das marcas do mundo globalizado. Neste contexto sociocultural, a questão central que surge é: o consumo pode gerar práticas de cidadania? As noções de sujeito e de agente ajudam a pensar a ação coletiva e os processos de subjetivação e suas interferências no comportamento coletivo de consumir. A partir de dados empíricos da pesquisa realizada em 2007 no município de Estrela, na região do Vale do Taquari - RS (Sul do Brasil, sobre práticas de consumo de uma realidade local, foi possível concluir que

  16. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Microwave Irradiation - Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi Sanghi. General Article Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 77-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Gonadal Irradiation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    division either by mitosis or meiosis show the least degree of radiation tolerance. This can be readily demonstrated histologically. Two hours after irradiation the spermatogenetic cell column starts to shrink because of a reduction in the number of spermatogonia, some of which are undergoing abnormal mitosis. Four days ...

  18. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  19. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave Irradiation. Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi Sanghi. This article highlights with examples, the usefulness of microwaves for carrying out a'variety of organic transfor- mations. Introduction and Background. The rapid heating of food in the kitchen using microwave ovens prompted a number of ...

  20. Phytosanitary irradiation - Development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2016-12-01

    Phytosanitary irradiation, the use of ionizing radiation to disinfest traded agricultural commodities of regulated pests, is a growing use of food irradiation that has great continued potential for increase in commercial application. In 2015 approximately 25,000 t of fresh fruits and vegetables were irradiated globally for phytosanitary purposes. Phytosanitary irradiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in phytosanitation in that the final burden of proof of efficacy of the treatment has shifted from no live pests upon inspection at a port of entry (as for all previous phytosanitary treatments) to total dependence on certification that the treatment for target pests is based on adequate science and is commercially conducted and protected from post-treatment infestation. In this regard phytosanitary irradiation is managed more like a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach more consistent with food safety than phytosanitation. Thus, phytosanitary irradiation offers a more complete and rigorous methodology for safeguarding than other phytosanitary measures. The role of different organizations in achieving commercial application of phytosanitary irradiation is discussed as well as future issues and applications, including new generic doses.

  1. GPM, GMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  2. GPM, GMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  3. Daily MUR SST, Interim near-real-time (nrt) product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (MUR, or Multi-scale ultra-high resolution Temperature) by the JPL sciengists Drs. Mike...

  4. OceanSITES RAMA daily in-situ data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OceanSITES daily in-situ data. OceanSITES Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA)...

  5. Azelaic acid 15% gel once daily versus twice daily in papulopustular rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiboutot, Diane M; Fleischer, Alan B; Del Rosso, James Q; Graupe, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    Twice-daily azelaic acid (AzA) is the conventional regimen for papulopustular rosacea, but once-daily AzA may be equally effective, with greater convenience and dosing flexibility. In order to test this hypothesis, an exploratory study was conducted. The evaluable efficacy population of this 12-week double-blind, parallel-group study included 72 patients and the population that was used to report safety results included 92 patients. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the once-daily and twice-daily study groups. Evaluations were performed at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. No significant difference was found between the once-daily and twice-daily groups at the end of study therapy in mean investigator global assessment (IGA) scores, treatment success, or treatment response. The mean number of inflammatory lesions, the intensity of erythema intensity, and the intensity of telangiectasia at treatment end were likewise not significantly different (P>.205 for all). More than 90% of subjects in each group rated cosmetic acceptability of this AzA gel as satisfactory or better. Based on these findings and those of prior studies, once-daily AzA 15% gel can therefore be utilized as a safe, effective, and economical dosing option for the treatment of mild-to-moderate papulopustular rosacea. Once-daily dosing of AzA 15% gel was well accepted by patients and can offer considerable dosing flexibility and convenience for the patient as well as for the dermatologist.

  6. Optimization of the irradiations global, direct and diffuse in function of slop angle of the surface; Otimizacao das irradiacoes global, direta e difusa em funcao do angulo de inclinacao da superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Adilson P.; Escobedo, Joao F. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: pachecopgid@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated the monthly and annual total radiation global, direct and diffuse on horizontal surfaces and tilted surfaces to 12.85 deg (|L|-10 deg), 22.85 deg (|L|) and 32.85 deg (|L|+10 deg), with the north face, in Botucatu, SP. The measures occurred in the following dates: 04/1998 to 07/2001 at 22.85 deg; 08/2001 to 02/2003 at 12.85 deg, and 03/2003 to 12/2007 in 32.85. In all periods occurred concurrent measures in the horizontal plane (reference). The total annual global radiation equal to 6500.87; 7044.21; 7193.24 and 6854.99 MJ m{sup -2}, for horizontal surfaces, 12.85 deg, 22.85 deg e 32.85 deg. The change of the angles of inclination throughout the year enabled gains of 324.92 MJ m{sup -2} (4.74%) in global radiation in relation to 22,85 deg, distributed as follows: I) horizontal: December, January and February; II) of 12.85: March and October; III) of 22.85: April, May, September and November, IV) of 32.85: June-August. In 22.85 were recorded the annual radiation directly (4367.40 MJ m{sup -2}), exceeding 12.85 deg, 32.85 deg and horizontal, 72.40, 284.67 and 718.03 MJ m{sup -2}, however, were achieved gains 16.82% compared to 22.85 deg. For diffuse radiation, annual earnings totaled 226.57 MJ m{sup -2} (compared with 22.85 deg), with differences of less than 103.00 MJ m{sup -2} between 12.85 deg, 22.85 deg and 32.85 deg. (author)

  7. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  8. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  9. Phytosanitary irradiation and fresh fruit quality: Cultivar and maturity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation is an effective quarantine treatment for global trade of fresh produce. Variation in cultivars and maturity stages can impact the tolerance of fresh fruits to irradiation for the purposes of quarantine security. Tolerance thresholds for irradiated fruit are lacking for a large number of ...

  10. Radurization of spices by irradiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gil, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, E.; Pino, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the research results that prove the technical feasibility according to the hygiene conditions existing in Cuba for irradiating different spices. The results show both the possibility and and the benefit of using a one irradiation application to these products. One global average doses of 5 KGy was enough for decontaminating black pepper, paprika, cumin, must meg and oregano without affecting either their chemical components or the quality of their taste. Sausages manufactured with irradiated spices did not irradiating spices is much higher that of fumigation, et has many important social and economic advantages

  11. Implication of global environmental changes on chemical toxicity-effect of water temperature, pH, and ultraviolet B irradiation on acute toxicity of several pharmaceuticals in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkon; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Lee, Chulwoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyungho

    2010-04-01

    Global environmental change poses emerging environmental health challenges throughout the world. One of such threats could be found in chemical safety in aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of several environmental factors, such as water pH, temperature and ultraviolet light on the toxicity of pharmaceutical compounds in water, using freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna. Seven pharmaceuticals including ibuprofen, acetaminophen, lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline and sulfathiazole were chosen as test compounds based on their frequent detection in water. The experimental conditions of environmental parameters were selected within the ranges that could be encountered in temperate environment, i.e., water temperature (15, 21, and 25 degrees C), pH (7.4, 8.3, and 9.2), and UV-B light intensity (continuous irradiation of 15.0 microW/cm(2)). For acetaminophen, enrofloxacin and sulfathiazole, decrease in water pH generally led to increase of acute lethal toxicity, which could be explained by the unionized fraction of pharmaceuticals. Increase of water temperature enhanced the acute toxicity of the acetaminophen, enrofloxacin and chlortetracycline, potentially due to alteration in toxicokinetics of chemicals as well as impact on physiological mechanisms of the test organism. The presence of UV-B light significantly increased the toxicity of sulfathiazole, which could be explained by photo-modification of this chemical that lead to oxidative stress. Under the UV light, however, acute toxicity of enrofloxacin decreased, which might be due to photo-degradation. Since changing environmental conditions could affect exposure and concentration-response profile of environmental contaminants, such conditions should be identified and evaluated in order to better manage ecosystem health under changing global environment.

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  13. Improving HelioClim-3 estimates of surface solar irradiance using the McClear clear-sky model and recent advances in atmosphere composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Qu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The HelioClim-3 database (HC3v3 provides records of surface solar irradiation every 15 min, estimated by processing images from the geostationary meteorological Meteosat satellites using climatological data sets of the atmospheric Linke turbidity factor. This technical note proposes a method to improve a posteriori HC3v3 by combining it with data records of the irradiation under clear skies from the new McClear clear-sky model, whose inputs are the advanced global aerosol property forecasts and physically consistent total column content in water vapour and ozone produced by the MACC (Monitoring Atmosphere Composition and Climate projects. The method is validated by comparison with a series of ground measurements for 15 min and 1 h for 6 stations and for daily irradiation for 23 stations. The correlation coefficient is large, greater than respectively 0.92, 0.94, and 0.97, for 15 min, 1 h and daily irradiation. The bias ranges from −4 to 4% of the mean observed irradiation for most sites. The relative root mean square difference (RMSD varies between 14 and 38% for 15 min, 12 and 33% for 1 h irradiation, and 6 and 20% for daily irradiation. As a rule of thumb, the farther from the nadir of the Meteosat satellite located at latitude 0° and longitude 0°, and the greater the occurrence of fragmented cloud cover, the greater the relative RMSD. The method improves HC3v3 in most cases, and with no degradation in the others. A systematic correction of HC3v3 with McClear is recommended.

  14. Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) Daily Snow Depth Analysis Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of a Northern Hemisphere subset of the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) operational global daily snow depth analysis. Data include daily...

  15. Daily sperm production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    instillation with Printex90. Body and testicle weight, sperm content per g testicular parenchyma and daily sperm production (DSP) were assessed. The protocol for assessment of DSP was optimized for application in mice (C57BL/6J) and the influence of different parameters was studied. Maternal particulate...... exposure did not affect DSP statistically significantly in the F1 generation, although TiO2 tended to reduce sperm counts. Overall, time-to-first F2 litter increased with decreasing sperm production. There was no effect on sperm production in the F2 generation originating after TiO2 exposure. F2 offspring......, whose fathers were prenatally exposed to Printex90, showed lowered sperm production. Furthermore, we report statistically significant differences in sperm production between mouse strains....

  16. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  17. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...... on mobilities theory (Urry 2007; Larsen et al. 2006) and practice theory (Schatzki 2001; Reckwitz 2002; Shove et al. 2012) this paper seeks to unfold a theoretical framework for understanding of the household’s mobility coping strategies and how these strategies are actualised and materialised into mobility...

  18. Correctional Facility Average Daily Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains Accumulated monthly with details from Pre-Trial Average daily caseload * Detention Services, Average daily population for MCCF, MCDC, PRRS and...

  19. On the variability of total solar irradiance

    OpenAIRE

    Pelt, Jaan; Kärner, Olavi

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the variability of total solar irradiance (TSI) at the top of the atmosphere is crucial for specifying solar influence to climate variability. Satellite measured TSI data are available only for the last 32 years. But there is an opportunity to estimate approximate daily TSI values on the basis of the observed variability of solar activity. A common approach is based using data for Wolf sunspot numbers. Series of daily data from the DAVOS based TSI starting from 1978 have been compared...

  20. Solar Irradiance and Pan Evaporation Estimation from Meteorological Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ren Syu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about spatial and temporal variations in surface global solar radiation (GSR and evaporative water loss from the ground are important issues to many researches and applications. In this study empirical relationships suitable for Taiwan were established for GSR retrieval from geostationary satellite images using the Heliosat method for the period from 2011 - 2013. The derived GSR data has been used to generate consecutive maps of 10-day averaged pan evaporation (Epan as the basis to produce regional ET estimation using a strategy that does not require remote sensed land surface temperatures (LST. The retrieved daily GSR and the derived 10-day averaged Epan were validated against pyranometer and class-A pan measurements at selected Central Weather Bureau (CWB stations spread across various climatic regions in Taiwan. Compared with the CWB observed data the overall relative mean bias deviations (MBD% and root mean square differences (RMSD% in daily solar irradiance retrieval were about 5 and 15%, respectively. Seasonally, the largest MBD% and RMSD% of retrieved daily solar irradiance occur in spring (9.5 and 21.3% on average, while the least MBD% (-0.3% on average and RMSD% (9.7% on average occur in autumn and winter, respectively. For 10-day averaged Epan estimation, the mean MBD% and RMSD% for stations located in the coastal plain areas were 0.1 and 16.9%, respectively. However, in mountainous areas the mean MBD% and RMSD% increased to 30.2 and 34.5%, respectively. This overestimation was due mainly to the large differences in surrounding micro-environments between the mountainous and plain areas.

  1. Pregnancy and medical irradiation: CIPR publication no 84; Grossesse et irradiation medicale: publication 84 de la CIPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book provides practical answers concerning the application of irradiation treatments to pregnant women. New directly transposable recommendations are given to practitioners for their daily practice. (J.S.)

  2. UARS Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) Level 3BS V022 (UARSU3BS) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) Level 3BS data product consists of daily, 1 nm resolution, solar spectral irradiances and selected solar...

  3. UARS Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) Level 3BS V018 (UARSO3BS) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) Level 3BS data product consists of daily, 1 nm resolution, solar spectral irradiances and selected...

  4. Global, Diffuse Sky And Direct Beam Radiation Data For Kumasi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... level of diffuse sky irradiation in Kumasi has been attributed to the influence of atmospheric effects including the presence of rain cloud cover during the wet season and the presence of the Harmattan dust aerosol during the dry season. Keywords: Global irradiance, diffuse sky irradiance, direct beam irradiance, weather

  5. The dynamics of daily events and well-being across cultures: when less is more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Diener, Ed; Choi, Dong-Won; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Choi, Incheol

    2007-10-01

    The authors examined cultural and individual differences in the relation between daily events and daily satisfaction. In a preliminary study, they established cross-cultural equivalence of 50 daily events. In the main study, participants in the United States, Korea, and Japan completed daily surveys on the 50 events and daily satisfaction for 21 days. The multilevel random coefficient model analyses showed that (a) the within-person association between positive events and daily satisfaction was significantly stronger among Asian American, Korean, and Japanese participants than among European American participants and (b) the within-person association between positive events and daily satisfaction was significantly weaker among individuals high in global life satisfaction than among those low in global life satisfaction. The findings demonstrate a weaker effect of positive events on daily well-being among individuals and cultures high in global well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Effect of a non lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalographic activities of the adult rabbit; Effets d'une irradiation gamma globale non letale sur les activites electroencephalograpiques spontanees et evoquees du lapin adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The whole of the experimental methods described (animal preparation, achievement of a precise physiological technique, dosimetry, biological information processing) allowed us to follow the changes for 15 days in the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalogram activities of rabbits submitted to a non-lethal 400 rads whole-body gamma-irradiation. Behavioural troubles, changes in the arousal state and the spontaneous electrical activity of the neo-cortex and hippocampus were noticed constantly together with an enhanced cortical excitability, and the appearance of elements of the paroxystic series sometimes in contrast with a general decrease in amplitude. After a visual stimulus the general morphology of evoked activities at the level of the primary visual areas and hippocampus was unchanged, but enhanced latencies and delays, less systematic modifications in amplitudes seemed to show out a direct effect of radiations on the nervous system and sensorial activities; these troubles seemed to occur independently from the basic electrical activity. As a whole, the changes observed were usually transitory and varied with each individual. Finally an assumption is made to explain the mechanism of arousal troubles and the general evolution of spontaneous electrical activity in the brain. (author) [French] 'L'ensemble des methodes experimentales decrites (preparation des animaux, mise au point d'une technique physiologique precise, dosimetrie, traitement de l'information biologique) a permis de suivre, pendant 15 jours, chez le lapin soumis a une irradiation gamma globale non letale de 400 rads, les modifications des activites electroencephaliques spontanees et evoquees. De facon constante, on note des troubles du comportement, des modifications de la vigilance et de l'activite electrique spontanee du neo-cortex et de l'hippocampe, ainsi qu'une augmentation de l'excitabilite corticale, l'apparition d'elements de la serie

  7. CDDIS_GNSS_daily_data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data consists of the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS)...

  8. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  9. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December

  10. Global trends in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defalco, Gerry

    2002-01-01

    A global leader in radioisotope technology with three business units: - Nuclear Medicine supplies about two-thirds of the world requirements for molybdenum-99 and other isotopes used to diagnose disease - Radiation Therapy business unit supplied more than over 2,300 cobalt cancer treatment machines and is a leader in treatment planning - Ion Technologies is the world's leading supplier of cobalt 60 and innovative gamma irradiation systems About Ion Technologies · Supply over 70% of world's cobalt-60 sources · Custom-designed and built irradiation systems · Comprehensive engineering, physics, logistics, installation and marketing services · Canadian Irradiation Center for unique 'hands on' training, R and D product irradiation

  11. An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  12. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Christian M.; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C.

    2013-01-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These net...

  13. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  14. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  15. Irradiation experience with FRAMATOME fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, C.S.; Texier, C.; Traccucci, R.

    1978-01-01

    This program principally consists of: - monitoring of the reactor coolant activity due to fission and corrosion products, - on-site non-destructive examinations (visual, dimensional, gamma spectrometry, etc.) on irradiated fuel assemblies, - on-site and hot cell examinations on removable fuel rods. Additional tests are also in progress in order to improve models used in fuel rod and fuel assembly design and to verify the technical limits of fuel operation with respect to power ramp, daily load follow, load regulation, etc. The objective of this paper is to review the behavior of FRAMATOME fuel in power reactors

  16. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  17. Food irradiation in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T.

    1985-01-01

    This report explains the process and issues that concern consumers, workers in the food industry and people involved in food policy, public health and environmental protection. It argues that safety assurances by experts are not enough, and calls for a full public debate on all issues surrounding food irradiation, including a) wholesomeness of irradiated foods - food quality, nutrition losses, chemical and other changes in irradiated foods b) consumers rights to information about irradiated foods c) health and safety of food industry workers d) the economics of irradiation - food prices, changes in patters of employment, environmental impacts e) regulation and monitoring of food irradiation and imported irradiated foods. (U.K.)

  18. Technical relapsed testicular irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Miranda, S.; Delgado Gil, M. M.; Ortiz Siedel, M.; Munoz Carmona, D. M.; Gomez-Barcelona, J.

    2011-01-01

    Testicular irradiation in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia presents difficulties in relation to daily positioning, dosimetry for dose homogenization of complex geometry and volume change during irradiation thereof. This can lead to significant deviations from the prescribed doses. In addition, the usual techniques often associated with unnecessary irradiation of pelvic simphysis, anus and perineum. This, in the case of pediatric patients, is of great importance, since doses in the vicinity of 20 Gy are associated with a deviation of bone growth, low testosterone levels around 24 Gy and high rates of generation of second tumors. To overcome these problems we propose a special restraint in prone and non-coplanar irradiation.

  19. Daily and Sub-daily Precipitation for the Former USSR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...

  20. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 2 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  1. Prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Out of 565 available data, 530 were used for training and the rest were used for testing the artificial neural network (ANN). A 3-layer and a 4-layer MLFF networks were developed and the performance of the developed models was evaluated based on mean bias error, mean absolute percentage error, root mean squared ...

  2. Prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    incident on a horizontal surface in Warri, Nigeria. Prieto et al. (2009) ... ANN technique was previously used to predict the components of solar radiation such as hourly diffuse radiation. (Soares et al. 2004; Alam et al. 2009), hourly direct radiation (Lopez et al ..... the other direc- tion. Hence, the critical value of the test statistic.

  3. Daily Global Land Surface Parameters Derived from AMSR-E

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  4. TV Producer Juggles Daily News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Brennan discusses the daily activities required in the production of a television news show. In "The Not-So-Glamorous Life of a TV Reporter," Linda Yu describes the time and effort required to become a television reporter. (LS)

  5. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  6. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

    2013-07-06

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient.

  7. Chronic Daily Headache in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chronic daily headache (CDH, and its impact and related medication use or overuse in adolescents were examined at the Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, and other centers in Taiwan.

  8. Daily Food Plan for Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand the Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost ... Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS BMI Calculator Daily Checklist Quizzes Portion ...

  9. Polymers in our daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Namazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are widely used advanced materials, which are found almost in every material used in our daily life. To date, the importance of polymers has been much more highlighted because of their applications in different dominions of sciences, technologies and industry – from basic uses to biopolymers and therapeutic polymers. The main aim of this editorial is to accentuate the pragmatic impacts of polymers in human daily life.

  10. Solar Spectral Irradiance and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T.; Cahalan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrally resolved solar irradiance is recognized as being increasingly important to improving our understanding of the manner in which the Sun influences climate. There is strong empirical evidence linking total solar irradiance to surface temperature trends - even though the Sun has likely made only a small contribution to the last half-century's global temperature anomaly - but the amplitudes cannot be explained by direct solar heating alone. The wavelength and height dependence of solar radiation deposition, for example, ozone absorption in the stratosphere, absorption in the ocean mixed layer, and water vapor absorption in the lower troposphere, contribute to the "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms that have been proposed as possible amplifiers of the solar signal. New observations and models of solar spectral irradiance are needed to study these processes and to quantify their impacts on climate. Some of the most recent observations of solar spectral variability from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared have revealed some unexpected behavior that was not anticipated prior to their measurement, based on an understanding from model reconstructions. The atmospheric response to the observed spectral variability, as quantified in climate model simulations, have revealed similarly surprising and in some cases, conflicting results. This talk will provide an overview on the state of our understanding of the spectrally resolved solar irradiance, its variability over many time scales, potential climate impacts, and finally, a discussion on what is required for improving our understanding of Sun-climate connections, including a look forward to future observations.

  11. Food irradiation: an alternative technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    History has shown that man has continued to search for methods to protect his food from various spoilage agents. Traditional methods of food preservation such as drying, salting, fermentation, have been known for centuries and are being practised even today. Within the past century, modern technologies such as canning, freezing, refrigeration, the use of preservatives and pesticides, have further equipped man with an arsenal of methods to combat food losses and to increase the quantity, quality and safety of our food supplies. The most recent technology, irradiation, has gone through a great deal of research and development in the past 40 years and has shown a strong potential as another method for food preservation. As irradiation is still not familiar to the public at large, this paper attempts to inform scientists, officials, representatives of the food industry, and consumers of the global situation of the safety, benefits and applications of food irradiation by answering common questions often asked about the technology today. Special emphasis will be placed on the possible contribution of food irradiation to ASEAN

  12. Relationships Among Nightly Sleep Quality, Daily Stress, and Daily Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxton, Jessica M; Bergeman, Cindy S; Whitehead, Brenda R; Braun, Marcia E; Payne, Jessic D

    2017-05-01

    We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day's stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using daily diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. Daily increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher daily PA and lower daily NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress-NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between daily stress and NA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Design of a sun tracker for the automatic measurement of spectral irradiance and construction of an irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, J.; Maj, A. [Departamento de Termodinamica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Utrillas, M.P.; Martinez-Lozano, J.A.; Pedros, R.; Gomez-Amo, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra y Termodinamica, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    An automatic global and direct solar spectral irradiance system has been designed based on two LICOR spectro radiometers equipped with fibre optics and remote cosine sensors. To measure direct irradiance a sun tracker based on step motors has been developed. The whole system is autonomous and works continuously. From the measurements provided by this system a spectral irradiance database in the 330-1100 nm range has been created. This database contains normal direct and global horizontal irradiances as well as diffuse irradiance on a horizontal plane, together with total atmospheric optical thickness and aerosol optical depth. (author)

  14. Neutronic Modelling in Support of the Irradiation Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.

    2005-01-01

    Irradiation experiments are generally conducted to determine some specific characteristics of the concerned fuels and structural materials under well defined irradiation conditions. For the determination of the latter the BR2 division has an autonomous reactor physics cell and has implemented the required computational tools. The major tool used is a three-dimensional full-scale Monte Carlo model of the BR2 reactor developed under MCNP-4C for the simulation of irradiation conditions. The objectives of work performed by SCK-CEN are to evaluate and adjust irradiation conditions by adjustments of the environment, differential rod positions, axial and azimuthal positioning of the samples, global power level, ...; to deliver reliable, well defined irradiation condition and fluence data during and after irradiation; to assist the designer of new irradiation devices by simulations and neutronic optimisations of design options; to provide computational support to related projects as a way to valorise the capabilities that the BR2 reactor can offer

  15. Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

  16. Trends in total column ozone over Australia and New Zealand and its influence on clear-sky surface erythemal irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodeker, G. E.

    1995-01-01

    Australia and New Zealand are two of the countries closest to the Antarctic ozone depletion and may therefore be 'at risk' as a result of the associated increases in surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To investigate the possible impact of mid-latitude ozone decreases on surface erythemal irradiances, monthly mean total ozone has been calculated from daily total ozone mapping spectrometer data for 5 Australian cities (Canberra, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney) and 3 New Zealand cities (Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington) from 1979 to 1992. These values have then been used as inputs to a single layer model to calculate noon clear-sky global UV irradiances and associated erythemal irradiances. In addition, the monthly mean ozone data have been modelled statistically for each location to reveal a long-term linear trend, an annual variation, a Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), a solar cycle component and a semi-annual (6 month) signal. Coefficients from these statistical models have been used to estimate monthly mean ozone and noon clear-sky erythemal irradiances to the year 2000 for each city. It is assumed that the rate of increase of stratospheric chlorine over the remainder of the century will remain constant. Given that there is some evidence that the rate of increase is decreasing, the results present here should be regarded as an upper limit. 33 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs

  17. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  18. Potential interest to combine an intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy (I.M.C.R.T.) with a daily repositioning on intra-prostate implants to reduce sexual toxicity induced by exclusive irradiation of prostate cancers; Interets potentiels de combiner une radiotherapie de conformation avec modulation d'intensite (RCMI) avec un repositionnement journalier sur implants intraprostatiques pour reduire la toxicite sexuelle induite par l'irradiation exclusive des cancers de prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, O.; Sotton, M.P.; Vial, L.; Belliere, A.; Ardiet, J.M.; Mornex, F.; Sentenac, I.; Romestaing, P. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Dept. de Radiotherapie-oncologie, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France); Bouffard, J. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Service de Radiologie, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France)

    2007-11-15

    A reduction in margins defining the forecast target volume thanks to a daily repositioning on intra prostate implants would reduce the doses delivered to the penis bulb, corpora cavernosa penis and a. pudendae internae left and right. An optimization of the I.M.C.R.T. on the same anatomical structures amplifies this earnings. The combination of the two could improve the sexual preservation and be proposed for patients with favourable stage prostate cancer. A study of Phase 2 begins soon. (N.C.)

  19. Food irradiation makes progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1984-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses

  20. JMTR irradiation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    A wide variety of nuclear irradiation and post-irradiation experiments are available using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor, 50 MW (JMTR) and the multi-cell hot laboratory associated with the JMTR. In this Handbook, an application manual for conducting irradiation and post-irradiation experiments using those facilities is provided. The Handbook is primarily designed to aid the experimenter and to serve as a reference for communications between the experimenter and the Department of JMTR Project. (author)

  1. Design of POTON irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, R.P.; Modi, R.K.; Ramakumar, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Clearance by Government of India, for irradiating various food items, to increase either its shelf life or for reducing post harvest losses, has opened up a challenge for designing a multi-product, high throughput and a reliable commercial food irradiator. Various design aspects of mechanical system for such type of commercial food irradiator i.e. POTON irradiator for potatoes and onions, are presented here. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  2. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  3. Reconstruction of solar UV irradiance since 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivova, N. A.; Solanki, S. K.; Wenzler, T.; Podlipnik, B.

    2009-09-01

    Variations of the solar UV irradiance are an important driver of chemical and physical processes in the Earth's upper atmosphere and may also influence global climate. Here we reconstruct solar UV irradiance in the range 115-400 nm over the period 1974-2007 by making use of the recently developed empirical extension of the Spectral And Total Irradiance Reconstruction (SATIRE) models employing Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) data. The evolution of the solar photospheric magnetic flux, which is a central input to the model, is described by the magnetograms and continuum images recorded at the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory between 1974 and 2003 and by the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on SOHO since 1996. The reconstruction extends the available observational record by 1.5 solar cycles. The reconstructed Ly-α irradiance agrees well with the composite time series by Woods et al. (2000). The amplitude of the irradiance variations grows with decreasing wavelength and in the wavelength regions of special interest for studies of the Earth's climate (Ly-α and oxygen absorption continuum and bands between 130 and 350 nm) is 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than in the visible or if integrated over all wavelengths (total solar irradiance).

  4. Daily Occupations among asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    Asylum seekers often find themselves in a situation where the structure and content of daily occupations have been disrupted and they might have limited access to paid work and education. Studies have shown that asylum seekers experience occupational deprivation and a change in daily occupations...... was to assess whether torture had an influence on the occupational satisfaction and performance, and whether this had changed after ten-months. Forty-three asylum seekers from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria participated at baseline and ten months later 17 were available for inclusion in follow-up studies. Study I......-being and health, all of which had associations to occupational satisfaction, activity level and occupational performance. Torture did not appear to have an influence on satisfaction with daily occupations, but physical torture could be a predictor of decline in ADL motor skills (Study III). On arrival...

  5. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolumen, S.; Espinosa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation [es

  6. Towards Daily 5 m Resolution Mosaics of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordahl, K. A.; Simmon, R. B.; Kapadia, A.; Kington, J. D., IV; Wurster, K.; Schönert, M.

    2016-12-01

    Planet operates dozens of 3U-class nanosatellites imaging the Earth at 3-5 m spatial resolution in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Currently acquiring over 10,000 km^2 daily, we are progressing towards imaging the Earth at daily cadence in 2017. Dynamically updated global mosaics are created by selecting, color balancing, and seamlessly mosaicking millions of scenes to create time slices at regular intervals. The data shown in these mosaics present an unprecedented opportunity to observe the Earth at better than 5 m spatial resolution and approaching daily temporal resolution. Daily data at high spatial resolution opens up new analysis techniques previously limited by the relatively low-resolution of instruments such as MODIS and VIIRS.

  7. Quality assurance in daily treatment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, Catherine; Gildersleve, James; Yarnold, John

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen women undergoing breast radiotherapy following wide local excision of an early stage breast cancer were submitted to repeated measurements of surface landmarks to check the reproducibility of patient positioning, and to portal imaging using a megavoltage imaging device. When the patient is being set-up the mean rise and fall of a lateral skin mark (tattoo) was within 4 mm in 95 observations of 15 patients. At the end of the lateral field exposure, mean displacement of the lateral tattoo was close to zero, with only 15/95 (16%) observations falling outside the range ±2mm. The daily measurements of lung thickness fell above and below the stimulated lung thickness, consistent with random fluctuations. Eighty-eight percent of lung thickness measurements were within ±5mm of the stimulator position. A tentative conclusion is made that more sophisticated immobilisation and imaging devices may be unnecessary for breast irradiation with a high degree of reproducibility. (author). 3 refs.; 5 figs

  8. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Foodstuffs are irradiated to make them keep better. The ionizing radiation is not so strong as to cause radioactivity in the foodstuffs. At least so far, irradiation has not gained acceptance among consumers, although it has been shown to be a completely safe method of preservation. Irradiation causes only slight chemical changes in food. What irradiation does, however, is to damage living organisms, such as bacteria, DNA and proteins, thereby making the food keep longer. Irradiation can be detected from the food afterwards; thus it can be controlled effectively. (orig.)

  9. From Daily Life to Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bransen, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that the little everyday things of life often provide excellent entries into the intellectual problems of academic philosophy. This is illustrated with an analysis of four small stories taken from daily life in which people are in agony because they do not know what to do. It is

  10. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive...

  11. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  12. NWS Daily Climatology Data: 1988 (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily min, max, average temperature (F), precipitation (water equivalent in inches), and daily insolation (Langleys) for the Superior National Forest area as...

  13. NWS Daily Climatology Data: 1980 (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Daily min, max, average temperature (F), precipitation (water equivalent in inches), and daily insolation (Langleys) for the Superior National Forest area...

  14. NWS Daily Climatology Data: 1982 (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily min, max, average temperature (F), precipitation (water equivalent in inches), and daily insolation (Langleys) for the Superior National Forest area as...

  15. Global Journal of Community Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Community Medicine is aimed at promoting research in all areas of community or public health. It addresses issues of primary and tertiary health care. It deals with problems and solutions of health problems at the grassroots and daily livings. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: ...

  16. Daily check of the electron beams with a diode system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilette, P. [Hospital Civil de Charleroi (Belgium). Centre for Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A fast systems to check all the accelerator beams on a daily basis has been developed. A cheap home-made detector, based on non-medical diodes (type 1N5408), has been used since July 1992 to verify all the electron beams every day. The relative energy and Top-cGy correspondence is verified with one single irradiation of less than 1 minute by 6 diodes fixed in a polystyrene phantom. The principle of construction, software implementation and results are presented.

  17. Evaluation of sensory attributes and some-quality indices of irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbulakshmi, G.; Udipi, Shobha; Raheja, Reshma; Sharma, Arun; Padwal Desai, S.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ground pepper, chilli, coriander, cumin, turmeric and a spice mix (sambar powder) exposed to an absorbed dose of 10 kGy of gamma irradiation were studied for microbial and sensory quality changes, if any, on storage for 3 months. No significant differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated samples could be observed in their sensory qualities. While no increase in microbial load in sealed irradiated samples could be observed, those that were irradiated but opened repeatedly for daily use did show a marginal increase in microbial load. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab

  18. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  19. Modelling total solar irradiance using a flux transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasi Espuig, Maria; Jiang, Jie; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami

    2014-05-01

    Reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past are of considerable interest for studies of solar influence on climate. Models based on the assumption that irradiance changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field have been the most successful in reproducing the measured irradiance variations. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these. It uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. Thus, to reconstruct the irradiance back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with daily, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. To describe the secular change in the irradiance, we used the concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles. With this technique TSI can be reconstructed back to 1700.

  20. A reconstruction of solar irradiance using a flux transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasi Espuig, Maria; Jiang, Jie; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami

    2013-04-01

    Reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past are of considerable interest for studies of solar influence on climate. Models based on the assumption that irradiance changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field have been the most successful in reproducing the measured irradiance variations. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these. It uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. Thus, to reconstruct the irradiance back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with daily, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. To describe the secular change in the irradiance, we used the concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles. With this technique TSI can be reconstructed back to 1610.

  1. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  2. Dayak and Their Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darmadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article titled "Dayak and Daily Life" This paper aims to reveal the Dayak and in their daily life. Dayak is a native of Borneo has its own characteristics. Dayak, divided into 405 sub-sub clans [1]. Each sub Dayak both Indonesia and Malaysia are identical. Dayak customs and culture comes from the word "Power" which means upstream, to refer to people who live in inland areas or in the interior of Borneo. In the arsenal of art and culture, Dayak has many similarities such as; saber, chopsticks, beliong, betang, cupai, renjung, empajang and others. Dayak indigenous religion is Kaharingan which is the original religion born of the cultural ancestors of the Dayaks. Most of the Dayak people still adhere to the belief of the existence of unseen objects in certain places such as rocks, large trees, planting gardens in the forest, lakes, pools, and others are believed to have "magical powers". Daily life of the Dayaks in general farming, farming. When will open farming land, farming they held ritual.

  3. Debate on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    An amendment moved on the food safety bill provided that any regulations made which relate to irradiation shall only be made after a diagnostic test has been established to determine whether or not food has been subject to irradiation and also that a scientific review has been conducted into the effects of irradiation on pesticide residues and other toxins in food, vitamin content of food, food additives and food packaging materials, and the results thereof published. The debate which followed lasted an hour and a quarter and is reported verbatim. After a short definition of irradiation, the debate was concerned with the nutritional value of irradiated food, the radiation effects for the public, the dose levels which are safe to use, public opinion and the lack of research into the effects of irradiating food. The amendment was withdrawn after the debate. (UK)

  4. Situating globality : African agency in the appropriation of global culture : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.; Gewald, J.B.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.; Gewald, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    This introductory chapter sketches globalization and Africa in broad theoretical terms, examining the meaning of the term globalization; the impact of globalization on daily life in Africa in economic as well as sociocultural terms; globalization as a historical phenomenon; the political aspects of

  5. Situating globality : African agency in the appropriation of global culture: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.; Gewald, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    This introductory chapter sketches globalization and Africa in broad theoretical terms, examining the meaning of the term globalization; the impact of globalization on daily life in Africa in economic as well as sociocultural terms; globalization as a historical phenomenon; the political aspects of

  6. GPM, F18,GMI,SSMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  7. GPM, METOP-B, GMI,MHS Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  8. GPM, NOAA18, GMI,MHS Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  9. Daily Soil Temperature and Meteorological Data for Sites at Toolik Lake Alaska, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of daily air, water, and soil temperature, wind speed, vapor pressure, and the sum of global radiation and unfrozen precipitation data from...

  10. GPM, F18,GMI,SSMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  11. GPM, F16,GMI,SSMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  12. GPM, F17,GMI,SSMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  13. GPM, METOP-A, GMI,MHS Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  14. GPM, TRMM, GMI,TMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  15. GPM, METOP-A, GMI,MHS Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  16. GPM, F16, GMI,SSMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  17. GPM, GCOM-W1, GMI,AMSR2 Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  18. GPM, F17,GMI,SSMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  19. Aquarius L3 Gridded 1-Degree Daily Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 gridded daily global soil moisture estimates derived from the NASA Aquarius passive microwave radiometer on the Satélite de...

  20. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Daily Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Version 1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) contains the daily mean Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) time series in global 1 degree x 1 degree equal-angle gridded maps spanning...

  1. GPM, TRMM, GMI,TMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  2. GPM, METOP-B, GMI,MHS Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  3. GPM, METOP-A, GMI,MHS Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  4. GPM, F17,GMI,SSMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  5. GPM, F16,GMI,SSMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  6. GPM, NOAA18, GMI,MHS Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  7. GPM, F18,GMI,SSMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  8. GPM, METOP-B, GMI,MHS Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  9. GPM, NOAA19, GMI,MHS Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  10. GPM, NOAA18, GMI,MHS Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  11. NSIDC Near Real-Time Global Ice and Snow Extent (NISE) [MODIS Ancillary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Near Real-Time SSM/I EASE-Grid Daily Global Ice Concentration and Snow Extent product (Near real-time Ice and Snow Extent, NISE) provides daily, global near...

  12. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation; Neuropathologie radio-induite: des effets precoces aux sequelles tardives. Etudes comportementales et metaboliques chez le rat apres irradiation globale subletale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-15

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  13. Irradiation - who needs it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoular, C.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the public's attitudes to the irradiation of food to ensure it is bacteria free and to prolong shelf-life are considered. The need to label irradiated food and to educate the public about its implications are emphasised. The opinions of the large food retailers who maintain that high standards in food processing, hygiene and refrigeration eliminate the need for food irradiation are discussed. (UK)

  14. Update on irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, Vanessa; Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    The authors summarize for the food manufacturing industries, the present legal situation and state of the art in the E.E.C., and immediate outlook in the U.K. in relation to food irradiation. They describe in outline the technology of irradiation and its potential in insect and microorganism control, with particular reference to combination processes, labelling, irradiation facilities, and changes in food components. (U.K.)

  15. Irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.; Danielsson-Tham, M.L.; Hoel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A committee has on instructions from the swedish government made an inquiry into the possible effects on health and working environment from irradition of food. In this report, a review is presented on the known positiv and negative effects of food irradiation Costs, availabilty, shelf life and quality of irradiated food are also discussed. According to the report, the production of radiolysis products during irradiation is not easily evaluated. The health risks from irradiation of spices are estimated to be lower than the risks associated with the ethenoxid treatment presently used. (L.E.)

  16. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  17. Swelling and irradiation creep of neutron irradiated 316Ti and 15-15Ti steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, A.; Touron, H.; Seran, J.L.; Chalony, A.

    1992-01-01

    The global behavior, the swelling and irradiation creep resistances of cold worked 316Ti and 15-15Ti, two variants of austenitic steels in use as core component materials of the French fast reactors, are compared. The 15-15Ti leads to a significant improvement due to an increase in the incubation dose swelling. The same phenomena observed on 316Ti are found on 15-15Ti. All species without fuel like samples, wrappers or empty clad swell and creep less than fuel pin cladding irradiated in the same conditions. To explain the swelling difference, as for 316Ti, thermal gradient is also invoked but the irradiation creep difference is not yet clearly understood. To predict the behavior of clads it is indispensable to study the species themselves and to use specific rules. All results confirm the good behavior of 15-15Ti, the best behavior being obtained with the 1% Si doped version irradiated up to 115 dpa

  18. Food irradiation: fiction and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (IGCFI), sponsored by World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the intention to provide to governments, especially those of developing countries, scientifically correct information about food irradiation, decided to organize a file and questions of general public interest. The document is composed by descriptive files related with the actual situation and future prospective, technical and scientific terms, food irradiation and the radioactivity, chemical transformations in irradiated food, genetic studies, microbiological safety of irradiated food, irradiation and harmlessness, irradiation and additives, packing, irradiation facilities control, process control, irradiation costs and benefits as well as consumers reaction

  19. 1 IN TR ODU CT ION Knowledge about diffuse irradiance is required ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H) and extraterrestrial radiation (Ho) on a horizontal plane. Daily global and diffuse solar radiation data was obtained from Chileka weather station. A linear regression analysis was performed on the computed values of the mean monthly daily ...

  20. the trends in temperature and solar irradiance for zaria, north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogara et al.

    leading to the global warming concept. Keywords: Trend, Temperature, Solar Irradiance, Zaria. INTRODUCTION. The study of the rates of climatic change and their impact on the environment and society is important and essential to predicting global and regional climatic variations and to determining the extent of human ...

  1. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  2. UV Irradiance Enhancements by Scattering of Solar Radiation from Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Feister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scattering of solar radiation by clouds can reduce or enhance solar global irradiance compared to cloudless-sky irradiance at the Earth’s surface. Cloud effects to global irradiance can be described by Cloud Modification Factors (CMF. Depending on strength and duration, irradiance enhancements affect the energy balance of the surface and gain of solar power for electric energy generation. In the ultraviolet region, they increase the risk for damage to living organisms. Wavelength-dependent CMFs have been shown to reach 1.5 even in the UV-B region at low altitudes. Ground-based solar radiation measurements in the high Andes region at altitudes up to 5917 m a.s.l showed cloud-induced irradiance enhancements. While UV-A enhancements were explained by cloud scattering, both radiation scattering from clouds and Negative Ozone Anomalies (NOA have been discussed to have caused short-time enhancement of UV-B irradiance. Based on scenarios using published CMF and additional spectroradiometric measurements at a low-altitude site, the contribution of cloud scattering to the UV-B irradiance enhancement in the Andes region has been estimated. The range of UV index estimates converted from measured UV-B and UV-A irradiance and modeled cloudless-sky ratios UV-B/erythemal UV is compatible with an earlier estimate of an extreme UV index value of 43 derived for the high Andes.

  3. Daily cycles in coastal dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

  4. The benefit of daily photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, Sophie; Fourtanier, Anny M A

    2008-05-01

    It is now recognized that both ultraviolet (UV)-A and UVB wavelengths participate in the generation of photodamaged human skin during sun exposure. During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular, and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. This study was designed to evaluate in human beings the protection afforded by a day cream containing a photostable combination of UVB and UVA filters and thus protect against the UV-induced skin alterations. In solar-simulated radiation exposed and unprotected skin sites we observed melanization. The epidermis revealed a significant increase in stratum corneum and stratum granulosum thickness. In the dermis, an enhanced expression of tenascin and a reduced expression of type I procollagen were evidenced just below the dermoepidermal junction. Although no change in elastic fibers in exposed buttock skin was seen, a slightly increased deposit of lysozyme and alpha-1 antitrypsin on elastin fibers was observed using immunofluorescence techniques. A day cream with photoprotection properties was shown to prevent all of the above-described alterations. This study was performed on a limited number of patients (n = 12) with specific characteristics (20-35 years old and skin type II and III). Two dermal alterations were evaluated by visual assessment and not by computer-assisted image analysis quantification. Our in vivo results demonstrate the benefits of daily photoprotection using a day cream containing appropriate broad-spectrum sunscreens, which prevent solar UV-induced skin damages.

  5. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.

    1990-01-01

    The author explains in simple question and answer form what is entailed in the irradiation of food and attempts to dispel some of the anxieties surrounding the process. Benefits and limitations, controls, labelling safety, and tests for the detection of the use irradiation in food preparation are some of the topics dealt with in outline. (author)

  6. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  7. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue

  8. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony; Lang, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The London Food Commission summarizes its concerns about the use of food irradiation in the U.K. resulting from its working group surveys of general public opinion, trading standard officers and the food industry in the U.K., and from experience in countries already permitting irradiation to a variety of foods. (U.K.)

  9. Irradiation damage in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Most superconductors are quite sensitive to irradiation defects. Critical temperatures may be depressed, critical currents may be increased, by irradiation, but other behaviours may be encountered. In compounds, the sublattice in which defects are created is of significant importance. 24 refs

  10. Materials modified by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Application of radiation in pharmaceutical sciences and cosmetology, polymer materials, food industry, environment, health camre products and packing production is described. Nano-technology is described more detailed, because it is less known as irradiation using technology. Economic influence of the irradiation on the materials value addition is shown

  11. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  12. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  13. Issues in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.

    1987-04-01

    This discussion paper has two goals: first, to raise public awareness of food irradiation, an emerging technology in which Canada has the potential to build a new industry, mainly oriented to promising overseas markets; and second, to help build consensus among government and private sector decision makers about what has to be done to realize the domestic and export potential. The following pages discuss the potential of food irradiation; indicate how food is irradiated; outline the uses of food irradiation; examine questions of the safety of the equipment and both the safety and nutritional value of irradiated food; look at international commercial developments; assess the current and emerging domestic scene; and finally, draw some conclusions and offer suggestions for action

  14. Extracorporeal irradiation -Physicist perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaprabhu, N.; Saravanan, K.S.; Gunaseelan; Vivekanandam, S.; Reddy, K.S.; Parthasarathy; Mourougan, S.; Elangovan, K.

    2008-01-01

    Extracorporeal irradiation (ECI) involves irradiation of body tissues, particularly malignant bones of the extremities, outside the body. This involves en bloc resection of the tumour, extracorporeal irradiation of the bone segment with a single dose of 50 Gy or more, and reimplantation of the irradiated bone with fixation devices. Bone tumours like Ewing's Sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma and Oesteosarcoma; in the involved sites like femur, tibia, humerus, ilium and sacrum can be treated with ECI. The reimplanted bone simply acts as a framework for appositional bone growth from surrounding healthy bones. The conventional indications for postoperative irradiation are still applied. The major advantages of ECI are the precise anatomic fit of the reimplanted bone segment, preservation of joint mobility and its potential in avoiding the growth discrepancy commonly seen in prosthetic replacement. The use of ECI was first described in 1968 and practiced in Australia since 1996. In our center, we have completed six ECIs

  15. Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave Daily Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2_SW_DAILY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    This data set contains upward and downward fluxes, photosynthetically active radiative flux, aerosol and cloud optical depth, cloud fraction, and solar zenith angle measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 10/31/1995. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Shortwave algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1998-07-26] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=daily; Temporal_Resolution_Range=daily].

  16. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  17. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-02: FLASH Irradiation Improves the Therapeutic Index Following GI Tract Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, E; Trovati, S; King, G; Lartey, F; Rafat, M; Loo, B; Maxim, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and characterize the radiobiological effectiveness of very high dose rate radiotherapy (FLASH) compared to conventional irradiation in an in vivo model. Methods: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with doses ranging between 10 and 18 Gy using a custom stereotactic jig. A Varian Clinac 21EX was modified to allow dose rates ranging from 0.05 to 240 Gy/s at the position of the mirror. With the gantry at 180 degrees, the jig holding the individual animals was placed above the mirror to take advantage of the reduced source to target distance. Mice were irradiated with 20MeV electrons. Following irradiation, the mice were monitored twice daily for morbidity and daily for weight changes. Results: Mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had lower weight loss compared to the mice receiving conventional irradiation. Following FLASH irradiation, a maximum weight loss of ∼20% was observed at day 6 with subsequent recovery, while following conventional irradiation, higher weight losses was observed with fewer instances of recovery. Concerning survival, all mice in the conventionally irradiated groups had a 100% mortality in the range of 15.5–18 Gy, while the mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had a 100% survival in the same range. Conclusion: These results have demonstrated proof of principle that FLASH irradiations have a dramatic impact on the overall survival of mice following GI tract irradiations. If the increase in the therapeutic window can be validated and understood, this would revolutionize the field of radiation oncology and lead to increased cure rates with reduced side effects following treatment, resulting in increased quality of life for cancer survivors. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-14-1-0014, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation; BL and PM are

  18. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-02: FLASH Irradiation Improves the Therapeutic Index Following GI Tract Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, E; Trovati, S; King, G; Lartey, F; Rafat, M; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate and characterize the radiobiological effectiveness of very high dose rate radiotherapy (FLASH) compared to conventional irradiation in an in vivo model. Methods: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with doses ranging between 10 and 18 Gy using a custom stereotactic jig. A Varian Clinac 21EX was modified to allow dose rates ranging from 0.05 to 240 Gy/s at the position of the mirror. With the gantry at 180 degrees, the jig holding the individual animals was placed above the mirror to take advantage of the reduced source to target distance. Mice were irradiated with 20MeV electrons. Following irradiation, the mice were monitored twice daily for morbidity and daily for weight changes. Results: Mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had lower weight loss compared to the mice receiving conventional irradiation. Following FLASH irradiation, a maximum weight loss of ∼20% was observed at day 6 with subsequent recovery, while following conventional irradiation, higher weight losses was observed with fewer instances of recovery. Concerning survival, all mice in the conventionally irradiated groups had a 100% mortality in the range of 15.5–18 Gy, while the mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had a 100% survival in the same range. Conclusion: These results have demonstrated proof of principle that FLASH irradiations have a dramatic impact on the overall survival of mice following GI tract irradiations. If the increase in the therapeutic window can be validated and understood, this would revolutionize the field of radiation oncology and lead to increased cure rates with reduced side effects following treatment, resulting in increased quality of life for cancer survivors. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-14-1-0014, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation; BL and PM are

  19. Field measurement of clear-sky solar irradiance in Badain Jaran Desert of Northwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Ge, Jinming; Shi, Jinsen; Zhou, Tian; Zhang, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL) sponsored and conducted an intensive field campaign on dust aerosols in Badain Jaran Desert of Northwestern China from April 20 to June 20, 2010. A set of state-of-the-art broadband radiometers and sun/sky photometers were deployed along with launched radiosonde. In this paper, we compared the simulated solar irradiances by using the SBDART radiative transfer model with those from the ground-based measurements for 69 selected cases of 7 days. It was shown that the averaged aerosol optical depth at 500 nm (AOD 500 ) is 0.18±0.09 with AOD 500 less than 0.5 for all cases. The single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor at 675 nm are 0.928±0.035, 0.712±0.023, respectively. The AODs retrieved from the CIMEL sun photometer at various wavelengths agree well with those from the PREDE sky radiometer, and the columnar water vapor contents from CIMEL also agree well with radiosonde observations. In the radiative closure experiment, we used a collocated thermopile pyrgeometer with a shadow and ventilator to correct the thermal dome offset of diffuse irradiance measurement. The mean differences between model and measurements are −9.1 Wm −2 (−2.6%) for the direct irradiance, +3.1 Wm −2 (+2.8%) for diffuse irradiance, and −6.0 Wm −2 (−1.3%) for global irradiance, which indicates an excellent radiative closure. Aerosol shortwave direct radiative forcing (ARF) and radiative heating rate are also investigated. The daily mean ARF ranges from −4.8 to +0.4 Wm −2 at the top of the atmosphere, −5.2 to −15.6 Wm −2 at the surface, and 5.2 to 10.8 Wm −2 in the atmosphere. The corresponding radiative heating rates for the whole atmosphere due to dust aerosols are 0.07, 0.11, 0.14, 0.11, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.07 K/day for the 7 selected cloudless days. These solar radiative forcing can be considered as the representative impact of background dust aerosol in Northwestern China

  20. Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From Irradiated Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in Irradiated and Bystander K562 Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria; Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej; Rogolinski, Jacek; Jaksik, Roman; Hancock, Ronald; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in global transcript levels induced by direct irradiation and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-irradiated with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after irradiation (irradiation-conditioned medium). Global transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in irradiation-conditioned medium or irradiated, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and irradiated cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in irradiated and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-irradiated cells or directly irradiated show very similar changes. Signals released by irradiated cells may cause