WorldWideScience

Sample records for global co2 emissions

  1. Global CO2 emissions from cement production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Robbie M.

    2018-01-01

    The global production of cement has grown very rapidly in recent years, and after fossil fuels and land-use change, it is the third-largest source of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. The required data for estimating emissions from global cement production are poor, and it has been recognised that some global estimates are significantly inflated. Here we assemble a large variety of available datasets and prioritise official data and emission factors, including estimates submitted to the UNFCCC plus new estimates for China and India, to present a new analysis of global process emissions from cement production. We show that global process emissions in 2016 were 1.45±0.20 Gt CO2, equivalent to about 4 % of emissions from fossil fuels. Cumulative emissions from 1928 to 2016 were 39.3±2.4 Gt CO2, 66 % of which have occurred since 1990. Emissions in 2015 were 30 % lower than those recently reported by the Global Carbon Project. The data associated with this article can be found at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.831455.

  2. Influence of travel behavior on global CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Vries, B. de

    2013-01-01

    Travel demand is rising steeply and its contribution to global CO2 emissions is increasing. Different studies have shown possible mitigation through technological options, but so far few studies have evaluated the implications of changing travel behavior on global travel demand, energy use and CO2

  3. Trends in global CO2 emissions. 2012 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Den Haag (Netherlands); Janssens-Maenhout, G. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, European Commission' s Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This report discusses the results of a trend assessment of global CO2 emissions up to 2011 and updates last year's assessment. This assessment focusses on the changes in annual CO2 emissions from 2010 to 2011, and includes not only fossil fuel combustion on which the BP reports are based, but also incorporates all other relevant CO2 emissions sources including flaring of waste gas during oil production, cement clinker production and other limestone uses, feedstock and other non-energy uses of fuels, and several other small sources. After a short description of the methods used (Chapter 2), we first present a summary of recent CO2 emission trends, by region and by country, and of the underlying trend of fossil fuel use, non-fossil energy and of other CO2 sources (Chapter 3). To provide a broader context of the global trends we also assess the cumulative global CO2 emissions of the last decade, i.e. since 2000, and compare it with scientific literature that analyse global emissions in relation to the target of 2C maximum global warming in the 21st century, which was adopted in the UN climate negotiations (Chapter 4). Compared to last year's report, Annex 1 includes a more detailed and updated discussion of the uncertainty in national and global CO2 emission estimates.

  4. Trends in global CO2 emissions. 2012 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, J. G.J.; Peters, J. A.H.W. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Den Haag (Netherlands); Janssens-Maenhout, G. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, European Commission' s Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This report discusses the results of a trend assessment of global CO2 emissions up to 2011 and updates last year's assessment. This assessment focusses on the changes in annual CO2 emissions from 2010 to 2011, and includes not only fossil fuel combustion on which the BP reports are based, but also incorporates all other relevant CO2 emissions sources including flaring of waste gas during oil production, cement clinker production and other limestone uses, feedstock and other non-energy uses of fuels, and several other small sources. After a short description of the methods used (Chapter 2), we first present a summary of recent CO2 emission trends, by region and by country, and of the underlying trend of fossil fuel use, non-fossil energy and of other CO2 sources (Chapter 3). To provide a broader context of the global trends we also assess the cumulative global CO2 emissions of the last decade, i.e. since 2000, and compare it with scientific literature that analyse global emissions in relation to the target of 2C maximum global warming in the 21st century, which was adopted in the UN climate negotiations (Chapter 4). Compared to last year's report, Annex 1 includes a more detailed and updated discussion of the uncertainty in national and global CO2 emission estimates.

  5. Trends in global CO2 emissions. 2013 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Den Haag (Netherlands); Janssens-Maenhout, G. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, European Commission' s Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy); Muntean, M. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    This report discusses the results of a trend assessment of global CO2 emissions up to 2012 and updates last year's assessment. This assessment focuses on the changes in annual CO2 emissions from 2011 to 2012, and includes not only fossil-fuel combustion on which the BP reports are based, but also incorporates other relevant CO2 emissions sources including flaring of waste gas during gas and oil production, cement clinker production and other limestone uses, feedstock and other non-energy uses of fuels, and several other small sources. The report clarifies the CO2 emission sources covered, and describes the methodology and data sources. More details are provided in Annex 1 over the 2010-2012 period, including a discussion of the degree of uncertainty in national and global CO2 emission estimates. Chapter 2 presents a summary of recent CO2 emission trends, per main country or region, including a comparison between emissions per capita and per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and of the underlying trend in fossil-fuel production and use, non-fossil energy and other CO2 sources. Specific attention is given to developments in shale gas and oil production and oil sands production and their impact on CO2 emissions. To provide a broader context of global emissions trends, international greenhouse gas mitigation targets and agreements are also presented, including different perspectives of emission accounting per country. In particular, annual trends with respect to the Kyoto Protocol target and Cancun agreements and cumulative global CO2 emissions of the last decade are compared with scientific literature that analyses global emissions in relation to the target of 2{sup 0}C maximum global warming in the 21st century, which was adopted in the UN climate negotiations. In addition, we briefly discuss the rapid development and implementation of various emission trading schemes, because of their increasing importance as a cross-cutting policy instrument for mitigating

  6. Implications of overestimated anthropogenic CO2 emissions on East Asian and global land CO2 flux inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.

    2017-12-01

    Measurement and modelling of regional or country-level carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are becoming critical for verification of the greenhouse gases emission control. One of the commonly adopted approaches is inverse modelling, where CO2 fluxes (emission: positive flux, sink: negative flux) from the terrestrial ecosystems are estimated by combining atmospheric CO2 measurements with atmospheric transport models. The inverse models assume anthropogenic emissions are known, and thus the uncertainties in the emissions introduce systematic bias in estimation of the terrestrial (residual) fluxes by inverse modelling. Here we show that the CO2 sink increase, estimated by the inverse model, over East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia), by about 0.26 PgC year-1 (1 Pg = 1012 g) during 2001-2010, is likely to be an artifact of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions increasing too quickly in China by 1.41 PgC year-1. Independent results from methane (CH4) inversion suggested about 41% lower rate of East Asian CH4 emission increase during 2002-2012. We apply a scaling factor of 0.59, based on CH4 inversion, to the rate of anthropogenic CO2 emission increase since the anthropogenic emissions of both CO2 and CH4 increase linearly in the emission inventory. We find no systematic increase in land CO2 uptake over East Asia during 1993-2010 or 2000-2009 when scaled anthropogenic CO2 emissions are used, and that there is a need of higher emission increase rate for 2010-2012 compared to those calculated by the inventory methods. High bias in anthropogenic CO2 emissions leads to stronger land sinks in global land-ocean flux partitioning in our inverse model. The corrected anthropogenic CO2 emissions also produce measurable reductions in the rate of global land CO2 sink increase post-2002, leading to a better agreement with the terrestrial biospheric model simulations that include CO2-fertilization and climate effects.

  7. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  8. Seasonal and temporal CO2 dynamics in three tropical mangrove creeks - A revision of global mangrove CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentreter, Judith A.; Maher, D. T.; Erler, D. V.; Murray, R.; Eyre, B. D.

    2018-02-01

    Continuous high-resolution surface water pCO2 and δ13C-CO2 and 222Rn (dry season only) were measured over two tidal cycles in the wet and dry season in three tropical tidal mangrove creeks on the north-eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. Mangrove surface water pCO2 followed a clear tidal pattern (ranging from 387 to 13,031 μatm) with higher pCO2-values in the wet season than in the dry season. The δ13C-CO2 in the mangrove waters ranged from -21.7 to -8.8‰ and was rather indicative of a mixed source than a distinct mangrove signature. Surface water CO2 was likely driven by a combination of mangrove and external carbon sources, e.g. exchange with groundwater/pore water enriched in 13C, or terrestrial carbon inputs with a significant contribution of C4-vegetation (sugar cane) source. The kinetic and equilibrium fractionation during the gas exchange at the water-atmosphere interface may have further caused a 13C-enrichment of the CO2 pool in the mangrove surface waters. Average CO2 evasion rates (58.7-277.6 mmol m-2 d-1) were calculated using different empirical gas transfer velocity models. Using our high-resolution time series data and previously published data, the average CO2 flux rate in mangrove ecosystems was estimated to be 56.5 ± 8.9 mmol m-2 d-1, which corresponds to a revised global mangrove CO2 emission of 34.1 ± 5.4 Tg C per year.

  9. Global Anthropogenic Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases 1990-2020

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data in these Appendices to the Global Anthropogenic Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (1990-2020) report provide historical and projected estimates of...

  10. The effects of Norwegian gas export on the global CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report analyses how a limitation of Norway's gas export might affect the global CO 2 emission. In principle, a reduction of this export can lead to decreased or increased CO 2 emission depending on changes in several conditions that individually have conflicting emission effects. What the total effect will be can only become clear after a thorough empirical analysis of the supply and demand structure. The model calculations presented in the report show that the global emission will probably increase if Norway reduces the gas export. A gas export reduction of 10 million tonne oil equivalents in 2015 will increase the global emission by 1.4 and 7.5 million tonne CO 2 depending on the assumption made for alternative gas supplies to the European market and for market conditions in the importing countries. 4 refs., 32 figs., 44 tabs

  11. Origin of path independence between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2017-11-01

    Observations and GCMs exhibit approximate proportionality between cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. Here we identify sufficient conditions for the relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming to be independent of the path of CO2 emissions; referred to as "path independence". Our starting point is a closed form expression for global warming in a two-box energy balance model (EBM), which depends explicitly on cumulative emissions, airborne fraction and time. Path independence requires that this function can be approximated as depending on cumulative emissions alone. We show that path independence arises from weak constraints, occurring if the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions (equal to ratio between cumulative emissions and emissions rate) is small compared to the timescale for changes in airborne fraction (which depends on CO2 uptake), and also small relative to a derived climate model parameter called the damping-timescale, which is related to the rate at which deep-ocean warming affects global warming. Effects of uncertainties in the climate model and carbon cycle are examined. Large deep-ocean heat capacity in the Earth system is not necessary for path independence, which appears resilient to climate modeling uncertainties. However long time-constants in the Earth system carbon cycle are essential, ensuring that airborne fraction changes slowly with timescale much longer than the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions. Therefore path independence between cumulative emissions and warming cannot arise for short-lived greenhouse gases.

  12. An econometric time-series analysis of global CO2 concentrations and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.C.; Labys, W.C.; Eliste, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper extends previous work on the econometric modelling of CO 2 concentrations and emissions. The importance of such work rests in the fact that models of the Cohen-Labys variety represent the only alternative to scientific or physical models of CO 2 accumulations whose parameters are inferred rather than estimated. The stimulation for this study derives from the recent discovery of oscillations and cycles in the net biospheric flux of CO 2 . A variety of time series tests is thus used to search for the presence of normality, stationarity, cyclicality and stochastic processes in global CO 2 emissions and concentrations series. Given the evidence for cyclicality of a short-run nature in the spectra of these series, both structural time series and error correction model are applied to confirm the frequency and amplitude of these cycles. Our results suggest new possibilities for determining equilibrium levels of CO 2 concentrations and subsequently revising stabilization policies. (Author)

  13. Problems in the Relationship between CO2 Emissions and Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kovács

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of environmental conditions and impacts, the viewpoint that greenhouse gases, primarily anthropogenic (industrial, human carbon dioxide, play a determining role in the change of global temperatures, ( the increase experienced in the last one and a half decade, has been given widespread publicity recently. Coal-fired power plants are the first to blame for the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the last two centuries. The study indicates possibilities to increase the efficiency of coal-fired power plants, which would involve a considerable reduction in CO2 emissions with an identical production volume of electrical energy. On the basis of the analysis of the amount of fossil fuels used, the amount of CO2 emissions and changes in the concentrations of atmospheric CO2, it is shown that no correlation can be proved between the factors investigated and changes in global temperatures.

  14. Quantifying global fossil-fuel CO2 emissions: from OCO-2 to optimal observing designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X.; Lauvaux, T.; Kort, E. A.; Oda, T.; Feng, S.; Lin, J. C.; Yang, E. G.; Wu, D.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Eldering, A.

    2017-12-01

    Cities house more than half of the world's population and are responsible for more than 70% of the world anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Therefore, quantifications of emissions from major cities, which are only less than a hundred intense emitting spots across the globe, should allow us to monitor changes in global fossil-fuel CO2 emissions, in an independent, objective way. Satellite platforms provide favorable temporal and spatial coverage to collect urban CO2 data to quantify the anthropogenic contributions to the global carbon budget. We present here the optimal observation design for future NASA's OCO-2 and Japanese GOSAT missions, based on real-data (i.e. OCO-2) experiments and Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE's) to address different error components in the urban CO2 budget calculation. We identify the major sources of emission uncertainties for various types of cities with different ecosystems and geographical features, such as urban plumes over flat terrains, accumulated enhancements within basins, and complex weather regimes in coastal areas. Atmospheric transport errors were characterized under various meteorological conditions using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 1-km spatial resolution, coupled to the Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC) emissions. We propose and discuss the optimized urban sampling strategies to address some difficulties from the seasonality in cloud cover and emissions, vegetation density in and around cities, and address the daytime sampling bias using prescribed diurnal cycles. These factors are combined in pseudo data experiments in which we evaluate the relative impact of uncertainties on inverse estimates of CO2 emissions for cities across latitudinal and climatological zones. We propose here several sampling strategies to minimize the uncertainties in target mode for tracking urban fossil-fuel CO2 emissions over the globe for future satellite missions, such as OCO-3 and future

  15. Global CO_2-energy emissions in 2007. China becomes the largest emitter along with the United States - June 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    China becomes the largest emitter along with the United States. Contents: 1990-2007 evolution (key figures of Yearly average evolutions); Global CO_2-energy emissions in 2007: 27,3 GtCO_2; Global CO_2-energy emissions have increased by 3,2% in 2007, largely driven by China. Since 1990, China has more than doubled its CO_2-energy emissions, to reach the same emission level as the USA in 2007. Two very contrasting tendencies appear since 1990: stabilization of emissions in Annex B countries, boom in China and India. Since 1990, more than half of CO_2-energy emissions growth is (logically) due to coal. (authors)

  16. CO2 emissions driven by wind are produced at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario Moya, M.; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Domingo, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    As an important tool for understanding and monitoring ecosystem dynamics at ecosystem level, the eddy covariance (EC) technique allows the assessment of the diurnal and seasonal variation of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Despite the high temporal resolution data, there are still many processes (in addition to photosynthesis and respiration) that, although they are being monitored, have been neglected. Only a few authors have studied anomalous CO2 emissions (non biological), and have related them to soil ventilation, photodegradation or geochemical processes. The aims of this study are: 1) to identify anomalous daytime CO2 emissions in different ecosystems distributed around the world, 2) to determine the meteorological variables that influence these emissions, and 3) to explore the potential processes which can be involved. We have studied EC data together with other meteorological ancillary variables obtained from the FLUXNET database and have found more than 50 sites with anomalous CO2 emissions in different ecosystem types such as grasslands, croplands or savannas. Data were filtered according to the FLUXNET quality control flags (only data with maximum quality were used, i.e. control flag equal to 0) and daytime (shortwave radiation incoming > 50 W m-2). Partial Spearman correlation analyses were performed between NEE and ancillary data: air temperature, vapour pressure deficit, soil temperature, precipitation, atmospheric pressure, soil water content, incoming photosynthetic photon flux density, friction velocity and net radiation. When necessary, ancillary variables were gap-filled using the MDS method (Reichstein et al. 2005). Preliminary results showed strong and highly significant correlations between friction velocity and anomalous CO2 emissions, suggesting that these emissions were mainly produced by ventilation events. Anomalous CO2 emissions were found mainly in arid ecosystems and sites with hot and dry summers. We suggest that anomalous CO2

  17. The decrease of CO2 emission intensity is decarbonization at national and global levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This viewpoint proposes the definition: 'Decarbonization refers to a decrease of CO 2 emission intensity in a trend'. This viewpoint then argues that an analysis of decarbonization at national and global levels based on that definition would lead to the correct calculation of decarbonization

  18. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiang; Chen, Wenying; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Kyle, G. Page

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO 2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO 2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products. -- Highlights: •Transport sector in China are analyzed from a global perspective. •Passenger transport turnover reduction and modal shifts is less sensitive to carbon price. •Bio-fuel, electricity and H 2 will play an important role for carbon mitigation in transport sector. •The transport sector is more difficult to decarbonize than other sectors

  19. Model rules and regulations for a global CO2 emissions credit market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandor, R.L.; Cole, J.B.; Kelly, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    On 21 April 1993, on the occasion of Earth Day, the United States affirmed its commitment to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000. In doing so, the United States joined the European Union (EU), Japan, and approximately 141 other countries that had either committed themselves to this international objective or subscribed to the general principles contained in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed at UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. The commitment of these three trading groups provides the basis for recommending that a market for tradeable carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission entitlements among these groups be implemented as soon as an initial set of rules and regulations can be drafted. The goal of a tradeable CO 2 entitlement or credit market is to lower the cost of limiting emissions. The Costs of CO 2 emission abatement are lowered because the market encourages more emission reductions to be produced by the most efficient resources. The ability easily to selI CO 2 credits created through large emission cuts allows cost recovery by, and incentives for, the most efficient sources of emission reductions. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate debate by providing model rules and regulations for a tradeable CO 2 emission credit market. The trading rules and regulations proposed here are meant to initiate a process whereby participants will iterate toward a final set of rules and regulations. Therefore, our proposal should create a point of departure for further adjustments and transformation to the initial set of recommendations. A specific proposal will be advanced at this point in order to provide a basis for the conceptualization of this global market. Moreover, this specific proposal will help focus dialogue and may provide insight into the general recommendations presented in the balance of this paper

  20. Using global warming potential to compare methane and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gases affect the planetary heat budget. Any change of their concentration affects this budget and therefore the global mean surface temperature of the Earth. These gases have different radiative properties and different lifetimes in the atmosphere, which prevents any direct comparison of the consequences of their emissions on global warming. Almost twenty years ago, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) proposed the global warming potential (GWP) as an index to compare the emissions of the various greenhouse gases. In a recent paper, it has been stated that the use of GWP leads to strongly underestimating the global warming due to constant methane emissions compared to that of constant CO 2 emissions. Here we show that it is not really the case. The GWP enables comparisons of global warming due to constant emissions for any prescribed period, 100 years being often used. But this comparison is not universal. For instance, the impact of methane is underestimated at the beginning of the chosen period while the impact of CO 2 is underestimated after this period

  1. Chinese CO2 emission flows have reversed since the global financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zhifu; Meng, Jing; Guan, Dabo; Shan, Yuli; Song, Malin; Wei, Yi-Ming; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2017-11-23

    This study seeks to estimate the carbon implications of recent changes in China's economic development patterns and role in global trade in the post-financial-crisis era. We utilised the latest socioeconomic datasets to compile China's 2012 multiregional input-output (MRIO) table. Environmentally extended input-output analysis and structural decomposition analysis (SDA) were applied to investigate the driving forces behind changes in CO 2 emissions embodied in China's domestic and foreign trade from 2007 to 2012. Here we show that emission flow patterns have changed greatly in both domestic and foreign trade since the financial crisis. Some economically less developed regions, such as Southwest China, have shifted from being a net emission exporter to being a net emission importer. In terms of foreign trade, emissions embodied in China's exports declined from 2007 to 2012 mainly due to changes in production structure and efficiency gains, while developing countries became the major destination of China's export emissions.

  2. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China's industrial sector from a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China's final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China's per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO 2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO 2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095. - Highlights: • Eleven industrial subsectors in China are detail analyzed from a global perspective. • Industrial energy use and CO 2 emissions will approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040. • Industrial CHP and CCS are truly encouraged by carbon tax. • Some degree of industrial sector electrification are observed by carbon tax

  3. Impact of inter-sectoral trade on national and global CO2 emissions: An empirical analysis of China and US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jie; Zou Lele; Wei Yiming

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the CO 2 emissions embodied in Sino-US international trade using a sector approach. Based on an input-output model established in this study, we quantify the impact of Sino-US international trade on national and global CO 2 emissions. Our initial findings reveal that: In 2005, the US reduced 190.13 Mt CO 2 emissions through the consumption of imported goods from China, while increasing global CO 2 emissions by about 515.25 Mt. Similarly, China reduced 178.62 Mt CO 2 emissions through the consumption of US goods, while reducing global CO 2 emissions by 129.93 Mt. Sino-US international trade increased global CO 2 emissions by 385.32 Mt as a whole, of which the Chemical, Fabricated Metal Products, Non-metallic Mineral Products and Transportation Equipment sectors contributed an 86.71% share. Therefore, we suggest that accelerating the adjustment of China's trade structure and export of US advanced technologies and experience related to clean production and energy efficiency to China as the way to reduce the negative impact of Sino-US trade on national and global CO 2 emissions. This behavior should take into account the processing and manufacturing industries as a priority, especially the Chemical, Fabricated Metal Products, Non-metallic Mineral Products and Transportation Equipment sectors.

  4. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  5. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Wagner

    Full Text Available The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015 reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1 is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP, which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN, energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison. Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  6. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-03

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO 2 (GWP bio ). In this study we calculated the GWP bio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWP bio factors ranged from 0.13-0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWP bio . Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO 2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWP bio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWP bio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWP bio .

  7. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWPbio factors ranged from 0.13–0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWPbio. Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWPbio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWPbio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWPbio. PMID:28045111

  8. Tradeable CO2 emission permits for cost-effective control of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosobud, R.F.; South, D.W.; Daly, T.A.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    Many current global warming mitigation policy proposals call for large, near-term reductions in CO 2 emissions, thereby entailing high initial carbon emission tax rates or permit prices. This paper claims that these high initial tax rates or permit prices are not cost-effective in achieving the desired degree of climate change control. A cost-effective permit system is proposed and described that, under certain assumptions, would allow markets to optimally lead permit prices along a gradually increasing trajectory over tie. This price path presents the Hotelling result and would ease the abrupt, inefficient, and costly adjustments imposed on the fossil fuel and other industries in current proposals. This finding is demonstrated using the Argonne Model, a linear programming energy- environmental-economic model that allows for intertemporal optimization of consumer energy well-being. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Comparison of global inventories of CO_2 emissions from biomass burning during 2002–2011 derived from multiple satellite products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Chen, Xuehong

    2015-01-01

    This study compared five widely used globally gridded biomass burning emissions inventories for the 2002–2011 period (Global Fire Emissions Database 3 (GFED3), Global Fire Emissions Database 4 (GFED4), Global Fire Assimilation System 1.0 (GFAS1.0), Fire INventory from NCAR 1.0 (FINN1.0) and Global Inventory for Chemistry-Climate studies-GFED4 (G-G)). Average annual CO_2 emissions range from 6521.3 to 9661.5 Tg year"−"1 for five inventories, with extensive amounts in Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. Coefficient of Variation for Southern America, Northern and Southern Africa are 30%, 39% and 48%. Globally, the majority of CO_2 emissions are released from savanna burnings, followed by forest and cropland burnings. The largest differences among the five inventories are mainly attributable to the overestimation of CO_2 emissions by FINN1.0 in Southeast Asia savanna and cropland burning, and underestimation in Southern Africa savanna and Amazon forest burning. The overestimation in Africa by G-G also contributes to the differences. - Highlights: • Five widely used global biomass burning emissions inventories were compared. • Global CO_2 emissions compared well while regional differences are large. • The largest differences were found in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa. • Savanna burning emission was the largest contributor to the global emissions. • Variations in savanna burning emission led to the differences among inventories. - Differences of the five biomass burning CO_2 emissions inventories were found in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa due to the variations in savanna burning emissions estimation.

  10. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics at 0.25° horizontal resolution for forest bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, F.

    2015-12-01

    Bioenergy is the most important renewable energy option in studies designed to align with future RCP projections, reaching approximately 250 EJ/yr in RCP2.6, 145 EJ/yr in RCP4.5 and 180 EJ/yr in RCP8.5 by the end of the 21st century. However, many questions enveloping the direct carbon cycle and climate response to bioenergy remain partially unexplored. Bioenergy systems are largely assessed under the default climate neutrality assumption and the time lag between CO2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO2 uptake by vegetation is usually ignored. Emission metrics of CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis and their quantification requires processing of a wide spectrum of modelled or observed local climate and forest conditions. On the other hand, emission metrics are widely used to aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.), but a spatially explicit analysis of emission metrics with global forest coverage is today lacking. Examples of emission metrics include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Here, we couple a global forest model, a heterotrophic respiration model, and a global climate model to produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy. We show their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the different RCP scenarios. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 (mean ± standard deviation), 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1 for GWP, GTP and aSET, respectively. We also present results aggregated at a grid, national and continental level. The metrics are found to correlate with the site-specific turnover times and local climate variables like annual mean temperature and precipitation. Simplified

  11. Climatic changes: what if the global increase of CO2 emissions cannot be kept under control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barreto de Castro

    Full Text Available Climatic changes threaten the planet. Most articles related to the subject present estimates of the disasters expected to occur, but few have proposed ways to deal with the impending menaces. One such threat is the global warming caused by the continuous increase in CO2 emissions leading to rising ocean levels due to the increasing temperatures of the polar regions. This threat is assumed to eventually cause the death of hundreds of millions of people. We propose to desalinize ocean water as a means to reduce the rise of ocean levels and to use this water for populations that need good quality potable water, precisely in the poorest regions of the planet. Technology is available in many countries to provide desalinated water at a justifiable cost considering the lives threatened both in coastal and desertified areas.

  12. Global Energy Trends - 2016 report. Towards a Peak in Energy Demand and CO2 Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    Celebrating the 20. anniversary of this yearly publication, Enerdata has newly released its annual Global Energy Trends publication for 2016. The full report presents in-depth information on the energy markets as well as upcoming trends for all energies in the G20. With over 400 premium sources, Enerdata analysts highlight major developments in 2015 concerning global demand, supply and key indicators across the globe. The main trends outlined in the report are: - Economic slowdown: the lowest growth since 2002; - Almost no growth in energy consumption; - New decrease of energy intensity; - Stabilization of CO 2 -energy emissions; - INDC targets achievement requires a double breakthrough. The Global Energy Trends Analysis also provides additional graphs about trends by energy: - Coal: most consumed energy source in G20 countries; - Oil: fall in prices to around 40-50 US$/bbl; - Oil production: USA overtake Russia and catch up with Saudi Arabia; - Gas: Stabilisation of gas demand for the 2. consecutive year; - Electricity: Stagnation of electricity consumption; - Wind Power and Solar PV: Asia engine of development. Growth in energy consumption (%/year) for G20 countries: - Second consecutive year of decline: low growth and decrease in energy intensity; - India drives the energy consumption growth; - Near stagnation in China (after a first sharp slowdown in 2014); - Economic recession in Brazil and Russia; - USA: decrease primarily linked to the industrial sector (energy efficiency + less energy-intensive industry); - Rebound in Europe: economic growth + climate effect 2015/2014

  13. Combating global warming. Possible rules, regulations and administrative arrangements for a global market in CO2 emission entitlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    When in 1991 the UNCTAD secretariat launched its research into the idea of controlling carbon dioxide emissions through a system of 'tradeable permits', there was little support for this approach. Some felt that the idea was premature and should not detract from efforts to introduce more conventional measures, such as environmental taxes and new regulations. However, in a few short years, the idea of using tradeable market-based instruments to combat global warming has gained widespread acceptance. The UNCTAD secretariat's 1992 study on a global system of tradeable carbon emission entitlements (UNCTAD/RDP/DFP/1), was widely regarded as a major breakthrough in this area. This study argued that tradeable permits were both an efficient means of controlling man-made carbon dioxide emissions at minimum cost, and an effective mechanism for transferring resources to developing countries and countries in transition, to help them to contribute to the international effort to abate emissions of greenhouse gases. The study contained a detailed assessment of key technical elements of a tradeable CO 2 entitlements system, including permit allocation techniques, resource transfers, equity/distributional implications, institutional and administrative requirements. The present publication explores the institutional requirements for both policy-making and the organization of a global market in CO 2 emission allowances. It shows that one can start with a simple pilot scheme based on the joint implementation of commitments, which constitutes the cornerstone of the Framework Convention, and evolve gradually to a more complete system on the basis of 'learning by doing'. Since the use of markets can dramatically lower the cost of controlling greenhouse gas emissions, it is clearly in the self-interest of major emitters to act as 'market leaders' willing to pioneer

  14. Co2 emission scenarios for next centuries to obtain more complete simulations of the global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelini, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of a punctual Modeling of the Greenhouse Effect (report RT/ERG/2001/1) it is necessary to set CO2 Emission Scenarios for the next Centuries in order to obtain the complete evolution of the global warming. Some methodologies are described to approach such long term previsions. From the demand side, the growth of the consumes (which are affected by population and development) is correlated (supply side) with the technical-economic-environmental Evaluation of the future diffusion of classic sources (experienced in the past centuries) and of new Technologies and renewable sources. The previsions of the world population Growth are derived from the UNFPA publications. The degree of economic Development of the world Population in the very long term is obtained by simulating the Evolution of the Population across four main Areas characterized by different pro-capita consumes. Using these criteria two different Scenarios have been set-up and put into comparison with the SRES Scenarios published in the Third Assessment Report-WG1 of the IPCC. The cut at the year 2100 of the SRES Scenarios is also discussed. Simulations of the Global Warming in the long term have been performed with the two scenarios. These results are discussed together with the results of the Simulations reported by IPCC [it

  15. Virtual CO2 Emission Flows in the Global Electricity Trade Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shen; Li, Yun; Liang, Sai; Yuan, Jiahai; Xu, Ming

    2018-05-14

    Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions due to electricity consumption is crucial for climate mitigation in the electric power sector. Current practices primarily use production-based emission factors to quantify emissions for electricity consumption, assuming production and consumption of electricity take place within the same region. The increasingly intensified cross-border electricity trade complicates the accounting for emissions of electricity consumption. This study employs a network approach to account for the flows in the whole electricity trade network to estimate CO 2 emissions of electricity consumption for 137 major countries/regions in 2014. Results show that in some countries, especially those in Europe and Southern Africa, the impacts of electricity trade on the estimation of emission factors and embodied emissions are significant. The changes made to emission factors by considering intergrid electricity trade can have significant implications for emission accounting and climate mitigation when multiplied by total electricity consumption of the corresponding countries/regions.

  16. CO_2 emissions reduction of Chinese light manufacturing industries: A novel RAM-based global Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrouznejad, Ali; Yang, Guo-liang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has become one of the most challenging issues facing the world. Chinese government has realized the importance of energy conservation and prevention of the climate changes for sustainable development of China's economy and set targets for CO_2 emissions reduction in China. In China industry contributes 84.2% of the total CO_2 emissions, especially manufacturing industries. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Malmquist productivity (MP) index are the widely used mathematical techniques to address the relative efficiency and productivity of a group of homogenous decision making units, e.g. industries or countries. However, in many real applications, especially those related to energy efficiency, there are often undesirable outputs, e.g. the pollutions, waste and CO_2 emissions, which are produced inevitably with desirable outputs in the production. This paper introduces a novel Malmquist–Luenberger productivity (MLP) index based on directional distance function (DDF) to address the issue of productivity evolution of DMUs in the presence of undesirable outputs. The new RAM (Range-adjusted measure)-based global MLP index has been applied to evaluate CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries. Recommendations for policy makers have been discussed. - Highlights: •CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries are measured. •A novel RAM based Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index has been developed. •Recommendation to policy makers for reducing CO_2 reduction in China are given.

  17. Global energy / CO2 projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.

    1990-09-01

    Section headings are: (1) Social and economic problems of the 21 st century and the role of energy supply systems (2) Energy-environment interactions as a central point of energy research activities (3) New ways of technological progress and its impacts on energy demand and supply (4) Long-term global energy projections (5) Comparative analysis of global long-term energy / CO 2 studies (6) Conclusions. The author shows that, in order to alleviate the negative impacts of energy systems on the climate, it will be necessary to undertake tremendous efforts to improve the energy use efficiency, to drastically change the primary energy mix, and, at the same time, to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions from other sources and increase the CO 2 sink through enhanced reforestation. (Quittner)

  18. Uncertain long-run emissions targets, CO2 price and global energy transition. A general equilibrium approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand-Lasserve, Olivier; Smeers, Yves; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO 2 emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO 2 price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO 2 policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO 2 emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a hard cap or a soft cap. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories - with two branches after 2020 - for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO 2 emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO 2 emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios. (author)

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of global air-pollution treaties on CO2 emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelie Slechten; Vincenzo Verardi

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of international air-pollution agreements ratified since 1970 on carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), the main cause of anthropogenic climate change. The analysis is based on a panel dataset of 150 countries over the period 1970-2008. While the literature generally focuses on one particular agreement, we analyze the effect of the accumulation of agreements using a two-way (country, year) fixed effects regression model. We find that the relationship between the numbe...

  20. Delay-induced rebounds in CO2 emissions and critical time-scales to meet global warming targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Katul, Gabriel G.; Marani, Marco

    2016-12-01

    While climate science debates are focused on the attainment of peak anthropogenic CO2 emissions and policy tools to reduce peak temperatures, the human-energy-climate system can hold "rebound" surprises beyond this peak. Following the second industrial revolution, global per capita CO2 emissions (cc) experienced a punctuated growth of about 100% every 60 years, mainly attributable to technological development and its global spread. A model of the human-energy-climate system capable of reproducing past punctuated dynamics shows that rebounds in global CO2 emissions emerge due to delays intrinsic to the diffusion of innovations. Such intrinsic delays in the adoption and spread of low-carbon emitting technologies, together with projected population growth, upset the warming target set by the Paris Agreement. To avoid rebounds and their negative climate effects, model calculations show that the diffusion of climate-friendly technologies must occur with lags one-order of magnitude shorter (i.e., ˜6 years) than the characteristic timescale of past punctuated growth in cc. Radically new strategies to globally implement the technological advances at unprecedented rates are needed if the current emission goals are to be achieved.

  1. Global isoprene and monoterpene emissions under changing climate, vegetation, CO2 and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hantson, Stijn; Knorr, Wolfgang; Schurgers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Plants emit large quantities of isoprene and monoterpenes, the main components of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions. BVOCs have an important impact on the atmospheric composition of methane, and of short-lived radiative forcing agents (e.g. ozone, aerosols etc.). It is th......Plants emit large quantities of isoprene and monoterpenes, the main components of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions. BVOCs have an important impact on the atmospheric composition of methane, and of short-lived radiative forcing agents (e.g. ozone, aerosols etc.......). It is therefore necessary to know how isoprene and monoterpene emissions have changed over the past and how future changes in climate, land-use and other factors will impact them. Here we present emission estimates of isoprene and monoterpenes over the period 1901–2 100 based on the dynamic global vegetation...... model LPJ-GUESS, including the effects of all known important drivers. We find that both isoprene and monoterpene emissions at the beginning of the 20th century were higher than at present. While anthropogenic land-use change largely drives the global decreasing trend for isoprene over the 20th century...

  2. Estimates of global biomass burning emissions for reactive greenhouse gases (CO, NMHCs, and NOx) and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Atul K.; Tao, Zhining; Yang, Xiaojuan; Gillespie, Conor

    2006-03-01

    Open fire biomass burning and domestic biofuel burning (e.g., cooking, heating, and charcoal making) algorithms have been incorporated into a terrestrial ecosystem model to estimate CO2 and key reactive GHGs (CO, NOx, and NMHCs) emissions for the year 2000. The emissions are calculated over the globe at a 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution using tree density imagery, and two separate sets of data each for global area burned and land clearing for croplands, along with biofuel consumption rate data. The estimated global and annual total dry matter (DM) burned due to open fire biomass burning ranges between 5221 and 7346 Tg DM/yr, whereas the resultant emissions ranges are 6564-9093 Tg CO2/yr, 438-568 Tg CO/yr, 11-16 Tg NOx/yr (as NO), and 29-40 Tg NMHCs/yr. The results indicate that land use changes for cropland is one of the major sources of biomass burning, which amounts to 25-27% (CO2), 25 -28% (CO), 20-23% (NO), and 28-30% (NMHCs) of the total open fire biomass burning emissions of these gases. Estimated DM burned associated with domestic biofuel burning is 3,114 Tg DM/yr, and resultant emissions are 4825 Tg CO2/yr, 243 Tg CO/yr, 3 Tg NOx/yr, and 23 Tg NMHCs/yr. Total emissions from biomass burning are highest in tropical regions (Asia, America, and Africa), where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting for croplands and domestic biofuel burning.

  3. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  4. Estimating the marginal cost of reducing global fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, J.; Barns, D.W.; McDonald, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper estimates the marginal, total, and average cost and effectiveness of carbon taxes applied either by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members alone, or as part of a global cooperative strategy, to reduce potential future emissions and their direct implications for employment in the US coal industry. Two sets of cases are examined, one set in which OECD members acts alone, and another set in which the world acts in concert. In each case set taxes are examined which achieve four alternative levels of emissions reduction: halve the rate of emissions growth, no emissions growth, 20% reduction from 1988 levels, and 50% reduction from 1988 levels. For the global cooperation case, carbon tax rates of $32, $113, $161, and $517 per metric ton of carbon (mtC) were needed in the year 2025 to achieve the objectives. Total costs were respectively $40, $178, $253, and $848 billions of 1990 US dollars per year in the year 2025. Average costs were $32, $55, $59, and $135 per mtC. Costs were significantly higher in the cases in which the OECD members states acted alone. OECD member states, acting alone, could not reduce global emissions by 50% or 20% relative to 1988, given reference case assumptions regarding developing and recently planned nations economic growth

  5. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  6. CO2 emission calculations and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence that the atmospheric CO 2 concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO 2 is believed to result from CO 2 releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO 2 concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention's stated objectives was the ''stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. '' Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO 2 as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO 2 emissions and increases in atmospheric CO 2 levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO 2 emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented

  7. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Thomas W; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C

    2014-09-23

    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing.

  8. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Thomas W.; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing. PMID:25201962

  9. Modeling investment uncertainty in the costs of global CO2 emission policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birge, J.R.; Rosa, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect that explicit modeling of stochastic returns to investment has on the CO 2 abatement policy returned by a large scale macroeconomic model of the United States economy. It was found that a policy derived from the mean value deterministic model in which the random variables of the stochastic model have been replaced by their expected value poorly approximates the optimal policy returned by solving the stochastic programming model. This nonoptimality is measured by determining the value of the stochastic solution and investigating the different evolutionary paths that various macroeconomic variables follow. Macroeconomic variables which stray far from their optimal paths when derived under the assumption of a certain mean valued future are as follows: the level of carbon taxation, investment in new energy production technologies, exploration for nonrenewable resources and investment in improved macroeconomic efficiency. 18 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Modeling population dynamics and economic growth as competing species. An application to CO2 global emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puliafito, Salvador Enrique; Puliafito, Jose Luis; Grand, Mariana Conte

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the last century the world is experiencing an important demographic transition, which will probably impact on economic growth. Many demographers and social scientists are trying to understand the key drivers of such transition as well as its profound implications. A correct understanding will help to predict other important trends of the world primary energy demand and the carbon emission to the atmosphere, which may be leading to an important climate change. This paper proposes a set of coupled differential equations to describe the changes of population, gross domestic product, primary energy consumption and carbon emissions, modeled as competing species as in Lotka-Volterra prey-predator relations. The predator-prey model is well known in the biological, ecological and environmental literature and has also been applied successfully in other fields. This model proposes a new and simple conceptual explanation of the interactions and feedbacks among the principal driving forces leading to the present transition. The estimated results for the temporal evolution of world population, gross domestic product, primary energy consumption and carbon emissions are calculated from year 1850 to year 2150. The calculated scenarios are in good agreement with common world data and projections for the next 100 years. (author)

  11. Managing CO2 emissions in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obioh, I.B.; Oluwole, A.F.; Akeredolu, F.A.

    1994-01-01

    The energy resources in Nigeria are nearly equally divided between fossil fuels and biofuels. The increasing pressure on them, following expected increased population growth, may lead to substantial emissions of carbon into the atmosphere. Additionally agricultural and forestry management practices in vogue are those related to savannah burning and rotational bush fallow systems, which have been clearly implicated as important sources of CO 2 and trace gases. An integrated model for the prediction of future CO 2 emissions based on fossil fuels and biomass fuels requirements, rates of deforestation and other land-use indices is presented. This is further based on trends in population and economic growth up to the year 2025, with a base year in 1988. A coupled carbon cycle-climate model based on the contribution of CO 2 and other trace gases is established from the proportions of integrated global warming effects for a 20-year averaging time using the product of global warming potential (GWP) and total emissions. An energy-technology inventory approach to optimal resources management is used as a tool for establishing the future scope of reducing the CO 2 emissions through improved fossil fuel energy efficiencies. Scenarios for reduction based on gradual to swift shifts from biomass to fossil and renewable fuels are presented together with expected policy options required to effect them

  12. Subsurface watering resulted in reduced soil N2O and CO2 emissions and their global warming potentials than surface watering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong; Liao, Linxian; Jin, Guangqiu; Li, Yawei; Hameed, Fazli

    2018-01-01

    Water management is an important practice with significant effect on greenhouse gases (GHG) emission from soils. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their global warming potentials (GWPs) from subsurface watering soil (SUW) were investigated, with surface watering (SW) as a control. Results indicated that the N2O and CO2 emissions from SUW soils were somewhat different to those from SW soil, with the peak N2O and CO2 fluxes from SUW soil reduced by 28.9% and 19.4%, and appeared 72 h and 168 h later compared with SW. The fluxes of N2O and CO2 from SUW soils were lower than those from SW soil in both pulse and post-pulse periods, and the reduction was significantly (p0.1) lower that from SW soil. Moreover, N2O and CO2 fluxes from both watering treatments increased exponentially with increase of soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) and temperature. Our results suggest that watering soil from subsurface could significantly reduce the integrative greenhouse effect caused by N2O and CO2 and is a promising strategy for soil greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation. And the pulse period, contributed most to the reduction in emissions of N2O and CO2 from soils between SW and SUW, should be a key period for mitigating GHGs emissions. Response of N2O and CO2 emissions to soil WFPS and temperature illustrated that moisture was the dominant parameters that triggering GHG pulse emissions (especially for N2O), and temperature had a greater effect on the soil microorganism activity than moisture in drier soil. Avoiding moisture and temperature are appropriate for GHG emission at the same time is essential for GHGs mitigation, because peak N2O and CO2 emission were observed only when moisture and temperature are both appropriate.

  13. The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, version 2016 (ODIAC2016: a global monthly fossil fuel CO2 gridded emissions data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC is a global high-spatial-resolution gridded emissions data product that distributes carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The emissions spatial distributions are estimated at a 1  ×  1 km spatial resolution over land using power plant profiles (emissions intensity and geographical location and satellite-observed nighttime lights. This paper describes the year 2016 version of the ODIAC emissions data product (ODIAC2016 and presents analyses that help guide data users, especially for atmospheric CO2 tracer transport simulations and flux inversion analysis. Since the original publication in 2011, we have made modifications to our emissions modeling framework in order to deliver a comprehensive global gridded emissions data product. Major changes from the 2011 publication are (1 the use of emissions estimates made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL by fuel type (solid, liquid, gas, cement manufacturing, gas flaring, and international aviation and marine bunkers; (2 the use of multiple spatial emissions proxies by fuel type such as (a nighttime light data specific to gas flaring and (b ship/aircraft fleet tracks; and (3 the inclusion of emissions temporal variations. Using global fuel consumption data, we extrapolated the CDIAC emissions estimates for the recent years and produced the ODIAC2016 emissions data product that covers 2000–2015. Our emissions data can be viewed as an extended version of CDIAC gridded emissions data product, which should allow data users to impose global fossil fuel emissions in a more comprehensive manner than the original CDIAC product. Our new emissions modeling framework allows us to produce future versions of the ODIAC emissions data product with a timely update. Such capability has become more significant given the CDIAC/ORNL's shutdown. The ODIAC data

  14. The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, version 2016 (ODIAC2016): a global monthly fossil fuel CO2 gridded emissions data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Tomohiro; Maksyutov, Shamil; Andres, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC) is a global high-spatial-resolution gridded emissions data product that distributes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The emissions spatial distributions are estimated at a 1 × 1 km spatial resolution over land using power plant profiles (emissions intensity and geographical location) and satellite-observed nighttime lights. This paper describes the year 2016 version of the ODIAC emissions data product (ODIAC2016) and presents analyses that help guide data users, especially for atmospheric CO2 tracer transport simulations and flux inversion analysis. Since the original publication in 2011, we have made modifications to our emissions modeling framework in order to deliver a comprehensive global gridded emissions data product. Major changes from the 2011 publication are (1) the use of emissions estimates made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by fuel type (solid, liquid, gas, cement manufacturing, gas flaring, and international aviation and marine bunkers); (2) the use of multiple spatial emissions proxies by fuel type such as (a) nighttime light data specific to gas flaring and (b) ship/aircraft fleet tracks; and (3) the inclusion of emissions temporal variations. Using global fuel consumption data, we extrapolated the CDIAC emissions estimates for the recent years and produced the ODIAC2016 emissions data product that covers 2000-2015. Our emissions data can be viewed as an extended version of CDIAC gridded emissions data product, which should allow data users to impose global fossil fuel emissions in a more comprehensive manner than the original CDIAC product. Our new emissions modeling framework allows us to produce future versions of the ODIAC emissions data product with a timely update. Such capability has become more significant given the CDIAC/ORNL's shutdown. The ODIAC data product could play an important

  15. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  16. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  17. Temporal comparison of global inventories of CO2 emissions from biomass burning during 2002-2011 derived from remotely sensed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2017-07-01

    Biomass burning is a large important source of greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosols, and can contribute greatly to the temporal variations of CO 2 emissions at regional and global scales. In this study, we compared four globally gridded CO 2 emission inventories from biomass burning during the period of 2002-2011, highlighting the similarities and differences in seasonality and interannual variability of the CO 2 emissions both at regional and global scales. The four datasets included Global Fire Emissions Database 4s with small fires (GFED4s), Global Fire Assimilation System 1.0 (GFAS1.0), Fire INventory from NCAR 1.0 (FINN1.0), and Global Inventory for Chemistry-Climate studies-GFED4s (G-G). The results showed that in general, the four inventories presented consistent temporal trend but with large differences as well. Globally, CO 2 emissions of GFED4s, GFAS1.0, and G-G all peaked in August with the exception in FINN1.0, which recorded another peak in annual March. The interannual trend of all datasets displayed an overall decrease in CO 2 emissions during 2002-2011, except for the inconsistent FINN1.0, which showed a tendency to increase during the considered period. Meanwhile, GFED4s and GFAS1.0 noted consistent agreement from 2002 to 2011 at both global (R 2  > 0.8) and continental levels (R 2  > 0.7). FINN1.0 was found to have the poorest temporal correlations with the other three inventories globally (R 2  80%) but showed small variations through the years (<40%).

  18. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  19. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  20. National energy policies: Obstructing the reduction of global CO2 emissions? An analysis of Swedish energy policies for the district heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difs, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    The effect of national energy policies on a local Swedish district heating (DH) system has been studied, regarding the profitability of new investments and the potential for climate change mitigation. The DH system has been optimised regarding three investments: biomass-fuelled CHP (bio CHP), natural gas-fuelled combined cycle CHP (NGCC CHP) and biomass-fuelled heat-only boiler (bio HOB) in two scenarios (with or without national taxes and policy instruments). In both scenarios EU's tradable CO 2 emission permits are included. Results from the study show that when national policies are included, the most cost-effective investment option is the bio CHP technology. However, when national taxes and policy instruments are excluded, the DH system containing the NGCC CHP plant has 30% lower system cost than the bio CHP system. Regardless of the scenario and when coal condensing is considered as marginal electricity production, the NGCC CHP has the largest global CO 2 reduction potential, about 300 ktonne CO 2 . However, the CO 2 reduction potential is highly dependent on the marginal electricity production. Demonstrated here is that national policies such as tradable green certificates can, when applied to DH systems, contribute to investments that will not fully utilise the DH systems' potential for global CO 2 emissions reductions. - Research highlights: →Swedish energy policies are promoting biomass fuelled electricity generating technologies over efficient fossil fuel electricity generating technologies. →An efficient fossil fuel technology like the natural gas combine cycle CHP technology with high power-to-heat ratio has potential to reduce the global CO 2 emissions more than a biomass fuelled electricity generating technology. →Swedish energy policies such as tradable green certificates for renewable electricity can, when applied to district heating systems, contribute to investments that will not fully utilise the district heating systems potential for

  1. Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jinpei; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xia; Li, Meifang; Li, Wenkai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales.

  2. Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpei Ou

    Full Text Available Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP Operational Linescan System (OLS have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions. Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales.

  3. CO2 emissions vs. CO2 responsibility: An input-output approach for the Turkish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek Tunc, G.; Tueruet-Asik, Serap; Akbostanci, Elif

    2007-01-01

    Recently, global warming (greenhouse effect) and its effects have become one of the hottest topics in the world agenda. There have been several international attempts to reduce the negative effects of global warming. The Kyoto Protocol can be cited as the most important agreement which tries to limit the countries' emissions within a time horizon. For this reason, it becomes important to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions of countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO 2 -the most important greenhouse gas-emissions, for the Turkish economy. An extended input-output model is estimated by using 1996 data in order to identify the sources of CO 2 emissions and to discuss the share of sectors in total emission. Besides, 'CO 2 responsibility', which takes into account the CO 2 content of imports, is estimated for the Turkish economy. The sectoral CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities are compared and these two notions are linked to foreign trade volume. One of the main conclusions is that the manufacturing industry has the first place in both of the rankings for CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities, while agriculture and husbandry has the last place

  4. Economic effects on taxing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaparanta, P.; Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J.

    1996-01-01

    The CO 2 emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO 2 taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO 2 tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  5. State of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Abul K.; Nashreen, S.W.; Sultana, J.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one of the most important gases in the atmosphere, and is necessary for sustaining life on Earth. It is also considered to be a major greenhouse gas contributing to global warming and climate change. In this article, energy consumption in Bangladesh is analyzed and estimates are made of CO 2 emission from combustion of fossil fuel (coal, gas, petroleum products) for the period 1977 to 1995. International Panel for Climate Change guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories were used in estimating CO 2 emission. An analysis of energy data shows that the consumption of fossil fuels in Bangladesh is growing by more than 5% per year. The proportion of natural gas in total energy consumption is increasing, while that of petroleum products and coal is decreasing. The estimated total CO 2 release from all primary fossil fuels used in Bangladesh amounted to 5,072 Gg in 1977, and 14,423 Gg in 1995. The total amounts of CO 2 released from petroleum products, natural gas, and coal in the period 1977-1995 were 83,026 Gg (50% of CO 2 emission), 72,541 Gg (44% of CO 2 emission), and 9,545 Gg (6% CO 2 emission), respectively. A trend in CO 2 emission with projections to 2070 is generated. In 2070, total estimated CO 2 emission will be 293,260 Gg with a current growth rate of 6.34%/y. CO 2 emission from fossil fuels is increasing. Petroleum products contribute the majority of CO 2 emission load, and although the use of natural gas is increasing rapidly, its contribution to CO 2 emission is less than that of petroleum products. The use of coal as well as CO 2 emission from coal is expected to gradually decrease

  6. Smart Transportation CO2 Emission Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulescu, S.; Tarulescu, R.; Soica, A.; Leahu, C. I.

    2017-10-01

    Transport represents the sector with the fastest growing greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The main global objective is to reduce energy usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. For this study it was analyzed the road transportation system from Brasov Metropolitan area. The study was made for the transportation route that connects Ghimbav city to the main surrounding objectives. In this study ware considered four optimization measures: vehicle fleet renewal; building the detour belt for the city; road increasing the average travel speed; making bicycle lanes; and implementing an urban public transport system for Ghimbav. For each measure it was used a mathematical model to calculate the energy consumption and carbon emissions from the road transportation sector. After all four measures was analyzed is calculated the general energy consumption and CO2 reduction if this are applied from year 2017 to 2020.

  7. Trading CO2 emission; Verhandelbaarheid van CO2-emissies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, J.F.; Looijenga, A.; Moor, R.; Wissema, E.W.J. [Afdeling Energie, Ministerie van VROM, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2000-06-01

    Systems for CO2-emission trading can take many shapes as developments in Europe show. European developments for emission trading tend to comprehend cap and-trade systems for large emission sources. In the Netherlands a different policy is in preparation. A trading system for sheltered sectors with an option to buy reductions from exposed sectors will be further developed by a Commission, appointed by the minister of environment. Exposed sectors are committed to belong to the top of the world on the area of energy-efficiency. The authors point out that a cap on the distribution of energy carriers natural gas, electricity and fuel seems to be an interesting option to shape the trade scheme. A cap on the distribution of electricity is desirable, but not easy to implement. The possible success of the system depends partly on an experiment with emission reductions. 10 refs.

  8. CO2 emissions: a peak level in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    After a reduction of CO 2 emissions in 2009 due to the financial crisis, these emissions have again reached a peak in 2010: 30.6 Gt, it means an increase by 5% compared to the previous peak. According to IEA (International Energy Agency): 44% of the emissions come from coal, 36% from oil and 20% from natural gas, and OECD countries are responsible of 40% of the CO 2 global emissions but only of 25% of their increase since 2009. For China and India the emissions of CO 2 have increased sharply due to their strong economic growth. (A.C.)

  9. Simulation analysis of the possibility of introducing massive renewable energy and nuclear fuel cycle in the scenario to halve global CO2 emissions by the year 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Yoshifumi; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2011-01-01

    There is growing attention to the regulation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to mitigate the global warming. Hence, the target of 50% reduction of global GHG emissions by the year 2050 has been investigated in this paper. The authors have been revising the regionally disaggregated world energy model which is formulated as a large scale linear optimization model from the aspect of nuclear and photovoltaic power generation technologies. This paper explains the structure of the revised world energy model considering the intermittent characteristics of photovoltaic power generation derived from the changes in weather conditions. And also this paper shows the simulation results to halve global CO 2 emissions by the year 2050 and evaluates the long-term technological options such as nuclear fuel cycle and renewable energies. Finally the authors discuss the future step for extensive revision of the energy model. (author)

  10. Corn residue removal and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) are the primary greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the soil due to agricultural activities. In the short-term, increases in CO2 emissions indicate increased soil microbial activity. Soil micro-organisms decompose crop residues and release...

  11. Eindhoven Airport : towards zero CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge Simoes Pedro, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Eindhoven airport is growing and it is strongly committed to take this opportunity to invest in innovative solutions for a sustainable development. Therefore, this document proposes a strategic plan for reaching Zero CO2 emissions at Eindhoven airport. This document proposes to reduce the CO2

  12. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  13. CO2 emissions of nuclear power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, S.; Mayer-Spohn, O.; Fahl, U.; Voss, A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, supported by the recent reports of the IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change), political, social and scientific institutions call for the use of atomic energy for reducing CO2 emissions. In Germany, the discussion is highly controversial. A life-cycle balance of nuclear power shows that its CO2 emissions are much lower than those of other technologies, even if changes in the nuclear fuel cycle are taken into account. (orig.)

  14. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Warsaw, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process, the IEA is making available for free download the ''Highlights'' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion now for sale on IEA Bookshop. This annual publication contains, for more than 140 countries and regions: estimates of CO2 emissions from 1971 to 2011; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; a decomposition of CO2 emissions into driving factors; and CO2emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, key sources, and other relevant information. The nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP-19), in conjunction with the ninth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 9), met in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 22 November 2013. This volume of ''Highlights'', drawn from the full-scale study, was specially designed for delegations and observers of the meeting in Warsaw.

  15. Global Thermal Power Plants Database: Unit-Based CO2, SO2, NOX and PM2.5 Emissions in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Qiang, Z.; Davis, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    There are more than 30,000 thermal power plants now operating worldwide, reflecting a tremendously diverse infrastructure that includes units burning oil, natural gas, coal and biomass and ranging in capacity from 1GW. Although the electricity generated by this infrastructure is vital to economic activities across the world, it also produces more CO2 and air pollution emissions than any other industry sector. Here we present a new database of global thermal power-generating units and their emissions as of 2010, GPED (Global Power Emissions Database), including the detailed unit information of installed capacity, operation year, geographic location, fuel type and control measures for more than 70000 units. In this study, we have compiled, combined, and harmonized the available underlying data related to thermal power-generating units (e.g. eGRID of USA, CPED of China and published Indian power plants database), and then analyzed the generating capacity, capacity factor, fuel type, age, location, and installed pollution-control technology in order to determine those units with disproportionately high levels of emissions. In total, this work is of great importance for improving spatial distribution of global thermal power plants emissions and exploring their environmental impacts at global scale.

  16. Grey forecasting model for CO2 emissions: A Taiwan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiun-Sin; Liou, Fen-May; Huang, Chih-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CO 2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming. → The CARMA indicates that the Taichung coal-fired power plants had the highest CO 2 emissions in the world. → GM(1,1) prediction accuracy is fairly high. → The results show that the average residual error of the GM(1,1) was below 10%. -- Abstract: Among the various greenhouse gases associated with climate change, CO 2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming. The latest data from Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA) shows that the coal-fired power plant in Taichung, Taiwan emitted 39.7 million tons of CO 2 in 2007 - the highest of any power plant in the world. Based on statistics from Energy International Administration, the annual CO 2 emissions in Taiwan have increased 42% from 1997 until 2006. Taiwan has limited natural resources and relies heavily on imports to meet its energy needs, and the government must take serious measures control energy consumption to reduce CO 2 emissions. Because the latest data was from 2009, this study applied the grey forecasting model to estimate future CO 2 emissions in Taiwan from 2010 until 2012. Forecasts of CO 2 emissions in this study show that the average residual error of the GM(1,1) was below 10%. Overall, the GM(1,1) predicted further increases in CO 2 emissions over the next 3 years. Although Taiwan is not a member of the United Nations and is not bound by the Kyoto Protocol, the findings of this study provide a valuable reference with which the Taiwanese government could formulate measures to reduce CO 2 emissions by curbing the unnecessary the consumption of energy.

  17. Decoupling of CO2 emissions and GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Rocha de Salles Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work is to analyze the variation of CO2 emissions and GDP per capita throughout the years and identify the possible interaction between them. For this purpose, data from the International Energy Agency was collected on two countries, Brazil and the one with the highest GDP worldwide, the United States. Thus, the results showed that CO2 emissions have been following the country’s economic growth for many years. However, these two indicators have started to decouple in the US in 2007 while in Brazil the same happened in 2011. Furthermore, projections for CO2 emissions are made until 2040, considering 6 probable scenarios. These projections showed that even if the oil price decreases, the emissions will not be significantly affected as long as the economic growth does not decelerate.

  18. How organizational and global factors condition the effects of energy efficiency on CO_2 emission rebounds among the world's power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Don; Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Longhofer, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the International Energy Agency (IEA), and several nations suggest that energy efficiency is an effective strategy for reducing energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Skeptics contend that because efficiency lowers the price of energy and energy services, it may actually increase demand for them, causing total emissions to rise. While both sides of this debate have researched the magnitude of these so-called rebound effects among end-use consumers, researchers have paid less attention to the conditions under which direct rebounds cause CO_2 emissions to rise among industrial producers. In particular, researchers have yet to explore how organizational and global factors might condition the effects of efficiency on emissions among power plants, the world's most concentrated sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Here we use a unique dataset containing nearly every fossil-fuel power plant in the world to determine whether the impact of efficiency on emissions varies by plants' age, size, and location in global economic and normative systems. Findings reveal that each of these factors has a significant interaction with efficiency and thus shapes environmentally destructive rebound effects. - Highlights: •Skeptics charge that energy efficiency may actually cause CO_2 emissions to rise. •Few have examined whether such rebound effects occur among power plants. •Little also known about whether plants' organizational and global characteristics condition rebounds. •Conduct first analysis of rebound effects among the world's power plants. •Rebounds found to depend on plants' age, size, and location in international economic and normative systems.

  19. CO2 emissions in the global supply chains of services: An analysis based on a multi-regional input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wencheng; Peng, Shuijun; Sun, Chuanwang

    2015-01-01

    As the service sector dominates the economy in developed countries, its environmental impact has become an important issue. Based on a multi-regional input–output model, this paper estimates consumption-based emissions of service sectors of 41 countries and regions, and discusses the emission abatement policy of service sectors. The results indicate that consumption-based emissions of the service sector in most countries and regions are much greater than direct emissions generated by the service sector. Further decomposition by production sources demonstrates that final demand for services in certain countries causes substantial emissions in the other countries. In most countries, major parts of consumption-based emissions of the service sector come from upstream emissions in non-service sectors due to the intermediate consumption of non-service inputs in the service sector. For the US and China, the consumption-based emissions of their service sectors are traced back to different service consumption bundles and production sectors, which enable us to identify service categories and production sectors that play key roles in the impact of service sectors on CO 2 emissions. Finally, policy implications of the results are discussed for the climate effect of the service-oriented economy, global mitigation of climate change, sustainability, and the decarbonization of the service sector. - Highlights: • A consumption perspective for the assessment of the environmental impact of the service sector. • International supply chain effect is analyzed using a global input–output model. • Consumption-based emissions of the service sector are decomposed in two ways. • Policy implications for emissions mitigation in the service-oriented economy.

  20. Study on CO2 global recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Niwa, S.

    2001-01-01

    In order to assist in finding ways to mitigate CO 2 emission and to slow the depletion of fossil fuels we have established and evaluated a representative system, which consists of three technologies developed in our laboratory. These technologies were in CO 2 recovery, hydrogen production and methanol synthesis and in addition we established the necessary supporting systems. Analysis of outline designs of the large scale renewable energy power generation system and this system and energy input for building plant, energy input for running plant has been conducted based on a case using this system for a 1000-MW coal fired power plant, followed by an evaluation of the material balance and energy balance. The results are as follows. Energy efficiency is 34%, the CO 2 reduction rate is 41%, the balance ratio of the energy and CO 2 of the system is 2.2 and 1.8, respectively, on the assumption that the primary renewable energy is solar thermal power generation, the stationary CO 2 emission source is a coal-fired power plant and the generation efficiency of the methanol power plant is 60%. By adopting the system, 3.7 million tons of CO 2 can be recovered, approximately 2.7 million tons of methanol can be produced, and 15.4 billion kWh of electricity can be generated per year. Compared to generating all electrical power using only coal, approximately 2.6 million tons of coal per year can be saved and approximately 2.15 million tons of CO 2 emission can be reduced. Therefore, it is clearly revealed that this system would be effective to reduce CO 2 emissions and to utilize renewable energy

  1. CO2 Emission Reduction in Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, A.; Sustersic, A.; Voncina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to human activities, concentrations of the greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere much quicker than they naturally would. Today it is clear that climate change is the result of human activities. With the purpose of preventing, reducing and mitigating of climate change, the EU, whose member is also Slovenia, set ambitious goals. In order to keep rise of the global atmosphere temperature below 2 degrees of C, the European Council set an objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 - 95 % by 2050 compared to 1990. It is important that every single individual is included in achieving of these goals. Certainly, the most important role is assumed by individual sectors especially Public Electricity and Heat Production sector as one of the greatest emitters of the greenhouse gases. As a possible solution of radical reduction of the greenhouse gases emission from mentioned sector Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is implemented. In the article the range of CO 2 reduction possibilities, technology demands and environmental side effects of CCS technology are described. Evaluation of CCS implementation possibilities in Slovenia is also included.(author)

  2. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO 2 emission trends for Iran over 2000–2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO 2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985 million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO 2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO 2 emission outlines. - Highlights: • Creation of an energy consumption model using system dynamics. • The effect of different policies on energy consumption and emission reductions. • An ascending trend for the environmental costs caused by CO 2 emissions is observed. • An urgent need for energy saving and emission reductions in Iran.

  3. China CO2 emission accounts 1997–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yuli; Guan, Dabo; Zheng, Heran; Ou, Jiamin; Li, Yuan; Meng, Jing; Mi, Zhifu; Liu, Zhu; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    China is the world’s top energy consumer and CO2 emitter, accounting for 30% of global emissions. Compiling an accurate accounting of China’s CO2 emissions is the first step in implementing reduction policies. However, no annual, officially published emissions data exist for China. The current emissions estimated by academic institutes and scholars exhibit great discrepancies. The gap between the different emissions estimates is approximately equal to the total emissions of the Russian Federation (the 4th highest emitter globally) in 2011. In this study, we constructed the time-series of CO2 emission inventories for China and its 30 provinces. We followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions accounting method with a territorial administrative scope. The inventories include energy-related emissions (17 fossil fuels in 47 sectors) and process-related emissions (cement production). The first version of our dataset presents emission inventories from 1997 to 2015. We will update the dataset annually. The uniformly formatted emission inventories provide data support for further emission-related research as well as emissions reduction policy-making in China. PMID:29337312

  4. China CO2 emission accounts 1997-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yuli; Guan, Dabo; Zheng, Heran; Ou, Jiamin; Li, Yuan; Meng, Jing; Mi, Zhifu; Liu, Zhu; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    China is the world's top energy consumer and CO2 emitter, accounting for 30% of global emissions. Compiling an accurate accounting of China's CO2 emissions is the first step in implementing reduction policies. However, no annual, officially published emissions data exist for China. The current emissions estimated by academic institutes and scholars exhibit great discrepancies. The gap between the different emissions estimates is approximately equal to the total emissions of the Russian Federation (the 4th highest emitter globally) in 2011. In this study, we constructed the time-series of CO2 emission inventories for China and its 30 provinces. We followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions accounting method with a territorial administrative scope. The inventories include energy-related emissions (17 fossil fuels in 47 sectors) and process-related emissions (cement production). The first version of our dataset presents emission inventories from 1997 to 2015. We will update the dataset annually. The uniformly formatted emission inventories provide data support for further emission-related research as well as emissions reduction policy-making in China.

  5. Radon-calibrated emissions of CO2 from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudry, A.; Polian, G.; Ardouin, B.; Lambert, G.

    1990-01-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 and 222 Rn have been monitored at Amsterdam Island since 1980. Data were selected in order to eliminate any local influence. Typical CO 2 concentrations of the subantarctic marine atmosphere can be determined by selecting those values for which 222 Rn radioactivity was particularly low: less than 1 pCi m -3 . 222 Rn concentrations higher than 2 pCi m -3 are mainly due to injections into the subantarctic atmosphere from the continental source of South Africa. The passage of air masses under continental influence also shows typical CO 2 variations, well correlated with 222 Rn variations. From the knowledge of the global continental fluxes of 222 Rn, it has been possible to estimate CO 2 fluxes into the atmosphere from South Africa. The mean CO 2 flux corresponding to a 6-month period from May to October is about 5 millimole m -2 h -1 . Continental CO 2 emissions reach a maximum in August. (orig.)

  6. NEOTEC: Negative-CO2-Emissions Marine Energy With Direct Mitigation of Global Warming, Sea-Level Rise and Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Baird, J.; Noland, G.

    2016-12-01

    likelihood of satisfying growing global energy demand while helping to stabilize or reduce atmospheric CO2 and its impacts. Policies supporting the search and evaluation of renewable energy and negative emissions options beyond biotic- and land-based methods are needed.

  7. CO2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, Steffen; Mayer-Spohn, Oliver; Fahl, Ulrich; Blesl, Markus; Voss, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    A survey of LCA studies on nuclear electricity generation revealed life cycle CO 2 emissions ranging between 3 g/kWhe to 60 g/kWhe and above. Firstly, this paper points out the discrepancies in studies by estimating the CO 2 emissions of nuclear power generation. Secondly, the paper sets out to provide critical review of future developments of the fuel cycle for light water reactors and illustrates the impact of uncertainties on the specific CO 2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation. Each step in the fuel cycle will be considered and with regard to the CO 2 emissions analysed. Thereby different assumptions and uncertainty levels are determined for the nuclear fuel cycle. With the impacts of low uranium ore grades for mining and milling as well as higher burn-up rates future fuel characteristics are considered. Sensitivity analyses are performed for all fuel processing steps, for different technical specifications of light water reactors as well as for further external frame conditions. (authors)

  8. Towards Verifying National CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, I. Y.; Wuerth, S. M.; Anderson, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    With the Paris Agreement, nations around the world have pledged their voluntary reductions in future CO2 emissions. Satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 have the potential to verify self-reported emission statistics around the globe. We present a carbon-weather data assimilation system, wherein raw weather observations together with satellite observations of the mixing ratio of column CO2 from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 are assimilated every 6 hours into the NCAR carbon-climate model CAM5 coupled to the Ensemble Kalman Filter of DART. In an OSSE, we reduced the fossil fuel emissions from a country, and estimated the emissions innovations demanded by the atmospheric CO2 observations. The uncertainties in the innovation are analyzed with respect to the uncertainties in the meteorology to determine the significance of the result. The work follows from "On the use of incomplete historical data to infer the present state of the atmosphere" (Charney et al. 1969), which maps the path for continuous data assimilation for weather forecasting and the five decades of progress since.

  9. PEAT-CO2. Assessment of CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in SE Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooijer, A.; Silvius, M.; Woesten, H.; Page, S.

    2006-12-01

    Forested tropical peatlands in SE Asia store at least 42,000 Megatonnes of soil carbon. This carbon is increasingly released to the atmosphere due to drainage and fires associated with plantation development and logging. Peatlands make up 12% of the SE Asian land area but account for 25% of current deforestation. Out of 27 million hectares of peatland, 12 million hectares (45%) are currently deforested and mostly drained. One important crop in drained peatlands is palm oil, which is increasingly used as a biofuel in Europe. In the PEAT-CO2 project, present and future emissions from drained peatlands were quantified using the latest data on peat extent and depth, present and projected land use and water management practice, decomposition rates and fire emissions. It was found that current likely CO2 emissions caused by decomposition of drained peatlands amounts to 632 Mt/y (between 355 and 874 Mt/y). This emission will increase in coming decades unless land management practices and peatland development plans are changed, and will continue well beyond the 21st century. In addition, over 1997-2006 an estimated average of 1400 Mt/y in CO2 emissions was caused by peatland fires that are also associated with drainage and degradation. The current total peatland CO2 emission of 2000 Mt/y equals almost 8% of global emissions from fossil fuel burning. These emissions have been rapidly increasing since 1985 and will further increase unless action is taken. Over 90% of this emission originates from Indonesia, which puts the country in 3rd place (after the USA and China) in the global CO2 emission ranking. It is concluded that deforested and drained peatlands in SE Asia are a globally significant source of CO2 emissions and a major obstacle to meeting the aim of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions, as expressed by the international community. It is therefore recommended that international action is taken to help SE Asian countries, especially Indonesia, to better conserve

  10. The idea of global CO2 trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO 2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO 2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO 2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future

  11. Forgotten carbon: indirect CO2 in greenhouse gas emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2008-01-01

    National governments that are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to submit greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories accounting for the emissions and removals occurring within their geographic territories. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides inventory methodology guidance to the Parties of the UNFCCC. This methodology guidance, and national inventories based on it, omits carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmospheric oxidation of methane, carbon monoxide, and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions that result from several source categories. The inclusion of this category of 'indirect' CO 2 in GHG inventories increases global anthropogenic emissions (excluding land use and forestry) between 0.5 and 0.7%. However, the effect of inclusion on aggregate UNFCCC Annex I Party GHG emissions would be to reduce the growth of total emissions, from 1990 to 2004, by 0.2% points. The effect on the GHG emissions and emission trends of individual countries varies. The paper includes a methodology for calculating these emissions and discusses uncertainties. Indirect CO 2 is equally relevant for GHG inventories at other scales, such as global, regional, organizational, and facility. Similarly, project-based methodologies, such as those used under the Clean Development Mechanism, may need revising to account for indirect CO 2

  12. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    -effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The gains from CO2 trade may give vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe, for example, and it will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further...

  13. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    -effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably...

  14. Toxic emissions and devalued CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    With reference to the paradigme shift regarding the formation of dioxins in municiplan solid waste incinerators experimental results are taken into account which lead to the suspicion that the same mechanism of de-novo-synthesis also applies to fireplace chimneys. This can explain the dioxin...... friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  15. The CO2-tax and its ability to reduce CO2 emissions related to oil and gas production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemo, F.; Lund, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The primary ambition of the paper is to illustrate some relevant effects of the CO 2 -tax, and draw the line from company adaptation via national ambitions and goals to global emission consequences. The CO 2 -tax is a success for oil and gas production only to the extent that the CO 2 emission per produced unit oil/gas is reduced as a consequence of the tax. If not, the CO 2 -tax is a pure fiscal tax and has no qualitative impact on the CO 2 emissions. The reduction potential is then isolated to the fact that some marginal fields will not be developed, and the accelerated close down of fields in production. The paper indicates that a significant replacement of older gas turbines at a certain level of the CO 2 -tax could be profitable for the companies. This is dependent on change in turbine energy utilization, and the investment cost. The CO 2 -tax is a political success for the nation if it is a significant contributor to achieve national emission goals. Furthermore, is the CO 2 -tax an environmental success only to the extent it contributes to reductions in the CO 2 emissions globally. The paper indicates that there are possibilities for major suboptimal adaptations in connection with national CO 2 -taxation of the oil and gas production. 13 refs., 6 figs

  16. Anomalous CO2 Emissions in Different Ecosystems Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Canete, E. P.; Moya Jiménez, M. R.; Kowalski, A. S.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; López-Ballesteros, A.; Oyonarte, C.; Domingo, F.

    2016-12-01

    As an important tool for understanding and monitoring ecosystem dynamics at ecosystem level, the eddy covariance (EC) technique allows the assessment of the diurnal and seasonal variation of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Despite the high temporal resolution data available, there are still many processes (in addition to photosynthesis and respiration) that, although they are being monitored, have been neglected. Only a few authors have studied anomalous CO2 emissions (non biological), and have related them to soil ventilation, photodegradation or geochemical processes. The aim of this study is: 1) to identify anomalous short term CO2 emissions in different ecosystems distributed around the world, 2) to determine the meteorological variables that are influencing these emissions, and 3) to explore the potential processes that can be involved. We have studied EC data together with other meteorological ancillary variables obtained from the FLUXNET database (version 2015) and have found more than 50 sites with anomalous CO2 emissions in different ecosystem types such as grasslands, croplands or savannas. Data were filtered according to the FLUXNET quality control flags (only data with quality control flag equal to 0 was used) and correlation analysis were performed with NEE and ancillary data. Preliminary results showed strong and highly significant correlations between meteorological variables and anomalous CO2 emissions. Correlation results showed clear differing behaviors between ecosystems types, which could be related to the different processes involved in the anomalous CO2 emissions. We suggest that anomalous CO2 emissions are happening globally and therefore, their contribution to the global net ecosystem carbon balance requires further investigation in order to better understand its drivers.

  17. Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francey, Roger J.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; van der Schoot, Marcel; Law, Rachel M.; Krummel, Paul B.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Paul Steele, L.; Allison, Colin E.; Stavert, Ann R.; Andres, Robert J.; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2013-05-01

    International efforts to limit global warming and ocean acidification aim to slow the growth of atmospheric CO2, guided primarily by national and industry estimates of production and consumption of fossil fuels. Atmospheric verification of emissions is vital but present global inversion methods are inadequate for this purpose. We demonstrate a clear response in atmospheric CO2 coinciding with a sharp 2010 increase in Asian emissions but show persisting slowing mean CO2 growth from 2002/03. Growth and inter-hemispheric concentration difference during the onset and recovery of the Global Financial Crisis support a previous speculation that the reported 2000-2008 emissions surge is an artefact, most simply explained by a cumulative underestimation (~ 9PgC) of 1994-2007 emissions; in this case, post-2000 emissions would track mid-range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios. An alternative explanation requires changes in the northern terrestrial land sink that offset anthropogenic emission changes. We suggest atmospheric methods to help resolve this ambiguity.

  18. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO 2 emission trends for Iran over 2000-2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO 2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO 2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO 2 emission outlines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comments on the Brazilian Proposal and contributions to global temperature increase with different climate responses - CO2 emissions due to fossil fuels, CO2 emissions due to land use change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Ribeiro, S.K.; Muylaert, M.S.; Campos, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to take into account the anthropogenic contribution to the increase of global temperature, instead of being restricted to the carbon emissions adopted in the Kyoto Protocol on responsibility sharing. It is shown the sensibility of the results to the variation of the parameters from different authors used for simulating the climate response based in the so-called Brazilian Proposal (BP). It is also discussed the methodological and scientific aspects of the BP being discussed by an expert group coordinated by SBSTA/UNFCCC and results of energy sector and land use change contributions by groups of countries. (author)

  20. Comments on the Brazilian Proposal and contributions to global temperature increase with different climate responses--CO2 emissions due to fossil fuels, CO2 emissions due to land use change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Ribeiro, S.K.; Muylaert, M.S.; Pires de Campos, Christiano

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to take into account the anthropogenic contribution to the increase of global temperature, instead of being restricted to the Carbon emissions adopted in the Kyoto Protocol on responsibility sharing. It is shown the sensibility of the results to the variation of the parameters from different authors used for simulating the climate response based in the so-called Brazilian Proposal (BP). It is also discussed the methodological and scientific aspects of the BP being discussed by an expert group coordinated by SBSTA/UNFCCC and results of energy sector and land use change contributions by groups of countries

  1. CO2 emission trade from a fiscal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaassen, F.A.H.; Derksen, R.T.; Keijel, J.J.C.

    2004-06-01

    The report gives answers to questions as 'are CO2 emission permits assets or supplies?'; how to deal with forward contracts and options in CO2 emission permits 'fiscal-wise'; and 'which are the consequences of CO2 emissions trade for the rebate of pre-taxes?' Als attention is paid to trading system for NOx emission [nl

  2. CO2 emission scenarios for next centuries to obtain more complete simulations of the global warming; Scenari globali di emissione a lungo termine di CO2 per una simulazione piu' completa dell'effetto serra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelini, M. [ENEA, Divisione Sistemi Energetici per la Mobilita' e l' Habitat, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of a punctual Modeling of the Greenhouse Effect (report RT/ERG/2001/1) it is necessary to set CO2 Emission Scenarios for the next Centuries in order to obtain the complete evolution of the global warming. Some methodologies are described to approach such long term previsions. From the demand side, the growth of the consumes (which are affected by population and development) is correlated (supply side) with the technical-economic-environmental Evaluation of the future diffusion of classic sources (experienced in the past centuries) and of new Technologies and renewable sources. The previsions of the world population Growth are derived from the UNFPA publications. The degree of economic Development of the world Population in the very long term is obtained by simulating the Evolution of the Population across four main Areas characterized by different pro-capita consumes. Using these criteria two different Scenarios have been set-up and put into comparison with the SRES Scenarios published in the Third Assessment Report-WG1 of the IPCC. The cut at the year 2100 of the SRES Scenarios is also discussed. Simulations of the Global Warming in the long term have been performed with the two scenarios. These results are discussed together with the results of the Simulations reported by IPCC. [Italian] Nell'ambito della elaborazione di un modello puntuale per la simulazione del riscaldamento globale conseguente all'effetto serra, (rapporto tecnico RT/ERG/2001/1), viene ripresa la problematica degli scenari di emissione di CO2 per alcuni secoli al fine di poter studiare l'intera evoluzione del fenomeno. Per superare le difficolta' insite nelle previsioni riferite a un futuro tanto lontano, vengono indicate alcune metodologie. Dal lato domanda i principali fattori di crescita dei consumi (cioe' popolazione e sviluppo economico) vengono posti a confronto (lato offerta) con le modalita' di diffusione delle singole fonti desunte dai

  3. CO2 credit or energy credit in emission trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, E.

    2002-01-01

    Emission trading is a good concept and approach to tackle global warming. However, what ''currency'' or ''credit'' should be used in the trading has remained a debatable topic. This paper proposed an ''Energy Credit'' concept as an alternative to the ''CO 2 credit'' that is currently in place. From the thermodynamic point of view, the global warming problem is an ''energy balance'' problem. The energy credit concept is thought to be more thermodynamically correct and tackles the core of the global warming problem more directly. The Energy credit concept proposed can be defined as: the credit to offset the extra energy trapped/absorbed in the earth (and its atmosphere) due to the extra anthropogenic emission (or other activities) by a country or company. A couple of examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the concept of the Energy credit and its advantages over the CO 2 credit concept. (author)

  4. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  5. Mastering the market of CO2 emission quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    On January 1, 2005, a system of trade of carbon dioxide emission quotas, also called 'market of tradable emission permits', will be implemented in the European Union. This system is one of the 3 flexibility mechanisms foreseen by the Kyoto protocol in order to reduce the global economic cost of the fight against climatic change. The aim of this seminar is to clarify the process of transfer of the European directive into French law. It comprises 8 presentations dealing with: the objectives of tradable emission quotas (greenhouse effect, Kyoto commitments, short and long term stakes); presentation of the European directive about the trade system of greenhouse gas emissions; transposition of the directive into French law (fields of application, sectors and facilities concerned, possible exemptions, first national plan of quotas allocation); voluntary emission abatement commitments by industrial companies member of the AERES; quotas recording and management, control of trades; companies strategy (investment for CO 2 abatement or purchase of quotas, impact on industries and competitiveness); experience feedback of emission quotas trading in foreign countries (international CO 2 market development); CO 2 emission quotas linked with cogeneration (emissions from cogeneration facilities, possible allocation, impact for cogeneration companies, approaches in other European countries in this domain); perspectives and conclusions. (J.S.)

  6. CO2 emissions from the transport of China's exported goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Otto; Goessling, Stefan; Simonsen, Morten; Walnum, Hans Jakob; Peeters, Paul; Neiberger, Cordula

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases in many European countries are declining, and the European Union (EU) believes it is on track in achieving emission reductions as agreed upon in the Kyoto Agreement and the EU's more ambitious post-Kyoto climate policy. However, a number of recent publications indicate that emission reductions may also have been achieved because production has been shifted to other countries, and in particular China. If a consumption perspective is applied, emissions in industrialized countries are substantially higher, and may not have declined at all. Significantly, emissions from transports are omitted in consumption-based calculations. As all trade involves transport, mostly by cargo ship, but also by air, transports add considerably to overall emissions growth incurred in production shifts. Consequently, this article studies the role of transports in creating emissions of CO 2 , based on the example of exports from China. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for global emission reductions and post-Kyoto negotiations.

  7. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  8. Emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, HC, PM, HFC-134a, N2O and CH4 from the global light duty vehicle fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Wallington

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles emit carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, hydrocarbons (HC, particulate matter (PM, hydrofluorocarbon 134a (HFC-134a, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. An understanding of these emissions is needed in discussions of climate change and local air pollution issues. To facilitate such discussions an overview of past, present, and likely future emissions from light duty vehicles is presented. Emission control technologies have reduced the emissions of CO, VOCs, PM, HFC-134a, CH4, and N2O from modern vehicles to very low levels.

  9. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  10. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  11. Norwegian emissions of CO2 1987-1994. A study of some effects of the CO2 tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.M.; Nesbakken, R.

    1997-01-01

    Several countries have introduced taxes on fossil fuels with the aim of reducing atmospheric emissions, partly because of local environmental goals (SO2, NOx) and partly to participate in a global effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Many macroeconomic studies, based on both global and national models, have been made of how emissions can be reduced with the help of taxes and the consequent reduction in GDP following the introduction of such taxes. Norway has had a CO2 tax for five years, thereby providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of this tax on emissions. The paper provides a counterfactual analysis of energy consumption and emissions if no CO2 taxes had been introduced, compared with the actual situation in which such taxes exist. The effect of a CO2 tax on oil consumption, and thus CO2 emissions, is studied on the basis of partial economic models for various sectors of the Norwegian economy. The study indicates that the CO2 tax has had an impact on CO2 emissions in Norway. 7 figs., 3 tabs., 17 refs

  12. Assesment of Energy Options for CO2 Emission Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavlina, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, global anthropogenic CO 2 emissions grew by 52% which caused an increase in 10.8% in the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, and it tipped the 400 ppm mark in May 2013. The Fifth Assessment Report on climate impacts from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed earlier warnings that climate change is already stressing human communities, agriculture, and natural ecosystems, and the effects are likely to increase in the future. While European Union has long been committed to lowering carbon emissions, this places additional pressure on current EU goals for energy sector that includes significant reduction of CO 2 emissions. Current EU commitment has been formalized in so-called '20-20-20' plan, reducing carbon emissions, increasing energy efficiency and increasing energy production from renewables by 20% by 2020. Some EU member states are even more ambitious, like United Kingdom, planning to reduce carbon emissions by 80% by 2050. Bulk of carbon reduction will have to be achived in energy sector. In the power industry, most popular solution is use of solar and wind power. Since their production varies significantly during the day, for the purpose of base-load production they can be paired with gas-fired power plant. Other possible CO 2 -free solution is nuclear power plant. In this invited lecture, predicted cost of energy production for newly bulit nuclear power plant and newly built combination of wind or solar and gas-fired power plant are compared. Comparison was done using Levelized Unit of Energy Cost (LUEC). Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo method. For input parameters that have biggest uncertainty (gas cost, CO 2 emission fee) those uncertainties were addressed not only through probability distribution around predicted value, but also through different scenarious. (author)

  13. Utopia Switzerland (2) - A Country Without CO2 Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Global warming and climate change are major themes in the today's energy policy discussion. Awarding Al Gore and the IPCC with the Nobel price in 2007 shows the importance of the climate change for the whole world. That we are running into climatic problems is already known since several decades and possibilities to solve the CO 2 emissions were proposed and discussed since years, but a reduction in the CO 2 emissions is not detectable. This might be due to the fact, that the major part of CO 2 production (traffic and heating) is not consequently touched. It seems to be easier to discuss about renewable energies in the electricity market than in other areas. And the consequences of discussing stepping out of nuclear all over the world, has enforced the problem. Although the renaissance of nuclear has started and the known positive impact to the climate from this energy source, it is not forced to be the solution for the biggest problem of the near future. There are only a few countries worldwide which produce electricity without or with only small amounts of CO 2 emissions like Norway or Switzerland. Those countries could be demonstration countries to show the possibilities for reducing and avoiding CO 2 emissions. Would it be possible to replace all fossil energy sources during a reasonable period of time by using nuclear energy and hydrogen as an energy storage system? Is this scenario technical feasible and of economic interest for a small, developed country like Switzerland? If yes, Switzerland might be a good candidate to establish the first CO 2 -free industrial developed state in the world. Looking much more ahead this study will discuss a simple but might be effective scenario for Switzerland. The study is based on a paper presented at IYNC 2006 and will update the used data as well as going in more details. (authors)

  14. Charcoal cuts the CO2-emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakervik, Anne Lise.

    1999-01-01

    According to this article, bio carbon, or charcoal, may be the way out for the Norwegian processing industry in attempting to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. Norwegian ferro-alloy plants emit 3 million ton carbon dioxide per year, which comes from the use of coal and coke as reducing agents in the smelting process. If the fraction of bio carbon is increased by 15%, the emission of CO 2 may be reduced by about 1/2 million tonne per year. But the price of charcoal is much greater than that of fix C from coal and coke. Research is in progress on trying to produce bio carbon cheaper. Charcoal can be produced from all types of forest by pyrolysis. Waste heat from the pyrolysis can be sold and used for district heating. The most expensive part in the use of bio carbon will be timber felling and transport to the log pile. Small-scale and large-scale tests will be made to see if it is possible to make adequate charcoal from subarctic timber

  15. Influence of trade on national CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, Jesper; Pade, Lise-Lotte; Minx, Jan; Lenzen, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    International trade has an impact on national CO 2 emissions and consequently on the ability to fulfil national CO 2 reduction targets. Through goods and services traded in a globally interdependent world, the consumption in each country is linked to greenhouse gas emissions in other countries. It has been argued that in order to achieve equitable reduction targets, international trade has to be taken into account when assessing nations' responsibility for abating climate change. Especially for open economies such as Denmark, greenhouse gases embodied in internationally traded commodities can have a considerable influence on the national 'greenhouse gas responsibility'. By using input-output modelling, we analyse the influence from international trade on national CO 2 emissions. The aim is to show that trade is the key to define CO 2 responsibility on a macroeconomic level and that imports should be founded in a multi-region model approach. Finally, the paper concludes on the need to consider the impact from foreign trade when negotiating reduction targets and base line scenarios. (Author)

  16. CO2 emissions in the World in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecoiffier, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data of CO 2 emissions in the world and their evolution. It more particularly addresses CO 2 emissions due to energy combustion which represent more than 80 per cent of these emissions or 62 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions, and which increased in 2013 with respect to 2012 (+ 2.2 pc). The distribution of CO 2 emissions due to energy combustion in different continents and regions is indicated (levels in 1990, 2012 and 2013, evolutions). The decrease of the CO 2 emission intensity with respect to the GDP is briefly commented (evolution since 1970), as well as the level of CO 2 emissions per inhabitant in China with respect to that in the EU (evolutions since 1970). The evolution of CO 2 emissions is then analysed with respect to different determining parameters according to the Kaya equation (population, GDP, primary energy consumption and their evolution or relationship one to each other)

  17. CO2 emissions resulting from the energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document brings statistical data on the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the energy use only. Tables and charts present data for the CO 2 emissions in France, in the world (2001-2002), in the OECD (2000-2002), the CO 2 emissions from electric power plants and refineries in France (1996-1999) and archives of statistics on CO 2 emissions. (A.L.B.)

  18. Economics of reducing CO2 emissions from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhongxin

    1991-01-01

    Relative to the nations of the industrialized world, developing countries emit far lower levels of CO 2 per capita. In coming years, however, as the developing world experiences more rapid rates of economic and population growth, their carbon emissions per capita inevitably will rise. Therefore, developing countries should be encouraged both to adopt more advanced energy technologies in order to improve the efficiency of energy exploration, transportation, generation and end-use and to replace carbon-intensive fuels sources with less carbon-intensive sources (non-fossil fuels and renewable energy). By incorporating methods aimed at curtailing carbon emissions into their energy development strategies, developing nations can reduce the risks posed by higher CO 2 emissions. However, adopting more advanced energy technologies generally entails high costs. These higher prices serve as a particularly large obstacle for developing nations. In order to serve the common interest of protecting the global environment, international funds should be devoted to cover the high costs of reducing developing world CO 2 emissions

  19. An analysis of Chinas CO2 emission peaking target and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jian-Kun

    2017-01-01

    China has set the goal for its CO2 emissions to peak around 2030, which is not only a strategic decision coordinating domestic sustainable development and global climate change mitigation but also an overarching target and a key point of action for Chinas resource conservation, environmental protection, shift in economic development patterns, and CO2 emission reduction to avoid climate change. The development stage where China maps out the CO2 emission peak target is earlier than that of the ...

  20. Financial development and sectoral CO2 emissions in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Ibrahim Kabiru; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Saari, Mohd Yusof

    2017-03-01

    The paper examines the impacts of financial development on sectoral carbon emissions (CO 2 ) for environmental quality in Malaysia. Since the financial sector is considered as one of the sectors that will contribute to Malaysian economy to become a developed country by 2020, we utilize a cointegration method to investigate how financial development affects sectoral CO 2 emissions. The long-run results reveal that financial development increases CO 2 emissions from the transportation and oil and gas sector and reduces CO 2 emissions from manufacturing and construction sectors. However, the elasticity of financial development is not significant in explaining CO 2 emissions from the agricultural sector. The results for short-run elasticities were also consistent with the long-run results. We conclude that generally, financial development increases CO 2 emissions and reduces environmental quality in Malaysia.

  1. CO2 emissions by the economic circuit in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenglart, F.; Lesieur, Ch.; Pasquier, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Before commenting various statistical data on CO 2 emission in France, this report explains how these data have been established according to the 'Stiglitz' Commission recommendations, i.e. by integrating CO 2 emissions in the national accounts. While commenting the evolutions of CO 2 emissions in relationship with economic activity and giving table of world data, it outlines that France represents 3% of the World GDP, 1.3% of CO 2 emissions and 1% of the population. The relationship between standard of living and pollutant emissions are commented. As far as France is concerned and with a comparison with world data the shares of different sources of energy and of the different sectors in CO 2 emissions are indicated and commented. The report comments the influence of the domestic demand on foreign CO 2 emissions, the differences between households in terms of CO 2 emissions with respect to their revenues, the shares of household consumption and of CO 2 emissions among expense items, the influence of socio-professional, of age, and of household composition category on CO 2 emissions. Some methodological and computational aspects are given

  2. Enhancement of farmland greenhouse gas emissions from leakage of stored CO2: simulation of leaked CO2 from CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2015-06-15

    The effects of leaked CO2 on plant and soil constitute a key objective of carbon capture and storage (CCS) safety. The effects of leaked CO2 on trace soil gas (e.g., methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in farmlands are not well-understood. This study simulated the effects of elevated soil CO2 on CH4 and N2O through pot experiments. The results revealed that significant increases of CH4 and N2O emissions were induced by the simulated CO2 leakages; the emission rates of CH4 and N2O were substantial, reaching about 222 and 48 times than that of the control, respectively. The absolute global warming potentials (GWPs) of the additional CH4 and N2O are considerable, but the cumulative GWPs of the additional CH4 and N2O only accounted for 0.03% and 0.06%, respectively, of the cumulative amount of leaked CO2 under high leakage conditions. The results demonstrate that leakage from CCS projects may lead to additional greenhouse gas emissions from soil; however, in general, the amount of additional CH4 and N2O emissions is negligible when compared with the amount of leaked CO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent global CO2 flux inferred from atmospheric CO2 observations and its regional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The net surface exchange of CO2 for the years 2002–2007 is inferred from 12 181 atmospheric CO2 concentration data with a time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversion scheme. Monthly CO2 fluxes are optimized for 30 regions of the North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Although there have been many previous multiyear inversion studies, the reliability of atmospheric inversion techniques has not yet been systematically evaluated for quantifying regional interannual variability in the carbon cycle. In this study, the global interannual variability of the CO2 flux is found to be dominated by terrestrial ecosystems, particularly by tropical land, and the variations of regional terrestrial carbon fluxes are closely related to climate variations. These interannual variations are mostly caused by abnormal meteorological conditions in a few months in the year or part of a growing season and cannot be well represented using annual means, suggesting that we should pay attention to finer temporal climate variations in ecosystem modeling. We find that, excluding fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, terrestrial ecosystems and oceans absorb an average of 3.63 ± 0.49 and 1.94 ± 0.41 Pg C yr−1, respectively. The terrestrial uptake is mainly in northern land while the tropical and southern lands contribute 0.62 ± 0.47, and 0.67 ± 0.34 Pg C yr−1 to the sink, respectively. In North America, terrestrial ecosystems absorb 0.89 ± 0.18 Pg C yr−1 on average with a strong flux density found in the south-east of the continent.

  4. Comparison of CO2 Emissions Data for 30 Cities from Different Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Koide, D.; Ito, A.; Saito, M.; Hirata, R.

    2017-12-01

    Many sources suggest that cities account for a large proportion of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, in search for the best ways to reduce total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, a focus on the city emission is crucial. In this study, we collected CO2 emissions data in 30 cities during 1990-2015 and evaluated the degree of variance between data sources. The CO2 emissions data were obtained from academic papers, municipal reports, and high-resolution emissions maps (CIDIACv2016, EDGARv4.2, ODIACv2016, and FFDASv2.0). To extract urban CO2 emissions from the high-resolution emissions maps, urban fraction ranging from 0 to 1 was calculated for each 1×1 degree grid cell using the global land cover data (SYNMAP). Total CO2 emissions from the grid cells in which urban fraction occupies greater than or equal to 0.9 were regarded as urban CO2 emissions. The estimated CO2 emissions varied greatly depending on the information sources, even in the same year. There was a large difference between CO2 emissions collected from academic papers, municipal reports, and those extracted from high-resolution emissions maps. One reason is that they use different city boundaries. That is, the city proper (i.e. the political city boundary) is often defined as the city boundary in academic papers and municipal reports, whereas the urban area is used in the high-resolution emissions maps. Furthermore, there was a large variation in CO2 emissions collected from academic papers and municipal reports. These differences may be due to the difference in the assumptions such as allocation ratio of CO2 emissions to producers and consumers. In general, the consumption-based assignment of emissions gives higher estimates of urban CO2 emission in comparison with production-based assignment. Furthermore, there was also a large variation in CO2 emissions extracted from high-resolution emissions maps. This difference would be attributable to differences in information used

  5. National CO2 emissions trading in European perspective; Nationale CO2-emissiehandel in Europees perspectief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This report is the reaction of the Social and economic council (SER) in the Netherlands to the request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning en Environment (VROM) to formulate an advice on the final report of the Committee CO2 Trade (a.k.a the Vogtlander Committee). This Committee has drafted a proposal for a CO2 emission trade system in the Netherlands. The SER has also taken into account the proposal of the European Committee on a guideline for CO2 emission trade in the European Union (EU)

  6. Industrial CO2 emissions in China based on the hypothetical extraction method: Linkage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Wenqin; Mao, Guozhu; Cai, Hua; Zuo, Jian; Wang, Lili; Zhao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuel-related CO 2 emissions are regarded as the primary sources of global climate change. Unlike direct CO 2 emissions for each sector, CO 2 emissions associated with complex linkages among sectors are usually ignored. We integrated the input–output analysis with the hypothetical extraction method to uncover the in-depth characteristics of the inter-sectoral linkages of CO 2 emissions. Based on China's 2007 data, this paper compared the output and demand emissions of CO 2 among eight blocks. The difference between the demand and output emissions of a block indicates that CO 2 is transferred from one block to another. Among the sectors analyzed in this study, the Energy industry block has the greatest CO 2 emissions with the Technology industry, Construction and Service blocks as its emission's primary destinations. Low-carbon industries that have lower direct CO 2 emissions are deeply anchored to high-carbon ones. If no effective measures are taken to limit final demand emissions or adjust energy structure, shifting to an economy that is low-carbon industries oriented would entail a decrease in CO 2 emission intensity per unit GDP but an increase in overall CO 2 emissions in absolute terms. The results are discussed in the context of climate-change policy. - Highlights: • Quantitatively analyze the characteristics of inter-industrial CO 2 emission linkages. • Propose the linkage measuring method of CO 2 emissions based on the modified HEM. • Detect the energy industry is a key sector on the output of embodied carbon. • Conclude that low-carbon industries are deeply anchored to high-carbon industries

  7. Climate change and CO2 emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Duong, M.; Campos, A.S.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents the results of an opinion poll performed on a representative sample of 1000 persons about their sensitivity to climate change and to environment protection, their knowledge about technologies which are useful for environment protection, their opinion about geological CO 2 sequestration, and technologies to be developed to struggle against climate warming

  8. Toxic emissions and devaluated CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Environmental, energy and climate policies need fresh reflections. In order to evaluate toxics reduction policies the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is mandatory. Denmark's function as lead country for dioxin research in the context of the OSPAR Convention is contrasted...... with a climate policy whose goals of CO2-reduction were made operational by green-wash. Arguments are given for the devaluation of CO2- neutrality in case of burning wood. Alternative practices as storing C in high quality wood products and/or leaving wood in the forest are recommended. A counter......-productive effect of dioxin formation in the cooling phase of wood burning appliances has been registered akin to de-novo-synthesis in municipal solid waste incinerators. Researchers, regulators and the public are, however, still preoccupied by notions of oven design and operation parameters, assuming that dioxin...

  9. The oil market and international agreements on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, K.; Fimreite, Oe.; Golombek, R.; Hoel, M.

    1991-01-01

    In order to avoid a relatively large risk of dramatic adverse climatic changes during the next century, greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced significantly relative to present emissions. CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas, so any international agreement will certainly cover CO 2 emissions. Any international agreement to reduce emissions of CO 2 is going to have a significant impact on the markets for fossil fuels. The analysis shows that is not only the amount of CO 2 emissions permitted in an agreement which matters for fossil fuel prices, but also the type of agreement. Two obvious forms of agreements, which under certain assumptions both are cost efficient, are (a) tradeable emission permits, and (b) an international CO 2 tax. If the fossil fuel markets were perfectly competitive, these two types of agreements would have the same effect on the producer price of fossil fuels. However, fossil fuel markets are not completely competitive. It is shown that, under imperfect competition, direct regulation of the ''tradeable quotas'' type tends to imply higher producer prices than an international CO 2 tax giving the same total CO 2 emissions. A numerical illustration of the oil market indicates that the difference in producer prices for the two types of CO 2 agreements is quite significant. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Episodical CO2 emission during shoulder seasons in the arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Thomas; Elberling, Bo; Hansen, Birger

    soils. Our knowledge about the exchanges of CO2 and other trace gas fluxes in the arctic region has been constrained by the limited availability of measurements during the long winter season. For that reason only a small number of sites have been able to produce annual budgets of C exchange...... and the driving processes behind winter time exchange of CO2 are not fully understood. Here we present two very different examples of CO2 exchange from shoulder seasons in the Arctic. In an example from NE Greenland, eddy covariance measurements show that the snow cover has a significant effect on the release...... of CO2 during spring. The other example, from a study during late autumn and winter from high arctic Svalbard we found that episodical emissions of CO2 accounted for a significant part of the total CO2 emission form the site. The emission pattern could be associated with temperature variations...

  11. CO2 Emissions Generated by a Fall AGU Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    osborn, G.; Malowany, K. S.; Samolczyk, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    CO2 for the fall 2010 meeting. For comparison, 19 million kg is roughly equivalent to the annual CO2 emissions of the smallest Pacific island nations and to 1/1000 of the annual CO2 emissions of Tunisia; it is 5000 times greater than average annual global per capita CO2 emissions. Additional contributions to greenhouse warming arising from air travel to/from a meeting are made by the effects of water-vapor contrails, considered by Burkhardt and Karcher (2011) to be conceivably more significant than direct CO2 emissions. We make no value judgement regarding the balance between scientific progress and environmental costs consequent to AGU and other large scientific meetings that deal with greenhouse warming. We do perceive a hint of irony, however, in the pride that AGU takes in the ever-increasing numbers of meeting participants. Burkhardt, U. and Karcher, B., 2011, Nature Climate Change 1:54-58.

  12. Reducing CO2 Emissions through Lightweight Design and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Mark A.; Allwood, Julian M.; Milford, Rachel L.

    2011-05-01

    To meet targeted 50% reductions in industrial CO2 emissions by 2050, demand for steel and aluminium must be cut. Many steel and aluminium products include redundant material, and the manufacturing routes to produce them use more material than is necessary. Lightweight design and optimized manufacturing processes offer a means of demand reduction, whilst creating products to perform the same service as existing ones. This paper examines two strategies for demand reduction: lightweight product design; and minimizing yield losses through the product supply chain. Possible mass savings are estimated for specific case-studies on metal-intensive products, such as I-beams and food cans. These estimates are then extrapolated to other sectors to produce a global estimate for possible demand reductions. Results show that lightweight product design may offer potential mass savings of up to 30% for some products, whilst yield in the production of others could be improved by over 20%. If these two strategies could be combined for all products, global demand for steel and aluminium would be reduced by nearly 50%. The impact of demand reduction on CO2 emissions is presented, and barriers to the adoption of new, lightweight technologies are discussed.

  13. Evaluation system for CO2 emission of hot asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The highway construction industry plays an important role in economic and development, but is also a primary source of carbon emission. Accordingly, with the global climate change, energy conservation and reduction of carbon emissions have become critical issues in the highway construction industry. However, to date, a model for the highway construction industry has not been established. Hence, to implement a low-carbon construction model for highways, this study divided asphalt pavement construction into aggregate stacking, aggregate supply, and other stages, and compiled a list of energy consumption investigation. An appropriate calculation model of CO2 emission was then built. Based on the carbon emission calculation model, the proportion of carbon emissions in each stage was analyzed. The analytic hierarchy process was used to establish the system of asphalt pavement construction with a judgment matrix, thereby enabling calculation of the weight coefficient of each link. In addition, the stages of aggregate heating, asphalt heating, and asphalt mixture mixing were defined as key stages of asphalt pavement construction. Carbon emissions at these stages accounted for approximately 90% of the total carbon emissions. Carbon emissions at each stage and their impact on the environment were quantified and compared. The energy saving construction schemes as well as the environmental and socioeconomic benefits were then proposed. Through these schemes, significant reductions in carbon emissions and costs can be achieved. The results indicate that carbon emissions reduce by 32.30% and 35.93%, whereas costs reduce by 18.58% and 6.03%. The proposed energy-saving and emission reduction scheme can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the development of low-carbon highway construction.

  14. Decoupling of CO2-emissions from Energy Intensive Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Enevoldsen, M. K.; Ryelund, A. V.

    and taxes on the trends in CO2 emissions on the basis of a novel method that relies on sector-specific energy prices. Whereas previous research has been unable to account for the implications of complex tax exemptions and price discounts, the present report bridges the gap and provides innovative estimates....... This finding suggests that price increases, whether induced by taxes or market fluctuations, can be effective in curbing CO2 emissions when they accurately reflect the CO2 burden. It also suggests that CO2-specific taxes on fuels are more effective than end-user electricity taxes which do not reflect actual...

  15. The oil market and international agreements on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, K.; Fimreite, O.; Golombek, R.; Hoel, M.

    1992-01-01

    According to most scientists, greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced significantly relative to current trends to avoid dramatic adverse climatic changes during the next century. CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas, so any international agreement will certainly cover CO 2 emissions. Any international agreement to reduce emissions of CO 2 is going to have a significant impact on the markets for fossil fuels. The analysis shows that it is not only the amount of CO 2 emissions permitted in an agreement which matters for fossil fuel prices, but also the type of agreement. Two obvious forms of agreements, which under certain assumptions both are cost efficient, are (a) tradeable emission permits, and (b) an international CO 2 tax. If the fossil fuel markets were perfectly competitive, these two types of agreements would have the same effect on the producer price of fossil fuels. However, fossil fuel markets are not completely competitive. It is shown that, under imperfect competition, direct regulation of the 'tradeable quotas' type tends to imply higher producer prices and a larger efficiency loss than an international CO 2 tax giving the same total CO 2 emissions. A numerical illustration of the oil market indicates that the difference in producer prices for the two types of CO 2 agreements is quite significant. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Global observation of EKC hypothesis for CO2, SOx and NOx emission: A policy understanding for climate change mitigation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesh Miah, Md.; Farhad Hossain Masum, Md.; Koike, Masao

    2010-01-01

    Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is critical to understanding the developmental path of a nation in relation to its environment. How the effects of economic development processes dictate environmental changes can be found through the study of EKC. To understand the EKC phenomena for climate change, this study was undertaken by reviewing the available literature. As CO 2 , SO x and NO x are the significant greenhouse gases (GHG) responsible for global warming, thus leading to climate change, the study focused on those GHGs for EKC consideration. With an understanding of the different EKC trajectories, an attempt was made to determine the implications for the economic development of Bangladesh in regards to the EKC. It was shown that EKC for CO 2 was following a monotonous straight line in most cases. SO x were shown to follow the full trajectory of the EKC in most situations and NO x was shown the hope only for the developed countries getting the low-income turning point. The type of economic policy that Bangladesh should follow in regards to the discussed pollutants and sources is also revealed. From these discussions, contributions to policy stimulation in Bangladesh are likely to be made.

  17. Practical guidebook about the market of CO2 emission quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Since January 1, 2005, the European directive about the trading of CO 2 emission quotas foresees the allocation of CO 2 emission quotas to the industrial sectors that generate huge amounts of greenhouse gases (energy generation, cement, glass, steel-making, mineral and paper industries). A system of trading of CO 2 quotas has been implemented and allows the companies to exchange, sale or purchase quotas in order to be conformable with the volume of CO 2 they have been authorized to release in the atmosphere. This guidebook is a vade mecum of the management of emission quotas. It explains the actions of the international community in favor of the fight against greenhouse emissions, the 3 flexibility mechanisms, the French environmental policy, the European system of fight against climatic change, the CO 2 quotas system and its practical implementation. (J.S.)

  18. Volcanic CO2 Emissions and Glacial Cycles: Coupled Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J. M.; Huybers, P. J.; Katz, R. F.

    2016-12-01

    Following the mid-Pleistocene transition, the dominant period of glacial cycles changed from 40 ka to 100 ka. It is broadly accepted that the 40 ka glacial cycles were driven by cyclical changes in obliquity. However, this forcing does not explain the 100 ka glacial cycles. Mechanisms proposed for 100 ka cycles include isostatic bed depression and proglacial lakes destabilising the Laurentide ice sheet, non-linear responses to orbital eccentricity, and Antarctic ice sheets influencing deep-ocean stratification. None of these are universally accepted. Here we investigate the hypothesis that variations in volcanic CO2 emissions can cause 100 ka glacial cycles. Any proposed mechanism for 100 ka glacial cycles must give the Earth's climate system a memory of 10^4 - 10^5years. This timescale is difficult to achieve for surface processes, however it is possible for the solid Earth. Recent work suggests volcanic CO2 emissions change in response to glacial cycles [1] and that there could be a 50 ka delay in that response [2]. Such a lagged response could drive glacial cycles from 40 ka cycles to an integer multiple of the forcing period. Under what conditions could the climate system admit such a response? To address this, we use a simplified climate model modified from Huybers and Tziperman [3]. Our version comprises three component models for energy balance, ice sheet growth and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The model is driven by insolation alone with other components varying according to a system of coupled, differential equations. The model is run for 500 ka to produce several glacial cycles and the resulting changes in global ice volume and atmospheric CO2 concentration.We obtain a switch from 40 ka to 100 ka cycles as the volcanic CO2 response to glacial cycles is increased. These 100 ka cycles are phase-locked to obliquity, lasting 80 or 120 ka. Whilst the MOR response required (in this model) is larger than plausible estimates based on [2], it illustrates the

  19. Modelling Energy Systems and International Trade in CO2 Emission Quotas - The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.

    2002-01-01

    A transformation of the energy system in the 21st century is required if the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be stabilized at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The industrialized countries have emitted most of the anthropogenic CO 2 released to the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial era and still account for roughly two thirds of global fossil fuel related CO 2 emissions. Industrial country CO 2 emissions on a per capita basis are roughly five to ten times higher than those of developing countries. However, a global atmospheric CO 2 concentration target of 450 ppm, if adopted would require that global average per capita CO 2 emissions by the end of this century have to be comparable to those of developing countries today. The industrialized countries would have to reduce their emissions substantially and the emissions in developing countries could not follow a business-as-usual scenario. The transformation of the energy system and abatement of CO 2 emissions would need to occur in industrialized and developing countries. Energy-economy models have been developed to analyze of international trading in CO 2 emission permits. The thesis consists of three papers. The cost of meeting the Kyoto Protocol is estimated in the first paper. The Kyoto Protocol, which defines quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments for industrialized countries over the period 2008-2012, is the first international agreement setting quantitative goals for abatement of CO 2 emissions from energy systems. The Protocol allows the creation of systems for trade in emission permits whereby countries exceeding their target levels can remain in compliance by purchasing surplus permits from other developed countries. However, a huge carbon surplus, which has been christened hot air, has been created in Russia and Ukraine since 1990 primarily because of the contraction of their economies. The current Unites States

  20. CO_2 emission trends of China's primary aluminum industry: A scenario analysis using system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Huiquan; He, Peng

    2017-01-01

    China announced its promise on CO_2 emission peak. When and what level of CO_2 emission peak China's primary aluminum industry will reach is in suspense. In this paper, a system dynamic model is established, with five subsystems of economy development, primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, CO_2 emission intensity and policies making involved. The model is applied to examine potential CO_2 emission trends of China's primary aluminum industry in next fifteen years with three scenarios of “no new policies”, “13th five-year plan” and “additional policies”. Simulation results imply that: merely relying on rapid expansion of domestic scarps recycling and reuse could not mitigate CO_2 emission continuously. Combination of energy-saving technology application and electrolytic technology innovation, as well as promoting hydropower utilization in primary aluminum industry are necessary for long term low-carbon development. From a global prospective, enhancing international cooperation on new primary aluminum capacity construction in other countries, especially with rich low-carbon energy, could bring about essential CO_2 emission for both China's and global primary aluminum industry. - Highlights: • A system dynamic model is established for future CO_2 emission trend of China's primary aluminum industry. • Three potential policy scenarios are simulated. • The impacts of potential policies implication on the CO_2 emission trend are discussed.

  1. Global CO2 fluxes estimated from GOSAT retrievals of total column CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present one of the first estimates of the global distribution of CO2 surface fluxes using total column CO2 measurements retrieved by the SRON-KIT RemoTeC algorithm from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. We derive optimized fluxes from June 2009 to December 2010. We estimate fluxes from surface CO2 measurements to use as baselines for comparing GOSAT data-derived fluxes. Assimilating only GOSAT data, we can reproduce the observed CO2 time series at surface and TCCON sites in the tropics and the northern extra-tropics. In contrast, in the southern extra-tropics GOSAT XCO2 leads to enhanced seasonal cycle amplitudes compared to independent measurements, and we identify it as the result of a land–sea bias in our GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. A bias correction in the form of a global offset between GOSAT land and sea pixels in a joint inversion of satellite and surface measurements of CO2 yields plausible global flux estimates which are more tightly constrained than in an inversion using surface CO2 data alone. We show that assimilating the bias-corrected GOSAT data on top of surface CO2 data (a reduces the estimated global land sink of CO2, and (b shifts the terrestrial net uptake of carbon from the tropics to the extra-tropics. It is concluded that while GOSAT total column CO2 provide useful constraints for source–sink inversions, small spatiotemporal biases – beyond what can be detected using current validation techniques – have serious consequences for optimized fluxes, even aggregated over continental scales.

  2. Committed CO2 Emissions of China's Coal-fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suqin, J.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of global warming is determined by the cumulative effects of CO2 in the atmosphere. Coal-fired power plants, the largest anthropogenic source of CO2 emissions, produce large amount of CO2 emissions during their lifetimes of operation (committed emissions), which thus influence the future carbon emission space under specific targets on mitigating climate change (e.g., the 2 degree warming limit relative to pre-industrial levels). Comprehensive understanding of committed CO2 emissions for coal-fired power generators is urgently needed in mitigating global climate change, especially in China, the largest global CO2emitter. We calculated China's committed CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generators installed during 1993-2013 and evaluated their impact on future emission spaces at the provincial level, by using local specific data on the newly installed capacities. The committed CO2 emissions are calculated as the product of the annual coal consumption from newly installed capacities, emission factors (CO2emissions per unit crude coal consumption) and expected lifetimes. The sensitivities about generators lifetimes and the drivers on provincial committed emissions are also analyzed. Our results show that these relatively recently installed coal-fired power generators will lead to 106 Gt of CO2 emissions over the course of their lifetimes, which is more than three times the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels in 2010. More than 80% (85 Gt) of their total committed CO2 will be emitted after 2013, which are referred to as the remaining emissions. Due to the uncertainties of generators lifetime, these remaining emissions would increase by 45 Gt if the lifetimes of China's coal-fired power generators were prolonged by 15 years. Furthermore, the remaining emissions are very different among various provinces owing to local developments and policy disparities. Provinces with large amounts of secondary industry and abundant coal reserves have higher committed

  3. Electricity system planning under the CO2 emission restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Young; Lee, Man Ki; Roh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Eun Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Objective of this study is to analyze how the restriction of CO 2 emission from power generation will affect the national electricity supply system. The role of nuclear power is investigated under the restriction of CO 2 emission in Korea. A simplified electricity system was modeled for the analysis. To analyze the impact of CO 2 emission restriction, 2 different scenarios were established and compared with the base scenario. The first scenario was 'CO 2 emission restriction with new nuclear power installation'. In this scenario, a CO 2 emission restriction of 0.11kg-C/kWh was imposed and there was no restriction on the nuclear power construction. While, in the second scenario, 'CO 2 emission restriction without new nuclear power installation' the same amount of CO 2 restriction was imposed with no consideration of nuclear power installation. It is found out that the current national emission target(0.11kg- C/kWh) in the electricity sector can not be achieved without nuclear and renewable(wind power) options considered

  4. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources. EPA developed the revised report, Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, to present a methodological framework for assessing the extent to which the production, processing, and use of biogenic material at stationary sources for energy production results in a net atmospheric contribution of biogenic CO2 emissions. Biogenic carbon dioxide emissions are defined as CO2 emissions related to the natural carbon cycle, as well as those resulting from the production, harvest, combustion, digestion, decomposition, and processing of biologically-based materials. The EPA is continuing to refine its technical assessment of biogenic CO2 emissions through another round of targeted peer review of the revised study with the EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB). This study was submitted to the SAB's Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel in February 2015. http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/0/3235dac747c16fe985257da90053f252!OpenDocument&TableRow=2.2#2 The revised report will inform efforts by policymakers, academics, and other stakeholders to evaluate the technical aspects related to assessments of biogenic feedstocks used for energy at s

  5. Households' direct CO-2 emissions according to location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavailhes, Jean; Hilal, Mohamed; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    Limiting direct emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by households is an important factor for achieving reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and European policy. The two main sources of emissions are, in descending order, housing and commuting between home and the workplace or place of study. Average housing-related emissions are 3, 150 kg of CO 2 per year, reaching 4, 200 kg of CO 2 per year in mountain and semi-continental climates. Individual houses in urban centres, often old and with fuel-oil heating, emit more CO 2 than peri-urban dwellings, which are more recent and often have 100% electric heating. Conversely, emissions from commuting are higher in peri-urban areas, where the needs for transport are greater but less transport services are on offer. (authors)

  6. Reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO2. Innovation an industrial stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.; Podkanski, J.; Socolow, R.; Dron, D.; Reiner, D.; Horrocks, P.; Fernandez Ruiz, P.; Dechamps, P.; Stromberg, L.; Wright, I.; Gazeau, J.C.; Wiederkehr, P.; Morcheoine, A.; Vesseron, P.; Feron, P.; Feraud, A.; Torp, N.T.; Christensen, N.P.; Le Thiez, P.; Czernichowski, I.; Hartman, J.; Roulet, C.; Roberts, J.; Zakkour, P.; Von Goerne, G.; Armand, R.; Allinson, G.; Segalen, L.; Gires, J.M.; Metz, B.; Brillet, B.

    2005-01-01

    An international symposium on the reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO 2 was held in Paris from 15 to 16 September 2005. The event, jointly organized by IFP, ADEME and BRGM, brought together over 400 people from more than 25 countries. It was an opportunity to review the international stakes related to global warming and also to debate ways of reducing CO 2 emissions, taking examples from the energy and transport sectors. The last day was dedicated to technological advances in the capture and geological storage of CO 2 and their regulatory and economic implications. This document gathers the available transparencies and talks presented during the colloquium: Opening address by F. Loos, French Minister-delegate for Industry; Session I - Greenhouse gas emissions: the international stakes. Outlook for global CO 2 emissions. The global and regional scenarios: Alternative scenarios for energy use and CO 2 emissions until 2050 by C. Mandil and J. Podkanski (IEA), The stabilization of CO 2 emissions in the coming 50 years by R. Socolow (Princeton University). Evolution of the international context: the stakes and 'factor 4' issues: Costs of climate impacts and ways towards 'factor 4' by D. Dron (ENS Mines de Paris), CO 2 emissions reduction policy: the situation in the United States by D. Reiner (MIT/Cambridge University), Post-Kyoto scenarios by P. Horrocks (European Commission), Possibilities for R and D in CO 2 capture and storage in the future FP7 program by P. Fernandez Ruiz and P. Dechamps (European Commission). Session II - CO 2 emission reductions in the energy and transport sectors. Reducing CO 2 emissions during the production and conversion of fossil energies (fixed installations): Combined cycles using hydrogen by G. Haupt (Siemens), CO 2 emission reductions in the oil and gas industry by I. Wright (BP). Reducing CO 2 emissions in the transport sector: Sustainable transport systems by P. Wiederkehr (EST International), The prospects for reducing

  7. Changes in CO2 emission intensities in the Mexican industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Domingo; Martínez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A CO 2 emission intensity analysis in the Mexican industry from 1965 to 2010 is carried out by taking into consideration four stages: 1965–1982, 1982–1994, 1994–2003, and 2004–2010. Based on the LMDI decomposition methodology, three influencing factors are analyzed: energy intensity, CO 2 coefficient, and structure in terms of their contributions of each individual attributes to the overall percent change of them as it was proposed in Choi and Ang (2011). The energy intensity effect was the driving factor behind the main decreases of CO 2 intensity, the CO 2 coefficient effect contributed to less extent to mitigate it, and the structure effect tended to increased it. It is observed that CO 2 intensity declined by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003, but it increased by 10.1% from 2004 to 2010. In addition, the move of Mexico from an economic model based on import-substitution to an export-oriented economy brought more importance to the Mexican industry intended to export, thus maintaining high levels of activity of industries such as cement, iron and steel, chemical, and petrochemical, while industries such as automotive, and ‘other’ industries grown significantly not only as far their energy consumptions and related CO 2 emissions but they also increased their contributions to the national economy. - Highlights: ► Industrial CO 2 emission intensity was reduced by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003. ► Industrial CO 2 emission intensity was increased by 10.1% from 2003 to 2010. ► 1965–2003: Intensity effect took down CO 2 emission intensity. ► 2003–2010: Export-oriented industries raised CO 2 emission intensity.

  8. Game theoretic analysis for carbon emission permits trading among multiple world regions with an optimizing global energy model; Saitekikagata sekai energy model ni motozuku tachiikikan CO2 haishutsu kyokasho torihiki no game ronteki bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, K.; Matsunaga, A.; Fujii, Y. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Carbon emissions which would cause global warming were agreed to be constrained at COP3 in Kyoto. In addition, carton emission permits trading was also approved to be introduced. The emission permits trading is expected to achieve efficient carbon emission reduction, equalizing the marginal costs of the emission reduction for the participating countries. In other words, the permits trading allows participants to reduce emissions where it is least expensive to do so. However, the inadequate introduction of the trading systems may impose unfairly greater burden on some countries, and therefore careful evaluation of the system would be indispensable for its implementation. In this paper, we attempt to analyze the emission permits trading. using the theory of cooperative games with a global energy model of optimization type. We assumed that seven world regions as players participate the permits trading system under the condition of the emission reduction target presented at COP3 and so on, and show the nucleolus of the grand coalition games, and the computational results of primary energy supplies and CO2 shadow prices. The insights of this research indicate that in order to stabilize the grand coalition, a noticeable amount of additional transfer of money would be needed besides the payments associated with the emission permits trading. 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. The urgent need to internalize CO2 emission costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodland, R.; El Serafy, S.

    1998-01-01

    Despite growing manifestations of global warming and the commitment of most nations to move towards reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a simple device that can be effective in reducing GHG emissions continues to be overlooked or even rejected. This is to acknowledge the fact that carbon emissions inflict global costs that are not borne by emitters. This paper advocates that all activities emitting or saving carbon emissions should internalize the carbon cost inflicted or avoided by new projects involving CO 2 . Considering the current wide range of carbon cost estimates, the paper recommends that a two-stage approach be adopted. Firstly, incorporate carbon costs in project analysis only theoretically in order to differentiate objectively among alternative designs involving carbon emissions of varying degrees. Different estimates of the costs of a ton of carbon would be used in order to test the sensitivity of rates of return to alternative carbon costs. While this process would have the effect of screening the allocation of scarce investment funds among projects that affect global warming in different degrees, it should be viewed as only a first step. Secondly, we advocate a rigorous process of passing through estimated carbon costs to the ultimate users of the services of carbon-emitting projects and processes. It is this ultimate process that will secure the urgently needed transition from the current dependence on fossil fuels to more benign sources of energy that would reduce climate-change risks. Since the time available is limited, the paper points out the urgency of these proposals that are crucial for sustainability

  10. An instructive comparison of Denmark and Sweden CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H.

    2007-02-01

    Denmark and Sweden are close neighbors, they have pretty much the same Climate, so that it is interesting to try to understand what makes them so different in their per capita GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from fuel combustion. Indeed, the CO 2 emissions of Denmark and Sweden are practically equal while the population of Sweden is much larger. Thus, the per capita CO 2 emissions of Denmark are 63 % larger than those of Sweden. Denmark resorts heavily to fossil fuels for its production of both its electric power and its industrial heat whereas Sweden resorts to other primary energy sources which are either renewable or do not emit CO 2 . True, Sweden is in a privileged situation for its access to hydro power and to biomass but Denmark could considerably reduce its CO 2 emissions if it were to call on nuclear power as Sweden has been doing. (A.L.B.)

  11. Reducing of CO2 emissions and its depositing into underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Koudelková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing CO2 emissions caused especially by the combustion of fossil fuels rises a question of how this can be problem solved in the long term. There is several solutions which differ technically and financially. This paper deals with the CO2 capture from combustion processes or power plant processes, (CO2 can be captured from the flue gas, after combustion in oxygen and recirculated flue gas or from a synthesis gas before combustion. This paper presents possibilities of CO2 storagex captured in this way into underground (deep ocean, oil and gas fields, coal bed, aquifers.

  12. Decoupling between CO2 emissions and economic growth in Brazil and in other countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Nogueira Patrão de Aquino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the change in behavior between CO2 emissions and the world economic growth in the years 2013 and 2014 which may represent decoupling, and, thus,  contribute to the debate on alternative forms of reducing greenhouse effect. We established the 1990-2014 period as time axis because it presents two inflections in the growth curve of global CO2 emissions: one associated with the 2008 world crisis; and the other starting in 2013, discussed in this article. We selected six countries: the United States, Japan, Brazil, China, India, and Russia. In common, they share the same amount of CO2 emissions in world production. As a result, we identified changes related to the vectors gross domestic product and global CO2 emissions, favoring gas emissions reduction, as behavioral reflection of these two variables in the investigated countries which, if confirmed, points to structural changes between these two variables.

  13. Social Learning and the Mitigation of Transport CO2 Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Maha Al Sabbagh

    2017-01-01

    Social learning, a key factor in fostering behavioural change and improving decision making, is considered necessary for achieving substantial CO2 emission reductions. However, no empirical evidence exists on how it contributes to mitigation of transport CO2 emissions, or the extent of its influence on decision making. This paper presents evidence addressing these knowledge gaps. Social learning-oriented workshops were conducted to gather the views and preferences of participants from the gen...

  14. Macro economic analysis of CO2 emission limits for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Folmer, H.; Van Beek, P.

    1995-01-01

    Using a newly developed time-recursive dynamic CGE model for energy and environmental policy analysis of the Chinese economy, a business-as-usual scenario is first developed assuming no specific policy intervention to limit the growth rate of CO2 emissions. Counter factual policy simulation is then carried out to compute the macroeconomic implications of a carbon tax to limit the Chinese energy-related CO2 emissions. 2 tabs., 5 refs

  15. Dependency of climate change and carbon cycle on CO2 emission pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohara, Daisuke; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Ohba, Masamichi

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the response of globally average temperature is approximately proportional to cumulative CO 2 emissions, yet evidence of the robustness of this relationship over a range of CO 2 emission pathways is lacking. To address this, we evaluate the dependency of climate and carbon cycle change on CO 2 emission pathways using a fully coupled climate–carbon cycle model. We design five idealized pathways (including an overshoot scenario for cumulative emissions), each of which levels off to final cumulative emissions of 2000 GtC. The cumulative emissions of the overshoot scenario reach 4000 GtC temporarily, subsequently reducing to 2000 GtC as a result of continuous negative emissions. Although we find that responses of climatic variables and the carbon cycle are largely independent of emission pathways, a much weakened Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is projected in the overshoot scenario despite cessation of emissions. This weakened AMOC is enhanced by rapid warming in the Arctic region due to considerable temporary elevation of atmospheric CO 2 concentration and induces the decline of surface air temperature and decrease of precipitation over the northern Atlantic and Europe region. Moreover, the weakened AMOC reduces CO 2 uptake by the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. However, the weakened AMOC contributes little to the global carbon cycle. In conclusion, although climate variations have been found to be dependent on emission pathways, the global carbon cycle is relatively independent of these emission pathways, at least superficially. (letter)

  16. Developing Benchmarking Criteria for CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelis, M.; Worrell, E.; Mueller, N.; Angelini, T. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Cremer, C.; Schleich, J.; Eichhammer, W. [The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation research, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    A European Union (EU) wide greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance trading scheme (EU ETS) was implemented in the EU in 2005. In the first two trading periods of the scheme (running up to 2012), free allocation based on historical emissions was the main methodology for allocation of allowances to existing installations. For the third trading period (2013 - 2020), the European Commission proposed in January 2008 a more important role of auctioning of allowances rather then free allocation. (Transitional) free allocation of allowances to industrial sectors will be determined via harmonized allocation rules, where feasible based on benchmarking. In general terms, a benchmark based method allocates allowances based on a certain amount of emissions per unit of productive output (i.e. the benchmark). This study aims to derive criteria for an allocation methodology for the EU Emission Trading Scheme based on benchmarking for the period 2013 - 2020. To test the feasibility of the criteria, we apply them to four example product groups: iron and steel, pulp and paper, lime and glass. The basis for this study is the Commission proposal for a revised ETS directive put forward on 23 January 2008 and does not take into account any changes to this proposal in the co-decision procedure that resulted in the adoption of the Energy and Climate change package in December 2008.

  17. The influence of using LPG device on the CO2 emissions from personal passenger cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viliam Carach

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic, mostly the air and car traffic is the biggest producer of CO2 (51% at present. CO2 is one of the most important greenhouse gases with more than 50 % of emissions contributing to this major global ecological problem. A rising concetration of CO2 in the atmosphere leads to higher global temperatures. The main problem is the rise of CO2 emissions in most developed countries despite international undertakings accepted in 80´s. This is the main reason for finding solutions to reduce the amount of CO2 emissions in the traffic. One of many solutions is the use of LPG fuel. The purpose of this article is to quantify the efficiency of using LPG in personal passenger cars.

  18. Reducing CO2-Emission by using Eco-Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, K.; Bergmeister, K.; Janotka, I.

    2012-04-01

    CO2 concentration in the air is rising constantly. Globally, cement companies are emitting nearly two billion tonnes/year of CO2 (or around 6 to 7 % of the planet's total CO2 emissions) by producing portland cement clinker. At this pace, by 2025 the cement industry will be emitting CO2 at a rate of 3.5 billion tones/year causing enormous environmental damage (Shi et al., 2011; Janotka et al., 2012). At the dawn of the industrial revolution in the mid-eighteenth century the concentration of CO2 was at a level of ca. 280 ppm. 200 years later at the time of World War II the CO2 level had risen to 310 ppm what results in a rate of increase of 0,15 ppm per year for that period (Shi et al., 2011). In November 2011 the CO2 concentration reached a value of 391 ppm (NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, 2011), a rise of ca. 81 ppm in 66 years and an increased rate of around 1,2 ppm/year respectively. In the same period cement production in tons of cement has multiplied by a factor of ca. 62 (Kelly & Oss, US Geological Survey, 2010). Thus new CO2-saving eco-cement types are gaining in importance. In these cement types the energy-consuming portland cement clinker is partially replaced by latent hydraulic additives such as blast furnace slag, fly ash or zeolite. These hydraulic additives do not need to be fired in the rotary furnace. They ony need to be pulverized to the required grain size and added to the ground portland cement clinker. Hence energy is saved by skipping the engery-consuming firing process, in addition there is no CO2-degassing as there is in the case of lime burning. Therefore a research project between Austria and Slovakia, funded by the EU (Project ENVIZEO), was initiated in 2010. The main goal of this project is to develop new CEM V eco-types of cements and certificate them for common usage. CEM V is a portland clinker saving cement kind that allows the reduction of clinker to a proportion of 40-64% for CEM V/A and 20-39% for CEM V/B respectively by the

  19. CO2 emissions embodied in international trade: evidence for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Choliz, Julio; Duarte, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the sectoral impacts that Spanish international trade relations have on present levels of atmospheric pollution using an input-output model. We try to evaluate the exports and imports of the Spanish economy in terms of the direct and indirect CO 2 emissions (CO 2 embodied) generated in Spain and abroad. The results show a slightly exporting behaviour in the Spanish economy which, nevertheless, hides important pollution interchanges. Moreover, the sectors transport material, mining and energy, non-metallic industries, chemical and metals are the most relevant CO 2 exporters and other services, construction, transport material and food the biggest CO 2 importers, and those whose final demands also embody more than 70% of the CO 2 emissions

  20. Effects of Climate Change and Organic Matter Amendments on the Fate of Soil Carbon and the Global Warming Potential of CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions in an Upland Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, M.; Muehe, E. M.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Our current understanding of the mechanisms driving carbon stabilization in soil organic matter (SOM) and its release to the atmosphere is insufficient for predicting the response of soil carbon dynamics to future climatic conditions. The persistence of SOM has been studied primarily within the context of biochemical, physical, and geochemical protection from decomposition. More recently, bioenergetic constraints on SOM decomposition due to oxygen limitations have been demonstrated in submerged soils. However, the relevance of anaerobic domains in upland soils is uncertain. To better understand how upland soils will respond to climate change, we conducted a 52-day incubation of an upland soil at constant soil moisture (field capacity) under varying air temperatures (32°C and 37°C), CO2 concentrations (398 and 850 ppmv), and soil organic carbon contents (1.3%, 2.4%). Overall, we observed a stimulatory effect of future climate (elevated temperature and CO2) and higher carbon inputs on net SOM mineralization rates (higher CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions). Importantly, CH4 emissions were observed in the soils with added plant residue, indicating anaerobic microsites are relevant in upland soils, and significantly impact microbial respiration pathways, rates of SOM mineralization, and the global warming potential of trace gas emissions. These findings have important implications for positive soil carbon-climate feedbacks, and warrant further investigation into representing anaerobic soil domains of upland soils in biogeochemical models.

  1. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø International Energy Conference 2009 took place 14 – 16 September 2009. The conference focused on: • Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues • Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 – 2020 and subsequent decline • Renewable energy supply technologies...... such as bioenergy, wind and solar • Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies • Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies • Providing renewable energy for the transport sector • Systems aspects for the various regions throughout...... the world • End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use • Energy savings The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 3 August 2009....

  2. Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengochea-Morancho, A.; Martinez-Zarzoso, I.; Higon-Tamarit, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between economic growth and CO 2 emissions in the European Union. A panel data analysis for the period 1981 to 1995 is applied in order to estimate the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and CO 2 emissions in ten selected European countries. The analysis shows important disparities between the most industrialised countries and the rest. The results do not seem to support a uniform policy to control emissions; they rather indicate that a reduction in emissions should be achieved by taking into account the specific economic situation and the industrial structure of each EU member state. 20 refs

  3. Linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO2 emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bright, Ryan M.; Stromman, Anders H.; Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Many future energy and emission scenarios envisage an increase of bio-energy in the global primary energy mix. In most climate impact assessment models and policies, bio-energy systems are assumed to be carbon neutral, thus ignoring the time lag between CO 2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO 2 uptake by vegetation. Here, we show that the temperature peak caused by CO 2 emissions from bio-energy is proportional to the maximum rate at which emissions occur and is almost insensitive to cumulative emissions. Whereas the carbon-climate response (CCR) to fossil fuel emissions is approximately constant, the CCR to bio-energy emissions depends on time, biomass turnover times, and emission scenarios. The linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO 2 emission rates resembles the characteristic of the temperature response to short-lived climate forcers. As for the latter, the timing of CO 2 emissions from bio-energy matters. Under the international agreement to limit global warming to 2 C by 2100, early emissions from bio-energy thus have smaller contributions on the targeted temperature than emissions postponed later into the future, especially when bio-energy is sourced from biomass with medium (50-60 years) or long turnover times (100 years). (authors)

  4. Methane and CO2 emissions from China's hydroelectric reservoirs: a new quantitative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa; Bush, Richard T; Sullivan, Leigh A

    2015-04-01

    Controversy surrounds the green credentials of hydroelectricity because of the potentially large emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from associated reservoirs. However, limited and patchy data particularly for China is constraining the current global assessment of GHG releases from hydroelectric reservoirs. This study provides the first evaluation of the CO2 and CH4 emissions from China's hydroelectric reservoirs by considering the reservoir water surface and drawdown areas, and downstream sources (including spillways and turbines, as well as river downstream). The total emission of 29.6 Tg CO2/year and 0.47 Tg CH4/year from hydroelectric reservoirs in China, expressed as CO2 equivalents (eq), corresponds to 45.6 Tg CO2eq/year, which is 2-fold higher than the current GHG emission (ca. 23 Tg CO2eq/year) from global temperate hydropower reservoirs. China's average emission of 70 g CO2eq/kWh from hydropower amounts to 7% of the emissions from coal-fired plant alternatives. China's hydroelectric reservoirs thus currently mitigate GHG emission when compared to the main alternative source of electricity with potentially far great reductions in GHG emissions and benefits possible through relatively minor changes to reservoir management and design. On average, the sum of drawdown and downstream emission including river reaches below dams and turbines, which is overlooked by most studies, represents the equivalent of 42% of the CO2 and 92% of CH4 that emit from hydroelectric reservoirs in China. Main drivers on GHG emission rates are summarized and highlight that water depth and stratification control CH4 flux, and CO2 flux shows significant negative relationships with pH, DO, and Chl-a. Based on our finding, a substantial revision of the global carbon emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs is warranted.

  5. 2007 CO2 emissions due to energy combustion in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide energy combustion contributes to more than 95% of the global CO 2 emissions. According to the last International Energy Agency (IEA) results, these emissions have raised by 3.3% with respect to 2006 and by 38% with respect to 1990 with a total of about 29 Gt of CO 2 . After a new 8% boom in 2007, China's emissions have tripled since 1990 with a total exceeding 6 Gt of CO 2 . China has become the first CO 2 emitter in front of the USA. When compared to the number of inhabitants, China's emissions are comparable to the world average (4.4 t CO 2 /hab) but remain four times lower than the ones of the USA. (J.S.)

  6. CO2 extraction : turning emissions to profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation described how ConocoPhillips extracts carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from waste gas from its natural gas processes and sells it to industrial users. By extracting carbon dioxide, the company saves money and reduces energy consumption through greenhouse gas and sulphur emission reductions. The presentation discussed the company's Empress Straddle Plant and provided a process flow diagram of the plant. It then discussed how CO{sub 2} and sulphur gas are removed. New plants were also discussed as were CO{sub 2} extraction plant processes such as sulphur gas treating, separation, storage and disposal; and CO{sub 2} compression, refrigeration, storage, and transportation. The resulting savings were also presented. tabs., figs.

  7. Estimating marginal CO2 emissions rates for national electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions reduction afforded by a demand-side intervention in the electricity system is typically assessed by means of an assumed grid emissions rate, which measures the CO 2 intensity of electricity not used as a result of the intervention. This emissions rate is called the 'marginal emissions factor' (MEF). Accurate estimation of MEFs is crucial for performance assessment because their application leads to decisions regarding the relative merits of CO 2 reduction strategies. This article contributes to formulating the principles by which MEFs are estimated, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses in existing approaches, and presenting an alternative based on the observed behaviour of power stations. The case of Great Britain is considered, demonstrating an MEF of 0.69 kgCO 2 /kW h for 2002-2009, with error bars at +/-10%. This value could reduce to 0.6 kgCO 2 /kW h over the next decade under planned changes to the underlying generation mix, and could further reduce to approximately 0.51 kgCO 2 /kW h before 2025 if all power stations commissioned pre-1970 are replaced by their modern counterparts. Given that these rates are higher than commonly applied system-average or assumed 'long term marginal' emissions rates, it is concluded that maintenance of an improved understanding of MEFs is valuable to better inform policy decisions.

  8. Peak energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiahai; Xu, Yan; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Changhong; Xiong, Minpeng; Guo, Jingsheng

    2014-01-01

    China is in the processes of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Based on the Kaya identity, this paper proposes an analytical framework for various energy scenarios that explicitly simulates China's economic development, with a prospective consideration on the impacts of urbanization and income distribution. With the framework, China's 2050 energy consumption and associated CO 2 reduction scenarios are constructed. Main findings are: (1) energy consumption will peak at 5200–5400 million tons coal equivalent (Mtce) in 2035–2040; (2) CO 2 emissions will peak at 9200–9400 million tons (Mt) in 2030–2035, whilst it can be potentially reduced by 200–300 Mt; (3) China's per capita energy consumption and per capita CO 2 emission are projected to peak at 4 tce and 6.8 t respectively in 2020–2030, soon after China steps into the high income group. - Highlights: • A framework for modeling China's energy and CO 2 emissions is proposed. • Scenarios are constructed based on various assumptions on the driving forces. • Energy consumption will peak in 2035–2040 at 5200–5400 Mtce. • CO 2 emissions will peak in 2030–2035 at about 9300 Mt and be cut by 300 Mt in a cleaner energy path. • Energy consumption and CO 2 emissions per capita will peak soon after China steps into the high income group

  9. Impact of Biogas Stations on CO2 Emission from Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Slaboch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of biogas stations on CO2 emissions produced within agricultural sector. In last years, owing to a positive policy of renewable energy resources a number of biogas stations in the CR has rapidly increased – actually over 350 agricultural biogas stations with the total installed power 365 MW are in operation. Concerning CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector, there is a presumption of decrease in produced emissions owing to decrease of influence of animal wastes which are processed just in the biogas stations. From the results it is obvious that CO2 emissions produced by agriculture in the CR decrease by 93.7 thousand tonnes annually. A presumption P1 that building of biogas stations will further support this trend is documented with results of a simple dynamic linear regression model. Further, elasticities of particular variables influencing the total emission from agriculture are investigated in the paper.

  10. Potential of European 14CO2 observation network to estimate the fossil fuel CO2 emissions via atmospheric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilong; Broquet, Grégoire; Ciais, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Vogel, Felix; Wu, Lin; Yin, Yi; Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu

    2018-03-01

    Combining measurements of atmospheric CO2 and its radiocarbon (14CO2) fraction and transport modeling in atmospheric inversions offers a way to derive improved estimates of CO2 emitted from fossil fuel (FFCO2). In this study, we solve for the monthly FFCO2 emission budgets at regional scale (i.e., the size of a medium-sized country in Europe) and investigate the performance of different observation networks and sampling strategies across Europe. The inversion system is built on the LMDZv4 global transport model at 3.75° × 2.5° resolution. We conduct Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) and use two types of diagnostics to assess the potential of the observation and inverse modeling frameworks. The first one relies on the theoretical computation of the uncertainty in the estimate of emissions from the inversion, known as posterior uncertainty, and on the uncertainty reduction compared to the uncertainty in the inventories of these emissions, which are used as a prior knowledge by the inversion (called prior uncertainty). The second one is based on comparisons of prior and posterior estimates of the emission to synthetic true emissions when these true emissions are used beforehand to generate the synthetic fossil fuel CO2 mixing ratio measurements that are assimilated in the inversion. With 17 stations currently measuring 14CO2 across Europe using 2-week integrated sampling, the uncertainty reduction for monthly FFCO2 emissions in a country where the network is rather dense like Germany, is larger than 30 %. With the 43 14CO2 measurement stations planned in Europe, the uncertainty reduction for monthly FFCO2 emissions is increased for the UK, France, Italy, eastern Europe and the Balkans, depending on the configuration of prior uncertainty. Further increasing the number of stations or the sampling frequency improves the uncertainty reduction (up to 40 to 70 %) in high emitting regions, but the performance of the inversion remains limited over low

  11. Potential of European 14CO2 observation network to estimate the fossil fuel CO2 emissions via atmospheric inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Combining measurements of atmospheric CO2 and its radiocarbon (14CO2 fraction and transport modeling in atmospheric inversions offers a way to derive improved estimates of CO2 emitted from fossil fuel (FFCO2. In this study, we solve for the monthly FFCO2 emission budgets at regional scale (i.e., the size of a medium-sized country in Europe and investigate the performance of different observation networks and sampling strategies across Europe. The inversion system is built on the LMDZv4 global transport model at 3.75°  ×  2.5° resolution. We conduct Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs and use two types of diagnostics to assess the potential of the observation and inverse modeling frameworks. The first one relies on the theoretical computation of the uncertainty in the estimate of emissions from the inversion, known as posterior uncertainty, and on the uncertainty reduction compared to the uncertainty in the inventories of these emissions, which are used as a prior knowledge by the inversion (called prior uncertainty. The second one is based on comparisons of prior and posterior estimates of the emission to synthetic true emissions when these true emissions are used beforehand to generate the synthetic fossil fuel CO2 mixing ratio measurements that are assimilated in the inversion. With 17 stations currently measuring 14CO2 across Europe using 2-week integrated sampling, the uncertainty reduction for monthly FFCO2 emissions in a country where the network is rather dense like Germany, is larger than 30 %. With the 43 14CO2 measurement stations planned in Europe, the uncertainty reduction for monthly FFCO2 emissions is increased for the UK, France, Italy, eastern Europe and the Balkans, depending on the configuration of prior uncertainty. Further increasing the number of stations or the sampling frequency improves the uncertainty reduction (up to 40 to 70 % in high emitting regions, but the performance of the inversion

  12. Atmospheric stabilization of CO2 emissions: Near-term reductions and absolute versus intensity-based targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes CO 2 emissions reduction targets for various countries and geopolitical regions by the year 2030 to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 at 450 ppm (550 ppm including non-CO 2 greenhouse gases) level. It also determines CO 2 intensity cuts that would be required in those countries and regions if the emission reductions were to be achieved through intensity-based targets without curtailing their expected economic growth. Considering that the stabilization of CO 2 concentrations at 450 ppm requires the global trend of CO 2 emissions to be reversed before 2030, this study develops two scenarios: reversing the global CO 2 trend in (i) 2020 and (ii) 2025. The study shows that global CO 2 emissions would be limited at 42 percent above 1990 level in 2030 if the increasing trend of global CO 2 emissions were to be reversed by 2020. If reversing the trend is delayed by 5 years, global CO 2 emissions in 2030 would be 52 percent higher than the 1990 level. The study also finds that to achieve these targets while maintaining expected economic growth, the global average CO 2 intensity would require a 68 percent drop from the 1990 level or a 60 percent drop from the 2004 level by 2030

  13. Achieving Negative CO2 Emissions by Protecting Ocean Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannara, A.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial Age CO2 added 1.8 trillion tons to the atmosphere. About ¼ has dissolved in seas. The rest still dissolves, bolstered by present emissions of >30 gigatons/year. Airborne & oceanic CO2 have induced sea warming & ocean acidification*. This paper suggests a way to induce a negative CO2-emissions environment for climate & oceans - preserve the planet`s dominant CO2-sequestration system ( 1 gigaton/year via calcifying sea life**) by promptly protecting ocean chemistry via expansion of clean power for both lime production & replacement of CO2-emitting sources. Provide natural alkali (CaO, MgO…) to oceans to maintain average pH above 8.0, as indicated by marine biologists. That alkali (lime) is available from past calcifying life's limestone deposits, so can be returned safely to seas once its CO2 is removed & permanently sequestered (Carbfix, BSCP, etc.***). Limestone is a dense source of CO2 - efficient processing per mole sequestered. Distribution of enough lime is possible via cargo-ship transits - 10,000 tons lime/transit, 1 million transits/year. New Panamax ships carry 120,000 tons. Just 10,000/transit allows gradual reduction of present & past CO2 emissions effects, if coupled with combustion-power reductions. CO2 separation from limestone, as in cement plants, consumes 400kWHrs of thermal energy per ton of output lime (or CO2). To combat yearly CO2 dissolution in seas, we must produce & distribute about 10gigatons of lime/year. Only nuclear power produces the clean energy (thousands of terawatt hours) to meet this need - 1000 dedicated 1GWe reactors, processing 12 cubic miles of limestone/year & sequestering CO2 into a similar mass of basalt. Basalt is common in the world. Researchers*** report it provides good, mineralized CO2 sequestration. The numbers above allow gradual CO2 reduction in air and seas, if we return to President Kennedy's energy path: http://tinyurl.com/6xgpkfa We're on an environmental precipice due to failure to eliminate

  14. CO2 emissions and mitigation potential in China's ammonia industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenji; Zhu Bing; Li Qiang; Ma Tieju; Hu Shanying; Griffy-Brown, Charla

    2010-01-01

    Significant pressure from increasing CO 2 emissions and energy consumption in China's industrialization process has highlighted a need to understand and mitigate the sources of these emissions. Ammonia production, as one of the most important fundamental industries in China, represents those heavy industries that contribute largely to this sharp increasing trend. In the country with the largest population in the world, ammonia output has undergone fast growth spurred by increasing demand for fertilizer of food production since 1950s. However, various types of technologies implemented in the industry make ammonia plants in China operate with huge differences in both energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. With consideration of these unique features, this paper attempts to estimate the amount of CO 2 emission from China's ammonia production, and analyze the potential for carbon mitigation in the industry. Based on the estimation, related policy implications and measures required to realize the potential for mitigation are also discussed.

  15. CO2 emission related to energy combustion in the world in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    After a brief comment of the evolution of CO 2 emissions due to transports, housing and office buildings, industry and agriculture, electrical plants, and other energetic activities in France in 2007 in comparison with previous years, this article comments the global increase of CO 2 emissions related to energy in the world (figures and graphs are given for some countries of all continents, notably for China, the United States, France, the European Union, the United Kingdom and Germany). These emissions are then assessed in terms of ratio between emission intensity and GDPs or population. Emissions per inhabitant display a 1 to 20 ratio between the USA and Africa

  16. Nuclear power and its role in limiting CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparman

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the proper role of nuclear power in the long term energy planning by comparing different type of scenarios in terms of CO2 emission reduction, based on the Business-as-Usual (BAU) scenario. For this purpose, a MESSAGE (Model of Energy Supply Systems and their General Environmental impacts) was used to develop energy planning as well as CO2 emission projection. A sensitivity analysis for CO2 reduction rates of 2.%, 3%, 4% and 5% have been done. From this sensitivity analysis, it can be concluded that nuclear will be a part of optimum solution under CO2 limitation of at least 3% from BAU condition. The more the environmental standards are tightened and enforced the more and the earlier nuclear power becomes part of the optimum generation mix. (author)

  17. Energy development and CO2 emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaolin Xi

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this research is to provide a better understanding of future Chinese energy development and CO 2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. This study examines the current Chinese energy system, estimates CO 2 emissions from burning fossil fuels and projects future energy use and resulting CO 2 emissions up to the year of 2050. Based on the results of the study, development strategies are proposed and policy implications are explored. This study first develops a Base scenario projection of the Chinese energy development based upon a sectoral analysis. The Base scenario represents a likely situation of future development, but many alternatives are possible. To explore this range of alternatives, a systematic uncertainty analysis is performed. The Base scenario also represents an extrapolation of current policies and social and economic trends. As such, it is not necessarily the economically optimal future course for Chinese energy development. To explore this issue, an optimization analysis is performed. For further understanding of developing Chinese energy system and reducing CO 2 emissions, a Chinese energy system model with 84 supply and demand technologies has been constructed in MARKAL, a computer LP optimization program for energy systems. Using this model, various technological options and economic aspects of energy development and CO 2 emissions reduction in China during the 1985-2020 period are examined

  18. The Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index in Relation to Sunspot Number, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Index, the Mauna Loa Atmospheric Concentration of CO2, and Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Global warming/climate change has been a subject of scientific interest since the early 19th century. In particular, increases in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) have long been thought to account for Earth's increased warming, although the lack of a dependable set of observational data was apparent as late as the mid 1950s. However, beginning in the late 1950s, being associated with the International Geophysical Year, the opportunity arose to begin accurate continuous monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric concentration of CO2. Consequently, it is now well established that the atmospheric concentration of CO2, while varying seasonally within any particular year, has steadily increased over time. Associated with this rising trend in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is a rising trend in the surface-air and sea-surface temperatures (SSTs). This Technical Publication (TP) examines the statistical relationships between 10-year moving averages (10-yma) of the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index (GLOTI), sunspot number (SSN), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, and the Mauna Loa CO2 (MLCO2) index for the common interval 1964-2006, where the 10-yma values are used to indicate trends in the data. Scatter plots using the 10-yma values between GLOTI and each of the other parameters are determined, both as single-variate and multivariate fits. Scatter plots are also determined for MLCO2 using single-variate and bivariate (BV) fits, based on the GLOTI alone and the GLOTI in combination with the AMO index. On the basis of the inferred preferential fits for MLCO2, estimates for MLCO2 are determined for the interval 1885-1964, thereby yielding an estimate of the preindustrial level of atmospheric concentration of CO2. Lastly, 10-yma values of MLCO2 are compared against 10-yma estimates of the total carbon emissions (TCE) to determine the likelihood that manmade sources of carbon emissions are indeed responsible for the recent warming now

  19. CO2 emissions from soil incubated with sugarcane straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... CO2 emissions peaked at 5.45, 10.82, 14.00, 11.92 and 11.20, 14.47, 15.98,and 14.74 µg mol of. CO2 g-1 s-1 within the ... of mineral N for plants and microorganisms. The .... incubation and were highest when incubated at 30°C with average daily ... because the majority of labile C had been consumed.

  20. Forecasting of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion using trend analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koene, Aylin Cigdem; Bueke, Tayfun

    2010-01-01

    The accelerating use of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution and the rapid destruction of forests causes a significant increase in greenhouse gases. The increasing threat of global warming and climate change has been the major, worldwide, ongoing concern especially in the last two decades. The impacts of global warming on the world economy have been assessed intensively by researchers since the 1990s. Worldwide organizations have been attempting to reduce the adverse impacts of global warming through intergovernmental and binding agreements. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one of the most foremost greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The energy sector is dominated by the direct combustion of fuels, a process leading to large emissions of CO 2 . CO 2 from energy represents about 60% of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions of global emissions. This percentage varies greatly by country, due to diverse national energy structures. The top-25 emitting countries accounted 82.27% of the world CO 2 emissions in 2007. In the same year China was the largest emitter and generated 20.96% of the world total. Trend analysis is based on the idea that what has happened in the past gives traders an idea of what will happen in the future. In this study, trend analysis approach has been employed for modelling to forecast of energy-related CO 2 emissions. To this aim first, trends in CO 2 emissions for the top-25 countries and the world total CO 2 emissions during 1971-2007 are identified. On developing the regression analyses, the regression analyses with R 2 values less than 0.94 showing insignificant influence in statistical tests have been discarded. Statistically significant trends are indicated in eleven countries namely, India, South Korea, Islamic Republic of Iran, Mexico, Australia, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, South Africa, Taiwan, Turkey and the world total. The results obtained from the analyses showed that the models for those countries can be used for CO 2

  1. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Johansson, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technologies for recovery and use of industrial excess heat were investigated. • Heat harvesting, heat storage, heat utilization, and heat conversion technologies. • Heat recovery potential for Gävleborg County in Sweden was calculated. • Effects on global CO 2 emissions were calculated for future energy market scenarios. - Abstract: Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO 2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO 2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO 2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO 2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO 2 emissions when the CO 2 emission charge is low

  2. Impact of short-lived non-CO2 mitigation on carbon budgets for stabilizing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte; Schaeffer, Michiel; Knutti, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Limiting global warming to any level requires limiting the total amount of CO 2 emissions, or staying within a CO 2 budget. Here we assess how emissions from short-lived non-CO 2 species like methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), black-carbon, and sulphates influence these CO 2 budgets. Our default case, which assumes mitigation in all sectors and of all gases, results in a CO 2 budget between 2011–2100 of 340 PgC for a >66% chance of staying below 2°C, consistent with the assessment of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Extreme variations of air-pollutant emissions from black-carbon and sulphates influence this budget by about ±5%. In the hypothetical case of no methane or HFCs mitigation—which is unlikely when CO 2 is stringently reduced—the budgets would be much smaller (40% or up to 60%, respectively). However, assuming very stringent CH 4 mitigation as a sensitivity case, CO 2 budgets could be 25% higher. A limit on cumulative CO 2 emissions remains critical for temperature targets. Even a 25% higher CO 2 budget still means peaking global emissions in the next two decades, and achieving net zero CO 2 emissions during the third quarter of the 21st century. The leverage we have to affect the CO 2 budget by targeting non-CO 2 diminishes strongly along with CO 2 mitigation, because these are partly linked through economic and technological factors. (letter)

  3. Analyzing impact factors of CO2 emissions using the STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Ying; Liu Lancui; Wu Gang; Wei Yiming

    2006-01-01

    Using the STIRPAT model, this paper analyzes the impact of population, affluence and technology on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at different income levels over the period 1975-2000. Our main results show at the global level that economic growth has the greatest impact on CO 2 emissions, and the proportion of the population between ages 15 and 64 has the least impact. The proportion of the population between 15 and 64 has a negative impact on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at the high income level, but the impact is positive at other income levels. This may illustrate the importance of the 'B' in the 'I = PABT'; that is to say that different behavior fashions can greatly influence environmental change. For low-income countries, the impact of GDP per capita on total CO 2 emissions is very great, and the impact of energy intensity in upper-middle income countries is very great. The impact of these factors on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at the high income level is relatively great. Therefore, these empirical results indicate that the impact of population, affluence and technology on CO 2 emissions varies at different levels of development. Thus, policy-makers should consider these matters fully when they construct their long-term strategies for CO 2 abatement

  4. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Liu, Shoudong; Wang, Yongwei; Zhang, Mi; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Xu, Jiaping

    2018-06-03

    Anthropogenic CO 2 emissions from cities represent a major source contributing to the global atmospheric CO 2 burden. Here, we examined the enhancement of atmospheric CO 2 mixing ratios by anthropogenic emissions within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China, one of the world's most densely populated regions (population greater than 150 million). Tower measurements of CO 2 mixing ratios were conducted from March 2013 to August 2015 and were combined with numerical source footprint modeling to help constrain the anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. We simulated the CO 2 enhancements (i.e., fluctuations superimposed on background values) for winter season (December, January, and February). Overall, we observed mean diurnal variation of CO 2 enhancement of 23.5~49.7 μmol mol -1 , 21.4~52.4 μmol mol -1 , 28.1~55.4 μmol mol -1 , and 29.5~42.4 μmol mol -1 in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. These enhancements were much larger than previously reported values for other countries. The diurnal CO 2 enhancements reported here showed strong similarity for all 3 years of the study. Results from source footprint modeling indicated that our tower observations adequately represent emissions from the broader YRD area. Here, the east of Anhui and the west of Jiangsu province contributed significantly more to the anthropogenic CO 2 enhancement compared to the other sectors of YRD. The average anthropogenic CO 2 emission in 2014 was 0.162 (± 0.005) mg m -2  s -1 and was 7 ± 3% higher than 2010 for the YRD. Overall, our emission estimates were significantly smaller (9.5%) than those estimated (0.179 mg m -2  s -1 ) from the EDGAR emission database.

  5. ICT, openness and CO2 emissions in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice A

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates how information and communication technology (ICT) complements globalisation in order to influence CO 2 emissions in 44 Sub-Saharan African countries over the period 2000-2012. ICT is measured with internet penetration and mobile phone penetration whereas globalisation is designated in terms of trade and financial openness. The empirical evidence is based on the generalised method of moments. The findings broadly show that ICT can be employed to dampen the potentially negative effect of globalisation on environmental degradation like CO 2 emissions. Practical, policy and theoretical implications are discussed.

  6. Swedish CO2-emissions 1900-2010: an exploratory note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristroem, Bengt; Lundgren, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    This paper projects Swedish CO 2 -emissions during the period 2000-2010 based on data covering 1900-1999. Swedish climate policy is currently based on the assumption that carbon emissions will increase, ceteris paribus, by 5-15% relative to the 1990 level. This forecast has motivated a number of policy measures, including carbon taxes, subsidies and an 'information package'. We find, however, that CO 2 -emissions may well be lower in the future. This outcome is broadly consistent with the literature on the Environmental Kuznets Curve, which portrays the relationship between emissions and GDP. The key contribution of this paper is that our analysis is based on a long time series. Current literature is invariably based on 'short' panel data sets, while we study a single country through several phases of development. Our analysis also sheds some light on the key importance played by nuclear power for carbon emission projections

  7. Essays on the Determinants of Energy Related CO2 Emissions =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor Manuel Ferreira

    Overall, amongst the most mentioned factors for Greenhouse Gases (GHG) growth are the economic growth and the energy demand growth. To assess the determinants GHG emissions, this thesis proposed and developed a new analysis which links the emissions intensity to its main driving factors. In the first essay, we used the 'complete decomposition' technique to examine CO2 emissions intensity and its components, considering 36 economic sectors and the 1996-2009 periods in Portugal. The industry (in particular 5 industrial sectors) is contributing largely to the effects of variation of CO2 emissions intensity. We concluded, among others, the emissions intensity reacts more significantly to shocks in the weight of fossil fuels in total energy consumption compared to shocks in other variables. In the second essay, we conducted an analysis for 16 industrial sectors (Group A) and for the group of the 5 most polluting manufacturing sectors (Group B) based on the convergence examination for emissions intensity and its main drivers, as well as on an econometric analysis. We concluded that there is sigma convergence for all the effects with exception to the fossil fuel intensity, while gamma convergence was verified for all the effects, with exception of CO2 emissions by fossil fuel and fossil fuel intensity in Group B. From the econometric approach we concluded that the considered variables have a significant importance in explaining CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions intensity. In the third essay, the Tourism Industry in Portugal over 1996-2009 period was examined, specifically two groups of subsectors that affect the impacts on CO2 emissions intensity. The generalized variance decomposition and the impulse response functions pointed to sectors that affect tourism more directly, i. e. a bidirectional causality between the intensity of emissions and energy intensity. The effect of intensity of emissions is positive on energy intensity, and the effect of energy intensity on

  8. A global CO2 tax for sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    The Rio+20 conference in 2012 called for goals of promoting green industries and improving the quality of institutions worldwide. Is a global CO2 tax the best global solution for achieving this twin goal? As most countries in the world are highly corrupt, an adequate regulatory instrument should...... and sustainability conferences substantially since the focus is on one issue rather than many....

  9. Capture and geological sequestration of CO2: fighting against global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.

    2006-01-01

    In order to take up the global warming challenge, a set of emergency measures is to be implemented: energy saving, clean transportation systems, development of renewable energy sources.. CO 2 sequestration of massive industrial emission sources inside deep geologic formations is another promising solution, which can contribute to the division by two of the world CO 2 emissions between today and 2050. The CO 2 capture and sequestration industry is developing. Research projects and pilot facilities are on the increase over the world. Their aim is to warrant the efficiency and security of this technology over the centuries to come. (J.S.)

  10. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  11. Achieving CO2 Emissions Reduction Goals with Energy Infrastructure Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlinc, M.; Medved, K.; Simic, J.

    2013-01-01

    The EU has set its short-term goals in the Europe 2020 Strategy (20% of CO 2 emissions reduction, 20% increase in energy efficiency, 20% share of renewables in final energy). The analyses show that the EU Member States in general are on the right track of achieving these goals; they are even ahead (including Slovenia). But setting long-term goals by 2050 is a tougher challenge. Achieving CO 2 emissions reduction goes hand in hand with increasing the share of renewables and strategically planning the projects, which include exploiting the potential of renewable sources of energy (e.g. hydropower). In Slovenia, the expected share of hydropower in electricity production from large HPPs in the share of renewables by 2030 is 1/3. The paper includes a presentation of a hydro power plants project on the middle Sava river in Slovenia and its specifics (influenced by the expansion of the Natura 2000 protected sites and on the other hand by the changes in the Environment Protection Law, which implements the EU Industrial Emissions Directive and the ETS Directive). Studies show the importance of the HPPs in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction. The main conclusion of the paper shows the importance of energy infrastructure projects, which contribute to on the one hand the CO 2 emissions reduction and on the other the increase of renewables.(author)

  12. China's foreign trade and climate change: A case study of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yunfeng; Yang Laike

    2010-01-01

    The globalization of trade has numerous environmental implications. Trade creates a mechanism for consumers to shift environmental pollution associated with their consumption to other countries. Carbon leakage exerts great influences on international trade and economy. Applying an input-output approach, the paper estimates the amount of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) embodied in China's foreign trade during 1997-2007. It is found that 10.03-26.54% of China's annual CO 2 emissions are produced during the manufacture of export goods destined for foreign consumers, while the CO 2 emissions embodied in China's imports accounted for only 4.40% (1997) and 9.05% (2007) of that. We also estimate that the rest of world avoided emitting 150.18 Mt CO 2 in 1997, increasing to 593 Mt in 2007, as a result of importing goods from China, rather than manufacturing the same type and quantity of goods domestically. During 1997-2007, the net 'additional' global CO 2 emissions resulting from China's exports were 4894 Mt. Then, the paper divides the trade-embodied emissions into scale, composition and technical effect. It was found that scale and composition effect increased the CO 2 emissions embodied in trade while the technical effect offset a small part of them. Finally, its mechanism and policy implications are presented.

  13. BRAZILIAN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND THE EMISSION OF CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyzer Adrian Cunha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of paper is verifying empirically the relationship between GDP per capita and CO2 emissions in Brazil in the period 1980-2006. The scope of work was limited to this natural resource due to its role in economic activity, as an important input in the production process in the Brazilian energy matrix. Among the main results is that there is a long-term relationship and simultaneous causality between variables and GDP per capita CO2 emissions. This evidence, coupled with the fact that the series used were not stationary in level, impossible to estimate the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC, which is the main theoretical basis used in empirical work related to the theme. The VAR / VEC has been estimated and found elasticity between economic growth and CO2 emission was 7.32, ie, in the long run, we can infer that an increase of 1% in GDP per capita increases by 7, 32% CO2 emissions.

  14. CO2 emissions from Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Bagger, Anne

    2011-01-01

    CO2 emission from the construction of buildings is seldom taken into account because focus is primarily on building operation. New technologies have therefore mainly been developed to reduce the energy consumption connected to operation. Super-light technology is a new structural principle giving...

  15. Estimates of CO2 traffic emissions from mobile concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, H. L.; Thurlow, M. E.; McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present data from a new mobile system intended to aid in the design of upcoming urban CO2-monitoring networks. Our collected data include GPS probe data, video-derived traffic density, and accurate CO2 concentration measurements. The method described here is economical, scalable, and self-contained, allowing for potential future deployment in locations without existing traffic infrastructure or vehicle fleet information. Using a test data set collected on California Highway 24 over a 2 week period, we observe that on-road CO2 concentrations are elevated by a factor of 2 in congestion compared to free-flow conditions. This result is found to be consistent with a model including vehicle-induced turbulence and standard engine physics. In contrast to surface concentrations, surface emissions are found to be relatively insensitive to congestion. We next use our model for CO2 concentration together with our data to independently derive vehicle emission rate parameters. Parameters scaling the leading four emission rate terms are found to be within 25% of those expected for a typical passenger car fleet, enabling us to derive instantaneous emission rates directly from our data that compare generally favorably to predictive models presented in the literature. The present results highlight the importance of high spatial and temporal resolution traffic data for interpreting on- and near-road concentration measurements. Future work will focus on transport and the integration of mobile platforms into existing stationary network designs.

  16. Analysis on influence factors of China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanan; Mu Hailin; Zhang Ming; Li Nan

    2011-01-01

    With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO 2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO 2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO 2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China. - Highlights: → We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions. → Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. → These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. → Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO 2 emission is different. → Improving technology level is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China.

  17. Economics and the refinery's CO2 emissions allocation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, A.

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of a market for CO 2 emission rights in Europe leads oil-refining companies to add a cost associated with carbon emissions to the objective function of linear programming models used to manage refineries. These models may be used to compute the marginal contribution of each finished product to the CO 2 emissions of the refinery. Babusiaux (Oil. Gas Sci. Technol., 58, 2003, 685-692) has shown that, under some conditions, this marginal contribution is a relevant means of allocating the carbon emissions of the refinery. Thus, it can be used in a well-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment. In fact, this result holds if the demand equations are the only binding constraints with a non-zero right-hand side coefficient. This is not the case for short-run models with fixed capacity. Then, allocating CO 2 emissions on a marginal basis tends to over-value (or undervalue) the total volume of emissions. In order to extend the existing methodology, we discuss two distinct solutions to this problem, inspired by economic theory: adapting either the Aumann-Shapley cost sharing method (Values of non-atomic games, 1974, Princeton University Press) or the Ramsey pricing formula (Econ. J., 37, 1927, 47-61; J. Econ. Theory, 3, 1971, 219-240). We compare these two solutions, with a strong argument in favour of Ramsey prices, based on the determination of the optimal environmental tax rate to which imported finished products should be subject. (author)

  18. Elevated CO2 as a driver of global dryland greening

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Xuefei; Wang, Lixin; McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    While recent findings based on satellite records indicate a positive trend in vegetation greenness over global drylands, the reasons remain elusive. We hypothesize that enhanced levels of atmospheric CO2 play an important role in the observed greening through the CO2 effect on plant water savings and consequent available soil water increases. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compare soil water content under ambient and elevated CO2 treatments across a range of climate regimes, vegetation types, soil textures and land management practices. Based on 1705 field measurements from 21 distinct sites, a consistent and statistically significant increase in the availability of soil water (11%) was observed under elevated CO2 treatments in both drylands and non-drylands, with a statistically stronger response over drylands (17% vs. 9%). Given the inherent water limitation in drylands, it is suggested that the additional soil water availability is a likely driver of observed increases in vegetation greenness.

  19. Elevated CO2 as a driver of global dryland greening

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Xuefei

    2016-02-12

    While recent findings based on satellite records indicate a positive trend in vegetation greenness over global drylands, the reasons remain elusive. We hypothesize that enhanced levels of atmospheric CO2 play an important role in the observed greening through the CO2 effect on plant water savings and consequent available soil water increases. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compare soil water content under ambient and elevated CO2 treatments across a range of climate regimes, vegetation types, soil textures and land management practices. Based on 1705 field measurements from 21 distinct sites, a consistent and statistically significant increase in the availability of soil water (11%) was observed under elevated CO2 treatments in both drylands and non-drylands, with a statistically stronger response over drylands (17% vs. 9%). Given the inherent water limitation in drylands, it is suggested that the additional soil water availability is a likely driver of observed increases in vegetation greenness.

  20. A Pilot Study to Evaluate California's Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Using Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, H. D.; Fischer, M. L.; Lueker, T.; Guilderson, T.; Brophy, K. J.; Keeling, R. F.; Arnold, T.; Bambha, R.; Callahan, W.; Campbell, J. E.; Cui, X.; Frankenberg, C.; Hsu, Y.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Lehman, S.; Manning, A.; Michelsen, H. A.; Miller, J. B.; Newman, S.; Paplawsky, B.; Parazoo, N.; Sloop, C.; Walker, S.; Whelan, M.; Wunch, D.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration is influenced by human activities and by natural exchanges. Studies of CO2 fluxes using atmospheric CO2 measurements typically focus on natural exchanges and assume that CO2 emissions by fossil fuel combustion and cement production are well-known from inventory estimates. However, atmospheric observation-based or "top-down" studies could potentially provide independent methods for evaluating fossil fuel CO2 emissions, in support of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. Observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 may also improve estimates of biospheric CO2 exchange, which could help to characterize carbon storage and climate change mitigation by terrestrial ecosystems. We have been developing a top-down framework for estimating fossil fuel CO2 emissions in California that uses atmospheric observations and modeling. California is implementing the "Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006" to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, and it has a diverse array of ecosystems that may serve as CO2 sources or sinks. We performed three month-long field campaigns in different seasons in 2014-15 to collect flask samples from a state-wide network of 10 towers. Using measurements of radiocarbon in CO2, we estimate the fossil fuel-derived CO2 present in the flask samples, relative to marine background air observed at coastal sites. Radiocarbon (14C) is not present in fossil fuel-derived CO2 because of radioactive decay over millions of years, so fossil fuel emissions cause a measurable decrease in the 14C/C ratio in atmospheric CO2. We compare the observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 to simulations based on atmospheric modeling and published fossil fuel flux estimates, and adjust the fossil fuel flux estimates in a statistical inversion that takes account of several uncertainties. We will present the results of the top-down technique to estimate fossil fuel emissions for our field

  1. Tracking industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-25

    Industry accounts for about one-third of global energy demand. Most of that energy is used to produce raw materials: chemicals, iron and steel, non-metallic minerals, pulp and paper and non-ferrous metals. Just how efficiently is this energy put to work? This question was on the minds of the G8 leaders at their summit in Gleneagles in 2005, when they set a 'Plan of Action for Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development'. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide information and advice in a number of areas including special attention to the industrial sector. Tracking Industrial Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions responds to the G8 request. This major new analysis shows how industrial energy efficiency has improved dramatically over the last 25 years. Yet important opportunities for additional gains remain, which is evident when the efficiencies of different countries are compared. This analysis identifies the leaders and the laggards. It explains clearly a complex issue for non-experts. With new statistics, groundbreaking methodologies, thorough analysis and advice, and substantial industry consultation, this publication equips decision makers in the public and private sectors with the essential information that is needed to reshape energy use in manufacturing in a more sustainable manner.

  2. Tracking industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-25

    Industry accounts for about one-third of global energy demand. Most of that energy is used to produce raw materials: chemicals, iron and steel, non-metallic minerals, pulp and paper and non-ferrous metals. Just how efficiently is this energy put to work? This question was on the minds of the G8 leaders at their summit in Gleneagles in 2005, when they set a 'Plan of Action for Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development'. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide information and advice in a number of areas including special attention to the industrial sector. Tracking Industrial Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions responds to the G8 request. This major new analysis shows how industrial energy efficiency has improved dramatically over the last 25 years. Yet important opportunities for additional gains remain, which is evident when the efficiencies of different countries are compared. This analysis identifies the leaders and the laggards. It explains clearly a complex issue for non-experts. With new statistics, groundbreaking methodologies, thorough analysis and advice, and substantial industry consultation, this publication equips decision makers in the public and private sectors with the essential information that is needed to reshape energy use in manufacturing in a more sustainable manner.

  3. Energy-related CO_2 emission in European Union agriculture: Driving forces and possibilities for reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tianxiang; Baležentis, Tomas; Makutėnienė, Daiva; Streimikiene, Dalia; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The research focuses on agricultural sectors of the eighteen European countries. • The main drivers of energy-related CO_2 emission are quantified by means of IDA. • The slack-based DEA model is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency. • Shadow prices of carbon emission are analysed. • Energy efficiency remains the primary means for increasing environmental efficiency. - Abstract: Climate change mitigation is a key issue in formulating global environmental policies. Energy production and consumption are the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Energy consumption and energy-related GHG emissions from agriculture are an important concern for policymakers, as the agricultural activities should meet food security goals along with proper economic, environmental, and social impacts. Carbon dioxide (CO_2) emission is the most significant among energy-related GHG emissions. This paper analyses the main drivers behind energy-related CO_2 emission across agricultural sectors of European countries. The analysis is based on aggregate data from the World Input-Output Database. The research explores two main directions. Firstly, Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), facilitated by the Shapley index, is used to identify the main drivers of CO_2 emission. Secondly, the Slack-based Model (SBM) is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency of European agricultural sectors. By applying frontier techniques, we also derive the measures of environmental efficiency and shadow prices, thereby contributing to a discussion on CO_2 emission mitigation in agriculture. Therefore, the paper devises an integrated approach towards analysis of CO_2 emission based upon advanced decomposition and efficiency analysis models. The research covers eighteen European countries and the applied methodology decomposes contributions to CO_2 emission across of regions and factors. Results of IDA suggest that decreasing energy intensity is the main factor

  4. Increased N2O emission by inhibited plant growth in the CO2 leaked soil environment: Simulation of CO2 leakage from carbon capture and storage (CCS) site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Jin; He, Wenmei; Ko, Daegeun; Chung, Haegeun; Yoo, Gayoung

    2017-12-31

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations is continuing to increase due to anthropogenic activity, and geological CO 2 storage via carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology can be an effective way to mitigate global warming due to CO 2 emission. However, the possibility of CO 2 leakage from reservoirs and pipelines exists, and such leakage could negatively affect organisms in the soil environment. Therefore, to determine the impacts of geological CO 2 leakage on plant and soil processes, we conducted a greenhouse study in which plants and soils were exposed to high levels of soil CO 2 . Cabbage, which has been reported to be vulnerable to high soil CO 2 , was grown under BI (no injection), NI (99.99% N 2 injection), and CI (99.99% CO 2 injection). Mean soil CO 2 concentration for CI was 66.8-76.9% and the mean O 2 concentrations in NI and CI were 6.6-12.7%, which could be observed in the CO 2 leaked soil from the pipelines connected to the CCS sites. The soil N 2 O emission was increased by 286% in the CI, where NO 3 - -N concentration was 160% higher compared to that in the control. This indicates that higher N 2 O emission from CO 2 leakage could be due to enhanced nitrification process. Higher NO 3 - -N content in soil was related to inhibited plant metabolism. In the CI treatment, chlorophyll content decreased and chlorosis appeared after 8th day of injection. Due to the inhibited root growth, leaf water and nitrogen contents were consistently lowered by 15% under CI treatment. Our results imply that N 2 O emission could be increased by the secondary effects of CO 2 leakage on plant metabolism. Hence, monitoring the environmental changes in rhizosphere would be very useful for impact assessment of CCS technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CO2 emissions and reduction potential in China's chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Bing; Zhou, Wenji; Hu, Shanying; Li, Qiang; Griffy-Brown, Charla; Jin, Yong

    2010-01-01

    GHG (Increasing greenhouse gas) emissions in China imposes enormous pressure on China's government and society. The increasing GHG trend is primarily driven by the fast expansion of high energy-intensive sectors including the chemical industry. This study investigates energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the processes of chemical production in China through calculating the amounts of CO 2 emissions and estimating the reduction potential in the near future. The research is based on a two-level perspective which treats the entire industry as Level one and six key sub-sectors as Level two, including coal-based ammonia, calcium carbide, caustic soda, coal-based methanol, sodium carbonate, and yellow phosphorus. These two levels are used in order to address the complexity caused by the fact that there are more than 40 thousand chemical products in this industry and the performance levels of the technologies employed are extremely uneven. Three scenarios with different technological improvements are defined to estimate the emissions of the six sub-sectors and analyze the implied reduction potential in the near future. The results highlight the pivotal role that regulation and policy administration could play in controlling the CO 2 emissions by promoting average technology performances in this industry.

  6. Study on CO2 emission reduction using ENPEP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Song, K. D.; Im, C. Y.

    2003-01-01

    ENPEP was used to analyze the role of nuclear power in mitigating carbon emission in power generation sector. In this study, base scenario reflects business as usual case in Korea. Additional two scenarios were established. One stands for fuel switch scenario, where nuclear power plants scheduled to be introduced after 2008 were assumed to be replaced by Coal Power Plant, the other one is established to see the impact of carbon tax. In this scenario carbon tax(50$/ton-C0 2 ) is imposed on coal power plants from 2008. It is resulted that fuel switch from nuclear to coal in power generation sector has a great effect on CO 2 emission, while carbon tax imposition makes a slight contribution to the reduction of CO 2 emission. These findings mean that the role of nuclear power in Korea is important in view of the GHG mitigation

  7. Economics of the Nuclear Energy Considered CO2 Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Yong Min

    2011-01-01

    The energy consumption in Korea has greatly increased along with its rapid economic growth and industrialization since the 1970s. Total energy consumption increased at an average annual growth rate. Due to the lack of domestic energy resources, however, the overseas dependence rate of energy consumption has continuously increased. Also Climate change, resulting from increases in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), is considered one of the biggest environmental dangers facing the world today. The objective and approach of this study are to compare the different types of scenarios in terms of the power plant type and CO 2 emission from each power plant. We estimated cost of electricity generation using fuel cost, O and M cost(Operation and Maintenance Cost) and CO 2 emission

  8. CO2 emissions due to energy combustion in the World in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This brief document presents and comments tables and figures of statistics about CO 2 emissions due to energy combustion in the World, as these emissions represent more than 95% of the whole CO 2 emissions. Data and statistics are given for different countries, notably the main Western and Asian countries. These emissions are considered globally, but they are also related to the GDP or to the population. If a slight increase (1,5%) of the global emissions has been noticed in 2008, they have decreased when they are related to the GDP (-2%). When emissions are related to the number of inhabitants, it appears that an African emits 20 times less than an inhabitant of the United States of America

  9. Bi-lateral CO_2 emissions embodied in Australia–China trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthakumaran, Kankesu; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This paper quantifies the CO_2 emissions embodied in bi-lateral trade between Australia and China using a sectoral input–output model. The results revealed: (1) that China performs lower than Australia in clean technology in the primary, manufacturing, energy sectors due to their overuse of coal and inefficient sectoral production processes, and (2) that China had a 30.94 Mt surplus of bi-lateral CO_2 emissions in 2010–2011 and (3) overall global emissions were reduced by 20.19 Mt through Australia–China trade in 2010–2011. The result indicates that the greater the energy efficient a country among the trading partners the lower will be the overall global CO_2 emissions. Global emissions decreased mainly because China consumed Australian primary products rather than producing them. Australia is an energy efficient producer of primary products relative to China. The bilateral trade compositions and trade volume played an important role in lowering global emissions and therefore one can view proposed China Australia Free trade Agreement positively in reducing global emissions. However, for the sustainable development, China should strengthen clean energy use and both countries should adopt measures to create an emission trading scheme in order to avoid protectionism in the form of future border price adjustments. - Highlights: •Primary (Australia) and manufactured (China) exports are a unique combination. •Quantifies CO_2 emissions embodied in bi-lateral trade between Australia and China. •Global emissions reduce because China consume Australian primary. •Australia is energy efficient producer of primary products relative to China. •Results support more trade with appropriate trade composition and volume.

  10. The impact of CO2 emissions on economic growth: evidence from selected higher CO2 emissions economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Bin Abdullah, Hussin; Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze the impact of environmental degradation proxied by CO2 emissions per capita along with some other explanatory variables namely energy use, trade, and human capital on economic growth in selected higher CO2 emissions economies namely China, the USA, India, and Japan. For empirical analysis, annual data over the period spanning between 1971 and 2013 are used. After using relevant and suitable tests for checking data properties, the panel fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) method is employed as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The panel group FMOLS results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non cointegration, demonstrating that all variables play an important role in affecting the economic growth role across countries. Where two regressors namely CO2 emissions and energy use show significantly negative impacts on economic growth, for trade and human capital, they tend to show the significantly positive impact on economic growth. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the panel estimate suggests that CO2 emissions have a significant positive relationship with economic growth for China, Japan, and the USA, while it is found significantly negative in case of India. The empirical findings of the study suggest that appropriate and prudent policies are required in order to control pollution emerging from areas other than liquefied fuel consumption. The ultimate impact of shrinking pollution will help in supporting sustainable economic growth and maturation as well as largely improve society welfare.

  11. Strategies and costs for reducing CO2 emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtilae, A.; Pirilae, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this study cost-efficient measures for the abatement of energy-related CO 2 emissions in Finland are analyzed, and the direct costs of such measures are estimated. The time frame considered is the period up to the year 2010. Furthermore, the probable impacts of an energy/CO 2 -tax on the Finnish energy system are worked out, and an attempt is made to assess the effectiveness of a tax scheme as an economic instrument for achieving CO 2 emission targets. The primary methodological tool in the analyses has been the model of the Finnish energy system developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) within the project. The model facilitates the search for cost-efficient emission control strategies over a period of several decades. Structural and technological changes in the energy system, e.g. fuel and technology substitution, new technologies, efficiency improvements, and energy-saving measures have been allowed for in the model. The results of the analyses show that achieving the target of returning the CO 2 emissions to the 1990 level by the year 2000 would be very difficult and costly in Finland. In the case of a nuclear moratorium it would be reasonable to delay the target by ten years. Even in the delayed cases achieving the target would require extensive structural changes and substantial energy-saving measures in the absence of additional nuclear energy. Coal use would have to be severely restricted, whereas the use of biomass and natural gas should be more than doubled compared to the 1990 levels. According to the results, a CO 2 tax would clearly be a more efficient instrument than a tax based on the energy content of a fuel

  12. Some scenarios of CO2 emission from the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liik, O.; Landsberg, M.

    1996-01-01

    After Estonia regained its independence, planning of energy policy became topical. Since 1989, several expert groups have worked on the urgent problems and developments of Estonia's power engineering. Comprehensive energy system planning by mathematical modeling was accomplished in 1994. Then Tallinn Technical University acquired the MARKAL model from the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK). The influence of air pollution constraints on energy system development was first investigated in 1995. At the end of 1995, under the U.S. Country Studies Program, a detailed analysis of future CO 2 emissions and their reduction options began. During 1990-1993, energy demand lowered due to economic decline and sharp rise in the fuel and energy prices as well as a decrease in electricity exports, has resulting in 50% reduction of CO 2 emissions. For the same reasons, Estonia has been able to meet the requirements set in the agreements on SO 2 and NO x emissions with no special measures or costs. To meet the rigid ing SO 2 restrictions and growing energy consumption in the future, Estonia must invest in abatement and in new clean and efficient oil-shale combustion technology. Along with the old oil-shale plants closing and electricity consumption growing, other fuels will be used. The increase in energy demand then should not be fast due to constantly rising prices and efficient energy use. Measures to reduce SO 2 , and NO x emissions will also reduce CO 2 . In MARKAL runs the 1990 level of CO 2 emissions will be exceeded only along with high demand growth and absence of emissions control. Restricted availability of imported fuels and nuclear power or enabling electricity import can change the results significantly. The results discussed here can also change because the data base is being improved (such as detailed description of energy networks, description of demand-side technologies, accounting of energy conservation measures, addition of

  13. Abatement of CO2 emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, J.H.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Smeers, Yves; Bouttes, Jean-Paul; Trochet, Jean-Michel; Dassa, Francois; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO 2 emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO 2 Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler

  14. Shifting terrestrial feedbacks from CO2 fertilization to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan; Canadell, Josep; Obersteiner, Michael; Piao, Shilong; Vautard, Robert; Sardans Jordi Sardans, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Humans are increasingly fertilizing the planet. Our activities are increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, nitrogen inputs to ecosystems and global temperatures. Individually and combined, they lead to biospheric availability of carbon and nitrogen, enhanced metabolic activity, and longer growing seasons. Plants can consequently grow more and take up more carbon that can be stored in ecosystem carbon pools, thus enhancing carbon sinks for atmospheric CO2. Data on the increased strength of carbon sinks are, however, inconclusive: Some data (eddy covariance, short-term experiments on elevated CO2 and nutrient fertilization) suggest that biospheric carbon uptake is already effectively increasing but some other data suggest it is not, or are not general and conclusive (tree-ring, forest inventory). The combined land-ocean CO2 sink flux per unit of excess atmospheric CO2 above preindustrial levels declined over 1959-2012 by a factor of about 1/3, implying that CO2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO2. We will discuss the available data, and the discussion will drive us to revisit our projections for enhanced carbon sinks. We will reconsider the performance of the modulators of increased carbon uptake in a CO2 fertilized and warmed world: nutrients, climate, land use and pollution. Nutrient availability in particular plays a crucial role. A simple mass-balance approach indicates that limited phosphorus availability and the corresponding N:P imbalances can jointly reduce the projected future carbon storage by natural ecosystems during this century. We then present a new paradigm: we are shifting from a fertilization to a warming era. Compared to the historical period, future impacts of warming will be larger than the benefits of CO2 fertilization given nutrient limitations, management and disturbance (which reduces C stocks and thus sequestration potential) and because CO2 will decrease by 2050 in RCP2.6, meaning loss of CO2 fertilization, and CO2

  15. Possibility of reducing CO2 emissions from internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dawid; Mamala, Jarosław; Śmieja, Michał; Prażnowski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Article defines on the possibility of reduction CO2 of the internal combustion engine and presents the analysis based on originally conducted studies. The increase in overall engine efficiency is sought after by all engineers dealing with engine construction, one of the major ways to reduce CO2 emissions is to increase the compression ratio. The application of the compression ratio that has been increased constructional in the engine will, on one hand, bring about the increase in the theoretical efficiency, but, on the other hand, require a system for pressure control at a higher engine load in order to prevent engine knocking. For the purposes of the article there was carried out a number of studies and compiled results, and on their basis determined what have a major impact on the reducing CO2.

  16. The economics of reducing CO2 emissions by solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brakmann, G.

    1993-01-01

    The necessity to reduce CO 2 -emissions on a global scale is being recognized by scientists and politicians. If no scientific proof of a climate catastrophe due to CO 2 -emissions can be established, it would nevertheless be prudent to implement a form of global survival insurance policy, the premium of which is the required effort to reduce CO 2 -emissions. The implementation of such a policy without a considerable reduction in the living standard requires the replacement of fossil fuels by capital and/or know-how. It should be performed in the most economical manner. This leads to the replacement of the classical ''least cost power expansion strategy'' by the ''least cost power expansion/pollution limiting strategy''. Thereby projects have to compete no longer exclusively on low cost of energy production but on low cost of pollution reduction as well. (Author)

  17. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P.

    2008-05-01

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing

  18. Industrial point source CO2 emission strength estimation with aircraft measurements and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Federico; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Miglietta, Franco; Riccio, Angelo; Toscano, Piero; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Gioli, Beniamino

    2018-02-22

    CO 2 remains the greenhouse gas that contributes most to anthropogenic global warming, and the evaluation of its emissions is of major interest to both research and regulatory purposes. Emission inventories generally provide quite reliable estimates of CO 2 emissions. However, because of intrinsic uncertainties associated with these estimates, it is of great importance to validate emission inventories against independent estimates. This paper describes an integrated approach combining aircraft measurements and a puff dispersion modelling framework by considering a CO 2 industrial point source, located in Biganos, France. CO 2 density measurements were obtained by applying the mass balance method, while CO 2 emission estimates were derived by implementing the CALMET/CALPUFF model chain. For the latter, three meteorological initializations were used: (i) WRF-modelled outputs initialized by ECMWF reanalyses; (ii) WRF-modelled outputs initialized by CFSR reanalyses and (iii) local in situ observations. Governmental inventorial data were used as reference for all applications. The strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches and how they affect emission estimation uncertainty were investigated. The mass balance based on aircraft measurements was quite succesful in capturing the point source emission strength (at worst with a 16% bias), while the accuracy of the dispersion modelling, markedly when using ECMWF initialization through the WRF model, was only slightly lower (estimation with an 18% bias). The analysis will help in highlighting some methodological best practices that can be used as guidelines for future experiments.

  19. Impact of renewables deployment on the CO2 price and the CO2 emissions in the European electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Kenneth; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William

    2013-01-01

    As of 2005, electricity generators in Europe operate under the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS). At the same time, European Member States have launched support mechanisms to stimulate the deployment of renewable electricity sources (RES-E). RES-E injections displace CO 2 emissions within the sectors operating under the EU ETS and they reduce the demand for European Union Allowances (EUAs), thereby reducing the EUA price. This paper presents the results of an ex post analysis to quantify the impact of RES-E deployment on the EUA price and CO 2 emissions in the Western and Southern European electricity sector during the period from 2007 to 2010, following from an operational partial equilibrium model of the electricity sector. This study shows that the CO 2 displacement from the electricity sector to other ETS sectors due to RES-E deployment can be up to more than 10% of historical CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector. The EUA price decrease caused by RES-E deployment turns out to be likely significant. - Author-Highlights: • We assessed the impact of renewables deployment in the period 2007–2010. • Impact on CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector and the CO 2 price is considered. • CO 2 emissions decreased by up to 10% of historical emissions. • CO 2 price decrease due to renewables turns out to be likely significant

  20. Planning for Economic Growth with Reduced CO2 Emissions in Provincial China: The Case of Jiangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Tsou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2, has put increasing pressure on the atmosphere's ability to absorb them. China is the fastest growing major economy in the world, and is following a process of rapid industrialization. This process, however, contributes dramatically to global warming through major CO2 emissions. The widespread provision of electricity through coal-fired power plants is just one contributor, but industrial structures, transportation systems, and the construction of large superblock residential towers also play major roles. The large cities and industrialized provinces of China emit the most CO2, a fact that requires serious attention. However, stemming this trend elsewhere in China would provide a greater opportunity for success in reducing overall CO2 emissions in the country. Consequently, the question this paper addresses is what policies can be adopted to reduce CO2 emissions in provinces in China where development is still in its early stages, while maintaining economic growth. Jiangxi is a province that has historically been a major agricultural area. In recent years, however, because of the economic development policies of the Chinese central government, the province's rich mineral deposits, favorable location, and convenient transportation system are attracting more investments and projects for development (Statistical Bureau of Jiangxi, 2010. Jiangxi, then, provides an excellent case study because the province, although developing quickly, might still produce less CO2 if proper growth policies and actions are implemented. According to the results of this research, CO2 emissions would indeed decline in Jiangxi if the province would adopt new technology for electricity generation and increase the GDP role of the service sector. KEYWORDS: Provincial Chinese development, economic growth and global warming, CO2 emissions in China, Chinese

  1. CO2 emission inventories for Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas compared with European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wei; Pagani, Roberto; Huang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The international literature has paid significant attention to presenting China as the largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the world, despite having much lower per-capita emissions than the global average. In fact, the imbalance of economic development leads to diversity in GHG emissions profiles in different areas of China. This paper employs a common methodology, consistent with the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) approved by the Covenant of Mayors (CoM), to estimate CO 2 emissions of four Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. The results show that the CO 2 emissions of all four cities are still rising and that secondary industries emit the most CO 2 in these cities. By comparing these data with the inventory results of two European cities, this paper further reveals that Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas contribute much higher per-capita emissions than their European competitors. Furthermore, the per-capita CO 2 emissions of the residential sector and private transport in these Chinese cities are growing rapidly, some of them approaching the levels of European cities. According to these findings, several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided that aim to reduce the CO 2 emissions of highly urbanized areas in China. - Highlights: ► An exemplary study of GHG emission inventory for Chinese cities. ► Estimate CO 2 emissions of Chinese city in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. ► The studied Chinese cities contribute higher per-capita emissions than European’s. ► Emissions of residential sector and private transport in China are growing rapidly. ► Several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided.

  2. CO2 emission standards and investment in carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, Jan; Sisternes, Fernando J. de; Herzog, Howard J.; Webster, Mort D.

    2014-01-01

    Policy makers in a number of countries have proposed or are considering proposing CO 2 emission standards for new fossil fuel-fired power plants. The proposed standards require coal-fired power plants to have approximately the same carbon emissions as an uncontrolled natural gas-fired power plant, effectively mandating the adoption of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for new coal plants. However, given the uncertainty in the capital and operating costs of a commercial scale coal plant with CCS, the impact of such a standard is not apparent a priori. We apply a stochastic generation expansion model to determine the impact of CO 2 emission standards on generation investment decisions, and in particular for coal plants with CCS. Moreover, we demonstrate how the incentive to invest in coal-CCS from emission standards depends on the natural gas price, the CO 2 price, and the enhanced oil recovery price, as well as on the level of the emission standard. This analysis is the first to consider the entire power system and at the same time allow the capture percentage for CCS plants to be chosen from a continuous range to meet the given standard at minimum cost. Previous system level studies have assumed that CCS plants capture 90% of the carbon, while studies of individual units have demonstrated the costs of carbon capture over a continuous range. We show that 1) currently proposed levels of emission standards are more likely to shift fossil fuel generation from coal to natural gas rather than to incentivize investment in CCS; 2) tighter standards that require some carbon reductions from natural gas-fired power plants are more likely than proposed standards to incentivize investments in CCS, especially on natural gas plants, but also on coal plants at high gas prices; and 3) imposing a less strict emission standard (emission rates higher than natural gas but lower than coal; e.g., 1500 lbs/MWh) is more likely than current proposals to incentivize

  3. CO2 and solar radiation: cause of global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayona Gabriel; Garcia, Yuri C.; Sarmiento Heiner R

    2010-01-01

    A cause-effect relationship between global temperature as a climatic change indicator and some of the main forcing mechanisms (Atmospheric CO 2 concentration, solar radiation and volcanic activity) are analyzed in this paper through time series analysis for the 1610-1990 AD period comparing trends and variability for the frequency spectrums. Temperature seems to fit the CO 2 trend for the last century, but we found no cause-effect relationship for this interval. The frequency analysis shows a correlation between radiation and temperature for a period of 22 years. Volcanism presents an inverse relationship with temperature better seen at a decadal scale.

  4. CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions.

  5. Reduction of CO2 emissions by influencing fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.; Zbinden, R.; Haan, P.; Gruetter, J.; Ott, W.

    2002-01-01

    The CO 2 law stipulates quantitative targets for CO 2 emissions (reductions of 10% by 2010 compared with 1990, 15% for heating fuels, 8% for motor fuels). For motor fuels, it is currently estimated that the target will be missed by about 15%, or 2 to 2.5 million tonnes of CO 2 . In order to reach the targets, therefore, all measures that can be taken to reduce emissions are to be checked out and, where sensible and possible, implemented too. The subject of this study is the preferential treatment of diesel, natural gas, liquefied gas and bio-fuels as far as taxation is concerned, with compensation of tax losses on the petrol side. Also, the possibilities for promoting energy-efficient cars are looked at. The reduction of the price for diesel (at least 25 Swiss cents when compensated for via the petrol price) is considered to be unsuitable for reaching the targets because, in the final analysis, fuel sales - the determining factor for the CO 2 emissions that are charged to Switzerland - will increase instead of decreasing. Also, reservations are expressed from the environmental point of view (increased NO x emissions and, in particular, emissions of particulate matter). The modified measure proposed (fixed difference between the prices for petrol and diesel of 25 Swiss cents, for example) is looked at less critically, because it does actually lead to a reduction of CO 2 , even if only a modest one (approx. 10% of the gap to be bridged). On the environmental side, the same reservations apply. Bonus-malus systems, on the other hand, permit a selective choice of the objects of promotion (efficient and, possibly, low-emission vehicles), avoid the unjust preferential treatment of goods traffic and can be implemented without disturbing international price structures (fuel tourism). A bonus-malus system applied at purchase (e.g. different levels of car taxation) is considered to be more efficient than a differentiation in vehicle (road) tax. The promotion of gas is a

  6. Research concepts to reduce CO2 emissions at technical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geigle, K.P.; Lammel, O.; Kutne, P.; Schutz, H.; Luckerath, R.; Aigner, M.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions are thought to contribute to climate change and therefore, there is a significant motivation for current gas turbine burner development to reduce those emissions. In order to support burner development, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) utilizes high pressure testing in combination with optical diagnostics enabled by good optical access and numerical simulation. This paper discussed 3 primary activities on CO 2 reduction that have been accomplished recently, notably the simulation of burner development based on the flameless oxidation concept, characterization of syngas combustion behaviour and studying parameters influencing oxyfuel combustion. Enhanced FLOX burner development and flameless oxidation were illustrated and an experimental realization of DLR FLOX burner V1 for operation up to 30 bars was discussed. Several experiments were illustrated and outlined. Computational fluid dynamics and other simulation models were presented. It was concluded that optical diagnostics applicable to high pressure combustion and numerical simulation proved to be extremely helpful for design optimization. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Estimate of Possible CO2 Emission Reduction in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavcak, V.-P.; Jevsek, F.; Tirsek, A.

    1998-01-01

    The first estimation of possible CO 2 emission reduction, according to the obligations from Kyoto Protocol, is prepared. The results show that the required 8% reduction of greenhouses gases in Slovenia in the period from 2008 to 2012 with regard to year 1986 will require a through analytical treatment not only in electric power sector but also in transport and industry sectors, which are the main pollutants. (author)

  8. Calculation of CO2 emissions from the italian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaldi, M.; La Motta, S.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of CO2 emissions from the Italian energy system is the object of this work. The inventory method used is the Reference Approach from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC, 1996 revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories) and the energy consumption data are taken from the Italian Energy Balance edited by the Ministry of Industry. The years analysed are those from 1990 to 2000 [it

  9. CO 2 Capture from Dilute Gases as a Component of Modern Global Carbon Management

    KAUST Repository

    Jones, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    The growing atmospheric CO2 concentration and its impact on climate have motivated widespread research and development aimed at slowing or stemming anthropogenic carbon emissions. Technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) employing mass separating agents that extract and purify CO2 from flue gas emanating from large point sources such as fossil fuel-fired electricity-generating power plants are under development. Recent advances in solvents, adsorbents, and membranes for postcombust- ion CO 2 capture are described here. Specifically, room-temperature ionic liquids, supported amine materials, mixed matrix and facilitated transport membranes, and metal-organic framework materials are highlighted. In addition, the concept of extracting CO2 directly from ambient air (air capture) as a means of reducing the global atmospheric CO2 concentration is reviewed. For both conventional CCS from large point sources and air capture, critical research needs are identified and discussed. © Copyright 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  10. CO 2 Capture from Dilute Gases as a Component of Modern Global Carbon Management

    KAUST Repository

    Jones, Christopher W.

    2011-07-15

    The growing atmospheric CO2 concentration and its impact on climate have motivated widespread research and development aimed at slowing or stemming anthropogenic carbon emissions. Technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) employing mass separating agents that extract and purify CO2 from flue gas emanating from large point sources such as fossil fuel-fired electricity-generating power plants are under development. Recent advances in solvents, adsorbents, and membranes for postcombust- ion CO 2 capture are described here. Specifically, room-temperature ionic liquids, supported amine materials, mixed matrix and facilitated transport membranes, and metal-organic framework materials are highlighted. In addition, the concept of extracting CO2 directly from ambient air (air capture) as a means of reducing the global atmospheric CO2 concentration is reviewed. For both conventional CCS from large point sources and air capture, critical research needs are identified and discussed. © Copyright 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiscale observations of CO2, 13CO2, and pollutants at Four Corners for emission verification and attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmaier, Rodica; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Butterfield, Zachary T.; Herman, Jay R.; Rahn, Thom; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need to verify air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic fossil energy sources to enforce current and future regulations. We demonstrate the feasibility of using simultaneous remote sensing observations of column abundances of CO2, CO, and NO2 to inform and verify emission inventories. We report, to our knowledge, the first ever simultaneous column enhancements in CO2 (3–10 ppm) and NO2 (1–3 Dobson Units), and evidence of δ13CO2 depletion in an urban region with two large coal-fired power plants with distinct scrubbing technologies that have resulted in ∆NOx/∆CO2 emission ratios that differ by a factor of two. Ground-based total atmospheric column trace gas abundances change synchronously and correlate well with simultaneous in situ point measurements during plume interceptions. Emission ratios of ∆NOx/∆CO2 and ∆SO2/∆CO2 derived from in situ atmospheric observations agree with those reported by in-stack monitors. Forward simulations using in-stack emissions agree with remote column CO2 and NO2 plume observations after fine scale adjustments. Both observed and simulated column ∆NO2/∆CO2 ratios indicate that a large fraction (70–75%) of the region is polluted. We demonstrate that the column emission ratios of ∆NO2/∆CO2 can resolve changes from day-to-day variation in sources with distinct emission factors (clean and dirty power plants, urban, and fires). We apportion these sources by using NO2, SO2, and CO as signatures. Our high-frequency remote sensing observations of CO2 and coemitted pollutants offer promise for the verification of power plant emission factors and abatement technologies from ground and space. PMID:24843169

  12. Analysis of regional difference on impact factors of China’s energy – Related CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huanan; Mu, Hailin; Zhang, Ming; Gui, Shusen

    2012-01-01

    With the intensification of global warming, the issue of carbon emissions causes more and more attention in recent years. In this paper, China’s 30 provincial-level administrative units are divided into five emission regions according to the annual average value of provincial CO 2 emissions per capita during 1990 and 2010. The regional differences in impact factors on CO 2 emissions are discussed using STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology) model. The results indicate that although GDP (Gross domestic product) per capita, industrial structure, population, urbanization and technology level have different impacts on CO 2 emissions in different emission regions, they are almost always the main factors in all emission regions. In most emission regions, urbanization and GDP per capita has a bigger impact on CO 2 emissions than other factors. Improving technology level produces a small reduction in CO 2 emissions in most emission regions, but it is still a primary way for CO 2 reduction in China. It’s noteworthy that industrial structure isn’t the main factor and improving technology level increases CO 2 emissions in high emission region. Different measures should be adopted for CO 2 reductions according to local conditions in different regions. -- Highlights: ► Regional differences of the impact factors on China’s CO 2 emissions are analyzed. ► Five macro factors like GDP per capita are almost always main influence factors in all regions. ► The impacts of different factors are different. ► Improving technology has no significant reduction on CO 2 emission in most regions. ► Policy on CO 2 reduction should be adapted to local conditions.

  13. Aerosol-based emission, solvent degradation, and corrosion in post combustion CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakharia, P.

    2015-01-01

    Global greenhouse gas emissions, especially of CO2, have been increasing tremendously over the past century. This is known to cause not only an increase of temperature, but also a change in our climate. Along with a shift to renewable sources of energy, Carbon Capture and Storage is necessary to

  14. Regional allocation of CO2 emissions allowance over provinces in China by 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Xian; Wei, Yi-Ming; Yu, Shiwei

    2013-01-01

    The mitigation efforts of China are increasingly important for meeting global climate target since the rapid economic growth of China has led to an increasing share in the world's total CO 2 emissions. This paper sets out to explore the approach for realizing China's national mitigation targets submitted to the UNFCCC as part of the Copenhagen Accord; that is, to reduce the intensity of CO 2 emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% by 2020, as well as reducing the energy intensity and increasing the share of non-fossil fuel consumption, through regional allocation of emission allowance over China's provinces. Since the realization of China's mitigation target essentially represents a total amount emission allowance allocation problem, an improved zero sum gains data envelopment analysis optimization model, which could deal with the constant total amount resources allocation, is proposed in this study. By utilizing this model and based on several scenarios of China's economic growth, CO 2 emissions, and energy consumption, a new efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level for China by 2020 is proposed. The allocation results indicate that different provinces have to shoulder different mitigation burdens in terms of emission intensity reduction, energy intensity reduction, and share of non-fossil fuels increase. - Highlights: ► We explore the approach to realize national CO 2 emissions reduction target of China by 2020. ► The CO 2 emissions allowance is allocated over China's 30 administrative regions. ► Several scenarios of China's regional economy, emission, energy consumption are given. ► The zero sum gains data envelopment analysis model is applied in emission allowance allocation. ► An efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level is proposed

  15. An analysis of China's CO2 emission peaking target and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China has set the goal for its CO2 emissions to peak around 2030, which is not only a strategic decision coordinating domestic sustainable development and global climate change mitigation but also an overarching target and a key point of action for China's resource conservation, environmental protection, shift in economic development patterns, and CO2 emission reduction to avoid climate change. The development stage where China maps out the CO2 emission peak target is earlier than that of the developed countries. It is a necessity that the non-fossil energy supplies be able to meet all the increased energy demand for achieving CO2 emission peaking. Given that China's potential GDP annual increasing rate will be more than 4%, and China's total energy demand will continue to increase by approximately 1.0%–1.5% annually around 2030, new and renewable energies will need to increase by 6%–8% annually to meet the desired CO2 emission peak. The share of new and renewable energies in China's total primary energy supply will be approximately 20% by 2030. At that time, the energy consumption elasticity will decrease to around 0.3, and the annual decrease in the rate of CO2 intensity will also be higher than 4% to ensure the sustained growth of GDP. To achieve the CO2 emission peaking target and substantially promote the low-carbon development transformation, China needs to actively promote an energy production and consumption revolution, the innovation of advanced energy technologies, the reform of the energy regulatory system and pricing mechanism, and especially the construction of a national carbon emission cap and trade system.

  16. Validating CDIAC's population-based approach to the disaggregation of within-country CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Brenkert, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center produces and distributes a data base of CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production, expressed as global, regional, and national estimates. CDIAC also produces a companion data base, expressed on a one-degree latitude-longitude grid. To do this gridding, emissions within each country are spatially disaggregated according to the distribution of population within that country. Previously, the lack of within-country emissions data prevented a validation of this approach. But emissions inventories are now becoming available for most US states. An analysis of these inventories confirms that population distribution explains most, but not all, of the variance in the distribution of CO 2 emissions within the US. Additional sources of variance (coal production, non-carbon energy sources, and interstate electricity transfers) are explored, with the hope that the spatial disaggregation of emissions can be improved

  17. How much CO2 can we still emit while limiting global warming to well below 2 °C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, S.

    2017-12-01

    In December 2015, the Paris Agreement signed by 195 nations agreed to limit global warming "to well below 2 °C above preindustrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C." Since the amount of global warming is approximately proportional to cumulative CO2 emissions, such a warming limit corresponds to a remaining "CO2 budget" - a total amount of CO2 that can still be emitted world-wide. I will discuss current estimates of the size of this CO2 budget and what this means for the emissions trajectories compatible with the Paris Agreement.

  18. Emission of CO2 from energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhollow, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The production of cellulosic energy crops (e.g., short rotation woody crops and herbaceous crops) make a net contribution of CO 2 to the atmosphere to the extent that fossil-fuel based inputs are used in their production. The CO 2 released from the use of the biomass is merely CO 2 that has recently been removed from the atmosphere by the plant growth process. Fossil inputs used in the production of energy corps include energy invested in fertilizers and pesticides, and petroleum fuels used for machinery operation such as site preparation, weed control, harvesting, and hauling. Fossil inputs used come from petroleum, natural gas, and electricity derived from fossil sources. No fossil inputs for the capital used to produce fertilizers, pesticides, or machinery is calculated in this analysis. In this paper calculations are made for the short rotation woody crop hybrid poplar (Populus spp.), the annual herbaceous crop sorghum (Sorghum biocolor [L.] Moench), and the perennial herbaceous crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). For comparison purposes, emissions of CO 2 from corn (Zea mays L.) are calculated

  19. The improvement of CO2 emission reduction policies based on system dynamics method in traditional industrial region with large CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fujia; Dong, Suocheng; Li, Zehong; Li, Yu; Li, Shantong; Wan, Yongkun

    2012-01-01

    Some traditional industrial regions are characterized by high industrial proportion and large CO 2 emission. They are facing dual pressures of maintaining economic growth and largely reducing CO 2 emission. From the perspective of study of typological region, taking the typical traditional industrial region—Liaoning Province of China as a case, this study establishes a system dynamics model named EECP and dynamically simulates CO 2 emission trends under different conditions. Simulation results indicate, compared to the condition without CO 2 emission reduction policies, CO 2 emission intensity under the condition of implementing CO 2 emission reduction policies of “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” is decreased by 11% from 2009 to 2030, but the economic cost is high, making the policies implementation faces resistance. Then some improved policies are offered and proved by EECP model that they can reduce CO 2 emission intensity after 2021 and decrease the negative influence to GDP, realizing the improvement objects of reducing CO 2 emission and simultaneously keeping a higher economy growth speed. The improved policies can provide reference for making and improving CO 2 emission reduction policies in other traditional industrial regions with large CO 2 emission. Simultaneously, EECP model can provide decision-makers with reference and help for similar study of energy policy. - Highlights: ► We build EECP model for CO 2 emission reduction study in traditional industry region. ► By the model, we simulate CO 2 emission trend and improve emission reduction policy. ► By improvement, both CO 2 emission intensity and economic cost can be largely reduced. ► Besides CO 2 emission is reduced effectively, higher GDP increment speed is kept. ► EECP model can be widely used for making and improving regional energy policies.

  20. Regional disparity analysis of Chinese freight transport CO2 emissions from 1990 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Xiao; Dong, Liang; Dou, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Low-carbon urban development has been regarded as a promising is hot spot of global concern on fighting pathway for mitigatingto climate change, whileand transportation sector as a key role contributes takes a significant proportion to the total CO2 emission. Investigate Investigating the driving...... insights from an evolving perspective. Up to date, there are many emerging case studies on the analysis on urban transport CO2 emission in China; however it, but lacks in-depth decomposition and causal mechanism analysis, as well as comparative study. Under this circumstanceIn order to fill this gap...

  1. Benchmarking and the allocation of emission rights. European Parliament agreement on CO2 emission trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, H.

    2003-01-01

    July 2, 2003, the Parliament of the European Union approved the directive for CO2 emission trade, which means that the energy-intensive industry and businesses in Europe have to deal with cost for CO2 emission from 2005 onwards. It is estimated that the Dutch government will have to distribute circa 90 million ton of CO2 emission rights (1.8 billion euro at a price of 20 euro per ton CO2). In order to realize a fair and transparent distribution of the rights use can be made of the Covenant Benchmarking for Energy Efficiency [nl

  2. Nitrogen fertilization raises CO2 efflux from inorganic carbon: A global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Kazem; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2018-03-25

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is an indispensable agricultural practice worldwide, serving the survival of half of the global population. Nitrogen transformation (e.g., nitrification) in soil as well as plant N uptake releases protons and increases soil acidification. Neutralizing this acidity in carbonate-containing soils (7.49 × 10 9  ha; ca. 54% of the global land surface area) leads to a CO 2 release corresponding to 0.21 kg C per kg of applied N. We here for the first time raise this problem of acidification of carbonate-containing soils and assess the global CO 2 release from pedogenic and geogenic carbonates in the upper 1 m soil depth. Based on a global N-fertilization map and the distribution of soils containing CaCO 3 , we calculated the CO 2 amount released annually from the acidification of such soils to be 7.48 × 10 12  g C/year. This level of continuous CO 2 release will remain constant at least until soils are fertilized by N. Moreover, we estimated that about 273 × 10 12  g CO 2 -C are released annually in the same process of CaCO 3 neutralization but involving liming of acid soils. These two CO 2 sources correspond to 3% of global CO 2 emissions by fossil fuel combustion or 30% of CO 2 by land-use changes. Importantly, the duration of CO 2 release after land-use changes usually lasts only 1-3 decades before a new C equilibrium is reached in soil. In contrast, the CO 2 released by CaCO 3 acidification cannot reach equilibrium, as long as N fertilizer is applied until it becomes completely neutralized. As the CaCO 3 amounts in soils, if present, are nearly unlimited, their complete dissolution and CO 2 release will take centuries or even millennia. This emphasizes the necessity of preventing soil acidification in N-fertilized soils as an effective strategy to inhibit millennia of CO 2 efflux to the atmosphere. Hence, N fertilization should be strictly calculated based on plant-demand, and overfertilization should be avoided not only

  3. On the causal structure between CO2 and global temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stips, Adolf; Macias, Diego; Coughlan, Clare; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Liang, X. San

    2016-01-01

    We use a newly developed technique that is based on the information flow concept to investigate the causal structure between the global radiative forcing and the annual global mean surface temperature anomalies (GMTA) since 1850. Our study unambiguously shows one-way causality between the total Greenhouse Gases and GMTA. Specifically, it is confirmed that the former, especially CO2, are the main causal drivers of the recent warming. A significant but smaller information flow comes from aerosol direct and indirect forcing, and on short time periods, volcanic forcings. In contrast the causality contribution from natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic forcing) to the long term trend is not significant. The spatial explicit analysis reveals that the anthropogenic forcing fingerprint is significantly regionally varying in both hemispheres. On paleoclimate time scales, however, the cause-effect direction is reversed: temperature changes cause subsequent CO2/CH4 changes. PMID:26900086

  4. Social Learning and the Mitigation of Transport CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Al Sabbagh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social learning, a key factor in fostering behavioural change and improving decision making, is considered necessary for achieving substantial CO2 emission reductions. However, no empirical evidence exists on how it contributes to mitigation of transport CO2 emissions, or the extent of its influence on decision making. This paper presents evidence addressing these knowledge gaps. Social learning-oriented workshops were conducted to gather the views and preferences of participants from the general public in Bahrain on selected transport CO2 mitigation measures. Social preferences were inputted into a deliberative decision-making model and then compared to a previously prepared participative model. An analysis of the results revealed that social learning could contribute to changes in views, preferences and acceptance regarding mitigation measures, and these changes were statistically significant at an alpha level of 0.1. Thus, while social learning evidently plays an important role in the decision-making process, the impacts of using other participatory techniques should also be explored.

  5. CO2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2008-03-01

    The flow of pollution through international trade flows has the ability to undermine environmental policies, particularly for global pollutants. In this article we determine the CO2 emissions embodied in international trade among 87 countries for the year 2001. We find that globally there are over 5.3 Gt of CO2 embodied in trade and that Annex B countries are net importers of CO2 emissions. Depending on country characteristics--such as size variables and geographic location--there are considerable variations in the embodied emissions. We argue that emissions embodied in trade may have a significant impact on participation in and effectiveness of global climate policies such as the Kyoto Protocol. We discuss several policy options to reduce the impact of trade in global climate policy. If countries take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual countries, then the impacts of trade can be substantially reduced. Adjusting emission inventories for trade gives a more consistent description of a country's environmental pressures and circumvents many trade related issues. It also gives opportunities to exploit trade as a means of mitigating emissions. Not least, a better understanding of the role that trade plays in a country's economic and environmental development will help design more effective and participatory climate policy post-Kyoto.

  6. The spatial distribution of commuting CO2 emissions and the influential factors: A case study in Xi'an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the transport sector is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, the effect of urbanization on transport CO2 emissions in developing cities has become a key issue under global climate change. Examining the case of Xi'an, this paper aims to explore the spatial distribution of commuting CO2 emissions and influencing factors in the new, urban industry zones and city centers considering Xi'an's transition from a monocentric to a polycentric city in the process of urbanization. Based on household survey data from 1501 respondents, there are obvious differences in commuting CO2 emissions between new industry zones and city centers: City centers feature lower household emissions of 2.86 kg CO2 per week, whereas new industry zones generally have higher household emissions of 3.20 kg CO2 per week. Contrary to previous research results, not all new industry zones have high levels of CO2 emissions; with the rapid development of various types of industries, even a minimum level of household emissions of 2.53 kg CO2 per week is possible. The uneven distribution of commuting CO2 emissions is not uniformly affected by spatial parameters such as job–housing balance, residential density, employment density, and land use diversity. Optimum combination of the spatial parameters and travel pattern along with corresponding transport infrastructure construction may be an appropriate path to reduction and control of emissions from commuting.

  7. Coalfire related CO2 emissions and remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, P.K.

    2008-06-11

    Subsurface and surface coalfires are a serious problem in many coal-producing countries. Combustion can occur within the coal seams (underground or surface), in piles of stored coal, or in spoil dumps at the surface. While consuming a non renewable energy source, coalfires promote several environmental problems. Among all GHGs that are emitted from coalfires, CO2 is the most significant because of its high quantity. In connection to this environmental problem, the core aim of the present research is to develop a hyperspectral remote sensing and radiative transfer based model that is able to estimate CO2 concentration (ppmv) from coalfires. Since 1960s remote sensing is being used as a tool to detect and monitoring coalfires. With time, remote sensing has proven a reliable tool to identify and monitor coalfires. In the present study multi-temporal, multi-sensor and multi-spectral thermal remote sensing data are being used to detect and monitor coalfires. Unlike the earlier studies, the present study explores the possibilities of satellite derived emissivity to detect and monitor coalfires. Two methods of emissivity extraction from satellite data were tested, namely NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) derived and TES (Temperature emissivity separation) in two study areas situated in India and China and it was observed that the satellite derived emissivity offers a better kinetic surface temperature of the surface to understand the spread and extent of the coalfires more effectively. In order to reduce coalfire related GHG emissions and to achieve more effective fire fighting plans it is crucial to understand the dynamics of coalfire. Multitemporal spaceborne remote sensing data can be used to study the migration and expresses the results as vectors, indicating direction and speed of migration. The present study proposes a 2D model that recognizes an initiation point of coalfire from thermal remote sensing data and considers local geological settings to

  8. Coalfires related CO2 emissions and remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, P.K.

    2008-06-11

    Subsurface and surface coalfires are a serious problem in many coal-producing countries. Combustion can occur within the coal seams (underground or surface), in piles of stored coal, or in spoil dumps at the surface. While consuming a non renewable energy source, coalfires promote several environmental problems. Among all GHGs that are emitted from coalfires, CO2 is the most significant because of its high quantity. In connection to this environmental problem, the core aim of the present research is to develop a hyperspectral remote sensing and radiative transfer based model that is able to estimate CO2 concentration (ppmv) from coalfires. Since 1960s remote sensing is being used as a tool to detect and monitoring coalfires. With time, remote sensing has proven a reliable tool to identify and monitor coalfires. In the present study multi-temporal, multi-sensor and multi-spectral thermal remote sensing data are being used to detect and monitor coalfires. Unlike the earlier studies, the present study explores the possibilities of satellite derived emissivity to detect and monitor coalfires. Two methods of emissivity extraction from satellite data were tested, namely NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) derived and TES (Temperature emissivity separation) in two study areas situated in India and China and it was observed that the satellite derived emissivity offers a better kinetic surface temperature of the surface to understand the spread and extent of the coalfires more effectively. In order to reduce coalfire related GHG emissions and to achieve more effective fire fighting plans it is crucial to understand the dynamics of coalfire. Multitemporal spaceborne remote sensing data can be used to study the migration and expresses the results as vectors, indicating direction and speed of migration. The present study proposes a 2D model that recognizes an initiation point of coalfire from thermal remote sensing data and considers local geological settings to

  9. Coalfire related CO2 emissions and remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    Subsurface and surface coalfires are a serious problem in many coal-producing countries. Combustion can occur within the coal seams (underground or surface), in piles of stored coal, or in spoil dumps at the surface. While consuming a non renewable energy source, coalfires promote several environmental problems. Among all GHGs that are emitted from coalfires, CO2 is the most significant because of its high quantity. In connection to this environmental problem, the core aim of the present research is to develop a hyperspectral remote sensing and radiative transfer based model that is able to estimate CO2 concentration (ppmv) from coalfires. Since 1960s remote sensing is being used as a tool to detect and monitoring coalfires. With time, remote sensing has proven a reliable tool to identify and monitor coalfires. In the present study multi-temporal, multi-sensor and multi-spectral thermal remote sensing data are being used to detect and monitor coalfires. Unlike the earlier studies, the present study explores the possibilities of satellite derived emissivity to detect and monitor coalfires. Two methods of emissivity extraction from satellite data were tested, namely NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) derived and TES (Temperature emissivity separation) in two study areas situated in India and China and it was observed that the satellite derived emissivity offers a better kinetic surface temperature of the surface to understand the spread and extent of the coalfires more effectively. In order to reduce coalfire related GHG emissions and to achieve more effective fire fighting plans it is crucial to understand the dynamics of coalfire. Multitemporal spaceborne remote sensing data can be used to study the migration and expresses the results as vectors, indicating direction and speed of migration. The present study proposes a 2D model that recognizes an initiation point of coalfire from thermal remote sensing data and considers local geological settings to

  10. Urban CO2 emissions metabolism: The Hestia Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I.; Zhou, Y.; Song, Y.

    2011-12-01

    A central expression of urban metabolism is the consumption of energy and the resulting environmental impact, particularly the emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Quantification of energy and emissions has been performed for numerous cities but rarely has this been done in explicit space/time detail. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and work is ongoing for the city of Los Angeles (Figure 1). The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate at the mix of geocoded and county-wide levels. The Hestia aim is to distribute the Vulcan result in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. For the buildings, we utilize an energy building model which we constrain through lidar data, county assessor parcel data and GIS layers. For onroad emissions, we use a combination of traffic data and GIS road layers maintaining vehicle class information. Finally, all pointwise data in the Vulcan Project are transferred to our urban landscape and additional time distribution is performed. A key benefit of the approach taken in this study is the tracking and archiving of fuel and process-level detail (eg. combustion process, other pollutants), allowing for a more thorough understanding and analysis of energy throughputs in the urban environment. Next steps in this research from the metabolism perspective is to consider the carbon footprint of material goods and their lateral transfer in addition to the connection between electricity consumption and production.

  11. National plan of allocation of CO2 emission quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The directive 2003/87/CE of the European parliament and council from October 13, 2003 establishes a trading system of CO 2 emission quotas for some companies of the energy generation industry, of the manufacturing industry and of services. These quotas are tradable and negotiable and an initial amount of quotas is allocated to these companies according to their facilities in concern. The national plan of quotas allocation must precise the total amount of tradable emissions and its share among the different sectors of activity and facilities. The first project of allocation plan was transmitted to the European Commission on July 6, 2004 after its public consultation between June 8 and June 29 2004. Modifications have been added to meet the requests of the Commission and the French plan was finally approved on December 17, 2004 for an annual amount of 156.51 Mt of CO 2 quotas during the 2005-2007 period. This paper precises the modifications requested by the commission, the modifications of the French juridical system necessary to complete the implementation of the French part of the European quotas trading system, the elaboration of the next allocation plan for the 2008-2012 period, and the link between the European emissions trading system and the 'joint implementation' and 'clean development ' mechanisms implemented by the Kyoto protocol. (J.S.)

  12. Responsible for 45 000 tons CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedrelid, Ola N.

    2006-01-01

    Waste combustion has much better tax conditions in Sweden compared to Norway. Today waste is being transported from Norway to Sweden, resulting in a 45 000 ton emission of CO 2 every year, when the waste could have remained in Norway, utilized as regained energy in district heating. The tax regime, however, does not provide the conditions for a profitable use of the waste in Norway. The district heating association is disappointed with the new government's proposed fiscal budget, which only worsens the competitive situation for Norway handling its own waste (ml)

  13. Decadal changes in CH4 and CO2 emissions on the Alaskan North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, C.; Commane, R.; Wofsy, S.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Karion, A.; Stone, R. S.; Chang, R.; Tans, P. P.; Wolter, S.

    2016-12-01

    Large changes in surface air temperature, sea ice cover and permafrost in the Arctic Boreal Ecosystems (ABE) are significantly impacting the critical ecosystem services and human societies that are dependent on the ABE. In order to predict the outcome of continued change in the climate system of the ABE, it is necessary to look at how past changes in climate have affected the ABE. We look at 30 years of CH4 and 42 years of CO2 observations from the NOAA Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network site in Barrow, Alaska. By eliminating background trends and only looking at data collected when winds are blowing off the North Slope we find very little change in CH4 enhancements, but significant changes in the CO2 enhancements coming off the tundra. The bulk of both CO2 and CH4 emissions appear to be emitted well after the first snow fall on the North Slope. CO2 emissions are a strongly correlation with summer surface temperatures, while CH4 emissions appear insensitive to the large temperature changes that occurred over the measurement period. These results suggest that CO2, and not CH4 emissions, are a likely pathway for the degradation of permafrost carbon.

  14. Uncertainty quantification of CO2 emission reduction for maritime shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jun; Ng, Szu Hui; Sou, Weng Sut

    2016-01-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has recently proposed several operational and technical measures to improve shipping efficiency and reduce the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The abatement potentials estimated for these measures have been further used by many organizations to project future GHG emission reductions and plot Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACC). However, the abatement potentials estimated for many of these measures can be highly uncertain as many of these measures are new, with limited sea trial information. Furthermore, the abatements obtained are highly dependent on ocean conditions, trading routes and sailing patterns. When the estimated abatement potentials are used for projections, these ‘input’ uncertainties are often not clearly displayed or accounted for, which can lead to overly optimistic or pessimistic outlooks. In this paper, we propose a methodology to systematically quantify and account for these input uncertainties on the overall abatement potential forecasts. We further propose improvements to MACCs to better reflect the uncertainties in marginal abatement costs and total emissions. This approach provides a fuller and more accurate picture of abatement forecasts and potential reductions achievable, and will be useful to policy makers and decision makers in the shipping industry to better assess the cost effective measures for CO 2 emission reduction. - Highlights: • We propose a systematic method to quantify uncertainty in emission reduction. • Marginal abatement cost curves are improved to better reflect the uncertainties. • Percentage reduction probability is given to determine emission reduction target. • The methodology is applied to a case study on maritime shipping.

  15. A Cluster of CO2 Change Characteristics with GOSAT Observations for Viewing the Spatial Pattern of CO2 Emission and Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations can be used to detect the changes of CO2 concentration at global and regional scales. With the column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction (Xco2 data derived from satellite observations, the issue is how to extract and assess these changes, which are related to anthropogenic emissions and biosphere absorptions. We propose a k-means cluster analysis to extract the temporally changing features of Xco2 in the Central-Eastern Asia using the data from 2009 to 2013 obtained by Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT, and assess the effects of anthropogenic emissions and biosphere absorptions on CO2 changes combining with the data of emission and vegetation net primary production (NPP. As a result, 14 clusters, which are 14 types of Xco2 seasonal changing patterns, are obtained in the study area by using the optimal clustering parameters. These clusters are generally in agreement with the spatial pattern of underlying anthropogenic emissions and vegetation absorptions. According to correlation analysis with emission and NPP, these 14 clusters are divided into three groups: strong emission, strong absorption, and a tendency of balancing between emission and absorption. The proposed clustering approach in this study provides us with a potential way to better understand how the seasonal changes of CO2 concentration depend on underlying anthropogenic emissions and vegetation absorptions.

  16. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missfeldt, F.; Hauff, J.

    2000-09-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO 2 emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector is thought to be a realistic option in the near future. A comprehensive upstream approach would require permits for the carbon contained in fossil fuels produced or imported in Poland. It is ruled out due to the perceived difficulties of the inclusion of the coal sector in such a system. While inclusion of the gas sector, and especially of the oil sector, seems possible within a relatively short time, relying on an upstream approach without the coal sector is not advisable. Once the restructuring of the coal sector as well as the privatization of the gas and oil sector is advanced, an upstream approach might become an option again. A comprehensive downstream approach would regulate CO 2 emissions at their source, that is mostly at point of combustion of fossil fuels. A system which includes industry, households and transport can be assumed to be infeasible. Instead, a 'core program' was examined, which would focus on power and heat generation as well as energy intensive industries. Such an approach was found feasible in principle. Currently, however, only the largest emitters could be easily integrated in a reliable system. Drawing the line between those included and those excluded from such a partial system requires careful analysis. Including all enterprises in the relevant sectors would require significant improvements in monitoring and reporting reliability. A pilot emissions permit trading system could be introduced in the professional power and heat sector. Here, awareness concerning the instrument was found to be high and the system could be based on monitoring requirements already required by law. Gradual inclusion of more relevant sectors and eventual combination with an upstream component to include oil

  17. CO2 emissions of installations concerned by the directive quotas 2003/87/CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document provides data on the the carbon dioxide emissions: emissions of reference for the allocation (t CO 2 ), annual allocation of quotas (t CO 2 ), % of reduction for 2005-2007 against reference emissions, % of reduction for 2005-2007 against the 2002 emissions, allocation of quotas for the period 2005-2007 (t CO 2 ). (A.L.B.)

  18. The global warming game - simulations of a CO2 reduction agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, S.; Kverndokk, S.

    1992-06-01

    The paper analyses incentives for and the benefits of a possible international cooperation to reduce CO-2-emissions. The negotiations are modeled as a (static) reciprocal-externality-game in CO 2 -emissions between five world regions. CO 2 -emissions affect the players in two ways: First, each country's income depends (via energy inputs) on the amount of CO 2 emitted. On the other hand, emissions may cause future damage due to climate change. Without cooperation, each player maximizes its net benefits in setting marginal income equal to its marginal damage cost (Nash equilibrium). Under full cooperation marginal income equals the sum of the marginal damages (social optimum). The paper presents simulations of these two equilibria. Compared to the situation where no attention is paid to the greenhouse effect (the business as usual scenario), emission reductions under the Nash equilibrium can be interpreted as incentives for unilateral actions. According to the simulation results, this can only be expected from OECD countries. The results also imply that a socially optimal treaty, while clearly beneficial for the world in its entirety, may only be achieved if side payments are offered to at least China and the former Soviet Union, and probably the USA. The optimal global emission reductions in this study are on average lower than the reductions recommended by international conferences. 34 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  19. A multinational model for CO2 reduction: defining boundaries of future CO2 emissions in nine countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, Tom; Hill, Douglas.

    1996-01-01

    A need to make substantial future reductions in greenhouse gas emissions would require major changes in national energy systems. Nine industrialized countries have explored the technical boundaries of CO 2 emission restrictions during the next 40 to 50 years using comparable scenario assumptions and a standard model, MARKAL. Quantitative results for the countries are shown side by side in a set of energy maps that compare the least-cost evolution of the national energy systems by the main factors that contribute to CO 2 emissions. The ability to restrict future CO 2 emissions and the most cost-effective measures for doing so differ among the countries; an international agreement that would mandate substantial emission restrictions among countries by an equal percentage reduction is clearly impossible. The results are a first step toward a basis for allocating such international reductions, and the multinational process by which they were produced provides an example for further international greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. (Author)

  20. Uncovering China’s transport CO2 emission patterns at the regional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bin; Geng, Yong; Franke, Bernd; Hao, Han; Liu, Yaxuan; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic development, its transport sector has experienced a dramatic growth, leading to a large amount of related CO 2 emission. This paper aims to uncover China’s transport CO 2 emission patterns at the regional and provincial level. We first present the CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces, including per capita emissions, emission intensities, and historical evolution of annual CO 2 emission. We then quantify the related driving forces by adopting both period-wise and time-series LMDI analysis. Results indicate that significant regional CO 2 emission disparities exist in China’s transport sector. The eastern region had higher total CO 2 emissions and per capita CO 2 emissions, but lower CO 2 emission intensities in its transport sector. The western region had higher CO 2 emission intensities and experienced a rapid CO 2 emission increase. The CO 2 emission increments in the eastern provinces were mainly contributed by both economic activity effect and population effect, while energy intensity partially offset the emission growth and energy structure had a marginal effect. However, in the central and western provinces, both economic activity effect and energy intensity effect induced the CO 2 emission increases, while the effects from population and energy structure change were limited. - Highlights: • The CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces were presented. • The driving forces of CO 2 emissions from transport sector were quantified. • Regional disparities on China’s transport sector CO 2 emission exist. • Region-specific mitigation policies on transport sector CO 2 emission are needed

  1. Worldwide CO2 emissions 2014. Shimmer of hope to turnaround reinforce - but no all-clear signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziesing, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, global CO 2 emissions increase according to initial calculations by 0.5%. Apart from the two crisis years 2008/2009 was the weakest increase since the beginning of the century. As a result, CO 2 emissions reached about 32.6 billion tonnes a new climax. A turnaround this is not yet, but the CO 2 emissions in many countries, particularly in industrialized countries declined. Thus, the CO 2 emissions have declined in the Annex I countries overall by 1.8%. For this particular contributed the development in the EU, in almost without exception, all Member States have experienced an emission reduction. Of the major countries, this also applies to the Ukraine, Japan, Russia and Australia. In contrast, there was an increase in the US, although this turned out very moderate with an increase of just under 1%. If the global CO 2 emissions have increased despite the decline in the group of Annex I countries again, this is primarily a result of the increase in developing countries. Here, CO 2 emissions were by around the year 2014 415 million tons or 2.4% higher than 2013. Since 2008, China occupied top position ahead of the US in 2014 was not expanded because for many years here was the increase for the first time below 1%. By contrast, CO 2 emissions increased significantly in India by approx. 8% and in Brazil as in the Middle East by about 4%. [de

  2. CO2 capture by ionic liquids - an answer to anthropogenic CO2 emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglard, Pauline; Vorlet, Olivier; Marti, Roger; Naef, Olivier; Vanoli, Ennio

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are efficient solvents for the selective removal of CO2 from flue gas. Conventional, offthe-shelf ILs are limited in use to physisorption, which restricts their absorption capacity. After adding a chemical functionality like amines or alcohols, absorption of CO2 occurs mainly by chemisorption. This greatly enhances CO2 absorption and makes ILs suitable for potential industrial applications. By carefully choosing the anion and the cation of the IL, equimolar absorption of CO2 is possible. This paper reviews the current state of the art of CO2 capture by ILs and presents the current research in this field performed at the ChemTech Institute of the Ecole d'Ingénieurs et d'Architectes de Fribourg.

  3. Framing Climate Goals in Terms of Cumulative CO2-Forcing-Equivalent Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S.; Millar, R. J.; Leach, N.; Allen, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and CO2-induced warming is determined by the Transient Climate Response to Emissions (TCRE), but total anthropogenic warming also depends on non-CO2 forcing, complicating the interpretation of emissions budgets based on CO2 alone. An alternative is to frame emissions budgets in terms of CO2-forcing-equivalent (CO2-fe) emissions—the CO2 emissions that would yield a given total anthropogenic radiative forcing pathway. Unlike conventional "CO2-equivalent" emissions, these are directly related to warming by the TCRE and need to fall to zero to stabilize warming: hence, CO2-fe emissions generalize the concept of a cumulative carbon budget to multigas scenarios. Cumulative CO2-fe emissions from 1870 to 2015 inclusive are found to be 2,900 ± 600 GtCO2-fe, increasing at a rate of 67 ± 9.5 GtCO2-fe/yr. A TCRE range of 0.8-2.5°C per 1,000 GtC implies a total budget for 0.6°C of additional warming above the present decade of 880-2,750 GtCO2-fe, with 1,290 GtCO2-fe implied by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 median response, corresponding to 19 years' CO2-fe emissions at the current rate.

  4. Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energy Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K.; Matthews, D.

    2010-12-01

    If current greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations remain constant, the world would be committed to several centuries of increasing global mean temperatures and sea level rise. By contrast, near elimination of anthropogenic CO2 emissions would be required to produce diminishing GHG concentrations consistent with stabilization of mean temperatures. Yet long-lived energy and transportation infrastructure now operating can be expected to contribute substantial CO2 emissions over the next 50 years. Barring widespread retrofitting of existing power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies or the early decommissioning of serviceable infrastructure, these “committed emissions” represent infrastructural inertia which may be the primary contributor to total future warming commitment. With respect to GHG emissions, infrastructural inertia may be thought of as having two important and overlapping components: (i) infrastructure that directly releases GHGs to the atmosphere, and (ii) infrastructure that contributes to the continued production of devices that emit GHGs to the atmosphere. For example, the interstate highway and refueling infrastructure in the United States facilitates continued production of gasoline-powered automobiles. Here, we focus only on the warming commitment from infrastructure that directly releases CO2 to the atmosphere. Essentially, we answer the question: What if no additional CO2-emitting devices (e.g., power plants, motor vehicles) were built, but all the existing CO2-emitting devices were allowed to live out their normal lifetimes? What CO2 levels and global mean temperatures would we attain? Of course, the actual lifetime of devices may be strongly influenced by economic and policy constraints. For instance, a ban on new CO2-emitting devices would create tremendous incentive to prolong the lifetime of existing devices. Thus, our scenarios are not realistic, but offer a means of gauging the threat of climate change from existing

  5. The Impact of Prior Biosphere Models in the Inversion of Global Terrestrial CO2 Fluxes by Assimilating OCO-2 Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) are largely controlled by anthropogenic emissions and biospheric fluxes. The processes controlling terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange are currently not fully understood, resulting in terrestrial biospheric models having significant differences in the quantification of biospheric CO2 fluxes. Atmospheric transport models assimilating measured (in situ or space-borne) CO2 concentrations to estimate "top-down" fluxes, generally use these biospheric CO2 fluxes as a priori information. Most of the flux inversion estimates result in substantially different spatio-temporal posteriori estimates of regional and global biospheric CO2 fluxes. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite mission dedicated to accurately measure column CO2 (XCO2) allows for an improved understanding of global biospheric CO2 fluxes. OCO-2 provides much-needed CO2 observations in data-limited regions facilitating better global and regional estimates of "top-down" CO2 fluxes through inversion model simulations. The specific objectives of our research are to: 1) conduct GEOS-Chem 4D-Var assimilation of OCO-2 observations, using several state-of-the-science biospheric CO2 flux models as a priori information, to better constrain terrestrial CO2 fluxes, and 2) quantify the impact of different biospheric model prior fluxes on OCO-2-assimilated a posteriori CO2 flux estimates. Here we present our assessment of the importance of these a priori fluxes by conducting Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) using simulated OCO-2 observations with known "true" fluxes.

  6. CO2 removals and CO2 and non-CO2 trace gas emissions affected by human activity in the forests in the Republic of macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupche, Ljupcho; Lozanovski, Risto; Markovska, Natasha

    2001-01-01

    During 2000 and 2001 inventories of CO 2 removals and emissions caused by changes in forest and other woody biomass stocks, as well as the inventories of CO 2 and non-CO 2 trace gas emissions caused by forest conversions (accidental burning) were carried out. According to the forest area in ha, and depending on the differences between the annual biomass increment and annual biomass consumption, about 30-50% of total annual carbon uptake increment is released through the biomass consumption from stocks. 50-70% of the net annual carbon uptake converted to CO 2 identify the annual removals of this gas, which is on average 1805 Gg/yr, ranging between 1485 and 2243 Gg/yr. From 1990 to 1998 on average 4700 ha forest area (min. 110 ha in 1991, max. 14420 ha in 1993) was burned. Proportionally to the burned area, there was a release on average of 18.62 kt C annually (min. 0.42 kt C, max. 57.11 kt), related to 136.07 kt CO 2 on average (min. 1.5 kt CO 2 , max. 209.22 kt CO 2 ). (Original)

  7. Improved Fossil/Industrial CO2 Emissions Modeling for the North American Carbon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Seib, B.; Mendoza, D.; Knox, S.; Fischer, M.; Murtishaw, S.

    2006-12-01

    The quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions has implications for a wide variety of scientific and policy- related questions. Improvement in inverse-estimated carbon fluxes, country-level carbon budgeting, analysis of regional emissions trading systems, and targeting of observational systems are all important applications better served by improvements in understanding where and when fossil fuel/industrial CO2 is emitted. Traditional approaches to quantifying fossil/industrial CO2 emissions have relied on national sales/consumption of fossil fuels with secondary spatial footprints performed via proxies such as population. This approach has provided global spatiotemporal resolution of one degree/monthly. In recent years the need has arisen for emission estimates that not only achieve higher spatiotemporal scales but include a process- level component. This latter attribute provides dynamic linkages between energy policy/decisionmaking and emissions for use in projecting changes to energy systems and the implications these changes may have on climate change. We have embarked on a NASA-funded research strategy to construct a process-level fossil/industrial CO2 emissions model/database for North America that will resolve fossil/industrial CO2 emissions hourly and at 36 km. This project is a critical component of the North American Carbon Program. Our approach builds off of many decades of air quality monitoring for regulated pollutants such as NOx, VOCs and CO that has been performed by regional air quality managers, states, and the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. By using the highly resolved monitoring data supplied to the EPA, we have computed CO2 emissions for residential, commercial/industrial, transportation, and biogenic sources. This effort employs a new emissions modeling system (CONCEPT) that spatially and temporally distributes the monitored emissions across the US. We will provide a description of the methodology we have employed, the

  8. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions... § 75.19 Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units. (a... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or operator...

  9. An analysis of the global spatial variability of column-averaged CO2 from SCIAMACHY and its implications for CO2 sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Zhang, Xiuying; Huang, Chunlin; Lu, Xuehe; Jin, Jiaxin; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) are important because of their potential for improving the scientific understanding of global carbon cycle processes and budgets. We present an analysis of the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 (denoted XCO2) of the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) retrievals, which were derived from a satellite instrument with relatively long-term records (2003–2009) and with measurements sensitive to the near surface. The spatial-temporal distributions of remotely sensed XCO2 have significant spatial heterogeneity with about 6–8% variations (367–397 ppm) during 2003–2009, challenging the traditional view that the spatial heterogeneity of atmospheric CO2 is not significant enough (2 and surface CO2 were found for major ecosystems, with the exception of tropical forest. In addition, when compared with a simulated terrestrial carbon uptake from the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) carbon emission inventory, the latitudinal gradient of XCO2 seasonal amplitude was influenced by the combined effect of terrestrial carbon uptake, carbon emission, and atmospheric transport, suggesting no direct implications for terrestrial carbon sinks. From the investigation of the growth rate of XCO2 we found that the increase of CO2 concentration was dominated by temperature in the northern hemisphere (20–90°N) and by precipitation in the southern hemisphere (20–90°S), with the major contribution to global average occurring in the northern hemisphere. These findings indicated that the satellite measurements of atmospheric CO2 improve not only the estimations of atmospheric inversion, but also the understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and its feedback to atmospheric CO2.

  10. The CO2 emissions bond to the energy combustion in the world during 2003-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This analysis shows a stabilization of the CO 2 emissions in France (+0,3%), the continuous increase of the CO 2 emissions in the world (+5%), a chinese economic growth which generates many CO 2 and a gap of 1 to 20 of the emissions per inhabitant from the Africa to the United States. Data of CO 2 emissions are detailed for the countries and are given in function of the population and the gross domestic product. (A.L.B.)

  11. Experimental analysis of CO2 emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-01-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO 2 emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO 2 emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO 2 emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO 2 emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO 2 emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO 2 emissions from soils during the

  12. A joint global carbon inversion system using both CO2 and 13CO2 atmospheric concentration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Deng, Feng

    2017-03-01

    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites (62 collocated with 13CO2 sites) for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using prior CO2 fluxes estimated with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. This joint inversion system using both13CO2 and CO2 observations is effectively a double deconvolution system with consideration of the spatial variations of isotopic discrimination and disequilibrium. Compared to the CO2-only inversion, this 13CO2 constraint on the inversion considerably reduces the total land carbon sink from 3.40 ± 0.84 to 2.53 ± 0.93 Pg C year-1 but increases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 ± 0.40 to 2.36 ± 0.49 Pg C year-1. This constraint also changes the spatial distribution of the carbon sink. The largest sink increase occurs in the Amazon, while the largest source increases are in southern Africa, and Asia, where CO2 data are sparse. Through a case study, in which the spatial distribution of the annual 13CO2 discrimination rate over land is ignored by treating it as a constant at the global average of -14. 1 ‰, the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land was found to be significantly modified (up to 15 % for some regions). The uncertainties in our disequilibrium flux estimation are 8.0 and 12.7 Pg C year-1 ‰ for land and ocean, respectively. These uncertainties induced the unpredictability of 0.47 and 0.54 Pg C year-1 in the inverted CO2 fluxes for land and ocean, respectively. Our joint inversion system is therefore

  13. European Community Can Reduce CO2 Emissions by Sixty Percent : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mot, E.; Bartelds, H.; Esser, P.M.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Laak, P.J.A. van de; Michon, S.G.L.; Nielen, R.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the European Community (EC) can be reduced by roughly 60 percent. A great many measures need to be taken to reach this reduction, with a total annual cost of ECU 55 milliard. Fossil fuel use is the main cause of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere; CO2 emissions are

  14. Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoff; Saikawa, Eri

    2017-12-01

    States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth. With the federal government withdrawing from the global climate agreement, understanding which state-level policies have successfully mitigated power-plant emissions is urgent. Past research has assessed policy effectiveness using data for periods before the adoption of many policies. We assess 17 policies using the latest data on state-level power-sector CO2 emissions. We find that policies with mandatory compliance are reducing power-plant emissions, while voluntary policies are not. Electric decoupling, mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are associated with the largest reduction in emissions. Mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are also associated with a large reduction in emissions intensity.

  15. Toward verifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions with the CMAQ model: motivation, model description and initial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P; Pinto, Joseph P; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A

    2014-04-01

    and studied on continental to global scales to understand the global carbon cycle. This work demonstrates the potential of modeling and studying CO2 variability at fine spatiotemporal scales with CMAQ, which has been applied extensively, to study traditionally regulated air pollutants. The abundant observational records of these air pollutants and successful experience in studying and reducing their emissions may be useful for verifying CO2 emissions. Although there remains much more to further investigate, this work opens up a discussion on whether and how to study CO2 as an air pollutant.

  16. CO2 diffuse emission from maar lake: An example in Changbai volcanic field, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutao; Guo, Zhengfu; Liu, Jiaqi; Du, Jianguo

    2018-01-01

    Numerous maars and monogenetic volcanic cones are distributed in northeast China, which are related to westward deep subduction of the Pacific Ocean lithosphere, comprising a significant part of the "Pacific Ring of Fire". It is well known that diffuse CO2 emissions from monogenetic volcanoes, including wet (e.g., maar lake) and dry degassing systems (e.g., soil diffuse emission, fault degassing, etc.), may contribute to budget of globally nature-derived greenhouse gases. However, their relationship between wet (e.g., maar lake) and concomitant dry degassing systems (e.g., soil diffuse emission, fault degassing, etc.) related to monogenetic volcanic field is poorly understood. Yuanchi maar, one of the typical monogenetic volcanic systems, is located on the eastern flank of Tianchi caldera in Changbai volcanic field of northeast China, which displays all of three forms of CO2 degassing including the maar lake, soil micro-seepage and fault degassing. Measurements of efflux of CO2 diffusion from the Yuanchi maar system (YMS) indicate that the average values of CO2 emissions from soil micro-seepage, fault degassing and water-air interface diffusion are 24.3 ± 23.3 g m- 2 d- 1, 39.2 ± 22.4 g m- 2 d- 1 and 2.4 ± 1.1 g m- 2 d- 1, respectively. The minimum output of CO2 diffuse emission from the YMS to the atmosphere is about 176.1 ± 88.3 ton/yr, of which 80.4% results from the dry degassing system. Degassing from the fault contributes to the most of CO2 emissions in all of the three forms of degassing in the YMS. Contributions of mantle, crust, air and organic CO2 to the soil gas are 0.01-0.10%, 10-20%, 32-36% and 48-54%, respectively, which are quantitatively constrained by a He-C isotope coupling calculation model. We propose that CO2 exsolves from the upper mantle melting beneath the Tianchi caldera, which migrates to the crustal magma chamber and further transports to the surface of YMS along the deep fault system. During the transportation processes, the emission

  17. The costs of limiting fossil-fuel CO2 emissions: A survey and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.; Brink, P. ten; Morrison, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the late 1980s, interest flourished in the issue of global climate change. Many studies focused on the options for limiting anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse-related gases and managing the consequences of global warming and climate change. Making appropriate policy choices requires information on both the costs and benefits, as the occur over time, of policy interventions, and in increasing number of studies have sought to quantify the costs especially of limiting CO 2 emissions, as the dominant anthropogenic source. Such analyses now form an important part of overall policy assessments and influence international negotiations on policy responses. However, these studies are not well understood. In this paper the authors seek to analyze the literature on the costs of CO 2 abatement. 152 ref

  18. The Decomposition Analysis of CO2 Emission and Economic Growth in Pakistan India and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conflict between economic growth and keeping greenhouse gases (GHG at controllable levels is one of the ultimate challenges of this century. The aim of Kyoto Protocol is to keep the level of carbon dioxide (CO2 below a certain threshold level. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of CO2 emission on economic growth by conducting the regional analysis of PIC nations i.e. Pakistan, India and China. The study also provides the detail information regarding the atmospheric emission by applying decomposition analysis. It is suggested that environmental policies need more attention in the region by keeping the differences aside. So, the emission trading is considered to be the new concept. The approach should be introduced to tackle down the global warming in the region. Now it is time to respond because the low Carbon Economy is the reality.

  19. Analysis of the international distribution of per capita CO2 emissions using the polarization concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, Juan Antonio; Padilla, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The concept of polarization is linked to the extent that a given distribution leads to the formation of homogeneous groups with opposing interests. This concept, which is basically different from the traditional one of inequality, is related to the level of inherent potential conflict in a distribution. The polarization approach has been widely applied in the analysis of income distribution. The extension of this approach to the analysis of international distribution of CO 2 emissions is quite useful as it gives a potent informative instrument for characterizing the state and evolution of the international distribution of emissions and its possible political consequences in terms of tensions and the probability of achieving agreements. In this paper we analyze the international distribution of per capita CO 2 emissions between 1971 and 2001 through the adaptation of the polarization concept and measures. We find that the most interesting grouped description deriving from the analysis is a two groups' one, which broadly coincide with Annex B and non-Annex B countries of the Kyoto Protocol, which shows the power of polarization analysis for explaining the generation of groups in the real world. The analysis also shows a significant reduction in international polarization in per capita CO 2 emissions between 1971 and 1995, but not much change since 1995, which might indicate that polarized distribution of emission is still one of the important factors leading to difficulties in achieving agreements for reducing global emissions. (author)

  20. The Potential for Forestry to Reduce Net CO2 Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Forestry may have an important role to play in attempts to reduce atmospheric CO 2 levels, since countries may choose to account for forest management activities to fulfil their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. However, the effectiveness of such efforts may depend on the forest management strategies applied. This thesis is based on four separate studies in which the potential for forest management strategies to decrease net CO 2 emissions was considered. Long-term field experiments and models were used to: evaluate the impact of different thinning regimes; study broad-leaved stands growing on abandoned farmland with different rotation lengths; predict the effects of using different rotation lengths on carbon accumulation and fossil fuel substitution; and perform an integrated analysis of forest management practices and the potential to substitute fossil fuels by wood products. To evaluate the effects of the management regimes considered, carbon stocks in the investigated stands and the potential of the resulting biomass to substitute fossil fuel were estimated. No significant differences were found in biomass production between the thinning regimes for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands, but the standing biomass was significantly larger in unthinned stands, indicating that to maximize the carbon stock in tree biomass thinnings should be avoided. For Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), thinned and fertilized stands produced significantly more biomass (2.60-2.72 ton d.w./ha/yr) than unthinned and unfertilized stands (2.17-2.34 ton d.w./ha/yr) in the northern regions. These findings indicate that fertilization might be a viable measure to increase production of biomass with the potential to replace fossil fuel and energy-intensive material. In addition, for broad-leaved trees stands on abandoned farmland, management regimes with a short rotation were found to be better for maximizing the substitution of fossil fuel than regimes with a long rotation

  1. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Newberger, T.; Tans, P. P.; Lehman, S.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P.; Gurney, K. R.; Song, Y.; Razlivanov, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) from anthropogenic sources are the primary driver of observed increases in the atmospheric CO2 burden, and hence global warming. Quantification of the magnitude of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is vital to improving our understanding of the global and regional carbon cycle, and independent evaluation of reported emissions is essential to the success of any emission reduction efforts. The urban scale is of particular interest, because ~75% CO2ff is emitted from urban regions, and cities are leading the way in attempts to reduce emissions. Measurements of 14CO2 can be used to determine CO2ff, yet existing 14C measurement techniques require laborious laboratory analysis and measurements are often insufficient for inferring an urban emission flux. This presentation will focus on how 14CO2 measurements can be combined with those of more easily measured ancillary tracers to obtain high resolution CO2ff mixing ratio estimates and then infer the emission flux. A pilot study over Sacramento, California showed strong correlations between CO2ff and carbon monoxide (CO) and demonstrated an ability to quantify the urban flux, albeit with large uncertainties. The Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX) aims to develop and assess methods to quantify urban greenhouse gas emissions. Indianapolis was chosen as an ideal test case because it has relatively straightforward meteorology; a contained, isolated, urban region; and substantial and well-known fossil fuel CO2 emissions. INFLUX incorporates atmospheric measurements of a suite of gases and isotopes including 14C from light aircraft and from a network of existing tall towers surrounding the Indianapolis urban area. The recently added CO2ff content is calculated from measurements of 14C in CO2, and then convolved with atmospheric transport models and ancillary data to estimate the urban CO2ff emission flux. Significant innovations in sample collection include: collection of hourly averaged samples to

  2. Re-Examining Embodied SO2 and CO2 Emissions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available CO2 and SO2, while having different environmental impacts, are both linked to the burning of fossil fuels. Research on joint patterns of CO2 emissions and SO2 emissions may provide useful information for decision-makers to reduce these emissions effectively. This study analyzes both CO2 emissions and SO2 emissions embodied in interprovincial trade in 2007 and 2010 using multi-regional input–output analysis. Backward and forward linkage analysis shows that Production and Supply of Electric Power and Steam, Non-metal Mineral Products, and Metal Smelting and Pressing are key sectors for mitigating SO2 and CO2 emissions along the national supply chain. The total SO2 emissions and CO2 emissions of these sectors accounted for 81% and 76% of the total national SO2 emissions and CO2 emissions, respectively.

  3. The global carbon nation: Status of CO2 capture, storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocs, Elizabeth A.

    2017-07-01

    As the world transitions toward cleaner and more sustainable energy generation, Carbon Capture and Sequestration/Storage (CCS) plays an essential role in the portfolio of technologies to help reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The projected increase in population size and its resulting increase in global energy consumption, for both transportation and the electricity grid —the largest emitters of greenhouse gases, will continue to add to current CO2 emissions levels during this transition. Since eighty percent of today's global energy continues to be generated by fossil fuels, a shift to low-carbon energy sources will take many decades. In recent years, shifting to renewables and increasing energy efficiencies have taken more importance than deploying CCS. Together, this triad —renewables, energy efficiency, and CCS— represent a strong paradigm for achieving a carbon-free world. Additionally, the need to accelerate CCS in developing economies like China and India are of increasing concern since migration to renewables is unlikely to occur quickly in those countries. CCS of stationary sources, accounting for only 20% reduction in emissions, as well as increasing efficiency in current systems are needed for major reductions in emissions. A rising urgency for fifty to eighty percent reduction of CO2 emissions by 2050 and one hundred percent reduction by 2100 makes CCS all that more critical in the transition to a cleaner-energy future globally.

  4. The global carbon nation: Status of CO2 capture, storage and utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocs Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the world transitions toward cleaner and more sustainable energy generation, Carbon Capture and Sequestration/Storage (CCS plays an essential role in the portfolio of technologies to help reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The projected increase in population size and its resulting increase in global energy consumption, for both transportation and the electricity grid —the largest emitters of greenhouse gases, will continue to add to current CO2 emissions levels during this transition. Since eighty percent of today’s global energy continues to be generated by fossil fuels, a shift to low-carbon energy sources will take many decades. In recent years, shifting to renewables and increasing energy efficiencies have taken more importance than deploying CCS. Together, this triad —renewables, energy efficiency, and CCS— represent a strong paradigm for achieving a carbon-free world. Additionally, the need to accelerate CCS in developing economies like China and India are of increasing concern since migration to renewables is unlikely to occur quickly in those countries. CCS of stationary sources, accounting for only 20% reduction in emissions, as well as increasing efficiency in current systems are needed for major reductions in emissions. A rising urgency for fifty to eighty percent reduction of CO2 emissions by 2050 and one hundred percent reduction by 2100 makes CCS all that more critical in the transition to a cleaner-energy future globally.

  5. How to Achieve CO2 Emission Reduction Goals: What 'Jazz' and 'Symphony' Can Offer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving CO 2 emission reduction goals remains one of today's most challenging tasks. Global energy demand will grow for many decades to come. In many regions of the world cheap fossil fuels seem to be the way forward to meet ever growing energy demand. However, there are negative consequences to this, most notably increasing emission levels. Politicians and industry therefore must accept that make hard choices in this generation need to be made to bring about real changes for future generations and the planet to limit CO 2 emissions and climate change. In his presentation, prof. Rose will provide an insight into how CO 2 emission reduction goals can be set and achieved and how a balance between future energy needs and supply can be realised in the long run up to 2050 both globally and regionally. This will be done based on WEC's own leading analysis in this area, namely it recently launched World Energy Scenarios: composing energy futures to 2050 report and WEC's scenarios, Jazz and Symphony. WEC's full analysis, the complete report and supporting material is available online at: http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/2013/world-energy-scenarios-composing-energy-futures-to-2050.(author)

  6. What would dense atmospheric observation networks bring to the quantification of city CO2 emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Broquet, Grégoire; Ciais, Philippe; Bellassen, Valentin; Vogel, Felix; Chevallier, Frédéric; Xueref-Remy, Irène; Wang, Yilong

    2016-06-01

    Cities currently covering only a very small portion ( directly release to the atmosphere about 44 % of global energy-related CO2, but they are associated with 71-76 % of CO2 emissions from global final energy use. Although many cities have set voluntary climate plans, their CO2 emissions are not evaluated by the monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) procedures that play a key role for market- or policy-based mitigation actions. Here we analyze the potential of a monitoring tool that could support the development of such procedures at the city scale. It is based on an atmospheric inversion method that exploits inventory data and continuous atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements from a network of stations within and around cities to estimate city CO2 emissions. This monitoring tool is configured for the quantification of the total and sectoral CO2 emissions in the Paris metropolitan area (˜ 12 million inhabitants and 11.4 TgC emitted in 2010) during the month of January 2011. Its performances are evaluated in terms of uncertainty reduction based on observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). They are analyzed as a function of the number of sampling sites (measuring at 25 m a.g.l.) and as a function of the network design. The instruments presently used to measure CO2 concentrations at research stations are expensive (typically ˜ EUR 50 k per sensor), which has limited the few current pilot city networks to around 10 sites. Larger theoretical networks are studied here to assess the potential benefit of hypothetical operational lower-cost sensors. The setup of our inversion system is based on a number of diagnostics and assumptions from previous city-scale inversion experiences with real data. We find that, given our assumptions underlying the configuration of the OSSEs, with 10 stations only the uncertainty for the total city CO2 emission during 1 month is significantly reduced by the inversion by ˜ 42 %. It can be further reduced by extending the

  7. Trend of CO2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    The brochure on the trend of CO 2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany includes tables of the emissions of these power plants. The CO 2 emissions of these power plants in 2013 (25% of the total German greenhouse gas emissions) have increased by 5% compared to 2012. The total CO 2 emission sin Germany increased by 1.5%. The differences between brown coal and black coal fired power plants are discussed.

  8. Does energy and CO_2 emissions performance of China benefit from regional integration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianglong; Lin, Boqiang

    2017-01-01

    Low energy and carbon efficiency and widespread market segmentation are two stylized facts of China's regional economies. This paper evaluates energy and CO_2 emissions performance using a newly developed non-radial directional distance function, and China's regional integration is investigated using a price approach. The study points to evidence that: (1) most provinces do not perform efficiently in terms of energy use and CO_2 emissions with performance gaps among regions becoming larger, indicating regional segmentation; (2) magnitude of regional integration has increased dramatically, while China's eastern provinces are less integrated in domestic side due to their convenience to international openness; (3) regional integration has significant and robust positive effects on energy and CO_2 emissions performance with over 70% of effects coming from artificial barriers, rather than geographical distance; (4) international openness is also beneficial for promoting energy and CO_2 emissions performance, but cannot substitute for regional integration because of China's specialization in energy-intensive manufacturing in the global economy. Based on the empirical findings, we suggest that central government should continue to encourage regional integration given that local governments have incentives to fragment because it is a way of promoting energy and CO_2 emissions performance and stimulating economy at the same time. - Highlights: • NDDF method is applied to evaluate China's regional energy and carbon performance. • Difficulties in identifying NDDF using parametric approach are discussed. • Panel data of China's regional integration using the price approach is constructed. • Local protectionism is particularly identified by filtering effects of geography. • World trade cannot substitute domestic integration for improving energy efficiency.

  9. Grazing exclusion increases soil CO2 emission during the growing season in alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Wang, Aidong; Allan Degen, A.; Deng, Bin; Shang, Zhanhuan; Ding, Luming; Long, Ruijun

    2018-02-01

    Soil CO2 emission is a key part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Grazing exclusion by fencing is often considered a beneficial grassland management option to restore degraded grassland, but its effect on soil CO2 emission on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau is equivocal and is the subject of this study. Using a closed static chamber, we measured diurnal soil CO2 flux weekly from July, 2008, to April, 2009, in response to grazing and grazing exclusion in the alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow. Concomitantly, soil temperature was measured at depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm with digital temperature sensors. It emerged that: 1) non-grazed grasslands emitted more soil CO2 than grazed grasslands over the growing season; 2) the alpine shrub meadow emitted more soil CO2 than the alpine meadow; the annual cumulative soil CO2 emissions of alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow were 241.5-326.5 g C/m2 and 429.0-512.5 g C/m2, respectively; 3) seasonal patterns were evident with more soil CO2 flux in the growing than in the non-growing season; and 4) the diurnal soil CO2 flux exhibited a single peak across all sampling sites. In addition, soil CO2 flux was correlated positively with soil temperature at 5 cm, but not at the other depths. We concluded that grazing exclusion enhanced soil CO2 emission over the growing season, and decreased carbon sequestration of alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Since an increase in soil temperature increased soil CO2 flux, global warming could have an effect on soil CO2 emission in the future.

  10. Scenarios for regional passenger car fleets and their CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ina; Kaniovski, Serguei; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Passenger car traffic is among the main contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which are responsible for climate change. It is also an important indicator used to forecast these emissions in integrated climate-economic models. This paper develops scenarios for global passenger car stock until 2050. The study adopts a global regionalized approach, encompassing 11 world regions. Car stock projections are obtained using a multi-model approach, which includes a consumer demand model based on utility maximization, a non-linear Gompertz model and a panel estimate of the income elasticity of demand for cars. The main hypothesis underlying these projections is that preferences for purchasing cars are similar across cultures and nations and that the demand for cars is largely determined by disposable income. We apply scenarios for the average traffic volume and fuel efficiency developed in previous work together with the average carbon content of fuels to obtain the CO 2 emissions. - Research highlights: ► This study develops scenarios for global passenger car stock, CO 2 emissions and fuel efficiency until 2050. ► In a global regionalized approach car stock projections are obtained using a multi-model approach. ► Compared are utility maximization, a non-linear Gompertz model and a panel estimate. ► Preferences for purchasing cars are similar across cultures and nations. ► The demand for cars is largely determined by disposable income.

  11. China’s provincial CO2 emissions embodied in international and interprovincial trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ju’e; Zhang Zengkai; Meng Lei

    2012-01-01

    Trades create a mechanism of embodied CO 2 emissions transfer among regions, causing distortion on the total emissions. As the world’s second largest economy, China has a large scale of trade, which results in the serious problem of embodied CO 2 emissions transfer. This paper analyzes the characteristics of China’s CO 2 emissions embodied in international and interprovincial trade from the provincial perspective. The multi-regional Input–Output Model is used to clarify provincial CO 2 emissions from geographical and sectoral dimensions, including 30 provinces and 28 sectors. Two calculating principles (production accounting principle and consumption accounting principle, ) are applied. The results show that for international trade, the eastern area accounts for a large proportion in China’s embodied CO 2 emissions. The sectors as net exporters and importers of embodied CO 2 emissions belong to labor-intensive and energy-intensive industries, respectively. For interprovincial trade, the net transfer of embodied CO 2 emissions is from the eastern area to the central area, and energy-intensive industries are the main contributors. With the largest amount of direct CO 2 emissions, the eastern area plays an important role in CO 2 emissions reduction. The central and western areas need supportive policies to avoid the transfer of industries with high emissions. - Highlights: ► China’s embodied CO 2 emissions are analyzed from the provincial perspective. ► Eastern provinces have larger CO 2 emissions embodied in international trade. ► Embodied CO 2 emissions are mainly transferred from eastern area to central area. ► Coastal provinces play important roles in CO 2 emissions reduction. ► Inland provinces need supportive policies on emissions reduction.

  12. Sensitivity study of optimal CO2 emission paths using a simplified structural integrated assessment model (SIAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselmann, K.; Hasselmann, S.; Giering, R.; Ocana, V.; Storch, H. von

    1997-01-01

    A structurally highly simplified, globally integrated coupled climate-economic costs model SIAM (Structural Integrated Assessment Model) is used to compute optimal paths of global CO 2 emissions that minimize the net sum of climate damage and mitigation costs. It studies the sensitivity of the computed optimal emission paths. The climate module is represented by a linearized impulse-response model calibrated against a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation climate model and a three-dimensional global carbon-cycle model. The cost terms are presented by expressions designed with respect to input assumptions. These include the discount rates for mitigation and damage costs, the inertia of the socio-economic system, and the dependence of climate damages on the changes in temperature and the rate of change of temperature. Different assumptions regarding these parameters are believed to cause the marked divergences of existing cost-benefit analyses. The long memory of the climate system implies that very long time horizons of several hundred years need to be considered to optimize CO 2 emissions on time scales relevant for a policy of sustainable development. Cost-benefit analyses over shorter time scales of a century or two can lead to dangerous underestimates of the long term climate impact of increasing greenhouse-gas emissions. To avert a major long term global warming, CO 2 emissions need to be reduced ultimately to very low levels. This may be done slowly but should not be interpreted as providing a time cushion for inaction: the transition becomes more costly the longer the necessary mitigation policies are delayed. However, the long time horizon provides adequate flexibility for later adjustments. Short term energy conservation alone is insufficient and can be viewed only as a useful measure in support of the necessary long term transition to carbon-free energy technologies. 46 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vliet, Oscar; Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Kuramochi, Takeshi; van den Broek, Machteld; Faaij, Andre

    2011-01-01

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate of EV and household peak load by 54%, which may exceed the capacity of existing electricity distribution infrastructure. At 30% penetration of EV, off-peak charging would result in a 20% higher, more stable base load and no additional peak load at the national level and up to 7% higher peak load at the household level. Therefore, if off-peak charging is successfully introduced, electric driving need not require additional generation capacity, even in case of 100% switch to electric vehicles. GHG emissions from electric driving depend most on the fuel type (coal or natural gas) used in the generation of electricity for charging, and range between 0 g km -1 (using renewables) and 155 g km -1 (using electricity from an old coal-based plant). Based on the generation capacity projected for the Netherlands in 2015, electricity for EV charging would largely be generated using natural gas, emitting 35-77 g CO 2 eq km -1 . We find that total cost of ownership (TCO) of current EV are uncompetitive with regular cars and series hybrid cars by more than 800 EUR year -1 . TCO of future wheel motor PHEV may become competitive when batteries cost 400 EUR kWh -1 , even without tax incentives, as long as one battery pack can last for the lifespan of the vehicle. However, TCO of future battery powered cars is at least 25% higher than of series hybrid or regular cars. This cost gap remains unless cost of batteries drops to 150 EUR kWh -1 in the future. Variations in driving cost from charging patterns have negligible influence on TCO. GHG abatement costs using plug-in hybrid cars are currently 400-1400 EUR tonne -1 CO 2eq and may come down to -100 to 300 EUR tonne -1 . Abatement cost using

  14. CO2 emissions from household consumption in India between 1993–94 and 2006–07: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Aparna; Paul, Saikat Kumar

    2014-01-01

    CO 2 emission from anthropogenic activities is one of the major causes of global warming. India being an agriculture dependent country, global warming would mean monsoon instability and consequent food scarcity, natural disasters and economic concerns. However with proper policy interventions, CO 2 emissions can be controlled. Input–output analysis has been used to estimate direct and indirect CO 2 emissions by households for 1993–94, 1998–99, 2003–04 and 2006–07. Complete decomposition analysis of the changes in CO 2 emissions between 1993–94 and 2006–07 has been done to identify the causes into pollution, energy intensity, structure, activity and population effects according to broad household consumption categories. Results indicate that activity, structure and population effects are the main causes of increase in CO 2 emission from household fuel consumption. To identify the causes at the sectoral level a second decomposition has been done for changes between 2003–04 and 2006–07 to identify the causes in the next stage. Finally alternative energy policy options have been examined for each consumption category to reduce emissions. Combined strategies of technology upgradation, fuel switching and market management in order to reduce CO 2 emissions for sectors like Batteries, Other non-electrical machinery, Construction and Electronic equipments (including Television), for which all the effects are positive, need to be adopted. - Highlights: • Household CO 2 emissions (direct and indirect) from 1993–94 to 2006–07 using IOTT. • Decomposition of changes between 1993–94 and 2006–07 for consumption categories. • Decomposition of changes in CO 2 emission from 2003–04 to 2006–07 at the sectoral level. • Monetary and physical resource saving under different energy policy options. • Energy policy guideline pertaining to the consumption categories at the sectoral level

  15. Modeling the response of forest isoprene emissions to future increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration and changes in climate (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, R. K.; Heald, C. L.; Guenther, A. B.; Wilkinson, M.

    2009-12-01

    Isoprene emissions from plants to the atmosphere are sensitive to changes in temperature, light and atmospheric CO2 concentration in both the short- (seconds-to-minutes) and long-term (hours-to-months). We now understand that the different time constants for these responses are due to controls by different sets of biochemical and physiological processes n leaves. Progress has been made in the past few years toward converting this process-level understanding into quantitative models. In this talk, we consider this progress with special emphasis on the short- and long-term responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. A new biochemically-based model is presented for describing the CO2 responses, and the model is deployed in a global context to predict interactions between the influences of temperature and CO2 on the global isoprene emission rate. The model is based on the theory of enzyme-substrate kinetics, particularly with regard to those reactions that produce puruvate or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, the two chloroplastic substrates for isoprene biosynthesis. In the global model, when we accounted for CO2 inhibition of isoprene emission in the long-term response, we observed little impact on present-day global isoprene emission (increase from 508 to 523 Tg C yr-1). However, the large increases in future isoprene emissions predicted from past models which are due to a projected warmer climate, were entirely offset by including the CO2 effects. The isoprene emission response to CO2 was dominated by the long-term growth environment effect, with modulations of 10% or less from the short-term effect. We use this analysis as a framework for grounding future global models of isoprene emission in biochemical and physiological observations.

  16. The greenhouse effect and the amount of CO2 emissions in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, Gh.

    1992-01-01

    In order to reduce the CO 2 emissions, responsible by the greenhouse effect on Terra, an international control for monitoring them is to be instated. The development of methods for reducing the CO 2 emissions, implies the identification and evaluation of the CO 2 sources, the forecasting of probable evolution of the CO 2 emissions, and also the assessment of the economic impact. This paper tries to accomplish such an evaluation and to draft several scenarios for reduction of the CO 2 emissions. Also considerations about the suitability of the Romanian adhesion to the international treaties regarding the greenhouse effect monitoring are presented. (author). 7 tabs

  17. Analysis of CO2 emissions reduction in the Malaysian transportation sector: An optimisation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapa, Siti Indati; Bekhet, Hussain Ali

    2016-01-01

    The demand for transport services is expected to rise, causing the CO 2 emissions level to increase as well. In Malaysia, the transportation sector accounts for 28% of total CO 2 emissions, of which 85% comes from road transport. By 2020, Malaysia is targeting a reduction in CO 2 emissions intensity by up to 40% and in this effort the role of road transport is paramount. This paper attempts to investigate effective policy options that can assist Malaysia in reducing the CO 2 emissions level. An Optimisation model is developed to estimate the potential CO 2 emissions mitigation strategies for road transport by minimising the CO 2 emissions under the constraint of fuel cost and demand travel. Several mitigation strategies have been applied to analyse the effect of CO 2 emissions reduction potential. The results demonstrate that removal of fuel price subsidies can result in reductions of up to 652 ktonnes of fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions can be decreased by 6.55%, which would enable Malaysia to hit its target by 2020. CO 2 emissions can be reduced significantly, up to 20%, by employing a combination of mitigation policies in Malaysia. This suggests that appropriate mitigation policies can assist the country in its quest to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target. - Highlights: • An optimisation model for CO 2 emissions reduction in Malaysia's road transport is formulated. • Sensible policy options to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target are provided. • Increase in fuel price has induced shift towards fuel efficient vehicles. • The CO 2 emissions can be reduced up to 5.7 MtCO 2 with combination of mitigation policies.

  18. Cost of lower NO x emissions: Increased CO 2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Carder, Daniel K.; Thompson, Gregory; Gautam, Mridul

    This paper highlights the effect of emissions regulations on in-use emissions from heavy-duty vehicles powered by different model year engines. More importantly, fuel economy data for pre- and post-consent decree engines are compared. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in brake-specific emissions of NO x as a result of emission regulations, and to highlight the effect these have had on brake-specific CO 2 emission; hence, fuel consumption. For this study, in-use, on-road emission measurements were collected. Test vehicles were instrumented with a portable on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system, WVU's Mobile Emissions Measurement System, and were tested on specific routes, which included a mix of highway and city driving patterns, in order to collect engine operating conditions, vehicle speed, and in-use emission rates of CO 2 and NO x. Comparison of on-road in-use emissions data suggests NO x reductions as high as 80% and 45% compared to the US Federal Test Procedure and Not-to-Exceed standards for model year 1995-2002. However, the results indicate that the fuel consumption; hence, CO 2 emissions increased by approximately 10% over the same period, when the engines were operating in the Not-to-Exceed region.

  19. Study of nuclear heat application systems for arresting CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Hishida, Makoto; Ogata, Kan; Yamada, Seiya.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the paper is to investigate the systems for arresting CO 2 emission and for the effective utilization of fossil fuel. We studied the fossil fuel reforming systems to decrease the CO 2 emission rate per unit amount of heat generation by fossil fuel. Feed materials for reforming system were natural gas, crude oil, oil sand, oil shale and coal. Products by reforming were hydrogen, methane, methanol and gasoline. We examined CO 2 emission ratio of ten systems with different feed material and product. The CO 2 emission ratio was the ratio of CO 2 emission rate per unit amount of heat generation between the products and the feed materials, and was the important index. As the results, the CO 2 emission ratio for the coal to methane reforming system using steam gasifier had the lowest value of 51%. It means that the CO 2 emission rate of the product from the coal to methane reforming system was 51% of the emission rate of the feed material, that is, the system is very effective to arrest the CO 2 emission. The CO 2 emission ratio increases in the following order: the reforming systems from coal to methanol, heavy oil to hydrogen and natural gas to hydrogen. It was clarified that the system of coal to methane reforming was very effective for arresting CO 2 emission compared to the other systems, moreover the nuclear heat using rate and thermal efficiency of the plant of the system were the highest. (author)

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

  1. Effects of fuel price fluctuation on individual CO2 traffic emissions : empirical findings from pseudo panel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Globalized concerns about greenhouse gasses and increased energy consumptions have stimulated research in transportation about the relationships between fuel prices and emissions. Many researchers have found that higher fuel price can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions through a number of

  2. An ensemble approach to simulate CO2 emissions from natural fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, A. V.; Mokhov, I. I.; Chernokulsky, A. V.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents ensemble simulations with the global climate model developed at the A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM). These simulations are forced by historical reconstructions of concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O), sulfate aerosols (both in the troposphere and stratosphere), extent of crops and pastures, and total solar irradiance for AD 850-2005 (hereafter all years are taken as being AD) and by the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios for the same forcing agents until the year 2300. Our model implements GlobFIRM (Global FIRe Model) as a scheme for calculating characteristics of natural fires. Comparing to the original GlobFIRM model, in our implementation, the scheme is extended by a module accounting for CO2 release from soil during fires. The novel approach of our paper is to simulate natural fires in an ensemble fashion. Different ensemble members in the present paper are constructed by varying the values of parameters of the natural fires module. These members are constrained by the GFED-3.1 data set for the burnt area and CO2 release from fires and further subjected to Bayesian averaging. Our simulations are the first coupled model assessment of future changes in gross characteristics of natural fires. In our model, the present-day (1998-2011) global area burnt due to natural fires is (2.1 ± 0.4) × 106 km2 yr-1 (ensemble mean and intra-ensemble standard deviation are presented), and the respective CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are (1.4 ± 0.2) Pg C yr-1. The latter value is in agreement with the corresponding GFED estimates. The area burnt by natural fires is generally larger than the GFED estimates except in boreal Eurasia, where it is realistic, and in Australia, where it is smaller than these estimates. Regionally, the modelled CO2 emissions are larger (smaller) than the GFED estimates in Europe (in the tropics and north-eastern Eurasia). From

  3. The Relationship Between Emissions and Economic Growth for SO2, CO2, and BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, M.; Shindell, D. T.; Tao, S.; Zhong, Q.; Seltzer, K.

    2017-12-01

    We characterize the relationship between per person emissions of SO2, CO2, and black carbon (BC) and income using a global country-level emission inventory. Pollutant emissions of SO2 and BC from the power, industry, and transportation sectors largely follow an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) pattern with peak emissions at income levels between 10,000 and 100,000 USD per capita. However, for CO2, any estimated turnover income is extremely high and unlikely to be reached in the near future in power, industry, and transportation. Residential emissions show a negatively sloped linear relationship for BC, a small positive slope for CO2, and a fairly flat trajectory for SO2. For the EKC-like trajectories, "turning point" incomes for each sector and pollutant are related to technological advances and the effectiveness of emission controls. These results suggest that policy targeting technological advances and emission controls could change future pathways by affecting the "turning point" incomes. For the linear trajectories in the residential sector, we show that transitions from biomass fuel to coal in low-income countries and from coal to natural gas in middle and high-income countries, in concert with electrification levels, are the main factors governing slopes. Thus, the three pollutants show different income-emission trajectories based on the sum of the four major sectors, and the residential sector in particular has a unique relationship with income growth. As one of the first studies to analyze historical emission trajectories of BC, we find that BC differs from SO2 and CO2 because of its significantly earlier turnover in the power and industry sectors due to control policies. Total BC emissions trajectories follow a unique shape due to the combination of linearly decreasing residential emissions with EKC-like patterns in industry and transportation. We compare these trajectories to those in three Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs), GCAM, AIM, and MESSAGE

  4. The influence of non-CO2 forcings on cumulative carbon emissions budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarska, Katarzyna B.; Gillett, Nathan P.; Arora, Vivek K.; Lee, Warren G.; Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2018-03-01

    Carbon budgets provide a useful tool for policymakers to help meet the global climate targets, as they specify total allowable carbon emissions consistent with limiting warming to a given temperature threshold. Non-CO2 forcings have a net warming effect in the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios, leading to reductions in remaining carbon budgets based on CO2 forcing alone. Carbon budgets consistent with limiting warming to below 2.0 °C, with and without accounting for the effects of non-CO2 forcings, were assessed in inconsistent ways by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), making the effects of non-CO2 forcings hard to identify. Here we use a consistent approach to compare 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C carbon budgets with and without accounting for the effects of non-CO2 forcings, using CO2-only and RCP8.5 simulations. The median allowable carbon budgets for 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C warming are reduced by 257 PgC and 418 PgC, respectively, and the uncertainty ranges on the budgets are reduced by more than a factor of two when accounting for the net warming effects of non-CO2 forcings. While our overall results are consistent with IPCC, we use a more robust methodology, and explain the narrower uncertainty ranges of carbon budgets when non-CO2 forcings are included. We demonstrate that most of the reduction in carbon budgets is a result of the direct warming effect of the non-CO2 forcings, with a secondary contribution from the influence of the non-CO2 forcings on the carbon cycle. Such carbon budgets are expected to play an increasingly important role in climate change mitigation, thus understanding the influence of non-CO2 forcings on these budgets and their uncertainties is critical.

  5. How much can wind reduce the French CO2 emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, H.

    2010-03-01

    This report analyses the information recently made available by the French electricity transport network RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite). It consists in a detailed data set which gives the time evolution of the power either consumed by the country or generated with the diverse production modes exploited by utilities within France. For the first time the French public is also provided some analytical information on a major renewable energy: wind. Our analysis shows that the French wind-turbine-fleet efficiency over last fall-winter semester is 24.3%. The wind production displays the strong fluctuations expected for this intermittent non-controllable energy. It is observed that the time and energy distributions of the power delivered by the French wind turbines are not related to the increased electricity needs which occurred during a semester where a few cold waves hit the country. As a consequence, the controllable productions which already ensure the balance of consumption versus production had also to carry the extra load associated with the handling of wind fluctuations. In a second part of this report, based on the actual data provided by RTE, the report determines the maximal reduction of the CO 2 emissions which can be expected from the completion of the national wind energy program endorsed by the government. We conclude that in the absence of a significant strengthening of the electric network and an increase of the national energy storage capacity, the wind energy policy decided by the French government will only yield limited results on the reduction of both the GHG emissions and the country reliance on fossil fuel burning plants. (author)

  6. Assessing the Potential of Utilization and Storage Strategies for Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Katy; Styring, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emissions reduction potential of three carbon dioxide handling strategies for post-combustion capture is considered. These are carbon capture and sequestration/storage (CCS), enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (EHR), and carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) to produce synthetic oil. This is performed using common and comparable boundary conditions including net CO 2 sequestered based on equivalent boundary conditions. This is achieved using a “cradle to grave approach” where the final destination and fate of any product is considered. The input boundary is pure CO 2 that has been produced using a post-combustion capture process as this is common between all processes. The output boundary is the emissions resulting from any product produced with the assumption that the majority of the oil will go to combustion processes. We also consider the “cradle to gate” approach where the ultimate fate of the oil is not considered as this is a boundary condition often applied to EHR processes. Results show that while CCS can make an impact on CO 2 emissions, CDU will have a comparable effect whilst generating income while EHR will ultimately increase net emissions. The global capacity for CDU is also compared against CCS using data based on current and planned CCS projects. Analysis shows that current CDU represent a greater volume of capture than CCS processes and that this gap is likely to remain well beyond 2020 which is the limit of the CCS projects in the database.

  7. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, V.; Barbier, C.; Riedacker, A.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO 2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO 2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  8. Near stabilisation of CO2 emissions in the world in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecoiffier, Mathieu

    2016-03-01

    This publication proposes discussions and comments of tables and graphs of statistics regarding evolutions of CO 2 emissions during the last decades. It is noticed that CO 2 emissions only had a 0.5 per cent increase in 2014, i.e. nearly stagnation. These variations and data are analysed with respect to countries and geographical regions. Thus, it is outlined that CO 2 emissions per inhabitant in China are higher than in Europe, that the intensity of CO 2 emission with respect to GDP is strongly decreasing (-4.4 per cent), that the decrease of energy intensity slowed down the growth of world emission since 1990

  9. CO2 emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy and economic growth in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menyah, Kojo; Wolde-Rufael, Yemane

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the causal relationship between carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, renewable and nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for the US for the period 1960-2007. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test, we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to CO 2 emissions without feedback but no causality running from renewable energy to CO 2 emissions. The econometric evidence seems to suggest that nuclear energy consumption can help to mitigate CO 2 emissions, but so far, renewable energy consumption has not reached a level where it can make a significant contribution to emissions reduction.

  10. Oil refining in a CO2 constrained world: Effects of carbon pricing on refineries globally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.; Arfaj, Abdullah; Babiker, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Six aggregated refinery linear programming (LP) models were developed to represent actual refineries in North America, Latin America, Europe (including the CIS), Middle East, Asia (excluding China) and China. The models were used to conduct regional comparative assessments and to evaluate the effects of carbon pricing on refinery operations globally. We found that the average refinery energy efficiencies for the regions were estimated to range from 92.2% to 95.2%. The well-to-refinery gate carbon intensities for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels were estimated to be 17.1 (16.4–19.4), 13.3 (12.5–14.2) and 10.1 (9.6–10.8) gCO2eq/MJ, respectively. If refineries are forced to at least meet the 2014 regional volume demands for oil products, pricing CO 2 would not have an impact on either refinery productions, efficiency or emissions. If refineries are allowed to re-optimize production slates to reduce CO 2 emissions, refineries would opt to increase gasoline yield at the expense of diesel. This is counter intuitive since gasoline has a higher carbon intensity than diesel. The refinery bias against dieselization creates a supply preference toward a less efficient transportation end use. Here, we argue that if carbon pricing is not administered properly, this can lead to emissions leakage from refineries to the road transport sector. - Highlights: • Investigate actual refinery productions in 6 regions globally. • Refineries already operate at the most efficient levels. • Complex refineries tolerate higher CO 2 prices better. • Carbon pricing induces bias against dieselization. • Identify potential emissions leakage.

  11. Decoupling economic growth from CO2 emissions: A decomposition analysis of China's household energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Chinese household CO2 emissions in 1994–2012 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI structure decomposition model, and discusses the relationship between household CO2 emissions and economic growth based on a decoupling indicator. The results show that in 1994–2012, household CO2 emissions grew in general and displayed an accelerated growth trend during the early 21st century. Economic growth leading to an increase in energy consumption is the main driving factor of CO2 emission growth (an increase of 1.078 Gt CO2 with cumulative contribution rate of 55.92%, while the decline in energy intensity is the main cause of CO2 emission growth inhibition (0.723 Gt CO2 emission reduction with cumulative contribution rate of 38.27%. Meanwhile, household CO2 emissions are in a weak state of decoupling in general. The change in CO2 emissions caused by population and economic growth shows a weak decoupling and expansive decoupling state, respectively. The CO2 emission change caused by energy intensity is in a state of strong decoupling, and the change caused by energy consumption structure fluctuates between a weak and a strong decoupling state.

  12. Summit CO2 emission rates by the CO2/SO2 ratio method at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, during a period of sustained inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, S.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; Wallace, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The emission rate of carbon dioxide escaping from the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, proved highly variable, averaging 4900 ± 2000 metric tons per day (t/d) in June–July 2003 during a period of summit inflation. These results were obtained by combining over 90 measurements of COSPEC-derived SO2emission rates with synchronous CO2/SO2 ratios of the volcanic gas plume along the summit COSPEC traverse. The results are lower than the CO2 emission rate of 8500 ± 300 t/d measured by the same method in 1995–1999 during a period of long-term summit deflation [Gerlach, T.M., McGee, K.A., Elias, T., Sutton, A.J. and Doukas, M.P., 2002. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 107(B9): art. no.-2189.]. Analysis of the data indicates that the emission rates of the present study likely reflect changes in the magma supply rate and residence time in the summit reservoir. It is also likely that emission rates during the inflation period were heavily influenced by SO2 pulses emitted adjacent to the COSPEC traverse, which biased CO2/SO2 ratios towards low values that may be unrepresentative of the global summit gas plume. We conclude that the SO2 pulses are consequences of summit re-inflation under way since 2003 and that CO2 emission rates remain comparable to, but more variable than, those measured prior to re-inflation.

  13. World CO_2-energy emissions balance and impacts of the Kyoto Protocol in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau, Bertrand

    2005-01-01

    industrial sector and the other sectors do not emit more in 2003 than in 1990. All large countries and zones of the Annex B, except the CIS and Eastern Europe countries, resolutely deviate from the Kyoto objectives; relatively, the UE-15 performs better than the other zones. Despite the Russian hot air, global emissions from the Annex B countries are 1.5 GtCO_2 higher than the Kyoto objectives for 2003. Only 5 countries are less than 12% from the objective in 2003: Germany, France, Greece, UK, Sweden. 4 countries are more than 35% higher from the objective: Austria, Spain, Ireland, Luxemburg. There are 3 principal drivers explaining emissions dynamics: Economic and demographic growths generate higher emissions; Emissions/capita disparities are also linked to energy fuel mix, in particular for electricity generation: this fuel mix evolution partly explains the differences among countries performance vs. Kyoto; The various sectors emitting CO_2-energy weight unequally within total emissions: differences in dynamics by sector partly explain the evolutions observed. The natural gas penetration and relative coal receding slow the emissions increase and is even more accentuated in Europe. The electric sector and transport, main drivers of world emissions increase. Situations and evolutions are more contrasted in Europe for the energy sector. Contrasted positions in the industry sector vs. CO_2 emissions (including process) within the Annex B countries. A similar contrast is observed in the EU. Anticipation of carbon prices: a market simulated by the POLES model, based on carbon supply and offer. In particular, the POLES model assesses the effect of the USA withdrawal and Russian 'hot air' on the carbon market. The implementation of the EU ETS will lead to an increase in gas prices. Energy prices will be more affected by carbon price in the industry sector than in other sectors

  14. Estimation of CO2 emission for each process in the Japanese steel industry: a process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Tonooka, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The CO 2 emission for each process in the Japanese steel industry is estimated by a process analysis using statistical data in order to evaluate the possibility of reducing CO 2 emissions. The emission factor of CO 2 for each product and also for crude steel produced from an integrated steel plant route and an electric arc furnaces route is estimated and compared. The CO 2 emissions can be estimated from production amounts of products for each process and for crude steel. The CO 2 emission of blast furnaces is the largest and that of rolling and piping follows. The emission factor of CO 2 of crude steel produced from an integrated steel plant route is approximately 3.8 times as high as that produced via an electric arc furnace route. (Author)

  15. Cost of global warming may be 'sin' taxes on CO 2 use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, Cliff.

    1995-01-01

    One suggested solution for curbing carbon dioxide emissions and thus stopping the so-called greenhouse effect is taxing the emissions. A meeting in Maastrict, The Netherlands, The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change declared that greenhouse emissions are putting the worlds climate at serious risk. The panel called on both industry and governments to act 'urgently' to deal with the threat. For some who have been watching world temperature closely, all of this concern may seem a bit strange. Worldwide temperatures had cooled by approximately 0.08 degrees Fahrenheit in the five years between 1987 and 1992, perhaps the strongest arguments for global warming come from surface temperature measurement, taken primarily at weather stations, show a steady march toward warmer temperatures since 1980 or so. Despite the satellite record and other evidence that nothing of global warming are yet appearing CO 2 sin taxes seem a likely possibility in at least some European countries and perhaps in Canada. (author)

  16. Equality and CO2 emissions distribution in climate change integrated assessment modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola; Padilla, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    The equity implications of alternative climate policy measures are an essential issue to be considered in the design of future international agreements to tackle global warming. This paper specifically analyses the future path of emissions and income distribution and its determinants in different scenarios. Whereas our analysis is driven by tools which are typically applied in the income distribution literature and which have recently been applied to the analysis of CO 2 emissions distribution, a new methodological approach is that our study is driven by simulations run with the popular regionalised optimal growth climate change model RICE99 over the 1995-2105 period. We find that the architecture of environmental policies, the implementation of flexible mechanisms and income concentration are key determinants of emissions distribution over time. In particular we find a robust positive relationship between measures of inequalities in the distribution of emissions and income and that their magnitude will essentially depend on technological change. (author)

  17. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO2 emissions : Application and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, S. W. L.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    The C-14 method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO2 emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO2 samples that have been sampled in I-h intervals at

  18. CO2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO 2 in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)

  19. CO2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and Co 2 in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted for China, India, Indonesia and South Korea in Asia

  20. CO2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of Energy in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketoff, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist energy demand in developing will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO 2 in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted fro Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela in Latin America

  1. Will technological progress be sufficient to stabilize CO2 emissions from air transport in the mid-term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheze, Benoit; Chevallier, Julien; Gastineau, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether anticipated technological progress can be expected to be strong enough to offset carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions resulting from the rapid growth of air transport. Aviation CO 2 emissions projections are provided at the worldwide level and for eight geographical zones until 2025. Total air traffic flows are first forecast using a dynamic panel-data econometric model, and then converted into corresponding quantities of air traffic CO 2 emissions using specific hypotheses and energy factors. None of our nine scenarios appears compatible with the objective of 450 ppm CO 2 -eq. (a.k.a. 'scenario of type I') recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). None is either compatible with the IPCC scenario of type III, which aims at limiting global warming to 3.2 deg. C

  2. CO2 emissions abatement and geologic sequestration - industrial innovations and stakes - status of researches in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium was jointly organized by the French institute of petroleum (IFP), the French agency of environmental and energy mastery (Ademe) and the geological and mining research office (BRGM). This press kit makes a status of the advances made in CO 2 emissions abatement and geological sequestration: technological advances of CO 2 capture and sequestration, geological reservoir dimensioning with respect to the problem scale, duration of such an interim solution, CO 2 emissions abatement potentialities of geological sequestration, regulatory, economical and financial implications, international stakes of greenhouse gas emissions. This press kit comprises a press release about the IFP-Ademe-BRGM colloquium, a slide presentation about CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and four papers: a joint IFP-Ademe-BRGM press conference, IFP's answers to CO 2 emissions abatement, Ademe's actions in CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and BRGM's experience in CO 2 sequestration and climatic change expertise. (J.S.)

  3. Industrial energy efficiency with CO2 emissions in China: A nonparametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, F.; Fan, L.W.; Zhou, P.; Zhou, D.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Global awareness on energy security and climate change has created much interest in assessing economy-wide energy efficiency performance. A number of previous studies have contributed to evaluate energy efficiency performance using different analytical techniques among which data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently received increasing attention. Most of DEA-related energy efficiency studies do not consider undesirable outputs such as CO 2 emissions in their modeling framework, which may lead to biased energy efficiency values. Within a joint production framework of desirable and undesirable outputs, in this paper we construct both static and dynamic energy efficiency performance indexes for measuring industrial energy efficiency performance by using several environmental DEA models with CO 2 emissions. The dynamic energy efficiency performance indexes have further been decomposed into two contributing components. We finally apply the indexes proposed to assess the industrial energy efficiency performance of different provinces in China over time. Our empirical study shows that the energy efficiency improvement in China's industrial sector was mainly driven by technological improvement. - Highlights: ► China's industrial energy efficiency is evaluated by DEA models with CO 2 emissions. ► China's industrial energy efficiency improved by 5.6% annually since 1997. ► Industrial energy efficiency improvement in China was mainly driven by technological improvement.

  4. A hybrid study of multiple contributors to per capita household CO2 emissions (HCEs) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiansheng; Qin, Shanshan; Liu, Lina; Zeng, Jingjing; Bian, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Given the large expenditures by households on goods and services that contribute a large proportion of global CO2 emissions, increasing attention has been paid to household CO2 emissions (HCEs). However, compared with industrial CO2 emissions, efforts devoted to mitigating HCEs are relatively small. A good understanding of the effects of some driving factors (i.e., urbanization rate, per capita GDP, per capita income/disposable income, Engel coefficient, new energy ratio, carbon intensity, and household size) is urgently needed prior to considering policies for reducing HCEs. Given this, in the study, the direct and indirect per capita HCEs were quantified in rural and urban areas of China over the period 2000-2012. Correlation analysis and gray correlation analysis were initially used to identify the prime drivers of per capita HCEs. Our results showed that per capita income/disposable income, per capita GDP, urbanization rate, and household size were the most significantly correlated with per capita HCEs in rural areas. Moreover, the conjoint effects of the potential driving factors on per capita HCEs were determined by performing principal component regression analysis for all cases. Based on the combined analysis strategies, alternative polices were also examined for controlling and mitigating HCEs growth in China.

  5. A comparative assessment of different options to reduce CO2 emissions. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messner, S.; Nakicenovic, N.

    1992-03-01

    The IIASA research project on Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies includes the assessment of options and measures for mitigating global CO 2 emissions. The basis of this assessment is the comparative inventory of technological and economic measures including efficiency improvement, conservation, enhanced use of low-carbon fuels, carbon free sources of energy and measures for removing carbon from fuels, flue gases and also from the atmosphere such as afforestation, and finally also measures for enhancement of carbon sinks. To include all potential options, the comparison is based on energy end-use accounting for the fully interlinked energy conversion chain up to energy resources. The analysis is supported by a fully interactive data bank system, CO2DB, that is capable of evaluating full energy chains with respect to their economic, technical and environmental parameters. The paper reports energy requirements, cost and CO 2 emissions for different energy chains providing industrial drives, cooling and air transport services. At additional cost, emissions can be reduced drastically on all these end-use categories. (authors)

  6. An equivalence factor between CO2 avoided emissions and sequestration. Description and applications in forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.M.; Wilson, C.

    2000-01-01

    Concern about the issue of permanence and reversibility of the effects of carbon sequestration has led to the need to devise accounting methods that quantify the temporal value of storing carbon that has been actively sequestered or removed from the atmosphere, as compared to carbon stored as a result of activities taken to avoid emissions. This paper describes a method for accounting for the atmospheric effects of sequestration-based land-use projects in relation to the duration of carbon storage. Firstly, the time period over which sequestered carbon should be stored in order to counteract the radiative forcing effect of carbon emissions was calculated, based on the residence time and decay pattern of atmospheric CO2, its Absolute Global Warming Potential. This time period was called the equivalence time, and was calculated to be approximately 55 years. From this equivalence time, the effect of storage of 1 t CO2 for 1 year was derived, and found to be similar to preventing the effect of the emission of 0.0182 t CO2. Potential applications of this tonne.year figure, here called the equivalence factor, are then discussed in relation to the estimation of atmospheric benefits over time of sequestration-based land use projects. 15 refs

  7. Exploring the relation between urbanization and residential CO2 emissions in China: a PTR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zongyi; Tang, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical work suggests that urbanization and residential CO2 emissions are related. This paper investigates the nonlinear impact of urbanization on residential CO2 emissions over the period 1997–2011 in China by applying the Candelon et al. (2012) methodology. The results show that the relationship between urbanization and residential CO2 emissions is negative over the sample which is inconsistent with the previous studies. In addition, we find the absolute difference of the estimated...

  8. Evaluation Analysis of the CO2 Emission and Absorption Life Cycle for Precast Concrete in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To comply with recent international trends and initiatives, and in order to help achieve sustainable development, Korea has established a greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction target of 37% (851 million tons of the business as usual (BAU rate by 2030. Regarding environmentally-oriented standards such as the IGCC (International Green Construction Code, there are also rising demands for the assessment on CO2 emissions during the life cycle in accordance with ISO (International Standardization Organization’s Standard 14040. At present, precast concrete (PC engineering-related studies primarily cover structural and construction aspects, including improvement of structural performance in the joint, introduction of pre-stressed concrete and development of half PC. In the manufacture of PC, steam curing is mostly used for the early-strength development of concrete. In steam curing, a large amount of CO2 is produced, causing an environmental problem. Therefore, this study proposes a method to assess CO2 emissions (including absorption throughout the PC life cycle by using a life cycle assessment (LCA method. Using the proposed assessment method, CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a precast concrete girder (PCG were assessed. In addition, CO2 absorption was assessed against a PCG using conventional carbonation and CO2 absorption-related models. As a result, the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1365.6 (kg-CO2/1 PCG. The CO2 emissions during the production of raw materials among the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1390 (kg-CO2/1 PCG, accounting for a high portion to total CO2 emissions (nearly 90%. In contrast, the transportation and manufacture stages were 1% and 10%, respectively, having little effect on total CO2 emissions. Among the use of the PCG, CO2 absorption was mostly decided by the CO2 diffusion coefficient and the amount of CO2 absorption by cement paste. The CO2 absorption by carbonation

  9. CO2 emission costs and Gas/Coal competition for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Federico

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a CO 2 emission reduction programme can change the competition between the two power production technologies which will probably dominate the future of the Italian power industry: the coal fired USC steam power plant and the natural gas fired CCGT power plant. An economic value of the CO 2 emission is calculated, in order to make the short-run-marginal-cost (or the long-run-marginal-cost). equal for both technologies, under a CO 2 emission trading scheme and following a single-plant specific CO 2 emission homogenizing approach [it

  10. Empirical Study of Decomposition of CO2 Emission Factors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Ning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s CO2 emissions increase has attracted world’s attention. It is of great importance to analyze China’s CO2 emission factors to restrain the CO2 rapid growing. The CO2 emissions of industrial and residential consumption sectors in China during 1980–2010 were calculated in this paper. The expanded decomposition model of CO2 emissions was set up by adopting factor-separating method based on the basic principle of the Kaya identities. The results showed that CO2 emissions of industrial and residential consumption sectors increase year after year, and the scale effect of GDP is the most important factor affecting CO2 emissions of industrial sector. Decreasing the specific gravity of secondary industry and energy intensity is more effective than decreasing the primary industry and tertiary industry. The emissions reduction effect of structure factor is better than the efficiency factor. For residential consumption sector, CO2 emissions increase rapidly year after year, and the economy factor (the increase of wealthy degree or income is the most important factor. In order to slow down the growth of CO2 emissions, it is an important way to change the economic growth mode, and the structure factor will become a crucial factor.

  11. CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China: A panel data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.S.; Zhou, D.Q.; Zhou, P.; Wang, Q.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and real economic output using panel cointegration and panel vector error correction modeling techniques based on the panel data for 28 provinces in China over the period 1995-2007. Our empirical results show that CO 2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth have appeared to be cointegrated. Moreover, there exists bidirectional causality between CO 2 emissions and energy consumption, and also between energy consumption and economic growth. It has also been found that energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO 2 emissions and CO 2 emissions and economic growth are the long-run causes for energy consumption. The results indicate that China's CO 2 emissions will not decrease in a long period of time and reducing CO 2 emissions may handicap China's economic growth to some degree. Some policy implications of the empirical results have finally been proposed. - Highlights: → We conduct a panel data analysis of the energy-CO 2 -economy nexus in China. → CO 2 emissions, energy use and economic growth appear to be cointegrated. → There exists bidirectional causality between energy consumption and economic growth. → Energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO 2 emissions.

  12. Stabilization of emission of CO2: A computable general equilibrium assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsroed, S.; Vennemo, H.; Johnsen, T.

    1992-01-01

    A multisector computable general equilibrium model is used to study economic development perspectives in Norway if CO 2 emissions were stabilized. The effects discussed include impacts on main macroeconomic indicators and economic growth, sectoral allocation of production, and effects on the market for energy. The impact of other pollutants than CO 2 on emissions is assessed along with the related impact on noneconomic welfare. The results indicate that CO 2 emissions might be stabilized in Norway without dramatically reducing economic growth. Sectoral allocation effects are much larger. A substantial reduction in emissions to air other than CO 2 is found, yielding considerable gains in noneconomic welfare. 25 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Panel estimation for urbanization, energy consumption and CO2 emissions: A regional analysis in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chuanguo; Lin Yan

    2012-01-01

    As urbanization accelerates, urban areas play a leading role in energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China. The existing research is extensively concerned with the relationships between urbanization, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in recent years, but little attention has been paid to the regional differences. This paper is an analysis of the impact of urbanization on energy consumption and CO 2 emissions at the national and regional levels using the STIRPAT model and provincial panel data from 1995 to 2010 in China. The results showed that urbanization increases energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China. The effects of urbanization on energy consumption vary across regions and decline continuously from the western region to the central and eastern regions. The impact of urbanization on CO 2 emissions in the central region is greater than that in the eastern region. The impact of urbanization on energy consumption is greater than the impact on CO 2 emissions in the eastern region. And some evidences support the argument of compact city theory. These results not only contribute to advancing the existing literature, but also merit particular attention from policy makers and urban planners in China. - Highlights: ► We analyze the impact of urbanization on energy use and CO 2 emissions in China. ► Urbanization increases energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China. ► The effects of urbanization on energy use and CO 2 emissions vary across regions.

  14. A Study on the Analysis of CO2 Emissions of Apartment Housing in the Construction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonggeon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in the construction industry has focused on the reduction of CO2 emission using quantitative assessment of building life. However, most of this research has focused on the operational stage of a building’s life cycle. Few comprehensive studies of CO2 emissions during building construction have been performed. The purpose of this study is to analyze the CO2 emissions of an apartment housing during the construction process. The quantity of CO2 emissions associated with the utilization of selected building materials and construction equipment were used to estimate the CO2 emissions related to the apartment housing life cycle. In order to set the system boundary for the construction materials, equipment, and transportation used, 13 types of construction work were identified; then the CO2 emissions produced by the identified materials were calculated for each type of construction work. The comprehensive results showed that construction work involving reinforced concrete accounted for more than 73% of the total CO2 emissions. The CO2 emissions related to reinforced concrete work was mainly due to transportation from the supplier to the construction site. Therefore, at the time that reinforced concrete is being supplied, shipping distance and fuel economy management of concrete transportation vehicles should be considered thoroughly for significant reduction of CO2 emissions.

  15. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China 2012: Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yaowen; Zhao, Xueli; Meng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Reliable inventory information is critical in informing emission mitigation efforts. Using the latest officially released emission data, which is production based, we take a consumption perspective to estimate the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for China in 2012. The non-CO2 GHG emissions, which cover CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6, amounted to 2003.0 Mt. CO2-eq (including 1871.9 Mt. CO2-eq from economic activities), much larger than the total CO2 emissions in some developed countries. Urban consumption (30.1%), capital formation (28.2%), and exports (20.6%) derived approximately four fifths of the total embodied emissions in final demand. Furthermore, the results from structural path analysis help identify critical embodied emission paths and key economic sectors in supply chains for mitigating non-CO2 GHG emissions in Chinese economic systems. The top 20 paths were responsible for half of the national total embodied emissions. Several industrial sectors such as Construction, Production and Supply of Electricity and Steam, Manufacture of Food and Tobacco and Manufacture of Chemicals, and Chemical Products played as the important transmission channels. Examining both production- and consumption-based non-CO2 GHG emissions will enrich our understanding of the influences of industrial positions, final consumption demands, and trades on national non-CO2 GHG emissions by considering the comprehensive abatement potentials in the supply chains.

  16. Could a geological storage of the CO2 emissions from Romanian power plants become a joint implementation project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Magdalena; Ene, Simona; Necula, Catalina; Matei, Lucian; Marinescu, Mihai

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Emissions trading is a solution that is most compatible with deregulated electricity markets. The Directive 2003/87/CE referring to CO 2 emission trading within Europe entered into force and till 31 March 2004 all the countries had to present to the Commission their national plan to comply with Directive's rules. Recent predictions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change indicate that global warming will accelerate within this century. CO 2 emitted by the burning of fossil fuels is thought to be a main driving factor of climate change. With the potential to produce power without releasing CO 2 into the atmosphere, CO 2 capturing may become an important part of the post- Kyoto strategies of many countries. Underground storage of CO 2 seems to be one of the most attractive alternative. Potential targets for CO 2 injection are: - depleted oil reservoirs, possibly in combination with enhanced oil recovery - former gas fields, possibly with additional gas production - deep aquifers containing saline, non-drinkable water - deep and unminable coal seams (exchange of absorbed methane by CO 2 with simultaneous gas production) - geothermal wells, after heat extraction from the aquifers - residual volumes of former deep coal and salt mines. An environmental political decision about the option of CO 2 underground storage has to consider forecasts about developments of global climate, societies, and economics. Due to the forthcoming emission trading there is a growing interest in underground storage options for CO 2 in Europe now. Flexible mechanisms agreed by Kyoto Protocol, namely the Project-based Joint Implementation (Art. 6) and the Emission Trading (Art. 17) could help Romania to attract investment with a long term impact on emissions reduction. The brief identification of major CO 2 emissions sources and of possible CO 2 geological storage capacities (coal mines, aquifers, geothermal wells, oil and gas fields) shows that it is very probable to

  17. Factors influencing CO2 emissions in China's power industry: Co-integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Qian; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    More than 40% of China's total CO 2 emissions originate from the power industry. The realization of energy saving and emission reduction within China's power industry is therefore crucial in order to achieve CO 2 emissions reduction in this country. This paper applies the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) co-integration model to study the major factors which have influenced CO 2 emissions within China's power industry from 1980 to 2010. Results have shown that CO 2 emissions from China's power industry have been increasing rapidly. From 1980 to 2010, the average annual growth rate was 8.5%, and the average growth rate since 2002 has amounted to 10.5%. Secondly, the equipment utilization hour (as an indicator of the power demand) has the greatest influence on CO 2 emissions within China's power industry. In addition, the impact of the industrial added value of the power sector on CO 2 emissions is also positive from a short-term perspective. Thirdly, the Granger causality results imply that one of the important motivators behind China's technological progress, within the power industry, originates from the pressures created by a desire for CO 2 emissions reduction. Finally, this paper provides policy recommendations for energy saving and emission reduction for China's power industry. - Highlights: ► We study the major factors influencing China's power industry CO 2 emissions. ► The average annual growth rate of CO 2 emission from power industry is calculated. ► Installed capacity has the greatest influence on power industry CO 2 emission. ► The Granger causality between CO 2 emission and its effecting factors is analyzed

  18. Strategic research on CO2 emission reduction for China. Application of MARKAL to China energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongping

    1995-09-01

    MARKAL was applied to the energy system for analyzing the CO 2 emission reduction in China over the time period from 1990 to 2050. First the Chinese Reference Energy System (CRES) was established based on the framework of MARKAL model. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study. When shifting from scenario LH (low useful energy demand and high import fuel prices) to HL (high demand and low prices), another 33 EJ of primary energy will be consumed and another 2.31 billion tons of CO 2 will be emitted in 2050. Detailed analyses on the disaggregation of CO 2 emissions by Kaya Formula show. The energy intensity (primary energy/GDP) decreases much faster in scenario HL, but the higher growth rate of GDP per capita is the overwhelming factor that results in higher CO 2 emission per capita in the baseline case of scenario HL in comparison with LH. When the carbon taxes are imposed on CO 2 emissions, the residential sector will make the biggest contribution to CO 2 emission abatement from a long-term point of view. However, it's difficult to stabilize CO 2 emission per capita before 2030 in both scenarios even with heavy carbon taxes. When nuclear moratorium occurs, more 560 million tons of CO 2 will be emitted to the atmosphere in 2050 under the same CO 2 tax regime. From the analysis of value flow, CO 2 emission reduction depends largely on new or advanced technologies particularly in the field of electricity generation. The competent technologies switch to those CO 2 less-emitting technologies when surcharging CO 2 emissions. Nuclear power shows significant potential in saving fossil energy resources and reducing CO 2 emissions. (J.P.N.)

  19. Potential effects of emission taxes on CO2 emissions in OECD and LDC countries. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messner, S.; Strubegger, M.

    1990-12-01

    A set of existing optimization models representing the energy systems of the OECD and LDC countries (the LDC region covers all less developed countries excluding centrally planned economies) with a time horizon up to 2020 was applied to derive first-order estimates of the techno-economic potential for emission reduction. The driving force for the introduction of reduction measures was a scheme of taxes levied on the emissions of 6 relevant pollutants-including the greenhouse gases CO 2 and methane. The tax levels introduced are based on the taxes discussed by the Swedish government administration; they are the break-even point to test which measures are cost-effective and which emission levels can be reached at these costs. The regional models offer the choice between the following alternatives as response to increases in expenditures caused by emission taxes: (*) Reduction of final energy demand by supplying the requested services by other means (i.e., conservation). (*) Substitution of 'dirty' fuels by fuels entailing less pollution. (*) Introduction of 'clean' technologies for the same purposes (e.g., a combined cycle based on coal gasification is a much cleaner process for electricity generation from coal than conventional coal power plants). (*) For SO 2 and NO x emissions pollution reduction technologies (i.e., scrubbers and catalysts) can be added to existing technologies in order to reduce emissions. Alternative scenarios with emission taxes are compared to a base scenario without taxes related to pollutant emissions. The results indicate that an increase in CO 2 emissions in the OECD and LDC regions of 47% over the next 30 years in the base scenario would be changed into stabilization up to 2010 by measures induced by the tax levels introduced. Thereafter, however, energy consumption growth in the LDC area, in conjunction with the exhaustion of economically viable emission reduction measures, reverse this trend: CO 2 emissions start to increase again after

  20. Economic growth and CO2 emissions in Malaysia: A cointegration analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboori, Behnaz; Sulaiman, Jamalludin; Mohd, Saidatulakmal

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to establish a long-run as well as causal relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions for Malaysia. Using data for the years from 1980 to 2009, the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was tested utilizing the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology. The empirical results suggest the existence of a long-run relationship between per capita CO 2 emissions and real per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) when the CO 2 emissions level is the dependent variable. We found an inverted-U shape relationship between CO 2 emissions and GDP in both short and long-run, thus supporting the EKC hypothesis. The Granger Causality test based on the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) presents an absence of causality between CO 2 emissions and economic growth in the short-run while demonstrating uni-directional causality from economic growth to CO 2 emissions in the long-run. - Highlights: ► We tested the dynamic relationship between economic growth and CO 2 emissions. ► The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was tested using bounds testing approach. ► The empirical analysis confirms the existence of EKC for Malaysia. ► Causality results in an absence of causality between CO 2 and income in the short-run. ► There is uni-directional causality from income to CO 2 emissions in the long-run.

  1. Elevated [CO2] magnifies isoprene emissions under heat and improves thermal resistance in hybrid aspen

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zhihong; H?ve, Katja; Vislap, Vivian; Niinemets, ?lo

    2013-01-01

    Isoprene emissions importantly protect plants from heat stress, but the emissions become inhibited by instantaneous increase of [CO2], and it is currently unclear how isoprene-emitting plants cope with future more frequent and severe heat episodes under high [CO2]. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) saplings grown under ambient [CO2] of 380 ?mol mol?1 and elevated [CO2] of 780 ?mol mol?1 were used to test the hypothesis that acclimation to elevated [CO2] reduces the inhibito...

  2. Global CO2 efficiency: Country-wise estimates using a stochastic cost frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrala, Risto; Goel, Rajeev K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) efficiency by employing a stochastic cost frontier analysis of about 170 countries in 1997 and 2007. The main contribution lies in providing a new approach to environmental efficiency estimation, in which the efficiency estimates quantify the distance from the policy objective of minimum emissions. We are able to examine a very large pool of nations and provide country-wise efficiency estimates. We estimate three econometric models, corresponding with alternative interpretations of the Cancun vision (Conference of the Parties 2011). The models reveal progress in global environmental efficiency during a preceding decade. The estimates indicate vast differences in efficiency levels, and efficiency changes across countries. The highest efficiency levels are observed in Africa and Europe, while the lowest are clustered around China. The largest efficiency gains were observed in central and eastern Europe. CO 2 efficiency also improved in the US and China, the two largest emitters, but their ranking in terms of CO 2 efficiency deteriorated. Policy implications are discussed. - Highlights: ► We estimate global environmental efficiency in line with the Cancun vision, using a stochastic cost frontier. ► The study covers 170 countries during a 10 year period, ending in 2007. ► The biggest improvements occurred in Europe, and efficiency falls in South America. ► The efficiency ranking of US and China, the largest emitters, deteriorated. ► In 2007, highest efficiency was observed in Africa and Europe, and the lowest around China.

  3. Estimating future energy use and CO2 emissions of the world's cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shweta; Kennedy, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a tool for estimating energy-related CO 2 emissions from the world's cities based on regression models. The models are developed considering climatic (heating-degree-days) and urban design (land area per person) independent variables. The tool is applied on 3646 urban areas for estimating impacts on urban emissions of a) global transitioning to Electric Vehicles, b) urban density change and c) IPCC climate change scenarios. Results show that urban density decline can lead to significant increase in energy emissions (upto 346% in electricity & 428% in transportation at 2% density decline by 2050). Among the IPCC climate scenarios tested, A1B is the most effective in reducing growth of emissions (upto 12% in electricity & 35% in heating). The tool can further be improved by including more data in the regression models along with inclusion of other relevant emissions and climatic variables. - Highlights: • A tool for estimation of energy related emissions for urban areas is developed. • Heating degree days and urbanized area per capita are driving variables for urban energy consumption. • Global transition to EVs can only mitigate transportation emissions if GHG intensity of electricity grid is reduced. • Density decline of urban areas can lead to exponential increase of energy related emissions. • Climate change scenarios can slightly reduce the growth of energy related emissions increase by 2050. - A tool for estimation of global impact of urban systems on energy related emissions was developed that can simulate the impact of future scenarios (climate change, urban design etc)

  4. Use of data mining techniques to classify soil CO2 emission induced by crop management in sugarcane field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhate, Camila Viana Vieira; Souza, Zigomar Menezes de; Oliveira, Stanley Robson de Medeiros; Tavares, Rose Luiza Moraes; Carvalho, João Luís Nunes

    2018-01-01

    Soil CO2 emissions are regarded as one of the largest flows of the global carbon cycle and small changes in their magnitude can have a large effect on the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Thus, a better understanding of this attribute would enable the identification of promoters and the development of strategies to mitigate the risks of climate change. Therefore, our study aimed at using data mining techniques to predict the soil CO2 emission induced by crop management in sugarcane areas in Brazil. To do so, we used different variable selection methods (correlation, chi-square, wrapper) and classification (Decision tree, Bayesian models, neural networks, support vector machine, bagging with logistic regression), and finally we tested the efficiency of different approaches through the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The original dataset consisted of 19 variables (18 independent variables and one dependent (or response) variable). The association between cover crop and minimum tillage are effective strategies to promote the mitigation of soil CO2 emissions, in which the average CO2 emissions are 63 kg ha-1 day-1. The variables soil moisture, soil temperature (Ts), rainfall, pH, and organic carbon were most frequently selected for soil CO2 emission classification using different methods for attribute selection. According to the results of the ROC curve, the best approaches for soil CO2 emission classification were the following: (I)-the Multilayer Perceptron classifier with attribute selection through the wrapper method, that presented rate of false positive of 13,50%, true positive of 94,20% area under the curve (AUC) of 89,90% (II)-the Bagging classifier with logistic regression with attribute selection through the Chi-square method, that presented rate of false positive of 13,50%, true positive of 94,20% AUC of 89,90%. However, the (I) approach stands out in relation to (II) for its higher positive class accuracy (high CO2 emission) and lower

  5. The Value of CO2-Geothermal Bulk Energy Storage to Reducing CO2 Emissions Compared to Conventional Bulk Energy Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland-Hand, J.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Sedimentary basin geothermal resources and CO2 that is captured from large point sources can be used for bulk energy storage (BES) in order to accommodate higher penetration and utilization of variable renewable energy resources. Excess energy is stored by pressurizing and injecting CO2 into deep, porous, and permeable aquifers that are ubiquitous throughout the United States. When electricity demand exceeds supply, some of the pressurized and geothermally-heated CO2 can be produced and used to generate electricity. This CO2-BES approach reduces CO2 emissions directly by storing CO2 and indirectly by using some of that CO2 to time-shift over-generation and displace CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants that would have otherwise provided electricity. As such, CO2-BES may create more value to regional electricity systems than conventional pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) or compressed air energy storage (CAES) approaches that may only create value by time-shifting energy and indirectly reducing CO2 emissions. We developed and implemented a method to estimate the value that BES has to reducing CO2 emissions from regional electricity systems. The method minimizes the dispatch of electricity system components to meet exogenous demand subject to various CO2 prices, so that the value of CO2 emissions reductions can be estimated. We applied this method to estimate the performance and value of CO2-BES, PHES, and CAES within real data for electricity systems in California and Texas over the course of a full year to account for seasonal fluctuations in electricity demand and variable renewable resource availability. Our results suggest that the value of CO2-BES to reducing CO2 emissions may be as much as twice that of PHES or CAES and thus CO2-BES may be a more favorable approach to energy storage in regional electricity systems, especially those where the topography is not amenable to PHES or the subsurface is not amenable to CAES.

  6. A new gridded on-road CO2 emissions inventory for the United States, 1980-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gately, C.; Hutyra, L.; Sue Wing, I.

    2013-12-01

    On-road transportation is responsible for 28% of all U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. However, mapping vehicle emissions at regional scales is challenging due to data limitations. Existing emission inventories have used spatial proxies such as population and road density to downscale national or state level data, which may introduce errors where the proxy variables and actual emissions are weakly correlated. We have developed a national on-road emissions inventory product based on roadway-level traffic data obtained from the Highway Performance Monitoring System. We produce annual estimates of on-road CO2 emissions at a 1km spatial resolution for the contiguous United States for the years 1980 through 2011. For the year 2011 we also produce an hourly emissions product at the 1km scale using hourly traffic volumes from hundreds of automated traffic counters across the country. National on-road emissions rose at roughly 2% per year from 1980 to 2006, with emissions peaking at 1.71 Tg CO2 in 2007. However, while national emissions have declined 6% since the peak, we observe considerable regional variation in emissions trends post-2007. While many states show stable or declining on-road emissions, several states and metropolitan areas in the Midwest, mountain west and south had emissions increases of 3-10% from 2008 to 2011. Our emissions estimates are consistent with state-reported totals of gasoline and diesel fuel consumption. This is in contrast to on-road CO2 emissions estimated by the Emissions Database of Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), which we show to be inconsistent in matching on-road emissions to published fuel consumption at the scale of U.S. states, due to the non-linear relationships between emissions and EDGAR's chosen spatial proxies at these scales. Since our emissions estimates were generated independent of population density and other demographic data, we were able to conduct a panel regression analysis to estimate the relationship between these

  7. Exploring the scope for complementary sub-global policy to mitigate CO2 from shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Paul; Bows, Alice

    2012-01-01

    For a high probability of avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system, all sectors must decarbonise over coming decades. Although shipping is an energy efficient transport mode, its emissions continue to grow. Compounding this, the sector's complexity, exclusion from emission inventories and slow progress towards a mitigation strategy, limit drivers towards meaningful change. Whilst there remains a preference within the industry for global mitigation policies, the urgency of required emission cuts necessitates exploration of complimentary sub-global measures. The debate surrounding such measures tends to focus on apportioning global shipping emissions to nations. To explore the policy implications of apportionment, the UK is used in this paper to illustrate how available apportionment regimes produce a wide range of emission estimates. Moreover, in the absence of transparent fuel consumption and freight data, they have limited sensitivity, rendering them currently obsolete for monitoring purposes. Nations, regions and organisations influence shipping, particularly in relation to operations, yet debate surrounding apportionment has arguably delayed consideration of sub-global polices and indicators. This paper makes a case for putting the apportionment debate aside in the short-term to open out the full span of options, consider influence over aspects of the shipping system, and how to monitor success. - Highlights: ► Debate on sub-global CO 2 policies for shipping focuses on emission apportionment. ► Data limitations prevent apportionment regimes from monitoring policy success. ► Nations, regions and organisations directly influence shipping at sub-global levels. ► Sub-global policies influence demand and operations in ports/waters. ► Policy should focus on what can be influenced and consider how to monitor progress.

  8. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L; Larsen, Hans [eds.

    2009-09-15

    The conference focused on: 1) Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues. 2) Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 - 2020 and subsequent decline. 3) Renewable energy supply technologies such as bioenergy, wind and solar. 4) Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies. 5) Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies. 6) Providing renewable energy for the transport sector. 7) Systems aspects for the various regions throughout the world. 8) End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use. 9) Energy savings. (au)

  9. International marine and aviation bunker fuel. Trends, ranking of countries and comparison with national CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises and characterises fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions from international transport based on energy statistics compiled by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Shares in 1990 and 1970-1995 trends in national and global bunker fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions are analysed for marine and air transport. Also, the global total of international transport emissions are compared with national emissions and domestic transport emissions. During the last 25 years the average global annual increase was for marine bunkers about 0.8% and for aviation emissions about 3.3%. Annual variations per country of marine bunker fuel use larger than of aviation fuel use, sometimes more than 50%. However, the distinction between fuel use for domestic and for international aviation is more difficult to monitor. The dominant fuel in marine bunker fuel consumption is residual fuel oil ('heavy fuel oil'). The share of diesel oil has slowly increased from 11% in 1970 to 20% in 1990. Aviation fuels sold are predominantly jet fuel ('jet kerosene'). The small share of aviation gasoline is slowly decreasing: from about 4% in 1970 to 1.3% in 1990. Carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of international marine bunker fuels and aviation contributed in 1990 globally about 1.8% and 2.4% expressed as percentage of global total anthropogenic emissions (excluding deforestation). However, aviation emissions include an unknown part of domestic aviation. When comparing with total transport emissions, then international transport has a share of 20%. For both marine and aviation bunker fuel, the Top-10 of largest consuming countries account for about 2/3 of the global total; the Top-25 countries cover already 85% or more of global total CO2 emissions

  10. Evaluation and Optimization of China's Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions using Observations from Northern China (2005-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayalu, A.; Munger, J. W.; Wang, Y.; Wofsy, S.; Zhao, Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Nehrkorn, T.; McElroy, M. B.; Chang, R.

    2017-12-01

    China has pledged to peak carbon emissions by 2030, but there continues to be significant uncertainty in estimates of its anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In this study, we evaluate the performance of three anthropogenic CO2 inventories, two global and one regional, using five years of continuous hourly observations from a site in Northern China. We model five years of continuous hourly observations (2005 to 2009) using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport Model (STILT) run in backward time mode driven by high resolution meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model version 3.6.1 (WRF) with vegetation fluxes prescribed by a simple biosphere model. We calculate regional enhancements to advected background CO2 derived from NOAA CarbonTracker on seasonal and annual bases and use observations to optimize emissions inventories within the site's influence region at these timescales. Finally, we use annual enhancements to examine carbon intensity of provinces in and adjacent to Northern China as CO2 per unit of the region's GDP to evaluate the effects of local and global economic events on CO2 emissions. With the exception of peak growing season where discrepancies are confounded by errors in the vegetation model, we find the regional inventory agrees significantly better with observations than the global inventories at all timescales. Here we use a single measurement site; significant improvements in inventory optimizations can be achieved with a network of measurements stations. This study highlights the importance of China-specific data over global averages in emissions evaluation and demonstrates the value of top-down studies in independently evaluating inventory performance. We demonstrate the framework's ability to resolve differences of at least 20% among inventories, establishing a benchmark for ongoing efforts to decrease uncertainty in China's reported CO2 emissions estimates.

  11. Energy technology patents–CO2 emissions nexus: An empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaohua; Yang Zhongmin; Zhang Yixiang; Yin Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Energy technology innovation plays a crucial role in reducing carbon emissions. This paper investigates whether there is relationship between energy technology patents and CO 2 emissions of 30 provinces in mainland China during 1997–2008. Gross domestic product (GDP) is included in the study due to its impact on CO 2 emissions and energy technology innovation, thus avoiding the problem of omitted variable bias. Furthermore, we investigate three cross-regional groups, namely eastern, central and western China. The results show that domestic patents for fossil-fueled technologies have no significant effect on CO 2 emissions reduction; however, domestic patents for carbon-free energy technologies appear to play an important role in reducing CO 2 emissions, which is significant in eastern China, but is not significant in central, western and national level of China. The results of this study enrich energy technology innovation theories and provide some implications for energy technology policy making. - Highlights: ► We studied the causality between energy technology patents and CO 2 emissions using dynamic panel data approach. ► There is a long-run equilibrium relationship among energy technology patents, CO 2 emissions and GDP. ► Domestic patents for fossil-fueled technologies have no significant effect on CO 2 emissions reduction. ► Domestic patents for carbon-free energy technologies appear to play an important role in reducing CO 2 emissions. ► This study provides some references for the future energy technology policy making.

  12. The impacts of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Umit

    2017-06-01

    As a result of great increases in CO 2 emissions in the last few decades, many papers have examined the relationship between renewable energy and CO 2 emissions in the energy economics literature, because as a clean energy source, renewable energy can reduce CO 2 emissions and solve environmental problems stemming from increases in CO 2 emissions. When one analyses these papers, he/she will observe that they employ fixed parameter estimation methods, and time-varying effects of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption/production on greenhouse gas emissions are ignored. In order to fulfil this gap in the literature, this paper examines the effects of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO 2 emissions in Turkey over the period 1970-2013 by employing fixed parameter and time-varying parameter estimation methods. Estimation methods reveal that CO 2 emissions are positively related to non-renewable energy and renewable energy in Turkey. Since policy makers expect renewable energy to decrease CO 2 emissions, this paper argues that renewable energy is not able to satisfy the expectations of policy makers though fewer CO 2 emissions arise through production of electricity using renewable sources. In conclusion, the paper argues that policy makers should implement long-term energy policies in Turkey.

  13. Analyses of CO2 emissions embodied in Japan-China trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xianbing; Ishikawa, Masanobu; Wang Can; Dong Yanli; Liu Wenling

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines CO 2 emissions embodied in Japan-China trade. Besides directly quantifying the flow of CO 2 emissions between the two countries by using a traditional input-output (IO) model, this study also estimates the effect of bilateral trade to CO 2 emissions by scenario analysis. The time series of quantifications indicate that CO 2 emissions embodied in exported goods from Japan to China increased overall from 1990 to 2000. The exported CO 2 emissions from China to Japan greatly increased in the first half of the 1990s. However, by 2000, the amount of emissions had reduced from 1995 levels. Regardless, there was a net export of CO 2 emissions from China to Japan during 1990-2000. The scenario comparison shows that the bilateral trade has helped the reduction of CO 2 emissions. On average, the Chinese economy was confirmed to be much more carbon-intensive than Japan. The regression analysis shows a significant but not perfect correlation between the carbon intensities at the sector level of the two countries. In terms of CO 2 emission reduction opportunities, most sectors of Chinese industry could benefit from learning Japanese technologies that produce lower carbon intensities.

  14. Constraining East Asian CO2 emissions with GOSAT retrievals: methods and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, C.; Henze, D. K.; Deng, F.

    2017-12-01

    The world largest CO2 emissions are from East Asia. However, there are large uncertainties in CO2 emission inventories, mainly because of imperfections in bottom-up statistics and a lack of observations for validating emission fluxes, particularly over China. Here we tried to constrain East Asian CO2 emissions with GOSAT retrievals applying 4-Dvar GEOS-Chem and its adjoint model. We applied the inversion to only the cold season (November - February) in 2009 - 2010 since the summer monsoon and greater transboundary impacts in spring and fall greatly reduced the GOSAT retrievals. In the cold season, the a posteriori CO2 emissions over East Asia generally higher by 5 - 20%, particularly Northeastern China shows intensively higher in a posteriori emissions ( 20%), where the Chinese government is recently focusing on mitigating the air pollutants. In another hand, a posteriori emissions from Southern China are lower 10 - 25%. A posteriori emissions in Korea and Japan are mostly higher by 10 % except over Kyushu region. With our top-down estimates with 4-Dvar CO2 inversion, we will evaluate the current regional CO2 emissions inventories and potential uncertainties in the sectoral emissions. This study will help understand the quantitative information on anthropogenic CO2 emissions over East Asia and will give policy implications for the mitigation targets.

  15. Control of atmospheric CO2 concentrations by 2050: A calculation on the emission rights of different countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper is to provide quantitative data on some critical issues in anticipation of the forthcoming international negotiations in Denmark on the control of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Instead of letting only a small number of countries dominate a few controversial dialogues about emissions reductions, a comprehensive global system must be established based on emissions allowances for different countries, to realize the long-term goal of controlling global atmospheric CO2 concentrations. That a system rooted in "cumulative emissions per capita," the best conception of the "common but differentiated responsibilities" principle affirmed by the Kyoto Protocol according to fundamental standards of fairness and justice, was demonstrated. Based on calculations of various countries’ cumulative emissions per capita, estimates of their cumulative emissions from 1900 to 2005, and their annual emissions allowances into the future (2006―2050), a 470 ppmv atmospheric CO2 concentration target was set. According to the following four objective indicators―total emissions allowance from 1900 to 2050, actual emissions from 1900 to 2005, emissions levels in 2005, and the average growth rate of emissions from 1996 to 2005―all countries and regions whose population was more than 300000 in 2005 were divided into four main groups: countries with emissions deficits, countries and regions needing to reduce their gross emissions, countries and regions needing to reduce their emissions growth rates, and countries that can maintain the current emissions growth rates. Based on this proposal, most G8 countries by 2005 had already expended their 2050 emissions allowances. The accu-mulated financial value based on emissions has reached more than 5.5 trillion US dollars (20 dollars per ton of CO2). Even if these countries could achieve their ambitious emissions reduction targets in the future, their per capita emissions from 2006 to 2050 would still be much higher than those of

  16. Fuel specification, energy consumption and CO2 emission in oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The more stringent environmental quality specifications for oil products worldwide are tending to step up energy use and, consequently, CO 2 emissions at refineries. In Brazil, for example, the stipulated reduction in the sulfur content of diesel and gasoline between 2002 and 2009 should increase the energy use of Brazil's refining industry by around 30%, with effects on its CO 2 emissions. Thus, the world refining industry must deal with trade-offs between emissions of pollutants with local impacts (due to fuel specifications) and emissions of pollutants with global impacts (due to the increased energy use at refineries to remove contaminants from oil products). Two promising technology options for refineries could ease this clash in the near-to-mid term: the reduction per se of the energy use at the refinery; and the development of treatment processes using non-hydrogen consuming techniques. For instance, in Brazilian refineries, the expanded energy use resulting from severe hydrotreatment to comply with the more stringent specifications of oil products may be almost completely offset by energy saving options and alternative desulfurization techniques, if barriers to invest in technological innovations are overcome. (author)

  17. Decrease of energy and emission prices undesired. Unfair attack on CO2-levies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.; De Keizer, I.; Benner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, in the Netherlands, fuel taxes and prices for CO2 emission are criticised. High energy prices are used to suggest other forms of pricing regulations. However, the higher energy prices and CO2-levies are very useful in realizing a sustainable energy supply. More transparency in the market for emissions trading is required to prevent unfair on-charge expenses of CO2-charges [nl

  18. A supply chain optimization framework for CO2 emission reduction: Case of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyanarengan Ravi, N.; Zondervan, E.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Fransoo, J.C.; Grievink, J.; Claus, T.; Herrmann, F.; Manitz, M.; Rose, O.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for the industrial deployment of a CO2 emission reduction methodology is to reduce the overall cost and the integration of all the nodes in the supply chain for CO2 emission reduction. In this work, we develop a mixed integer linear optimization model that selects appropriate sources, capture process, transportation network and CO2 storage sites and optimize for a minimum overall cost. Initially, we screen the sources and storage options available in the Netherlands at diffe...

  19. Reducing CO2 emissions of conventional fuel cars by vehicle photovoltaic roofs

    OpenAIRE

    LODI CHIARA; SEITSONEN ANTTI; PAFFUMI ELENA; DE GENNARO MICHELE; HULD THOMAS; MALFETTANI STEFANO

    2017-01-01

    The European Union has adopted a range of policies aiming at reducing greenhouse gas emissions from road transport, including setting binding targets for tailpipe CO2 emissions for new light-duty fleets. The legislative framework for implementing such targets allows taking into account the CO2 savings from innovative technologies that cannot be adequately quantified by the standard test cycle CO2 measurement. This paper presents a methodology to define the average productivity of vehicle-moun...

  20. Possibilities for reducing CO2 emissions by rational energy used as viewed by enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    From the view of the industry, energy conservation offers many options for CO 2 reduction. CO 2 reduction in electric power generation is particularly important. The global CO 2 problem cannot be solved by any single measure, but international efforts are required in all production and consumption sectors. Providing energy for the growing world population while at the same time reducing CO 2 is one of the biggest challenges ever faced by mankind. (orig./UA) [de

  1. A supply chain optimization framework for CO2 emission reduction : Case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyanarengan Ravi, N.; Zondervan, E.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Fransoo, J.C.; Grievink, J.; Claus, T.; Herrmann, F.; Manitz, M.; Rose, O.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for the industrial deployment of a CO2 emission reduction methodology is to reduce the overall cost and the integration of all the nodes in the supply chain for CO2 emission reduction. In this work, we develop a mixed integer linear optimization model that selects appropriate

  2. Carbon inequality at the sub-national scale: A case study of provincial-level inequality in CO2 emissions in China 1997-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke-Sather, Afton; Qu Jiansheng; Wang Qin; Zeng Jingjing; Li Yan

    2011-01-01

    This study asks whether sub-national inequalities in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions mirror international patterns in carbon inequality using the case study of China. Several studies have examined global-level carbon inequality; however, such approaches have not been used on a sub-national scale. This study examines inter-provincial inequality in CO 2 emissions within China using common measures of inequality (coefficient of variation, Gini Index, Theil Index) to analyze provincial-level data derived from the IPCC reference approach for the years 1997-2007. It decomposes CO 2 emissions inequality into its inter-regional and intra-regional components. Patterns of per capita CO 2 emissions inequality in China appear superficially similar to, though slightly lower than, per capita income inequality. However, decomposing these inequalities reveals different patterns. While inter-provincial income inequality is highly regional in character, inter-provincial CO 2 emissions inequality is primarily intra-regional. While apparently similar, global patterns in CO 2 emissions are not mirrored at the sub-national scale. - Highlights: → Carbon inequality is different in character within China than at global scale. → Interprovincial CO 2 emissions inequality in China is slightly lower than income inequality. → Interprovincial GDP inequality in China is regional in character. → Interprovincial CO 2 emissions inequality in China is not regional in character.

  3. The nexus of electricity consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in the BRICS countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Wendy N.; Chang, Tsangyao; Inglesi-Lotz, Roula; Gupta, Rangan

    2014-01-01

    This study reexamines the causal link between electricity consumption, economic growth and CO 2 emissions in the BRICS countries (i.e., Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) for the period 1990–2010, using panel causality analysis, accounting for dependency and heterogeneity across countries. Regarding the electricity–GDP nexus, the empirical results support evidence on the feedback hypothesis for Russia and the conservation hypothesis for South Africa. However, a neutrality hypothesis holds for Brazil, India and China, indicating neither electricity consumption nor economic growth is sensitive to each other in these three countries. Regarding the GDP–CO 2 emissions nexus, a feedback hypothesis for Russia, a one-way Granger causality running from GDP to CO 2 emissions in South Africa and reverse relationship from CO 2 emissions to GDP in Brazil is found. There is no evidence of Granger causality between GDP and CO 2 emissions in India and China. Furthermore, electricity consumption is found to Granger cause CO 2 emissions in India, while there is no Granger causality between electricity consumption and CO 2 emissions in Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa. Therefore, the differing results for the BRICS countries imply that policies cannot be uniformly implemented as they will have different effects in each of the BRICS countries under study. - Highlights: • We examine the nexus of electricity, GDP growth and CO 2 emissions in BRICS. • We take into account cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. • Electricity–GDP: Feedback for Russia and conservation for South Africa. • CO 2 –GDP feedback for Russia, from GDP to CO 2 in SA, CO 2 to GDP in Brazil. • Only from electricity consumption to emissions for India

  4. Oil Consumption, CO2 Emission, and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the short- and long-run causality issues among oil consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in the Philippines by using time series techniques and annual data for the period 1965–2012. Tests for unit root, co-integration, and Granger-causality tests based on an error-correction model are presented. Three important findings emerge from the investigation. First, there is bi-directional causality between oil consumption and economic growth, which suggests that the Philippines should endeavor to overcome the constraints on oil consumption to achieve economic growth. Second, bi-directional causality between oil consumption and CO2 emissions is found, which implies that the Philippines needs to improve efficiency in oil consumption in order not to increase CO2 emissions. Third, uni-directional causality running from CO2 emissions to economic growth is detected, which means that growth can continue without increasing CO2 emissions.

  5. The causal link among militarization, economic growth, CO2 emission, and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike E

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship among CO 2 emissions, militarization, economic growth, and energy consumption for USA for the period 1960-2013. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between CO 2 emissions and militarization was found. To determine the causal link, MWALD and Rao's F tests were applied. According to Rao's F tests, the evidence of a unidirectional causality running from militarization to CO 2 emissions, from energy consumption to CO 2 emissions, and from militarization to energy consumption all without a feedback was found. Further, the results determined that 26% of the forecast-error variance of CO 2 emissions was explained by the forecast error variance of militarization and 60% by energy consumption.

  6. Trade pattern change impact on industrial CO2 emissions in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yun-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Yin

    2007-01-01

    Input-output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) is applied in this paper to analyze the sources of change in industrial CO 2 emissions in Taiwan from 1989 to 2001. Owing to the fact that Taiwan is an export-oriented, trade-dependent economy, the focus is on trade transformation over the past decade and its effect over industrial CO 2 emissions. Change in trade patterns has significantly impacted many aspects of the Taiwan economy, subsequently resulting in various influences on industrial CO 2 emissions, as shown by empirical analysis results. Change in export level increased industrial CO 2 emissions, above all other effects, by 72.1%. However, changes in export mix and import coefficients imposed effects of dragging down industrial CO 2 emissions by 5.7% and 11.7%, respectively. (author)

  7. From carbonization to decarbonization?-Past trends and future scenarios for China's CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckel, Jan Christoph; Jakob, Michael; Marschinski, Robert; Luderer, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Along the lines of the Kaya identity, we perform a decomposition analysis of historical and projected emissions data for China. We compare the results with reduction requirements implied by globally cost-effective mitigation scenarios and official Chinese policy targets. For the years 1971-2000 we find that the impact of high economic growth on emissions was partially compensated by a steady fall in energy intensity. However, the end - and even reversal - of this downward trend, along with a rising carbon intensity of energy, resulted in rapid emission growth during 2000-2007. By applying an innovative enhanced Kaya-decomposition method, we also show how the persistent increase in the use of coal has caused carbon intensity to rise throughout the entire time-horizon of the analysis. These insights are then compared to model scenarios for future energy system developments generated by the ReMIND-R model. The analysis reaffirms China's indispensable role in global efforts to implement any of three exemplary stabilization targets (400, 450, or 500 ppm CO 2 -only), and underscore the increasing importance of carbon intensity for the more ambitious targets. Finally, we compare China's official targets for energy intensity and carbon intensity of GDP to projections for global cost-effective stabilization scenarios, finding them to be roughly compatible in the short-to-mid-term. - Highlights: → An extended Kaya-decomposition is applied to historical data and ReMIND-R scenario results for China. → Reversing a historic trend, energy intensity has increased in recent years. → The contribution of coal in increasing carbon intensity and emissions has been constant in the past. → Decarbonization becomes increasingly important with increasingly ambitious climate targets. → Chinese targets for carbon intensity of GDP are in line with a 450 ppm CO 2 -only stabilization scenario.

  8. The development of the tertiary sector in the economy and the reduction in CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morvan, R.; Hubert, M.; Gregoire, P.; Lowezanin, Ch.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the tertiary sector appears to support sustainable development since it now accounts for almost two thirds of the national economy and is responsible for low CO 2 emission levels. Between 1980 and 1997, CO 2 emissions from the tertiary sector increased by 20 % compared with a 48 % rise in the sector value added. In terms of production, CO 2 levels in the tertiary sector are low, compared with 55 % for the secondary sector (industry). However, when trade between economic activities is taken into account, there is cause to qualify the assessment. This makes it possible to ascertain emissions from the point of view of satisfying final demand for products, and to identify direct and indirect emissions in each branch of activity. Thus, when emissions from certain industrial and agricultural activities are redistributed specifically to branches of activity in the tertiary sector, CO 2 emissions in this sector account for almost one-third of total emissions. (A.L.B.)

  9. The change of CO2 emission on manufacturing sectors in Indonesia: An input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranti, Titi Muswati; Imansyah, Muhammad Handry

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the change of CO2 emission on manufacturing sectors in Indonesia using input-output analysis. The method used supply perspective can measure the impact of an increase in the value added of different productive on manufacturing sectors on total CO2 emission and can identify the productive sectors responsible for the increase in CO2 emission when there is an increase in the value added of the economy. The data used are based on Input-Output Energy Table 1990, 1995 and 2010. The method applied the elasticity of CO2 emission to value added. Using the elasticity approach, one can identify the highest elasticity on manufacturing sector as the change of value added provides high response to CO2 emission. Therefore, policy maker can concentrate on manufacturing sectors with the high response of CO2 emission due to the increase of value added. The approach shows the contribution of the various sectors that deserve more consideration for mitigation policy. Five of highest elasticity of manufacturing sectors of CO2 emission are Spinning & Weaving, Other foods, Tobacco, Wearing apparel, and other fabricated textiles products in 1990. Meanwhile, the most sensitive sectors Petroleum refinery products, Other chemical products, Timber & Wooden Products, Iron & Steel Products and Other non-metallic mineral products in 1995. Two sectors of the 1990 were still in the big ten, i.e. Spinning & weaving and Other foods in 1995 for the most sensitive sectors. The six sectors of 1995 in the ten highest elasticity of CO2 emission on manufacturing which were Plastic products, Other chemical products,Other fabricated metal products, Cement, Iron & steel products, Iron & steel, still existed in 2010 condition. The result of this research shows that there is a change in the most elastic CO2 emission of manufacturing sectors which tends from simple and light manufacturing to be a more complex and heavier manufacturing. Consequently, CO2 emission jumped

  10. Decomposition of CO2 Emission Factors in Baoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, xuyang; Zhang, Hongzhi

    2018-01-01

    Baoding, as one of the first “five provinces and eight cities” low carbon pilot cities, undertakes an important task and mission. The urgent task is to explore a peak route and emission reduction path suitable for Baoding’s own development, so as to provide reference for the construction of low-carbon pilot cities. At present, the carbon emissions of Baoding city and its subordinate districts and counties are not clear, and the carbon emissions, change trends and emission characteristics of various industries have not been systematically studied. This lead researcherscan not carry out further attribution analysis, the prediction of future emissions trends and put forward specific measures to reduce emissions are impossible.If the government can not accurately and comprehensively understand the problems faced in the construction and development of low-carbon cities, it is difficult to fundamentally put forward effective emission reduction policies and measures.

  11. Preliminary life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, J.J.; Rogers, S.; Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The US by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass, have only considered the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified and factored into these estimates until recently. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO 2 -capping on the US refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO 2 emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmentally and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. These biomass-derived products include power, fuel gas, hydrogen for refinery processing, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids for upgrading and blending into finished transportation fuels

  12. CO2 emissions due to energy combustion in the World in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Florine

    2014-01-01

    This publication presents and comments data, graphs and tables which illustrate the evolution of CO 2 emissions in the world (data are given for different countries and regions of the World), and more particularly those due to energy combustion. These emissions increased in 2011. It also discusses the evolution of CO 2 emission intensity with respect to GDP (1 pc decrease in 2011). When studying emission data with respect to the number of inhabitants, it appears that USA are emitting 20 times more CO 2 per inhabitant than Africa

  13. Closing the gap? Top-down versus bottom-up projections of China's regional energy use and CO2 emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Hancheng; Mischke, Peggy; Xie, Xuxuan

    2016-01-01

    . The study finds that it is beneficial to soft-link complex global models under harmonized assumptions. Although this study fails to "close the gap" between the two models completely, the experiences and insights shared here will be beneficial for researchers and policy makers that are drawing conclusions......As the world's largest CO2 emitter, China is a prominent case study for scenario analysis. This study uses two newly developed global top-down and bottom-up models with a regional China focus to compare China's future energy and CO2 emission pathways toward 2050. By harmonizing the economic...... and demographic trends as well as a carbon tax pathway, we explore how both models respond to these identical exogenous inputs. Then a soft-linking methodology is applied to "narrow the gap" between the results computed by these models. We find for example that without soft-linking, China's baseline CO2 emissions...

  14. Potential effects of emission taxes on CO2 emissions in the OECD and LDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messner, S.; Strubegger, M.

    1991-01-01

    A set of existing optimization models, which represent the energy systems of the OECD and LDCs (less developed countries excluding centrally planned economies) with a time horizon to 2020, has been applied to derive first-order estimates of the techno-economic potential for emission reduction. The driving force for the introduction of reduction measures is a scheme of taxes levied on the emission of six pollutants, including the greenhouse gases CO 2 and methane. The tax levels introduced are based on taxes discussed by the Swedish government: they are the break-even point to test which measures are cost-effective and which emission levels can be reached at these costs. The regional models include the following alternatives: (i) reduction of final energy demand by supplying the requested services by other means (i.e., conservation); (ii) substitution of new fuels for polluting fuels; (iii) introduction of clean technologies for the same purposes; (iv) additions of pollution-reduction technologies. Alternative scenarios with emission taxes are compared with a base scenario without taxes related to pollutant emissions. The results indicate that an increase in CO 2 emissions in the OECD and LDC regions of 47% over the next 30 yr in the base scenario would be changed to stable levels to 2010 by tax-induced measures. Thereafter, energy-consumption growth in the LDCs reverses this trend. (author)

  15. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Regional differences in the CO_2 emissions of China's iron and steel industry: Regional heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Boqiang

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the key influencing factors of CO_2 emissions in China's iron and steel industry is vital for mitigating its emissions and formulating effective environmental protection measures. Most of the existing researches utilized time series data to investigate the driving factors of the industry's CO_2 emission at the national level, but regional differences have not been given appropriate attention. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2000 to 2013 and panel data models to examine the key driving forces of CO_2 emissions at the regional levels in China. The results show that industrialization dominates the industry's CO_2 emissions, but its effect varies across regions. The impact of energy efficiency on CO_2 emissions in the eastern region is greater than in the central and western regions because of a huge difference in R&D investment. The influence of urbanization has significant regional differences due to the heterogeneity in human capital accumulation and real estate development. Energy structure has large potential to mitigate CO_2 emissions on account of increased R&D investment in energy-saving technology and expanded clean energy use. Hence, in order to effectively achieve emission reduction, local governments should consider all these factors as well as regional heterogeneity in formulating appropriate mitigation policies. - Highlights: • We explore the driving forces of CO_2 emissions in China's steel industry. • Industrialization dominates CO_2 emissions in the iron and steel industry. • Energy structure has large potential to mitigate CO_2 emissions in the steel industry. • The influence of urbanization has significant regional differences.

  17. Spatiotemporal Characteristics, Determinants and Scenario Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China Using Provincial Panel Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojian; Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Guangdong

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigated the spatiotemporal variations, influencing factors and future emission trends of China's CO2 emissions based on a provincial panel data set. A series of panel econometric models were used taking the period 1995-2011 into consideration. The results indicated that CO2 emissions in China increased over time, and were characterized by noticeable regional discrepancies; in addition, CO2 emissions also exhibited properties of spatial dependence and convergence. Factors such as population scale, economic level and urbanization level exerted a positive influence on CO2 emissions. Conversely, energy intensity was identified as having a negative influence on CO2 emissions. In addition, the significance of the relationship between CO2 emissions and the four variables varied across the provinces based on their scale of economic development. Scenario simulations further showed that the scenario of middle economic growth, middle population increase, low urbanization growth, and high technology improvement (here referred to as Scenario BTU), constitutes the best development model for China to realize the future sustainable development. Based on these empirical findings, we also provide a number of policy recommendations with respect to the future mitigation of CO2 emissions.

  18. Modeling and validation of on-road CO2 emissions inventories at the urban regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondfield, Max N.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Gately, Conor K.; Raciti, Steve M.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    On-road emissions are a major contributor to rising concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. In this study, we applied a downscaling methodology based on commonly available spatial parameters to model on-road CO 2 emissions at the 1 × 1 km scale for the Boston, MA region and tested our approach with surface-level CO 2 observations. Using two previously constructed emissions inventories with differing spatial patterns and underlying data sources, we developed regression models based on impervious surface area and volume-weighted road density that could be scaled to any resolution. We found that the models accurately reflected the inventories at their original scales (R 2 = 0.63 for both models) and exhibited a strong relationship with observed CO 2 mixing ratios when downscaled across the region. Moreover, the improved spatial agreement of the models over the original inventories confirmed that either product represents a viable basis for downscaling in other metropolitan regions, even with limited data. - Highlights: ► We model two on-road CO 2 emissions inventories using common spatial parameters. ► Independent CO 2 observations are used to validate the emissions models. ► The downscaled emissions models capture the urban spatial heterogeneity of Boston. ► Emissions estimates show a strong non-linear relationship with observed CO 2 . ► Our study is repeatable, even in areas with limited data. - This work presents a new, reproducible methodology for downscaling and validating on-road CO 2 emissions estimates.

  19. Decomposition of Net CO2 Emission in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area of Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers have been sharing growing concerns that climate change has significant impacts on human society and economic activates. Knowledge of the influencing factors of CO2 emission is the crucial step to reduce it. In this paper, both CO2 emission and CO2 sink on a city-level of the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area are calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach. Moreover, the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI model was employed to decompose the net CO2 emission from 2001 to 2009. Results showed that (1 the largest amount of CO2 emission comes from energy while the largest amount CO2 sink comes from cropland; (2 economic level (S was the largest positive driving factor for net CO2 emission growth in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, population (P also played a positive driving role, but with very weak contribution; and as negative inhibiting factors, energy structure (E and energy efficiency (C significantly reduced the net CO2 emission.

  20. Environment Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: A cointegration analysis for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalil, Abdul; Mahmud, Syed F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the long-run relationship between carbon emissions and energy consumption, income and foreign trade in the case of China by employing time series data of 1975-2005. In particular the study aims at testing whether environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship between CO 2 emissions and per capita real GDP holds in the long run or not. Auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) methodology is employed for empirical analysis. A quadratic relationship between income and CO 2 emission has been found for the sample period, supporting EKC relationship. The results of Granger causality tests indicate one way causality runs through economic growth to CO 2 emissions. The results of this study also indicate that the carbon emissions are mainly determined by income and energy consumption in the long run. Trade has a positive but statistically insignificant impact on CO 2 emissions.

  1. Methods for Remote Determination of CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    calibrated at the ∼0.07 ppm level from the WMO are used, at concentrations of about −10, 0, and +10 ppm relative to ambient ( Tans and Thoning, 2008). CO2Meter...B – References [1] Stephens, B. B., Gurney, K. R., Tans , P. P., Sweeney, C., Peters, W., Bruhwiler, L., Ciais, P., Ramonet, M., Bousquet, P., Nakazawa...combination of dense sampling and careful modeling. Similar studies have been carried out across the U.S. using maize [9], and in Europe using wine

  2. Energy-water nexus of wind power in China: The balancing act between CO2 emissions and water consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Feng Kuishuang; Siu, Yim Ling; Hubacek, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    At the end of 2010, China's contribution to global CO 2 emissions reached 25.1%. Estimates show that power generation accounts for 37.2% of the Chinese CO 2 emissions. Even though there is an increasing number of studies using life cycle analysis (LCA) to examine energy consumption and CO 2 emissions required by different types of power generation technologies, there are very few studies focusing on China. Furthermore, the nexus between water consumption and energy production has largely been ignored. In this paper, we adopt input–output based hybrid life cycle analysis to evaluate water consumption and CO 2 emissions of wind power in China. Our results show that China's wind energy consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO 2 emission. Given that the Chinese government aims to increase the wind power generation capacity to 200 GW by 2020, wind power could contribute a 23% reduction in carbon intensity and could save 800 million m 3 of water which could be sufficient enough for use by 11.2 million households. Thus, given the often postulated water crisis, China's energy policy would reap double benefits through progressive energy policies when increasing the share of wind power as part of overall efforts to diversify its electricity generation technologies. - Highlights: ► The nexus of water consumption and CO 2 emission of China's wind power is examined. ► Wind power consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO 2 . ► Wind power could save 800 million m 3 of water for use by 11.2 million households. ► Wind power could contribute 23% of China's carbon intensity target by 2020. ► Wind power deemed to be a viable means of achieving carbon and water savings.

  3. Diurnal sampling reveals significant variation in CO2 emission from a tropical productive lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, P C J; Barbosa, F A R

    2014-08-01

    It is well accepted in the literature that lakes are generally net heterotrophic and supersaturated with CO2 because they receive allochthonous carbon inputs. However, autotrophy and CO2 undersaturation may happen for at least part of the time, especially in productive lakes. Since diurnal scale is particularly important to tropical lakes dynamics, we evaluated diurnal changes in pCO2 and CO2 flux across the air-water interface in a tropical productive lake in southeastern Brazil (Lake Carioca) over two consecutive days. Both pCO2 and CO2 flux were significantly different between day (9:00 to 17:00) and night (21:00 to 5:00) confirming the importance of this scale for CO2 dynamics in tropical lakes. Net heterotrophy and CO2 outgassing from the lake were registered only at night, while significant CO2 emission did not happen during the day. Dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature trends over the diurnal cycle indicated the dependence of CO2 dynamics on lake metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis). This study indicates the importance of considering the diurnal scale when examining CO2 emissions from tropical lakes.

  4. Simulating the integrated summertime Δ14CO2 signature from anthropogenic emissions over Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bozhinova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dioxide (14CO2, reported in Δ14CO2 can be used to determine the fossil fuel CO2 addition to the atmosphere, since fossil fuel CO2 no longer contains any 14C. After the release of CO2 at the source, atmospheric transport causes dilution of strong local signals into the background and detectable gradients of Δ14CO2 only remain in areas with high fossil fuel emissions. This fossil fuel signal can moreover be partially masked by the enriching effect that anthropogenic emissions of 14CO2 from the nuclear industry have on the atmospheric Δ14CO2 signature. In this paper, we investigate the regional gradients in 14CO2 over the European continent and quantify the effect of the emissions from nuclear industry. We simulate the emissions and transport of fossil fuel CO2 and nuclear 14CO2 for Western Europe using the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF-Chem for a period covering 6 summer months in 2008. We evaluate the expected CO2 gradients and the resulting Δ14CO2 in simulated integrated air samples over this period, as well as in simulated plant samples. We find that the average gradients of fossil fuel CO2 in the lower 1200 m of the atmosphere are close to 15 ppm at a 12 km × 12 km horizontal resolution. The nuclear influence on Δ14CO2 signatures varies considerably over the domain and for large areas in France and the UK it can range from 20 to more than 500% of the influence of fossil fuel emissions. Our simulations suggest that the resulting gradients in Δ14CO2 are well captured in plant samples, but due to their time-varying uptake of CO2, their signature can be different with over 3‰ from the atmospheric samples in some regions. We conclude that the framework presented will be well-suited for the interpretation of actual air and plant 14CO2 samples.

  5. Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets: The role of land processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Donat, M.; Pitman, A.; Knutti, R.; Wilby, R.; Vogel, M.; Orth, R.

    2016-12-01

    Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted "2° and 1.5° targets", may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing CO2 emissions because they are disconnected from their implications. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets is more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. A recent publication (Seneviratne et al. 2016, Nature) reveals that regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. They thus allow a better communication of implied regional impacts associated with global targets for CO2 emissions. However, the regional responses are very varied and display strong differences in regional temperature and hydrological sensitivity. Process-based based analyses explain these divergences and highlight avenues for reducing uncertainties in regional projections of extremes, in particular related to the role of land-atmosphere feedbacks. These results have important implications for the design of regional mitigation and climate adaptation policies, for instance related to land use changes. Reference: Seneviratne, S.I., M.G. Donat, A.J. Pitman, R. Knutti, and R. Wilby, 2016, Nature, 529, 477-483, doi:10.1038/nature16542

  6. Reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plans by exhaust gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Elena

    2007-01-01

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the short term, at least for the next 10-20 years, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil the fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO 2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO 2 and remove the other pollutants such as SO x and NO x which are released into the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this type of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies need to be developed to allow their large-scale use. (author)

  7. Optimal production resource reallocation for CO2 emissions reduction in manufacturing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate the effects of climate change, countries worldwide are advancing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes and measures optimal production resource reallocation using data envelopment analysis. This research attempts to clarify the effect of optimal production resource reallocation on CO2 emissions reduction, focusing on regional and industrial characteristics. We use finance, energy, and CO2 emissions data from 13 industrial sectors in 39 countries from...

  8. 150 Years of Italian CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annicchiarico, Barbara; Bennato, Anna Rita; Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    This paper examines the relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in Italy considering the developments in a 150-year time span. Using several statistical techniques, we find that GDP growth and carbon dioxide emissions are strongly interrelated, with a dramatic change...

  9. The potential role of nuclear power in controlling CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Jones, J.E.; Delene, J.G.; Perry, A.M.; Cantor, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power currently reduces CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel burning worldwide by about 8% (0.4 Gt(C)/yr). It can continue to play an important role only if it can grow substantially in the next 50 years. For such growth to occur public confidence will need to improve throughout the world. That might happen if (a) other non-fossil alternatives are inadequate to meet electricity demand growth, (b) the risks to society from global warming are perceived to be very high, (c) nuclear technology improves substantially, and (d) an international institutional setting is devised to manage the nuclear enterprise so that the technology is available to all nations while catastrophic accidents and proliferation of nuclear weapon capabilities are avoided. It seems feasible that the necessary technological and institutional advances can be devised and tested over the next 20 years. It is also plausible that the direct costs of electricity produced by the system would be in the range of 50-100 mills/kWhr (1990 dollars) delivered to the grid. In other words, the direct costs of nuclear power should not be greater than they are today. Achieving such an outcome will require aggressive technical and institutional RD ampersand D performed in a cooperative international setting. If rapid growth of nuclear power can begin again in 15-20 years it could supply 30-50% of world electricity in 50 years and cut CO 2 emission rates by up to 2.5 Gt(C)/yr. This would be a substantial contribution to controlling greenhouse gases, but it is not sufficient. Improved efficiency and various renewable energy sources must also grow rapidly if CO 2 emission rates from electricity generation are to be reduced from the current value of about 2 Gt(C)/yr. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Attribution of CO2 emissions from Brazilian deforestation to domestic and international drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Peters, G.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts to address extensive deforestation to reduce climate change and save primary forests are taking place on a global scale. Whilst several studies have estimated the emissions occurring from deforestation in large rainforests, few studies have investigated the domestic and international drivers sustaining and increasing the deforestation rates. Brazil, having the largest rainforest in the world and one of the highest deforestation rates, is also currently one of the world's largest exporters of soybeans and beef. In this case study we establish the link between Brazilian deforestation and cattle and soybean production, and further attribute emissions to countries and economic sectors through export and import of Brazilian commodities. The emissions from deforestation can therefore be allocated to the countries and sectors consuming goods and services produced on deforested land in Brazil. A land-use change model and deforestation data is coupled with a carbon cycle model to create yearly emission estimates and different emission allocation schemes, depending on emission amortizations and discounting functions for past deforestation. We use an economic multi-regional input-output model (with 112 regions and 57 sectors) to distribute these emissions along agricultural trade routes, through domestic and international consumption in 2004. With our implementation we find that around 80 % of emissions from deforested land is due to cattle grazing, while agricultural transition effects suggests soy beans are responsible for about 20 % of the emissions occurring in 2004. Nearly tree quarters of the soy beans are consumed outside Brazil, of which China, Germany and France are the biggest consumers. Soy beans are consumed by a variety of sectors in the food industry. Brazil exports about 30 % of the cattle it produces, where Russia, USA and Germany are among the largest consumers. Cattle consumption mainly occurs in the meat sectors. In this study we estimate the CO2

  11. On the income–nuclear energy–CO2 emissions nexus revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jungho; Pride, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the debate over the income–nuclear enery–CO 2 emissions nexus by taking specific account of the possible endogeneity of income, which has been largely ignored by early studies. A multivariate cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR) is applied to top six nuclear generating countries. We find that nuclear energy tends to reduce CO 2 emission for all countries. It is also found that income has a beneficial effect on the environment only in some countries. Finally, we find that CO 2 emissions and income are indeed determined simultaneously, while nuclear energy acts exogenously, indicating that nuclear energy is the driving variable, which significantly influences the long-run movements of CO 2 emissions and income, but is not affected by CO 2 emissions and income in the model. - Highlights: • We examine the income–nuclear energy–CO 2 emissions nexus in top six nuclear generating countries. • The model pays special attention to the possible endogeneity of income. • Nuclear energy is found to have a beneficial effect on the environment in all countries. • Income has a favorable effect on the environment only in some countries. • CO 2 emissions and income are indeed found to be determined simultaneously

  12. Spatial variability of soil CO2 emission in different topographic positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane de Figueiredo Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of soil CO2 emission is controlled by several properties related to the production and transport of CO2 inside the soil. Considering that soil properties are also influenced by topography, the objective of this work was to investigate the spatial variability of soil CO2 emission in three different topographic positions in an area cultivated with sugarcane, just after mechanical harvest. One location was selected on a concave-shaped form and two others on linear-shaped form (in back-slope and foot-slope. Three grids were installed, one in each location, containing 69 points and measuring 90 x 90 m each. The spatial variability of soil CO2 emission was characterized by means of semivariance. Spatial variability models derived from soil CO2 emission were exponential in the concave location while spherical models fitted better in the linear shaped areas. The degree of spatial dependence was moderate in all cases and the range of spatial dependence for the CO2 emission in the concave area was 44.5 m, higher than the mean value obtained for the linear shaped areas (20.65 m. The spatial distribution maps of soil CO2 emission indicate a higher discontinuity of emission in the linear form when compared to the concave form.

  13. Tourism-Related CO2 Emission and Its Decoupling Effects in China: A Spatiotemporal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the tourism industry has been accompanied by an increase in CO2 emissions and has a certain degree of impact on climate change. This study adopted the bottom-up approach to estimate the spatiotemporal change of CO2 emissions of the tourism industry in China and its 31 provinces over the period 2000–2015. In addition, the decoupling index was applied to analyze the decoupling effects between tourism-related CO2 emissions and tourism economy from 2000 to 2015. The results showed that the total CO2 emissions of the tourism industry rose from 37.95 Mt in 2000 to 100.98 Mt in 2015 with an average annual growth rate of 7.1%. The highest CO2 emissions from the tourism industry occurred in eastern coastal China, whereas the least CO2 emissions were in the west of China. Additionally, the decoupling of CO2 emissions from economic growth in China’s tourism industry had mainly gone through the alternations of negative decoupling and weak decoupling. The decoupling states in most of the Chinese provinces were desirable during the study period. This study may serve as a scientific reference regarding decision-making in the sustainable development of the tourism industry in China.

  14. Reduction of CO2 emissions during cement clinker burning : Part 2 = Ein Beitrag zur Reduzierung der CO2-Emissionen beim Zementklinkerbrand; Teil 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.; Kolditz, K.; Beilmann, F.; Finger, F.A.; Ott-Reinhardt, D.; Kralisch, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research project entitled "New technology in cement production for reducing CO2 emissions" sponsored by the German Federal Environmental Foundation was to lower the CO2 emissions during clinker burning. A possible reduction, relative to an industrial example, of up to 21 % in the

  15. Reduction of CO2 emissions during cement clinker burning; part 1 = Ein Beitrag zur Reduzierung der CO2-Emissionen beim Zementklinkerbrand; Teil 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.; Kolditz, K.; Bellmann, F.; Ott-Reinhardt, D.; Kralisch, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research project entitled "New technology in cement production for reducing CO2 emissions" sponsored by the German Federal Environmental Foundation was to lower the CO2 emissions during clinker burning. A possible reduction, relative to an industrial example, of up to 21 % in the

  16. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO 2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO 2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO 2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO 2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO 2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  17. The effects of fiscal policy on CO_2 emissions: Evidence from the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkos, George E.; Paizanos, Epameinondas A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of fiscal policy on CO_2 emissions using Vector Autoregressions on U.S. quarterly data from 1973 to 2013. In particular, we analyze the short- and mid-term interactions between fiscal policy and emissions by using sign restrictions to identify the policy shocks. We construct the impulse responses to linear combinations of fiscal shocks, corresponding to the scenarios of deficit-financed spending and deficit-financed tax-cuts. To consider possible variations of the effect of fiscal policy according to the sources of pollution, we distinguish between production- and consumption- generated CO_2 emissions. The results point out that the implementation of expansionary fiscal spending provides an alleviating effect on emissions from both sources of the pollutant, whereas deficit-financed tax-cuts are associated with an increase on consumption-generated CO_2 emissions. The exact pattern of the effects depends on the source of emissions, the scenario of fiscal policy that is implemented and the functional class of government expenditure being increased. - Highlights: • We investigate the effects of fiscal policy on CO_2 emissions using VAR methods. • Spending expansions reduce production- and consumption- generated CO_2 emissions. • This alleviating effect is greater when increasing certain expenditure categories. • Deficit-financed tax-cuts increase consumption-generated CO_2 emissions. • Unique factors in U.S. may limit applicability of findings to other jurisdictions.

  18. Estimation of CO2 emissions from China’s cement production: Methodologies and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael; Price, Lynn; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, China’s cement output was 1.9 Gt, which accounted for 56% of world cement production. Total carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from Chinese cement production could therefore exceed 1.2 Gt. The magnitude of emissions from this single industrial sector in one country underscores the need to understand the uncertainty of current estimates of cement emissions in China. This paper compares several methodologies for calculating CO 2 emissions from cement production, including the three main components of emissions: direct emissions from the calcination process for clinker production, direct emissions from fossil fuel combustion and indirect emissions from electricity consumption. This paper examines in detail the differences between common methodologies for each emission component, and considers their effect on total emissions. We then evaluate the overall level of uncertainty implied by the differences among methodologies according to recommendations of the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology. We find a relative uncertainty in China’s cement-related emissions in the range of 10 to 18%. This result highlights the importance of understanding and refining methods of estimating emissions in this important industrial sector. - Highlights: ► CO 2 emission estimates are critical given China’s cement production scale. ► Methodological differences for emission components are compared. ► Results show relative uncertainty in China’s cement-related emissions of about 10%. ► IPCC Guidelines and CSI Cement CO 2 and Energy Protocol are recommended

  19. Decomposition analysis and mitigation strategies of CO2 emissions from energy consumption in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ilyoung; Wehrmeyer, Walter; Mulugetta, Yacob

    2010-01-01

    Energy-related CO 2 emissions in South Korea have increased substantially, outpacing those of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries since 1990. To mitigate CO 2 emissions in South Korea, we need to understand the main contributing factors to rising CO 2 levels as part of the effort toward developing targeted policies. This paper aims to analyze the specific trends and influencing factors that have caused changes in emissions patterns in South Korea over a 15-year period. To this end, we employed the Log Mean Divisia index method with five energy consumption sectors and seven sub-sectors in terms of fuel mix (FM), energy intensity (EI), structural change (SC) and economic growth (EG). The results showed that EG was a dominant explanation for the increase in CO 2 emissions in all of the sectors. The results also demonstrated that FM causes CO 2 reduction across the array of sectors with the exception of the energy supply sector. CO 2 reduction as a function of SC was also observed in manufacturing, services and residential sectors. Furthermore, EI was an important driver of CO 2 reduction in most sectors except for several manufacturing sub-sectors. Based on these findings, it appears that South Korea should implement climate change policies that consider the specific influential factors associated with increasing CO 2 emissions in each sector.

  20. Monoterpene and herbivore-induced emissions from cabbage plants grown at elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Terhi; Reddy, G. V. P.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    The warming of the lower atmosphere due to elevating CO 2 concentration may increase volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from plants. Also, direct effects of elevated CO 2 on plant secondary metabolism are expected to lead to increased VOC emissions due to allocation of excess carbon on secondary metabolites, of which many are volatile. We investigated how growing at doubled ambient CO 2 concentration affects emissions from cabbage plants ( Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) damaged by either the leaf-chewing larvae of crucifer specialist diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella L.) or generalist Egyptian cotton leafworm ( Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval)). The emission from cabbage cv. Lennox grown in both CO 2 concentrations, consisted mainly of monoterpenes (sabinene, limonene, α-thujene, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, myrcene, α-pinene and γ-terpinene). ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, sesquiterpene ( E, E)- α-farnesene and homoterpene ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) were emitted mainly from herbivore-damaged plants. Plants grown at 720 μmol mol -1 of CO 2 had significantly lower total monoterpene emissions per shoot dry weight than plants grown at 360 μmol mol -1 of CO 2, while damage by both herbivores significantly increased the total monoterpene emissions compared to intact plants. ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, ( E, E)- α-farnesene and DMNT emissions per shoot dry weight were not affected by the growth at elevated CO 2. The emission of DMNT was significantly enhanced from plants damaged by the specialist P. xylostella compared to the plants damaged by the generalist S. littoralis. The relative proportions of total monoterpenes and total herbivore-induced compounds of total VOCs did not change due to the growth at elevated CO 2, while insect damage increased significantly the proportion of induced compounds. The results suggest that VOC emissions that are induced by the leaf-chewing herbivores will not be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentration.

  1. Greenhouse Gas (CO2 AND N2O Emissions from Soils: A Review Emisión de Gases invernadero (CO2 y N2O desde Suelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Muñoz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural activities, the main greenhouse gases (GHG are those related to C and N global cycles. The impact of agriculture on GHG emissions has become a key issue, especially when considering that natural C and N cycles are influenced by agricultural development. This review focuses on CO2 and N2O soil emissions in terrestrial ecosystems, with emphasis in Chilean and similar agro-ecosystems around the world. The influence of land use and crop management practices on CO2 and N2O emissions is analyzed; some mitigation measures to reduce such emissions are also discussed here. More knowledge on the biological processes that promote of GHG emissions from soil will allow creating opportunities for agricultural development under friendly-environmental conditions, where soil can act as a reservoir and/or emitter of GHG, depending on the balance of inputs and outputs.En actividades agrícolas los principales gases de efecto invernadero (GHG son los relacionados con los ciclos globales de C y N. El impacto de la agricultura sobre las emisiones GHG se ha convertido en una cuestión clave, especialmente si se considera que los ciclos naturales C y N se ven influidos por el desarrollo agrícola. Esta revisión se centra en emisiones de CO2 y N2O del suelo en los ecosistemas terrestres, con énfasis en agro-ecosistemas de Chile y similares alrededor del mundo. Se analiza la influencia del uso del suelo y las prácticas de manejo del cultivo sobre emisiones de CO2 y N2O, se discuten medidas de mitigación para reducir estas emisiones. Un mayor conocimiento sobre los procesos biológicos que promueven las emisiones GHG del suelo permitirá la creación de oportunidades para el desarrollo agrícola en condiciones ambientalmente amigables, donde el suelo puede actuar como un reservorio y/o emisor de GHG, dependiendo del balance de entradas y salidas.

  2. Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: Unknowns and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, W.; Baliunas, S.; Idso, S.; Kondratyev, K. Ya.; Posmentier, E. S.

    2001-12-01

    A likelihood of disastrous global environmental consequences has been surmised as a result of projected increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. These estimates are based on computer climate modeling, a branch of science still in its infancy despite recent, substantial strides in knowledge. Because the expected anthropogenic climate forcings are relatively small compared to other background and forcing factors (internal and external), the credibility of the modeled global and regional responses rests on the validity of the models. We focus on this important question of climate model validation. Specifically, we review common deficiencies in general circulation model calculations of atmospheric temperature, surface temperature, precipitation and their spatial and temporal variability. These deficiencies arise from complex problems associated with parameterization of multiply-interacting climate components, forcings and feedbacks, involving especially clouds and oceans. We also review examples of expected climatic impacts from anthropogenic CO2 forcing. Given the host of uncertainties and unknowns in the difficult but important task of climate modeling, the unique attribution of observed current climate change to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, including the relatively well-observed latest 20 years, is not possible. We further conclude that the incautious use of GCMs to make future climate projections from incomplete or unknown forcing scenarios is antithetical to the intrinsically heuristic value of models. Such uncritical application of climate models has led to the commonly-held but erroneous impression that modeling has proven or substantiated the hypothesis that CO2 added to the air has caused or will cause significant global warming. An assessment of the positive skills of GCMs and their use in suggesting a discernible human influence on global climate can be found in the joint World Meteorological Organisation and United Nations

  3. Towards real-time verification of CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P.; Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jackson, Robert B.; Joos, Fortunat; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; McKinley, Galen A.; Sitch, Stephen; Tans, Pieter

    2017-12-01

    The Paris Agreement has increased the incentive to verify reported anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions with independent Earth system observations. Reliable verification requires a step change in our understanding of carbon cycle variability.

  4. A carbon tax to reduce CO2 emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Paola; Botteon, Michele; Carraro, Carlo

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of introducing a tax on carbon dioxide emissions produced by combustion processes in OECD-European countries. A sectoral model of energy consumption is constructed to examine energy-saving and inter-fuel substitution effects induced by the introduction of various carbon taxes. The simulation period is 1989-94. Our results provide a mild support to the environmental role of a carbon tax. Energy-saving or inter-fuel substitution processes, that result from the introduction of environmental taxation, stabilize emissions at the 1988 level only in the electricity generation sector, and only if high tax rates are assumed ($100/ton.C). By contrast, total emissions (all sectors and all fuels) keep growing, and the implementation of a tax of $100/ton.C can only reduce the emission growth rate. (Author)

  5. Analysis of CO2, CO and HC emission reduction in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, K. N.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Reddy, Mannem Soma Harish; Aravinda Reddy, Gireddy; Sai Srinivas, Jammalamadaka K. M. K.; Vasan

    2017-05-01

    In the present scenario, the emission from automobiles is becoming a serious problem to the environment. Automobiles, thermal power stations and Industries majorly constitute to the emission of CO2, CO and HC. Though the CO2 available in the atmosphere will be captured by oceans, grasslands; they are not enough to control CO2 present in the atmosphere completely. Also advances in engine and vehicle technology continuously to reduce the emission from engine exhaust are not sufficient to reduce the HC and CO emission. This work concentrates on design, fabrication and analysis to reduce CO2, CO and HC emission from exhaust of automobiles by using molecular sieve 5A of 1.5mm. In this paper, the details of the fabrication, results and discussion about the process are discussed.

  6. Estimation and reduction of CO2 emissions from crude oil distillation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, M.; Olujic, Z.; Jobson, M.; Smith, R.

    2006-01-01

    Distillation systems are energy-intensive processes, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). A simple model for the estimation of CO 2 emissions associated with operation of heat-integrated distillation systems as encountered in refineries is introduced. In conjunction with a shortcut distillation model, this model has been used to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower unit aiming at minimization of CO 2 emissions. Simulation results indicate that the total CO 2 emissions of the existing crude oil unit can be cut down by 22%, just by changing the process conditions accordingly, and that the gain in this respect can be doubled by integrating a gas turbine. In addition, emissions reduction is accompanied by substantial profit increase due to utility saving and/or export

  7. Norwegian gas sales and the impacts on European CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.; Boug, P.; Kverndokk, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper has studied the impacts on Western European CO 2 emissions of a reduction in Norwegian gas sales. Such impacts are due to changes in energy demand, energy supply, and environmental and political regulations. The gas supply model DYNOPOLY was used to analyse the effects on Russian and Algerian gas exports of a reduction in Norwegian gas supply. The effects on the demand side and the effects of committing to CO 2 targets were analysed using the energy demand model SEEM. If Western European countries commit to their announced CO 2 emissions targets, reduced Norwegian gas sales will have no impact on emissions. The consumption of oil and coal will increase slightly, while the total energy consumption will go down. Also, a reduction in Norwegian gas sales will have only minor impacts on the CO 2 emissions from Western Europe when no emissions regulations are considered

  8. Does export product quality matter for CO2 emissions? Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozgor, Giray; Can, Muhlis

    2017-01-01

    This paper re-estimates the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in China. To this end, it uses the unit root tests with structural breaks and the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) estimations over the period 1971-2010. The special role is given to the impact of export product quality on CO 2 emissions in the empirical models. The paper finds that the EKC hypothesis is applicable in China. It also observes the positive effect from energy consumption to CO 2 emissions. In addition, it finds that the export product quality is negatively associated with CO 2 emissions. The paper also argues potential implications.

  9. Social groups and CO2 emissions in Spanish households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Rosa; Mainar, Alfredo; Sánchez-Chóliz, Julio

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the social factors that underlie the composition of final demand and, therefore, determine the final volume of emissions. The study throws light on the relationships between the parameters characterising Spanish households (income, urban/rural residence, local population density, head of household's level of education and social class) and their behaviour with regard to consumption and the demand for goods and services. On this basis, we determine which consumption patterns are best aligned with sustainable growth and development. Our main conclusion is that the factors analysed determine the volume of emissions for each household in terms of their correlation with income, which is the primary determinant of consumption patterns. The methodology proposed combines linear SAM models and econometric estimation of emissions elasticity with respect to spending. - Highlights: ► The methodology proposed combines linear SAM models and econometric estimation. ► Social factors determine the volume of emissions for each household. ► This is due to their correlation with income, which determine consumption patterns. ► Higher levels of spending do not entail greater household emission intensities. ► Elasticities of emissions calculated are lower than one.

  10. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel

  11. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO(2) emissions - application and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, S W L; Meijer, H A J

    2010-05-01

    The (14)C method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO(2) emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO(2) samples that have been sampled in 1-h intervals at a coal- and wood-fired power plant and a waste incineration plant. Biogenic flue gas CO(2) fractions of 5-10% and 48-50% have been measured at the power plant and the waste incineration plant, respectively. The reliability of the method has been proven by comparison of the power plant results with those based on carbon mass input and output data of the power plant. At industrial plants with relatively low biogenic CO(2) fraction (<10%) the results need to be corrected for sampled (14)CO(2) from atmospheric air. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of European passenger cars weight to exhaust CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zervas, Efthimios; Lazarou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    The increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration influences climate changes. The road transport sector is one of the main anthropogenic sources of CO 2 emissions in the European Union (EU). One of the main parameters influencing CO 2 emissions from passenger cars (PCs) is their weight, which increases during last years. For the same driving distance, heavier vehicles need more work than lighter ones, because they have to move an extra weight, and thus more fuel is consumed and thus increased CO 2 emissions. The weight control of new PCs could be an efficient way to control their CO 2 emissions. After an analysis of the EU new PCs market, their segment distribution and their weight, some estimations for 2020 are presented. Based on this analysis, 13 base scenarios using several ways for the control of the weight of future European new PCs are used to estimate their CO 2 emissions and the benefit of each scenario. The results show that a significant benefit on CO 2 emissions could be achieved if the weight of each PC does not exceed an upper limit, especially if this limit is quite low. The benefit obtained by limitations of weight is higher than the benefit obtained from the expected decreased future fuel consumption. Similar results are obtained when the weight of new PCs does not exceed an upper limit within each segment, or when the weight of each new PC decreases. (author)

  13. Does Non-Fossil Energy Usage Lower CO2 Emissions? Empirical Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshan Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL to examine the dynamic impact of non-fossil energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in China for a given level of economic growth, trade openness, and energy usage between 1965 and 2014. The results suggest that the variables are in a long-run equilibrium. ARDL estimation indicates that consumption of non-fossil energy plays a crucial role in curbing CO2 emissions in the long run but not in the short term. The results also suggest that, in both the long and short term, energy consumption and trade openness have a negative impact on the reduction of CO2 emissions, while gross domestic product (GDP per capita increases CO2 emissions only in the short term. Finally, the Granger causality test indicates a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and energy consumption. In addition, this study suggests that non-fossil energy is an effective solution to mitigate CO2 emissions, providing useful information for policy-makers wishing to reduce atmospheric CO2.

  14. A Study on Life Cycle CO2 Emissions of Low-Carbon Building in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyun Cho

    2016-06-01

    CO2 (LCCO2 per unit area. If diverse production technologies and sales routes are further developed for low-carbon construction materials, carbon emission reduction effects would considerably increase.

  15. Factor Decomposition Analysis of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tianjin is the largest coastal city in northern China with rapid economic development and urbanization. Energy-related CO2 emissions from Tianjin’s production and household sectors during 1995–2012 were calculated according to the default carbon-emission coefficients provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We decomposed the changes in CO2 emissions resulting from 12 causal factors based on the method of Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index. The examined factors were divided into four types of effects: energy intensity effect, structure effect, activity intensity effect, scale effect and the various influencing factors imposed differential impacts on CO2 emissions. The decomposition outcomes indicate that per capita GDP and population scale are the dominant positive driving factors behind the growth in CO2 emissions for all sectors, while the energy intensity of the production sector is the main contributor to dampen the CO2 emissions increment, and the contributions from industry structure and energy structure need further enhancement. The analysis results reveal the reasons for CO2 emission changes in Tianjin and provide a solid basis upon which policy makers may propose emission reduction measures and approaches for the implementation of sustainable development strategies.

  16. Trends in CO2 Emissions from China-Oriented International Marine Transportation Activities and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The demand for marine transportation and its associated CO2 emissions are growing rapidly as a result of increasing international trade and economic growth. An activity-based approach is developed for forecasting CO2 emissions from the China-oriented international seaborne trade sector. To accurately estimate the aggregated emissions, CO2 emissions are calculated individually for five categories of vessels: crude oil tanker, product tanker, chemical tanker, bulk carrier, and container. A business-as-usual (BAU scenario was developed to describe the current situation without additional mitigation policies, whilst three alternative scenarios were developed to describe scenarios with various accelerated improvements of the key factors. The aggregated CO2 emissions are predicted to reach 419.97 Mt under the BAU s