WorldWideScience

Sample records for global context re-considering

  1. [Re]considering Respect for Persons in a Globalizing World.

    Padela, Aasim I; Malik, Aisha Y; Curlin, Farr; De Vries, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Contemporary clinical ethics was founded on principlism, and the four principles: respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice, remain dominant in medical ethics discourse and practice. These principles are held to be expansive enough to provide the basis for the ethical practice of medicine across cultures. Although principlism remains subject to critique and revision, the four-principle model continues to be taught and applied across the world. As the practice of medicine globalizes, it remains critical to examine the extent to which both the four-principle framework, and individual principles among the four, suffice patients and practitioners in different social and cultural contexts. Using the four-principle model we analyze two accounts of surrogate decision making - one from the developed and one from the developing world - in which the clinician undertakes medical decision-making with apparently little input from the patient and/or family. The purpose of this analysis is to highlight challenges in assessing ethical behaviour according to the principlist model. We next describe cultural expectations and mores that inform both patient and clinician behaviors in these scenarios in order to argue that the principle of respect for persons informed by culture-specific ideas of personhood may offer an improved ethical construct for analyzing and guiding medical practice in a globalized and plural world. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Land in China: Re-considering comparability in financial reporting

    Ying Zhang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-considers the notion of ‘comparability’ as it has been applied to the accounting standardharmonisation project and its implications for accounting practices that are emerging in China.Comparability is a concept that has been widely referred to within the accounting literature, but has remainedlargely unexplored. In order to encourage what Zeff (2007 described as “genuine comparability” we arguethat the underlying economic substance of an event should be the focus of our accounting choices in order toenable appropriate comparisons. If we focus too heavily on regulatory standardisation that prescribescomparable techniques without considering the broader economic context in which these are applied, theaccounting representations could mislead users. The techniques may distort representations of theunderlying economic substance of business activities, which would hinder the level of a genuinecomparability in global financial reporting. In order to explore this, given the unique legal status of land inChina, we consider how it is classified and represented in Chinese financial reports. This example shows thatthere are still significant challenges that need to be overcome in order to implement IFRS in China and thereare still substantial comparability problems for cross-border users.

  3. Global Mindset in Context

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the call for identification of organizational contingencies related to global mindset, exploration of different forms of global mindset and their relationship with global strategies (Osland, Bird, Mendenhall & Osland, 2006). To this end, this paper explores global mindset...... development in the context of a 3-year single case study of middle manager microfoundations of global mindset in a Danish multinational corporation working with deliberate global mindset capability development as a vehicle for strategy execution and facilitation of global performance. A force field analysis...

  4. Digital Citizenship within Global Contexts

    Searson, Michael; Hancock, Marsali; Soheil, Nusrat; Shepherd, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    EduSummIT 2013 featured a working group that examined digital citizenship within a global context. Group members recognized that, given today's international, regional, political, and social dynamics, the notion of "global" might be more aspirational than practical. The development of informed policies and practices serving and involving…

  5. Global energy context: future scenarios

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    After a brief analysis of the history of global energy consumption, this paper discusses a plausible scenario of energy needs and related carbon emissions for the rest of the century. The global outlook and the probable evolution of several factors that impact on energy policy considerations - even on the local scale - demonstrate the great complexity and planetary dimension of the problems, as well as the almost certain sterility of out-of-context domestic energy-policy measures [it

  6. The Global Context of Disability

    Christine O'Rourke - Lang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Global Education Review examines the global context of disability and how in different geographic locations, socioeconomic factors, domestic policy, and disability perspectives impact access to special education services, and the types of resources and interventions available to individuals with diverse learning needs. Practices in countries including India, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kenya were studied and implications for meeting the special education needs for children and adults with disabilities and their families are discussed

  7. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  8. CAREGIVING IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

    Shruti Poulsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios a nivel mundial en los mercados económicos han llevado a un aume nto sin precedentes de la migración global estimado en 214 millones (Organización de las Naciones Unidas-Internacional para las Migraciones, 2008. Esta migración global ha aumentado el número de familias transnacionales en todo el mundo (Dade, 2004 que ahora se enfrentan a desafíos físicos y psicológicos únicos para la facilitación de servicios a los adultos de mayor edad. Independientemente del evento precipitante, la migración global ha desafiado las definiciones de la familia, la responsabilidad famili ar y los roles generacionales (Baldassar, 2008. Como el cambio demográfico de la población mundial hacia una era gris, terapeutas familiares necesitan entender el impacto que una economía y la economía de los padres y madres en una mundo en transición tie nen sobre la vida de los miembros de la s familia s migran tes y los familiares que han quedado detrás. El objetivo de este trabajo es aumentar la base de conocimientos relativos a las familias transnacionales y hacer visibles las necesidades de las familias que brindan cuidado a través de fronteras transnacionales.

  9. Situational Context of Insurance in Globalization

    S V Martynenko

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how globalization resolves problems, which are motivated in a new way by modern situational context of social-insurance, how the 'insurance cocoon' of civilization leads to narrowing of conflict space in the world politics.

  10. Health Inequalities in Global Context

    Beckfield, Jason; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2017-01-01

    The existence of social inequalities in health is well established. One strand of research focuses on inequalities in health within a single country. A separate and newer strand of research focuses on the relationship between inequality and average population health across countries. Despite the theorization of (presumably variable) social conditions as “fundamental causes” of disease and health, the cross-national literature has focused on average, aggregate population health as the central outcome. Controversies currently surround macro-structural determinants of overall population health such as income inequality. We advance and redirect these debates by conceptualizing inequalities in health as cross-national variables that are sensitive to social conditions. Using data from 48 World Values Survey countries, representing 74% of the world’s population, we examine cross-national variation in inequalities in health. The results reveal substantial variation in health inequalities according to income, education, sex, and migrant status. While higher socioeconomic position is associated with better self-rated health around the globe, the size of the association varies across institutional context, and across dimensions of stratification. There is some evidence that education and income are more strongly associated with self-rated health than sex or migrant status. PMID:29104292

  11. Situational Context of Insurance in Globalization

    S V Martynenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how globalization resolves problems, which are motivated in a new way by modern situational context of social-insurance, how the 'insurance cocoon' of civilization leads to narrowing of conflict space in the world politics.

  12. INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

    Florina BRAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and knowledge are two important entities, which make up present stage of globalization, based mostly on their dynamics. This paper is providing an overview of information and knowledge in global context, highlighting the importance of information society that turned into knowledge society in the beginning of the 21 century, being driven by Internet – the latter, as part of globalization process. Modern economic theories recognise the importance of information in economic process because its impact on globalization process in economy was essential, and change the way how markets and companies work and represent the key factor of new era of economic development. This paper presents main results from available literature about the relationship between information, knowledge and economic theory in a global conterxt and finally explained the benefits of the knowledge economy to all countries.

  13. China's Domestic Transformation in a Global Context

    Song, Ligang; Garnaut, Ross; Fang, Cai; Johnston, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The phrase ‘New Normal’ captures the ongoing shift in the pattern and drivers of China’s economic growth. China’s new growth rate is both slower and imposing difficult structural change. These new economic conditions are challenging yet offer opportunities for China and its economic partners. Reforms must be deepened but also make growth more inclusive and environmentally sustainable, over this decade and beyond. This year’s Update offers both global context and domestic insight into this ch...

  14. (Re)Considering Foucault for Science Education Research: Considerations of Truth, Power and Governance

    Bazzul, Jesse; Carter, Lyn

    2017-01-01

    This article is a response to Anna Danielsonn, Maria Berge, and Malena Lidar's paper, "Knowledge and power in the technology classroom: a framework for studying teachers and students in action," and an appeal to science educators of all epistemological orientations to (re)consider the work of Michel Foucault for research in science…

  15. Information Security Management in Context of Globalization

    Wawak, Slawomir

    2012-01-01

    Modern information technologies are the engine of globalization. At the same time, the global market influences the way of looking at information security. Information security thus becomes an increasingly important field. The article discuses the results of research on information security management systems in public administration in Poland.

  16. Global Communication with Icons in Environmental Contexts

    Heimbürger, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Icons are small signs with fixed meanings. Icons are usually context specific. For example in the context of a hotel, the client can often find icons in hotel room books and safety guides. Scandic Hotel chain, for example, currently provides the manual for its safety system in 14 languages. There are at least two major shortcomings of this system: (1) in emergency or panic situations, it is very difficult to find your own language from the leaflet, and (2) there are no Asian ...

  17. Vindicating communities in the context of Globalization

    Wiesenfeld, Esther

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and increase, specially in recent years, of diverse problems (social, economic environmental particularly in Latin America have led various sectors to question globalization as a convenient model for the development of these countries. In this article we present and analyse, in general terms, some notions, characteristics and implications of globalization, from two antagonistic versions: The first of them refers to the notion of globalization from the point of view of its creators and adepts, while the second one is based on the version ellaborated by its oponents. In this regard, we present some similarities between the first version with the dominant paradigm in science and between the second one with emergent paradigms. Thus, in the first version globalization is understood as the unique, universal, undeniable and irreversible reality, whereas in the second one various constructions regarding globalization, which signify this phenomenon as culturally and historically constructed and hence dynamic, are formulated. This second version serves us as base for analysing the impact of globalization on economically deprived communities in our continent and simultaneously for illustrating the potentialities of these communities, empowered through the contributions of community social psychology, for resisting unfavourable effects of globalization upon them

  18. Higher Education Globalization in the Context of American Guidelines

    Bidyuk, Natalya

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of globalization impact on higher education system in the United Stated of America. It has been concluded that globalization as a phenomenon has been acquiring much significance in all the spheres, especially in higher education. Different views on the essence of globalization, especially in the context of higher…

  19. Philippine linguistic policy in the global context

    Donoso Jiménez, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    The Philippines suffers an enduring linguistic problem that is not identified as such. Through the 20th century the goal has been to study a foreign language hoping for economical competitiveness in an Asian context. At present, this very context has revealed the fallacy of abandoning the education of the citizens in its own setting, if not pointed out the problem—Diglossia. By using an alien means of communication in the schools, the whole education has been alienated, and the result is a so...

  20. (Re)considering Foucault for science education research: considerations of truth, power and governance

    Bazzul, Jesse; Carter, Lyn

    2017-06-01

    This article is a response to Anna Danielsonn, Maria Berge, and Malena Lidar's paper, "Knowledge and power in the technology classroom: a framework for studying teachers and students in action", and an appeal to science educators of all epistemological orientations to (re)consider the work of Michel Foucault for research in science education. Although this essay does not come close to outlining the importance of Foucault's work for science education, it does present a lesser-known side of Foucault as an anti-polemical, realist, modern philosopher interested in the way objective knowledge is entangled with governance in modernity. This latter point is important for science educators, as it is the intersection of objective knowledge and institutional imperatives that characterizes the field(s) of science education. Considering the lack of engagement with philosophy and social theory in science education, this paper offers one of many possible readings of Foucault (we as authors have also published different readings of Foucault) in order to engage crucial questions related to truth, power, governance, discourse, ethics and education.

  1. SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Leontina Beţianu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability tends to become in the new millennium the most important characteristic of economic and social development. The possibility to ensure economic development in the context of a reasonable use of raw materials, energy and natural resources in general and to decrease the impact of all human activities on the environment makes the essence of the sustainable development of these activities.

  2. The new architecture of economies' typology within the globalization context

    Popa, Catalin C.

    2009-01-01

    Over viewing the most recently evolutions throughout global economy, we can easily conceive that the collateral effects of economical globalization and market integration, represents the main issues debated in specialized professional or political circles. The first step toward regain the global markets functionality is to review as a sine-qua-non condition, the institutional and functional structure of financial system and global economy system as well. In such context, this paperwork is mea...

  3. China's income inequality in the global context

    Han, Jin; Zhao, Qingxia; Zhang, Mengnan

    2016-01-01

    Although China's GDP has become the world's second largest, China's long-term economic growth with high speed and long-lasting “efficiency first” policy guidance, has brought China into a complicated situation, therein serious inequality exists in China and it has become one of the most serious problems in China nowadays. This paper focuses on China's inequality issues in the context of the world, especially on comparison between China and the European countries, concerning of our common purs...

  4. Romanian Market Researches in Global Market Context

    Victor Danciu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Market research is a powerful industry, whose value reached 21,5 billion USD in 2004. Market studies expenses are mostly concentrated in Europe (45% and in USA (37%. The market shares of the Top 10 companies were above fifty per cent of the research market’s turnover. As a young, modest market, which is 0,84% of the global expenses value, Romania was the global leader in terms of growth, in 2004. With an asymmetric demand and a relatively concentrated offer, the Romanian research market may have a spectacular development in the future, if the obstacles for the customers and research companies are surpassed. If so, the pressures following the UE’s entry of Romania and the evolution of customers needs and expectations will speed up the growth of the market research.

  5. Romanian Market Researches in Global Market Context

    Victor Danciu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Market research is a powerful industry, whose value reached 21,5 billion USD in 2004. Market studies expenses are mostly concentrated in Europe (45% and in USA (37%. The market shares of the Top 10 companies were above fifty per cent of the research market’s turnover. As a young, modest market, which is 0,84% of the global expenses value, Romania was the global leader in terms of growth, in 2004. With an asymmetric demand and a relatively concentrated offer, the Romanian research market may have a spectacular development in the future, if the obstacles for the customers and research companies are surpassed. If so, the pressures following the UE’s entry of Romania and the evolution of customers needs and expectations will speed up the growth of the market research.

  6. Assessment in the global context: From ozone to ecosystems

    Scholes, B

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the assessment in the global context: From ozone to ecosystems. Process to evaluate the status of knowledge on complex problems relevant to societies. A key element of the contemporary science-policy interface....

  7. Biocrusts in the context of global change

    Reed, Sasha C.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Ochoa-Hueso, Raul; Kuske, Cheryl; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony N.; Darby, Brian; Sinsabaugh, Bob; Oliver, Mel; Sancho, Leo; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of studies show global environmental change will profoundly affect the structure, function, and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. The research synthesized here underscores that biocrust communities are also likely to respond significantly to global change drivers, with a large potential for modification to their abundance, composition, and function. We examine how elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, climate change (increased temperature and altered precipitation), and nitrogen deposition affect biocrusts and the ecosystems they inhabit. We integrate experimental and observational data, as well as physiological, community ecology, and biogeochemical perspectives. Taken together, these data highlight the potential for biocrust organisms to respond dramatically to environmental change and show how changes to biocrust community composition translate into effects on ecosystem function (e.g., carbon and nutrient cycling, soil stability, energy balance). Due to the importance of biocrusts in regulating dryland ecosystem processes and the potential for large modifications to biocrust communities, an improved understanding and predictive capacity regarding biocrust responses to environmental change are of scientific and societal relevance.

  8. The Changing Global Context of Virtual Workforce

    James A. Ejiwale

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technological revolution occurring in today’s market place has made it possible for many companies to be innovative about the way and where work is done. To get the job done, due to digital revolution, companies have turned to virtual workforce to harness the benefits of connectivity and effective information sharing among stakeholders to get the job done. More important, the success of coordinating work among a virtual workforce for profitability in a rapidly changing global environment depends on “effective indirect communication” between the leadership and the virtual workforce. This article will address the importance of effective communication as a necessary tool for the success of e-leadership, productivity improvement in virtual work environment.

  9. Citizenship in the context of globalization

    Ulvin Veizaj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Citizenship is considered as a legal relationship in the basis of which is a social fact, a feeling and solidarity interest, combined with reciprocity of rights and obligations.1 Citizenship is a legal expression for the fact that the person who posses that, attributed to him by the law or by an act, is more closely associated with the population of the state of his citizenship than the population of any other state. At the moment obtaining the citizenship, it is also granted the possibility to exercise the right in international level, by the states, for the diplomatic protection of its citizens in cases when they are punished. This justifies and legitimizes the requirements of states for granting citizenship in terms of performance and behavior2 , imposing restrictions such as military service; payment of tax liabilities or exercise of jurisdiction. Citizenship is considered a fundamental category for the understanding of liberal democracy. It is considered a strategic element to understand the organization and functioning of democratic institutions (Zolo, 1994, IX. Citizenship is considered an important element as, through the sociological legal approach, it helps us to link individual rights to the political environment. It also affects the analysis of the relationship between the state level of the rights protection and the international one on which it depends, in an increasingly global society, the possibility of the effective enjoyment of the rights and freedoms. If we were to ask a simple question of who was considered a citizen, we would immediately create a circle of people who have relations with the state in terms of family background or territorial affiliation. This category of persons, considered as citizens, is easily distinguished by foreigners because they are subject to the legislation of another country, and consequently posses the rights and also must fulfil the obligations established in their own country. Thus, citizenship

  10. Experience and Cultural Learning in Global Business Contexts

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    . Learners in today’s global business (school) world are more culturally diverse, and the potential of the increasing number of bi-cultural and bi-lingual students and managers as boundary-spanners must be considered. Recent empirical studies of face-to-face and virtual global collaboration show that cross...... divides. This chapter discusses a number of issues in relation to cultural learning processes in global business contexts: various concepts of learning, different approaches to cross-cultural competence training of future global leaders, and various learning contexts in management education and training......Globalization with increased mobility of the workforce and more frequent use of information and communication technologies means still more people must develop a deeper understanding of Cultural Others, a higher degree of cultural self-awareness and an ability to bridge across multiple cultural...

  11. (Re)Considering the Neutrality of Care: The Case of Body Mass Indexing in Schools

    Schee, Carolyn Vander

    2009-01-01

    The "problem" of overweight and obesity among children and youth has received a tremendous amount of attention by government agencies, public health officials and within popular presses. The issue has been dubbed everything from a national epidemic to a global health crisis. Social policy solutions to the problem of overweight and…

  12. ECONOMIC SECURITY – NEW APPROACHES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more than ever, economic relations between states are the ones that define the general character of the relations between them and establish economic security as a concept which cannot be neglected anymore. Globalization, the process that shapes the international environment, undermines the old definition of economic security and forces its redefinition. The article aims to identify and analyse the effects of globalization on economic security and the new approaches it takes in this context.

  13. Global work contexts as sites of discursive sense making

    Petersen, Nils Braad

    2014-01-01

    Global work contexts represent highly complex working environments with simultaneous attachment to several projects and teams (Rosen, Furst & Blackburn, 2007). This complexity increases the for the sense-making capabilities of employees (Weick, 1995). MyPhD project examines this sense-making proc...... of knowledge communication networks in a global organisation. Interviews were fully transscribed analysed using a combination of James Gee’s approach to discourse analysis, and a novel adaptation of Auatin’s speech act theory....

  14. Healthy Cities in a global and regional context

    Lawrence, Roderick J.; Fudge, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Since the beginning of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network in 1987, the global and regional contexts for the promotion of health and well-being have changed in many ways. First, in 2000, the United Nations Millennium Goals explicitly and implicitly addressed health promotion and prevention at the global and regional levels. Second, the concern for sustainable development at the Rio Conference in 1992 was confirmed at the World Summit in Johannesburg in 2002. During the same period, in man...

  15. Operation of a business entity in the context of globalization

    PAYONK K.; LYASHENKO V.; KVILINSKYI O.

    2015-01-01

    The article looks into the problems connected with the operation of a business entity in the context of globalization of economic processes. Interaction of economic systems has been analyzed from the perspective of a business entity on the example of Ukraine. There have been suggested methods of assessment and benchmark definition for choosing strategic directions of a business development.

  16. The Impacts of Internationalization and Globalization on Educational Context

    Hendra Heriansyah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the impacts of internationalization and globalization on educational context. It is undeniable that the presence and existence of globalization have brought and given a great deal of influences within various fields including on education sector. Of course, it will be a problematic if a school or a higher education institution does not comprehensively notice and precisely pay attention towards each effect and development from internationalization and globalization that obviously appear. Hence, it is needed an international curriculum design that has the meticulous content and process as well as assessment. Moreover, the curriculum also has to take account a variety of aspects and components from distinctive perspectives within its plan, array, and implementation in the field in order to meet the demands of global marketplace and be able to answer each of challenges and changes that arise.

  17. Going global: the functions of autobiographical memory in cultural context.

    Alea, Nicole; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Memory brings together research from around the globe, from Japanese, Chinese and East Indian cultures, to American and European societies, to the Caribbean, to Turkey and to Australia and New Zealand, which examines how and why people, from childhood to old age, remember the personal past in daily life. This journey highlights the important role of the cultural context in shaping the functional usages of autobiographical memory. We illuminate six major contributions of cross-cultural research to a broader and deeper understanding of the functions of autobiographical memory, and call attention to the filed that memory research must "go global."

  18. The Complexity of the Implications of Globalization in the Context of the Current Global Economy

    Raluca Ionela CREŢOIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization represents a controversial phenomenon both because of its complexity and because of the various implications it has on the global economy. Globalization will act simultaneously on many levels, its effects being correlated with the diversity of the angles from which this phenomenon can be approached from – economic, social, politic, cultural, philosophic etc. The article represents an incursion into the issue regarding the implications and effects of globalization grouped in several areas of analysis such as the disappearance of borders, the effects on culture, the effects on the education, the impact on labour market impact and the phenomenon of immigration, the effects of globalization in the context of the food crisis underdevelopment and poverty. To complete the analysis that points out enough elements considered to be negative, at the end of the article, there are also approached the development opportunities that globalization can offer in terms of boosting the economic exchanges, the exchange of genuine cultural values and ensuring a transfer of information at a global scale, so necessary for the scientific and technological progress.  The conclusions of the article weighs the many aspects highlighted, both negative and positive, and suggests a series of useful research directions in order to fathom the complex features of this concept so controversial – globalization.

  19. Global corporate workplaces implementing new global workplace standards in a local context

    Hodulak, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, multinational corporations were increasingly engaged in the development of standardized global workplace models. For their implementation and feasibility, it is decisive as how these standards fit the diverse regional workplace cultures. This topic was pursued in the course of a research project, comparing established workplaces in Germany, USA and Japan against global workplace standards of multinational corporations. The analysis confirmed the expected differences among local workplaces and on the other hand a predominant mainstream among global corporate workplace standards. Conspicuous however, are the fundamental differences between local models and corporate standards. For the implementation of global standards in local context, this implies multiple challenges on cultural, organizational and spatial level. The analysis findings provide information for assessing current projects and pinpointing optimization measures. The analysis framework further provides a tool to uncover and assess n...

  20. AUDITORS ETHICS IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CRISIS

    Dana Simona Dragos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of current global crisis, a series of questions regarding the professional accountants position need to be clarified in order to may understand the way in which the auditors, considered objective and independent due to their ethical and professional conduct, contribute to the confidence increase of those who found their decisions on an accounted financial situations basis. We also ask ourselves to what extent our society can sustain the development of a regulation based ethical behaviour and specific institutions, taking into account the existing pressures in crisis conditions. The increased number of financial scandals lead to a regression of confidence of the accounting information users, regarding the respect of ethical standards by the auditors, and there are real reasons of concern because of the increase of the non-ethical behaviours number of cases.

  1. Culture, context and community: ethical considerations for global nursing research.

    Harrowing, J N; Mill, J; Spiers, J; Kulig, J; Kipp, W

    2010-03-01

    High-quality research is essential for the generation of scientific nursing knowledge and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. However, the incorporation of Western bioethical principles in the study design may not be suitable, sufficient or relevant to participants in low-income countries and may indeed be harmful and disrespectful. Before engaging in global health studies, nurses must consider carefully the cultural and social context and values of the proposed setting in order to situate the research within the appropriate ethical framework. The purpose of this paper was to examine the ethical principles and considerations that guide health research conducted in international settings using the example of a qualitative study of Ugandan nurses and nurse-midwives by a Canadian researcher. The application of Western bioethical principles with their emphasis on autonomy fails to acknowledge the importance of relevant contextual aspects in the conduct of global research. Because ethics is concerned with how people interact and live together, it is essential that studies conducted across borders be respectful of, and congruent with, the values and needs of the community in which it occurs. The use of a communitarian ethical framework will allow nurse scientists to contribute to the elimination of inequities between those who enjoy prosperity and good health, and those who do not.

  2. Healthy Cities in a global and regional context.

    Lawrence, Roderick J; Fudge, Colin

    2009-11-01

    Since the beginning of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network in 1987, the global and regional contexts for the promotion of health and well-being have changed in many ways. First, in 2000, the United Nations Millennium Goals explicitly and implicitly addressed health promotion and prevention at the global and regional levels. Second, the concern for sustainable development at the Rio Conference in 1992 was confirmed at the World Summit in Johannesburg in 2002. During the same period, in many regions including Europe, the redefinition of the roles and responsibilities of national, regional and local governments, reductions in budgets of public administrations, the privatization of community and health services, the instability of world trade, the financial system and employment, migration flows, relatively high levels of unemployment (especially among youth and young adults) have occurred in many countries in tandem with negative impacts on specific policies and programmes that are meant to promote health. Since 1990, the European Commission has been explicitly concerned about the promotion of health, environment and social policies by defining strategic agendas for the urban environment, sustainable development and governance. However, empirical studies during the 1990s show that urban areas have relatively high levels of tuberculosis, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, adult obesity, malnutrition, tobacco smoking, poor mental health, alcohol consumption and drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases (including AIDS), crime, homicide, violence and accidental injury and death. In addition, there is evidence that urban populations in many industrialized countries are confronted with acute new health problems stemming from exposure to persistent organic pollutants, toxic substances in building structures, radioactive waste and increasing rates of food poisoning. These threats to public health indicate an urgent need for new strategic policies and

  3. Tools for Export Promotion in the Context of Globalization

    Pugachevska Kateryna S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the rate of growth in exports of goods and GDP is carried out, and goods exports to GDP ratio in the context of the developed countries, developing countries, and countries with the transition economy is calculated. This allows to make a conclusion about a decrease in importance of exports as a key engine of the world economic growth during the past years. The legal basis of the WTO’s activities in terms of state support for exports is described. The main reasons for the emergence of a conflict of interests between countries with different levels of economic development concerning the use of individual protectionist barriers are revealed. Potential long-term consequences of the growth of export orientation under conditions of openness of national economies are identified. The measures and tools of the country’s export promotion in foreign markets are studied. It is grounded that under conditions of destabilization of global trade regulators, effective export promotion is a mechanism for increasing the competitiveness of the national economy of Ukraine. Prospects for further research in this area are the determination of instruments to stimulate exports, which have the greatest impact on the export orientation of certain economic activities.

  4. Lithuanian financial system transformation in the context of globalization

    Arturas Balkevicius

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to discuss the transformation of the Lithuania finance system in the context of globalization. Exploring the interdependence between the financial system and the economy, in different periods. Analyze the country’s financial system transformation after the crisis period. Methods: Contribution use general scientific methods, especially analysis, synthesis, comparison, induction and deduction. Essential sources of information were professional publications , statistic data of state Statistics Department, Bank of Lithuania, Euro stat. Scientific aim: Main aim of this article is to analyze the transformation of the Lithuania financial system and fined out the country’s economic growth and the financial system correlation, the main factors having a both positive and negative impact on economic growth. Findings: Findings of this article are new information in this area, which can be useful for another research. The correlation between the banks ‚ loans and GDP. However, this does not apply at the time of the economy fall. Conclusions: Economic growth in the financial sector and economic development is best visible analyzing in the correlation between the banks ‚ loans and GDP. However, this does not apply at the time of the economy fall. Banks ‚ relative indicators better reflects the weight of the financial sector and the impact on the national economy. We can see that 2011 banks relative indicators dropped to 2006 level. This shows how much the financial sector’s contribution decreased to economic development. Banks’ loans demand fall down. Lithuania has taken strict fiscal discipline and austerity measures. This have produced results quite quickly, in 2010 GDP grew by 3.4 percent, and in 2011 even 11.5 percent. Lithuania’s economy is recovering, but the financial sector and in particular banks still not recovering. The economic crisis has intervened in the banking system and has been surviving

  5. Ecosystem service trade-offs across global contexts and scales

    Jeannine Cavender-Bares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Meeting human needs while sustaining the planet's life support systems is the fundamental challenge of our time. What role sustenance of biodiversity and contrasting ecosystem services should play in achieving a sustainable future varies along philosophical, cultural, institutional, societal, and governmental divisions. Contrasting biophysical constraints and perspectives on human well-being arise both within and across countries that span the tropics and temperate zone. Direct sustenance of livelihoods from ecosystem services in East Africa contrasts with the complex and diverse relationships with the land in Mexico and the highly monetary-based economy of the United States. Lack of understanding of the contrasting contexts in which decision-making about trade-offs occurs creates impediments to collective global efforts to sustain the Earth's life support systems. While theoretical notions of the goals of sustainability science seek a unified path forward, realities on the ground present challenges. This Special Feature seeks to provide both an analytical framework and a series of case studies to illuminate impediments posed to sustainability by contrasting biophysical constraints and human perspectives on what should be sustained. The contributors aim to clarify the trade-offs posed to human welfare in sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem services and the challenges in managing for a sustainable future in which human well-being is not compromised as compared to today. Our goal is to provide novel insights on how sustainability can be achieved internationally through exploration of constraints, trade-offs, and human values examined at multiple scales, and across geographic regions from a range of cultural perspectives.

  6. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization.

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Garcia, Daireen

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana.

  7. Nuclear power a viable alternative in global warming context

    Cretu, Ileana; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Ionila, Maria; Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources available in the world include: coal, oil, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, solar, refuse-based, and hydrogen. In addition, fusion had been originally proposed as the long-term source. Every form of energy generation has both advantages and disadvantages. Burning fuel for energy requirements represent about 88% from the total emission of NO x and CO 2 , and about 90% from SO 2 respectively, and about 72% from suspension powder evacuated into the atmosphere. Global warming represents a real threat and is the most visible sign of the climatic changes which take place all over the world. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), the 'Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change' has been adopted in 1997. According to this protocol European countries must reduce their overall emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 -- 2012. In this context, because the natural resources for power generation based on the fossil fuels are decreasing and their prices are rising, nuclear power has become a real alternative for classical energy sources. It is indicated by: - Fuel is inexpensive because uranium represents a very small part of nuclear power cost and uranium sediment is found on a large scale all over the world; - No greenhouse emission or acid rain effects occur during a normal operation. Nuclear power is also named 'clean energy'; - Wastes are more compact than those of any source of energy and are stored in underground and secured deposits; - Nuclear energy has a number of advantages which warrant its use as one of the many methods of fulfilling the energy-demand of the world. Even with conservation efforts, energy demand increased and will continue to increase. Using each and every one of these forms of energy

  8. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization

    Garcia, Daireen

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana. PMID:26885494

  9. Chinese Curricula of Medical Science in the Context of Globalization

    Zeng, Jinyuan

    2018-01-01

    As China runs towards the forefront of global economic power, people begin to pay growing attention to the quality of life and medical education that play a significant role in sustaining the development by providing healthier labor force. It is evident that in the process of globalization new curricula in line with international standards top…

  10. Globalization: grasping the concept within the context of nursing.

    Keighley, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon traceable historically from the beginning of time as clans and tribes migrated and learnt from each other. The article in this issue of INR by Grootjans and Newman 'Globalization and nursing: a concept analysis' (pp. 78-85) makes the case for nurses to be educated about globalization as it applies to modern health care. The concept is complex and requires insight not only into health care itself but also fields such as human migration, economics, the significance of English as a universal language and the use and availability of information technology. Writings on the impact of global technology and social capital are also important. In addressing globalization, nurses need to access research and writings well beyond the standard healthcare oeuvre. © 2013 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Global Communication with Icons : Hotel Safety as an Environmental Context

    Heimbürger, Anneli; Khanom, Sukanya

    2015-01-01

    Icons are small signs with fixed meanings. Icons are usually context specific. For example in the context of a hotel, the client can often find icons in hotel room books and safety guides. Scandic Hotel chain, for example, currently provides the manual for its safety system in 14 languages. There are at least two major shortcomings of this system: (1) in emergency or panic situations, it is very difficult to find your own language from the leaflet, and (2) there are no Asian ...

  12. Effects of global and local contexts on chord processing: An ERP study.

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhou, Xuefeng; Chang, Ruohan; Yang, Yufang

    2018-01-31

    In real life, the processing of an incoming event is continuously influenced by prior information at multiple timescales. The present study investigated how harmonic contexts at both local and global levels influence the processing of an incoming chord in an event-related potentials experiment. Chord sequences containing two phrases were presented to musically trained listeners, with the last critical chord either harmonically related or less related to its preceding context at local and/or global levels. ERPs data showed an ERAN-like effect for local context in early time window and a N5-like component for later interaction between the local context and global context. These results suggest that both the local and global contexts influence the processing of an incoming music event, and the local effect happens earlier than the global. Moreover, the interaction between the local context and global context in N5 may suggest that music syntactic integration at local level takes place prior to the integration at global level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transnational HCI: Humans, Computers and Interactions in Global Contexts

    Vertesi, Janet; Lindtner, Silvia; Shklovski, Irina

    2011-01-01

    , but as evolving in relation to global processes, boundary crossings, frictions and hybrid practices. In doing so, we expand upon existing research in HCI to consider the effects, implications for individuals and communities, and design opportunities in times of increased transnational interactions. We hope...... to broaden the conversation around the impact of technology in global processes by bringing together scholars from HCI and from related humanities, media arts and social sciences disciplines....

  14. The global context for public health nutrition taxation.

    Thow, Anne Marie; Heywood, Peter; Leeder, Stephen; Burns, Lee

    2011-01-01

    To assess critically the scope for public health nutrition taxation within the framework of the global tax reform agenda. Review of the tax policy literature for global policy priorities relevant to public health nutrition taxation; critical analysis of proposals for public health nutrition taxation judged against the global agenda for tax reform. The global tax reform agenda shapes decisions of tax policy makers in all countries. By understanding this agenda, public health nutritionists can make feasible taxation proposals and thus improve the development, uptake and implementation of recommendations for nutrition-related taxation. The priorities of the global tax reform agenda relevant to public health nutrition taxation are streamlining of taxes, adoption of value-added tax (VAT), minimisation of excise taxes (except to correct for externalities) and removal of import taxes in line with trade liberalisation policies. Proposals consistent with the global tax reform agenda have included excise taxes, extension of VAT to currently exempted (unhealthy) foods and tariff reductions for healthy foods. Proposals for public health nutrition taxation should (i) use existing types and rates of taxes where possible, (ii) use excise taxes that specifically address externalities, (iii) avoid differential VAT on foods and (iv) use import taxes in ways that comply with trade liberalisation priorities.

  15. Constitutionalism, State and territory in the globalization context

    William Guillermo Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization shows that the national State is losing the monopoly in the production of law, and this generates changes concerning the environment of application of the state legal arrangements and the role of the territory as the limit thereof. The object of this work is to offer a panorama about of the law globalization impacts on the State, the constitutional theory and the territory. The study is performed by means of the documentary review technique by using the consultation of diverse sources. Our conclusion is that the Westphalian model of State-nation has been weakened; however, globalization needs the State to be able to operate. Law has been deterritorialized and the territory continues to be a fundamental element for the contemporary State.

  16. Implementation of U.S. Global Goals: Continental Integration Context

    Yaroslava Stolyarchuk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides efficiency assessment regarding existing mechanisms of the U.S. national interests’ implementation at the global level in terms of international competition aggravation and formation of the new global economic competition centers. Based on comparative analysis of the leverage for U.S. leadership in global competition it has been proven that currently the highest efficiency is demonstrated by the integration strategies of the USA in Latin America focused on maximizing implementation of the economic interests of U.S. transnational corporations in the region. It has been proven that the observed profound asymmetries regarding socio-economic development of the North and Latin America countries objectively requires implementation of the effective institutional mechanisms for leveling the negative effects generated by the trade and investment liberalization processes.

  17. Nuclear power in the context of global warming

    Bodansky, D.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which nuclear power could help ameliorate the greenhouse problem. Topics discussed include: (1) How serious is the environmental threat posed by the greenhouse effect? (2) How large a part do fossil fuels play in producing greenhouse gases? (3) Is it possible to prevent or abate the anticipated global warming? (4) Can nuclear power play a significant role? (5) What overall approached might best reduce greenhouse emissions? Global cooperativeness in addressing the problem will be essential. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Global nuclear markets in the context of climate change and sustainable development. Chapter 2

    Morrison, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article (Chapter Two) focuses on the global nuclear markets in the context of policies regarding climate change and sustainable development. The global market realities and the export potential of the canadian nuclear industry are becoming crucial features of the nuclear political economy. The article examines the role of exports in the evolution of nuclear policy in Canada, and looks more closely at nuclear power and CANDU projects in the specific context of global competitive markets. It examines the trends in electricity and nuclear energy in the market for nuclear reactors. Finally, this article locates these changes in the context of the issues that are inherent in climate change and sustainable development

  19. Global context for the United States Forest Sector in 2030

    James Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify markets for, and competitors to, the United States forest industries in the next 30 years. The Global Forest Products Model was used to make predictions of international demand, supply, trade, and prices, conditional on the last RPA Timber Assessment projections for the United States. It was found that the United States, Japan...

  20. Nigerian Traditional Music Education in the Context of Global ...

    The changes have happened more on the approaches to education than on the essence. This paper looks at the traditional music education in the face of the global challenges facing education. It makes a phenomenological appraisal of the trends and shows how there are shared and regional concerns of music education.

  1. Global energy efficiency governance in the context of climate politics

    Gupta, J.; Ivanova, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that energy efficiency and conservation is a noncontroversial, critical, and equitable option for rich and poor alike. Although there is growing scientific and political consensus on its significance as an important option at global and national level, the political momentum for taking action is not commensurate with the potential in the sector or the urgency with which measures need to be taken to deal with climate change. The current global energy (efficiency) governance framework is diffuse. This paper submits that there are four substantive reasons why global governance should play a complementary role in promoting energy efficiency worldwide. Furthermore, given that market mechanisms are unable to rapidly mobilize energy efficiency projects and that there are no clear vested interests in this field which involves a large number of actors, there is need for a dedicated agency to promote energy efficiency and conservation. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency options presented by IPCC, the current energy efficiency governance structure at global level, and efforts taken at supranational and national levels, and makes suggestions for a governance framework.

  2. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory in the Context of Globalization

    Marginson, Simon; Dang, Thi Kim Anh

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the social-educational theorization of the early Soviet psychologist L. S. Vygotsky (1896-1934) in the light of the impact of communicative globalization in educational practice. Vygotsky proposed four "genetic domains" for investigating higher cognitive processes: the phylogenetic (humans undergoing natural…

  3. Knowledge in Development: Epistemic Machineries in a Global Context

    Evers, Hans-Dieter; Kaiser, Markus; Muller, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge has become a decisive and competitive resource for local and global development, especially since the paradigm "knowledge for development" was initiated and promoted by the World Bank in 1998-1999. Through the use of novel management structures and technologically supported social networks, development organisations and…

  4. Energy Transition for Industry: India and the Global Context

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication further develops the analysis presented in the India chapter of Energy Technology Perspectives 2010 and provides insights on the implications of achieving deep energy and CO2 emission cuts in the industrial sector both for India and globally. It investigates the least-cost combination of options that can significantly reduce energy and CO2 emissions in India's industrial sector, while enabling the Indian economy to continue to grow and alleviate energy poverty. For India to play its part in helping to realise deep cuts in global CO2 emissions by the middle of the 21st century, it will need to achieve rapid economic development over the next 40 years with only a very small increase in emissions. Currently there is no precedent for such a low-CO2 development path. The challenge for India will be to achieve strong economic growth while improving energy security, but without locking in high emissions.

  5. ECONOMIC CONCENTRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE WORLD ECONOMY GLOBALIZATION

    Berinde Mihai

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as main objective to emphasize the importance of a permanent control activity on the economic concentration operations. In order to assure an appropriate choice as concern the economic concentration to be submitted at the assessment procedure each country has its competence to establish its turnover ceilings opening the procedure in accordance with the priorities of its own economic policy. As a final conclusion, we stress that economic concentration assessment and competition policy as a whole are very dynamic activities asking permanent legal and procedural adjustments in order to take appropriately into account economic interests of the country as well as the evolutions registered on regional and global level. This approach is the most valid in the case of Romania taking into account its recent accession to the European Union and its more and more important involvement in the regional and global cooperation.

  6. FINANCIAL RISK COVERAGE IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION FINANCIAL MARKETS

    María Esperanza González-del Foyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized environment, the increase of risks that assume the international commerce makes necessary the to articulate the instruments of covering. The enterprise activity and the country in matter will condition in a great measure the type of covering that be needed to contract, the principal consist in: knowing the risks, evaluate its incidence, decide to cover it or assume it and in both cases the right choise most be the aplication of the strategy thatt be more efective. The States put under disposition of the enterprises a series of public mechanismes to help them to promote its internationalitation . One of the pillars where this politics rest is the use of mechanismes of riskes cover in the internacional commerce. In correspondence with the previous, to reflect on the aplications of the financial risk and the formulation of strategies to cover them in conditions of globalization of the financial markets, constitute the objetive of this article. 

  7. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  8. Tail reconnection in the global magnetospheric context: Vlasiator first results

    Palmroth, Minna; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Juusola, Liisa; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.; Hietala, Heli; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Ganse, Urs; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Vainio, Rami; Hesse, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The key dynamics of the magnetotail have been researched for decades and have been associated with either three-dimensional (3-D) plasma instabilities and/or magnetic reconnection. We apply a global hybrid-Vlasov code, Vlasiator, to simulate reconnection self-consistently in the ion kinetic scales in the noon-midnight meridional plane, including both dayside and nightside reconnection regions within the same simulation box. Our simulation represents a numerical experiment, which turns off the 3-D instabilities but models ion-scale reconnection physically accurately in 2-D. We demonstrate that many known tail dynamics are present in the simulation without a full description of 3-D instabilities or without the detailed description of the electrons. While multiple reconnection sites can coexist in the plasma sheet, one reconnection point can start a global reconfiguration process, in which magnetic field lines become detached and a plasmoid is released. As the simulation run features temporally steady solar wind input, this global reconfiguration is not associated with sudden changes in the solar wind. Further, we show that lobe density variations originating from dayside reconnection may play an important role in stabilising tail reconnection.

  9. Global questions, local answers: soil management and sustainable intensification in diverse socioeconomic contexts of Cuba

    McCune, N.; Ruiz Gonzalez, Y.; Alcantara, E.A.; Fernandez Martinez, O.; Onelio Fundaro, C.; Castillo Arzola, N.; Cairo Cairo, P.; Haese, D' M.; Neve, De S.; Guevara Hernandez, F.

    2011-01-01

    In the complex context of global food and agricultural systems, research in agriculture must respond to multidisciplinary questions of economic development, ecological sustainability and food justice. With the objective of responding to several of the most important questions facing agriculture

  10. Priority Selection Within National Innovation Strategy in Global Context

    Prokopenko Olha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with global experience in analysing the priorities based on their importance for country development and on national and international criteria using algorithm for the selection process. The main aspects of the process of development and implementation of international technology strategies were considered. The authors prove that through the analysis of innovation systems at macro level decision about the priorities in optimization with the aim to improve regulations in science, technology and innovation is provided. The main techniques and decisions were considered based on foresight-studies. Authors propose to create informative and analytical system for the foresight aims.

  11. Global Contexts for Learning: Exploring the Relationship between Low-Context Online Learning and High-Context Learners

    Westbrook, Timothy Paul

    2014-01-01

    Current research on culture and distance education suggests that cultural variables influence student success online. When online courses are writing-based, they may provide easy information dissemination; however, the low-context medium may restrict the learning experience and class dynamic due to the lack of nonverbal communication. Students who…

  12. Discounting and distributional considerations in the context of global warming

    Azar, Christian; Sterner, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The economics of global warming is reviewed with special emphasis on how the cost depends on the discount rate and on how costs in poor and rich regions are aggregated into a global cost estimate. Both of these factors depend on the assumptions made concerning the underlying utility and welfare functions. It is common to aggregate welfare gains and losses across generations and countries as if the utility of money were constant, but it is not. If we assume that a CO 2 -equivalent doubling implies costs equal to 1.5% of the income in both high and low income countries, a pure rate of time preference equal to zero, and a utility function which is logarithmic in income, then the marginal cost of CO 2 emissions is estimated at 260-590 USD/ton C for a time horizon in the range 300-1000 years, an estimate which is large enough to justify significant reductions of CO 2 emissions on purely economic grounds. The estimate is approximately 50-100-times larger than the estimate made by Nordhaus in his DICE model and the difference is almost completely due to the choice of discount rate and the weight given to the costs in the developing world as well as a more accurate model of the carbon cycle. Finally, the sensitivity of the marginal cost estimate with respect to several parameters is analyzed

  13. Invisible Legitimacy at Global Scale vs. Visible Legitimacy at Local Context

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Velez-Zapata, Claudia Patricia

    ’ responses to consequences of armed conflict, for example in Europe –asylum seekers or in Africa and Latin America ex-combats of armed groups. In the current global context, we would like to explore and analyze the impact of armed conflict and crisis on BS’ emerging strategy to responses to such contexts...

  14. Global Character of International Labour Migration: Challenges and Objectives for Higher Education in World Context

    Zhuravska, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of challenges and objectives for higher education in the context of globalization: the forming of international labour market proves the fact that the process of international integration is affecting economy and technology as well as social and labour relations that are becoming more and more global. The…

  15. Origins and global context of Brucella abortus in Italy.

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Platone, Ilenia; Zilli, Katiuscia; Sacchini, Lorena; Abass, Anna; Ancora, Massimo; Cammà, Cesare; Di Donato, Guido; De Massis, Fabrizio; Calistri, Paolo; Drees, Kevin P; Foster, Jeffrey T

    2017-02-02

    Brucellosis is a common and chronic disease of cattle and other bovids that often causes reproductive disorders. Natural infection in cattle is caused by Brucella abortus and transmission typically occurs during abortions, calving, or nursing. Brucellosis is also a major zoonotic disease due to contamination of dairy products or contact with the tissues of infected animals. Brucellosis has been eradicated from most of the developed world in the last 40 years but persists in many regions-the disease remains prevalent in portions of Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Central and South America, as well as in the Mediterranean basin. In Italy, B. abortus has persisted in southern regions in both cattle and water buffalo. Previous attempts at analyzing the phylogenetics of B. abortus in Italy have been challenging due to limited genetic variability and unresolved global population genetic structure of this pathogen. We conducted genome-wide phylogenetic analyses on 11 representative strains of B. abortus from Italy, and compared these sequences to a worldwide collection of publically available genomes. Italian isolates belong to three clades that are basal to the main and global B. abortus lineage. Using six SNP-based assays designed to identify substructure within the Italian clades, we surveyed a collection of 261 isolates and found that one clade predominates throughout endemic districts in the country, while the other two clades are more geographically restricted to portions of southern Italy. Although related strains exist worldwide, B. abortus isolates from Italy are substantially different than those found in much of the rest of Europe and North America, and are more closely related to strains from the Middle East and Asia. Our assays targeting genetic substructure within Italy allowed us to identify the major lineages quickly and inexpensively, without having to generate whole genome sequences for a large isolate collection. These findings highlight the

  16. Ecological risk assessment in the context of global climate change.

    Landis, Wayne G; Durda, Judi L; Brooks, Marjorie L; Chapman, Peter M; Menzie, Charles A; Stahl, Ralph G; Stauber, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Changes to sources, stressors, habitats, and geographic ranges; toxicological effects; end points; and uncertainty estimation require significant changes in the implementation of ecological risk assessment (ERA). Because of the lack of analog systems and circumstances in historically studied sites, there is a likelihood of type III error. As a first step, the authors propose a decision key to aid managers and risk assessors in determining when and to what extent climate change should be incorporated. Next, when global climate change is an important factor, the authors recommend seven critical changes to ERA. First, develop conceptual cause-effect diagrams that consider relevant management decisions as well as appropriate spatial and temporal scales to include both direct and indirect effects of climate change and the stressor of management interest. Second, develop assessment end points that are expressed as ecosystem services. Third, evaluate multiple stressors and nonlinear responses-include the chemicals and the stressors related to climate change. Fourth, estimate how climate change will affect or modify management options as the impacts become manifest. Fifth, consider the direction and rate of change relative to management objectives, recognizing that both positive and negative outcomes can occur. Sixth, determine the major drivers of uncertainty, estimating and bounding stochastic uncertainty spatially, temporally, and progressively. Seventh, plan for adaptive management to account for changing environmental conditions and consequent changes to ecosystem services. Good communication is essential for making risk-related information understandable and useful for managers and stakeholders to implement a successful risk-assessment and decision-making process. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  17. The Global Context of Vaccine Refusal: Insights from a Systematic Comparative Ethnography of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Closser, Svea; Rosenthal, Anat; Maes, Kenneth; Justice, Judith; Cox, Kelly; Omidian, Patricia A; Mohammed, Ismaila Zango; Dukku, Aminu Mohammed; Koon, Adam D; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia

    2016-09-01

    Many of medical anthropology's most pressing research questions require an understanding how infections, money, and ideas move around the globe. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is a $9 billion project that has delivered 20 billion doses of oral polio vaccine in campaigns across the world. With its array of global activities, it cannot be comprehensively explored by the traditional anthropological method of research at one field site. This article describes an ethnographic study of the GPEI, a collaborative effort between researchers at eight sites in seven countries. We developed a methodology grounded in nuanced understandings of local context but structured to allow analysis of global trends. Here, we examine polio vaccine acceptance and refusal to understand how global phenomena-in this case, policy decisions by donors and global health organizations to support vaccination campaigns rather than building health systems-shape local behavior. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  18. KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION – NEW FACTORS OF PRODUCTION IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Mirela Alina COCALIA (CRĂCIUN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article has as a starting point the phenomenon of globalization, so debated worldwide today. Along this work, we have tried offer a departure point, motivated of what the phenomenon of globalization means in economical context. Thus, we debate problems of major interest like: acceptances of the word “globalization”, multiple influences exerted by globalization over the proper nations and the way in which the specific economical and geographic area is marked by the phenomenon of globalization in the same time.

  19. New Aspects Regarding the Role of Banks in Economy in the Context of Globalization

    Riana Iren RADU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a concept of widespread international circulation, launched since the last decade of the previous century in all academic, financial and commercial environments. Globalization has been a subject of debate, both for and against, through its differentiation due to the economic progress of the various participants in the process. In this paper we aimed to address the evolution of the banking phenomenon in the context of globalization and to highlight the differences in the structure in banking according to the main global financial indicators.

  20. The workforce for health in a globalized context--global shortages and international migration.

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W

    2014-01-01

    The 'crisis in human resources' in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010.

  1. The workforce for health in a globalized contextglobal shortages and international migration

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘crisis in human resources’ in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  2. Civics and Citizenship Education in Its Global Context: The Complexity of Global Citizenship Dialogues

    Ruth Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    Despite much rhetoric around the notion of a global citizenship, the overriding focus of civics education, from the viewpoint of examining the international educational curriculum, seems to be on national identity and establishing national boundaries for citizenship education. [...

  3. Use of global context for handling noisy names in discussion texts of a homeopathy discussion forum

    Mukta Majumder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The task of identifying named entities from the discussion texts in Web forums faces the challenge of noisy names. As the names are often misspelled or abbreviated, the conventional techniques have failed to detect the noisy names properly. In this paper we propose a global context based framework for handling the noisy names. The framework is tested on a named entity recognition system designed to identify the names from the discussion texts in a homeopathy diagnosis discussion forum. The proposed global context-based framework is found to be effective in improving the accuracy of the named entity recognition system.

  4. Global Water Governance in the Context of Global and Multilevel Governance: Its Need, Form, and Challenges

    Joyeeta Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To complement this Special Feature on global water governance, we focused on a generic challenge at the global level, namely, the degree to which water issues need to be dealt with in a centralized, concentrated, and hierarchical manner. We examined water ecosystem services and their impact on human well-being, the role of policies, indirect and direct drivers in influencing these services, and the administrative level(s at which the provision of services and potential trade-offs can be dealt with. We applied a politics of scale perspective to understand motivations for defining a problem at the global or local level and show that the multilevel approach to water governance is evolving and inevitable. We argue that a centralized overarching governance system for water is unlikely and possibly undesirable; however, there is a need for a high-level think tank and leadership to develop a cosmopolitan perspective to promote sustainable water development.

  5. Civics and Citizenship Education in Its Global Context: The Complexity of Global Citizenship Dialogues

    Ruth Reynolds

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite much rhetoric around the notion of a global citizenship, the overriding focus of civics education, from the viewpoint of examining the international educational curriculum, seems to be on national identity and establishing national boundaries for citizenship education. [...

  6. English in a Global Context and its Importance in University Programmes in Pakistan

    Kamran, R.

    2010-01-01

    The research is based on the premise that the global movement has affected almost every aspect of human life stretching from the social to the economic. Greater interconnectivity between nations has highlighted the need for a language in which people can communicate. It is in this context that the

  7. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impact and limitations

    Kolk, A.; Seitanidi, M.M; Crane, A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous

  8. Global Innovation Systems—A conceptual framework for innovation dynamics in transnational contexts

    Binz, Christian; Truffer, Bernhard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/6603148005

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for the analysis of technological innovation processes in transnational contexts. By drawing on existing innovation system concepts and recent elaborations on the globalization of innovation, we develop a multi-scalar conceptualization of innovation systems. Two key

  9. Learning English as an L2 in the Global Context: Changing English, Changing Motivation

    Sung, Chit Cheung Matthew

    2013-01-01

    As the English language has become a global lingua franca today, it is not surprising that changes in attitudes and perceptions towards learning English in the international context have taken place at the same time. In this paper, I critically examine the notion of "integrative motivation" in the literature of second language (L2)…

  10. Modulators of mercury risk to wildlife and humans in the context of rapid global change

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Basu, Niladri; Bustamante, Paco; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Hopkins, William A.; Kidd, Karen A.; Nyland, Jennifer F.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental mercury (Hg) contamination is an urgent global health threat. The complexity of Hg in the environment can hinder accurate determination of ecological and human health risks, particularly within the context of the rapid global changes that are altering many ecological processes, socioeconomic patterns, and other factors like infectious disease incidence, which can affect Hg exposures and health outcomes. However, the success of global Hg-reduction efforts depends on accurate assessments of their effectiveness in reducing health risks. In this paper, we examine the role that key extrinsic and intrinsic drivers play on several aspects of Hg risk to humans and organisms in the environment. We do so within three key domains of ecological and human health risk. First, we examine how extrinsic global change drivers influence pathways of Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification through food webs. Next, we describe how extrinsic socioeconomic drivers at a global scale, and intrinsic individual-level drivers, influence human Hg exposure. Finally, we address how the adverse health effects of Hg in humans and wildlife are modulated by a range of extrinsic and intrinsic drivers within the context of rapid global change. Incorporating components of these three domains into research and monitoring will facilitate a more holistic understanding of how ecological and societal drivers interact to influence Hg health risks.

  11. Improving Remote Sensing Scene Classification by Integrating Global-Context and Local-Object Features

    Dan Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many researchers have been dedicated to using convolutional neural networks (CNNs to extract global-context features (GCFs for remote-sensing scene classification. Commonly, accurate classification of scenes requires knowledge about both the global context and local objects. However, unlike the natural images in which the objects cover most of the image, objects in remote-sensing images are generally small and decentralized. Thus, it is hard for vanilla CNNs to focus on both global context and small local objects. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel end-to-end CNN by integrating the GCFs and local-object-level features (LOFs. The proposed network includes two branches, the local object branch (LOB and global semantic branch (GSB, which are used to generate the LOFs and GCFs, respectively. Then, the concatenation of features extracted from the two branches allows our method to be more discriminative in scene classification. Three challenging benchmark remote-sensing datasets were extensively experimented on; the proposed approach outperformed the existing scene classification methods and achieved state-of-the-art results for all three datasets.

  12. Global Sources and Pathways of Mercury in the Context of Human Health

    Kyrre Sundseth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews information from the existing literature and the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project to assess the current scientific knowledge on global mercury releases into the atmosphere, on global atmospheric transport and deposition, and on the linkage between environmental contamination and potential impacts on human health. The review concludes that assessment of global sources and pathways of mercury in the context of human health is important for being able to monitor the effects from implementation of the Minamata Convention targets, although new research is needed on the improvement of emission inventory data, the chemical and physical behaviour of mercury in the atmosphere, the improvement of monitoring network data, predictions of future emissions and speciation, and on the subsequent effects on the environment, human health, as well as the economic costs and benefits of reducing these aspects.

  13. Impact of Intellectual Property in National and Business Development under the Context of the Current Globalization

    Stalin Ballesteros García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the document is to show the impact of the intellectual property on the national and enterprise development in the globalization context since the early twenty-first century. First, it is a historical telling of the intellectual property and its role in the international society; then outlining the arguments to infer the incidence degree of the intellectual property in the economic development of countries and then discussing the inclusion impact of concepts directly related to the intellectual property in business growth activities. It concludes with a reflection on the Colombian situation, in public and private context, in terms of intellectual property.

  14. Guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security

    Mason, P.

    1994-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security provide both a conceptual framework within which to pursue arms control in South Asia and a variety of concrete mechanisms or tools to carry out the task. However, they cannot operate independently of a broader process of political accommodation, which might be named as 'cooperative security building'. That process, however embryonic, is under way across Asia Pacific region

  15. Human Chagas Disease and Migration in the Context of Globalization: Some Particular Aspects

    João Carlos Pinto Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Chagas disease originated in Latin America, being spread around the world in relation with multiple bioecological, sociocultural, and political factors. The process of the disease production and dispersion is discussed, emphasizing the human migration and correlated aspects, in the context of globalization. Positive and negative consequences concern the future of this trypanosomiasis, mainly in terms of the ecologic and sociopolitical characteristics of the endemic and nonendemic countries.

  16. The Role of Teams as Organizational Structures in a Global Organizational Context

    Zoltan Raluca

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility that modern companies must show in regard to global market entails the recourse to work teams which are multicultural adapted and aware of their role and place in the overall structure of the organization. The technological changes along with the customer needs diversification require the awareness of the influence of organizational structure on team members as well as the influence of teams on organizational structures and organizational context. The present paper aims to poi...

  17. Why should I care? Engaging students in conceptual understanding using global context to develop social attitudes.

    Forder, S. E.; Welstead, C.; Pritchard, M.

    2014-12-01

    A glance through the Harvard Business Review reveals many suggestions and research pieces reviewing sales and marketing techniques. Most educators will be familiar with the notion that making accurate first impressions and being responsive, whilst maintaining pace is critical to engaging an audience. There are lessons to be learnt from industry that can significantly impact upon our teaching. Eisenkraft, in his address to the NSTA, proposed four essential questions. This presentation explores one of those questions: 'Why should I care?', and discusses why this question is crucial for engaging students by giving a clear purpose for developing their scientific understanding. Additionally, this presentation explores how The ISF Academy has adapted the NGSS, using the 14 Grand Engineering Challenges and the IB MYP, to provide current, authentic global contexts, in order to give credibility to the concepts, understandings and skills being learnt. The provision of global contexts across units and within lessons supports a platform for students to have the freedom to explore their own sense of social responsibility. The Science Department believes that planning lessons with tasks that elaborate on the student's new conceptualisations, has helped to transfer the student's new understanding into social behavior beyond the classroom. Furthermore, extension tasks have been used to transfer conceptual understanding between different global contexts.

  18. Providing Context for Complexity: Using Infographics and Conceptual Models to Teach Global Change Processes

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding modern and historical global changes requires interdisciplinary knowledge of the physical and life sciences. The Understanding Global Change website from the UC Museum of Paleontology will use a focal infographic that unifies diverse content often taught in separate K-12 science units. This visualization tool provides scientists with a structure for presenting research within the broad context of global change, and supports educators with a framework for teaching and assessing student understanding of complex global change processes. This new approach to teaching the science of global change is currently being piloted and refined based on feedback from educators and scientists in anticipation of a 2016 website launch. Global change concepts are categorized within the infographic as causes of global change (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, volcanism), ongoing Earth system processes (e.g., ocean circulation, the greenhouse effect), and the changes scientists measure in Earth's physical and biological systems (e.g., temperature, extinctions/radiations). The infographic will appear on all website content pages and provides a template for the creation of flowcharts, which are conceptual models that allow teachers and students to visualize the interdependencies and feedbacks among processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. The development of this resource is timely given that the newly adopted Next Generation Science Standards emphasize cross-cutting concepts, including model building, and Earth system science. Flowchart activities will be available on the website to scaffold inquiry-based lessons, determine student preconceptions, and assess student content knowledge. The infographic has already served as a learning and evaluation tool during professional development workshops at UC Berkeley, Stanford University, and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. At these workshops, scientists and educators used the infographic

  19. The Recent Development of Commercial Services in the Context of Globalization. Case Study: Bucharest

    Radu Săgeată

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The fall of the communist regime and the demise of the bipolar political order have been factors for the development of globalizing connections on the levels of the urban systems in Central and East-European states. The main social impact of this complex phenomenon is the expansion of the diffusion area for the products of global consumerism, which involves the development and the diversification of commercial services. Their localization is still a direct consequence of financial segregation; the determining agent for the degree of penetration of global consumer goods at a local level is the localization of banking investments. Considering this context, this article is correlatively analyzing localization and dispersion factors for financial (banks and banking units and commercial services (malls, international networks of hyper- and supermarkets, restaurants etc., having as case studies the Romanian urban system at a larger scale and its capital city at a micro scale.

  20. Embedding the results of focussed Bayesian fusion into a global context

    Sander, Jennifer; Heizmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Bayesian statistics offers a well-founded and powerful fusion methodology also for the fusion of heterogeneous information sources. However, except in special cases, the needed posterior distribution is not analytically derivable. As consequence, Bayesian fusion may cause unacceptably high computational and storage costs in practice. Local Bayesian fusion approaches aim at reducing the complexity of the Bayesian fusion methodology significantly. This is done by concentrating the actual Bayesian fusion on the potentially most task relevant parts of the domain of the Properties of Interest. Our research on these approaches is motivated by an analogy to criminal investigations where criminalists pursue clues also only locally. This publication follows previous publications on a special local Bayesian fusion technique called focussed Bayesian fusion. Here, the actual calculation of the posterior distribution gets completely restricted to a suitably chosen local context. By this, the global posterior distribution is not completely determined. Strategies for using the results of a focussed Bayesian analysis appropriately are needed. In this publication, we primarily contrast different ways of embedding the results of focussed Bayesian fusion explicitly into a global context. To obtain a unique global posterior distribution, we analyze the application of the Maximum Entropy Principle that has been shown to be successfully applicable in metrology and in different other areas. To address the special need for making further decisions subsequently to the actual fusion task, we further analyze criteria for decision making under partial information.

  1. Global contexts, social capital, and acculturative stress: experiences of Indian immigrant men in New York City.

    Bhattacharya, Gauri

    2011-08-01

    Immigrants depend on within-group social networks for social support during the acculturation process. Within-group social networks are linked to higher mutual concern and reciprocity, lower acculturative stress, and lower depression among immigrants Studies are limited, however, about immigrants' social support in the contexts of global connectedness and transnational connectivity. Grounded in social capital approach and immigrant health framework, this qualitative, community-based study examined the social networks of immigrant men from India to New York City. Drawing upon the participants' narratives, the author illustrates the ways that social capital influences social networking and acculturative stress in post-immigration sociocultural contexts along with its implications for community-based interventions.

  2. [Capoeira circle or sports academy? The emergence of modern styles of capoeira and their global context].

    Assunção, Matthias Röhrig

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the modern styles of capoeira should be considered in the global context of the modernization of martial arts currently in progress in Europe and Asia on the one hand, and the new phase of Afro-descendant modernity on the other. The confrontation between the capoeira, jiu-jitsu and other martial arts circles led mestre Bimba to develop his regional Bahian fighting style. The revival of traditional capoeira as Angolan capoeira led by mestre Pastinha is part of the broader movement of affirmation of Afro-Bahian culture in Salvador and the growing visibility of the Afro-descendant body in the Atlantic world.

  3. Policy Approaches for Regulating Alcohol Marketing in a Global Context: A Public Health Perspective.

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is responsible for 3.3 million deaths globally or nearly 6% of all deaths. Alcohol use contributes to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, as well as violence and injuries. The purpose of this review is to discuss, in the context of the expansion of transnational alcohol corporations and harms associated with alcohol use, policy options for regulating exposure to alcohol marketing. We first provide an overview of the public health problem of harmful alcohol consumption and describe the association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. We then discuss the growth and concentration of global alcohol corporations and their marketing practices in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in higher-income societies. We review the use and effectiveness of various approaches for regulating alcohol marketing in various countries before discussing challenges and opportunities to protect public health.

  4. Conceptual Approaches to the Development of Economic Systems in the Context of Globalization and Regionalization

    D. I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of the national and the global in economic transformations occurring in open economic systems are substantiated. Conceptual approaches to the development of economic systems in the globalization and regionalization context are summed up. It is shown that globalization is a logical consequence of mutual influences and interactions of multiple local transformations in socio-economic systems of various levels, which planetary self-organization generates the new quality of the global economic development. It is concluded that globalization has controversial impact on the transformation capacities of national economic systems that have to operate in the unfavorable condition of the growing instability of the global economic system and rapid integration in the structures with already established economic relations. The heuristic and experimental nature of economic and institutional transformations in these countries is added by splits of national economic systems and disruptions of established production links; the outstripping liberalization of foreign economic relations, creating rather external than internal pressures on national manufacturers and making them less capable to adapt to the competitive environment; the accelerated liberalization of monetary and financial systems, opening up ways to reallocation of capital from the sluggish real sector to the more flexible sector of transactions with currencies and securities; the shrinking regulatory authorities of national governments with respect of trade, competition, tax policies or social welfare; the growing domination of TNC and outflow of productive resources from national economies, important for their self-development, thus making their economic systems structurally primitive; the sharp property differentiation within societies and the increasing shares of population with low incomes.

  5. Philosophy of Public Governance: Manpower Policy of Modern Ukraine in the Context of Globalization

    Raisa Naumenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent global civilization shift from material to non-material production caused the fundamental change in information industry. The globalization concept is usually associated with the brands expansion and the activity of transnational corporations. Mentioned significant markers of globalization describe only the superficial consequences of deeper shifts in society, which have to be discovered and researched for better understanding of contemporary social system. Modern philosophy of public administration has to take into consideration the issue of man. It is necessary for its construction and future explications. It is well known, that human factor is always in charge. In this article author focuses on the philosophical foundations of the state manpower policy and reveal its importance for achieving Ukraine’s strategic stability in the context of globalization. In particular, the current status of some personnel processes in the sphere of public administration is examined and their legal support is analyzed. Moreover, key problems of inefficiency of the state manpower policy are distinguished.

  6. Globalization and sovereignty decline: Regionalization problem in Serbia within the actual geopolitical context

    Brdar Milan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article author is about to maintain that discussion on regionalization asks for contextualisation within the currents of actual geopolitics, on the one hand, and wider process of globalisation and unification, on the other. In keeping with this, author in the first part deals with globalizing integrative processes with special attention played to the problem of nation-state survival. Point of analysis is given in the ambivalence of sovereignty: the very concept becomes outdated on the local level, but by the same token it is fully affirmed on the global level. On the global level we are encountered with revival of the classical concept of sovereignty. Problem of regionalization, in the second part of the article, is reconsidered as a phenomenon that is taking place between those two currents. Author maintains two related theses. First, designs of the regionalization less dependent of the authority of given state for they fall under the jurisdiction of global superpower and becomes dependant of its geostrategic planes and political demands. Second, that main reasons for Democratic Opposition of Serbia to work in favor of regionalization as a synonym for democracy is in lack of solid democratic reform and need to entrench itself in the precomposed structure of social and economic power. In this context one could forsake that we in Serbia are confronted with bright prospects of democracy at the cost of the 'hollowing out' of the state as main guarantee of it.

  7. Semiautomatic imputation of activity travel diaries : use of global positioning system traces, prompted recall, and context-sensitive learning algorithms

    Moiseeva, A.; Jessurun, A.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Stopher, P.

    2016-01-01

    Anastasia Moiseeva, Joran Jessurun and Harry Timmermans (2010), ‘Semiautomatic Imputation of Activity Travel Diaries: Use of Global Positioning System Traces, Prompted Recall, and Context-Sensitive Learning Algorithms’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board,

  8. Skeleton-Based Human Action Recognition With Global Context-Aware Attention LSTM Networks

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Gang; Duan, Ling-Yu; Abdiyeva, Kamila; Kot, Alex C.

    2018-04-01

    Human action recognition in 3D skeleton sequences has attracted a lot of research attention. Recently, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks have shown promising performance in this task due to their strengths in modeling the dependencies and dynamics in sequential data. As not all skeletal joints are informative for action recognition, and the irrelevant joints often bring noise which can degrade the performance, we need to pay more attention to the informative ones. However, the original LSTM network does not have explicit attention ability. In this paper, we propose a new class of LSTM network, Global Context-Aware Attention LSTM (GCA-LSTM), for skeleton based action recognition. This network is capable of selectively focusing on the informative joints in each frame of each skeleton sequence by using a global context memory cell. To further improve the attention capability of our network, we also introduce a recurrent attention mechanism, with which the attention performance of the network can be enhanced progressively. Moreover, we propose a stepwise training scheme in order to train our network effectively. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on five challenging benchmark datasets for skeleton based action recognition.

  9. Human-centred design in global health: A scoping review of applications and contexts.

    Alessandra N Bazzano

    Full Text Available Health and wellbeing are determined by a number of complex, interrelated factors. The application of design thinking to questions around health may prove valuable and complement existing approaches. A number of public health projects utilizing human centered design (HCD, or design thinking, have recently emerged, but no synthesis of the literature around these exists. The results of a scoping review of current research on human centered design for health outcomes are presented. The review aimed to understand why and how HCD can be valuable in the contexts of health related research. Results identified pertinent literature as well as gaps in information on the use of HCD for public health research, design, implementation and evaluation. A variety of contexts were identified in which design has been used for health. Global health and design thinking have different underlying conceptual models and terminology, creating some inherent tensions, which could be overcome through clear communication and documentation in collaborative projects. The review concludes with lessons learned from the review on how future projects can better integrate design thinking with global health research.

  10. Digitizing the Non-Digital: Creating a Global Context for Events, Artifacts, Ideas, and Information

    Deborah L. MacPherson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some of the problems associated with search and digital-rights management in the emerging age of interconnectivity. An open-source system called Context Driven Topologies (CDT is proposed to create one global context of geography, knowledge domains, and Internet addresses, using centralized spatial databases, geometry, and maps. The same concept can be described by different words, the same image can be interpreted a thousand ways by every viewer, but mathematics is a set of rules to ensure that certain relationships or sequences will be precisely regenerated. Therefore, unlike most of today’s digital records, CDTs are based on mathematics first, images second, words last. The aim is to permanently link the highest quality events, artifacts, ideas, and information into one record documenting the quickest paths to the most relevant information for specific data, users, and tasks. A model demonstration project using CDT to organize, search, and place information in new contexts while protecting the authors’ intent is also introduced.

  11. Sustainability of the Organizational Changes in the Context of Global Economic Crisis

    Armenia Androniceanu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as a result of the hastening economic crisis, the Romanian business environment has known important changes. This paper presents and analyzes the changes caused by globalization in small and medium enterprises that exports goods and services from Bucharest. The purpose of the research was to discover the impact of global crisis upon the concerned group of enterprises and the organizational changes implemented by them. Through the research we succeeded to identify the main problems that occurred in the target group enterprises in the context of global economic crisis and what caused the reduction in their developing rhythm. Another part of the paper contains an analysis of the managers perceptions regarding the governmental anti-crisis measures and strategic and tactical changes initiated by them as a natural need to adapt to the particularities of the internal and international business environment. The final part includes the conclusions of the research and a sum of recommendations for efficient management of organizational changes in target group enterprises, with the possibility of generalizing them to all Romanian small and medium enterprises.

  12. Linking regional stakeholder scenarios and shared socioeconomic pathways: Quantified West African food and climate futures in a global context

    Palazzo, Amanda; Vervoort, Joost M.; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel; Rutting, Lucas; Havlík, Petr; Islam, Shahnila; Bayala, Jules; Valin, Hugo; Kadi Kadi, Hamé Abdou; Thornton, Philip; Zougmore, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The climate change research community’s shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are a set of alternative global development scenarios focused on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. To use these scenarios as a global context that is relevant for policy guidance at regional and national

  13. European Union and EDCTP strategy in the global context: recommendations for preventive HIV/AIDS vaccines research

    Lehner, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Clerici, Mario; Gotch, Frances; Pedneault, Louise; Tartaglia, Jim; Gray, Clive; Mestecky, Jiri; Sattentau, Quentin; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Toure, Coumba; Osmanov, Saladin; Schmidt, Reinold E.; Debre, Patrice; Romaris, Manuel; Hoeveler, Arnd; Di Fabio, Simonetta

    2005-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) has strong commitments and recognises the need to continue to ensure that HIV/AIDS research efforts receive global attention. The EC is facing this challenge in a global context and has made substantial investments together with European Developing Countries Clinical

  14. Socioeconomic contexts of primate conservation: population, poverty, global economic demands, and sustainable land use.

    Estrada, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Recent assessments by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) indicate the existence of about 612 recognized primate species and subspecies (IUCN RedList, 2012), but close to 50% of these taxa are at risk of extinction as a result of human action. In this article, I call attention to underlying regional and global socioeconomic contexts of primate conservation. Using information from FAO and UN databases and other sources, I examine, for the Neotropics, sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia, trends in forest loss and human demographics and social condition, discuss the impact of global market pressures upon primate habitats, and examine land-use patterns that may favor primate conservation. Between 1990 and 2010, an estimated 149 million ha of forest were lost in the three regions and additional losses are expected in the future. Global human population will increase from 7 billion in 2012 to 9 billion in 2050. Currently, 2 billion people live in the three primate range regions under high levels of poverty. Large-scale deforestation is related to global market demands, especially from developed and developing nations, for food (e.g., cattle), domestic animal feed (e.g., soybeans), biofuel-based crops (e.g., oil palm), and industrial round wood. The growth of protected areas in the three regions has been steady for several decades, but it is not enough to ensure long-term conservation of many primate taxa. Other conservations tools involving sustainable land use and biodiversity conservation corridors are required at the landscape level. The above assessment can easily be applied at the local level by primatologists, giving more precision to conservation initiatives. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The balanced development of basic education in the context of globalization

    Sun Qi-lin; Kong Kai

    2006-01-01

    Basic education is not only an essential means for eliminating stratification and differences in society but also one of the main reasons for the enlargement of the gap between the rich and the poor.Because it faces pressure in the context of globalization,a balanced development of basic education would be a good way to relieve this pressure.This paper summarizes the international experience of balanced development of basic education in five aspects:policies and laws,educational funds,teacher resources,disadvantaged groups and conditions for running a school.On the basis of these,the authors put forward relevant suggestions concerning the balanced development of basic education in China.

  16. Educational research on everyday life, education and their transformations in globalized contexts

    Krejsler, John B.; Kryger, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Educational research on everyday life, education and their transformations in globalized contexts Not only formal education but everyday life inside as well as outside institutions have always been central sites of learning for children and adults. However, as social relations in everyday life...... are staged ever more as pedagogical and educational relations, practices of learning undergo transformations. The concept of everyday life is changing as daily routines and associated practices of learning are being transformed through processes caused by virtualization (social media, cell phones, lap...... by the four keynote-presenters at the NERA Congress in Copenhagen that took place in March 2012. We are thus proud to be able to present a special issue where senior scholars from India, the United States, Germany and Denmark: Educational research on everyday life, education and their transformations...

  17. Global warming in the context of 2000 years of Australian alpine temperature and snow cover.

    McGowan, Hamish; Callow, John Nikolaus; Soderholm, Joshua; McGrath, Gavan; Campbell, Micheline; Zhao, Jian-Xin

    2018-03-13

    Annual resolution reconstructions of alpine temperatures are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere, while no snow cover reconstructions exist. These records are essential to place in context the impact of anthropogenic global warming against historical major natural climate events such as the Roman Warm Period (RWP), Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Here we show for a marginal alpine region of Australia using a carbon isotope speleothem reconstruction, warming over the past five decades has experienced equivalent magnitude of temperature change and snow cover decline to the RWP and MCA. The current rate of warming is unmatched for the past 2000 years and seasonal snow cover is at a minimum. On scales of several decades, mean maximum temperatures have undergone considerable change ≈ ± 0.8 °C highlighting local scale susceptibility to rapid temperature change, evidence of which is often masked in regional to hemisphere scale temperature reconstructions.

  18. The Necessity of Developing Nuclear Energy in Romania in the Context of Global Economy Expansion

    Dana-Elena MARCEAN HOLBAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important elements of the global economy, being the basic unit of world economic development. In the energy mix, nuclear energy - more than any other type of energy - has generated and will always generate a series of controversies. This article aims to emphasize the economic and social implications, further than the general purpose of developing nuclear energy: national energetic security. With the starting point clearly defined – the history already written by the operation of Unit 1 and 2 – the path to discover all its elements seems to be clear, although a whole range of unknown issues can rise many different interpretations. In Romania, nuclear energy produces 18% of Romania's electricity supplies. Development of Units 3 and 4 of the Cernavoda site could more than double this capacity. This will have major implications in the trading market, significantly influencing the price of electricity not only nationally, but, in the context coupling energy markets, as well as at regional level. It is also risen the question of using this additional production. Depending on the time of commissioning, this quantity of energy that now seems overmuch, can be used for export, to reduce the use of fossil fuels and to continue to obtain electricity in the context of a system based on power plants that use fossil fuels, whose lifespan is nearing completion.

  19. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  20. A New Understanding of Ankara Music within the Context of Global Cultural Flow

    Ömer Can Satır

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to consider a new understanding of the complex and multilayered structure of Ankara music, which is situated between tradition and modernity and has become an important form of popular culture in the region, in the context of local and global relationships.. The theoretical framework of the study is based on Appadurai’s “global cultural flow” model. The ethnoscape, finanscape, mediascape, technoscape and ideoscape of Ankara music is examined in accordance with this approach to reveal the dynamics that make this music different. In the light of these findings, it is concluded that the ethnoscape of Ankara music is based on a broad demographic coalition that has created an independent music industry with a finanscape depending on production, distribution and consumption. While this type of music is represented through a network-based social structure, it gains legitimacy outside its bounds within the media environment. The “Ankara” genre and its quest for authenticity described in this work reveal the ideoscape of the new Ankara music.

  1. Perpetrators or Preventers? The Double Role of Corporations in Child Trafficking in a Global Context

    Silvia Rodríguez-López

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the engagement of corporations in child trafficking has become a matter of growing importance. Many corporations have adopted global subcontracting systems and complex structures that boost their productivity and profits, but might also create more opportunities for trafficking and exploitation of both adults and children. Taking this context into account, the ways in which corporations can commit child trafficking will be explored and exemplified to highlight their diversity. This paper also offers a brief overview of the response given by international and European anti-trafficking instruments concerning corporate criminal liability for child trafficking. Moreover, the mechanisms adopted by some companies to prevent trafficking and promote transparency within their supply chains will also be addressed. Overall, this paper aims to illustrate the pivotal role of corporations from two perspectives: as potential perpetrators of this serious crime, and as necessary actors to prevent it.  El compromiso empresarial sobre el tráfico infantil es un asunto de creciente importancia. Muchas corporaciones han adoptado sistemas globales de subcontrataciones y complejas estructuras que incrementan su productividad y sus beneficios, pero que también podrían crear más oportunidades para la trata y la explotación de adultos y niños. Partiendo de este contexto, se exploran y ejemplifican las diversas formas en que las corporaciones pueden cometer tráfico infantil. El artículo repasa brevemente la respuesta de los instrumentos internacionales y europeos en lo tocante a la responsabilidad penal de las corporaciones por la trata infantil, y aborda los mecanismos adoptados por algunas empresas para prevenir la trata y promover la transparencia en sus cadenas de suministro. En suma, se pretende ilustrar el rol crucial de las corporaciones desde dos puntos de vista: como potenciales perpetradores de este grave crimen y como actores necesarios

  2. An Analysis of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism in the Context of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Buzar Stipe

    2015-01-01

    The author analyzes the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism in the context of corporate social responsibility and the need for discussing this topic in ethical codes within the business and tourism sector. The text first offers an overview of the fundamental ethical concepts in business ethics and corporate social responsibility and briefly conceptualizes the relationship between these two fields. At the end, the author analyzes the content of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism with emphasis...

  3. Reflections on the Dimensions of Population Characterization of CSR in Perspective in the Context of Global Economic Crisis

    Popescu Manoela; Crenicean Cecilia Luminita

    2010-01-01

    Fashionable topic in recent years, CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) has become an objective necessity in the current global context, the global economic crisis. Moreover, the European Union, interested in CSR, we consider a means by which any economic system may become the most competitive and dynamic world. Of course, this goal is possible if the CSR is perceived as beneficial to the public. Also, states and international institutions have developed a series of standards aimed at human ...

  4. THE QUALITY OF CULTURAL SERVICES IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS CONTEXT

    Aurica DVORACIC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It suffices to browse the websites of only a few of the most noteworthy Romanian cultural organizations – including the website of the Ministry of Culture – to conclude that quality policies are missing. In fact, these are not the only policies that are missing, but this topic should be discussed in another paper. The objective of this paper is to analyze the progresses and the opportunities, as well as the problems and the challenges that the Romanian society and economy are facing as far as culture is concerned at the beginning of the new millennium, in the particular context of the global economic crisis: specifically, we will focus on the role of cultural organization managers in implementing quality management as the main factor in assuring the competitiveness needed to overcome the crisis. Cultural organization managers generally admit that a change is needed in order to cope with competitive pressure, but few understand how this change should be implemented. To avoid the issues associated with “change programs”, the management of cultural organizations must focus on the structure of processes, recognizing the roles and responsibilities of their employees in the processes in which they are involved.

  5. Maternal scaffolding in a disadvantaged global context: The influence of working memory and cognitive capacities.

    Obradović, Jelena; Portilla, Ximena A; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole; Siyal, Saima; Rasheed, Muneera A; Yousafzai, Aisha K

    2017-03-01

    The current study focuses on maternal cognitive capacities as determinants of parenting in a highly disadvantaged global context, where children's experiences at home are often the 1st and only opportunity for learning and intellectual growth. In a large sample of 1,291 biological mothers of preschool-aged children in rural Pakistan, we examined the unique association of maternal working memory skills (independent of related cognitive capacities) with cognitively stimulating parenting behaviors. Path analysis revealed that directly assessed working memory, short-term memory, and verbal intelligence independently predicted greater levels of observed maternal scaffolding behaviors. Mothers from poorer families demonstrated lower levels of working memory, short-term memory, and verbal intelligence. However, mothers' participation in an early childhood parenting intervention that ended 2 years prior to this study contributed to greater levels of working memory skills and verbal intelligence. Further, all 3 domains of maternal cognitive capacity mediated the effect of family economic resources on maternal scaffolding, and verbal intelligence also mediated the effect of early parenting intervention exposure on maternal scaffolding. The study demonstrates the unique relevance of maternal working memory for scaffolding behaviors that required continuously monitoring the child's engagement, providing assistance, and minimizing external distractions. These results highlight the importance of directly targeting maternal cognitive capacities in poor women with little or no formal education, using a 2-generation intervention approach that includes activities known to promote parental executive functioning and literacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Determinants of prices increase of agricultural commodities in a global context1

    Borychowski Michał

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to present the determinants of increase in agricultural commodity prices after 2006. The other specific aim is to show the factors affecting agricultural raw materials and food prices in the global context. This article is a review paper of the determinants of recent commodity and food prices spikes. However, it provides an outlook on these determinants that were the most important for the increases in the last decade. The last part of the article (conclusions to some extent is a synthesis of considerations and includes the authors’ opinions concerning determinants and an attempt to identify which ones were the most important in the growth of agricultural commodity prices. These increases in agricultural commodity prices resulted from many factors and it is very difficult to separate the individual impact of each of them, because they occurred in parallel. However, it is possible to indicate several main reasons for these price increases, which are: adverse changes in supply-demand relations in agricultural markets, increases in oil prices (and increases of the volatility of those prices, development of biofuel production from agricultural commodities (the first generation biofuels, dollar depreciation, an increase in operations of a speculative nature on commodity markets and improper economic policy that created an environment for the growth of prices of agricultural products.

  7. Identifying indigenous peoples for health research in a global context: a review of perspectives and challenges.

    Bartlett, Judith G; Madariaga-Vignudo, Lucia; O'Neil, John D; Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2007-09-01

    Identifying Indigenous Peoples globally is complex and contested despite there being an estimated 370 million living in 70 countries. The specific context and use of locally relevant and clear definitions or characterizations of Indigenous Peoples is important for recognizing unique health risks Indigenous Peoples face, for understanding local Indigenous health aspirations and for reflecting on the need for culturally disaggregated data to plan meaningful research and health improvement programs. This paper explores perspectives on defining Indigenous Peoples and reflects on challenges in identifying Indigenous Peoples. Literature reviews and Internet searches were conducted, and some key experts were consulted. Pragmatic and political definitions by international institutions, including the United Nations, are presented as well as characterizations of Indigenous Peoples by governments and academic researchers. Assertions that Indigenous Peoples have about definitions of indigeneity are often related to maintenance of cultural integrity and sustainability of lifestyles. Described here are existing definitions and interests served by defining (or leaving undefined) such definitions, why there is no unified definition and implications of "too restrictive" a definition. Selected indigenous identities and dynamics are presented for North America, the Arctic, Australia and New Zealand, Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and Africa. While health researchers need to understand the Indigenous Peoples with whom they work, ultimately, indigenous groups themselves best define how they wish to be viewed and identified for research purposes.

  8. Traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease: an update in the context of global urbanization.

    Carlsten, Christopher; Rider, Christopher F

    2017-04-01

    The review aims to give an update on the literature around traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and allergic disease in the context of global urbanization, as the most populous countries in the world face severe TRAP exposure challenges. As research continues to show that gene-environment interactions and epigenetics contribute to the TRAP-allergy link, evidence around the links to climate change grows. Greenspace may provide a buffer to adverse effects of traffic on health, overall, but pose risks in terms of allergic disease. The link between traffic-related pollution and allergy continues to strengthen, in terms of supportive observational findings and mechanistic studies. Levels of TRAP across the world, particularly in Asia, continue to dramatically exceed acceptable levels, suggesting that the related adverse health consequences will accelerate. This could be counterbalanced by primary emission control and urban planning. Attention to combined effects of TRAP and allergen exposure is critical to avoiding misleading inferences drawn though examination only of isolated factors.

  9. Science and Society: Public History in the Context of Historical Culture of the Globalization Era

    Lorina P. Repina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the XIX century known as the „historical age”, a high degree of trust to history and social prestige of historical science relied on the entrenched in public consciousness the idea of continuity of historical development of a human civilization and, respectively, of the unique opportunities of the use of the past experience as a means to solve the problems of the present and to build „the bright future”. But the understanding of the dramatic experi-ence of the XX century undermined the belief in the “use of history”, and this situation has been greatly aggravated with intensification of the processes of globalization on the bor-der of XX and XXI centuries. The problems of interaction between “academic (professional history” and the wide public in the concrete societies and the changes in their relations in the context of deep social transformations proved to take place at the center of many re-searchers’ attention. Public history is purposefully overcoming the typical for historical science of the XX century alienation from „the uninitiated”; it strives to restore the interest of the consumer to the historians’ production, to propagate professional standards, histor-ical knowledge and proper understanding of the specific character of “historian’s craft” among the wide circles of the non-professionals.

  10. Migration as a Context-Dependent Dynamic in a World of Global Inequalities

    Jana Sládková

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Global migration is a topic of utmost importance in psychological research. As over 200 million people are on the move across national borders, and many more within their own countries, the processes of these migrations must be examined from different points of view and from different geographical locations. The articles in this special journal issue pointedly illustrate the role of international, national, community, and individual factors that shape these migrations. One cross-cutting theme is the importance of studying how multiple levels of context affect immigrant and migrant experiences. All six contributions, collectively, enrich the often individual-centric psychological literature. Issues of resilience and spaces of resistance emerged as a second cross-cutting theme, pointing to new directions for acculturation research and intervention. The challenge of recognizing diversity within migrant communities and among migration patterns is a third cross-cutting theme essential to address as we work toward a more equal world in which people can more freely chose whether to stay or leave their homes.

  11. Mitigating global warming: traditional versus alternative approaches in a planning versus a market context

    Olerup, Brita [Royal Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Industrial Economics and Management, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    Economic efficiency tends to be an important argument when different means of environmental control are assessed and suggested. Considering that the most cost-efficient means are not the ones most frequently chosen and used, some other qualities seem to play an equally important role. I use findings from organisational theory and negotiation theory to better understand what is concealed in the black-box of decision-making and implementation. My empirical material consists of case studies of four different means of environmental control used in Sweden during the 1990s to mitigate the threat of global warming. These are an environmental tax, a licensing trial, municipal energy planning, and technology procurement. Each represents a particular discipline (economic, legal, physical planning, or technological) in which a context (planning or market) and an approach (traditional relay race or alternative process-oriented) are combined. Although each means has its particular niche, some qualities stand out as superior. Such means need to be divisible in space as well as in time. It is then easier to get started. Since it is just as easy to deviate from, rather than adhere to, the predetermined course after a while, some incentive must be given to the person in charge of implementation. In other words, the classic proverb of using sticks and carrots is still valid although it is not always taken to heart and practised. (Author)

  12. Linking regional stakeholder scenarios and shared socioeconomic pathways: Quantified West African food and climate futures in a global context.

    Palazzo, Amanda; Vervoort, Joost M; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Rutting, Lucas; Havlík, Petr; Islam, Shahnila; Bayala, Jules; Valin, Hugo; Kadi Kadi, Hamé Abdou; Thornton, Philip; Zougmore, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The climate change research community's shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are a set of alternative global development scenarios focused on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. To use these scenarios as a global context that is relevant for policy guidance at regional and national levels, they have to be connected to an exploration of drivers and challenges informed by regional expertise. In this paper, we present scenarios for West Africa developed by regional stakeholders and quantified using two global economic models, GLOBIOM and IMPACT, in interaction with stakeholder-generated narratives and scenario trends and SSP assumptions. We present this process as an example of linking comparable scenarios across levels to increase coherence with global contexts, while presenting insights about the future of agriculture and food security under a range of future drivers including climate change. In these scenarios, strong economic development increases food security and agricultural development. The latter increases crop and livestock productivity leading to an expansion of agricultural area within the region while reducing the land expansion burden elsewhere. In the context of a global economy, West Africa remains a large consumer and producer of a selection of commodities. However, the growth in population coupled with rising incomes leads to increases in the region's imports. For West Africa, climate change is projected to have negative effects on both crop yields and grassland productivity, and a lack of investment may exacerbate these effects. Linking multi-stakeholder regional scenarios to the global SSPs ensures scenarios that are regionally appropriate and useful for policy development as evidenced in the case study, while allowing for a critical link to global contexts.

  13. The Development of Strategic Bank Lending Industries in the Context of Globalization

    Oksana Markovna Kramarenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that, in the context of globalization, improved credit support for strategic sectors of the economy (for example, shipbuilding can be achieved through the creation of a banking consortium based around leasing. A dialectical method of resolution of system tasks is selected as the methodological approach. Methods used include: comparative cost analysis of the strategic lending industry supporting the formation and development of a banking consortium; integrated method at the condition modeling of making and implementation of a lease agreement, which allowed to accommodate the interests for both parties of such agreement; optimization method to select the conditions of a lease agreement; classification and analytical method to clarify the classification of lease. The study proved and developed a plan of creation a banking consortium, including options of interaction of such consortium with potential customers based on a lease agreement. The process of functioning of the lease agreement in order to optimize it for both a bank consortium-lessor and a lessee is modeled. The significant advantages of leasing compared to the traditional lending for both parties of leasing, especially when ensuring long-term projects are summarized. The results of the research can be applied in the strategic lending industries development and can reduce the level of banking risks. Applying the results of the research in the social aspect can maintain and increase the number of jobs including the banking sector. The value of the work leis in the fact that the author has developed a new approach to achive the credit support for strategic sectors of the economy through the creation of the banking consortium based around leasing, which allows to protect the interests of both parties.

  14. The use of engineering design scenarios to assess student knowledge of global, societal, economic, and environmental contexts

    McKenna, Ann F.; Hynes, Morgan M.; Johnson, Amy M.; Carberry, Adam R.

    2016-07-01

    Product archaeology as an educational approach asks engineering students to consider and explore the broader societal and global impacts of a product's manufacturing, distribution, use, and disposal on people, economics, and the environment. This study examined the impact of product archaeology in a project-based engineering design course on student attitudes and perceptions about engineering and abilities to extend and refine knowledge about broader contexts. Two design scenarios were created: one related to dental hygiene and one related to vaccination delivery. Design scenarios were used to (1) assess knowledge of broader contexts, and (2) test variability of student responses across different contextual situations. Results from pre- to post-surveying revealed improved student perceptions of knowledge of broader contexts. Significant differences were observed between the two design scenarios. The findings support the assumption that different design scenarios elicit consideration of different contexts and design scenarios can be constructed to target specific contextual considerations.

  15. Glacier recession on Mount Kenya in the context of the global tropics

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available LE RECUL DES GLACIERS DU MONT KENYA DANS LE CONTEXTE GLOBAL DES TROPIQUES. Les glaciers ont commencé leur retrait autour de la moitié du XIXème siècle dans les Andes équatoriales et en Nouvelle-Guinée, mais il faut attendre la fin du XIXème siècle pour les voir entamer leur recul en Afrique de l’Est. Dans cette région, la déglaciation, comme la baisse du niveau des lacs, est due à des changements hydroclimatiques survenant à la suite de modifications de la circulation atmosphérique dans l’Océan Indien. La diminution des surfaces englacées est attribuée à une réduction de la nébulosité accompagnée d’une baisse des précipitations. Par la suite, un réchauffement progressif et une augmentation de l’humidité atmosphérique sont devenus les facteurs dominants. La déglaciation tend à s’accentuer sous tous les Tropiques depuis deux décennies. RETROCESO DE LOS GLACIARES DEL MONTE KENYA EN EL CONTEXTO GLOBAL DE LOS TRÓPICOS. El retroceso de los glaciares empezó, en los Andes del Ecuador y en Nueva Guinea, a mediados del siglo XIX más o menos, y sólo a fines de este siglo en África del Este. En esta zona, tanto el principio del retroceso de los glaciares como el descenso del nivel de los lagos, han sido provocados por un cambio de las condiciones hidroclimáticas debido a cambios en el sector del Océano Índico. Una reducción de la nubosidad acompañada por una disminución de las precipitaciones tuvo el rol más importante en el proceso de desglaciación. Después, el progresivo recalentamiento y el aumento de la humedad atmosférica fueron los factores dominantes. La desglaciación es un fenómeno que se acentuó en todo el Trópico durante los dos últimos decenios. Glaciers began to retreat around the mid 1800’s in the Ecuadorian Andes and New Guinea, but only towards the end of the 19th century in East Africa. Here the onset of the ice recession as well as the drop of lake levels were due to a change in the

  16. Issues Related to University Education in Ukraine in the Context of Globalization, European Integration and Bologna Process

    Maryna V. Bosenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of issued linked to the development of Ukrainian education in the contexts of globalization, European integration and Bologna Process. The needs for reforms related to the university education in Ukraine is linked with job market and social services, including educational services, globalization of economics and IT technologies: enhancing of socio-economical and pedagogical processes, informatization in society, transition to ‘knowledge societies’, changing the system f values, expanding the core of university education, emergence and distribution of innovative technologies, freedom of choice in electing the university curriculum, fundamentalization and humanization of education etc.

  17. An Analysis of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism in the Context of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Buzar Stipe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism in the context of corporate social responsibility and the need for discussing this topic in ethical codes within the business and tourism sector. The text first offers an overview of the fundamental ethical concepts in business ethics and corporate social responsibility and briefly conceptualizes the relationship between these two fields. At the end, the author analyzes the content of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism with emphasis on the elements pertaining to corporate social responsibility, after which he offers a critical opinion about the contribution of the aforemntioned code.

  18. Food sovereignty as multiple resistances: the Honduran movement in global context

    Gies, Heather Marie

    2014-01-01

    Food sovereignty reconciles the local and global in its creative political imaginary of the meaning of sovereignty that justifies “multiple resistances.” This research explores this reconciliation of local and global through the case study of the food sovereignty project being advanced by campesino organizations in the Aguán Valley, Honduras, as situated within the dynamic nexus of local and global discourses, movements, and material realities. I argue that food sovereignty reconceives sovere...

  19. Regaining legitimacy in the context of global governance? UNESCO, Education for All coordination and the Global Monitoring Report

    Edwards, D. Brent; Okitsu, Taeko; da Costa, Romina; Kitamura, Yuto

    2017-06-01

    This research note shares insights which resulted from a larger study into the ways in which the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - during 2010-2014 - used its position as coordinator of the post-Dakar Framework for Action (initiated at the World Education Forum held in 2000 and designed to reinvigorate the Education for All initiative) to help it regain some of the legitimacy it had lost in the preceding decades. The research study focused on the role of both the UNESCO Education for All Follow-up Unit and the production of the Global Monitoring Report (GMR) during the 2000s because they were at the heart of UNESCO's efforts to repair its image and renew its impact in one area of global governance, specifically in the global education policy field. The study's findings were based on an analysis of documents, archives and interviews ( n = 17) with key actors inside and outside UNESCO, including representatives of UNESCO's peer institutions.

  20. The burden of non-communicable diseases in Nigeria; in the context of globalization.

    Maiyaki, Musa Baba; Garbati, Musa Abubakar

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the tenets of globalization and how its elements have spread to sub-Saharan Africa, and Nigeria in particular. It assesses the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Nigeria and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on NCDs in Nigeria. It assesses the Nigerian dimension of the relationship between the risk factors of NCDs and globalization. Appropriate recommendations on tackling the burden of NCDs in Nigeria based on cost-effective, culturally sensitive, and evidence-based interventions are highlighted.

  1. Understanding Information Technology Investment Decision-Making in the Context of Hotel Global Distribution Systems: a Multiple-Case Study

    Connolly, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    UNDERSTANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT DECISION-MAKING IN THE CONTEXT OF HOTEL GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A MULTIPLE-CASE STUDY by Daniel J. Connolly Dr. Michael D. Olsen, Chair Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management ABSTRACT This study investigates what three large, multinational hospitality companies do in practice when evaluating and making IT investment decisions. This study was launched in an attempt to 1) learn more about ...

  2. Latin American Identity and The Contradictory Processes Involved in its Construction-Deconstruction-Reconfiguration in Global Contexts

    Víctor Hugo Ramos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficult and contradictory formation, consolidation and change processes of Latin American identity from an anthropological and holistic perspective and in the context of the emergence of the world-system from the conquest, colonization and independence struggles to its current reconfiguration in the midst of transnational globalization and the alternatives to it. This approach, which we could call dynamicsynthetic, sees identity as a constantly changing open process...

  3. Applying Deweyan Principles to Global Citizenship Education in a Rural Context

    Waterson, Robert A.; Moffa, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Global citizenship education (GCE) helps students conceptualize citizenship beyond national boundaries so they are capable of action in dealing with global issues like human rights and environmental sustainability. However, very little literature exists to assist rural teachers in implementing GCE as they face specific challenges due to the…

  4. Redefining the Role of English as a Foreign Language in the Curriculum in the Global Context

    Xiaohong, Zhang; Zeegers, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The English language has become a global language, a development which has influenced English language teaching and learning throughout the world. This influence has occurred more impressively in China than in other parts of the world as a result of the breathtaking pace at which China has integrated with global economies. Increasing industrial,…

  5. When Globalization Causes Cultural Conflict: Leadership in the Context of an Egyptian/ American School

    Barakat, Maysaa; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    There is ongoing debate about the benefits and dangers of globalization in education, yet it is not always clear how these dynamics manifest at the school level. Moreover, it is often unclear how leaders shape or respond to these dynamics in their day-to-day practice. This case highlights issues related to school culture and globalization as a…

  6. Unpacking Global Service-Learning in Developing Contexts: A Case Study from Rural Tanzania

    Oberhauser, Ann M.; Daniels, Rita

    2017-01-01

    This article examines intercultural aspects of global service learning (GSL) focused on gender and sustainable development in rural Tanzania. The discussion draws from critical development and postcolonial feminist approaches to examine how GSL addresses globalization, social histories, and political economies of development. The empirical…

  7. Cross-Cultural Context, Content, and Design: Development of Courses in Global Topics Serving International Students

    Van Hook, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in the development of courses for students from multiple nations at two California universities, applying cross-cultural tactics in course content and design. The paper examines the evolution of courses in Global Issues and Global Economics, including the theoretical foundations of socioeconomic development, how those…

  8. How Important Is Private Higher Education in Europe? A Regional Analysis in Global Context

    Levy, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of private higher education (PHE) is increasingly clear globally. But does Europe fit the global generalisation? This question can be assessed with reference to two major considerations: the size of PHE and the degree of private-public difference. The growth of PHE in Europe has been delayed and limited compared to that in most of…

  9. A Brief Analysis on Cross-cultural Communication Strategy of Chinese Films under the Context of Globalization

    Cao Zhiyong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of globalization waves, the cross-cultural communication becomes more and more common nowadays. Chinese films, as a kind of mass media and the carrier of ideology, must meet the challenge in the world with active attitudes and take part in cross-cultural communication worldwide extensively. The context of globalization is not only a challenge but also an opportunity for Chinese films and if Chinese films want to be successful in the process of cross-cultural communication, it must find out a conjoint point between globalization and location to implement dual-coding of them. With the objective of consensus but different for the cultural demands of cross-cultural communication, the communicational strategies in culture,subject,art and operation must extensively use for reference and boldly create to renew the situation of Chinese films.

  10. International Sport Movement in the Context of the Global Problems of Mankind

    Stafeev Dmitriy Valeryevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of globalization process the world becomes more and more integrated, the role of “hard” power becomes lower, while the role of “soft” power, vice versa, increases. Sport as one of the most important spheres of human activities, faces both positive and negative effects of globalization. Sport has an important function in the concept of “soft” security, and this importance is evidenced by serious attention, paid by the United Nations and other international organizations. The UN established the International Day of port, and it organizes regular meetings and conferences devoted to sport. Plenty of the UN Organizations officially use sport to achieve their aims. Sports diplomacy is believed to have reconciling, uniting role; sport must contribute to resolution of the most part of contemporary global problems. Abilities of the Information age allow using positive effect caused by sport events with maximal benefits. There is understanding in the UN, that sport alone cannot solve all global problems, but it can relieve their consequences. Therefore sport is used to struggle over such problems, as poverty; peace and security problems; disarmament necessity; human rights and democracy problems; demography, ecology and energy problems, difficulties with medical care and provision. On the other hand, sport suffers from globalization; it loses its initial function of competition due to politicization and commercialization. Even new issues of confrontation appear because of sports. Only global governance over sport, establishment of general rules and clear goals and their joint accomplishment can allow the international sports movement become a real force in fight against global problems.

  11. The Evolution of Foreign Exchange Markets in the Context of Global Crisis

    Mariana Trandafir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The FX market is the world’s largest financial market. The global financial systeminvolves effective and efficient exchange of currencies. Corporations and investors participate in themarket for operational needs: to reduce risk by hedging currency exposures; to convert their returnsfrom international investments into domestic currencies and to make cross-border investments andraise finance outside home markets. Central banks participate in the market. This paper analyzesforeign exchange marketsactivity before and under the condition the global crisis. The method ofresearch is the comparative analysis used on the global and European level. The research is importantand actual because it reveals the changeswhich have defined a new paradigm forthe foreignexchange marketsand which contributed to the increasing of the global foreign exchange marketturnover during the global crisis. The main conclusion of the paper is that the innovativedevelopments in electronic trading technology and institutional trading arrangements are behind theevolution of the foreign exchange markets. The analysis is supported by statistical tables and uses therecent officialBank for International Settlements and European Central Bank statistic databases.

  12. Global cities in the context of international business: From oblivion to tendency in scientific production

    Paulo Kazuhiro Izumi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the international business literature of the last forty years from the incorporation of the term global cities as a reference in the construction of new theoretical contributions. A bibliometric method was performed in two stages. In the first one, the main areas of knowledge and the seminal studies addressing the concept were identified. Most research focuses on economic geography and urban studies. In the second, the approaches used specifically in international business were organized in the main journals of the area. The results show that the studies on global cities are still incipient, highlighting, among the approaches, the relation between location advantages and specific aspects of the multinational company. In addition, there is a growing interest in the development of analyzes at the subnational level represented by global cities, from different aspects such as the choice of entry mode, the role of advanced service firms, the importance of networks and the process of knowledge transfer. The combination of the perspectives of economic geography and international business, although claimed by scholars from both areas, still lacks a more robust theoretical and empirical body in regard to cities as centers of attractiveness of foreign investment in global markets. In analyzing the importance of the phenomenon of global cities, this study contributes to a better understanding of the contemporary internationalization strategies of multinational companies, highlighting the interdisciplinary potential between international business theories and economic geography.

  13. Putting Lesbians in Their Place: Deconstructing Ex-Gay Discourses of Female Homosexuality in a Global Context

    Christine M. Robinson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transnational ex-gay movement is an important context affecting lesbians and sexual minority women around the world. In 2015, the UN Human Rights Commissioner called for all nations to ban conversion therapies. This research investigates a neglected area of scholarship on the ex-gay movement by deconstructing and analyzing the implications of ex-gay discourses of female homosexuality in a global context. The ex-gay movement originated in the United States and has proliferated to nearly every continent. We argue that it is the main purveyor of public, anti-lesbian rhetoric today, constructing lesbianism as sinful and sick to control women’s sexuality, enforce rigid gender roles and inequality, and oppress sexual minority women. Guided by Adrienne Rich’s theory of compulsory heterosexuality and Barbara Risman’s gender structure theory, we analyze how, in ex-gay discourse, lesbianism is demeaned and demonized in the individual, interactional, and institutional dimensions of the gender structure. Finally, we examine the impact of ex-gay discourse on sexual minority women in global context.

  14. Global Face with a National Body? Facebook Appropriation and Use in a National Context

    Klastrup, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of Facebook in a national context, examining language use, friend networks, and content interaction and sharing. Based on a survey (n=739), six interviews with people living in Denmark, and ethnographic observation on site, the paper present findings which indicate tha...

  15. Mediating the Use of Global University Rankings: Perspectives from Education Facilitators in an International Context

    O'Connell, Catherine; Saunders, Murray

    2013-01-01

    This study explores responses to rankings from a group of staff working as education partnership facilitators for a professional intermediary organisation, the British Council. The study adopts an activity systems perspective from which to view the contexts in which rankings are encountered and the range of practices used to reduce tensions…

  16. Universal Humanism – A Globalization Context is the Classroom of Unheard Options ... how to Become More Human

    Tone Svetelj

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of multi-cultural and multi-religious society, embedded in the process of globalization, a traditional understanding of humanism offers insufficient frameworks for an adequate comprehension of human flourishing and human search for meaning. In addition, modernity frames and evaluates in many aspects insufficiently the incomparable worth of the human person. This article offers some guidelines for further philosophical, theological and pedagogical reflection on a humanism that is more suitable for our life in the process of globalization and modernity. Such humanism continually moves us toward a better comprehension of what “human” means within a universe of divergent cultures, religions, traditions, and races. This humanism is called universal humanism , based on the Greek word kaqolou , comprising both universality and wholeness. The first part of this article analyzes some of the main characteristics of humanism in the Greek and Roman contexts, which provide historical and theoretical frameworks for universal humanism. The second part justifies the relevance and usefulness of such humanism: it helps us to transcend singular cultures, nations, political systems, religions, and, by default, to discover or explore anew the meaning of the human person on a global level. The last part of this article suggests some pedagogical attitudes that will help us to embrace and remain in a dialogical relationship with all of humanity, in order to enrich our comprehension of the incomparable worth of the human person, this time from a universal perspective.

  17. International palliative care research in the context of global development: a systematic mapping review.

    Clark, Joseph; Gardiner, Clare; Barnes, Amy

    2018-03-01

    An increasing amount of health policy is formulated at global level. At this global level, palliative care has attracted support primarily from normative institutions (WHO), not funding agencies. To attract greater global attention from policymakers, it has been argued that an international approach to research is required. However, the extent to which an international approach is being undertaken is unknown. To systematically identify and thematically synthesise all international palliative care research, defined as research involving two or more countries, or focused on the global level. Five bibliographic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ASSIA, Web of Knowledge, Psychinfo) were searched for journal articles relevant to international and global palliative care and end-of-life care. Data were extracted using a piloted extraction form and findings were synthesised. 184 studies were included, published across 75 different academic journals. Research emanates from and focuses on all world regions and there is increasing focus on the global level. Thematically, there is a high focus on Evaluation (n=53) and views of Stakeholders (n=38). The review revealed a predominantly observational research approach and few interventional studies were identified. International palliative care research is a relatively new, but growing field. However, many gaps in the evidence base remain and palliative care research continues to take place outside broader discourses of international development. The relative absence of interventional research demonstrating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of palliative care risks limiting the tools with which advocates can engage with international policymakers on this topic. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Shifts in spruce and beech flushing in the context of global climate change

    Pokorný, Radek; Tomášková, Ivana; Ač, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2013), s. 163-167 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : elevated [CO2] * forest phenology * global climate change * needle nitrogen Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. The prospects of the Russian Oil Sector in the context of the global financial crisis

    Belyi, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the history of the Russian oil industry. It shows in articular its progress to become a competitive producer, capable of adapting itself to new situations. At the same time, it must be emphasized that Russian oil prospects are highly dependent on the oil pipeline network. Construction o new infrastructures may be postponed as a result of the global financial crisis. (author)

  20. Asian Lifelong Learning in the Context of a Global Knowledge Economy: A Task Re-Visited

    Han, Soonghee

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits and reinterprets my previous paper. It is a snapshot of the lifelong learning system building in selected Asian countries, reflected in the mirror of the Asian Financial Crisis in the 1997s and the aftermath of that event. I reconsidered the arguments (1) the economic recession had delivered a global dimension of lifelong…

  1. Surveying Geology Concepts in Education Standards for a Rapidly Changing Global Context

    Guffey, Sarah K.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon P.; Slater, Timothy F.; Heyer, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Internationally much attention is being paid to which of a seemingly endless list of scientific concepts should be taught to schoolchildren to enable them to best participate in the global economy of the 21st Century. In regards to science education, the concepts framing the subject of geology holds exalted status as core scientific principles in…

  2. Environmental and resource footprints in a global context: Europe's structural deficit in resource endowments

    Tukker, A.; Bulavskaya, T.; Giljum, S.; Koning, A. de; Lutter, S.; Simas, M.; Stadler, K.; Wood, R.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has proposed in its Resource-efficiency roadmap a ‘dashboard of indicators’ consisting of four headline indicators for carbon, water, land and materials. The EU recognizes the need to use a consumption-based (or ‘footprint’) perspective to capture the global dimension of

  3. Chapter 6: Culture and Learning in the Context of Globalization--Research Directions

    Lam, Wan Shun Eva

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to lay out some new conceptualizations and research directions for understanding the relation of culture and learning in the shifting terrains of globalized economies and media flows, youth cultures, and transnational migration. In a time when young people's experiences and life pathways are increasingly forged in the…

  4. A concept in flux: questioning accountability in the context of global health cooperation.

    Bruen, Carlos; Brugha, Ruairí; Kageni, Angela; Wafula, Francis

    2014-12-09

    Accountability in global health is a commonly invoked though less commonly questioned concept. Critically reflecting on the concept and how it is put into practice, this paper focuses on the who, what, how, and where of accountability, mapping its defining features and considering them with respect to real-world circumstances. Changing dynamics in global health cooperation - such as the emergence of new health public-private partnerships and the formal inclusion of non-state actors in policy making processes - provides the backdrop to this discussion. Accountability is frequently reduced to one set of actors holding another to account. Changes in the global health landscape and in relations between actors have however made the practice of accountability more complex and contested. Currently undergoing a reframing process, participation and transparency have become core elements of a new accountability agenda alongside evaluation and redress or enforcement mechanisms. However, while accountability is about holding actors responsible for their actions, the mechanisms through which this might be done vary substantially and are far from politically neutral.Accountability in global health cooperation involves multipolar relationships between a large number of stakeholders with varying degrees of power and influence, where not all interests are realised in that relationship. Moreover, accountability differs across finance, programme and governance subfields, where each has its own set of policy processes, institutional structures, accountability relations and power asymmetries to contend with. With reference to the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, this paper contributes to discussions on accountability by mapping out key elements of the concept and how it is put into practice, where different types of accountability battle for recognition and legitimacy. In mapping some defining features, accountability in global health cooperation is shown to be

  5. Combining Multidisciplinary Science, Quantitative Reasoning and Social Context to Teach Global Sustainability and Prepare Students for 21st Grand Challenges

    Myers, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's seven billion humans are consuming a growing proportion of the world's ecosystem products and services. Human activity has also wrought changes that rival the scale of many natural geologic processes, e.g. erosion, transport and deposition, leading to recognition of a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Because of these impacts, several natural systems have been pushed beyond the planetary boundaries that made the Holocene favorable for the expansion of humanity. Given these human-induced stresses on natural systems, global citizens will face an increasing number of grand challenges. Unfortunately, traditional discipline-based introductory science courses do little to prepare students for these complex, scientifically-based and technologically-centered challenges. With NSF funding, an introductory, integrated science course stressing quantitative reasoning and social context has been created at UW. The course (GEOL1600: Global Sustainability: Managing the Earth's Resources) is a lower division course designed around the energy-water-climate (EWC) nexus and integrating biology, chemistry, Earth science and physics. It melds lectures, lecture activities, reading questionnaires and labs to create a learning environment that examines the EWT nexus from a global through regional context. The focus on the EWC nexus, while important socially and intended to motivate students, also provides a coherent framework for identifying which disciplinary scientific principles and concepts to include in the course: photosynthesis and deep time (fossil fuels), biogeochemical cycles (climate), chemical reactions (combustion), electromagnetic radiation (solar power), nuclear physics (nuclear power), phase changes and diagrams (water and climate), etc. Lecture activities are used to give students the practice they need to make quantitative skills routine and automatic. Laboratory exercises on energy (coal, petroleum, nuclear power), water (in Bangladesh), energy

  6. Toward a Process Framework of Business Model Innovation in the Global Context

    Cao, Yangfeng; Li, Peter Ping; Skat-Rørdam, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Primarily due to the large gaps in economic and institutional contexts between the developed and emerging economies, effective business models in the two distinctive contexts tend to differ. In particular, the business model innovation (BMI) at the subsidiary level plays an important role...... in the success of multinational enterprises (MNE) from the developed economies operating in the emerging economies as top-down ventures. While some studies claim that direct involvement of headquarters (HQ) in the operations of subsidiaries is critical, surprisingly little is known about how HQ specifically...... enable BMI at the subsidiary level, especially for medium-sized MNE. Adopting the method of comparative and longitudinal case study, we tracked the BMI processes of six Danish medium-sized MNE operating in China. The emergent framework indicates that entrepreneurial aspiration and flexibility at the HQ...

  7. Motivation and self-efficacy in the context of moderated drinking: global self-report and ecological momentary assessment.

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Armeli, Stephen; Muench, Frederick; Morgenstern, Jon

    2013-12-01

    Despite ample research demonstrating the role of motivation and self-efficacy in predicting drinking in the context of abstinence, little research explicitly explores their role in the context of moderation, and none have utilized daily diary methods. The purpose of this study was to (a) explore the concordance between global self-report and daily diary composite measures of motivation and self-efficacy and (b) compare the ability of each in predicting drinking outcomes in the context of a study of brief AUD treatments focused on controlled drinking. Problem drinkers (N = 89) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: two brief AUD treatments or a third group asked to change on their own. Global self-report (GSR) measures were administered at baseline and Week 8 (end of treatment). Daily diary composites (DDC) were created from data collected via an Interactive Voice Recording system during the week prior to baseline and the week prior to Week 8. Findings revealed some concordance between GSR and DDC at both baseline and Week 8, indicating the two methods capture some of the same construct; however, their respective relationships to drinking differed. DDC for both baseline and Week 8 significantly predicted Week 8 drinking outcomes, whereas only change in GSR significantly predicted drinking outcomes. Findings suggest that motivation and self-efficacy are important to moderated drinking, and that both GSR and daily diary methods are useful in understanding mechanisms of change in the context of moderation. Daily diary methods may provide significant advantages. Limitations and arenas for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Harmonization of anti-doping rules in a global context (World Anti-Doping Agency-laboratory accreditation perspective).

    Ivanova, Victoria; Miller, John H M; Rabin, Olivier; Squirrell, Alan; Westwood, Steven

    2012-07-01

    This article provides a review of the leading role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in the context of the global fight against doping in sport and the harmonization of anti-doping rules worldwide through the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Program. Particular emphasis is given to the WADA-laboratory accreditation program, which is coordinated by the Science Department of WADA in conjunction with the Laboratory Expert Group, and the cooperation with the international accreditation community through International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and other organizations, all of which contribute to constant improvement of laboratory performance in the global fight against doping in sport. A perspective is provided of the means to refine the existing anti-doping rules and programs to ensure continuous improvement in order to face growing sophisticated challenges. A viewpoint on WADA's desire to embrace cooperation with other international organizations whose knowledge can contribute to the fight against doping in sport is acknowledged.

  9. What is excellence for Project Management knowledge in the context of globalization?

    Kampf, Constance; Longo, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    How can technical writers understand not only excellence in Project Management knowledge, but also the effects of globalization on how project management knowledge is used in project conception and project planning when major stakeholders live in third world countries? This study focuses in parti......How can technical writers understand not only excellence in Project Management knowledge, but also the effects of globalization on how project management knowledge is used in project conception and project planning when major stakeholders live in third world countries? This study focuses...... in particular on project conception for the use of cell phone and web 2.0 technologies with an NGO based in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We found that students were able to use knowledge management and knowledge communication concepts to shape their project titles, goals and objectives, as well...

  10. Differential responses of Miocene rodent metacommunities to global climatic changes were mediated by environmental context.

    Blanco, Fernando; Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Cantalapiedra, Juan L; Domingo, M Soledad; Domingo, Laura; Menéndez, Iris; Flynn, Lawrence J; Hernández Fernández, Manuel

    2018-02-06

    The study of how long-term changes affect metacommunities is a relevant topic, that involves the evaluation of connections among biological assemblages across different spatio-temporal scales, in order to fully understand links between global changes and macroevolutionary patterns. We applied multivariate statistical analyses and diversity tests using a large data matrix of rodent fossil sites in order to analyse long-term faunal changes. Late Miocene rodent faunas from southwestern Europe were classified into metacommunities, presumably sharing ecological affinities, which followed temporal and environmental non-random assembly and disassembly patterns. Metacommunity dynamics of these faunas were driven by environmental changes associated with temperature variability, but there was also some influence from the aridity shifts described for this region during the late Miocene. Additionally, while variations in the structure of rodent assemblages were directly influenced by global climatic changes in the southern province, the northern sites showed a pattern of climatic influence mediated by diversity-dependent processes.

  11. Migration as a context-dependent dynamic in a world of global inequalities

    Sládková, Jana; Bond, Meg A.

    2011-01-01

    Global migration is a topic of utmost importance in psychological research. As over 200 million people are on the move across national borders, and many more within their own countries, the processes of these migrations must be examined from different points of view and from different geographical locations. The articles in this special journal issue pointedly illustrate the role of international, national, community, and individual factors that shape these migrations. One cross-cutting theme...

  12. Energy Security and Economics of Indian Biofuel Strategy in a Global Context

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur; Baka, Jenn

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for climate change mitigation and greater energy security for many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks - global warming pollution and negative economic impacts of oil price hikes. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk ...

  13. Foreign subsidiary development of furniture industry in the context of global recession: case of Vietnam

    Hoang, Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Wooden furniture industry is a traditional low-technology based and labor intensive industry (Kaplinsky & Readman, 2000), which is highly recommended for global outsourcing. Besides, the raising of “China plus one” manufacturing strategy made Southeast Asian countries became new investment destinations. In case of Vietnam, the largest exporter of wood products in Southeast Asian, wooden furniture industry is highly export-oriented with a fast growing rate especially since 2008 (MARD, 2012). W...

  14. The cost and benefit of energy technology in the global context - the case of fusion power

    Clarke, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to evaluate the economical and environmental consequences of fusion power for the next century. For this evaluation, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory global energy/economy model is used. In applying the model to analyse costs and benefits of fusion energy, the author compares the projections of the model for a world with and without fusion. (TEC). 5 tabs., 7 figs., 18 refs

  15. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS,AT THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL, RELEVANT IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Popescu Manoela; Crenicean Luminiţa Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The approach of organizational issues as communication problems are at least one trend in era of the knowledge economy. The globalization process greatly contributes to consider the communication both as a source and as a solution to the problems faced by legal entities. The conducted study reveals, however, that interpersonal communication skills make the difference between success and failure of organizational communication. Premises of interpersonal communication skills analysis reveals co...

  16. THREE MODELS OF NATIONAL CRIMINAL POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Ivan Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author identifies three models of national criminal policy: the sovereign, reformist and experimental. The main criteria of such differentiation are the exposure to global influence, the criminological soundness and stability of criminal policy. Identification of the model of criminal policy in a particular state is a complex task that requires independent research.The subject. The article is devoted to modeling of the national criminal policy in modern conditions of globalization. The article discusses various models of criminal policy in the conditions of globalization.The purpose of the author is to describe the basic models of national criminal policy in modern conditions of globalization.The methodology. The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method as well as sociological methods (survey.The results, scope of application. The author identifies three models of national criminal policy: the sovereign, reformist and experimental. The main criteria of such differentiation are the exposure to global influence, the criminological soundness and stability of criminal policy. The sovereign model is based on doctrine of weak state and a strong combat criminal activity. It is distinguished by the pursuit of the realization of the equality of all before the law, criminal strategic and political planning system with a clear definition of goals and objectives; criminological security. The reform of criminal policy is characterized byuncertainty goals and objectives, utopianism and pretentiousness, dependence on standards of the international organization, the lower prestige of criminology, reduction of social programs, lobbying of group interests, permanent amendments to the criminal and criminal procedure legislation. Experimental model of criminal policy is connected with approbation of such technologies of management of society that are criminal and contrary to human experience in fighting crime.Conclusions. Criminal

  17. Adult education and publishing Canadian fiction in a global context: a Foucauldian analysis

    Susan M Holloway

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon findings from a research study on the relationship between fiction, citizenship, and lifelong learning. It includes interviews with authors from several genres, publishing houses, and arts councils. This paper explores many of the ambivalent outcomes of the shifting power elements in publishing that can simultaneously benefit and disadvantage the publication of a national body of fiction. Although focused on the Canadian context, fiction writers and publishers around the globe face similar challenges. Using a Foucauldian analysis, it considers the importance of fiction and adult learning in shaping discourses of citizenship and critical social learning.

  18. Credible dialogue in BiH in a context of global crisis

    Gajić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work studies interreligious relations and constructive dialogue between Christians and Moslems in a context of world crisis as a crisis of modernity whic epicenter is placed within western civilization. Having noticed motives of manipulative 'crisis menagement', as creating, amplifying, escalating, control and pacification of an interreligious conflict as a certain 'conflict of civilizations' by postmodern, neocolonial imperialism, the author focuses on manipulation with religious feelings in the case of Bosnian war, by the end of the 20th century. Having without doubt determined that the conflict was a political one and only sporadically a religious-civilisational one with considerable influence of neoimperial interfering using the rule 'divide and rule', it furthermore analises interetnical and interreligious relations between Christians and Moslems in Bosnia and Balcans at the beginning of the 21st century. Having noticed the growth of religionness in the whole area, and the growth of mutual confidence and a perspective that opens constructive dialgue, the work makes conclusion of being possible to gain consensus based on a 'smallest common traditional denominator', where religious and cultural identities would becama a base of cooperation and approach, and not a conflict, and of possibility of building a social alternative to neocolonial order that rules this area on these bases, in a context of the crisis of modern West.

  19. Prospects for the development of modern cooling systems in the context of globalization

    D. A. Syanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization stimulating the world economy affects to a large extent the food market of the Russian Federation. Cold supply systems are directly related to solving the problems of food supply security of the country. Artificial refrigerationhas a key role in supplyingand preserving food for the population. According to the International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR, artificial refrigeration plays an important role in the social, economic, and environmental spheres. The Concept of long-term development of refrigeration engineering with the purposeof energy saving and environmental protection sets the problem of reducing energy consumption by 30-50% decreasing refrigerant leaks twice. In 2015 the proportion of refrigeration equipment supplied by import or collected in Russia from imported components ranged from 40 to 60%. Russia's entry to the World Trade Organization (WTO, contributing to the globalization of the world economy, has given a rise to the development of the refrigeration industry. Reduction of customs duties on imported equipment led to the development of Russian companies andprice cut of home equipment.The level of service maintenance of home equipmentalso has increased due to international cooperation. However, there are some drawbacks. Nowadaysall factories of refrigeration engineering in Russia mustuse their own patented technologies or pay for the use of technologies patented in other countries.There are more stringent requirements in observanceof international agreements on environmental protection ,limiton the production and use of halogenated hydrocarbons as refrigerants and refrigeration equipment, which requires additional investment for refrigeration systems and their production. It should be noted that with the development of globalization of world economies, the protection of the interests of home refrigeration engineering in order to ensure economic security is becoming extremely important. Permanent financing of

  20. Collective Security in the Context of Globalization. The Case of Romania

    Vlad Dumitrache

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available European countries have taken part in the Globalization process ever since the end of the Second World War. Being active members of international institutions like the IMF, World Bank Group, NATO or the WTO, the European countries have even developed a collective entity of their own, that of the European Union. In later years, Eastern European countries like Romania have also become a part of this globalised system. It is the aim of this paper to present the effects that this integration has brought in terms of economic development and security challenges for EU member states, by taking into consideration the example of Romania.

  1. Development of international organizations in the context of evolution of global political system

    M A Kaverin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses general regularities of development of international organizations. Dynamics of international organizations is described with the equation of biological populations’ growth and is related to the evolution of international multilateral law and world development parameters. As the result of the research, the evolution of global political system is represented with the system of international governance based on the multilateral mechanisms and the model of social structures’ types. The transformations in the system of international organizations partially confirm the hypothesis of emerging World-organism.

  2. The Conceptual Foundations for Ensuring the International Competitiveness of Tourism Company in the Context of Globalization

    Skarha Oleksandra O.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the conceptual-strategic principles of ensuring the international competitiveness of tourism enterprise. As result of research the essence and value of management of competitiveness of tourism enterprise in the conditions of globalization were considered. Factors of formation of competitive advantages, and also the reasons determining competitiveness of a tourism product have been determined. The main aspects of formation of quality of services provision have been identified. On the basis of the carried out research, the concept of integrated marketing communications has been formed, which is a combination of traditional ways of communication activity with the only synchronized communication, oriented towards establishing the multichannel relationships with different target audiences, with choosing an own marketing model for each audience. Application of the given concept would allow to optimally choose means of communication and to provide more effective realization of a tourism product at the international market of tourism services that will promote companies’ overgrowing their local status and gaining their self-importance on a global scale.

  3. The context and development of a global framework for plant conservation.

    Jackson, Peter Wyse; Sharrock, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    A new international initiative for plant conservation was first called for as a resolution of the International Botanical Congress in 1999. The natural home for such an initiative was considered to be the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the CBD agreed to consider a Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) at its 5th meeting in 2000. It was proposed that the GSPC could provide an innovative model approach for target setting within the CBD and, prior to COP5, a series of inter-sessional papers on proposed targets and their justification were developed by plant conservation experts. Key factors that ensured the adoption of the GSPC by the CBD in 2002 included: (1) ensuring that prior to and during COP5, key Parties in each region were supportive of the Strategy; (2) setting targets at the global level and not attempting to impose these nationally; and (3) the offer by Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) to support a GSPC position in the CBD Secretariat for 3 years, which provided a clear indication of the support for the GSPC from non-governmental organizations (NGO).

  4. RISK MANAGEMENT IN LENDING INSTITUTIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

    BOGHEAN FLORIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian companies are nowadays facing process of extinction of decisions based on risk and uncertainty, as a consequence of the permanent transforming process of the economy and because of the privatization, restructuring and globalization activities. The main forms of risk are can be grouped in eight categories: economical risks, financial risks, commercial risks, manufacturing risks, political risks, social risks, juridical risks, natural risks. Through its nature the decision is referring to the future, mainly being provisional. In any decisional process developed at the company level, there are involved in the same time some economical, techniques, juridical, human and managerial variables. The economic recession generated by the chaos affecting financial systems has profoundly distressed the public, business circles and political leaders. The crisis has inexorably had negative effects on global economic growth and will have political, strategic and social consequences as well. The contents of this paper encompasses theoretical and practical aspects, quantitative and qualitative analyses, all aimed at identifying, analysing and controlling bank risks and, last but not least, at managing these risks.

  5. GLOBALIZATION AND MASS-MEDIA IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Burtic Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a reality that we cannot deny or run away from. The economic, political or social issues, even if they have a starting point, spread very quickly, covering large areas in a very short time. Modern communication systems enable crisis transfer. They also bring us information about the actions that have been taken in order to overcome those critical circumstances. Does recession have positive aspects, too? If it has, what are these positive aspects and how can they be used to produce highest benefits? We will try to describe the concepts we maintain by means of some notorious works written by authors with a vast experience, some of them being Noble Prize winners. The idea that we propose is to bring hope out of this situation generated by crisis and globalization. The economic crisis has created a huge opportunity to the mass-media system: it brings the required information to citizens from different nations. Taking this into account, mass-media has played and still plays an important part in making the people involved find solutions and communicate whenever the decision makers are trying to hide facts. With the help of innovation and transformation, let’s look for solutions to develop our abilities, relationships, products, markets and results. We should never forget that the greatest and most impressive changes are often born in times of crisis.

  6. Adopting the euro: Romanian perspectives in the context of the global financial crisis

    Oros, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine Romania’s capacity to fulfil the nominal convergence criteria in the current context, in order to follow the calendar proposed for euro adoption in 2015. The paper analyzed the evolution of all five criteria under the impact of the current financial crisis and also looked at the forecast provided by national and international authorities. The study was conducted considering the relative situation with the euro area. The main finding is that the actual target for euro adoption could be complied with, provided further progress is made. We have also fond that the target should be achieved as it would represent a strong stimulus for the local government to implement additional measures to reduce public indebtedness and inflationary pressure.

  7. Political Reforms in a Global Context: Some Foreign Perspectives on Constitutional Thought in Late Imperial China

    Egas Moniz Bandeira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some outside views on the emergence of Chinese constitutional thought. It shows that Chinese constitutionalism in the beginning of the 20th century did matter to the outside world and did attract a large interest on a global scale. Foreign views were quite diverse. While most observers welcomed the adoption of a constitution in principle, there were many words of caution that such a transition should not be rushed, notedly among diplomats and politicians. Foreign powers thus adopted a policy of not pressuring China to adopt a constitution. In particular, this paper redefines the role of the Japanese statesman Itô Hirobumi, who continually tried to give his advice to the Qing government up until his death in 1909.

  8. Nuclear power planning in the context of global climate change - the Malaysian perspective

    Alawiah Musa; Fairuz Suzana Mohd Chachuli; Nik Arlina Nik Ali

    2007-01-01

    The global warming effect due to ?greenhouse gases? is a hot topic discussed by world climate scientists today. This effect causes sea levels to rise, countries experiencing extreme weather conditions, violent storms and long dry spells. In centuries to come, these catastrophic effects can cause the spread of diseases and destroy food production and human habitat. Over one-third of the greenhouse gases come from the burning of fossil fuel to generate electricity. Nuclear power plants do not generate these gases. This paper presents the results obtained from a case study using MESSAGE, an analytical tool developed by the IAEA, which was used to evaluate Malaysia future energy requirements and strategies in addressing climate change issues. (Author)

  9. Bioethics in biomedicine in the context of a global higher education area

    Liras Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The University is tasked with drawing together, transmitting and maintaining knowledge, while creating an area where the ethical "sense" required for working in the field of Biology and Biomedicine can be provided. Although scientific knowledge is present on an overwhelming scale in nature and, therefore, its discovery is unceasing, this does not mean that, as a human being, the researcher has no limitations. It is Bioethics that sets this limit. The successful spreading of knowledge, therefore, which is proclaimed with the creation of a Global Higher Education Area, should also pursue the establishment of the bioethical principles necessary for the credibility of science and its progress so that the society that it promotes and sustains becomes a reality.

  10. Public attitudes to coal use in the context of global warming

    Rohan Fernando [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Though coal remains the main fuel for power generation worldwide, concerns regarding the contribution of coal-fired power generation to global warming have also increased considerably in recent years. These concerns have somewhat eclipsed the many advantages of the use of coal for power generation. The attitudes of the public towards power generation from a particular fuel is an important factor in shaping government policy. For example, such attitudes are crucial in determining whether new coal-fired projects can proceed. This report describes current public attitudes towards coal-fired power plant in several countries both in the developed and developing world. It compares these attitudes with those reported in an earlier report on this subject produced in 2006. Since then, the publication of the IPCC report in 2007 and the greater worldwide consensus on the reality of global warming following the change in administrations in the USA and Australia would be expected to affect public attitudes. However, events in late 2009 have increased the levels of public scepticism. The report principally collates opinion poll data available on the public's attitude towards energy, environment and the use of coal for power generation. Whereas before 2006, surveys of attitudes towards energy sources commonly included coal-fired plant, more recently coal plant are rarely included, presumably as it is assumed that the public would be overwhelmingly opposed. Hence the subject has been broadened to include attitudes to climate changeand CCS. It also reports what national and international organisations say about the use of coal. It investigates what the general public and concerned organisations say should be done to reduce the greenhouse effect. Countries and regions chosen for particular focus are the USA, the European Union, the UK, India, Thailand and Australia. 121 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. Human rights and democracy in a global context: decoupling and recoupling

    Samantha Besson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human rights and democracy have been regarded as a mutually reinforcing couple by many political theorists to date. The internationalisation of human rights post-1945 is often said to have severed those links, however. Accounting for the legitimacy of international human rights requires exploring how human rights and democracy, once they have been decoupled or disconnected, can be recoupled or reunited across governance levels (vertically and maybe even at the same governance level (horizontally albeit beyond the state. The article does so in three steps. The first prong of the argument is dedicated to presenting the moral-political nature of human rights and their relationship to political equality and, hence, their inherent legal nature from a democratic theory perspective. The second section of the article then draws some implications for the domestic or international levels of legal recognition and specification of human rights by reference to their legitimation within the domestic democratic community. It explains the mutual relationship between human rights and citizens’ rights and where international human rights draw their democratic legitimacy from. In the third and final section, the author discusses potential changes in the nature and legitimacy of international human rights once political structures beyond the state become more democratic, and human rights and democracy are being recoupled again at various levels of governance. The European Union being one of the most advanced examples of post-national political integration, recent developments in the regime of human rights protection within the EU are discussed in this new light. In a final step, the transposition to the global level of the argument developed in the European case is assessed and the author flags issues for further research on what democratic theorists should hope for in the new global order.

  12. Going Global: A Model for Evaluating Empirically Supported Family-Based Interventions in New Contexts.

    Sundell, Knut; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Fraser, Mark W

    2014-06-01

    The spread of evidence-based practice throughout the world has resulted in the wide adoption of empirically supported interventions (ESIs) and a growing number of controlled trials of imported and culturally adapted ESIs. This article is informed by outcome research on family-based interventions including programs listed in the American Blueprints Model and Promising Programs. Evidence from these controlled trials is mixed and, because it is comprised of both successful and unsuccessful replications of ESIs, it provides clues for the translation of promising programs in the future. At least four explanations appear plausible for the mixed results in replication trials. One has to do with methodological differences across trials. A second deals with ambiguities in the cultural adaptation process. A third explanation is that ESIs in failed replications have not been adequately implemented. A fourth source of variation derives from unanticipated contextual influences that might affect the effects of ESIs when transported to other cultures and countries. This article describes a model that allows for the differential examination of adaptations of interventions in new cultural contexts. © The Author(s) 2012.

  13. Exploring Eco-Costs and Externalities Absorption Policies and Procedures in the Context of Global Warming

    Gina Raluca Guse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of recent international studies reveal the scarcity of coherent entity-level estimation systems able to lead to an adequate identification and valuation of social and environmental performance, despite the large number of entities claiming their concern for the environmental impact of their business activities.The status quo is mainly caused by the lack of domain-specific accounting regulation, along with a general "information gap" in the field of the potential benefits eco-costs and externalities absorption may generate. Eco-costs and externalities absorption technologies for the costing model are still going through their experimental stages, aiming to reflect both the historicalpolitical context and the philosophical motivations of an organization's management and stakeholders. We held as appropriate (and the paper at hand will speak for the intent to promote this class of technologies for the Romanianbusiness environment, mainly by reviewing the relevant literature in the field and developing an eco-costing model able to provide cost levels consistent with the sustainable development goals.

  14. Islamic Banking in Global Economic Context (Critical Studies of Operational System and Performance of Islamic Banking

    Jamal Abdul Aziz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan kajian terhadap sejarah kemunculan dan sistem operasional Bank Islam beserta kinerjanya, penulis menyimpulkan bahwa konsep bank Islam pada hakekatnya merupakan bentuk islamisasi terhadap institusi perbankan. Hanya saja proses islamisasi yang terjadi baru sebatas pada aspek-aspek yang bersifat marginal, artifisial, dan formal-institusional, seperti penggantian istilah-istilah teknis dalam dunia perbankan dengan istilah yang berasal dari fikih muamalah, penghapusan bunga, dan penolakan terhadap praktek-praktek bisnis yang haram. Selebihnya, bank Islam tidak berbeda dengan bank konvensional. Dampak dari islamisasi yang kurang substansial-komprehensif tersebut adalah timbulnya kesan bahwa bank Islam justru ‘terbelenggu’ oleh konsep-konsep fikih klasik yang mendasarinya, di mana ia cenderung kontra produktif dengan tren  bisnis moderen yang senantiasa menuntut efisiensi dan fleksibilitas. Agar tetap dapat survive di masa-masa mendatang, bank Islam perlu mengevaluasi diri secara terus menerus dengan selalu membuka diri terhadap berbagai kritikan yang dialamatkan kepadanya. Konsepsi yang terlalu berorientasi kepada doktrin harus diimbangi dengan kesadaran akan fakta-fakta dan tuntutan bisnis moderen, baik yang berskala lokal maupun global. Sementara itu cita-cita Islam yang ideal, seperti pemberantasan kemiskinan, pendistribusian kekayaan secara adil, dan penciptaan lapangan kerja, harus tetap menjadi orientasi utamanya. Kata Kunci:Riba, Profit and Loss Sharing, Mudlârabah, Murâbahah, Artificial Aspects of Islam  Abstract:Based on the study of the history of emergence and operation of Islamic Bank and its system performance, the author conclude that the concept of Islamic bank is essentially a form of Islamization of the banking institutions. Such Islamization are limited to the marginal, artificial, and formal-institutional aspects, such as the replacement of technical terms in the banking world with a term derived from the fiqh

  15. The global village in a local context. Implementing global awareness as a managerial competency within South Africa's multicultural mainstream media newsrooms

    E. Steyn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As part of a national research survey into the importance and implementation of six managerial competencies, this article aims to investigate the importance a national sample of reporters and first-line newsroom managers in South Africa's mainstream media attach to global awareness as a managerial competency. It also aims to establish gaps between the importance attached to and current implementation thereof by the latter. Design/Methodology/Approach: Qualitative and quantitative research designs were combined to obtain the most comprehensive view on the research problem. Quantitative data was compiled through self-administered questionnaires among first-line newsroom managers and reporters employed by the country's mainstream media. Qualitative data was obtained through semi-structured interviews and observational research. These sets of data were combined triangularly to improve validity and reliability. Quantitative data was analysed through factor analysis and effect size analysis, while qualitative data was analysed through qualitative content analysis. Findings: It was found that both respondent groups perceive first-line newsroom managers unable to implement the skills associated with the global awareness competency (given the importance they attach to it. While in some cases first-line newsroom managers themselves were more aware of their shortcomings, reporters highlighted other instances where they perceive their superiors unable to perform as expected. Implications: Given the challenges associated with globalisation, media managers need skills to identify and realise the impact of national and international changes on their business activities. South African media managers must also identify and address the challenges associated with the multilingual and multicultural backgrounds of their newsroom staff. Originality/Value: The dimensions of global awareness as a managerial competency are rooted in general management theory

  16. Rethinking Indian monsoon rainfall prediction in the context of recent global warming

    Wang, Bin; Xiang, Baoqiang; Li, Juan; Webster, Peter J.; Rajeevan, Madhavan N.; Liu, Jian; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) is at the heart of tropical climate prediction. Despite enormous progress having been made in predicting ISMR since 1886, the operational forecasts during recent decades (1989–2012) have little skill. Here we show, with both dynamical and physical–empirical models, that this recent failure is largely due to the models' inability to capture new predictability sources emerging during recent global warming, that is, the development of the central-Pacific El Nino-Southern Oscillation (CP–ENSO), the rapid deepening of the Asian Low and the strengthening of North and South Pacific Highs during boreal spring. A physical–empirical model that captures these new predictors can produce an independent forecast skill of 0.51 for 1989–2012 and a 92-year retrospective forecast skill of 0.64 for 1921–2012. The recent low skills of the dynamical models are attributed to deficiencies in capturing the developing CP–ENSO and anomalous Asian Low. The results reveal a considerable gap between ISMR prediction skill and predictability. PMID:25981180

  17. The global energy context: Chances and challenges for the 21st century

    Ott, G.

    2000-01-01

    Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2 billion people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency also in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

  18. Plurilingual reading practices in a global context: Circulation of books and linguistic inequalities

    Marie Rivière

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Media consumption is commonly seen as a major way of appropriating languages and cultures. Availability and accessibility of material are essential conditions for developing plurilingual cultural practices. Transnational circulation of cultural goods has reached a particular intensity in today’s world but is still marked by deep language inequalities. Combining sociolinguistic, language education, cultural sociology, and multiliteracy approaches, this study examines how plurilingual readers access books in their different languages. This qualitative analysis is based on 24 in-depth interviews with both migrant and non-migrant adults living in Western Europe. The findings indicate that printed and digital books in dominant languages circulate more easily, and through more visible and formal channels than books in dominated languages. In addition, the local and online book supply in dominant languages is generally cheaper and more varied, thus being more attractive. However, a wider range of means of access to books, and the active participation of the readers themselves in the circulation of cultural goods enable book-reading practices in less disseminated languages. Pedagogical recommendations for language teachers to encourage autonomous cultural practices among learners according to global evolutions and local specificities are provided.

  19. The global energy context -- chances and challenges for the 21st century

    Ott, G.

    2002-01-01

    Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2000 million people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

  20. Paid health and family leave: the Canadian experience in the global context.

    Heymann, S Jody; Gerecke, Megan; Chaussard, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Two thirds of Canadian adults participate in the workforce. Their health and that of their families can be markedly affected by the availability of paid sick leave, paid leave to care for family members' health and paid parental leave. We gathered data from all Canadian provinces and territories on these essential leave policies and compared Canadian policies with data collected on 186 United Nations (UN) countries. While Canada pays sickness benefits for 15 weeks for serious illnesses, globally at least 90 countries provide benefits for at least 26 weeks or until recovery. Moreover, within Canada only Saskatchewan and Quebec guarantee job protection if sick leave lasts over 12 days. The federal government guarantees Canadian workers six weeks of paid leave to provide care or support to gravely ill family members. Only 39 countries guarantee such leave with pay. Most, but not all, provinces guarantee workers' job protection during compassionate care leave. Eligibility for job protection during parental leave varies across the country from having no restrictions to requiring at least one year of service. Compared with Canada, many countries offer a longer duration of paid sick leave for employees and replace a higher percentage of wages lost. Internationally, Canada performs well in having policies that guarantee paid leave to care for dependants with serious illnesses, but it lags behind in the provision of paid leave to address the health needs of children or family members' with non-life-threatening conditions. Finally, while paid parental leave is of adequate duration, the wage replacement rate lowers its accessibility to families with limited means.

  1. Lung disease in a global context. A call for public health action.

    Schluger, Neil W; Koppaka, Ram

    2014-03-01

    As described in a recently released report of the Forum of International Respiratory Societies, four of the leading causes of death in the world are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory tract infections, lung cancer, and tuberculosis. A fifth, asthma, causes enormous global morbidity. Not enough progress has been made in introducing new therapies and reducing disease burden for these illnesses in the last few decades, despite generous investments and some notable progress in biomedical research. Four external and modifiable drivers are responsible for a substantial percentage of the disease burden represented by the major lung diseases: tobacco, outdoor air pollution, household air pollution, and occupational exposures to lung toxins. Especially in low- and middle-income countries, but in highly developed economies as well, pressures for economic development and lax regulation are contributing to the continued proliferation of these drivers. Public health approaches to the most common lung diseases could have enormous effects on reducing morbidity and mortality. There must be increased advocacy from and mobilization of civil society to bring attention to the drivers of lung diseases in the world. The World Health Organization should negotiate accords similar to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to address air pollution and occupational exposures. Large increases in funding by government agencies and nongovernmental organizations around the world are needed to identify technologies that will reduce health risks while allowing populations to enjoy the benefits of economic development. This paradigm, focused more on public health than on individual medical treatment, has the best chance of substantial reduction in the burden of lung disease around the world in the next several years.

  2. Physiological and Agronomic Performance of the Coffee Crop in the Context of Climate Change and Global Warming: A Review.

    DaMatta, Fábio M; Avila, Rodrigo T; Cardoso, Amanda A; Martins, Samuel C V; Ramalho, José C

    2018-05-30

    Coffee is one of the most important global crops and provides a livelihood to millions of people living in developing countries. Coffee species have been described as being highly sensitive to climate change, as largely deduced from modeling studies based on predictions of rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. Here, we discuss the physiological responses of the coffee tree in the context of present and ongoing climate changes, including drought, heat, and light stresses, and interactions between these factors. We also summarize recent insights on the physiological and agronomic performance of coffee at elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and highlight the key role of CO 2 in mitigating the harmful effects of heat stress. Evidence is shown suggesting that warming, per se, may be less harmful to coffee suitability than previously estimated, at least under the conditions of an adequate water supply. Finally, we discuss several mitigation strategies to improve crop performance in a changing world.

  3. Latin American Identity and The Contradictory Processes Involved in its Construction-Deconstruction-Reconfiguration in Global Contexts

    Víctor Hugo Ramos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the difficult and contradictory formation, consolidation and change processes of Latin American identity from an anthropological and holistic perspective and in the context of the emergence of the world-system from the conquest, colonization and independence struggles to its current reconfiguration in the midst of transnational globalization and the alternatives to it. This approach, which we could call dynamicsynthetic, sees identity as a constantly changing open process where contradictory dynamics interact in the construction-deconstruction-reconfiguration of Latin American identity in specific historical contexts. Our continental collective identity is analyzed as the result of complex strains among various civilizational dynamics and opposing geopolitical forces. Dialectical and dialogical processes work together to allow the “reconciliation” of converse and diverse elements in innovative syntheses and create a space for dialogue that fosters what is shared to have a positive interaction, without denying the specific. In other words, they facilitate the interaction between “we” and the “others”, the “national” and the “continental”, the “local” and the “global”, enabling a better understanding of our inclusive continental nominative process: “Hispano-American”, “Ibero-American”, “Latin American”

  4. The Politics of Gender Asylum in the U. S.: Protection of Women Asylum Seekers in the Context of Global Inequalities

    Marina Matešić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the changes towards more gender-sensitive interpretations of refugee status in international and national asylum laws and policies within the context of contemporary and historical global power relations. It also analyzes the changes in the language that can be found in the international UNHCR guidelines for the protection of women asylum seekers, U.S. national guidelines for assessing gender-related asylum claims, and recent U.S. court decisions assessing the gendered claims of women. Among the analyzed court cases, the focus is on the 2005 Mohammed case due to its problematic court decision and legal interpretations. Finding the Western countries’ instrumentalization of the international refugee protection system crucial for understanding the contemporary asylum system and women asylum seekers, the argument connects the historical conditions with the way in which the protection of women refugees from “cultural” gendered violence has been articulated in asylum politics in the U.S. The author’s overall findings are that international law, governmental organizations, and liberal women’s human rights NGOs have shaped the international and national legal protection of (women asylum seekers in such a way that it reproduces global inequalities in its representation of “Third World” women and their culture, uses women asylum seekers fleeing from violence for the purpose of exercising Western cultural superiority, and covers up the restrictive and racist Western asylum politics towards immigrants and asylum seekers.

  5. Modeling global residential sector energy demand for heating and air conditioning in the context of climate change

    Isaac, Morna; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we assess the potential development of energy use for future residential heating and air conditioning in the context of climate change. In a reference scenario, global energy demand for heating is projected to increase until 2030 and then stabilize. In contrast, energy demand for air conditioning is projected to increase rapidly over the whole 2000-2100 period, mostly driven by income growth. The associated CO 2 emissions for both heating and cooling increase from 0.8 Gt C in 2000 to 2.2 Gt C in 2100, i.e. about 12% of total CO 2 emissions from energy use (the strongest increase occurs in Asia). The net effect of climate change on global energy use and emissions is relatively small as decreases in heating are compensated for by increases in cooling. However, impacts on heating and cooling individually are considerable in this scenario, with heating energy demand decreased by 34% worldwide by 2100 as a result of climate change, and air-conditioning energy demand increased by 72%. At the regional scale considerable impacts can be seen, particularly in South Asia, where energy demand for residential air conditioning could increase by around 50% due to climate change, compared with the situation without climate change

  6. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Faulkner Alex

    2011-02-01

    -producing' each other in a multi-level, global ecology of innovation, taking account of the particular, differing characteristics of different emerging scientific fields and technologies. We suggest key points to take account of in order in the future to move toward a satisfactory integrative conceptual framework, capable of better understanding the processes of the emergence, state steerage and transnational governance of innovative biomedical sectors in the Rising Powers and global context.

  7. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    2011-01-01

    -level, global ecology of innovation, taking account of the particular, differing characteristics of different emerging scientific fields and technologies. We suggest key points to take account of in order in the future to move toward a satisfactory integrative conceptual framework, capable of better understanding the processes of the emergence, state steerage and transnational governance of innovative biomedical sectors in the Rising Powers and global context. PMID:21349182

  8. Global bioethics and human rights in an African context: A reformed theological discourse on global bioethics as a new human rights ethos

    A.L. Rheeder

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2005 UNESCO Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR is specifically aimed at Africa and developing countries from other regions. The acceptance of this UNESCO instrument shows that global bioethics and human rights have become part of the bioethics discourse of today. It is clear that there is a certain affinity between human rights and bioethics, which makes such a link desirable. The value of this link lies in the fact that human rights facilitate a normative universal expansion of bioethical principles. The human rights framework provides bioethical principles with some authority and political influence, an instrument that can protect people in our broken context. Human rights practice and a reformed understanding of natural law both show that humanity can reach consensus on ethical principles such as those found in the UDBHR. Consensus on the theoretical foundation of human rights is not a prerequisite for the successful utilisation of these principles.

  9. Prioritizing Candidate Disease Metabolites Based on Global Functional Relationships between Metabolites in the Context of Metabolic Pathways

    Yang, Haixiu; Xu, Yanjun; Han, Junwei; Li, Jing; Su, Fei; Zhang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Chunlong; Li, Dongguo; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Identification of key metabolites for complex diseases is a challenging task in today's medicine and biology. A special disease is usually caused by the alteration of a series of functional related metabolites having a global influence on the metabolic network. Moreover, the metabolites in the same metabolic pathway are often associated with the same or similar disease. Based on these functional relationships between metabolites in the context of metabolic pathways, we here presented a pathway-based random walk method called PROFANCY for prioritization of candidate disease metabolites. Our strategy not only takes advantage of the global functional relationships between metabolites but also sufficiently exploits the functionally modular nature of metabolic networks. Our approach proved successful in prioritizing known metabolites for 71 diseases with an AUC value of 0.895. We also assessed the performance of PROFANCY on 16 disease classes and found that 4 classes achieved an AUC value over 0.95. To investigate the robustness of the PROFANCY, we repeated all the analyses in two metabolic networks and obtained similar results. Then we applied our approach to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and found that a top ranked candidate was potentially related to AD but had not been reported previously. Furthermore, our method was applicable to prioritize the metabolites from metabolomic profiles of prostate cancer. The PROFANCY could identify prostate cancer related-metabolites that are supported by literatures but not considered to be significantly differential by traditional differential analysis. We also developed a freely accessible web-based and R-based tool at http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/PROFANCY. PMID:25153931

  10. A suitable job?: A qualitative study of becoming a nurse in the context of a globalizing profession in India.

    Johnson, Sonali E; Green, Judith; Maben, Jill

    2014-05-01

    Research on Indian nurses has focused on their participation as global migrant workers for whom opportunities abroad act as an incentive for many to migrate overseas. However, little is known about the careers of Indian nurses, or the impact of a globalized health care market on nurses who remain and on the profession itself in India. To explore nurses' accounts of entry into nursing in the context of the globalisation of the nursing profession in India, and the salience of 'migration' for nurses' individual careers. Qualitative interview study (n=56). The study drew on interviews with 56 nurses from six sites in Bangalore, India. These included two government hospitals, two private hospitals, a Christian mission hospital, a private outpatient clinic and two private nursing colleges. Participants were selected purposively to include nurses from Christian and Hindu backgrounds, a range of home States, ages and seniority and to deliberately over-recruit (rare) male nurses. Interviews covered how and why nurses entered nursing, their training and career paths to date, plans for the future, their experiences of providing nursing care and attitudes towards migration. Data analysis drew on grounded theory methods. Nursing is traditionally seen as a viable career particularly for women from Christian communities in India, where it has created inter-generational 'nurse families'. In a globalizing India, nursing is becoming a job 'with prospects' transcending traditional caste, class and gender boundaries. Almost all nurses interviewed who intended seeking overseas employment envisaged migration as a short term option to satisfy career objectives - increased knowledge, skills and economic rewards - that could result in long-term professional and social status gains 'back home' in India. For others, migration was not part of their career plan: yet the increases in status that migration possibilities had brought were crucial to framing nursing as a 'suitable job' for a

  11. Employer Brand Strategies of the Antena 1 and Antena 3 TV Broadcasters in the Context of Globalization

    Viorica Paus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The “employer brand” concept has recently entered the field of human resources. This study aims to analyze how the two national TV broadcasters Antena 1 and Antena 3 apply this concept and how the employer brand customizes and enhances the distinctive values of the organization through its employees. Ambler and Barrow defined for the first time the term of “employer brand”, in the Journal of Brand Management in 1996. We conducted an exploratory research in order to identify the presence of branding activities. We used the survey, the interview and the analysis of documents promoting the image of the organization. Correlated results demonstrate that high employee satisfaction leads to enhancing performance, which increases the audience ratings and improves the “brand equity”, thus making the human resource part of the organization brand and contributing to its success and international visibility. Given the early exploration of the concept, our research seeks to provide models of good practice for implementing this concept in the human resources policies of Romanian media institutions in the context of globalization.

  12. Contextualism Revisited: Towards a More Relevant Conceptualization of Public Administration for Ethical and Sustainable Leadership in the Global Context

    Asghar Zomorrodian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how the contextual approach to the conceptualization and the design of public administration systems can still be a viable alternative for today’s environment. By making reference to a proposed conceptual model, predominantly based on the cultural and social values in different contexts, the paper juxtaposes both the traditional Universalists and recent NPM approaches to the Contextual model by reviewing the literature on the impacts of globalization and other recent developments in the area public administration and public policy both at the national and international levels. Special attention is paid to the significance of two major elements of ethical leadership and governance for creating a viable and sustainable public administration system that incorporates and emphasizes the process of political development and enhancing the civil society based on indigenous cultural and social values. The conclusion of the paper reinforces the validity and utility of the contextual approach by including these two major elements into its original conceptual framework.

  13. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  14. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  15. 导言:全球化背景下的当代中国文化建设%Introduction: building contemporary Chinese culture in the context of globalization

    叶险明

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building contemporary Chinese culture is a very important research topic in the context of globalization. It involves almost the entire domain of philosophy, the humanities and the social sciences, covering every aspect of life in Chinese society. The three aspects below are the most important for this task.

  16. Examining the Efficacy of Project-Based Learning on Cultivating the 21st Century Skills among High School Students in a Global Context

    Lin, Chi-Syan; Ma, Jung-Tsan; Kuo, Karen Yi-Chwen; Chou, Chien-Tzu Candace

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study is to explore the opportunities and challenges associated with Project-Based Learning strategy in a global context on the aspects of both fostering learning community of practices and nurturing the 21st century skills. For collecting empirical data, the study implements and administers an online international project-based…

  17. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  18. THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF GLOBAL STRATEGIES FOR THE TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIETY AND EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF CRITICAL THEORY

    Viktor V. Zinchenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. Critical social philosophy of education strives to provide a radical critique of existing models of education in the so-called Western models of democracy, creating progressive alternative models. In this context, the proposed integrative metatheory, which is based on classical and modern sources, concepts, aims for a comprehensive understanding and reconstruction of the phenomenon of education. One of the main tasks in the sphere of education’s democratization today, therefore, is to bring to education the results of restructuring and democratization of the society, to reflect changes in conditions of life and thinking, experience and transformation of subjectivity in the context of the technological revolution and globalization. Methodology. The critical social theory, which developed in the framework of contemporary neo-Marxism, indicates the need for a thorough analysis of society, however, unlike other theoretical concepts and research programs in order to analyze not a fixation and a statement of the existing social givens. On the contrary, critical analysis of society involves the identification of existing antagonistic, alienating factors that distort public communication.The subject of social analysis is the whole sphere of human and non-human nature, which interacts a person depend on it, the whole system of relations between society and nature, society and man, which is covered by the historical practice of conscious – "praxis". The representative of "pure science" isn't the learning, research subject. He is a public a person, which is the totality of all social definitions included in society and its constituent individuals. For such a "total subject" Object of interest is not something external; on the contrary, the latter appears as a product of his own activity. The scientific novelty examines trends in educational institutions and models of globalizing society in the context of our particular

  19. The Asian Criminological Paradigm and How It Links Global North and South: Combining an Extended Conceptual Toolbox from the North with Innovative Asian Contexts

    Jianhong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In their recent seminal paper ‘Southern Criminology’, Carrington, Hogg and Sozzo (2016 address the issue of the global divide between South/North relations in the hierarchal production of criminological knowledge. They point out that the divide privileges theories, assumptions and methods that are largely based on the empirical specificities of the global North. Carrington et al. contend that the dominance of global North criminology has led to a severe underdevelopment of criminology in the global South, except ‘in Asia, with the establishment of the Asian Criminological Society and its journal’ (Liu 2009, in Carrington et al. 2016: 3. Carrington et al. propose an important task of bridging the global divide through further developing criminology in the global South. My present paper reviews the development of Asian criminology under the framework of the Asian Criminological Paradigm (Liu 2009. I primarily review the conceptual and theoretical developments, to suggest strategies that can contribute to the task of bridging the gap between global North and South. What Asian criminology has done is expand the theoretical tool box originally developed in the global North through the strategies of transportation of theories, elaboration of theories, and proposing new concepts and theories based on the empirical grounds of Asian contexts.

  20. Peculiarities of spreading separatist trends in the Modern World in the context of development of the global processes

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The international collaboration is entering the new era of globalization revealing not only the new ways of development and quantum growth for humanity but also new threats, problems and global conflicts. There is now doubt that humanity is facing new global range of problems, agenda of the 21st century and urgent issues of global organization of the world order and systems of global administration acceptable for all states. Preventing distribution of international confrontation between the major political players through advancement of separatist and terrorist trends must become the main priority for the international system of collective security, which should be changed according to the realities of the modern global processes.

  1. Globalization and structural change in the U.S. forest sector: an evolving context for sustainable forest management

    Peter Ince; Albert Schuler; Henry Spelter; William Luppold

    2007-01-01

    This report examines economic implications for sustainable forest management of globalization and related structural changes in the forest sector of the United States. Globalization has accelerated structural change in the U.S. forest sector, favored survival of larger and more capital-intensive enterprises, and altered historical patterns of resource use.

  2. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  3. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  4. On the integration developmental characteristics as a form of international policy in the context of modern globalization processes

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under globalization of the world community, there are new opportunities and potential threats to the current system of international relations, collective security and geopolitical development of different regions. Integration and regionalization, consolidation and separatism entered upon the agenda of the political present. The integration process becomes one of the variations of peaceful and mutually beneficial solution to the question of the globalization influence of uneven development of the world regions, the fight against global problems of humanity, discrimination and intolerance, spread the values of democracy, rights, freedom and equality.

  5. The Role of Global University Rankings in the Process of Increasing the Competitiveness of Russian Education in the Context of Globalization and the Export of Educational Technologies

    Avralev, Nikita; Efimova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Article is devoted to the new conditions for the development of society characterized by the reconstruction of the course of higher education by increasing the competitiveness of Russian universities in the world scientific and educational space and the global university rankings as indicators of the implementation of the integration process and…

  6. Beef Cattle Farms’ Conversion to the Organic System. Recommendations for Success in the Face of Future Changes in a Global Context

    Alfredo J. Escribano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dehesa is a remarkable agroforestry system, which needs the implementation of sustainable production systems in order to reduce its deterioration. Moreover, its livestock farms need to adapt to a new global market context. As a response, the organic livestock sector has expanded not only globally but also in the region in search for increased overall sustainability. However, conversions to the organic system have been commonly carried out without analyzing farms’ feasibility to do so. This analysis is necessary before implementing any new production system in order to reduce both the diversity of externalities that the variety of contexts leads to and the vulnerability of the DDehesa ecosystem to small management changes. Within this context and in the face of this gap in knowledge, the present paper analyzes the ease of such conversions and the farms’ chances of success after conversion in the face of global changes (market and politics. Different aspects (“areas of action” were studied and integrated within the Global Conversion Index (GCI, and the legal requirement for European organic farming, organic principles, future challenges for ruminants’ production systems, as well as the lines of action for the post-2013 CAP (Common Agricultural Policy and their impacts on the beef cattle sector were taken into account. Results revealed that farms must introduce significant changes before initiating the conversion process, since they had very low scores on the GCI (42.74%, especially with regard to health and agro-ecosystem management (principle of Ecology. Regarding rearing and animal welfare (principle of justice/fairness, farms were close to the organic system. From the social point of view, active participation in manufacturing and marketing of products should be increased.

  7. Changes in equatorial zonal circulations and precipitation in the context of the global warming and natural modes

    Kim, B. H.; Ha, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    The strengthening and westward shift of Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC) is observed during the recent decades. However, the relative roles of global warming and natural variability on the change in PWC unclearly remain. By conducting numerical atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments using the spatial SST patterns in the global warming and natural modes which are obtained by the multi-variate EOF analysis from three variables including precipitation, sea surface temperature (SST), and divergent zonal wind, we indicated that the westward shift and strengthening of PWC are caused by the global warming SST pattern in the global warming mode and the negative Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation-like SST pattern in the natural mode. The SST distribution of the Pacific Ocean (PO) has more influence on the changes in equatorial zonal circulations and tropical precipitation than that of the Indian Ocean (IO) and Atlantic Ocean (AO). The change in precipitation is also related to the equatorial zonal circulations variation through the upward and downward motions of the circulations. The IO and AO SST anomalies in the global warming mode can affect on the changes in equatorial zonal circulations, but the influence of PO SST disturbs the Indian Walker circulation and Atlantic Walker circulation changes by the IO and AO. The zonal shift of PWC is found to be highly associated with a zonal gradient of SST over the PO through the idealized numerical AGCM experiments and predictions of CMIP5 models.

  8. 全球化脈絡下的教育課題:全球教育 The Educational Topic Within the Globalizing Context Global Education

    顏佩如 Pey-Ru Yen

    2005-01-01

    本文首先談及全球化與反全球化思潮及活動,談及「全球教育」是化解全球下議題的要件,並陳述全球教育在歷史發展中遭受政治與宗教的挑戰與回應;第二,筆者將談及全球教育的發展,包括全球教育概念的分析、比較、遷移、發展分期、我國研究發展,以及概念轉變的綜合評析;第三,談到全球教育觀點的變遷與國際概況;第四,談到全球教育的「世界-本土」關係、全球教育的責任、哲理建構的探究等,最後提出全球教育的理想與展望。 This article mainly explored the thoughts and activities of the globalization and anti-globalization, and talked about that “global education” could be one of the essential factors to bring reconciliation among the arguments and issues. Then, the composer indicated the challenge and the response...

  9. "Permission to Speak": A Postcolonial View on Racialized Bodies and PE in the Current Context of Globalization

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The current neoliberal context of schools presents difficult challenges in addressing persistent issues of social inequalities. In this article, first, I argue that because of today's market-driven education, the rise of fitness testing in school physical education (PE) can be seriously detrimental to young people in general and to ethnic-minority…

  10. Semiautomatic imputation of activity travel diaries : use of global positioning system traces, prompted recall, and context-sensitive learning algorithms

    Moiseeva, A.; Jessurun, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The new generation of dynamic activity-based models requires multiday or multiweek activity-travel data. Global Positioning System (GPS) tracers may be a powerful technology to collect such data, but previous applications of this technology to collect data of full activity travel patterns (not just

  11. Legal Obligation in the Global Context. Some Remarks on the Boundaries and Allegiances Among Persons Beyond the State

    Pavlakos, George

    -, č. 16 (2012) ISSN 1028-3625 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : global legal order * legal obligation * coercion Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/21758/RSCAS_2012_16.pdf?sequence=1

  12. Local-global knowledge sourcing in the context of an open innovation knowledge platform : the case of Amsterdam Denim City

    DiVito, Lori; Ingen-Housz, Zita

    2016-01-01

    Our paper investigates the inherent tensions between the local embeddedness of highly tacit knowledge and the global sourcing of ‘open’ knowledge or innovation. A single case study design enabled us to perform a thorough and detailed analysis of inter-firm collaboration and open innovation within

  13. The Use of Engineering Design Scenarios to Assess Student Knowledge of Global, Societal, Economic, and Environmental Contexts

    McKenna, Ann F.; Hynes, Morgan M.; Johnson, Amy M.; Carberry, Adam R.

    2016-01-01

    Product archaeology as an educational approach asks engineering students to consider and explore the broader societal and global impacts of a product's manufacturing, distribution, use, and disposal on people, economics, and the environment. This study examined the impact of product archaeology in a project-based engineering design course on…

  14. Towards a Global Comprehensive Context-driven and Decision-focused Theory and Method for a New Political Economy

    Winston P. Nagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is currently significant dissatisfaction with conventional economic theory. The unreliability of conventional theory as a predictor of future economic possibilities of catastrophes emphasizes the need for a new paradigm of political economy. This paper provides a capsule of some of the important limitations and consequences of the “old” paradigm. It proposes the necessary elements of a new paradigm and it seeks to locate the new paradigm of political economy in terms of its global reach. This requires a richer contextual approach, with the tools of contextual mapping. It has as well a focus on the global process of effective power and the emerging rule of law based constitutive processes. This is a key to the role of decision and the architecture of decision-making in political economy. We conclude with the global to local implications of the Vicos Experiment in Peru. Finally, we stress the wider lens of focus to identify the real and not the illusory generation of value. The implications here facilitate real global democratization.

  15. The Economic Sovereignty of the State as the Defining Instrument of Economic Policy in the Context of Globalization

    Mykytas Viktoriia V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is characterized by rapid integration and globalization processes, which have both a positive and a negative impact on the development of each country. National economies operate in the midst of global uncertainty, which is becoming the platform for the formation and implementation of the State economic policy, which should not only describe the conditions for strategic development of country but also adequately respond to the risks emerging out of the complex integration processes. The failure of the State to respond in a timely and adequate manner to the risks will result in lesser benefits and positive effects of integration processes than the impact of destabilizing factors. In such circumstances, economic sovereignty becomes the most important instrument of the State through which it can defend its national economic interests and form an effective economic policy.

  16. Adaptation of the tourism in Romania to the new economic context imposed by the global economic crisis (in 2010

    Silvia IFTIME

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis affected the tourist market from Romania since 2008. 2010 was for the Romanian tourism enterprises the year of successful attempts to respond to the economic and social stimuli imposed by the economic crisis. The way in which they managed to cope with the crisis shows that solutions are available to those who adapt to the conditions of fierce competition.The global economic crisis rippled its effects in all areas of activity, tourism included. Some field entrepreneurs consider that tourism will be the most affected sector of services by this crisis because the consumers will leave it at the bottom of the basket of consumption goods and services.

  17. ONLINE TOURISM IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION - STUDY CONCERNING THE PRESENCE OF THE TRAVEL AGENCIES ON THE INTERNET

    Aluculesei Alina-Cerasela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a dynamic domain and sensitive to changes caused by globalization. It is modeled both by operators and tourists, being in a constant transformation. The presence of the Internet and using it constantly turns the distance from impediment in ordinary. Destinations that not long ago were regarded with suspicion today can be explored including through testimonials of tourists from around the world. This study addresses one of the most important changes among travel agencies due to globalization that is moving their activity online. The research is made on the travel agencies from Romania in 2013 and includes both general issues such as the existence of a website, consumer protection in the online environment, card payment possibility on the site, and particular aspects, such as spa deals, social offers and tourist information.

  18. Impact assessment on the performance of e-learning in corporate training programs in the context of globalization

    Gavril Roxana Maria; Kiehne Jan; Hell Christian Richard; Kirschner Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify the main criteria based on which e-Learning is used in organizational development with positive impact on business performance. Globalization has led to a multitude of changing markets, including learning and education. While quality production systems are implemented based on imposed standards, the business knowledge of employees varies in each country, mirroring the education system provided locally. The results are individually different knowledge gaps...

  19. CONVERGENCES AND DIVERGENCES IN ACCOUNTING FOR INTANGIBLE ASSETS IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION OF EXCHANGES AND TRANSNATIONALIZATION OF COMPANIES

    Victoria FIRESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The current accounting treatment of intangible assets is far from being generally accepted and defined in the knowledge-based economy. The recognition and evaluation of internally generated trademarks is an unsolved aspect of accounting regulations in the context of a transnationalization phenomenon. On the other hand, residual goodwill cannot reflect the intellectual capital and the company's knowledge which help optimize and create durable value. To prevent an alteration of the comparability of companies’ financial statements, it is recommended that financial analysts take into account the economic goodwill based on entity economic performance and not the accounting goodwill which follows accounting regulations.

  20. Fire Scenarios in Spain: A Territorial Approach to Proactive Fire Management in the Context of Global Change

    Cristina Montiel Molina; Luis Galiana-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Humans and fire form a coupled and co-evolving natural-human system in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. In this context, recent trends in landscape change, such as urban sprawl or the abandoning of agricultural and forest land management in line with new models of economic development and lifestyles, are leading to new fire scenarios. A fire scenario refers to the contextual factors of a fire regime, i.e., the environmental, socio-economic and policy drivers of wildfire initiation and propag...

  1. Relationship between wine composition and temperature: Impact on Bordeaux wine typicity in the context of global warming-Review.

    Drappier, Julie; Thibon, Cécile; Rabot, Amélie; Geny-Denis, Laurence

    2017-10-24

    Weather conditions throughout the year have a greater influence than other factors (such as soil and cultivars) on grapevine development and berry composition. Temperature affects gene expression and enzymatic activity of primary and secondary metabolism which determine grape ripening and wine characteristics. In the context of the climate change, temperatures will probably rise between 0.3°C and 1.7°C over the next 20 years. They are already rising and the physiology of grapevines is already changing. These modifications exert a profound shift in primary (sugar and organic acid balance) and secondary (phenolic and aromatic compounds) berry metabolisms and the resulting composition of wine. For example, some Bordeaux wines have a tendency toward reduced freshness and a modification of their ruby color. In this context it is necessary to understand the impact of higher temperatures on grape development, harvest procedures, and wine composition in order to preserve the typicity of the wines and to adapt winemaking processes.

  2. Pharmacogenomics and Global Precision Medicine in the Context of Adverse Drug Reactions: Top 10 Opportunities and Challenges for the Next Decade.

    Alessandrini, Marco; Chaudhry, Mamoonah; Dodgen, Tyren M; Pepper, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    In a move indicative of the enthusiastic support of precision medicine, the U.S. President Barack Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in January 2015. The global precision medicine ecosystem is, thus, receiving generous support from the United States ($215 million), and numerous other governments have followed suit. In the context of precision medicine, drug treatment and prediction of its outcomes have been important for nearly six decades in the field of pharmacogenomics. The field offers an elegant solution for minimizing the effects and occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) plays an important role in this context, and it aims at specifically guiding the translation of clinically relevant and evidence-based pharmacogenomics research. In this forward-looking analysis, we make particular reference to several of the CPIC guidelines and their role in guiding the treatment of highly relevant diseases, namely cardiovascular disease, major depressive disorder, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus, with a view to predicting and managing ADRs. In addition, we provide a list of the top 10 crosscutting opportunities and challenges facing the fields of precision medicine and pharmacogenomics, which have broad applicability independent of the drug class involved. Many of these opportunities and challenges pertain to infrastructure, study design, policy, and science culture in the early 21st century. Ultimately, rational pharmacogenomics study design and the acquisition of comprehensive phenotypic data that proportionately match the genomics data should be an imperative as we move forward toward global precision medicine.

  3. Impact assessment on the performance of e-learning in corporate training programs in the context of globalization

    Gavril Roxana Maria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to identify the main criteria based on which e-Learning is used in organizational development with positive impact on business performance. Globalization has led to a multitude of changing markets, including learning and education. While quality production systems are implemented based on imposed standards, the business knowledge of employees varies in each country, mirroring the education system provided locally. The results are individually different knowledge gaps which challenged the learning industry to develop new strategies embedded in e-learning solutions. Major contribution to theory and practice on combining vision and spoken learning is brought by the work of psychologists and professors of education (Allen, 2012; Mayer, 2009; Hattie, 2009. Their innovations offered solutions for easy access to knowledge and implementation methods, as well as the documentation of the inclusion of videos in e-learning modules (Halls, 2012, offering teachers and trainers the possibility to create a live experience to trainees engaged in e-learning programs. This paper is based on data collected internationally and our empirical research undertaken in Romania, which is Europe’s main cluster for various production industries and world’s second for IT. Based on a questionnaire, we interviewed 18 multinational companies which perform parts of their business activities in Romania. Research results show that with the implementation of an effective e-learning strategy a 40-60% cost reduction, a complete measurability of the learning process and a standardized input and outcome of trainings has been achieved. This paper aims to highlight the impact of e-learning applied for business trainings within global developing companies. This study may be applicable to state education and thus could help to reduce the gap between local education and global expectations.

  4. Biomass energy technologies for rural infrastructure and village power - opportunities and challenges in the context of global climate change concerns

    Kishore, V.V.N.; Bhandari, P.M.; Gupta, P.

    2004-01-01

    The potential and role of biomass resources in developing countries for addressing global climate change concerns are highlighted using India as a case study. Promotion of technologies, which use biomass more efficiently, is seen as a key strategy to integrate the concerns of both developing countries and developed countries. The role of various biomass technologies for improving rural infrastructure and village power is discussed in detail. A vision of establishing and running a chain of rural energy service companies, operating with a basket of devices and technologies, under the general provisions of CDM, is examined for commercialization and mainstreaming of biomass technologies which have achieved reasonable levels of maturity. (author)

  5. Determinants for the development of dry ports in China in the context of the functioning of the global supply chains

    Joanna Miklińska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry ports are nowadays becoming important elements of global supply chains. In the case of China, for more than a decade, the intensive development of dry ports may be observed. The main subject of this article are determinants and framework of the development of dry ports in China. Also the development of the seaborne trade of China and the economic development of central and western regions of the country are discussed. There are presented examples of dry ports located in various parts of the country and selected conditions associated with their formation.

  6. The competitiveness of nations and firms in a global context - implications for poverty alleviation in developing countries

    Kuada, John Ernest

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses attention on the human side of national and firm-level competitiveness in a dynamic global business environment. It introduces the concept of human capability development into the business economics literature, arguing that competitiveness depends on the overall capability...... of people, not only in a technical sense of having required work competencies and applying them efficiently but also on work attitude and behaviours that produce inter-human trust and collaboration. The human capability development construct is defined in terms of the following four sets of factors - (1...

  7. Road safety perspectives among employees of a multinational corporation in urban India: local context for global injury prevention.

    Jacoby, Sara F; Winston, Flaura K; Richmond, Therese S

    2017-12-01

    In rapidly developing economies, like urban India, where road traffic injury rates are among the world's highest, the corporate workplace offers a non-traditional venue for road safety interventions. In partnership with a major multinational corporation (MNC) with a large Indian workforce, this study aimed to elicit local employee perspectives on road safety to inform a global corporate health platform. The safety attitudes and behaviours of 75 employees were collected through self-report survey and focus groups in the MNC offices in Bangalore and Pune. Analysis of these data uncovered incongruity between employee knowledge of safety strategies and their enacted safety behaviours and identified local preference for interventions and policy-level actions. The methods modelled by this study offer a straightforward approach for eliciting employee perspective for local road safety interventions that fit within a global strategy to improve employee health. Study findings suggest that MNCs can employ a range of strategies to improve the road traffic safety of their employees in settings like urban India including: implementing corporate traffic safety policy, making local infrastructure changes to improve road and traffic conditions, advocating for road safety with government partners and providing employees with education and access to safety equipment and safe transportation options.

  8. Welfare state, labour market inequalities and health. In a global context: an integrated framework. SESPAS report 2010.

    Muntaner, Carles; Benach, Joan; Chung, Haejoo; Edwin, N G; Schrecker, Ted

    2010-12-01

    Since the nineteen seventies, high- and low-income countries have undergone a pattern of transnational economic and cultural integration known as globalization. The weight of the available evidence suggests that the effects of globalization on labor markets have increased economic inequality and various forms of economic insecurity that negatively affect workers' health. Research on the relation between labor markets and health is hampered by the social invisibility of many of these health inequalities. Empirical evidence of the impact of employment relations on health inequalities is scarce for low-income countries, small firms, rural settings, and sectors of the economy in which "informality" is widespread. Information is also scarce on the effectiveness of labor market interventions in reducing health inequalities. This pattern is likely to continue in the future unless governments adopt active labor market policies. Such policies include creating jobs through state intervention, regulating the labor market to protect employment, supporting unions, and ensuring occupational safety and health standards. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Zimbabwe's Human Resources for health Information System (ZHRIS)-an assessment in the context of establishing a global standard.

    Waters, Keith P; Zuber, Alexandra; Simbini, Tungamirirai; Bangani, Zwashe; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh S

    2017-04-01

    There have been numerous global calls to action to utilize human resources information systems (HRIS) to improve the availability and quality of data for strengthening the regulation and deployment of health workers. However, with no normative guidance in existence, the development of HRIS has been inconsistent and lacking in standardization, hindering the availability and use of data for health workforce planning and decision making (Riley et al., 2012). CDC and WHO partnered with the Ministry of Health in several countries to conduct HRIS functional requirements analyses and establish a Minimum Data Set (MDS) of elements essential for a global standard HRIS. As a next step, CDC advanced a study to examine the alignment of one of the HRIS it supports (in Zimbabwe) against this MDS. For this study, we created a new data collection and analysis tool to assess the extent to which Zimbabwe's CDC-supported HRIS was aligned with the WHO MDS. We performed systematic "gap analyses" in order to make prioritized recommendations for addressing the gaps, with the aim of improving the availability and quality of data on Zimbabwe's health workforce. The majority of the data elements outlined in the WHO MDS were present in the ZHRIS databases, though they were found to be missing various applicable elements. The lack of certain elements could impede functions such as health worker credential verification or equitable in-service training allocation. While the HRIS MDS treats all elements equally, our assessment revealed that not all the elements have equal significance when it comes to data utilization. Further, some of the HRIS MDS elements exceeded the current needs of regulatory bodies and the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) in Zimbabwe. The preliminary findings of this study helped inspire the development of a more recent HRH Registry MDS subset, which is a shorter list of priority data elements recommended as a global standard for HRIS. The field-tested assessment

  10. China's energy statistics in a global context: A methodology to develop regional energy balances for East, Central and West China

    Mischke, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    for research and policy analysis. An improved understanding of the quality and reliability of Chinese economic and energy data is becoming more important to to understanding global energy markets and future greenhouse gas emissions. China’s national statistical system to track such changes is however still...... developing and, in some instances, energy data remain unavailable in the public domain. This working paper discusses China’s energy and economic statistics in view of identifying suitable indicators to develop a simplified regional energy systems for China from a variety of publicly available data. As China......’s national statistical system continuous to be debated and criticised in terms of data quality, comparability and reliability, an overview of the milestones, status and main issues of China’s energy statistics is given. In a next step, the energy balance format of the International Energy Agency is used...

  11. The impact of labor policies on the health of young children in the context of economic globalization.

    Heymann, Jody; Earle, Alison; McNeill, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has transformed the workplace at the same time that increasing numbers of children live in families in which all adults work for pay outside the home. Extensive research evidence demonstrates the importance of parental involvement in the early years of a child's life. Yet, parents caring for young children may face challenges in fulfilling both work and family responsibilities under current labor force conditions. In this article, we review the evidence on the importance of parental care for meeting young children's routine care needs, preventive health care needs, and curative medical treatment requirements. We examine the evidence regarding the impact of four policies in particular on young children's health and development: parental leave, breastfeeding breaks, early childhood care and education, and leave for children's health needs. Last, we examine the availability of these policies worldwide and discuss the potential economic implications.

  12. The effect of ocean acidification on carbon storage and sequestration in seagrass beds; a global and UK context.

    Garrard, Samantha L; Beaumont, Nicola J

    2014-09-15

    Ocean acidification will have many negative consequences for marine organisms and ecosystems, leading to a decline in many ecosystem services provided by the marine environment. This study reviews the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on seagrasses, assessing how this may affect their capacity to sequester carbon in the future and providing an economic valuation of these changes. If ocean acidification leads to a significant increase in above- and below-ground biomass, the capacity of seagrass to sequester carbon will be significantly increased. The associated value of this increase in sequestration capacity is approximately £500 and 600 billion globally between 2010 and 2100. A proportionally similar increase in carbon sequestration value was found for the UK. This study highlights one of the few positive stories for ocean acidification and underlines that sustainable management of seagrasses is critical to avoid their continued degradation and loss of carbon sequestration capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Of Asian forests and European fields: Eastern U.S. plant invasions in a global floristic context.

    Jason D Fridley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogeographic patterns of species invasions hold important clues to solving the recalcitrant 'who', 'where', and 'why' questions of invasion biology, but the few existing studies make no attempt to distinguish alien floras (all non-native occurrences from invasive floras (rapidly spreading species of significant management concern, nor have invasion biologists asked whether particular habitats are consistently invaded by species from particular regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here I describe the native floristic provenances of the 2629 alien plant taxa of the Eastern Deciduous Forest of the Eastern U.S. (EUS, and contrast these to the subset of 449 taxa that EUS management agencies have labeled 'invasive'. Although EUS alien plants come from all global floristic regions, nearly half (45% have native ranges that include central and northern Europe or the Mediterranean (39%. In contrast, EUS invasive species are most likely to come from East Asia (29%, a pattern that is magnified when the invasive pool is restricted to species that are native to a single floristic region (25% from East Asia, compared to only 11% from northern/central Europe and 2% from the Mediterranean. Moreover, East Asian invaders are mostly woody (56%, compared to just 23% of the total alien flora and are significantly more likely to invade intact forests and riparian areas than European species, which dominate managed or disturbed ecosystems. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These patterns suggest that the often-invoked 'imperialist dogma' view of global invasions equating invasion events with the spread of European colonialism is at best a restricted framework for invasion in disturbed ecosystems. This view must be superseded by a biogeographic invasion theory that is explicitly habitat-specific and can explain why particular world biotas tend to dominate particular environments.

  14. Innovations and Innovative Approaches or Pseudo-Innovations in the Context of General Globalization? It's Time to Wake Up!

    Tchernev, Georgi

    2018-01-25

    Globalisation, scientific and technical progress are the basis of numerous innovative therapies for oncologic and non-oncologic diseases. It is another matter how much and by whom they are desired, and whether they have to be applied. When and how often? Innovative approaches should go towards simplification, universal distribution and application while at the same time analysis between the potential initial investment and the achieved final result should be made. An illustrative example for this is the targeted therapy for melanoma with its low baseline criteria or basic rules for its surgical treatment. Another example could be the confocal microscopy in the context of dysplastic nevus syndrome. Therapies for various autoimmune diseases should also be considered critically. In the current OAMJMS issue, as well as in some of our other ideas and statements reported also in OAMJMS, we are trying to answer at least to a part of these dilemmas, to provoke a critical point of view and to ask some simple questions: "Should any innovation be considered as a face value? Which is potentially beneficial for our patients? How could we regulate the processes to minimise the need for expensive medications for certain diseases? And, of course, we are also turning to our own mistakes by visualising the results of them!

  15. "Permission to Speak": A Postcolonial View on Racialized Bodies and PE in the Current Context of Globalization.

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The current neoliberal context of schools presents difficult challenges in addressing persistent issues of social inequalities. In this article, first, I argue that because of today's market-driven education, the rise of fitness testing in school physical education (PE) can be seriously detrimental to young people in general and to ethnic-minority young people's embodied identity in particular. Second, I explain how the racialization process circulated by the body-at-risk discourse, sustained by the media, and reproduced by high-stakes testing in PE forces ethnic-minority young people to construct their identities through White eyes, which alienates them from a consciousness of their own identity. Third, I explore the possible uses and pitfalls of Spivak's theoretical notion of "strategic essentialism" to put forward strategies to build a positive image of the "other" while attempting to avoid the erasure of difference. Fourth, I conclude the article by suggesting how Spivak's notion of strategic essentialism can be useful in rethinking current PE fitness practices.

  16. Fire Scenarios in Spain: A Territorial Approach to Proactive Fire Management in the Context of Global Change

    Cristina Montiel Molina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans and fire form a coupled and co-evolving natural-human system in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. In this context, recent trends in landscape change, such as urban sprawl or the abandoning of agricultural and forest land management in line with new models of economic development and lifestyles, are leading to new fire scenarios. A fire scenario refers to the contextual factors of a fire regime, i.e., the environmental, socio-economic and policy drivers of wildfire initiation and propagation on different spatial and temporal scales. This is basically a landscape concept linking territorial dynamics (related to ecosystem evolution and settlement patterns with a fire regime (ignition causes; spread patterns; fire frequency, severity, extent and seasonality. The aim of this article is to identify and characterize these land-based fire scenarios in Spain on a national and regional scale, using a GIS-based methodology to perform a spatial analysis of the area attributes of homogenous fire spread patterns. To do this, the main variables considered are: land use/land cover, fuel load and recent fire history. The final objective is to reduce territorial vulnerability to forest wildfires and facilitate the adaptation of fire policies and land management systems to current challenges of preparedness and uncertainty management.

  17. The Integration Aspects of Activities of the Companies in the Oil and Gas Industry Sector in the Context of Globalization

    Panevnyk Tetiana M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers both the dynamics and the structure of oil and gas production in Ukraine, situation of the oil and gas companies at the current stage of globalization of the world economy have been covered. The main problems impacting the functioning of the domestic industry sector have been identified, including the lack of effectiveness of the existing integration processes. The world trends and patterns of integration processes have been considered. It has been determined that the oil and gas industry sector leaders are the multinational companies that actively use integration in their practices. The current trends in creating integration linkages in different parts of the process chain in the oil and gas industry have been identified. Influence by large corporations of the innovative type on the creation of a favorable investment climate has been confirmed, as well as conducting their own policies of expansion in the overseas markets. On the basis of studying the foreign experience, expediency of development of the oil and gas sector enterprises by activating integration processes has been substantiated. Priorities and possibilities for further functioning of enterprises in the the oil and gas industry sector have been identified

  18. Re-considering the Economics of Photovoltaic Power

    Bazilian, M. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Onyeji, I. [United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIDO, Vienna (Austria); Liebreich, M.; Chase, J. [Bloomberg New Energy Finance BNEF, London (United Kingdom); MacGill, I. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Shah, J. [KMR Infrastructure, Washington DC (United States); Gielen, D. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, IITC, Bonn (Germany); Arent, D. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Colorado (United States); Landfear, D. [AGL Energy Limited, Sydney (Australia); Zhengrong, S. [Suntech Power Holdings, Wuxi (China)

    2012-05-15

    We briefly consider the recent dramatic reductions in the underlying costs and market prices of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, and their implications for decision-makers. In many cases, current PV costs and the associated market and technological shifts witnessed in the industry have not been fully noted by decision-makers. The perception persists that PV is prohibitively expensive, and still has not reached competitiveness? We find that the commonly used analytical comparators for PV vis a vis other power generation options may add further confusion. In order to help dispel existing misconceptions, we provide some level of transparency on the assumptions, inputs and parameters in calculations relating to the economics of PV. The paper is aimed at informing policy makers, utility decision-makers, investors and advisory services, in particular in high-growth developing countries, as they weigh the suite of power generation options available to them.

  19. [Re]considering queer theories and science education

    Fifield, Steve; Letts, Will

    2014-06-01

    We take Mattias Lundin's Inviting queer ideas into the science classroom: studying sexual education from a queer perspective as a point of departure to explore some enduring issues related to the use of queer theories to interrogate science education and its practices. We consider the uneasy, polygamous relationship between gay and lesbian studies and queer theories; the border surveillance that characterizes so much of science [education]; the alluring call of binaries and binary thinking; the `all' within the catchcry `science for all'; and the need to better engage the fullness of science and the curriculum, in addition to noting silences around diverse sexes, sexualities, and desires. We catalogue some of the challenges that persist in this work, and offer thoughts about how to work with and against them to enact a more just and compelling science education.

  20. Global Strategy

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  1. CONDITION OF DECENTRALIZATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEGAL FORMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS OF UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL EXPERIENCE

    Nadiia Kulchytska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the modern condition of decentralization and organizational legal forms of sustainable development of regions of Ukraine in the context of the global experience are analyzed, possible ways to overcome regional disparities are proved. A special place in scientific research article takes a significant number of modern researchers analyzed the theoretical and methodological foundations of a system of financial support of local authorities in the transition to decentralization of public administration. In this regard, particular relevance is the problem of defining the role of decentralization principles in forming the financial support of local government. The importance of decentralization in the process of local government reform is proved. The ways implementing decentralization in modern Ukraine are shown. The scientific approaches to determining the meaning and role of decentralization in a market economy are analyzed and summarized. Key words: decentralization, deconcentration of power, the territorial organization of government, local communities, dotatsiynist, sustainable development. JEL: H 70, R 58

  2. The securitization of health in the context of the war on terror. National security and global health: the conflict of imperatives.

    Chung, Ryoa

    2017-03-01

    In this article, I want to show that the securitization of health issues in the name of national interests led to the militarization of health care in the context of the war against terrorism. However, the connection between health and security also gave way to the emergence of the notion of human security, thus, converging with the human right to health approach and the cosmopolitan discourse on global health. These two perspectives on the relation between health and security lead to conflicting imperatives in the current state of counter-terrorism operations. I argue that when the securitization of health concerns in the name of national security conflicts with the provision of health care in the name of universal human rights, the higher moral end must trump the prudential one. Moreover, it is a duty to promote the human right to health when liberal democracies in foreign policies directly violate this moral ideal in the name of national security.

  3. Scaling up nurse education: An evaluation of a national PhD capacity development programme in South Africa, in the context of the global shortage of nursing graduates.

    Comiskey, Catherine M; Matthews, Anne; Williamson, Charmaine; Bruce, Judith; Mulaudzi, Mavis; Klopper, Hester

    2015-05-01

    The global shortage of nursing professionals educated at baccalaureate level and beyond has been highlighted. Within America, services are preparing to treat an additional 32 million individuals under the Health Reform Bill. Within South Africa nursing education outputs do not meet demands. Countries are addressing these shortages by developing advanced nurse roles which require research degrees. To evaluate a national PhD programme within the context of a nurse education strategy and a national health insurance plan. A comparative effectiveness research design was employed. The setting was in South Africa between 2011 and 2013, a county with 51.7 million inhabitants. Participants included PhD candidates, programme facilitators, supervisors and key stakeholders. Data from a one day workshop was analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. Three years of evaluation reports were analysed. A mapping of the alignment of the PhD topics with healthcare priorities, and a comparison of the development of nurse education, of the national and international funder were conducted. The evaluation reports rated the programme highly. Three themes were identified from the workshop. These were, "support" with the sub-themes of burden, leveraging and a physical supportive place; "planning" with the sub-themes of the national context and practice, and "quality" with the sub-themes of processes and monitoring and evaluation. The mapping of PhD topics revealed that research was in line with development priorities. However, further investment and infrastructural changes were necessary to sustain the programme and its impact. To address sustainability and capacity in nations scaling up nurse education and healthcare insurance, it was recommended that top-up degrees for diploma educated nurses be developed along with, the implementation of a national nursing strategy for PhD and post-doctoral training encompassing clinical practice implementation and collaboration. Copyright © 2015

  4. Extending the Global Sensitivity Analysis of the SimSphere model in the Context of its Future Exploitation by the Scientific Community

    George P. Petropoulos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s changing climate, the development of robust, accurate and globally applicable models is imperative for a wider understanding of Earth’s terrestrial biosphere. Moreover, an understanding of the representation, sensitivity and coherence of such models are vital for the operationalisation of any physically based model. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA was conducted on the SimSphere land biosphere model in which a meta-modelling method adopting Bayesian theory was implemented. Initially, effects of assuming uniform probability distribution functions (PDFs for the model inputs, when examining sensitivity of key quantities simulated by SimSphere at different output times, were examined. The development of topographic model input parameters (e.g., slope, aspect, and elevation were derived within a Geographic Information System (GIS before implementation within the model. The effect of time of the simulation on the sensitivity of previously examined outputs was also analysed. Results showed that simulated outputs were significantly influenced by changes in topographic input parameters, fractional vegetation cover, vegetation height and surface moisture availability in agreement with previous studies. Time of model output simulation had a significant influence on the absolute values of the output variance decomposition, but it did not seem to change the relative importance of each input parameter. Sensitivity Analysis (SA results of the newly modelled outputs allowed identification of the most responsive model inputs and interactions. Our study presents an important step forward in SimSphere verification given the increasing interest in its use both as an independent modelling and educational tool. Furthermore, this study is very timely given on-going efforts towards the development of operational products based on the synergy of SimSphere with Earth Observation (EO data. In this context, results also provide additional support for the

  5. Public policy and regulatory strategies in the global climate change context: opportunities and limitations of programmatic CDM; Politicas publicas e estrategias regulatorias no contexto das mudancas climaticas globais: oportunidades e limitacoes do MDL programatico

    Romeiro, Viviane; Simoes, Andre Felipe; Januzzi, Gilberto M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    Carbon Market and its implications to reduce green house effect has been broadly discussed in the context of global climate change. This paper intends to analyze the new regulation of global climate change since Programmatic CDM was created, describing the proceeds to its implementation and discussing limitations and opportunities analyzes of this mechanism as a tool to obtain alternative energy source. It is discussed the challenges and opportunities about CDM programs in the international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based, as well as its contribution to attain benefits to global climate system and quality of social life. (author)

  6. Effects of transient global ischaemia on freezing behaviour and activity in a context-dependent fear conditioning task--implications for memory investigations.

    Henrich-Noack, Petra; Krautwald, Karla; Reymann, Klaus G; Wetzel, Wolfram

    2011-07-15

    Transient global ischaemia induces cell death in the CA1 layer of the hippocampus. To evaluate the functional consequences, we performed context-dependent fear conditioning. Ischaemia was induced by 2-vessel-occlusion (2VO) in gerbils. On day 6 post ischaemia or sham procedures (in control group) gerbils were placed in a test chamber and after 3 min adaption time exposed to foot-shocks (training session). On the next day the animals were placed in the same test chamber without foot-shocks (test session). As a parameter for memory performance we used the standard method of measuring the total freezing time via a cumulative time-sampling procedure during the test session. We found a significant longer total freezing time in control animals than in ischaemic animals. In addition, however, we applied a more detailed analysis of (i) quantifying the number of freezing bouts, (ii) the average duration of single freezing bouts, (iii) the activity pattern during the training and test situation and (iv) we differentially evaluated all the single time segments of the experiment. These analyses revealed that although maintenance of freezing (duration of freezing bout) was significantly lower in ischaemic animals compared to controls, the initiation of freezing (number of freezing bouts) was not significantly different between the two groups during the test session. The activity scores of ischaemic and non-ischaemic gerbils were similar during the adaption time of the training session. The foot-shock, however, induced a significantly different pattern of behaviour in the ischaemic animals, which was selectively reproduced during the test session. In conclusion, ischaemic gerbils reacted to a fearsome thread with a behavioural pattern different from unlesioned animals and they revealed this specific foot-shock induced behaviour again during the test session. This indicated that CA1 hippocampal death did not interrupt memory performance but changed expression of fear. Therefore

  7. Impact of Climate Conditions on Occupational Health and Related Economic Losses: A New Feature of Global and Urban Health in the Context of Climate Change.

    Kjellstrom, Tord

    2016-03-01

    One feature of climate change is the increasing heat exposure in many workplaces where efficient cooling systems cannot be applied. Excessive heat exposure is a particular problem for working people because of the internal heat production when muscle work is carried out. The physiological basis for severe heat stroke, other clinical effects, and heat exhaustion is well known. One feature of this health effect of excessive workplace heat exposure is reduced work capacity, and new research has started to quantify this effect in the context of climate change. Current climate conditions in tropical and subtropical parts of the world are already so hot during the hot seasons that occupational health effects occur and work capacity for many working people is affected. The Hothaps-Soft database and software andClimateCHIP.orgwebsite make it possible to rapidly produce estimates of local heat conditions and trends. The results can be mapped to depict the spatial distribution of workplace heat stress. In South-East Asia as much as 15% to 20% of annual work hours may already be lost in heat-exposed jobs, and this may double by 2050 as global climate change progresses. By combining heat exposure data and estimates of the economic consequences, the vulnerability of many low- and middle-income countries is evident. The annual cost of reduced labor productivity at country level already in 2030 can be several percent of GDP, which means billions of US dollars even for medium-size countries. The results provide new arguments for effective climate change adaptation and mitigation policies and preventive actions in all countries. © 2015 APJPH.

  8. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  9. SERVICING THE MARKET NICHE – A POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR THE MAINTENANCE AND/OR SUCCESS OF THE FIRM ON THE MARKET IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Doina I. POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the importance of servicing the market niche by firms operating in the garment industry in the context of the world economic crisis. The paper presents the necessity of adapting companies’ strategies based on the main trends set out by the global economic crisis. Within this work is presented a study that aims to highlight the degree in which Romanian firms acting in the clothing industry service the market niche, their identification, the measure in which these firms’ managem...

  10. Global Mindsets

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking...

  11. How to succeed with value-based pricing : A case study of how a Swedish OEM is working with price strategy in the context of globalization

    HANNAH BJÖRK, HANNAH; FORSBERG, LINA

    2015-01-01

    In today’s world, change is faster than ever with rapid technological development and increasing global competition. The effects of globalization have led to more intense international competition when competitors originate from different parts of the world. Thanks to the use of new information technology, transparency has increased and made it possible for customers to compare products and prices between suppliers and prices in different markets and also buy cross-border. This puts pressure ...

  12. The position of place in governing global problems: A mechanistic account of place-as-context, and analysis of transitions towards spatially explicit approaches to climate science and policy

    MacGillivray, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Place is a central yet undertheorised concept within sustainability science. • Introduces an account of place as the context in which social and environmental mechanisms operate. • Uses this account to critique historical aspatial approaches to climate science and policy. • Traces out shifts towards spatially explicit approaches to climate governance. • A focus on place, heterogeneity, and context maximizes the credibility and policy-relevance of climate science. - Abstract: Place is a central concept within the sustainability sciences, yet it remains somewhat undertheorised, and its relationship to generalisation and scale is unclear. Here, we develop a mechanistic account of place as the fundamental context in which social and environmental mechanisms operate. It is premised on the view that the social and environmental sciences are typically concerned with causal processes and their interaction with context, rather than with a search for laws. We deploy our mechanistic account to critique the neglect of place that characterised the early stages of climate governance, ranging from the highly idealised general circulation and integrated assessment models used to analyze climate change, to the global institutions and technologies designed to manage it. We implicate this neglect of place in the limited progress in tackling climate change in both public and policy spheres, before tracing out recent shifts towards more spatially explicit approaches to climate change science and policy-making. These shifts reflect a move towards an ontology which acknowledges that even where causal drivers are in a sense global in nature (e.g. atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases), their impacts are often mediated through variables that are spatially clustered at multiple scales, moderated by contextual features of the local environment, and interact with the presence of other (localised) stressors in synergistic rather than additive ways. We conclude that a

  13. Explaining the slow transition of child-appropriate dosage formulations from the global to national level in the context of Uganda

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Hansen, Ebba; Mbonye, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    validation meeting where preliminary findings were shared with stakeholders. Policy analysis and policy transfer theories were used to guide a deductive analysis for manifest and latent content. RESULTS: According to stakeholders, the transition to the globally recommended child-appropriate dosage...... formulations has been slow in Uganda due to a number of factors. These factors include resource constraints at the global and national levels, lack of Ministry of Health (MOH) formal commitment to the adoption of the child-appropriate dosage formulations policy and a lack of consensus between those who...... formulations still remains to be implemented in Uganda and other low income countries. This has been due to lack of resources that hindered formal transfer of the policy from the global to the local level. To achieve this transfer there is a need for resource mobilisation at both the international and local...

  14. Problems of Technical Standards Teaching in the Context of the Globalization and Euro-Integration in Higher Education System of Ukraine

    Kornuta, Olena; Pryhorovska, Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and Ukraine association with EU imply including Ukrainian universities into the world scientific space. The aim of this article is to analyze the problem of drawing standards teaching, based on the experience of Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas (Ukraine) and to summarize the experience of post Soviet…

  15. Recreational sea fishing in Europe in a global context-Participation rates, fishing effort, expenditure, and implications for monitoring and assessment

    Hyder, Kieran; Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Armstrong, Mike; Ferter, Keno; Townhill, Bryony; Ahvonen, Anssi; Arlinghaus, Robert; Baikov, Andrei; Bellanger, Manuel; Birzaks, Janis; Borch, Trude; Cambie, Giulia; Graaf, De Martin; Diogo, Hugo M.C.; Dziemian, Łukasz; Gordoa, Ana; Grzebielec, Ryszard; Hartill, Bruce; Kagervall, Anders; Kapiris, Kostas; Karlsson, Martin; Kleiven, Alf Ring; Lejk, Adam M.; Levrel, Harold; Lovell, Sabrina; Lyle, Jeremy; Moilanen, Pentti; Monkman, Graham; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Mugerza, Estanis; Martinez, Roi; O'Reilly, Paul; Olesen, Hans Jakob; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Pita, Pablo; Radford, Zachary; Radtke, Krzysztof; Roche, William; Rocklin, Delphine; Ruiz, Jon; Scougal, Callum; Silvestri, Roberto; Skov, Christian; Steinback, Scott; Sundelöf, Andreas; Svagzdys, Arvydas; Turnbull, David; Hammen, Van Der Tessa; Voorhees, Van David; Winsen, Van Frankwin; Verleye, Thomas; Veiga, Pedro; Vølstad, Jon-Helge; Zarauz, Lucia; Zolubas, Tomas; Strehlow, Harry V.

    2018-01-01

    Marine recreational fishing (MRF) is a high-participation activity with large economic value and social benefits globally, and it impacts on some fish stocks. Although reporting MRF catches is a European Union legislative requirement, estimates are only available for some countries. Here, data on

  16. The National Politics of Educational Advocacy in the Context of Global Governance: International Funding and Support for Civil Society Engagement in Cambodia

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Brehm, Willian C.; Storen, Inga

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the Civil Society Education Fund's (CSEF) impact on the non-governmental organisation education partnership (NEP) in Cambodia. With financial backing from the World Bank and the Fast Track Initiative, the CSEF is an initiative that is managed internationally by the Global Campaign for Education. Its goal is to help national…

  17. Assessing the Investment Climate for Climate Investments : A Comparative Framework for Clean Energy Investments in South Asia in a Global Context

    Mani, Muthukumara S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the strong messages that came out of the recent United Nations Climate Change conference in Durban was that the private sector has to play an important role if we are to globally move toward a low carbon, climate resilient -- or "climate compatible" -- future. However, private investment will only flow at the scale and pace necessary if it is supported by clear, credible, and long-t...

  18. Self-other differences in H1N1 flu risk perception in a global context: a comparative study between the United States and China.

    Han, Gang Kevin; Zhang, Jueman Mandy; Chu, Kejun Rebecca; Shen, Guolin

    2014-01-01

    Extending research on self-other differences in perception to a global health risk, this study compares U.S. and Chinese college students' perceived H1N1 flu risk at four levels: personal, group, societal, and global. It also examines how personal experience, interpersonal communication, traditional and Internet-based media, and self-efficacy affect perception at four levels, as well as the self-other differences between the personal level and each of the other three levels. An online survey in both countries reveals an "ascending pattern," showing higher perceived risk for others than for selves. Chinese respondents perceive higher risk than U.S. respondents at all levels. Interpersonal communication predicts risk perception at four levels in the United States and at the group and societal levels in China. New media exposure exerts influence on all but the group level in China, while social networking sites (SNS) exposure predicts group- and societal-level risk perception in the United States. The overall attention paid to H1N1 information in the media affects all levels in both countries. Interaction between media exposure and attention is influential at all levels in the United States. Self-efficacy is negatively associated with risk perception in China except at the global level. Attention to media in the United States, and SNS exposure in China, explain the self-other differences in three comparisons, along with self-efficacy, which decreases the self-other gap in the United States while increasing the gap in China.

  19. The private sector role in HIV/AIDS in the context of an expanded global response: expenditure trends in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    Sulzbach, Sara; De, Susna; Wang, Wenjuan

    2011-07-01

    Global financing for the HIV response has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Over US$10 billion were mobilized in 2007, an effort credited with saving the lives of millions of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A relatively unexamined aspect of the global HIV response is the role of the private sector in financing HIV/AIDS services. As the nature of the response evolves from emergency relief to long-term sustainability, understanding current and potential contributions from the private sector is critical. This paper examines trends in private sector financing, management and resource consumption related to HIV/AIDS in five sub-Saharan African countries, with a particular emphasis on the effects of recently scaled-up donor funding on private sector contributions. We analysed National Health Accounts HIV/AIDS subaccount data for Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia between 2002 and 2006. HIV subaccounts provide comparable data on the flow of HIV/AIDS funding from source to use. Findings indicate that private sector contributions decreased in all countries except Tanzania. With regards to managing HIV/AIDS funds, non-governmental organizations are increasingly controlling the largest share of resources relative to other stakeholders, whereas private for-profit entities are managing fewer HIV/AIDS resources since the donor influx. The majority of HIV/AIDS funds were spent in the public sector, although a considerable amount was spent at private facilities, largely fuelled by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. On the whole, OOP spending by PLHIV decreased over the 4-year period, with the exception of Malawi, demonstrating that PLHIV have increased access to free or subsidized HIV/AIDS services. Our findings suggest that the influx of donor funding has led to decreased private contributions for HIV/AIDS. The reduction in private sector investment and engagement raises concerns about the sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes over the long term, particularly in

  20. The contribution of partnership and branding to destination management in a globalized context: The case of the UNWTO Silk Road Programme

    Marios Sotiriadis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold: (i to present the challenges of destination management and governance within the globalized and digital environment; and (ii to analyse the potential contribution of partnership and branding to advancing tourism development and promoting tourism experience opportunities. A case of Public-Private Partnership (PPP – The UNWTO Silk Road Programme - is used to investigate how related issues and aspects are put into implementation. The paper’s focus is on the valuable role of PPPs in marketing, infrastructure development and heritage management; and on the critical importance of involvement of stakeholders in engaging into this trans-border scale project.

  1. IMPLICATIONS OF CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE POLISH BANKING SECTOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    ZBIGNIEW KORZEB

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the implications of the global financial crisis upon the Polish banking sector, formed under the influence of cross-border mergers and acquisitions. It illustrates the consequences of financial problems of foreign strategic shareholders in banks operating in Poland upon the stability of the entire banking system. It presents the proposed future directions of action to protect the stability of the banking system. It seems that in the case of a banking system as special as the Polish one, the key role will belong to the quality of the three main pillars of control over the work of banks: supervisory institutions, market discipline an corporate governance.

  2. Locus of control, self-efficacy, and the mediating effect of outcome control: predicting course-level and global outcomes in an academic context.

    Au, Evelyn W M

    2015-01-01

    The current study utilizes Skinner's framework to examine the unique contributions of internal locus of control, self-efficacy, and perceived outcome control over course performance on students' academic experiences. Undergraduate students (N = 225) took part in a longitudinal study and completed two surveys (Time 1: just before their mid-term exams; Time 2: just before their final exam in the same semester). Both locus of control and self-efficacy at Time 1 predicted course-level perceived control over course performance at Time 2. Student-level perceived control over course performance at Time 2 mediated the relationship between self-efficacy at Time 1 and course-level perseverance, course-specific stress, and course enjoyment at Time 2. For global perceived stress and life satisfaction measured at Time 2, both locus of control and self-efficacy at Time 1 had only a direct effect on global perceived stress at Time 2, but only self-efficacy at Time 1 predicted life satisfaction at Time 2. Both locus of control and self-efficacy uniquely contribute to students' academic experiences. Student-level perceived control plays an important mediating role between locus of control and self-efficacy at Time 1, and course-level perseverance, course-specific stress, and course enjoyment at Time 2.

  3. Video context-dependent recall.

    Smith, Steven M; Manzano, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    In two experiments, we used an effective new method for experimentally manipulating local and global contexts to examine context-dependent recall. The method included video-recorded scenes of real environments, with target words superimposed over the scenes. In Experiment 1, we used a within-subjects manipulation of video contexts and compared the effects of reinstatement of a global context (15 words per context) with effects of less overloaded context cues (1 and 3 words per context) on recall. The size of the reinstatement effects in Experiment 1 show how potently video contexts can cue recall. A strong effect of cue overload was also found; reinstatement effects were smaller, but still quite robust, in the 15 words per context condition. The powerful reinstatement effect was replicated for local contexts in Experiment 2, which included a no-contexts-reinstated group, a control condition used to determine whether reinstatement of half of the cues caused biased output interference for uncued targets. The video context method is a potent way to investigate context-dependent memory.

  4. Effectiveness of carbon dioxide removal in lowering atmospheric CO2 and reversing global warming in the context of 1.5 degrees

    Zickfeld, K.; Azevedo, D.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of emissions scenarios that limit warming to 2°C, and nearly all emission scenarios that do not exceed 1.5°C warming by the year 2100 require artificial removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies in these scenarios are required to offset emissions from sectors that are difficult or costly to decarbonize and to generate global `net negative' emissions, allowing to compensate for earlier emissions and to meet long-term climate stabilization targets after overshoot. Only a few studies have explored the Earth system response to CDR and large uncertainties exist regarding the effect of CDR on the carbon cycle and its effectiveness in reversing climate impacts after overshoot. Here we explore the effectiveness of CDR in lowering atmospheric CO2 ("carbon cycle effectiveness") and cool global climate ("cooling effectiveness"). We force the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, a model of intermediate complexity, with a set of negative CO2 emissions pulses of different magnitude and applied from different background atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find the carbon cycle effectiveness of CDR - defined as the change in atmospheric CO2 per unit CO2 removed - decreases with the amount of CO2 removed from the atmosphere and increases at higher background CO2 concentrations from which CDR is applied due to nonlinear responses of carbon sinks to CO2 and climate. The cooling effectiveness - defined as the change in global mean surface air temperature per unit CO2 removed - on the other hand, is largely insensitive to the amount of CO2 removed, but decreases if CDR is applied at higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations, due to the logarithmic relationship between atmospheric CO2 and radiative forcing. Based on our results we conclude that CDR is more effective in restoring a lower atmospheric CO2 concentration and reversing impacts directly linked to CO2 at lower levels of overshoot. CDR's effectiveness in restoring a

  5. National responses to global health targets: exploring policy transfer in the context of the UNAIDS '90-90-90' treatment targets in Ghana and Uganda.

    McRobie, Ellen; Matovu, Fred; Nanyiti, Aisha; Nonvignon, Justice; Abankwah, Daniel Nana Yaw; Case, Kelsey K; Hallett, Timothy B; Hanefeld, Johanna; Conteh, Lesong

    2018-01-01

    Global health organizations frequently set disease-specific targets with the goal of eliciting adoption at the national-level; consideration of the influence of target setting on national policies, programme and health budgets is of benefit to those setting targets and those intended to respond. In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS set 'ambitious' treatment targets for country adoption: 90% of HIV-positive persons should know their status; 90% of those on treatment; 90% of those achieving viral suppression. Using case studies from Ghana and Uganda, we explore how the target and its associated policy content have been adopted at the national level. That is whether adoption is in rhetoric only or supported by programme, policy or budgetary changes. We review 23 (14 from Ghana, 9 from Uganda) national policy, operational and strategic documents for the HIV response and assess commitments to '90-90-90'. In-person semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively sampled key informants (17 in Ghana, 20 in Uganda) involved in programme-planning and resource allocation within HIV to gain insight into factors facilitating adoption of 90-90-90. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically, inductively and deductively, guided by pre-existing policy theories, including Dolowitz and Marsh's policy transfer framework to describe features of the transfer and the Global Health Advocacy and Policy Project framework to explain observations. Regardless of notable resource constraints, transfer of the 90-90-90 targets was evident beyond rhetoric with substantial shifts in policy and programme activities. In both countries, there was evidence of attempts to minimize resource constraints by seeking programme efficiencies, prioritization of programme activities and devising domestic financing mechanisms; however, significant resource gaps persist. An effective health network, comprised of global and local actors, mediated the adoption and adaptation

  6. Effect of temperature, gas phase composition, pH and microbial activity on As, Zn, Pb and Cd mobility in selected soils in the Ebro and Meuse Basins in the context of global change

    Joubert, A.V.P. [Laboratoire des Interactions Micro-organismes, Mineraux et Matieres organiques dans les Sols (LIMOS) UMR 7137, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France)]. E-mail: antoine.joubert@limos.uhp-nancy.fr; Lucas, L. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), Service Environnement et Procedes Innovants-Unite Ecotechnologie (EPI/ECO), 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Garrido, F. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), Service Environnement et Procedes Innovants-Unite Ecotechnologie (EPI/ECO), 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: f.garrido@brgm.fr; Joulian, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), Service Environnement et Procedes Innovants-Unite Ecotechnologie (EPI/ECO), 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Jauzein, M. [Laboratoire des Interactions Micro-organismes, Mineraux et Matieres organiques dans les Sols (LIMOS) UMR 7137, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France)

    2007-08-15

    This study estimates the effect of environmental parameters on the mobility of four inorganic contaminants (As, Zn, Pb and Cd) in soils from three areas in the Ebro and Meuse River basins, within the context of global change. An experimental method, applicable to various soil systems, is used to measure the effect of four global-change-sensitive parameters (temperature, gas phase composition, pH and microbial activity). The aqueous phase of batch incubations was sampled regularly to monitor toxic element concentrations in water. Statistical processing enabled discrimination of the most relevant variations in dissolved concentrations measured at different incubation times and under different experimental conditions. Gas phase composition was identified as the most sensitive parameter for toxic element solubilization. This study confirms that total soil concentrations of inorganic pollutants are irrelevant when assessing the hazard for ecosystems or water resource quality. - An experimental method applicable for different soil systems enables the determination of the effect of environmental parameters, potentially affected by global change, on the mobilization of inorganic pollutants.

  7. Que faire? A Bioeconomy and Solar Energy Institute at Italy's Research Council in the Context of the Global Transition to the Solar Economy.

    Pagliaro, Mario; Meneguzzo, Francesco

    2017-11-02

    Driven by insight for which new research and education requires new institutional organisation, and drawing on two decades of research and educational efforts, we devise the profile and activities of a new bioeconomy and solar energy institute at Italy's Research Council. We further articulate the institute's activities suggesting avenues on how to deploy sound and giving more useful research, education and policy advice in these crucial fields for making tomorrow's common development sustainable. The outcomes of the study are of general interest, because the transition to a solar economy is of intrinsic global nature and the challenges involved are similar in many countries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A spatially explicit assessment of current and future hotspots of hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa in the context of global change

    Liu, Junguo; Fritz, Steffen; van Wesenbeeck, C. F. A.; Fuchs, Michael; You, Liangzhi; Obersteiner, Michael; Yang, Hong

    2008-12-01

    Hunger knows no boundaries or borders. While much research has focused on undernutrition on a national scale, this report evaluates it at subnational levels for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to pinpoint hotspots where the greatest challenges exist. Undernutrition is assessed with a spatial resolution of 30 arc-minutes by investigating anthropometric data on weight and length of individuals. The impact of climate change on production of six major crops (cassava, maize, wheat, sorghum, rice and millet) is analyzed with a GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (GEPIC) model with the same spatial resolution. Future hotspots of hunger are projected in the context of the anticipated climate, social, economic, and bio-physical changes. The results show that some regions in northern and southwestern Nigeria, Sudan and Angola with a currently high number of people with undernutrition might be able to improve their food security situation mainly through increasing purchasing power. In the near future, regions located in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, southwestern Niger, and Madagascar are likely to remain hotspots of food insecurity, while regions located in Tanzania, Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of Congo might face more serious undernutrition. It is likely that both the groups of regions will suffer from lower capacity of importing food as well as lower per capita calorie availability, while the latter group will probably have sharper reduction in per capita calorie availability. Special attention must be paid to the hotspot areas in order to meet the hunger alleviation goals in SSA.

  9. Innovations and Innovative Approaches or Pseudo-Innovations in the Context of General Globalization? It’s Time to Wake Up!

    Tchernev, Georgi

    2018-01-01

    Globalisation, scientific and technical progress are the basis of numerous innovative therapies for oncologic and non-oncologic diseases. It is another matter how much and by whom they are desired, and whether they have to be applied. When and how often? Innovative approaches should go towards simplification, universal distribution and application while at the same time analysis between the potential initial investment and the achieved final result should be made. An illustrative example for this is the targeted therapy for melanoma with its low baseline criteria or basic rules for its surgical treatment. Another example could be the confocal microscopy in the context of dysplastic nevus syndrome. Therapies for various autoimmune diseases should also be considered critically. In the current OAMJMS issue, as well as in some of our other ideas and statements reported also in OAMJMS, we are trying to answer at least to a part of these dilemmas, to provoke a critical point of view and to ask some simple questions: “Should any innovation be considered as a face value? Which is potentially beneficial for our patients? How could we regulate the processes to minimise the need for expensive medications for certain diseases? And, of course, we are also turning to our own mistakes by visualising the results of them! PMID:29483969

  10. Nutrient regime and upwelling in the northern Benguela since the middle Holocene in a global context – a multi-proxy approach

    S. Meisel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The last 5500 years of climate change and environmental response in the northern Benguela Coastal Upwelling are reconstructed by means of three sediment cores from the inner shelf off central Namibia. The study is based on nutrient (δ15N, δ13C and productivity proxies (accumulation rates of total organic carbon; ARTOC. Reconstructed sea surface temperatures (alkenone-derived SST and temperatures at subsurface depths (Tδ18O; based on tests of planktonic foraminifers reflect the physical boundary conditions. The selection of proxy indicators proved a valuable basis for robust palaeo-climatic reconstructions, with the resolution ranging from multi-decadal (NAM1 over centennial (core 178 to millennial scale (core 226620. The northern Benguela experienced pronounced and rapid perturbation during the middle and late Holocene, and apparently, not all are purely local in character. In fact, numerous correlations with records from the adjacent South African subcontinent and the northern hemisphere testify to global climatic teleconnections. The Holocene Hypsithermal, for instance, is just as evident as the Little Ice Age (LIA and the Roman Warm Period. The marked SST-rise associated with the latter is substantiated by other marine and terrestrial data from the South African realm. The LIA (at least its early stages manifests itself in intensified winds and upwelling, which accords with increased rainfall receipts above the continental interior. It appears that climate signals are transferred both via the atmosphere and ocean. The combined analysis of SST and Tδ18O proved a useful tool in order to differentiate between both pathways. SSTs are primarily controlled by the intensity of atmospheric circulation features, reflecting changes of upwelling-favourable winds. Tδ18O records the temperature of the source water and often correlates with global ocean conveyor speed due to varying inputs of warm Agulhas Water. It seems as though conveyor slowdown or

  11. The Macael landscape in the context of a possible candidate as Global Heritage Stone Province (Almería, SE of Spain)

    Navarro Domínguez, Rafael; Pereira Gómez, Dolores; Carrillo, Gloria; Cruz, Anasol

    2017-04-01

    The beginning of the marble extraction activity in the Macael Area (Almería, South of Spain) date back 4000 years ago, and since then, it has been used in several and important monuments, principally, in Spain. The quality of the works carried out is more than proven. During this time, the extraction has alternated periods of activity with others of lesser or none-activity, ruling both the lives of the inhabitants of the region, and its landscape. The most well-known material extracted in the region, with international recognition, is marble "Blanco Macael" (White Macael), traditionally compared with "Carrara marble". But there are other marbles such as "Amarillo Macael", "Gris Macael" or "Anasol", as well as serpentinites that are referred as "Verde Macael" or "Verde Almería". All of them have been employed in many recent important buildings, at national and international level. The problem of this intensive activity through the years, from the point of view of the preservation of the old landscapes, is that the modern quarries have replaced the old ones, leaving few remains of the old quarries. In some cases it is possible to see Muslim vestiges (e.g. "Puntilla"), but this is an exception. Notwithstanding, the landscape of the region has a high value due to the combination of high mountains, high faces with a lot of banks, waste dumps and full restored areas. Nowadays, the surface occupied by mining exploitation, only in the closer area to Macael village, is more 8.5 km2, with more than forty active quarries and many abandoned ones. These features have helped to configure a singular and beautiful landscape, possibly unique in Spain, in relation with an historic mining activity. This is an important added value to the possible candidature of the "Blanco Macael" as a "Global Heritage Stone Resource" and the "Macael Region" as a "Global Heritage Stone Province", mostly if we consider that these designations must take into consideration the social importance of the

  12. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human...... different healthcare contexts. Healthcare organizations, health policy makers and regulatory bodies globally are starting to acknowledge this essential role of human and organizational factors for safe and effective health information technology. This book will be of interest to all those involved......Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...

  13. Operation Context

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  14. Uranium from Africa - An overview on past and current mining activities: Re-appraising associated risks and chances in a global context

    Winde, Frank; Brugge, Doug; Nidecker, Andreas; Ruegg, Urs

    2017-05-01

    In 2003, nuclear power received renewed interest as a perceived climate-neutral way to meet high energy demands of large industrialized countries, such as China, India, Russia and the USA. It triggered a growing demand for uranium (U) as nuclear fuel. Dubbed the 'nuclear renaissance', the U-price rose over tenfold before the global credit crisis dampend the rush. Many efforts to capitalise on the renewed demand focused on Africa. This paper provides an overview on the type and extent of uranium mining, production and exploration on the African continent and discusses the economic benefits as well as the potential environmental and health risks and the long-term needs for remediation of legacy sites. The actual historical results of uranium mining activities in more than thirty African countries provide data against which to assess the existing risks of uranium development. The already existing uraniferous waste in several African countries threatens scarce water resources and the health of adjacent residents. Responsibility should rest with the governments and the companies to ensure that these threats are not realized.

  15. A Global Overview of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E and its Meaning in the Local Government Context of South Africa

    Ngengelezi W.K. Masuku

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the global overview of M&E from the ancient governance perspective that has been ignored by the modern government in the African contest. African M&E approach is required in the local rural municipalities due to its complex and diverse set of problems. These problems are as a result of leadership dichotomy which is witnessed between Amakhosi and municipal authorities. Amakhosi have a role to hold municipal authorities accountable from a Citizen-Based Approach.  The underlying philosophy of the article is not about the discourse of the modernists and traditionalists around the evolution of M&E, but is how and in what ways M&E should be designed and planned for the implementation of a successful relevant M&E approach for local rural municipalities. The article made use of secondary data, gathered from various sources. Case studies of the international countries were also sourced through desktop to ascertain their best practice on M&E. The article concludes that the lack of M&E approach for the local government in the rural municipalities requires the Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (PM&E approach to allow stakeholders, including Amakhosi to assess the performance ofthe rural municipalities. The study is significant to the local and internal public scholarship of public administration since it bring approaches in M&E policy in the field of public administration. For example, indigenous African knowledge is critical in knowledge management.

  16. Global Managers

    Barakat, Livia L.; Lorenz, Melanie P.; Ramsey, Jase R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) on the job performance of global managers. Design/methodology/approach: – In total, 332 global managers were surveyed from multinational companies operating in Brazil. The mediating effect of job...... satisfaction was tested on the CQ-job performance relationship. Findings: – The findings suggest that job satisfaction transmits the effect of CQ to job performance, such that global managers high in CQ exhibit more job satisfaction in an international setting, and therefore perform better at their jobs....... Practical implications: – Results imply that global managers should increase their CQ in order to improve their job satisfaction and ultimately perform better in an international context. Originality/value: – The authors make three primary contributions to the international business literature. First...

  17. Context in a wider context

    John Traxler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to review and reconsider the role of context in mobile learning and starts by outlining definitions of context-aware mobile learning as the technologies have become more mature, more robust and more widely available and as the notion of context has become progressively richer. The future role of context-aware mobile learning is considered within the context of the future of mobile learning as it moves from the challenges and opportunities of pedagogy and technology to the challenges and opportunities of policy, scale, sustainability, equity and engagement with augmented reality, «blended learning», «learner devices», «user-generated contexts» and the «internet of things». This is essentially a perspective on mobile learning, and other forms of technology-enhanced learning (TEL, where educators and their institutions set the agenda and manage change. There are, however, other perspectives on context. The increasing availability and use of smart-phones and other personal mobile devices with similar powerful functionality means that the experience of context for many people, in the form of personalized or location-based services, is an increasingly social and informal experience, rather than a specialist or educational experience. This is part of the transformative impact of mobility and connectedness on our societies brought about by these universal, ubiquitous and pervasive technologies. This paper contributes a revised understanding of context in the wider context (sic of the transformations taking place in our societies. These are subtle but pervasive transformations of jobs, work and the economy, of our sense of time, space and place, of knowing and learning, and of community and identity. This leads to a radical reconsideration of context as the notions of ‹self› and ‹other› are transformed.

  18. The Nature and Structural Regularities of Financial Integration in the Global Dimension in the Context of «Impossible Trinity»

    Krasnova Iryna V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the nature of financial integration and to justify its place in the system of measures on state regulation intended to search for a balanced model of economic growth of the country through the impossible trilemma reflecting the impossibility of simultaneous implementation of three macro-economic policies in one country, namely financial openness, monetary independence and exchange rate stability. On the basis of synthesis, analysis and comparison of different interpretations, the concept of «financial integration» is clarified. There identified signs of integration of financial markets, such as: the uniformity of rules (transparency; equal access (availability; common operating environment (involvement; equity of prices (unity; uniformity of the reaction of financial assets on the impact of external trends and news (response. The policy of financial integration, in particular its component of the free movement of capital is designed to provide additional incentives to domestic economic growth by attracting external financial resources. To stimulate the economy and prevent the unstable volatility of exchange rate, many countries seek to achieve such macroeconomic goals as openness of financial markets, independence of the monetary policy and exchange rate stability. Since the monetary authorities may choose at any moment only two of the three goals, the Mundell-Fleming trilemma determines a possibility of three different combinations of monetary targeting. At present science has not developed a unified methodological approach to determination of indices of financial integration. To assess the dynamics of financial integration the following basic indices of integration are used: KAOPEN, FINREFORM, KASHI, etc. Based on the analysis of the mentioned indices in the context of different countries, there can be made a conclusion about a possibility of combination of different policies with a tendency towards

  19. Translating global recommendations on HIV and infant feeding to the local context: the development of culturally sensitive counselling tools in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the process used to develop an integrated set of culturally sensitive, evidence-based counselling tools (job aids by using qualitative participatory research. The aim of the intervention was to contribute to improving infant feeding counselling services for HIV positive women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Methods Formative research using a combination of qualitative methods preceded the development of the intervention and mapped existing practices, perceptions and attitudes towards HIV and infant feeding (HIV/IF among mothers, counsellors and community members. Intervention Mapping (IM protocol guided the development of the overall intervention strategy. Theories of behaviour change, a review of the international HIV/IF guidelines and formative research findings contributed to the definition of performance and learning objectives. Key communication messages and colourful graphic illustrations related to infant feeding in the context of HIV were then developed and/or adapted from existing generic materials. Draft materials were field tested with intended audiences and subjected to stakeholder technical review. Results An integrated set of infant feeding counselling tools, referred to as 'job aids', was developed and included brochures on feeding methods that were found to be socially and culturally acceptable, a Question and Answer Guide for counsellors, a counselling card on the risk of transmission of HIV, and an infant feeding toolbox for demonstration. Each brochure describes the steps to ensure safer infant feeding using simple language and images based on local ideas and resources. The brochures are meant to serve as both a reference material during infant feeding counselling in the ongoing prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT of HIV programme and as take home material for the mother. Conclusion The study underscores the importance of formative research and a systematic theory

  20. Pecuniary evaluation of provided service by local and global based dual-dimensional SDC and PSS2B in the context of deregulated power markets

    Shayeghi, H.; Hashemi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessing the role and performance of SDC and PSS2B in deregulated power markets. • The profit allocation of WADC as an AS provider is involved in this work. • A dual-dimensional SDC scheme for UPFC is applied to damp the power system swings. • The high share of dual-dimensional SDC shows capability of it in enhancing security. - Abstract: The problem of profit allocation of Unified Power Flow Controller-Supplementary Damping Controller (UPFC-SDC) and accelerating power PSS model (PSS2B) is an important and update issue which has not been properly directed yet. The model of UPFC-SDC that has been used in this paper is a dual-dimensional controller that first dimension of control is resulted from local signals and the second dimension is covered by global signals as additional measuring data from appropriate remote network locations, where swings are well observable. Thus, in this paper the profit allocation of Wide Area Damping Controller (WADC) is also presented as an undefined problem in security subject of deregulated power system. Assuming control action by UPFC-SDC and WADC as an Ancillary Service (AS), the contribution of UPFC-SDC in stability enhancement is evaluated. It is important to appropriately choose a criterion to assess the performance of UPFC-SDC, so that a suitable allocation of profit can be achieved. The sum of deviations of damping ratios and real part of eigenvalues is selected as Oscillation Damping Criterion (ODC). Two scenarios for valuation of small signal stability as an AS provided by UPFC-SDC is considered. The first scenario without retuning of controllers and in the second scenario controllers is retuned due to response of the market situation. A multi-objective optimization approach based on ODC, generation costs and UPFC cost is considered and then Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) is utilized for solving this problem. A two area four machine test power system is considered for investigation

  1. O contexto global e nacional frente aos desafios do acesso adequado à água para consumo humano The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption

    Lia Giraldo da Silva Augusto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar os desafios do acesso à água para consumo humano, considerando-se o contexto internacional e nacional. A partir da deliberação da ONU de que o acesso à água limpa e segura é um direito fundamental de todo ser humano são identificadas vulnerabilidades que podem se constituir em restrições ao acesso. A distribuição da água e das populações no planeta, a poluição, as políticas e gestões inadequadas produzem injustiça ambiental. A iniquidade de acesso a água constitui-se na crise contemporânea da água. A partir da década de 1980, emerge o mercado transnacional de água pelo controle privado que ocorre em três níveis principais: de mananciais superficiais e subterrâneos; de água engarrafada; e dos serviços públicos de abastecimento. Os conflitos dos usos múltiplos dos recursos hídricos, do mercado e dos problemas ambientais têm contribuído para a vulnerabilização da saúde das populações e dos ecossistemas. São necessárias políticas públicas adequadas ao exercício do direito humano fundamental de acesso a água com qualidade.The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the

  2. Burnout in perioperative context

    Galvão, Ana Maria; Gonçalves, Ana Rita Veloso; Certo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Companies in a global context are going through moments of great development of information and technologies. In these environments Burnout is highly prevalent, this syndrome is considered as one of physical and emotional stress that leads to a lack of motivation to work, leading to a progressive sense of inadequacy and failure. Objectives: What level of stress Perioperative nurses for nurses in the Region of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro. Methods: Non-experimental study,...

  3. Context matters!

    Bojesen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...

  4. A Novel Strategy for Very-Large-Scale Cash-Crop Mapping in the Context of Weather-Related Risk Assessment, Combining Global Satellite Multispectral Datasets, Environmental Constraints, and In Situ Acquisition of Geospatial Data.

    Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Torres, Marco A; Martina, Mario L V

    2018-02-14

    Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data-such as municipality-level records of crop seeding-for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity, etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using "good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The paper presents the problem

  5. A Novel Strategy for Very-Large-Scale Cash-Crop Mapping in the Context of Weather-Related Risk Assessment, Combining Global Satellite Multispectral Datasets, Environmental Constraints, and In Situ Acquisition of Geospatial Data

    Fabio Dell’Acqua

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data—such as municipality-level records of crop seeding—for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity, etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using “good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The

  6. China's income inequality in the global context

    Jin Han

    2016-03-01

    Comparative method is widely used in the paper. Gini Coefficient and Percentage of Total Income of National Population by Income Quintile are utilized as main indicators, and the two results just mutually verify each other. We find that the huge inequality in China does not fit into the title of socialist country and its socialist extent is far less than the European's, even inferior to typical capitalist countries. Finally, we make a ladder target of the Gini coefficient standards for Chinese government to keep constraint by oneself.

  7. DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    in electoral events by political parties, the electorate and civil society organisations. 2 ... the independent model, elections are managed by an EMB which is institutionally .... entrenched ethnic or racially exclusive interests. In a country with a ...

  8. Knowledge governance in a dynamic global context

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This paper tells the story of the emergence of distinct research around the theory of the firm at Copenhagen Business School within the last two decades, focussing on elements of continuity in the thinking of key CBS persons in the period. It discusses the current research agenda of the Center fo...

  9. Examining Human Rights in a Global Context.

    Francis, Greg; Inoue, Keiko; Orrick, Stefanie

    The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as human rights. Despite increased international attention, human rights violations continue to occur at the local, regional,…

  10. DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    material or documents which have a bearing on elections. A legal ..... This enabled us to announce the results in three days after voting day compared to six days in 1999. ... Attempts to build a democracy without viable political parties have failed. Political parties play a vital role in the market place of political ideas and.

  11. Meeting the health and social care needs of pregnant asylum seekers; midwifery students' perspectives: part 3; "the pregnant woman within the global context"; an inclusive model for midwifery education to address the needs of asylum seeking women in the UK.

    Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Bradshaw, Gwendolen

    2013-09-01

    to describe the conceptualisation and development of an inclusive educational model. The model is designed to facilitate pre-registration midwifery students' learning around the health and social care needs of pregnant women seeking asylum in the United Kingdom. current literature has identified a concern about the standard of maternity care experienced by asylum seeking women accessing maternity services in the United Kingdom. In response to this, a doctorate study was undertaken which focused on examining the way in which a group of midwifery students approached the provision of care for asylum seekers. This study revealed difficulties that these students had both in identifying these women's needs and also in the wider care issues in practice. Consequently, one of the recommendations was to ameliorate these difficulties through midwifery education. the key findings from this study were used together with relevant supporting literature to construct "the pregnant woman within the global context" model for midwifery education. The model is designed to facilitate a holistic assessment of need rather than focusing on the physical assessment at the expense of other aspects of care. It incorporates wider factors, on a global level, which could impact on the health and social care needs of a pregnant woman seeking asylum. It also prompts students to consider the influence of dominant discourses on perceptions of asylum seek;ing and is designed to encourage students' to question these discourses. this model can be used in midwifery education to prepare students in caring for pregnant women seeking asylum. It may be especially helpful when students have close contact with pregnant women seeking asylum, for example through caseloading. Further research is recommended to evaluate the effectiveness of this model in enhancing the care of asylum seeking women in the United Kingdom. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 190 NIGERIA TRADITIONAL MORAL VALUES IN THE CONTEXT ...

    The Idea of Globalization: Issues of Justice and Responsibility. Globalization ... ethical discernment in the context of globalization must be based upon two inseparable principles including: .... (Onitsha: University Publishing Company,. 1974) ...

  13. Generative Contexts

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  14. Radio Context Awareness and Applications

    Luca Reggiani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The context refers to “any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity, where an entity can be a person, place, or physical object.” Radio context awareness is defined as the ability of detecting and estimating a system state or parameter, either globally or concerning one of its components, in a radio system for enhancing performance at the physical, network, or application layers. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of context awareness and the recent advances in the main radio techniques that increase the context awareness and smartness, posing challenges and renewed opportunities to added-value applications in the context of the next generation of wireless networks.

  15. OLD AND NEW ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

    Elena MĂRGULESCU

    2015-01-01

    The retrospective of the theoretical approaches of the phenomenon of economic globalization in the last three decades emphasizes the movement of attention from the globalization of markets, from the'80s, to the globalization of production and services in the current decade. This trend is essentially the result of implementing new strategies by multinational and transnational companies. We try in this context to draw a line between the "globalization of markets" and the "globalization of produ...

  16. (Re)Considering cattle farming in Southern Africa under a changing climate

    Archer van Garderen, ERM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available .g., in Dikmen et al. (2008), with their analysis of the role of the slick hair gene in thermoregulatory capacity in Holstein cows, as well as Olson et al. (2002), with their analysis of the impact of hair coat differences on heat stress tolerance]. As dis...) Comfort threshold for high-producing dairy cows (Herna?ndez et al. 2002); higher for Bos indicus breeds (which are highly adapted to heat stress) 278C Upper limit of comfort zone for maximum milk production in India, which is 28C higher than...

  17. (Re)Considering Normal: Queering Social Norms for Parents and Teachers

    Bower, Laura; Klecka, Cari

    2009-01-01

    Recent debates regarding same-sex marriage and gay and lesbian adoption highlight the role of schools as sociopolitical institutions. Accordingly, teachers operating within social norms have considerable influence through their interactions with students and their families. Previous research points to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)…

  18. Experiencing Global Culture in Vatel

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth; Broillet, Alexandra; John, Claudette

    2015-01-01

    To explore the meaning of “global culture” in a professional communication context, this paper explores the “unsettled” global culture of Vatel, a private business school educating students from nearly 50 different countries for the hospitality industry. This paper explores the role of knowledge...... management in understanding global culture, arguing that the notion of “unsettled” cultures demonstrates how ideologies function in global settings and draw on national “settled” cultural resources. In unpacking different aspects of Vatel's culture this paper questions assumptions built into cultural frames...... of reference by offering a global culture frame, drawing on cultural resources from country based “settled” cultural contexts, and reflects on how global cultural contexts can benefit from a knowledge management approach to this dynamic between “settled” cultural contexts and “unsettled” cultural ideologies...

  19. Globally Happy: Individual Globalization, Expanded Capacities, and Subjective Wellbeing

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Heng-Hao; Chen, Wan-chi

    2012-01-01

    Deep integration of Asia into the global society necessarily affects wellbeing of local populations. This study proposes a notion of "extend capacities" to explain the relationships between individual globalization and subjective wellbeing among Asian populations in a context of increasing global integration. Using Amartya Sen's theory…

  20. Going global with personas

    Nielsen, Lene; Storgaard Nielsen, Kira; Stage, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The persona method is widely used and commonly described both in scientific literature and in case-based blogs. Most often the descriptions point to a local context with local user groups and it is difficult to find writings on use of the method in an international context and in globally distrib...... grounds for the team, especially for team distributed across countries. Keywords: personas, scenarios, cross culture, international, design....

  1. Entrepreneurial Leapfrogging in the Context of ISE

    Li, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We know little regarding the underlying contexts and mechanisms for disruptive innovation initiated by the entrepreneurial firms in the emerging economies. Further, there is limited knowledge about the contexts and mechanisms for global latecomers to catch up with and leapfrog global early......-movers. The cross-fertilization between such two research streams provides a great opportunity to shed light on their link toward an interdisciplinary domain of international strategic entrepreneurship (ISE). This article will develop an integrative typology of global innovations as well as a dynamic model...

  2. Global teaching of global seismology

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  3. What qualifies globalization?

    Sarauw, Laura Louise

    2012-01-01

    modules and study programmes based on standardized learning outcomes and credits. In recent studies on the Bologna process (Fejes 2008, Ozga 2011) it is hence argued that qualifications frameworks can be seen as a key tool in an inevitable and univocal European standardization and marketisation of higher...... not neutral tools, responding to objective challenges of globalization, but at they same time shaping – or literally ‘framing’ – what is globalization By focusing on qualification frameworks, the paper unveils some of key the struggles over the significance of globalization in a Danish context...

  4. Cultural Context and Translation

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  5. Globalization of healthcare.

    2012-05-01

    Globalization-the increasing transnational circulation of money, goods, people, ideas, and information worldwide-is generally recognized as one of the most powerful forces shaping our current and future history. How is it affecting healthcare, and in that context, what is the purpose and significance of Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHM), publisher of this journal? Our goal is not homogenization but rather to provide an opportunity for integration, convergence, and collaboration across cultures. By respecting and conserving the richness and diversity of each new medicine, we embrace globalization. Globalization is of course not new; it began in the Renaissance and particularly with the 15th- and 16th-century voyages of exploration by Columbus, Magellan, and others. Since the beginning of time, there have been interactions and exchanges among different peoples and cultures. However, the current magnitude of globalization is unprecedented and yet still expanding rapidly.

  6. GLOBAL KEYNESIANISM AND BEYOND

    Gernot Kohler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Something like "global Keynesianism" or "transnational socialism" has been mentioned as a desirable alternative to global neoliberalism (Redmond 1997. However, a definition of this kind of global Keynesianism is hard to find. Many leftists tend to associate Keynesianism with corporate power. However, there are also numerous other leftists who view this differently. For example, a member of parliament for the German Green Party stated in a recent interview that "a reformist party today has to be a left-Keynesian party which contradicts the logic of capital" (Ebermann 1998. A number of scholars from several countries, including Canada, pursue post-Keynesian-ism, in the sense of left-Keynesian economics (e.g., Seccareccia 1991. How-ever, available left-Keynesian literature, as I see it, is lacking a world-system perspective. I am trying in this article to synthesize the two perspectives-namely, left-Keynesianism and world-system theory, leading to a perspective of global left-Keynesianism. This leftist global Keynesianism can, perhaps, be described as an approach to economics which emphasizes responsible public management of economic problems in a world-system context. Common themes in global Keynesianism include the importance of public management, democratic politics, the mixed economy, global income distribution, the management of global demand, investment and money, ecological sustainability and the importance of multiple levels of public management-local, national, regional and global.

  7. Global Operations Networks

    In the current context of global economic liberalisation and technological advancements, industrial companies are less likely to generate value in the traditional vertically integrated chain. Instead, they are doing so by means of elaborate cross-border and cross-organisational networks. As a rule......, these networks are configured on a global basis and consist of diverse and interdependent affiliates (linked both through ownership and non-equity relationships), which are engaged in an exchange of goods, services and information. The Scandinavian context is no exception to this trend. Nevertheless......, international comparative studies providing comprehensive insights from it are still rare. With the objective of bridging this gap, Global Operations Networks (GONE) project (sponsored by the Danish Research Council) brought together numerous academic and industrial partners from Denmark, Sweden and Finland...

  8. Review: Petia Genkova & Andrea E. Abele (Eds.) (2008). Lernen und Entwicklung im globalen Kontext. "Heimliche Lehrpläne" und Basiskompetenzen [Learning and Development in a Global Context. Hidden Curriculum and Base Competencies

    Dörte Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    This anthology addresses globalization with regard to the world of work. How can women pursue their career and enjoy equal opportunities in the labor market? How can employees be supported during the process of company acquisition? How can the existential crises of young adults that were triggered through institutional work experiences be met and coped with? How can violence among children and adolescents be prevented? Seventeen contributions in Petia GENKOVA's and Andrea E. ABELE's anthology...

  9. Review: Petia Genkova & Andrea E. Abele (Eds. (2008. Lernen und Entwicklung im globalen Kontext. "Heimliche Lehrpläne" und Basiskompetenzen [Learning and Development in a Global Context. Hidden Curriculum and Base Competencies

    Dörte Bernhard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This anthology addresses globalization with regard to the world of work. How can women pursue their career and enjoy equal opportunities in the labor market? How can employees be supported during the process of company acquisition? How can the existential crises of young adults that were triggered through institutional work experiences be met and coped with? How can violence among children and adolescents be prevented? Seventeen contributions in Petia GENKOVA's and Andrea E. ABELE's anthology provide answers to these questions. There are four chapters focusing on: 1. female employees and their career, 2. patterns of socialization, 3. self-socialization as a means of gaining basic competencies, and 4. diversity and political culture. A short description of the meaning of a hidden curriculum in times of globalization follows an introduction to the contents of the book and information about the authors. All articles included are then commented upon. It should be noted that the anthology contains a variety of themes and aspects regarding globalization as well as innovative and interactive research methods, although the qualitative methods applied are limited to participative observation and expert interviews. The weakness of the anthology is that due to the complex and abstract linguistic usage, the concepts have not been made sufficiently accessible and straightforward. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102187

  10. Global warning, global warming

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  11. The United Nations Global Compact

    Rasche, Andreas; Waddock, Sandra; McIntosh, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the interdisciplinary literature on the UN Global Compact. The review identifies three research perspectives, which scholars have used to study the UN Global Compact so far: a historical perspective discussing the Global Compact in the context of UN-business relations...... key empirical as well as conceptual scholarly contributions. The remainder of this article contains focused summaries of the articles selected for this Special Issue. All articles are introduced and evaluated against the background of the three research perspectives....

  12. European Integration and Globalization

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  13. Against Globalization

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  14. Extreme 13Ccarb enrichment in ca. 2.0 Ga magnesite-stromatolite-dolomite-`red beds' association in a global context: a case for the world-wide signal enhanced by a local environment

    Melezhik, Victor A.; Fallick, Anthony E.; Medvedev, Pavel V.; Makarikhin, Vladimir V.

    1999-12-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic positive excursion of δ 13Ccarb is now considered as three positive shifts of δ 13Ccarb separated by returns to 0‰, which all occurred between 2.40 and 2.06 Ma. This isotopic event is unique in terms of both duration (>300 Ma) and 13C enrichment (up to +18‰). The mechanism responsible for one of the most significant carbon isotopic shifts in Earth history remains highly debatable. To date, δ 13C of +10‰ to +15‰ cannot be balanced by organic carbon burial ( forg) as there is no geological evidence for an enhanced C org accumulation prior to or synchronous with the excursion. Instead, termination of these excursions is followed by formation of a vast reservoir of 13C-depleted organic material (-45‰ at Shunga) and by one of the earliest known oil-generation episodes at 2.0 Ga. None of the three positive excursions of δ 13Ccarb is followed by a negative isotopic shift significantly below 0‰, as has always been observed in younger isotopic events, reflecting an overturn of a major marine carbon reservoirs. This may indicate that forg was constant: implying that the mechanism involved in the production of C org was different. Onset of intensive methane cycling resulting in Δc change is another possibility. The majority of sampled 13Ccarb-rich localities represents shallow-water stromatolitic dolostones, `red beds' and evaporites formed in restricted intracratonic basins, and may not reflect global δ 13Ccarb values. Closely spaced drill core samples ( n=73) of stromatolitic dolostones from the >1980±27 Ma Tulomozerskaya Formation in the Onega palaeobasin, Russian Karelia, have been analysed for δ 13Ccarb and δ 18Ocarb in order to demonstrate that different processes were involved in the formation of 13Ccarb-rich carbonates. The 800 m-thick magnesite-stromatolite-dolomite-`red beds' succession formed in a complex combination of environments on the Karelian craton: peritidal shallow marine, low-energy protected bights, barred

  15. Globalization of Healthcare

    2012-01-01

    Globalization—the increasing transnational circulation of money, goods, people, ideas, and information worldwide—is generally recognized as one of the most powerful forces shaping our current and future history. How is it affecting healthcare, and in that context, what is the purpose and significance of Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHM), publisher of this journal? Our goal is not homogenization but rather to provide an opportunity for integration, convergence, and collaboration across cultures. By respecting and conserving the richness and diversity of each new medicine, we embrace globalization. Globalization is of course not new; it began in the Renaissance and particularly with the 15th- and 16th-century voyages of exploration by Columbus, Magellan, and others. Since the beginning of time, there have been interactions and exchanges among different peoples and cultures. However, the current magnitude of globalization is unprecedented and yet still expanding rapidly. PMID:24278809

  16. Educação popular, saúde comunitária e apoio social numa conjuntura de globalização Popular education, community health, and social support in a context of globalization

    Victor Vincent Valla

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor discute as dificuldades enfrentadas pelas classes populares com rela��ão às reivindicações aos governos numa conjuntura de crise. Dentro da concepção clássica de participação popular, é possível que as práticas de educação popular e saúde comunitária se encontrem num impasse. A teoria do apoio social é proposta como forma de discutir a crise dos serviços, como também o modelo de saúde essencialmente curativo. Neste sentido, estão ressaltadas idéias tais como a relação corpo-mente no processo saúde doença, bem como a necessidade de questionar a hegemonia médica neste mesmo processo. Categorias como sentido da vida, controle sobre a vida e solidariedade são discutidos como fatores importantes para a prevenção e manutenção no campo de educação e saúde. Embora fosse um contexto de crise que suscitasse a discussão da teoria de apoio social, seu valor independe de uma conjuntura de crise.The author discusses difficulties experienced by working-class groups in a crisis context, relating to the demands they make on authorities. Popular participation has traditionally referred to activities resulting in pressure on authorities for improved basic services. One can contend that activities commonly known as popular education and community health are currently at a stalemate. The social support theory is proposed as a form of not only discussing the crisis in health services, but also the health model as being basically curative. In this sense, concepts such as "control over one's life", "life making sense", and "solidarity" are discussed as important factors for prevention and maintenance in the field of health education. Although it was a context of crisis which led to the discussion of the social support theory, the latter's value does not depend on such a context.

  17. Salutogenesis, globalization, and communication.

    Petzold, Theodor Dierk; Lehmann, Nadja

    2011-12-01

    Achieving successful communication in transcultural contexts means integrating emotional communication patterns into a global context. Professional, rational communication is characteristic of the cultural dimension, and emotions are characteristic of the direct, interpersonal dimension of human existence. Humans strive to achieve coherence in all dimensions of their lives; this goal is in the end the most essential aspect of psychophysical self-regulation. A major role in integrating emotional needs and cultural features in global coherence is played by the attractor 'global affinity'. The transitions from emotional coherence to cultural coherence, and likewise from cultural coherence to global coherence, can cause considerable insecurity as well as psychological problems, which previously went by the name 'adjustment disorders'. However, instead of pathologizing these processes, we should understand them in a salutogenic sense as challenges important for both individual and collective development. The development of more coherence is regulated by the neuropsychological approach and avoidance system. This system can be consciously fostered by directing our attention to the commonalities of all human beings. Such a global salutogenic orientation furthers both communication and creativity in teamwork. This article introduces a consequent salutogenic and evolutionary systemic view of transcultural communication and demonstrates its effectiveness in a number of case examples.

  18. Description logics of context

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  19. Building global learning communities

    Averill Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning communities around a community of practice of learning researchers and practitioners. The results include the development of a framework for utilising mobile social media to support collaborative curriculum development across international boundaries. We conclude that this framework is potentially transferrable to a range of educational contexts where the focus is upon student-generated mobile social media projects.

  20. Youth in a Global World: Attitudes towards Globalization and Global Citizenship among University Students in Hong Kong

    Chui, Wing Hong; Leung, Elliot W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wealth of theoretical literature on globalization and global citizenship, empirical studies on the topic are lacking, especially in the context of pedagogical needs in relation to global citizenship education. In order to address this gap, a study was conducted in Hong Kong to investigate the attitudes of university students towards…

  1. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. OLD AND NEW ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

    Elena MĂRGULESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective of the theoretical approaches of the phenomenon of economic globalization in the last three decades emphasizes the movement of attention from the globalization of markets, from the'80s, to the globalization of production and services in the current decade. This trend is essentially the result of implementing new strategies by multinational and transnational companies. We try in this context to draw a line between the "globalization of markets" and the "globalization of production and services”. A feature of the globalization of production and services is the implementation of the arbitrage strategy in respect of one or more production factors. But the "globalization of production and services’ gains a new content due to the new possibilities offered by the “modularization” of production. Following, the arbitrage strategies began to address new factors, as for example the "functions" of production resulting from the restructuring of the product value chain.

  3. Global Europa

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  4. Global usability

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  5. Imagining Another Context during Encoding Offsets Context-Dependent Forgetting

    Masicampo, E. J.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting…

  6. Creating a Context for Chemistry

    Truman Schwartz, A.

    Until relatively recently, the teaching of chemistry at the college and university level in the United States has been quite traditional and oriented primarily toward the preparation of chemists. Students not concentrating in the sciences have often been poorly served by existing courses. Chemistry in Context: Applying Chemistry to Society, a textbook for nonscience majors developed under the sponsorship of the American Chemical Society, is an effort to address the needs and interests of this audience. The book introduces the phenomena and principles of chemistry within the context of socially significant issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, alternate energy sources, nutrition, and genetic engineering. The chemistry is presented as needed to inform an understanding of the central topics, and the text features student-centered activities designed to promote critical thinking and risk-benefit analysis as well as an understanding of chemical principles. This paper summarizes the origin, development, content, pedagogy, evaluation, and influence of Chemistry in Context and considers its potential implications for other disciplines and the instruction of science majors.

  7. New Challenges and Opportunities for Putting into Value the Diversity of the Danube Territorial Capital, as a “European Axis” in light of Bio-Resources Supply during 2030-2050, in the context of Global Demographic Projections for 2100

    Alexandru Bogdan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of the Danube territorial capital is the part of World Heritage public investment - biodiversity, environmental protection, sustainable development, reducing poverty and increasing social inclusion, continued development of the global economic welfare, promote a healthy environment, conservation of bio-resources as a ―European Axis‖ , business development in the context of eco-bio-economic, diplomatic instruments promoting eco-bio-economic development, food security, public health, are only several ideas of a smart modern world, which can be attached to development philosophy type ―smart power‖ and contextual intelligence world for Sustainable Development Smart (Smart Sustainable Development by Sustainable Diplomacy Smart (Smart Sustainable Diplomacy in diversity of the Danube territorial capital, which can be a key ingredient of success for Excellence in Foreign Affairs Diplomatic and intelligence dedicated Environmental and Eco- Bio-Economy (SMART & Excellence in Environmental and Eco-Bio-Economic Affairs.

  8. Health promotion in globalization

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to unravel some theoretical and factual elements required to implement more effective health promotion strategies and practices in the field of health services whilst following the great challenges that globalization has imposed on the health systems, which are inevitably expressed in the local context (glocalization. Methodology: a narrative review taking into account the concepts of globalization and health promotion in relation to health determinants. The authors approach some courses of action and strategies for health promotion based on the social principles and universal values that guide health promotion, health service reorientation and primary healthcare, empowerment, social participation, and inter-sectoral and social mobilization. Discussion: the discussion focuses on the redirection of health promotion services in relation to the wave of health reforms that has spread throughout the world under the neoliberal rule. The author also discusses health promotion, its ineffectiveness, and the quest for renewal. Likewise, the author sets priorities for health promotion in relation to social determinants. Conclusion: the current global order, in terms of international relations, is not consistent with the ethical principles of health promotion. In this paper, the author advocates for the implementation of actions to change the social and physical life conditions of people based on changes in the use of power in society and the appropriate practice of politics in the context of globalization in order to achieve the effectiveness of the actions of health promotion.

  9. Caliper Context Annotation Library

    2015-09-30

    To understand the performance of parallel programs, developers need to be able to relate performance measurement data with context information, such as the call path / line numbers or iteration numbers where measurements were taken. Caliper provides a generic way to specify and collect multi-dimensional context information across the software stack, and provide ti to third-party measurement tools or write it into a file or database in the form of context streams.

  10. The Flickering Global City

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  11. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    Kuziemsky, Craig; Nøhr, Christian; Aarts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Context is a key consideration when designing and evaluating health information technology (HIT) and cannot be overstated. Unintended consequences are common post HIT implementation and even well designed technology may not achieve desired outcomes because of contextual issues. While context should...... be considered in the design and evaluation of health information systems (HISs) there is a shortcoming of empirical research on contextual aspects of HIT. This conference integrates the sociotechnical and Human-Centered-Design (HCD) approaches and showcases current research on context sensitive health...... informatics. The papers and presentations outlines theories and models for studying contextual issues and insights on how we can better design HIT to accommodate different healthcare contexts....

  12. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Ru...

  13. Global Mindset

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial.......e. the capability to sense (quickly), reflect (constructively) and act purposefully (for mutual benefit). A case on an MNC is used at the end to show the organizational manifestations of a GM....

  14. Global Supply-Chain Strategy And Global Competitiveness

    Asghar Sabbaghi; Navid Sabbaghi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of global supply chain in a broader context that encompasses not only the producing company, but suppliers and customers.The theme of this study is to identify global sourcing and selling options, to enhance customer service and value added, to optimize inventory performance, to reduce total delivered costs and lead times, to achieve lower break-even costs, and to improve operational flexibility, customization and partner relations. In this ...

  15. Intrapreneurship in the Spanish context : a regional analysis

    Turro Sol, A.; Alvarez, Claudia; Urbano, David

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the influence of internal and external (environmental) factors on intrapreneurship in the Spanish context, considering differences among regions. Methodologically, the study applies logistic regression and uses data from the Spanish Global Entrepreneurship

  16. Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban ...

    Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban Poverty ... price crisis and the threat of climate change to traditional sources of food security. ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  17. Shallow water carbonate platforms (Late Aptian–Early Albian, Southern Apennines in the context of supraregional to global changes: re-appraisal of palaeoecological events as reflectors of carbonate factory response

    A. Raspini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the palaeoenvironmental significance of the "Orbitolina Level", the microbial carbonates and the Salpingoporella dinarica-rich deposits encased in the Aptian/Albian shallow water carbonate platform strata of Monte Tobenna and Monte Faito (Southern Italy. These facies show a peculiar field appearance due to their color and/or fossil content. In the shallow water carbonate strata, the Late Aptian "Orbitolina Level" was formed during a period of decreasing accommodation space. Microbial carbonates occur in different levels in the composite section. They reach their maximum thickness around the sequence boundaries just above the "Orbitolina Level" and close to the Aptian–Albian transition, and were not deposited during maximum flooding. S. dinarica-rich deposits occur in the lower part of the Monte Tobenna-Monte Faito composite section, in both restricted and more open lagoonal sediments. S. dinarica has its maximum abundance below the "Orbitolina Level" and disappears 11 m above this layer.

    On the basis of δ13C and δ18O values recorded at Tobenna-Faito, the succession has been correlated to global sea-level changes and to the main volcanic and climatic events during the Aptian. Deterioration of the inner lagoon environmental conditions was related to high trophic levels triggered by volcano-tectonic activity. Microbial carbonates were deposited especially in periods of third-order sea level lowering. In such a scenario, periods of increased precipitation during the Gargasian induced the mobilization of clay during flooding of the exposed platform due to high-frequency sea-level changes, with consequent terrigenous input to the lagoon. This and the high nutrient levels made the conditions unsuitable for the principle carbonate producers, and an opportunistic biota rich in orbitolinids (Mesorbitolina texana and M. parva populated the platform. In the more open

  18. Shallow water carbonate platforms (Late Aptian-Early Albian, Southern Apennines) in the context of supraregional to global changes: re-appraisal of palaeoecological events as reflectors of carbonate factory response

    Raspini, A.

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses the palaeoenvironmental significance of the "Orbitolina Level", the microbial carbonates and the Salpingoporella dinarica-rich deposits encased in the Aptian/Albian shallow water carbonate platform strata of Monte Tobenna and Monte Faito (Southern Italy). These facies show a peculiar field appearance due to their color and/or fossil content. In the shallow water carbonate strata, the Late Aptian "Orbitolina Level" was formed during a period of decreasing accommodation space. Microbial carbonates occur in different levels in the composite section. They reach their maximum thickness around the sequence boundaries just above the "Orbitolina Level" and close to the Aptian-Albian transition, and were not deposited during maximum flooding. S. dinarica-rich deposits occur in the lower part of the Monte Tobenna-Monte Faito composite section, in both restricted and more open lagoonal sediments. S. dinarica has its maximum abundance below the "Orbitolina Level" and disappears 11 m above this layer. On the basis of δ13C and δ18O values recorded at Tobenna-Faito, the succession has been correlated to global sea-level changes and to the main volcanic and climatic events during the Aptian. Deterioration of the inner lagoon environmental conditions was related to high trophic levels triggered by volcano-tectonic activity. Microbial carbonates were deposited especially in periods of third-order sea level lowering. In such a scenario, periods of increased precipitation during the Gargasian induced the mobilization of clay during flooding of the exposed platform due to high-frequency sea-level changes, with consequent terrigenous input to the lagoon. This and the high nutrient levels made the conditions unsuitable for the principle carbonate producers, and an opportunistic biota rich in orbitolinids (Mesorbitolina texana and M. parva) populated the platform. In the more open marine domain, the increased nutrient input enhanced the production of organic matter

  19. Managing CSR Globally and Locally

    L. Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    Corporate Responsibility (CR) is today an essential component of corporate global strategy. CR can bolster the institutional context for market expansion (Porter and Kramer 2006); fill institutional voids (Tarun, et.al. 2005); or facilitate market entry as a component of non-market strategy (Baron...... 2006). Yet, in fulfilling these functions, CR may need to be highly sensitive to local contexts. How can transnational firms organize CR so as to maximize efficiencies from globalization and to minimize the fragmentation of corporate organizational cultures? Bartlett and Ghoshal (1989) provide...... a framework for analyzing the way that corporations coordinate global and local functions. We build on this framework in a case study of Novo Nordisk and its approach to determining global and local CR policies and procedures with regard to its China and United States subsidiaries. Our findings suggest...

  20. Theory and context / Theory in context

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    trans-disciplinary manner. Consideration needs to be given as well to connected scholarship focusing on imagination, innova-tion, and improvisation. Last but not least, an expanded the-ory of context cannot ignore the institutional context of doing research on creativity. Creativity scholars are facing......It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... questions? This de-pends on how one understands theory. Against a view of theoretical work as aiming towards generality, universality, uniformity, completeness, and singularity, I advocate for a dynamic perspective in which theory is plural, multifaceted, and contextual. Far from ‘waiting for the Messiah...

  1. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    Manuel eGarcía-Carpintero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary semantics assumes two different notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989, on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originated in Stalnaker (1978, on which contexts are sets of propositions that are common ground. The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility to account for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980 point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014 defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions, but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  2. Talking wearables exploit context

    Geldof, S.; Terken, J.M.B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how natural language generation technology can contribute to less intrusive wearable devices. Based on the investigation of how humans adapt the form of their utterances to the context of their hearer, we propose a strategy to relate (physical) context to the

  3. Average Revisited in Context

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the responses of 247 middle school students to items requiring the concept of average in three different contexts: a city's weather reported in maximum daily temperature, the number of children in a family, and the price of houses. The mixed but overall disappointing performance on the six items in the three contexts indicates…

  4. Evaluation in Context

    Jaap, Kamps; Lalmas, Mounia; Larsen, Birger

    All search happens in a particular context - such as the particular collection of a digital library, its associated search tasks, and its associated users. Information retrieval researchers usually agree on the importance of context, but they rarely address the issue. In particular, evaluation in......, e.g. those that suit a particular task scenario, and zoom in on the relative performance for such a group of topics.......All search happens in a particular context - such as the particular collection of a digital library, its associated search tasks, and its associated users. Information retrieval researchers usually agree on the importance of context, but they rarely address the issue. In particular, evaluation....../assessors - by designing targeted questionnaires. The questionnaire data becomes part of the evaluation test-suite as valuable data on the context of the search requests.We have experimented with this questionnaire approach during the evaluation campaign of the INitiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval (INEX...

  5. Gendering Globalization

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  6. Developing Globalization

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is the first qualitative micro case study of one aspect of globalization: personal networks as a concrete outcome of development assistance spending. The empirical findings related in this paper present circumstantial evidence that Japanese foreign aid has contributed to globalization...

  7. Global Uddannelse

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  8. Global warming

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  9. Unpacking the Global Crisis

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper hopes to contribute to a reading of the political economy of the current global crisis with a focus on four interrelated themes. First, we discuss the constitutive role and functional character of crises in the evolution of neo-liberalism in particular and in capitalist reproduction...... opposing crisis responses—from multilaterals to regional organisations to global civil society—and realise that responses from either pro-neoliberal or anti-neoliberal forces are fundamentally the same through the years, simply re-articulating analyses and programmes that they have respectively...... pursued and advocated long before the global crisis. And fourth, in the context of East and Southeast Asia, we examine the tendencies of the global crisis vis-à-vis the strengthening and even acceleration of emergent authoritarian liberalism in the region despite and because of the global crisis....

  10. Global carbon inequality

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Munoz Castillo, Raul; Sun, Laixiang; Xue, Jinjun

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  11. CONTEXT 2015 Doctorial Symposium

    Eklund, Peter; wegener, rebekah

    2015-01-01

    What is the CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium? The CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium is an opportunity for doctoral researchers to showcase their work and discuss problems, challenges, and ideas in an open and collegial environment with expert feedback. The Doctoral Symposium is a workshop for doctoral...... feedback and general advice in a constructive atmosphere. Doctoral researchers will present and discuss their research in a supportive atmosphere with other doctoral researchers and an international panel of established researchers that provide expert feedback. The workshop will take place on a single full...... day, Monday November 2, 2015, the day prior to the start of the main CONTEXT 2015 conference....

  12. Context updates are hierarchical

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  13. Measuring School Contexts

    Chandra L. Muller PhD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes issues in measuring school contexts with an eye toward understanding students’ experiences and outcomes. I begin with an overview of the conceptual underpinnings related to measuring contexts, briefly describe the initiatives at the National Center for Education Statistics to measure school contexts, and identify possible gaps in those initiatives that if filled could provide valuable new data for researchers. Next, I discuss new approaches and opportunities for measurement, and special considerations related to diverse populations and youth development. I conclude with recommendations for future priorities.

  14. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  15. Shadow Globalization

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  16. Esp Research Trends in Asian Context

    Jantaravipark, Arpawan; Sa-ngiamwibool, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    Due to the influence of global and regional economic changes, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) plays a more vital role in English language studies worldwide, including in Asian context. A look at any issues relat-ing to Asian ESP will shed light to the needs of English in this content. This present study therefore sur-veyed recent trends of ESP research in this context, with the purpose of the study which aimed to explore recent trends in Asian ESP research from 2005 to 2013. The Asian ESP...

  17. Global Rome

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  18. Intra-operative cell salvage and sickle cell trait in liver transplantation: time to re-consider?

    Loh, P S; Gilder, F; Klinck, J

    2018-04-19

    Sickle cell trait (SCT), characterized by the sickle hemoglobin (HbS) gene in a heterozygous state is the most common hemoglobinopathy worldwide that is typically asymptomatic in affected individuals [1]. In Europe, migration has increased the prevalence, raising concerns about its clinical impact [1]. For example, the use of intraoperative cell salvage may induce sickling because of hypoxia during processing [2]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Authority in Cross-Racial Teaching and Learning (Re)considering the Transferability of Warm Demander Approaches

    Ford, Amy Carpenter; Sassi, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This article compares a White teacher's approach to authority with that of an African American warm demander. Ethnographic methods and discourse analysis illuminated how an African American teacher grounded her authority with African American students in shared culture, history, and frame of reference. A comparative analysis makes visible…

  20. METRIC context unit architecture

    Simpson, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  1. Political, religious and occupational identities in context: placing identity status paradigm in context.

    Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Hurry, Jane

    2008-04-01

    This study critically contrasts global identity with domain-specific identities (political, religious and occupational) and considers context and gender as integral parts of identity. In a cross-sectional survey, 1038 Greek Cypriot adolescents (449 boys and 589 girls, mean age 16.8) from the three different types of secondary schools (state, state technical and private) and from different SES completed part of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status-2 (EOMEIS-2). The macro-context of Greek Cypriot society is used to understand the role of context in adolescents' identities. Results showed that Greek Cypriot young people were not in the same statuses across their global, political, religious and occupational identities. This heterogeneity in the status of global identity and of each identity domain is partially explained by differences in gender, type of school and SES (socio-economic status). The fact that identity status is found to be reactive to context suggests that developmental stage models of identity status should place greater emphasis on context.

  2. Tourism in a Globalizing World

    Yudina, Elena V.; Uhina, Tatiana V.; Bushueva, Irina V.; Pirozhenko, Natalia T.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the fact that virtually no comprehensive research on issues related to tourism as an integrative multidimensional phenomenon in the socio-cultural environment in the context of globalization has been made by now. The purpose of this article is based on sociological and cultural approach to…

  3. From Internationalisation to Global Perspectives

    Bourn, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, many universities have re-evaluated their roles and approaches towards learning in the context of a globalised society. Some institutions have responded to globalisation by marketing themselves more effectively internationally. Others have responded by promoting ideas such as "graduates as global citizens" or by…

  4. Globalization & technology

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...... of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people...

  5. Another globalization

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of ...

  6. Gendered globalization

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  7. Global warming

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  8. Global bioethics: utopia or reality?

    Hellsten, Sirkku K

    2008-08-01

    This article discusses what 'global bioethics' means today and what features make bioethical research 'global'. The article provides a historical view of the development of the field of 'bioethics', from medical ethics to the wider study of bioethics in a global context. It critically examines the particular problems that 'global bioethics' research faces across cultural and political borders and suggests some solutions on how to move towards a more balanced and culturally less biased dialogue in the issues of bioethics. The main thesis is that we need to bring global and local aspects closer together when looking for international guidelines, by paying more attention to particular cultures and local economic and social circumstances in reaching a shared understanding of the main values and principles of bioethics, and in building 'biodemocracy'.

  9. Labour in Global Value Chains

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Nadvi, Khalid; Chan, Anita

    2012-01-01

    production contexts that influence work conditions. In doing so, it argues that current debates on the role of labour in global value chains have to go beyond a narrow focus on labour standards and corporate social responsibility compliance and engage with economic, technological and social upgrading......A critical challenge facing developing country producers is to meet international labour standards and codes of conduct in order to engage in global value chains. Evidence of gains for workers from compliance with such standards and codes remains limited and patchy. This article focuses...... on the global football industry, a sector dominated by leading global brands that manage dispersed global value chains. It assesses the working conditions for football stitchers engaged in different forms of work organization, factories, stitching centres and home-based settings in Pakistan, India and China...

  10. Globalization and medicine in Trinidad.

    Reznik, David L; Murphy, John W; Belgrave, Linda Liska

    2007-05-01

    In a qualitative study of urban Trinidadians who work in the medical industry, the concept of medical globalization was provisionally analysed. Two research questions were addressed: what is globalization, in the context of mainstream medicine, and how is this process manifested in everyday practices? Four fundamental principles of medical globalization emerged from in-depth interviews and analysis of observational materials: (1) the notion of history as an autonomous force with globalization as the latest stage, (2) the expansion of 'Total Market' philosophy as a driving social force, (3) the fragmentation of society into atomistic, self-interested, and competitive individuals, and (4) the adoption of a 'centralised' set of ideals as the normative core necessary for social order. In this paper, findings from this investigation and their implications are discussed. In particular, medical globalization is linked with major themes in medical sociological theory including dualism and medicalization.

  11. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Schary, Philip B.; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....

  12. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    Hsuan, Juliana; Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Kinra, Aseem

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...

  13. ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION, REGIONALIZATION AND CONVERGENCE

    Elena Pelinescu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic convergence is an instrument of harmonization in areas with high degree of economic integration. For Romania, it is important to know the degree of fulfillment of the convergence criteria and the impact of the policies which sustain their achievement, because few studies had as object the analysis of the degree of fulfillment in countries like Romania and Bulgaria, which were included in the latest EU extension wave. We use different methods in order to show the cointegration process and the results. The techniques applied to the statistical data regarding the nominal convergence (the consolidated budget deficit as a share of GDP, the share of public debt in GDP, the rate of inflation, the interest rate and the exchange rate have revealed some results which appear in others studies too, namely that Romania integrates in the fixed target Maastricht criteria (the budget deficit as a share of GDP, the share of public debt in GDP and follows a pattern of convergence for the other criteria.

  14. Burden Sharing in the Context of Global Climate Change

    Ringius, L.; Frederiksen, P.; Birr-Pedersen, K.

    Occurrence, sources, geographical distribution, transport and fate of the persistent pollutants PAH, NPE, PAE, PCB, PCN and PBDE was investigated in sludge, soil and sediment in a local environment. Further investigated was the vertical distribution in cores of soils and sediment.......Occurrence, sources, geographical distribution, transport and fate of the persistent pollutants PAH, NPE, PAE, PCB, PCN and PBDE was investigated in sludge, soil and sediment in a local environment. Further investigated was the vertical distribution in cores of soils and sediment....

  15. The Iranian Puzzle Piece: Understanding Iran in the Global Context

    2009-01-01

    15. Barbara opall -rome, “Israeli Defenses to Use artificial Intelligence,” Defense News, 21 January 2008 (http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i...iv Iranian Power Structure ................................................................10 iv v iv v...former requires a deep understanding of Iran’s power structures and the grievances that thwart rapprochement to determine with whom and about what

  16. Internationalism and Globalization as Contexts for International Education

    Cambridge, James; Thompson, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    A problem with the construction of an inclusive definition of international education is that the word 'international' has a variety of connotations. It is proposed that the term 'international education' is ambiguous because it appears to refer to contrasting usages in educational studies. International education is frequently discussed in the…

  17. Nuclear power prospects up to 2020 in global energy context

    Naudet, G.; Capron, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Today nuclear energy is a significant component of the electricity generation in the world; its role in the future has to be estimated as an answer to the issues concerning both energy supply and atmosphere pollution. Taking into account the lead-times observed in the energy field, the year 2020 appears a convenient time horizon to appreciate the contrast of significant differences in nuclear power expansion. The approach consists in considering one by one all the countries which have already implemented a nuclear program or could be able to launch a program before this date. However, to be clear, the results are presented according to either the five regions defined in appendix or the World Energy Council regions for comparison with the WEC results. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Finnish and Swedish business cycles in a global context

    Bergman, Ulf Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the decisions made by the Finnish government to join EMU and the Swedish government not to join EMU in the early 1990s. Focusing on the characteristics of business cycles during the postwar period, we find that output fluctuations in Sweden and Finland are correlated to two...... measures of the international business cycle, a European and a non-European cycle. The Finnish cycle has become more synchronized to the European cycle but less synchronized to the non-EU cycle after 1999. For Sweden we find the opposite result. The decision by the Finnish government to join EMU...

  19. U.S. oil dependence in a global context

    Mitchell, J V [Royal Institute of Interantional Relations, Londres (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-15

    The plan of this paper is to review the role of the US in the evolution of international energy security in the past; to examine the present situation and outlook for international energy trade and investment on which the US, and most major consuming countries depend, and, finally, to speculate about the possible effect on energy security of the war against terrorism. It seems that, the slogans of past energy security are not a good guide to the present problems. All industrial countries depend to some extent on imported energy supplies, but have the capacity to pay for imports over a wide range of price scenarios. Price stability is not to be expected: there will be short term shocks to both buyers and sellers, medium term cycles with leads and lags in adjusting supply capacity to demand, and long term uncertainty about the effects of policies aimed at sustainability and protecting the climate. The diversity and flexibility of international trade and investment offers the best long and medium term security and is most likely to achieve adjustments at lowest cost. Competition between oil and other fuels, and between major oil exporters to secure markets for their oil reserves, will limit the possibilities for cartel behaviour. Short-term disruptions do, however, create problems. These have been managed during the last twenty years by a combination of actual or potential use of strategic stocks by importers and reserve capacity by OPEC exporters, particularly Saudi Arabia. The role of Saudi Arabia cannot be separated from its political relationships within the Middle East and with the US. The immense flexibility of policy which the US now enjoys as a superpower could be eroded by a weakening of the acceptance the US receives from governments in the Middle East. In the last resort, if the international system fails, the US and Europe could survive the termination of oil imports from the Middle East; Asia could not, and the consequences for the world economy including the US and Europe would be very bad. Attempts by the US and Europe to put barriers against trade in Middle East oil ''in case'' would make the situation worse, not better for consumers in the US and Europe who now benefit for access to competing, flexible oil supplies from that region. (author)

  20. U.S. oil dependence in a global context

    Mitchell, J.V.

    2002-05-01

    The plan of this paper is to review the role of the US in the evolution of international energy security in the past; to examine the present situation and outlook for international energy trade and investment on which the US, and most major consuming countries depend, and, finally, to speculate about the possible effect on energy security of the war against terrorism. It seems that, the slogans of past energy security are not a good guide to the present problems. All industrial countries depend to some extent on imported energy supplies, but have the capacity to pay for imports over a wide range of price scenarios. Price stability is not to be expected: there will be short term shocks to both buyers and sellers, medium term cycles with leads and lags in adjusting supply capacity to demand, and long term uncertainty about the effects of policies aimed at sustainability and protecting the climate. The diversity and flexibility of international trade and investment offers the best long and medium term security and is most likely to achieve adjustments at lowest cost. Competition between oil and other fuels, and between major oil exporters to secure markets for their oil reserves, will limit the possibilities for cartel behaviour. Short-term disruptions do, however, create problems. These have been managed during the last twenty years by a combination of actual or potential use of strategic stocks by importers and reserve capacity by OPEC exporters, particularly Saudi Arabia. The role of Saudi Arabia cannot be separated from its political relationships within the Middle East and with the US. The immense flexibility of policy which the US now enjoys as a superpower could be eroded by a weakening of the acceptance the US receives from governments in the Middle East. In the last resort, if the international system fails, the US and Europe could survive the termination of oil imports from the Middle East; Asia could not, and the consequences for the world economy including the US and Europe would be very bad. Attempts by the US and Europe to put barriers against trade in Middle East oil ''in case'' would make the situation worse, not better for consumers in the US and Europe who now benefit for access to competing, flexible oil supplies from that region. (author)

  1. U.S. oil dependence in a global context

    Mitchell, J.V. [Royal Institute of Interantional Relations, Londres (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-15

    The plan of this paper is to review the role of the US in the evolution of international energy security in the past; to examine the present situation and outlook for international energy trade and investment on which the US, and most major consuming countries depend, and, finally, to speculate about the possible effect on energy security of the war against terrorism. It seems that, the slogans of past energy security are not a good guide to the present problems. All industrial countries depend to some extent on imported energy supplies, but have the capacity to pay for imports over a wide range of price scenarios. Price stability is not to be expected: there will be short term shocks to both buyers and sellers, medium term cycles with leads and lags in adjusting supply capacity to demand, and long term uncertainty about the effects of policies aimed at sustainability and protecting the climate. The diversity and flexibility of international trade and investment offers the best long and medium term security and is most likely to achieve adjustments at lowest cost. Competition between oil and other fuels, and between major oil exporters to secure markets for their oil reserves, will limit the possibilities for cartel behaviour. Short-term disruptions do, however, create problems. These have been managed during the last twenty years by a combination of actual or potential use of strategic stocks by importers and reserve capacity by OPEC exporters, particularly Saudi Arabia. The role of Saudi Arabia cannot be separated from its political relationships within the Middle East and with the US. The immense flexibility of policy which the US now enjoys as a superpower could be eroded by a weakening of the acceptance the US receives from governments in the Middle East. In the last resort, if the international system fails, the US and Europe could survive the termination of oil imports from the Middle East; Asia could not, and the consequences for the world economy including the US and Europe would be very bad. Attempts by the US and Europe to put barriers against trade in Middle East oil ''in case'' would make the situation worse, not better for consumers in the US and Europe who now benefit for access to competing, flexible oil supplies from that region. (author)

  2. Networks of Practice in Science Education Research: A Global Context

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we employ cultural sociology and Braj Kachru's model of World Englishes as theoretical and analytical tools for considering English as a form of capital necessary for widely disseminating research findings from local networks of practice to the greater science education research community. We present a brief analysis of recent…

  3. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  4. Theorising context in psychology

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  5. Decisions in poverty contexts.

    Shafir, Eldar

    2017-12-01

    The circumstances surrounding poverty-tight financial challenges, instability of income and expenses, low savings, no insurance, and several other stressors-translate into persistent and cognitively taxing hardship for people in poverty contexts. Thoughts about money and expenses loom large, shape mental associations, interfere with other experiences, and are difficult to suppress. The persistent juggling of insufficient resources affects attention, cognitive resources, and ensuing decisions. Despite the demanding struggle with challenging circumstances, people in poverty encounter disdain rather than admiration, and obstacles rather than support. Societal appreciation for the power of context, along with behaviorally informed programs designed to facilitate life under poverty, are essential for those in poverty contexts to be able to make the most of their challenging circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Context, you need

    Kristensen, Line Burholt

    Two clauses can contain the same information, yet display differences with respect to information structure. As an example, “He invited her” and “Her, he invited” contain the same information, but display syntactic differences. Previous language experiments, e.g. from German and English, have shown......, he invited” depends on the context – it is therefore relevant to take contextual factors into account when examining how language users process information structure. The dissertation is based on a psycholinguistic reading experiment and three neuroimaging experiments that all examine the interplay...... between context and information structure. The experimental results indicate that context plays a significant role when it comes to sentence comprehension and that the activity in Broca’s area is also affected by contextual factors. Based on the results of the four language experiments, it is also argued...

  7. Organizing Construction Practices in Different Cultural Contexts

    Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.

    2013-01-01

    a number of characteristics and challenges related to the cultural context have been identified highlighting a central issue in existing and future construction practices due to the globalization and thereby increasing importance of cultural understanding in project-based organizing. The empirical findings......This paper presents in-depth case studies of construction practices with a specific focus on understanding the emergent and dynamic nature of construction management in different cultural contexts. The cases are based on actual working-experiences by the author as an assistant project manager...... participating in the construction management on site working for three different contractors in different cultural contexts: (1) Construir Futuro S.A. in Quito, Ecuador; (2) Anker Hansen & co. A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; and (3) E. Pihl & Soen A/S in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on these explorative case studies...

  8. Context-dependent Generalization

    Jordan A Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  9. The Global Challenge for Accounting Education

    Helliar, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Accounting and education are both global phenomena, and there is thus an argument that accounting education should be consistent and comparable across the globe. However, accounting, and accounting education are all socially constructed and globally they have been influenced by their historical, social, economic, political and cultural contexts.…

  10. Globalization and Identity Development: A Chinese Perspective

    Cheng, Min; Berman, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter begins with a discussion of the unique experience of adolescents and emerging adults who grew up with globalization in China and how it has affected their sense of self. We then discuss the effects of globalization on identity development in general, with a special focus on the sociohistorical context of China. We also review and…

  11. Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming

    Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

  12. Philosophical Aspects of Global Environmental Issues

    Lazutinaa, Tatyana V.; Baksheev, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper is determined by understanding of global environmental problems in the context of social ecology. The purpose of this paper is the analysis of main modern environmental global problems created by the equipment representing a public and social basis for the practical transformation of public relations and also the…

  13. Globalization and Counseling: Professional Issues for Counselors

    Lorelle, Sonya; Byrd, Rebekah; Crockett, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Scholars have examined globalization for many years in terms of its impact on individuals, but it remains a concept not often discussed in the counseling literature. As counseling transforms from a Western-based practice to a global phenomenon, it is important to understand professional counseling within an international and multicultural context.…

  14. The New Deal: A Global History

    Patel, Kiran Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The New Deal: A Global History provides a radically new interpretation of a pivotal period in US history. The first comprehensive study of the New Deal in a global context, the book compares American responses to the international crisis of capitalism and democracy during the 1930s to responses by

  15. Global Personality Norms: Multicultural, Multinational, and Managerial

    Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    The critical importance of understanding, selecting, and developing global management talent--management operating within internationally diverse interpersonal and situational contexts--has emerged from the increasing globalization of business and the concomitant high rates of immigration, emigration, and expatriation. With an awareness of this…

  16. Global Issues

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  17. Global Inequality

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...

  18. Global Inequality

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...

  19. Global Programs

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.

    2009-05-01

    IYA2009 is a global collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are global activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing global projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.

  20. Global rotation

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  1. Learning in context

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of the concept of learning context. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann and Gregory Bateson it suggests an alternative to situated, social learning and activity theory. The conclusion is that learning context designates an individual's reconstruction of the environment...... through contingent handling of differences and that the individual emerge as learning through the actual construction. Selection of differences is influenced by the learner's actual knowledge, the nature of the environment and the current horizon of meaning in which the current adaptive perspective...... becomes a significant factor. The re-description contributes to didaktik  through renewed understandings of participants' background in teaching and learning....

  2. Mobile Context Toolbox

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Skomail, Lukasz

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on the Maemo mobile platform enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new hardware and software sensors and features to be added...... to the context framework. We present initial results from in-the-wild experiments where contextual data was acquired using the tool. In the experiments 6 participants were using a Nokia N900 mobile phone continuously with a logger application for an average of 33 days. The study has provided valuable insights...

  3. Cue conflicts in context

    Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Poulsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    When learning their first language, children develop strategies for assigning semantic roles to sentence structures, depending on morphosyntactic cues such as case and word order. Traditionally, comprehension experiments have presented transitive clauses in isolation, and crosslinguistically...... preschoolers. However, object-first clauses may be context-sensitive structures, which are infelicitous in isolation. In a second act-out study we presented OVS clauses in supportive and unsupportive discourse contexts and in isolation and found that five-to-six-year-olds’ OVS comprehension was enhanced...

  4. Another globalization

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of the architecture of the international institutional system and the promotion of those economical policies which must ensure the stability world-wide economy and the amelioration of the international equity.

  5. Measuring Globalization

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  6. Going global

    Meade, W.; Poirier, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the global market for independent power projects and the increased competition and strategic alliances that are occurring to take advantage of the increasing demand. The topics of the article include the amount of involvement of US companies in the global market, the forces driving the market toward independent power, markets in the United Kingdom, North America, Turkey, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, the former Eastern European countries, Asia and the Pacific nations, and niche markets

  7. Global change research: Science and policy

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change

  8. Global Governance: Old and New Issues

    Gary Clyde Hufbauer

    2008-01-01

    This paper opens with a short recollection of the Kiel Week Conference of 2002, recorded in a volume edited by Horst Siebert, titled Global Governance: An Architecture for the World Economy. Assess-ments and forecasts made at that time are scored against subsequent developments. Security relations between the great powers are asserted to define the space for global economic governance. Over the next thirty years, the security context is not likely to provide the same inspiration for global ec...

  9. The Policy Context

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    Green project. The term ‘green’ is used in the sustainability context, meaning that it features economic and social dimensions in addition to the usual environmental one. The most important EU transport policy documents are reviewed and briefly presented by transportation mode. Horizontal documents covering all...

  10. The uncomfortable context

    Houmøller, Kathrin; Bernays, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A reflexive account of the influence of context and time on accessing and understanding young people's experiences of parental substance misuse. The account draws on the case of Emily, a 13 year-old girl, to illustrate the dilemmas involved in capturing the fluidity of young people's coping over ...

  11. Agency, Context and Meaning

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing the...... of meaning formulation and cultural contexts and, by this, contest design. In reflecting the foundational ground of design in terms of its agency, contexts and meaning constituents, design and its questioning of meaning can be critically reframed.......The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing...... history, 2) the question of context in and of design, i.e. which contexts give meaning to design; this question calls for interpretive models of cultural analysis of the circuit of design in acknowledging phases and aspects of production, mediation and consumption, and 3) the question of the meaning...

  12. Generation and Context Memory

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  13. Health promotion in context:

    Liveng, Anne; Andersen, Heidi Myglegård; Lehn Christiansen, Sine

    2018-01-01

    Health promotion constitutes a complex field of study, as it addresses multifaceted problems and involves a range of methods and theories. Students in the field of health promotion can find this challenging. To raise their level of reflexivity and support learning we have developed the “context m...

  14. Putting tumours in context.

    Bissell, M J; Radisky, D

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumour growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets.

  15. Context Construction through Competition

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...

  16. Context Construction Through Competition

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit...

  17. Putting tumours in context

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process

  18. Global Games

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  19. Going global?

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Rasmussen, Christel

    2016-01-01

    occurred at a more micro level. This article explores this issue by studying the international activities of Danish foundations. It finds that grant-making on global issues is increasing, and that several foundations have undergone transformations in their approach to grantmaking, making them surprisingly...

  20. Justice Globalism

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  1. Stereotypes in a context

    Hnilica, Karel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study we tested some hypotheses concerning the influence of a context on stereotypes. Our first hypothesis concerns explicit stereotypes. According to it Czech respondents will ascribe to their own category more positive attributes if a list of categories will include only Czech and Roma people than when it will include also some categories which are more positively evaluated than Czechs. The next hypothesis concerns implicit stereotypes. According to it when using IAT (Implicit Association Test; Greenwald et al., 1998, where there are compared two categories, we will ascertain a more profound difference between attitudes to Czech and Roma people than when we use BFP (Bona Fide Pipeline; Fazio et al., 1995, in which there is no such a comparison. Our next two hypotheses concern consensual stereotypes. According to one of them the content of a consensual stereotype will overlap with content of a no personal stereotype. According to the other, the valences of consensual stereotypes will be more polarized than the mean valences of personal stereotypes. The context will have similar influences on consensual and personal stereotypes. In our two researches there took part two samples (N1 = 86, N2 = 201 of adult members. To ascertain the content of explicit stereotypes we used an open-form technique. The first sample adduced attributes of members of two categories, the second sample adduced attributes of members of twelve categories. We define the consensual stereotype as a set of ten most often cited attributes. To measure implicit stereotypes, we used IAT and BFP. Results show that responses of the respondents were influenced by context in the directions expected. The content of no personal stereotype overlapped with the content of any consensual stereotype. The context had influence on both explicit and implicit measures. At the same time it was found that context had on personal and consensual stereotypes similar, but not identical

  2. Gangs and a global sociological imagination.

    Fraser, Alistair; Hagedorn, John M

    2018-02-01

    Across the globe, the phenomenon of youth gangs has become an important and sensitive public issue. In this context, an increasing level of research attention has focused on the development of universalized definitions of gangs in a global context. In this article, we argue that this search for similarity has resulted in a failure to recognize and understand difference. Drawing on an alternative methodology we call a 'global exchange', this article suggests three concepts-homologies of habitus, vectors of difference and transnational reflexivity-that seek to re-engage the sociological imagination in the study of gangs and globalization.

  3. Fronteras internas, cuerpos marcados y experiencia de fuera de lugar. Las migraciones internacionales bajo las actuales lógicas de explotación y exclusión del capitalismo global Internal frontiers, marked bodies and the experience of being out of place. International migration in the context of global capitalism's logic of exploitation and exclusion.

    Belvy Mora Castañeda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La noción de frontera es útil para la comprensión de las lógicas de discriminación, explotación e inclusión/exclusión que se dan en el marco de la globalización capitalista actual. En el contexto de los actuales procesos migratorios, las fronteras que se constituyen tanto en el campo geopolítico como en el ámbito de los imaginarios, generan categorías de nosotros y ellos, referidas a la pertenencia o no a una nación. La noción de fronteras internas alude a las maneras en las que estas construcciones geopolíticas e imaginarias se imprimen en la experiencia cotidiana de las personas inmigradas, a través de la configuración semiótico material de los cuerpos en los países receptores. En el marco de las políticas securitárias presentes en la Europa fortaleza, que construyen al sujeto inmigrante como una amenaza, estas categorizaciones dan lugar a la emergencia y actualización de las fronteras internas y su correlato: la experiencia de fuera de lugar, para aquellos cuerpos marcados como inadecuados.

     

     

    Global capitalism's logic of discrimination, exploitation and exclusion can helpfully be illuminated by the concept of 'the frontier'. Frontiers are a necessary feature of migration and inevitably generate an "us" and a "them". The concept of an "internal frontier" carries this geopolitical boundary-making over into the everday experience of immigrants, experienced in their very bodily being. "Fortress Europe" constructs the immigrant as a threat; the result is the

  4. Class-Based Context Quality Optimization For Context Management Frameworks

    Shawky, Ahmed; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    Context-awareness is a key requirement in many of today's networks, services and applications. Context Management systems are in this respect used to provide access to distributed, dynamic context information. The reliability of remotely accessed dynamic context information is challenged by network...

  5. Global carbon inequality

    Hubacek, Klaus [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Masaryk University, Department of Environmental Studies, Brno (Czech Republic); Baiocchi, Giovanni [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Economics, College Park, MD (United States); Feng, Kuishuang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Munoz Castillo, Raul [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Interamerican Development Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Sun, Laixiang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); SOAS, University of London, London (United Kingdom); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Xue, Jinjun [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Economics, Nagoya (Japan); Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan (China)

    2017-12-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  6. Leadership across cultural contexts

    Lin, L.

    2018-01-01

    The growth of the global economy has made it imperative for many organizations to expand in size and resources. Firms seek overseas for market opportunities to sustain competitive advantage. By launching a subsidiary or associate company, agreeing on a merger or joint venture with a local company,

  7. Some thoughts on power: International context

    Josifidis Kosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a polemical essay that enters into broad dialogue with the contemporary literature concerning the dynamic of power. It refers to the appropriate material and results from the research of different theories. It proposes the constitutive position of the power in the international situation. In contrast to some current theories, we emphasize the importance of the politicoeconomical approach, denoting that only the methodology based on the logics of political economy can explain the dynamics of power in the international context. The main thread of this essay is that the international constellation is not a neutral environment, but a framework that is deeply determined by the power-relations. The central idea is that these relations should be explicated by the complex relationships between freedom and order. We analyze the interaction between the politics and economy as the constitutive feature of the structure of international context. This essay is divided into three sections. First, we are treating the meaning of order in an international context, in respect to the political-economic aspects of late capitalism. The notion of this order has a great importance in the economic reflections. The dynamic of the interconnectedness of global capitalism is examined considering the systematic aspects of power. After that we are analyzing different, and selected, aspects of the international sphere including: the spatiality of the world order, that is, the spatial aspects of the international dynamics in the context of globalization, the convergence or divergence between the capitalist and territorial logic, the “legaleconomic nexus” in international “chain”, the processes of the modification of the forms of competition within recent globalization, and the political-economic conflicts in relation to the regime of economic measurement. Starting with these considerations we explain the current debates on “demondialization”, or the

  8. Global swindle of global warming

    Zeiler, W.

    2007-01-01

    Voor sommige mensen is het nog steeds niet aannemelijk dat we te maken hebben met de effecten van ‘Global Warming’, de opwarming van de aarde door voornamelijk de broeikasgassen die vrijkomen bij de verbranding van fossiele brandstoffen. In de media worden voor- en tegenstanders aan het woord

  9. Becoming Context-Free

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2017-01-01

    In this lecture I will discuss how we – as department, faculty and university – may enhance our research, teaching and knowledge transfer endeavour. This lecture builds on the current challenges in these three areas and inter alia discusses the impact on the AAU PBL model. As the title suggests...... the lecture has to major components: Sociology of Knowledge and Becoming Context-Free. What the title does not explicitly state, but what glues these two together – and what happens to be my passion – is the notion of ‘newness’. Through my lecture I will argue that ‘becoming context-free’ in pursuit...... of ‘newness’ is essential in our efforts to enhance our inter-disciplinary research and teaching, innovate our PBL model, excel in knowledge transfer – all aimed at enriching social impact of our academic endeavour. Clearly this is not the way, but it may contribute to our holistic academic efforts....

  10. Sounds in context

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  11. Habit and context

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    , but like the influence of context, quantification of its importance is lacking. To contribute to a closing of this gap, we analyse food dairy data from 100+ New Zealand consumers quantitatively with a variance component analysis. Food diaries, recording the eating occasion, beverages and meal food...... was used to examine the contribution of context factors (eating occasion, where, with whom), habit (share of beverage in consumption portfolio) and socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age) to explain the binary choice of seven main beverage types (water, hot beverages, milk, carbonated beverages...... predictor for its consumption likelihood. The impact of this measure for habit differed across beverages, for instance it played a larger role for hot beverages and water than for the consumption of beer and wine. Eating occasions and its interaction with place of consumption had highest explanatory power...

  12. Knowledge Worker Mobility in Context

    Wright, Mike; Tartari, Valentina; Huang, Kenneth G.

    2018-01-01

    on advancing our understanding of KWM in context, pushing the boundaries of theory and methods by developing a framework focusing on five main contextual dimensions: organizational context and roles, geographical and spatial context, social context and teams, institutional and cultural norms, and temporal...

  13. Conceived globals

    Cheraghi, Maryam; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    and culture which have separate effects. Being man, young, educated and having entrepreneurial competencies promote transnational networking extensively. Networking is embedded in culture, in the way that transnational networking is more extensive in secular-rational culture than in traditional culture.......A firm may be conceived global, in the sense that, before its birth, the founding entrepreneur has a transnational network of advisors which provides an embedding for organising the upstart that may include assembling resources and marketing abroad. The purpose is to account for the entrepreneurs...... the intending, starting and operating phases, fairly constantly with only small fluctuations. The firm is conceived global in terms of the entrepreneur's transnational networking already in the pre-birth phase, when the entrepreneur is intending to start the firm. These phase effects hardly depend on attributes...

  14. Global Derivatives

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  15. Energy globalization

    Tierno Andres

    1997-01-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  16. Global overeksponering

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... så bliver der blændet fuldt op for linsen d. 11. september, 2001 til en global verden, hvor de demokratiske værdier ikke gælder. Lad mig blot give et eksempel: Guatanamo. Jeg skal hverken tale for eller imod den måde verden er indrettet på - da det er denne analyse uvedkommende - men blot pege på...... med væsentligt større kraft end tidligere. Før den 11. september blev globaliseringen udelukkende tegnet af jetsettet. Altså internationale politikere, kulturkoryfæer, videnskabsfolk og forretningsfolk, der har handler ud fra kendte rationaler. Men jetsettet har ikke længere den privilegeret position...

  17. Forests and global warming

    Curren, T.

    1991-04-01

    The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs

  18. Efficiency, sustainability and global warming

    Woodward, Richard T.; Bishop, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Economic analyses of global warming have typically been grounded in the theory of economic efficiency. Such analyses may be inappropriate because many of the underlying concerns about climate change are rooted not in efficiency, but in the intergenerational allocation of economic endowments. A simple economic model is developed which demonstrates that an efficient economy is not necessarily a sustainable economy. This result leads directly to questions about the policy relevance of several economic studies of the issue. We then consider policy alternatives to address global warming in the context of economies with the dual objectives of efficiency and sustainability, with particular attention to carbon-based taxes

  19. TODAY THE GLOBAL LABOR MARKET

    D. G. Shchipanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international movement of labor, including temporary impacts on the socio-economic development of the donor and recipient countries the labor force. In this regard, it is relevant and legitimate problems of the evolution of the global labor market, the need to examine the issues of labor mobility, the problems of international labor migration and its impact on the national markets of skilled labor in the context of globalization. Distribution and use of human resources becomes cross-border nature, and so an international study of the labor market.

  20. Cloud Computing with Context Cameras

    Pickles, A. J.; Rosing, W. E.

    2016-05-01

    We summarize methods and plans to monitor and calibrate photometric observations with our autonomous, robotic network of 2m, 1m and 40cm telescopes. These are sited globally to optimize our ability to observe time-variable sources. Wide field "context" cameras are aligned with our network telescopes and cycle every ˜2 minutes through BVr'i'z' filters, spanning our optical range. We measure instantaneous zero-point offsets and transparency (throughput) against calibrators in the 5-12m range from the all-sky Tycho2 catalog, and periodically against primary standards. Similar measurements are made for all our science images, with typical fields of view of ˜0.5 degrees. These are matched against Landolt, Stetson and Sloan standards, and against calibrators in the 10-17m range from the all-sky APASS catalog. Such measurements provide pretty good instantaneous flux calibration, often to better than 5%, even in cloudy conditions. Zero-point and transparency measurements can be used to characterize, monitor and inter-compare sites and equipment. When accurate calibrations of Target against Standard fields are required, monitoring measurements can be used to select truly photometric periods when accurate calibrations can be automatically scheduled and performed.

  1. SUSTAINABILITY, GLOBALIZATION, CULTURE AND WORK

    João Almeida Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development process and the influence of globalization on culture and behavior of society seen on reflexes in the consumer market and how they participate or interfere in sustainability. Whereas globalization as a process of interaction between people in general originated in trade and political relations, reflections on the culture and behavior of society are inevitable from the point of view of consumption of products that are offered for new consumers in these markets that are in the process of globalization. Considering this necessity, it is important to consider the sustainable use of resources and by-products. This article is a reflection on sustainability, globalization, culture and work, and can be summarized in: a identifying the consequences of globalization on employment from the use of technology, b the consequences of globalization on culture are positive or negative for both involved, c benefits globalization and society have with new, better and cheaper products to meet the population needs and d how sustainability is in this consuming-producing context.

  2. Global safety

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  3. Global but fair. Controvert the climatic change, allow development; Global aber gerecht. Klimawandel bekaempfen, Entwicklung ermoeglichen

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book includes the following chapters: global but fair: climate compatible development for everybody; climatic change consequences und vulnerabilities; ethic dimension: fairness in the context of climatic change and poverty; options and challenges for emissions abatement; options for the adaptation to the climatic change; global deal for climate and development policy; convert the climatic change, allow development: ten political messages.

  4. Globalization: Ecological consequences of global-scale connectivity in people, resources and information

    Globalization is a phenomenon affecting all facets of the Earth System. Within the context of ecological systems, it is becoming increasingly apparent that global connectivity among terrestrial systems, the atmosphere, and oceans is driving many ecological dynamics at finer scales and pushing thresh...

  5. Global ambitions

    Scruton, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses global ambitions concerning the Norwegian petroleum industry. With the advent of the NORSOK (Forum for development and operation) cost reduction programme and a specific focus on key sectors of the market, the Norwegian oil industry is beginning to market its considerable technological achievements internationally. Obviously, the good fortune of having tested this technology in a very demanding domestic arena means that Norwegian offshore support companies, having succeeded at home, are perfectly poised to export their expertise to the international sector. Drawing on the traditional strengths of the country's maritime heritage, with mobile rig and specialized vessel business featuring strongly, other key technologies have been developed. 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. GLOBALIZATION, COMMUNICATION, EDUCATION

    Monica Condruz-Bacescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issues of globalization, communication and education. Globalization has become the fundamental theme of political discourse, through its economic dimension, namely by opening up the economic markets in search of new stability points of contemporary developed capitalism; a phenomenon that has led to the free movement of labor, thus involving the social dimension, the circle being closed with the educational dimension because the individual, regardless of the cultural context in which he/she lives, needs training. The global economy cannot be conceived without international communication, which has become a premise of economic success in recent decades. Such communication on which the economic partnerships and multinational organizations are based presupposes an accurate perception and interpretation of the different cultures other than those in which the economic activity takes place and a permanent negotiation of the symbols and reference systems. Education undoubtedly plays an important role in any attempt to address communication networks in these moments of explosive development, networks that mediate communication between people and can thereby help to bring them closer together. Education must directly follow the transformations and new requirements in order to support future changes and professional training. In this direction, education will have as an educational purpose the development of the consciousness of the links between the different components and participants, regardless of the geographic area in which they operate, and on this basis the building of the partnership. Education needs to efficiently and extensively convey that knowledge and information adapted to the new civilization of globalization that does not overwhelm but contribute to the development of people at individual and community level. It must also trace the transformations of the new world that is constantly moving, and at the same time

  7. French grammar in context

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  8. Context in place

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie

    specifically argue for a more grounded approach to the conception of context - a topographic approach - in which the physical setting - i.e. 'the place' becomes an inevitable part of analyses of guidance practices in order to understand participants' sense-making processes. In the paper we draw on two case...... studies on interdisciplinary clinical supervision and work place guidance in which there appears to be a mismatch between intended outcomes and actual events. The analyses demonstrate and support that 'the place' seems - to influence partipants' responses in the guidance sessions and, therefore, must...

  9. Context and Implicature

    Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces Paul Grice's notion of conversational implicature. The basic ideas - the cooperative principle, the maxims of conversation, and the contrast between implicature and presupposition - make it clear that conversational implicature is a highly contextualized form of language use...... that has a lot in common with non-linguistic behavior. But what exactly is its role? We invite the reader to view conversational implicature as a way of negotiating meaning in conversational contexts. Along the way, the reader will learn something of the theoretical properties of implicatures, why...

  10. Engineering Mathematics in Context

    Ravn, Ole; Henriksen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    A theory-based approach to scientific research has an inherent tendency to become secluded from the ongoing problems and discussions of the surrounding society. A problem-based approach to research immediately involves this context of problems and discussions from the outset. In this article, we ...... argue that education in university engineering mathematics should take its outset in contextual problems in order to provide a foundation for the skills and capabilities engineers need in their future job settings, whether it be research or development activities....

  11. CEO pay-performance sensitivity in the South African context

    Mark Bussin

    2015-01-01

    The topic of executive pay-performance sensitivity has resulted in mixed research findings. Literature related to executive remuneration constructs, company performance measures and the underlying theories is critically reviewed in this article. The literature is compared to research findings within the South African context pre, during and post the Global Financial Crisis of 2008. The researcher found similar results in the South African context compared to research in other countries and in...

  12. Global integration in times of crisis

    Jensen, Camilla

    shock) from other subsidiaries downstream in the value chain. While in a comparative perspective multinational subsidiaries are found to perform relatively better than local firms that are integrated differently (arms' length) in global production networks (e.g. offshoring outsourcing). This paper tries...... to reconcile these findings by testing a number of hypothesis about global integration strategies in the context of the global financial crisis and how it affected exporting among multinational subsidiaries operating out of Turkey. Controlling for the impact that depreciations and exchange rate volatility has...... integration strategies throughout the course of the global financial crisis....

  13. [Medical globalization and local culture.

    Paci, Eugenio

    2017-03-01

    Biomedical globalization is a reality in the presence of local worlds with growing human sufferance and inequalities. In this structural and cultural context, characterised by the new communication by Internet and social media, polarisation of medical and scientific debate is enhancing. Based on episodes related to public health issues like vaccines, the quest for better access of Italian professionals and public opinion to an open scientific debate on health research and practice is discussed.

  14. Place Existing Online Business Communication Classes into the International Context: Social Presence from Potential Learners' Perspectives

    Wang, Junhua; Wang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship on global online courses points to the need to examine the issue of social context in an online global learning environment. To explore global learners' cultural perspectives on the social climate of an online class, we first review the social presence theory--which can be used to examine the social climate in an online…

  15. Protostellar Jets in Context

    Tsinganos, Kanaris; Stute, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Conference Protostellar Jets in Context held by the JETSET Marie Curie Research Training Network in July 2008. This meeting not only served to showcase some of the network's achievements but was also a platform to hear from, discuss and debate the recent findings of world-class astrophysicists in the field of protostellar jet research. Jets from young stars are of course not an isolated astrophysical phenomenon. It is known that objects as diverse as young brown dwarfs, planetary nebulae, symbiotic stars, micro-quasars, AGN, and gamma-ray bursters produce jets. Thus in a series of talks, protostellar jets were put in context by comparing them with their often much larger brethren and also by considering the ubiquitous accretion disks that seem to be necessary for their formation. With this spectrum of contributions on observations and the theory of astrophysical jets and accretion disks, this book serves as a comprehensive reference work for researchers and students...

  16. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Global health and global health ethics

    Benatar, S. R; Brock, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    ...? What are our responsibilities and how can we improve global health? Global Health and Global Health Ethics addresses these questions from the perspective of a range of disciplines, including medicine, philosophy and the social sciences...

  18. VIETNAMESE MIGRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    Artem S. Lukyanetz; Nguyen Canh Toan; Elena E. Pismennaya; Sergei V. Ryazantsev; Vladimir S. Tikunov; Pham Hoang Hai

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines emigration from Vietnam in the context of global climate change. Vietnam is among the five countries, most vulnerable to water level rise in the oceans associated with global warming. The areas of potential flooding include territories with most dense population and are extremity important for the economy of Vietnam. The country has a significant demographic potential exceeding 90 mln people. Vietnamese migration has a relatively long history. Large Vietnamese communities h...

  19. Globally Imaging the Magnetosphere

    Sibeck, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past two decades, a host of missions have provided the multipoint in situ measurementsneeded to understand the meso- and micro-scale physics governing the solar wind-magnetosphereinteraction. Observations by the ISTP missions, Cluster, THEMIS, Double Star, and most recentlyMMS, have enabled us to identify the occurrence of some of the many proposed models for magneticreconnection and particle acceleration in a wide range of accessible magnetospheric contexts. However, todetermine which of these processes are most important to the overall interaction, we need globalobservations, from both ground-based instrumentation and imaging spacecraft. This talk outlinessome of the the global puzzles that remain to be solved and some of the very novel means that are availableto address them, including soft X-ray, energetic neutral atom, far and extreme ultraviolet imaging andenhanced arrays of ground observatories.

  20. [Global risk management].

    Sghaier, W; Hergon, E; Desroches, A

    2015-08-01

    Risk management is a fundamental component of any successful company, whether it is in economic, societal or environmental aspect. Risk management is an especially important activity for companies that optimal security challenge of products and services is great. This is the case especially for the health sector institutions. Risk management is therefore a decision support tool and a means to ensure the sustainability of an organization. In this context, what methods and approaches implemented to manage the risks? Through this state of the art, we are interested in the concept of risk and risk management processes. Then we focus on the different methods of risk management and the criteria for choosing among these methods. Finally we highlight the need to supplement these methods by a systemic and global approach including through risk assessment by the audits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Global warming-setting the stages

    1994-01-01

    Most of us have heard or read about global warming. However, the messages we receive are often in conflict, raising more questions than answer. Is global warming a good or a bad thing? has it already started or is it part of our future? Are we, or are we not doing anything about it? Should we be concerned? This primer on Global Warming is designed to clear up some of this confusion by providing basic scientific information on global warming issue. It is clear that there is still much to learn about global warming. However, it is also clear that there is a lot that we already know - and that dose provide cause for concern. We must understand the global warming issue if we are to make wise decisions and take responsible actions in response to the challenges and opportunities posed by global warming. Chapter 1 of 'the primer on global Warming' set the stage with a brief overview of science of global warming within the context of climate change. In addition, it introduces the specific issues that surround the global warming problem. As far as the science of global warming is concerned the following questions are discussed. What is global climate? Is climate change natural? What causes climate to vary on a global scale? How does the composition of the atmosphere relate to climate change. but there are also certain issues discussed here which surround the global warming such as: If climate varies naturally, why is there a concern about 'global warming'? What are the potential consequences of 'global warning'. What human activities contribute to 'global warming'. (Author)

  2. The social library in three contexts

    Delica, Kristian Nagel; Elbeshausen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Across different national contexts public libraries have dealt, in diverse yet comparable ways, with the multiple challenges stemming from globalization, migration, marginalization and technological developments. This article argues, by way of dissecting three cases of library planning programmes...... which focused on centring libraries in their neighbourhoods, that we in recent decades witness the contours of a social library. Discussing experiences from initiatives in the UK, Canada and Denmark we, notwithstanding significant national differences, highlight common features – that libraries bring...... together already existing, but hitherto isolated institutional knowledge and competencies. We conclude by proposing a tentative typology of ‘the social library’....

  3. Globalizing Denmark

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    countries to keep up the process of globalization may be substantial, and the economic gains for such countries from adjusting to a more internationally integrated world economy are clear. However, in small- population economies, especially social-democratic welfare states, the internal pressure......This exploratory article examines the paradox of being open-minded while ethnocentric as expressed in Danish international management practices at the micro level. With a population of 5.4 million, Denmark is one of the smallest of the European countries. The pressure on many small advanced...... to integrate counteracts to some extent the need to maintain openness to differences. Thus, a strong economy and a feeling of smug ethnocentrism in Denmark generate a central paradox in thinking about internationalization in Danish society....

  4. Global Geomorphology

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  5. Global engineering

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  6. Global warming

    Houghton, John

    2005-01-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  7. Global gamesmanship.

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  8. Prostitution Research in Context

    chapters again actively engage with the ethical dilemmas that research on the topic of sex for sale can entail. The authors represent different disciplines, but share an interest in engaging in reflexive research practices informed by feminism and feminist epistemologies. An authoritative contribution......The starting point for this book is the question of how we research sex for sale and the implications of the choices we make in terms of epistemology and ethics. Which dilemmas and ethical aspects need to be taken into account when producing qualitative data within a highly politicised and moral......-infected realm? These two questions are exactly what Spanger and Skilbrei aim to unpack in this unusual interdisciplinary methodology book, Prostitution Research in Context. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their reflections on their own research practice and the existing...

  9. Celebrity and contemporary context

    Paula Guimarães Simões

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the hermeneutic power of a celebrity (seen from the concept of event, seeking to understand what it reveals about the contemporary context. Based on this premise, we attempt to recognize some aspects of contemporary social life that emerge from the trajectory of a specific celebrity: the former soccer player Ronaldo Fenômeno. This analysis brings to light the hermeneutic power of Ronaldo, i.e., how his life story reveals characteristics of contemporary social life. Individualism, machismo, emphasis on a heteronormative ideal, shifts in the construction of romantic relationships, and the overlapping spheres of public and private life, are some important aspects of contemporary society revealed by this analysis.

  10. THE MUMMY in context

    Richard Freeman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the literary and cinematic antecedents of a cinema icon, The Mummy, produced by Universal Pictures in 1932.  It looks at the sources in Victorian and Edwardian literature to see if any of the ideas found their way into the film.  Similarly, the silent cinema is surveyed to see if the 1932 film was a collection of previously filmed stories remoulded.  The context of the Great Depression and its effects on Universal Studios will be shown to have a significant influence on the decision to make the film.  The film itself and its publicity is discussed, followed by its reception at the time, and its significance to writers since.

  11. Context effects in games

    Ivo Vlaev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment exploring sequential context effects on strategy choices in one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma (PD game. Rapoport and Chammah (1965 have shown that some PDs are cooperative and lead to high cooperation rate, whereas others are uncooperative. Participants played very cooperative and very uncooperative games, against anonymous partners. The order in which these games were played affected their cooperation rate by producing perceptual contrast, which appeared only between the trials, but not between two separate sequences of games. These findings suggest that people may not have stable perceptions of absolute cooperativeness. Instead, they judge the cooperativeness of each fresh game only in relation to the previous game. The observed effects suggest that the principles underlying judgments about highly abstract magnitudes such as cooperativeness may be similar to principles governing the perception of sensory magnitudes.

  12. Surfing the Waves of Globalization: Asia and Financial Globalization in the Context of the Trilemma

    Aizenman, Joshua; D. Chinn, Menzie; Ito, Hiro

    2009-01-01

    Using the "trilemma indexes" developed by Aizenman et al. (2008) that measure the extent of achievement in each of the three policy goals in the trilemma - monetary independence, exchange rate stability, and financial openness - this paper examines how policy configurations affect macroeconomic performances with focus on the Asian economies. We find that the three policy choices do not matter for per capita economic growth. However, they do matter for output volatility and the medium-term lev...

  13. Some anthropological aspects of globalization

    Đurić Jelena B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness about the role of anthropological perspective places each anthropological research within the context of globalization, pointing at the need for making the difference between concepts of globalization as the description and as the political project. This differentiation represents a frame of the research of globalization phenomena in order to understand their influence on concrete people in a concrete situation. The importance of the role of concepts in ubiquitous transformation of human lives is also confirmed in the paper. This is the way the influence of one culture unfolds through the dominant concepts, the culture which symbolically and normatively imposes itself as 'global' in spite of the fact that it is 'local' not only (and/or not any more in territorial sense but in its materialistic approach to the values. Hence, horizontal communication (globally available via the internet could serve to the communication of values as crucial spiritual points. It could contribute not only to the widening of cultural circles, but to the evolution of consciousness about the generalization of values up to the universal. This requires transcending of particular interests, which prevent effective conceptualization of the global anthropological meaning.

  14. ContextProvider: Context awareness for medical monitoring applications.

    Mitchell, Michael; Meyers, Christopher; Wang, An-I Andy; Tyson, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Smartphones are sensor-rich and Internet-enabled. With their on-board sensors, web services, social media, and external biosensors, smartphones can provide contextual information about the device, user, and environment, thereby enabling the creation of rich, biologically driven applications. We introduce ContextProvider, a framework that offers a unified, query-able interface to contextual data on the device. Unlike other context-based frameworks, ContextProvider offers interactive user feedback, self-adaptive sensor polling, and minimal reliance on third-party infrastructure. ContextProvider also allows for rapid development of new context and bio-aware applications. Evaluation of ContextProvider shows the incorporation of an additional monitoring sensor into the framework with fewer than 100 lines of Java code. With adaptive sensor monitoring, power consumption per sensor can be reduced down to 1% overhead. Finally, through the use of context, accuracy of data interpretation can be improved by up to 80%.

  15. The Globalization of the Danish Documentarry

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2019-01-01

    In this article I discuss basic dimensions of globalisation and basic documentary modes or prototypes with special reference to Bill Nichols (2001), Carl Plantinga (1997) and Ib Bondebjerg (2014). After having presented this more theoretical context I analyse different dimensions...... of the globalization through Danish examples, looking at the production context, the thematic, aesthetic and generic modes.. My cases illustrate different modes of addressing the global and also use elements from different basic documentary modes. A special focus is the rise of transnational creative collaboration....

  16. 10 rules for managing global innovation.

    Wilson, Keeley; Doz, Yves L

    2012-10-01

    More and more companies recognize that their dispersed, global operations are a treasure trove of ideas and capabilities for innovation. But it's proving harder than expected to unearth those ideas or exploit those capabilities. Part of the problem is that companies manage global innovation the same way they manage traditional, single-location projects. Single-location projects draw on a large reservoir of tacit knowledge, shared context, and trust that global projects lack. The management challenge, therefore, is to replicate the positive aspects of colocation while harnessing the opportunities of dispersion. In this article, Insead's Wilson and Doz draw on research into global strategy and innovation to present a set of guidelines for setting up and managing global innovation. They explore in detail the challenges that make global projects inherently different and show how these can be overcome by applying superior project management skills across teams, fostering a strong collaborative culture, and using a robust array of communications tools.

  17. Managing Corporate Responsibility Globally and Locally

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Responsibility (CR) is today an essential component of corporate global strategy. CR can bolster the institutional context for market expansion fill institutional voids or facilitate market entry as a component of non-market strategy. Yet, in fulfilling these functions, CR may need...... to be highly sensitive to local contexts. How can transnational firms organize CR so as to maximize efficiencies from globalization and to minimize the fragmentation of corporate organizational cultures? provide a framework for analyzing the way that corporations coordinate global and local functions. We build...... on this framework in a case study of Novo Nordisk and its approach to determining global and local CR policies and procedures with regard to its China and US subsidiaries. Our findings suggest that it is important for companies to define a common set of organizational norms. In addition, CR need to be sensitive...

  18. Bilingual Contexts Modulate the Inhibitory Control Network

    Jing Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigated influences of language contexts on inhibitory control and the underlying neural processes. Thirty Cantonese–Mandarin–English trilingual speakers, who were highly proficient in Cantonese (L1 and Mandarin (L2, and moderately proficient in English (L3, performed a picture-naming task in three dual-language contexts (L1-L2, L2-L3, and L1-L3. After each of the three naming tasks, participants performed a flanker task, measuring contextual effects on the inhibitory control system. Behavioral results showed a typical flanker effect in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition, but not in the L1-L2 condition, which indicates contextual facilitation on inhibitory control performance by the L1-L2 context. Whole brain analysis of the fMRI data acquired during the flanker tasks showed more neural activations in the right prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition on one hand as compared to the L1-L2 condition on the other hand, suggesting greater involvement of the cognitive control areas when participants were performing the flanker task in L2-L3 and L1-L3 contexts. Effective connectivity analyses displayed a cortical-subcortical-cerebellar circuitry for inhibitory control in the trilinguals. However, contrary to the right-lateralized network in the L1-L2 condition, functional networks for inhibitory control in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition are less integrated and more left-lateralized. These findings provide a novel perspective for investigating the interaction between bilingualism (multilingualism and inhibitory control by demonstrating instant behavioral effects and neural plasticity as a function of changes in global language contexts.

  19. A global perspective on diversity and inclusion in work organisations : Introduction

    Farndale, E.; Biron, Michal; Briscoe, Dennis R.; Raghuram, Sumita

    2015-01-01

    This Academy of Management, Human Resources Division, Ambassadors' Programme special issue presents a collection of empirical papers examining workplace diversity and inclusion in a global context. We introduce this topic raising three overarching challenges: to develop more context-specific

  20. Artistic research, context research

    Ricardo Benjamín Toledo Castellanos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some concepts in contemporary art works, dealing with some life aspects and passed through the sensitive and expressive test, are formulated in this paper and shed light on the foundation of researches about singular phenomenons of the existence. For this, it is argued that there are researches belonging to arts, fundamental researches that compromise the certainty of the assumptions where the sense system of a context has its bases (epoch, culture, nation, region. These researches come ahead of the researches of the rational-discursive enunciation fields, given that the last ones haven’t passed any protocol accepted yet by any community. To bring into play the certainty is done by a cognitive movement named by Martin Heidegger unconcealment [Unverborgenheit], and it consist on the interruption of the habituality of the beings who form the (trustworthy family setting to put into perspective the fundamental structures that allow to produce its sense. The unconcealment, typical in art and in creative actions, sets up an event that stops the solidity of the established (social, ethical, technical, scientific, philosophical order, and unleashes conditions for changing the lifestyles hold until then.