WorldWideScience

Sample records for global carbon market

  1. Navigating the global carbon market

    Schneider, Malte; Hendrichs, Holger; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2010-01-01

    From a slow start, the clean development mechanism (CDM) market has recently experienced enormous growth. However, the CDM market has been increasingly criticised, resulting in a lively debate about how to reform, complement, or replace it. In order to increase transparency and assist policy-makers in better understanding the current market, we depart from the traditional project-level perspective on CDM and analyse commercial activities by utilising data from UNEP Risoe's CDM Bazaar. To this end, we first establish a seven-step value chain by conducting a factor analysis on the commercial activities indicated in the Bazaar and, second, identify nine prevalent business models with a cluster analysis of all 495 participating organisations. Based on these analyses, we discuss potential impacts on the value chain of different policy scenarios that rely on carbon credits as incentive. We find that the importance of specific regulatory CDM know-how and general business activities such as finance varies strongly with the different policy scenarios. Our analysis serves to sensitise policy-makers and business about implications of different regulatory designs.

  2. Do forests have a say in global carbon markets for climate stabilization policy?

    Tavoni, M.; Bosetti, V. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, FEEM (Italy); Sohngen, B. [Ohio State Univ., Dept. of Agr., Env., and Dev. Economics (United States)

    2007-05-15

    While carbon sequestration was included in the Kyoto Protocol, its potential scope as a mitigation activity has been highly debated in subsequent negotiations. Notwithstanding the widespread research suggesting that biological sequestration of carbon can play an important role for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the nations in the Kyoto Protocol have so far only haltingly incorporated forestry measures, for a variety of reasons. One concern revolved around the validity of measuring and monitoring land-based activities to prove that they provided additional carbon storage, as for example error bounds for measuring and monitoring carbon in forests are fairly large. A second reason for the setbacks to forest sequestration regarded whether carbon sequestration would reduce carbon prices and consequently the quantity of abatement provided by the energy sector. Only the energy sector, after all, can ensure permanent reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. This concern implies that forest carbon sequestration could be large enough to influence carbon prices in a global carbon market. Clearly, if prices are lower the deployment of low carbon measures and technologies could be delayed, for example by reducing incentives for technological evolution. Yet, enriching the mitigation portfolio with forestry could bring a significant contribution. Global policies meant to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the future will arguably require a vast bundle of measures to meet ambitious targets. The first set of concerns has been widely addressed in a range of publications, including those of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Remarkably less attention has been devoted to the second set of concerns. In this article we try to fill the gap by analyzing the impact biological carbon sequestration has on a policy to stabilize carbon emissions. In doing so we are able to evaluate a potentially attractive mitigation option like carbon sinks accounting for the influence the

  3. The global warming, public goods and carbon market; Calentamiento global, bienes publicos y mercado de carbono

    Quadri de la Torre, Gabriel [EcoSecurities (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The global warming is an issue of the public goods, and demands an outstanding multilateral action, which must to ensure both efficiency and unchanging transition towards an economy of low intensity of carbon. The new system, which is going to replace the Kyoto Protocol, will have compromises for the developing countries and deep implication in the relative competitivity of the nations and companies. [Spanish] El calentamiento global es un problema de bienes publicos que exige una extraordinaria accion multilateral. Esta debe asegurar eficiencia y una transicion fluida hacia una economia de baja intensidad de carbono. El nuevo sistema que sucedera al Protocolo de Kyoto significara compromisos para los paises en vias de desarrollo, y tendra profundas implicaciones en la competitividad relativa de naciones y empresas.

  4. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  5. Looking Forward. The Carbon Markets

    Wilder, M.

    2006-02-01

    An overview is given of possible future developments in the market for carbon dioxide emissions trading. In this presentation it is concluded that the carbon market is here and now, that the carbon market is global and China and India are major players, that global capital is on the move and delay is dangerous, that there is a world of opportunity for Australian companies and with inaction there is a risk to fall off the fringe

  6. Global marketing control

    John Rance; Galina Zhiltsova

    2009-01-01

    The reasoning issue of this work is to research and define the efficient methods of global marketing control. The report is focused on the following aspects: the importance of the control systems in global marketing environment, the relationship between planning and controlling, types and the

  7. Designing carbon markets. Part I: Carbon markets in time

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in time (i.e., intertemporally). It is part of a twin set of papers that ask, starting from first principles, what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of temporal design that would help to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including banking and borrowing and other mechanisms to provide greater carbon price predictability and credibility over time.

  8. Design for Global Markets

    Boztepe, Suzan

    2009-01-01

    In a global economy, no company can safely assume that their products will be accepted in foreign markets. One key issue is to understand and meet the latent needs of culturally diverse target markets. This book examines from a user perspective the issue of developing new products for global...... markets. Given that main goal of any design is to create value for users, Boztepe argues that the concept of user value could be a driving force in design decision-making regarding product development for global markets. Through interviews with women about their kitchen practices and observations...... framework to assists marketers, product designers and managers to deal with the complex issue of designing and tailoring products for local needs....

  9. Carbon flows, carbon markets, and low-carbon lifestyles: reflecting on the role of markets in climate governance

    Spaargaren, G.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of carbon markets in governing global carbon flows triggers substantial debates among policymakers, social movements and social scientists. The present debate on carbon markets is different from the earlier debate on market-based instruments in environmental politics. Carbon markets

  10. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  11. Pathways to Global Markets

    Smith, David E.; Mitry, Darryl J.

    2011-01-01

    . An important case study is McDonald‘s corporation, the world‘s largest fast food restaurant chain. This company has employed divergent marketing and economic strategies in both domestic and the international markets to become a leader in the global marketplace. An overview of the company‘s background......, organizational structures, mission and vision illustrate McDonald‘s strategic focus on its proactive evolution from a small drive-through operation to a global fast-food giant. The strategy is based on its ability to adapt to the cultural differences of the markets that McDonald‘s serves while preserving its...

  12. Global Derivatives Market

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  13. Global offshore pipeline markets

    Knight, R.; Parsons, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, two experts forecast a recovery in the offshore pipeline market followed by accelerating growth. A number of clearly definable macro trends are affecting the world offshore oil and gas industry and will be of considerable significance to the offshore pipelines industry. The authors' view is of markets that show every chance of enjoying long-term growth prospects driven by the fundamentals of a continuing increase in demand for offshore oil and gas. The offshore industry however has a highly cyclical nature, due to the impact of variations in oil and gas prices and the differing state of maturity of individual regions. Therefore those companies that are able to offer the widest range of pipe types and diameters and methods of installation across the greatest range of geographic markets are likely to prosper most. Thus, this continues to be a market best suited to those able to operate on a global scale and make a corporate commitment measured in decades

  14. Global PV Market Development

    Schmidt, F.

    2009-01-01

    The dawn of 2009 saw several events which caused major turbulence in the global photovoltaic industry. In 2008 the Spanish PV market grew beyond all expectations and even outranked Germany as the world's number one market. However, the promotion scheme was modified and a market cap was introduced in 2009, cutting back the maximum capacity to be installed to about the level of 2007. In addition, the industry is facing an oversupply of PV modules and a harsh recession which is significantly affecting the traditionally strong PV markets. International photovoltaic companies are challenged by a changing market situation: all of a sudden, competition has increased significantly, pushing the customer to the fore. As a result, a consolidation process is expected within the PV industry worldwide. However, the story is not all negative. In the U.S., the election of Barack Obama may be seen as the starting signal for a massive expansion in PV, likely to bring the country to first place globally within the next five years. Furthermore, different markets and market segments are being opened up - especially in Europe - thanks to the gradual arrival of generation parity and new PV support mechanisms. EuPD Research has observed and studied international PV markets since its foundation. The information included in the presentation is based on a wide range of quantitative and qualitative studies that EuPD Research has conducted in the key markets since 2002. Florian Schmidt, EuPD Research's Head of Product Management, will give an overview of the global PV market and how it is developing in this crucial year 2009. Aspects such as technology development, production capacities and the demand side will be included, with a special emphasis on the European PV markets. So far Chinese PV companies have often benefited from the booming PV markets in Europe, above all Germany and Spain. Due to the lack of domestic market, the Chinese industry strongly depends on the export and is

  15. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  16. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Quéré, Le Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M.S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid T.; Werf, van der Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  17. Progressing towards post-2012 carbon markets

    Soeren Luetken, S; Holm Olsen, K

    2011-11-15

    Confronting the end of the first Kyoto Commitment period in 2012 with no agreed outcome for global cooperation on future emission reductions, there is an urgent need to look for new opportunities for public and private cooperation to drive broad-based progress in living standards and keep projected future warming below the politically agreed 2 degrees Celsius. Responding jointly to these global challenges the United Nations environmental Program (UNEP) and its UNEP Risoe Centre (URC) have in cooperation with the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) prepared the Perspectives 2011. The publication focuses on the role of carbon markets in contributing to low carbon development and new mechanisms for green growth, as one core area of action to address the challenges noted above. The publication explores in ten articles, how carbon markets at national, regional and global levels can be developed and up-scaled to sustain the involvement of the private sector in leveraging finance and innovative solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The titles of the ten articles are: 1) Fragmentation of international climate policy - doom or boom for carbon markets?; 2) Perspectives on the EU carbon market; 3) China carbon market; 4) The national context of U.S. state policies for a global commons problem; 5) Mind the gap - the state-of-play of Canadian greenhouse gas mitigation; 6) Role of the UN and multilateral policies in integrating an increasingly fragmented global carbon market; 7) Making CDM work for poor and rich Africa beyond 2012 - a series of dos and don'ts; 8) Voluntary market - future perspectives; 9) Sectoral approaches as a way forward for the carbon market?; 10) The Durban outcome - a post 2012 framework approach for green house gas markets. (LN)

  18. Progressing towards post-2012 carbon markets

    Soeren Luetken, S.; Holm Olsen, K.

    2011-11-15

    Confronting the end of the first Kyoto Commitment period in 2012 with no agreed outcome for global cooperation on future emission reductions, there is an urgent need to look for new opportunities for public and private cooperation to drive broad-based progress in living standards and keep projected future warming below the politically agreed 2 degrees Celsius. Responding jointly to these global challenges the United Nations environmental Program (UNEP) and its UNEP Risoe Centre (URC) have in cooperation with the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) prepared the Perspectives 2011. The publication focuses on the role of carbon markets in contributing to low carbon development and new mechanisms for green growth, as one core area of action to address the challenges noted above. The publication explores in ten articles, how carbon markets at national, regional and global levels can be developed and up-scaled to sustain the involvement of the private sector in leveraging finance and innovative solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The titles of the ten articles are: 1) Fragmentation of international climate policy - doom or boom for carbon markets?; 2) Perspectives on the EU carbon market; 3) China carbon market; 4) The national context of U.S. state policies for a global commons problem; 5) Mind the gap - the state-of-play of Canadian greenhouse gas mitigation; 6) Role of the UN and multilateral policies in integrating an increasingly fragmented global carbon market; 7) Making CDM work for poor and rich Africa beyond 2012 - a series of dos and don'ts; 8) Voluntary market - future perspectives; 9) Sectoral approaches as a way forward for the carbon market?; 10) The Durban outcome - a post 2012 framework approach for green house gas markets. (LN)

  19. Romanian Market Researches in Global Market Context

    Victor Danciu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Market research is a powerful industry, whose value reached 21,5 billion USD in 2004. Market studies expenses are mostly concentrated in Europe (45% and in USA (37%. The market shares of the Top 10 companies were above fifty per cent of the research market’s turnover. As a young, modest market, which is 0,84% of the global expenses value, Romania was the global leader in terms of growth, in 2004. With an asymmetric demand and a relatively concentrated offer, the Romanian research market may have a spectacular development in the future, if the obstacles for the customers and research companies are surpassed. If so, the pressures following the UE’s entry of Romania and the evolution of customers needs and expectations will speed up the growth of the market research.

  20. Romanian Market Researches in Global Market Context

    Victor Danciu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Market research is a powerful industry, whose value reached 21,5 billion USD in 2004. Market studies expenses are mostly concentrated in Europe (45% and in USA (37%. The market shares of the Top 10 companies were above fifty per cent of the research market’s turnover. As a young, modest market, which is 0,84% of the global expenses value, Romania was the global leader in terms of growth, in 2004. With an asymmetric demand and a relatively concentrated offer, the Romanian research market may have a spectacular development in the future, if the obstacles for the customers and research companies are surpassed. If so, the pressures following the UE’s entry of Romania and the evolution of customers needs and expectations will speed up the growth of the market research.

  1. Projection of U.S. forest sector carbon sequestration under U.S. and global timber market and wood energy consumption scenarios, 2010-2060

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a modeling framework to examine change over time in U.S. forest sector carbon inventory (in U.S. timberland tree biomass and harvested wood products) for alternative projections of U.S. and global timber markets, including wood energy consumption, based on established IPCC/RPA scenarios. Results indicated that the U.S. forest sector’s projected...

  2. Global carbon inequality

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Munoz Castillo, Raul; Sun, Laixiang; Xue, Jinjun

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  3. The global carbon cycle

    Maier-Reimer, E.

    1991-01-01

    Basic concepts of the global carbon cycle on earth are described; by careful analyses of isotopic ratios, emission history and oceanic ventilation rates are derived, which provide crucial tests for constraining and calibrating models. Effects of deforestation, fertilizing, fossil fuel burning, soil erosion, etc. are quantified and compared, and the oceanic carbon process is evaluated. Oceanic and terrestrial biosphere modifications are discussed and a carbon cycle model is proposed

  4. Carbon market emerges

    Hordern, N.

    2001-01-01

    Last November COP6, the UN climate change conference in The Hague, failed to agree on the rules of the Kyoto Protocol, the treaty limiting developed countries' emissions of greenhouse gases ('carbon'). Many in the Australian resource and energy sector were relieved that COP6 was inconclusive. As Industry Minister Senator Nick Minchin put it: 'Better no outcome than a bad outcome.' However, the financial services sector -potentially a major beneficiary of the international carbon it hoped COP6 would endorse -received a setback. Apparently not for long. Only months later, a nascent Australian carbon trading market seems to be emerging by stealth, irrespective of COP6's fortunes. This poses both opportunities and costs for the resources and energy sectors. Whoever succeeds in influencing the design of a trading scheme, 'pilot' or not, will have a box seat when - not if - a 'mandatory' emissions trading scheme is introduced. Government policy is that there will be no mandatory emissions trading scheme until the establishment of a UN endorsed international market requires one of Australia. This, in turn, depends upon the conclusion of the negotiations that stalled in The Hague. COP6 is set to resume in Germany, probably in July

  5. Changing global carbon cycle

    Canadell, Pep

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  6. The carbon market puzzle

    Perthuis, Ch. de

    2008-01-01

    The kyoto protocol forces the developed countries which ratify it to reduce their greenhouse effect gases emissions. The reductions cost is decreased by the clean development mechanisms: the carbon markets. That is why the protocol implementation will not have a major effect on the evolution of the greenhouse effect gases for 2012. The author presents the situation and discusses the economic tools of the Kyoto protocol, the european system of quotas, the clean development mechanisms and the impacts on a future and more ambitious climatic agreement. (A.L.B.)

  7. Mexico and emerging carbon markets : investment opportunities for small and medium-size companies and the global climate agenda

    Vaughan, S.; Carpentier, C.L.; Patterson, Z.; Kelly, K.; De Alba, E.; Hoyt, E.A.; Breceda, M.; Ouimet, B.

    2001-11-01

    This report provides information to the financial services sector on major environmental issues in North America in an effort to identify potential financial opportunities in Mexico regarding the climate change agenda and those coming from possible carbon offset projects. As a non-Annex 1 country, Mexico is not obliged to meet domestic GHG emission reduction targets, but given the strong economic links between Mexico, Canada and the United States it is suggested that investment transfer links to climate change should follow existing international investment and trade patterns. This report examined three sectors in Mexico, including electric power generation, steel production and land-use change and forestry, in an effort to evaluate their potential for carbon reduction. The report identifies carbon-related opportunities involving small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in particular because large companies are already better positioned to examine opportunities associated with the international climate agenda. SMEs, however, face many challenges in taking advantage of climate-related projects and associated investment opportunities, including higher entry and transaction costs, difficulty in accessing capital markets, and difficulty in estimating individual baselines and inventories. The report showed that the main carbon-related opportunity in Mexico's electricity sector are closely related to the planned expansion of natural gas use. This study also suggests that the climate agenda can contribute to changing Mexican forests from their current state of being a net source of greenhouse gas emissions, to becoming a significant carbon sink. tabs., figs

  8. Global carbon inequality

    Hubacek, Klaus [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Masaryk University, Department of Environmental Studies, Brno (Czech Republic); Baiocchi, Giovanni [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Economics, College Park, MD (United States); Feng, Kuishuang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Munoz Castillo, Raul [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Interamerican Development Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Sun, Laixiang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); SOAS, University of London, London (United Kingdom); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Xue, Jinjun [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Economics, Nagoya (Japan); Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan (China)

    2017-12-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  9. Global market and consumers

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  10. Market efficiency in the European carbon markets

    Charles, Amélie; Darné, Olivier; Fouilloux, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between futures and spot prices in the European carbon markets from the cost-of-carry hypothesis. The aim is to investigate the extent of efficiency market. The three main European markets (BlueNext, EEX and ECX) are analyzed during Phase II, covering the period from March 13, 2009 to January, 17, 2012. Futures contracts are found to be cointegrated with spot prices and interest rates for several maturities in the three CO 2 markets. Results are similar when structural breaks are taken into account. According to individual and joint tests, the cost-of-carry model is rejected for all maturities and CO 2 markets, implying that neither contract is priced according to the cost-of-carry model. The absence of the cost-of-carry relationship can be interpreted as an indicator of market inefficiency and may bring arbitrage opportunities in the CO 2 market. - Highlights: • We study the cost-of-carry hypothesis in the European carbon markets during Phase 2. • We apply cointegration tests with and without structural breaks on several maturities. • We find that futures contracts are cointegrated with spot prices and interest rates. • The cost-of-carry model is rejected for all maturities and carbon markets

  11. Internet marketing global features

    Rakita Branko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Business environment incessantly bringing a yard of a new challenges to market entities. One of the greatest challenges that companies faced during the last couple of decades was development of information systems as well as a large scale usage of world's greatest computer network - Internet - no matter how big they were or what their activities included. There are many papers about Internet, its development, social and economic significance. However, there is no paper or article written by a local author that systematically and thoroughly treats marketing importance of Internet. This paper presents potentials and business importance of internet marketing in new millennium. It considers internet as a communication, trade and distribution channel. In addition, the paper highlights research potentials of Internet.

  12. TODAY THE GLOBAL LABOR MARKET

    D. G. Shchipanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international movement of labor, including temporary impacts on the socio-economic development of the donor and recipient countries the labor force. In this regard, it is relevant and legitimate problems of the evolution of the global labor market, the need to examine the issues of labor mobility, the problems of international labor migration and its impact on the national markets of skilled labor in the context of globalization. Distribution and use of human resources becomes cross-border nature, and so an international study of the labor market.

  13. Global power: Markets and strategies

    Poirer, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The author will first present an updated view of the global power market activity, including opportunities in power generation, transmission and distribution. This will include a review of the trends in closings and transaction flowed by type of activity and geographic area. Estimates will be based on Hagler Bailly's comprehensive database on global power transactions and project announcements. The firm has also worked with dozens of global power companies since 1990. Second, the author will review trends in terms of regulatory changes, project cost trends, developers' project experiences, and financing issues. This systematic review will be the foundation for projection of future market activity (e.g., number of closing by type of project through 2000). A forecast of future greenfield and privatization activity will be provided and the key markets will be highlighted. Third, the author will present an updated view of the competition in the global power market (including the various types of competitors and changes in their respective market posture). Finally, the author will discuss the various types of strategies and business models that are followed by key global power players

  14. Are water markets globally applicable?

    Endo, Takahiro; Kakinuma, Kaoru; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2018-03-01

    Water scarcity is a global concern that necessitates a global perspective, but it is also the product of multiple regional issues that require regional solutions. Water markets constitute a regionally applicable non-structural measure to counter water scarcity that has received the attention of academics and policy-makers, but there is no global view on their applicability. We present the global distribution of potential nations and states where water markets could be instituted in a legal sense, by investigating 296 water laws internationally, with special reference to a minimum set of key rules: legalization of water reallocation, the separation of water rights and landownership, and the modification of the cancellation rule for non-use. We also suggest two additional globally distributed prerequisites and policy implications: the predictability of the available water before irrigation periods and public control of groundwater pumping throughout its jurisdiction.

  15. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary...... Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study...

  16. Global carbon budget 2013

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO 2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990's, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO 2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6±0.4 GtC yr -1 , ELUC 0.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , GATM 4.3±0

  17. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Rödenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the global carbon budget - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007-2016), EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr-1, with a small BIM of -0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007-2016), reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small SLAND

  18. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    C. Le Quéré

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the global carbon budget – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC, mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM, the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007–2016, EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr−1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr−1, with a small BIM of −0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be

  19. Retailers’ competitiveness on global markets

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the chapter is to show that now retail trade is a global sector but because of its specificity new strategies are necessary if global retailers want to sustain their advantage. The  concept of globalization is discussed and then referenced to the retail sector.  The process of retail internationalization which resulted in the globalization of retail sector is analyzed.  It is assumed that the retailers were motivated by the goal of sustaining their competitive advantage. So some ideas of the main theoretical views of developing sustainable competitive advantage (SCA: Environmental View and Resource Based View, referring to the process of internationalization as well as Yip’s description of globalization process are presented. On the examples of some companies, leading the process of retail fast internationalization in XX century, like Ikea, Benetton, Carrefour, Wal-Mart, it is shown how the resources they developed and external environment contributed to their globalization process. It is found out that there were two stages of the globalization of retail sector: first, in which non food companies develop on international market and second, when the mass merchandisers offering food and other Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG were involved. The fact that after fast internationalization representatives of both groups face problems leads to the conclusion that to be successful in the contemporary global retail market new capabilities should be developed.

  20. The carbon market: major operational carbon funds and financed projects

    Markandya, A.; Nobili, V.

    2008-01-01

    The flexible mechanisms envisaged by the Kyoto Protocol have led gradually to a global carbon market that has become very appetizing for companies operating in the sector. Financial instruments such as carbon funds, and investments in greenhouse-gas-reduction projects, now operate at the international level, counting on the development of new technologies and energy efficiency, and contributing to sustainable development in the countries that host the projects [it

  1. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS IN THE GLOBAL DENTAL MARKET

    Veronica BULAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the key trends of the market, and segments the global dental equipment and consumables market by components and into various geographic regions in way of market size. It discusses the key market drivers, main players, restraints and opportunities of the global dental equipment and consumables market.

  2. BELGRADE MARKET AS A PART OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKET

    Nataša Simić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Belgrade market has been operating since 1989 under the name of Yugoslav capital market, which changed its name to Belgrade market in 1992. The purpose and the idea which governs our financial authorities and the market participants is a more active involvement of the market in the operations of the global financial market.

  3. Governing the carbon offset market

    Lovell, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon offsets are produced and sold under the international climate change regime (the United Nations Kyoto Protocol) and also within an expanding voluntary offset market in which companies and individuals can voluntarily opt to compensate for their greenhouse gas emissions. The volume of carbon produced and consumed within compliance and voluntary markets has grown dramatically in the last 5 years, raising a number of governance challenges. This Focus Article gives an overview of the govern...

  4. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  5. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  6. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere the global carbon budget is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as +/- 1(sigma), reflecting the current capacity to characterize the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  7. ABB and the global market

    Lindahl, G.

    1994-01-01

    Competing in a global environment implies that the authors previous business environment has been less than global, and there are indeed changes underway that lead to a more universal environment. But, there are still differences between regions and especially between the mature economies in the OECD countries and the rapidly developing countries, of which a majority are in Asia. For the OECD countries, the time after World War 2 and up to about 1970 was a period of unprecedented growth. Rebuilding after the war and a general growth of the use of electric power required high investments in power systems and caused a booming market for equipment suppliers. After a trend break in the beginning of the 1970s to less than 40 GW 10 years later, then slowly increased to about 50 GW today. At the same time, annual capacity growth in developing countries increased from less than 20 GW to about 50 GW, i.e. the same level as in OECD. This means that ABB is now passing a cross-over point: from now on less than half of their global market is in their well-known OECD world. And this share will continue to shrink. ABB is now restructuring to fulfill market needs in less developed, developing, and newly industrialized countries. This is the most important change in their global environment is addressed in this article

  8. Did Globalization Influence Credit Market Deregulation

    Eppinger, Peter; Potrafke, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether globalization influenced credit market deregulation over the period 1970-2010. Globalization is measured by the KOF indices of globalization. Credit market deregulation is measured by the credit market freedom indicators of the Fraser Institute. The results from both cross-sectional and panel regressions using ordinary least squares indicate a positive correlation between globalization and credit market deregulation. We account for reverse causality by using predicted t...

  9. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  10. Swindling. The carbon market hackers

    Chandes, C.; James, O.

    2011-01-01

    The author briefly describes how hackers robbed millions of carbon credits by breaking data system security and entering national registers which contain all operations related to carbon credits. Few companies acknowledge that they have been victims of these robberies. These robbed credits are tracked by Europol and Interpol. These attacks are suspected to come from mafia networks in Israel, Pakistan, Italy and Romania, who took advantage of the credit market fragilities

  11. GLOBALIZATION IMPACT ON UKRAINIAN MARKET OF SHARES

    O. Zotsenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of globalization on the Ukrainian market of shares. Main trends of globalization of world share market are analyzed. The study highlights key elements of the operating share markets of the world leading countries. The research investigates main factors that affect on the level of national market of shares. The findings trace out a number of problems that hinder and distort the role of the Ukrainian share market in capital allocation.

  12. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, P.H.; Ellis, E.C.; Letourneau, A.

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here

  13. An explanation of carbon emission markets

    2009-01-01

    After having outlined the necessity to drastically reduce anthropic carbon emissions, and discussed how to associate standards, taxes and quota markets, the authors describe how carbon emission markets have emerged: the Kyoto protocol, the emission trade scheme (ETS) of the European Union, other carbon markets (existing or in preparation). They introduce and present four pillars of carbon emission markets: the allocation process, the reliability of emission measurement and control, market records and transparency, and introduction of flexibility. They examine the possibility of success in the development of a greenhouse gas emission market. The authors discuss the problems raised by a design of carbon markets by government and their use by private actors, how to connect existing or future regional carbon markets, the integration of forest and agriculture through new compensatory mechanisms, how to face carbon leaks by widening carbon markets

  14. Business Ethics in Globalized Financial Markets

    Peter Koslowski

    2006-01-01

    Globalization extends the space of the things that are simultaneous for the human. This applies particularly to the decision-making in financial markets. The global market for capital is one of the main causes for globalization. How is this process of globalization to be judged from the point of view of business ethics? The paper investigates the ethical foundations of capital markets and of financial consulting. It analyzes the foundational theories of corporate governance in the Anglo-Ameri...

  15. The globalization and Europeanization of mortgage markets

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Do globalization and Europeanization lead to the deterritorialization of European mortgage markets? Neither economic globalization nor EU policies have resulted in one European mortgage market. The various European mortgage markets are still quite different from one another in many respects. In most

  16. Integration of REDD into the international carbon market: Implications for future commitments and market regulation

    Dixon, Alistair; Anger, Niels; Holden, Rachel; Livengood, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Integrating reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) into a post-Kyoto intergovernmental carbon market could significantly decrease global carbon prices and the costs of mitigating climate change. We investigate this impact by simulating the impact of the supply of REDD units on the international carbon market in 2020 under unlimited and restricted exchange conditions. We find restricting supply or demand of REDD credits reduces such price impacts, but comes at the cost of ...

  17. Global PV markets and perspectives

    Wolfsegger, Cristoph [European Photolvoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), Brussels, Belgium (Belgium)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the global importance of the PV industry, not only in the environmental sphere but also in the economic sphere. It is firstly given the major information of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), where there can be found the lists of those full member countries that work as: components manufacturers, consulting, and associate members. Then, it is given a briefly explanation about the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE), and the reasons why the -PV systems- are almost the panacea to both the energy and the environmental issue. In addition, it is given the most relevant information about how to implement this system in those regions that have not yet implemented it. Besides, there are explained some of the benefits that this system has. It is shortly explained how this system is working in German and it is also shown a comparison chart about the photovoltaic feed-in tariffs. There are shown some graphics and charts having information related to the global markets and the global installations of PV systems and other issues related to them. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente acerca de la importancia que hoy en dia tiene la industria fotovoltaica alrededor del mundo, esto no solo ocurre en el ambito ambiental sino tambien en el economico. En la primer parte se muestra la informacion mas importante acerca de la Asociacion Europea de la Industria Fotovoltaica (EPIA por sus siglas en ingles), en donde se encuentran las listas de los paises que son miembros permanentes trabajando como: fabricantes de componentes, asesores y miembros asociados. Enseguida, se da, de manera escueta, una explicacion acerca de la ARE, asi como las razones por las que los sistemas fotovoltaicos son casi la panacea tanto para los problemas ambientales como para los energeticos. Ademas, se explica la informacion mas relevante acerca de como implementar este sistema en aquellas partes del mundo que todavia no lo han realizado

  18. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 20131, 2. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production2, 3, but the natural reversal of the process—carbonation—has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondar...

  19. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, Peter H [Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ellis, Erle C [Department of Geography and Environmental Systems, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Letourneau, Aurelien, E-mail: Peter.Verburg@ivm.vu.nl [UMR 5175 Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  20. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-07-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  1. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, Peter H; Ellis, Erle C; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  2. For a Global HTR Marketing Initiative

    Bredimas, Alexandre; Venneri, Francesco; Richards, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    HTRs are at a crossroads in their history. The technology is proven and the current technical developments relatively mastered but the marketing track record is disappointing. This paper comes to the conclusion that an international, collaborative marketing and communication plan must be implemented in order to address the marketing bottleneck of HTRs. The paper reflects about the HTR product specificities, its unique selling points and its positioning against other nuclear designs and gas cogeneration. It summarises the global market status and demonstrates that the global market for HTRs is there, for electricity generation, industrial cogeneration and polygeneration. The paper finally argues that HTR vendors have a shared interest to unite in order to succeed in activating the market demand for HTR, and suggests an action plan for an international collaboration among HTR vendors to market and communicate globally on HTRs and reach together a critical mass of business leads worldwide, a mutually beneficial outcome. (author)

  3. The challenge of market power under globalization

    David Arie Mayer-Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    The legacy of Adam Smith leads to a false confidence on the optimality of laissez faire policies for the global market economy. Instead, the polarized character of current globalization deeply affects both developed and underdeveloped economies. Current globalization is characterized by factor exchange between economies of persistently unequal development. This implies the existence of persistent extraordinary market power in transnational corporations, reflected in their disproportionate par...

  4. Global capital markets: An updated profile

    Filipović Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades after the beginning of the financial revolution globalization of capital flows still attracts considerable attention, from both practitioners and academics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to understanding of some aspects of the global capital scene, as well as to emphasize certain developments which might illustrate its changing profile. Several fundamental perspectives profile the global capital market. A quantitative review provides a sense of sheer volumes, trends, origins and destinations of capital flows; an assessment of the global capital market’s degree of integration follows. The emergence of new (types of actors is another important aspect of the global processes, while illustrations of new market products and emerging segments may add new perspectives on the profile of the global capital market. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief overview of digitalization of the financial supply chain.

  5. 77 FR 35944 - Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee

    2012-06-15

    ... international standards for regulating futures, swaps, options, and derivatives markets, as well as..., competitive, and financially sound futures and options markets. Meetings of the Global Markets Advisory... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee AGENCY...

  6. Trading Platform for the Global Warrant Markets

    Iosif ZIMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warrant markets are among the most active financial markets in the retail derivatives investment landscape currently. In this context some of the most relevant markets in the last years have been the ones across Asia and in particular Hong Kong, Korea and Japan. This paper introduces the financial instruments used in connection with the warrant markets, pre-sents and offers suggestions for setting up a generic warrant market making system and in-troduces the main concepts and components that need to be taken into account when develop-ing these systems targeting an exchange driven or E-Businesscontext.

  7. World cheating on the carbon market

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    According to several non-governmental organizations, some industrial producers take advantage of a flaw in one of the carbon market mechanisms set up by the Kyoto protocol. These industrialists, mainly from China and India, are involved in the production of HCFC22 refrigerants, and make a substantial profit by artificially generating more greenhouse gases (HFC23) than necessary, then destroying them in order to collect carbon credits which they sell on the carbon market. Explanations about the cheat, details about companies and banks involved in the system, review of past trickeries in carbon quotas, and ways to improve the carbon market are presented

  8. Globalization and innovation in emerging markets

    Gorodnichenko, Y.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 14481 (2008), s. 1-48 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : globalization * innovation * emerging markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.nber.org/papers/w14481.pdf

  9. Globalizing carbon lock-in

    Unruh, Gregory C.; Carrillo-Hermosilla, Javier

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the arguments surrounding carbon lock-in elaborated in Unruh (Energy Policy 28 (2000) 817; 30 (2002) 317) to countries currently undergoing industrialization. It argues that, for numerous reasons, industrializing countries are unlikely to leapfrog carbon intensive energy development. On the contrary, carbon lock-in may be globalizing and could further constrain climate change mitigation options. It is then argued that many policy recommendations ignore carbon lock-in, possibly limiting their potential for successful implementation. The paper then discusses four policy approaches that appear to have advantages given lock-in conditions. It is recognized, however, that relative ease of implementation does not necessarily equate with superiority. Instead, it is merely a path dependent outcome of past development decisions. Pursuing policies on the basis of relative implementation ease may help address the issue of climate change, but could also result in sub-optimal outcomes along other dimensions of sustainable development

  10. The wheels of carbon markets

    Perthuis, Ch. de

    2010-01-01

    Considering the issue of greenhouse gas effect emissions and the need to limit them to protect the atmosphere, the author identifies three possible solutions: a regulatory approach, which would need a whole set of costly provisions to control all aspects of the social and economic life, the introduction of a fee, which would include an assessment of the social cost of the destruction of environmental assets, and the creation of a market, from which would emerge a price of the common wealth to be protected. This last approach was chosen to struggle against climate change. The author recalls the different attempts of the international community to introduce carbon pricing (in Europe in 1992, with the Kyoto protocol in 1997, and with the European Union Emission Trading System). He describes the introduction of CO 2 emission permits and credits at the international scale, and comments the results of this procedure, its evolution, and its perspectives

  11. Chancen und Gefahren von Global-Marketing-Konzepten

    Berndt, Ulrike

    1990-01-01

    Chancen und Gefahren von Global-Marketing-Konzepten. - Augsburg : Förderges. Marketing, 1990. - 57, XII S. - Zugl: Augsburg, Univ., Diplomarb. - (Arbeitspapiere zur Schriftenreihe Schwerpunkt Marketing ; 29)

  12. Romanian Insurance Market Facing Globalization Process

    Dumitru G. Badea

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian insurance market has passed through a permanent process of growth which ended up in 2004 to exceed the threshold of 1 billion Euros, in the frame of a small awareness and confidence of the population towards insurance, even now after 15 years. The globalization process of the financial markets affected also the Romanian market even before Romania became member of the European Union. The globalization brought about benefits (especially under the form of increase in the quality of the services provided to clients but also disadvantages for local companies (significant costs in logistics and training in order to cope with the international groups.

  13. Globalization determinants of raw materials markets development

    Olga Yatsenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of development of raw materials markets and the peculiarities of their formation in the terms of world economy globalization have been researched. The empirical base of research is the agricultural food market as one of the most important bases in the sphere of material production and provision of food security of the country. The important social and economic mission of the agricultural sector has been highlighted, along with the export competitiveness and import dependence of agricultural food products in the international trade. The imperative norms have been substantiated and conclusions have been drawn regarding the establishment of respective conditions for the operation of globally integrated markets in Ukraine.

  14. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    competition are a reality in today’s global financial market, and the financial sector is different from their traditional fields of application: the ease of arbitrage, the fragility of banking and the risks involved are exceptional. Most importantly, regulatory arbitrage does not or only rarely occurs......The decades-long discussion on the merits of regulatory competition appears in a new light on the global financial market. There are a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities...

  15. Globalization and innovation in emerging markets

    Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Svejnar, Jan; Terrell, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Globalization brings opportunities and pressures for domestic firms in emerging markets to innovate and improve their competitive position. Using data on firms in 27 transition economies, the authors test for the effects of globalization through the impact of increased competition and foreign direct investment on domestic firms' efforts to innovate (raise their capability) by upgrading the...

  16. Making Education Markets through Global Trade Agreements

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses the global trade negotiations and agreements, which include education sectors as potentially tradable services, to show the complex processes at work in making global education markets. Drawing on the work of Jens Beckert and others, I focus on the micro-processes of making capitalist orders and the challenges at hand in bringing…

  17. GREEN MARKETING AND GLOBAL SCENARIOS‎

    Dr. Jessy George; R. Jith

    2017-01-01

    Green Marketing must satisfy two objectives Improved Environmental Quality and Customer Satisfaction. Although no consumer product has a zero impact on the environment, in business, the terms "green product" and "environmental product" are used commonly to describe those that strive to protect or enhance the natural environment by conserving energy and/or resources and reducing or eliminating use of toxic agents, pollution, and waste. The present study has made an attempt to describe why the ...

  18. Climate - These carbon markets which seduce industries

    Chandes, C.

    2011-01-01

    As many countries try to give a price to their carbon emissions, beyond the constraint carbon emissions represent, European industries consider these future carbon markets as financial opportunities. Some countries are inspired by the European trading system, and European industries think they will value their experience with this system on these new markets, notably by selling their consultancy expertise, and also because the factories they possess in these countries, China for example, already comply with European standards

  19. Regulation of alcohol marketing: a global view.

    Casswell, Sally; Maxwell, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The marketing of alcohol produces a new challenge for policy development internationally, in part because of the increase in the use of new, unmeasured technologies. Many of these new developments are, as yet, relatively invisible in the policy arena. New approaches in branding, the utilization of marketing opportunities via branded events and new products provide additional complexity to attempts to monitor and to restrict the impact of marketing on young people and other vulnerable groups. Current attempts to restrict marketing globally, which rely primarily on voluntary codes and focus on traditional media, are inadequate to these challenges. A new statutory framework is required to enable the monitoring and control of the full marketing mix in ways which match the sophistication of the marketing efforts themselves.

  20. The slow asphyxia of the carbon market

    Mary, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    As carbon price is at its lowest level on the European market, this article outlines that carbon therefore does not play its incentive role for low-carbon investments any more. It notices that reforms are needed, and sometimes even proposed, but are very difficult to implement because of diverging and conflicting interests between the 28 member States and also the concerned sectors

  1. Global stock market in 1990-s

    Moshenskyi S.Z.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1990s became a period of long-term recovery, the main driving force of which was the high-tech companies of the so-called «new economy», mainly associated with information technology and Internet at the global stock market. Such innovations have led to unrealistic expectations of the profitability of new companies from the sale of goods and services on the Internet. This became a prerequisite for a speculative boom in equity markets in developed financial systems. The boom intensified the mass privatization of state-owned enterprises in UK, Germany, France and some other countries. The capitalization of the global stock market increased more than ten times although the world GDP grew only 2.5 times during two decades, from 1980 to 2000. Though the stock market is the source of capital only in the countries with the Anglo-American model of financial markets (for countries of continental Europe and Japan such sources are bank loans, stock markets increased in all countries with developed financial systems. The systematic analysis of such key indicators as market capitalization and liquidity is required for an objective assessment of such rise in stock markets. But statistical information at stock markets is often not systematized and fragmentary. Therefore, the author (based on the official statistics of such international financial organizations as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Federation of Exchanges has calculated and systematically analyzed capitalization and liquidity as the main indicators of the stock market for the largest countries with developed financial systems (USA, Great Britain, Germany, France, Japan. The paper displays the differences in the mechanisms of attraction of capital determined by the different models of financial markets (decentralized Anglo-American and centralized European as well as the features of the composition of the main investors in the world stock markets.

  2. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  3. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory arbitrage in financial markets refers to a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of moving trading abroad or relocating activities or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where this happens...... institutions' excessive risk-taking. If such risk-taking would be judged by market discipline instead of posing a risk to global financial stability, the main downside of regulatory competition could be restrained. Within the boundaries of such a system, competition could then operate and contribute...... their standards solely to attract business and thereby impose externalities on the worldwide financial market by undermining financial stability as a global public good. Policymakers worldwide are experimenting with remedies to respond to the phenomenon. I introduce the importance of an effective special...

  4. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  5. What You Should Know About Carbon Markets

    Maria Mansanet-Bataller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has been in continuous expansion. In this paper, we review the origins of carbon trading in order to understand how carbon trading works in Europe and, specifically, the functioning of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS and the workings of several spot, futures and options markets where European Union Allowances are traded. As well, the linking of the EU ETS with the other United Nations carbon markets is also studied.

  6. Conceptualizations of sustainability in carbon markets

    Karavai, Maryna; Hinostroza, Miriam L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on market responses to climate change, specifically a particular example of voluntary carbon market development, in sub-Saharan Africa, and seeks to identify the principles of sustainability that carbon markets draw upon. We explore how key discourses and their application...... in the context of the carbon market construct a vision of sustainability. We argue that the prevalence of neoliberal and technocratic ideas and values preferring weak ecological modernization, coupled with the contemporary climate regime, marginalize alternative perspectives on climate-constrained development......, thus weakening prospects of averting the dangerous impacts of a changing climate. The analysis is based on the evaluation of 78 projects in the voluntary market across supply chains in 23 countries in the region....

  7. Globalization and innovation in emerging markets

    Gorodnichenko, Y.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 76 (2008), s. 1-39 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : globalization * innovation * emerging markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/61188/1/IPC-working-paper-076-GorodnichenkoSvejnarTerrell.pdf

  8. Global Wind Report. Annual market update 2010

    Pullen, A.; Sawyer, S.

    2011-04-01

    GWEC's annual report is the authoritative source of information on wind power markets around the world. The Global Wind 2010 Report contains installation figures for over 70 countries for the 2010 record year, as well as a five-year forecast up to 2015 and detailed chapters on the key countries.

  9. Global competition and the labour market

    Driffield, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    This study combines an industry level and a firm level analysis on the wage and employment effects of multinational companies. This has not been attempted in any previous work. In view of the results, important questions are raised regarding how global changes in the structure of production may affect labour markets and the organisation of work in the future.

  10. COLUMBUS. A global gas market model

    Hecking, Harald; Panke, Timo

    2012-03-15

    A model of the global gas market is presented which in its basic version optimises the future development of production, transport and storage capacities as well as the actual gas flows around the world assuming perfect competition. Besides the transport of natural gas via pipelines also the global market for liquefied natural gas (LNG) is modelled using a hub-and-spoke approach. While in the basic version of the model an inelastic demand and a piecewise-linear supply function are used, both can be changed easily, e.g. to a Golombek style production function or a constant elasticity of substitution (CES) demand function. Due to the usage of mixed complementary programming (MCP) the model additionally allows for the simulation of strategic behaviour of different players in the gas market, e.g. the gas producers.

  11. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    International Steam Coal Trade. In this paper, we analyse steam coal market equilibria in the years 2006 and 2008 by testing for two possible market structure scenarios: perfect competition and an oligopoly setup with major exporters competing in quantities. The assumed oligopoly scenario cannot explain market equilibria for any year. While we find that the competitive model simulates market equilibria well in 2006, the competitive model is not able to reproduce real market outcomes in 2008. The analysis shows that not all available supply capacity was utilised in 2008. We conclude that either unknown capacity bottlenecks or more sophisticated non-competitive strategies were the cause for the high prices in 2008. Chapter 4 builds upon the findings of the analysis in chapter 3 and adds a more detailed representation of domestic markets. The corresponding essay is titled Nations as Strategic Players in Global Commodity Markets: Evidence from World Coal Trade. In this chapter we explore the hypothesis that export policies and trade patterns of national players in the steam coal market are consistent with non-competitive market behaviour. We test this hypothesis by developing a static equilibrium model which is able to model coal producing nations as strategic players. We explicitly account for integrated seaborne trade and domestic markets. The global steam coal market is simulated under several imperfect market structure setups. We find that trade and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fits the real market outcome best and that real Chinese export quotas in 2008 were consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Chapter 5 looks at the long-term effect of Chinese energy system planning decisions. The time horizon is 2006 to 2030. The analysis in this chapter combines a dynamic equilibrium model with the scenario analysis technique. The corresponding essay is titled Coal Lumps vs. Electrons: How Do Chinese Bulk Energy Transport Decisions Affect the Global

  12. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-17

    International Steam Coal Trade. In this paper, we analyse steam coal market equilibria in the years 2006 and 2008 by testing for two possible market structure scenarios: perfect competition and an oligopoly setup with major exporters competing in quantities. The assumed oligopoly scenario cannot explain market equilibria for any year. While we find that the competitive model simulates market equilibria well in 2006, the competitive model is not able to reproduce real market outcomes in 2008. The analysis shows that not all available supply capacity was utilised in 2008. We conclude that either unknown capacity bottlenecks or more sophisticated non-competitive strategies were the cause for the high prices in 2008. Chapter 4 builds upon the findings of the analysis in chapter 3 and adds a more detailed representation of domestic markets. The corresponding essay is titled Nations as Strategic Players in Global Commodity Markets: Evidence from World Coal Trade. In this chapter we explore the hypothesis that export policies and trade patterns of national players in the steam coal market are consistent with non-competitive market behaviour. We test this hypothesis by developing a static equilibrium model which is able to model coal producing nations as strategic players. We explicitly account for integrated seaborne trade and domestic markets. The global steam coal market is simulated under several imperfect market structure setups. We find that trade and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fits the real market outcome best and that real Chinese export quotas in 2008 were consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Chapter 5 looks at the long-term effect of Chinese energy system planning decisions. The time horizon is 2006 to 2030. The analysis in this chapter combines a dynamic equilibrium model with the scenario analysis technique. The corresponding essay is titled Coal Lumps vs. Electrons: How Do Chinese Bulk Energy Transport Decisions Affect the Global

  13. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  14. Global marketing and globalization miths Os mitos do marketing global e da globalização

    Renato Rodrigues Martins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Global marketing and advertising: understanding cultural paradoxes, de Marieke de Mooij, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications, 2010, 322p.Global marketing and advertising: understanding cultural paradoxes, de Marieke de Mooij, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications, 2010, 322p.

  15. The market for carbon in the USA

    Oudshoff, B.

    2008-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission trading in the United States (US) is becoming an increasingly important topic in national politics and trade and industry. There are many developments in legislation and regulation, varying from proposals for a carbon tax in California to discussions in the White House concerning the Lieberman-Warner Bill. Moreover, increasingly more voluntary initiatives and carbon markets are started up. According to a recent study of Point Carbon, the market amounted to 60 billion USD for 2.7 billion tons CO2 in 2007, which is an 80% increase compared to 2006. This article provides an overview of the main developments in the US in this area. [mk] [nl

  16. Community Analysis of Global Financial Markets

    Irena Vodenska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the daily returns of stock market indices and currencies of 56 countries over the period of 2002–2012. We build a network model consisting of two layers, one being the stock market indices and the other the foreign exchange markets. Synchronous and lagged correlations are used as measures of connectivity and causality among different parts of the global economic system for two different time intervals: non-crisis (2002–2006 and crisis (2007–2012 periods. We study community formations within the network to understand the influences and vulnerabilities of specific countries or groups of countries. We observe different behavior of the cross correlations and communities for crisis vs. non-crisis periods. For example, the overall correlation of stock markets increases during crisis while the overall correlation in the foreign exchange market and the correlation between stock and foreign exchange markets decrease, which leads to different community structures. We observe that the euro, while being central during the relatively calm period, loses its dominant role during crisis. Furthermore we discover that the troubled Eurozone countries, Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain, form their own cluster during the crisis period.

  17. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  18. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  19. 75 FR 33788 - Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee

    2010-06-15

    ... appropriate international standards for regulating futures and derivatives markets, as well as intermediaries... financially sound futures and options markets. Meetings of the Global Markets Advisory Committee are open to... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Renewal of the Global Markets Advisory Committee AGENCY...

  20. The carbon footprint of global tourism

    Lenzen, Manfred; Sun, Ya-Yen; Faturay, Futu; Ting, Yuan-Peng; Geschke, Arne; Malik, Arunima

    2018-06-01

    Tourism contributes significantly to global gross domestic product, and is forecast to grow at an annual 4%, thus outpacing many other economic sectors. However, global carbon emissions related to tourism are currently not well quantified. Here, we quantify tourism-related global carbon flows between 160 countries, and their carbon footprints under origin and destination accounting perspectives. We find that, between 2009 and 2013, tourism's global carbon footprint has increased from 3.9 to 4.5 GtCO2e, four times more than previously estimated, accounting for about 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Transport, shopping and food are significant contributors. The majority of this footprint is exerted by and in high-income countries. The rapid increase in tourism demand is effectively outstripping the decarbonization of tourism-related technology. We project that, due to its high carbon intensity and continuing growth, tourism will constitute a growing part of the world's greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Using E-markets for Globally Distributed Work

    van Hillegersberg, Jos; Amrit, Chintan Amrit; Oshri, Ilan; Kotlarsky, Julia; Willcocks, Leslie P.

    2015-01-01

    For over a decade, dedicated E-markets have been facilitating globally distributed systems development by enhancing the traditionally high-risk global sourcing processes. At the same time, the success and potential of E-markets for sourcing project globally can be questioned, as E-markets embody a

  2. The creation of a global electricity market

    DePinto, D.; Anderson, A.

    1998-01-01

    The global embrace of market-based economics has led to significant growth and prosperity resulting in increased needs for electricity. The burgeoning demand for energy has created requirements for capital investment at time when the state-owned energy companies cannot provide it. Governments, busy trying to find ways to manage already inflated debt burdens, have little capacity for funding the capital needed to expand energy production. In these strategic industries, governments are beginning to embrace the principles of free market capitalism and private ownership, recognizing the significant benefits to be realized: reduced national deficits, a more efficient energy sector, access to foreign capital, greater internal capital generation, and more energy to fuel economic growth. This is driving the governments to embrace privatization and is creating a market for the sale of electric utilities. On the other side of this equation are the fast developing global electric companies that are prepared to expand in both developing and developed countries through significant acquisitions of either companies or strategic assets. This scenario is further enhanced as the Independent Power Developers chase projects from Brazil to China and bring competition to the development of new generation. Never before has there been such a movement to the complete transformation of the energy industry. Countries on every continent are exploring how they can reform and restructure the energy sector. The analysis will address: Global transformation sweeping the various regions of the world; Impact on developers and the strategy required for success; Global electric companies and their impact on the transformation process; and Future of the electric power industry: Will it bring the world closer together?

  3. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market.

  4. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market

  5. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    Williams, CA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one...

  6. E-Marketing- A Global Perspective

    Parminder Kaur; Dr. Ashutosh Pathak

    2015-01-01

    E-commerce provides the capability of buying and selling products, information and services on the Internet and other online environments . E-Marketing is also known as web marketing , Online marketing and internet marketing. E- Marketing is a management process . The aim of e-marketing is marketing is establish maintain and long-term relationship with customers. Online Marketing includes identify unmet needs, producing products and services to meet those need and pricing, distrib...

  7. What about coal? Interactions between climate policies and the global steam coal market until 2030

    Haftendorn, C.; Kemfert, C.; Holz, F.

    2012-01-01

    Because of economic growth and a strong increase in global energy demand the demand for fossil fuels and therefore also greenhouse gas emissions are increasing, although climate policy should lead to the opposite effect. The coal market is of special relevance as coal is available in many countries and often the first choice to meet energy demand. In this paper we assess possible interactions between climate policies and the global steam coal market. Possible market adjustments between demand regions through market effects are investigated with a numerical model of the global steam coal market: the “COALMOD-World” model. This equilibrium model computes future trade flows, infrastructure investments and prices until 2030. We investigate three specific designs of climate policy: a unilateral European climate policy, an Indonesian export-limiting policy and a fast-roll out of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the broader context of climate policy and market constraints. We find that market adjustment effects in the coal market can have significant positive and negative impacts on the effectiveness of climate policies. - Highlights: ► Interactions between climate policy and the global coal market until 2030 modeled. ► Analysis with the numerical model: “COALMOD-World”. ► Unilateral European climate policy partly compensated by market adjustment effects. ► A fast roll-out of CCS can lead to positive market adjustment effects. ► An export restricting supply-side policy generates virtuous market adjustments.

  8. Tendances Carbone no. 74 'The Timing Impact Approach: How particularities of carbon markets influence market developments'

    Ruf, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: With the current 'back-loading' proposal of the European Commission on the table it is essential to further examine the specialities of carbon markets to assess the implications of the proposal on the market development of the EU ETS. An emission right is a new kind of good which can be thought of as a hybrid of a commodity good and a financial product

  9. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives

    Marques, Fernando; Magalhaes, Gerusa; Parente, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  10. Marketing library and information services II a global outlook

    Gupta, Dinesh K; Massisimo, Angels

    2013-01-01

    With contributions from library and information professionals (practitioners, researchers, faculty members, consultants, and others), Marketing Library and Information Services: A Global Outlook highlights a variety of exemplary LIS marketing practices and efforts from around the globe. The following broad topics are explored: changing marketing concepts; marketing library

  11. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 12, boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  12. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  13. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  14. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W.

    2010-01-01

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

  15. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    Denning A Scott

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as forward and inverse model analyses to appraise what is known about Africa's continental-scale carbon dynamics. With low fossil emissions and productivity that largely compensates respiration, land conversion is Africa's primary net carbon release, much of it through burning of forests. Savanna fire emissions, though large, represent a short-term source that is offset by ensuing regrowth. While current data suggest a near zero decadal-scale carbon balance, interannual climate fluctuations (especially drought induce sizeable variability in net ecosystem productivity and savanna fire emissions such that Africa is a major source of interannual variability in global atmospheric CO2. Considering the continent's sizeable carbon stocks, their seemingly high vulnerability to anticipated climate and land use change, as well as growing populations and industrialization, Africa's carbon emissions and their interannual variability are likely to undergo substantial increases through the 21st century.

  16. The Resistance of national cultures to global marketing influence

    Pikturnienė, Indrė

    2005-01-01

    Due to Increased regional integration, countries, which were previously closed to the world, became exposed to universal or partly adapted marketing mixes. A discussion whether global marketing campaigns can influence national cultures, and serve as a drive for emergence of global culture is developed in the article. The paper demonstrates that the conclusion, whether global marketing campaigns can generate globalisation of culture, depends on the definition of culture, which can overwhelm ei...

  17. Geography of Global Forest Carbon Stocks & Dynamics

    Saatchi, S. S.; Yu, Y.; Xu, L.; Yang, Y.; Fore, A.; Ganguly, S.; Nemani, R. R.; Zhang, G.; Lefsky, M. A.; Sun, G.; Woodall, C. W.; Naesset, E.; Seibt, U. H.

    2014-12-01

    Spatially explicit distribution of carbon stocks and dynamics in global forests can greatly reduce the uncertainty in the terrestrial portion of the global carbon cycle by improving estimates of emissions and uptakes from land use activities, and help with green house gas inventory at regional and national scales. Here, we produce the first global distribution of carbon stocks in living woody biomass at ~ 100 m (1-ha) resolution for circa 2005 from a combination of satellite observations and ground inventory data. The total carbon stored in live woody biomass is estimated to be 337 PgC with 258 PgC in aboveground and 79 PgC in roots, and partitioned globally in boreal (20%), tropical evergreen (50%), temperate (12%), and woodland savanna and shrublands (15%). We use a combination of satellite observations of tree height, remote sensing data on deforestation and degradation to quantify the dynamics of these forests at the biome level globally and provide geographical distribution of carbon storage dynamics in terms sinks and sources globally.

  18. Global Carbon Cycle of the Precambrian Earth

    Wiewióra, Justyna

    The carbon isotopic composition of distinct Archaean geological records provides information about the global carbon cycle and emergence of life on early Earth. We utilized carbon isotopic records of Greenlandic carbonatites, diamonds, graphites, marbles, metacarbonates and ultramafic rocks...... in the surface environment and recycled back into the mantle In the third manuscript we investigate the carbon cycle components, which have maintained the carbon isotope composition of the mantle constant through time. Assuming constant organic ratio of the total carbon burial (f), we show that increased.......1‰) and metacarbonate ( -6.1 ± 0.1‰ to +1.5 ± 0.0‰) rocks from the ~3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt as resulting from the Rayleigh distillation process, which affected the ultramafic reservoir with initial δ13C between -2‰ and 0‰. Due to its high primary δ13C signature, carbon in the Isuan magnesite was most likely...

  19. A global predictive model of carbon in mangrove soils

    Jardine, Sunny L; Siikamäki, Juha V

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly vanishing natural environments worldwide. They provide a wide range of ecosystem services and have recently become known for their exceptional capacity to store carbon. Research shows that mangrove conservation may be a low-cost means of reducing CO 2 emissions. Accordingly, there is growing interest in developing market mechanisms to credit mangrove conservation projects for associated CO 2 emissions reductions. These efforts depend on robust and readily applicable, but currently unavailable, localized estimates of soil carbon. Here, we use over 900 soil carbon measurements, collected in 28 countries by 61 independent studies, to develop a global predictive model for mangrove soil carbon. Using climatological and locational data as predictors, we explore several predictive modeling alternatives, including machine-learning methods. With our predictive model, we construct a global dataset of estimated soil carbon concentrations and stocks on a high-resolution grid (5 arc min). We estimate that the global mangrove soil carbon stock is 5.00 ± 0.94 Pg C (assuming a 1 meter soil depth) and find this stock is highly variable over space. The amount of carbon per hectare in the world’s most carbon-rich mangroves (approximately 703 ± 38 Mg C ha −1 ) is roughly a 2.6 ± 0.14 times the amount of carbon per hectare in the world’s most carbon-poor mangroves (approximately 272 ± 49 Mg C ha −1 ). Considerable within country variation in mangrove soil carbon also exists. In Indonesia, the country with the largest mangrove soil carbon stock, we estimate that the most carbon-rich mangroves contain 1.5 ± 0.12 times as much carbon per hectare as the most carbon-poor mangroves. Our results can aid in evaluating benefits from mangrove conservation and designing mangrove conservation policy. Additionally, the results can be used to project changes in mangrove soil carbon stocks based on changing climatological

  20. A global predictive model of carbon in mangrove soils

    Jardine, Sunny L.; Siikamäki, Juha V.

    2014-10-01

    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly vanishing natural environments worldwide. They provide a wide range of ecosystem services and have recently become known for their exceptional capacity to store carbon. Research shows that mangrove conservation may be a low-cost means of reducing CO2 emissions. Accordingly, there is growing interest in developing market mechanisms to credit mangrove conservation projects for associated CO2 emissions reductions. These efforts depend on robust and readily applicable, but currently unavailable, localized estimates of soil carbon. Here, we use over 900 soil carbon measurements, collected in 28 countries by 61 independent studies, to develop a global predictive model for mangrove soil carbon. Using climatological and locational data as predictors, we explore several predictive modeling alternatives, including machine-learning methods. With our predictive model, we construct a global dataset of estimated soil carbon concentrations and stocks on a high-resolution grid (5 arc min). We estimate that the global mangrove soil carbon stock is 5.00 ± 0.94 Pg C (assuming a 1 meter soil depth) and find this stock is highly variable over space. The amount of carbon per hectare in the world’s most carbon-rich mangroves (approximately 703 ± 38 Mg C ha-1) is roughly a 2.6 ± 0.14 times the amount of carbon per hectare in the world’s most carbon-poor mangroves (approximately 272 ± 49 Mg C ha-1). Considerable within country variation in mangrove soil carbon also exists. In Indonesia, the country with the largest mangrove soil carbon stock, we estimate that the most carbon-rich mangroves contain 1.5 ± 0.12 times as much carbon per hectare as the most carbon-poor mangroves. Our results can aid in evaluating benefits from mangrove conservation and designing mangrove conservation policy. Additionally, the results can be used to project changes in mangrove soil carbon stocks based on changing climatological predictors, e.g. to

  1. Impact of Global Financial Crisis on Nigerian Stock Market | Onuoha ...

    Impact of Global Financial Crisis on Nigerian Stock Market. ... that the global financial crisis measured by currency crisis, credit crisis, liquidity crisis, ... relevant regulatory authorities should use the financial stress index (FSI) as proposed by ...

  2. Carbon dioxide removal and the futures market

    Coffman, D.'Maris; Lockley, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Futures contracts are exchange-traded financial instruments that enable parties to fix a price in advance, for later performance on a contract. Forward contracts also entail future settlement, but they are traded directly between two parties. Futures and forwards are used in commodities trading, as producers seek financial security when planning production. We discuss the potential use of futures contracts in Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) markets; concluding that they have one principal advantage (near-term price security to current polluters), and one principal disadvantage (a combination of high price volatility and high trade volume means contracts issued by the private sector may cause systemic economic risk). Accordingly, we note the potential for the development of futures markets in CDR, but urge caution about the prospects for market failure. In particular, we consider the use of regulated markets: to ensure contracts are more reliable, and that moral hazard is minimised. While regulation offers increased assurances, we identify major insufficiencies with this approach—finding it generally inadequate. In conclusion, we suggest that only governments can realistically support long-term CDR futures markets. We note existing long-term CDR plans by governments, and suggest the use of state-backed futures for supporting these assurances.

  3. Spatiotemporal distribution and national measurement of the global carbonate carbon sink.

    Li, Huiwen; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Luo, Weijun; Tang, Hong; Cao, Yue; Wu, Luhua; Chen, Fei; Li, Qin; Zeng, Cheng; Wang, Mingming

    2018-06-21

    The magnitudes, spatial distributions and contributions to global carbon budget of the global carbonate carbon sink (CCS) still remain uncertain, allowing the problem of national measurement of CCS remain unresolved which will directly influence the fairness of global carbon markets and emission trading. Here, based on high spatiotemporal resolution ecological, meteorological raster data and chemical field monitoring data, combining highly reliable machine learning algorithm with the thermodynamic dissolution equilibrium model, we estimated the new CCS of 0.89 ± 0.23 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C yr -1 ), amounting to 74.50% of global net forest sink and accounting for 28.75% of terrestrial sinks or 46.81% of the missing sink. Our measurement for 142 nations of CCS showed that Russia, Canada, China and the USA contribute over half of the global CCS. We also presented the first global fluxes maps of the CCS with spatial resolution of 0.05°, exhibiting two peaks in equatorial regions (10°S to 10°N) and low latitudes (10°N to 35°N) in Northern Hemisphere. By contrast, there are no peaks in Southern Hemisphere. The greatest average carbon sink flux (CCSF), i.e., 2.12 tC ha -1  yr -1 , for 2000 to 2014 was contributed by tropical rainforest climate near the equator, and the smallest average CCSF was presented in tropical arid zones, showing a magnitude of 0.26 tC ha -1  yr -1 . This research estimated the magnitudes, spatial distributions, variations and contributions to the global carbon budget of the CCS in a higher spatiotemporal representativeness and expandability way, which, via multiple mechanisms, introduced an important sink in the terrestrial carbon sink system and the global missing sink and that can help us further reveal and support our understanding of global rock weathering carbon sequestration, terrestrial carbon sink system and global carbon cycle dynamics which make our understanding of global change more comprehensive

  4. Marketing Management: Monitoring the International Environment Factors Using Global Maps

    Štěpán Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of the global marketing environment in line with the factors determining its external conditions. The aim is to specify the marketing-environment indicators in the international context and interpret the use of geographical maps illustratively documenting the differences of particular parameters in various parts of the global market. The research-results help update the theoretical framework of global environment factors. These data are also important for practice. Many enterprises consider the question of optimising their sources and directing their goals towards the opportunities available thanks to global markets. The global environment mapping is thereby an important basis for the marketing activities whose implementation across national boundaries is going to be mainly influenced by peculiarities of the environment involving foreign markets and their changes.

  5. How market environment may constrain global franchising in emerging markets

    Baena Graciá, Verónica

    2011-01-01

    Although emerging markets are some of the fastest growing economies in the world and represent countries that are experiencing a substantial economic transformation, little is known about the factors influencing country selection for expansion in those markets. In an attempt to enhance the knowledge that managers and scholars have on franchising expansion, the present study examines how market conditions may constrain international diffusion of franchising in emerging markets. They are: i) ge...

  6. On the Market Failures during the Development of Low-Carbon Economy

    LU Xian-xiang; KE Zan-xian; ZHANG Yi

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions and the development of low-carbon economy are the biggest market failures,which are mainly manifested in such problems as the low-carbon economy being the world's largest externality,the low-carbon economy being the global public goods,and the free-rider along the development of low-carbon economy.The major reason for the market failures during the development of low-carbon economy is lacking of secured property ownership as well as the greenhouse effect.Thus,in order to establish secured property rights through institutional innovation,it is necessary not only to reduce the exploitation of fossil fuels from the source,but also to allocate the emission rights fairly.To develop the low-carbon economy is faced with market failures,but we can not therefore deny the basic roles of the market mechanism in the development of low-carbon economy,rather to correct and adjust the market through institutional innovations,so as to facilitate the establishment and operation of the low-carbon economy.For the sake of the sustainable development of human society,we have to adjust or change the rules of the resource allocation in the market economy,embedding such factors as emission reduction,low-carbon,environmental protection,etc.into the institutional framework of the market via rules,systems and policies.

  7. Environmental implications of carbon limits on market ...

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is promoted as an economical, energy-efficient option for combating climate change. To fully examine the viability of CHP as a clean-technology solution, its market potential and impacts need to be analyzed as part of scenarios of the future energy system, particularly those with policies limiting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper develops and analyzes scenarios using a bottom-up, technology rich optimization model of the U.S. energy system. Two distinct carbon reduction goals were set up for analysis. In Target 1, carbon emission reduction goals were only included for the electric sector. In Target 2, carbon emission reduction goals were set across the entire energy system with the target patterned after the U.S.’s commitment to reducing GHG emissions as part of the Paris Agreement reached at the COP21 summit. From a system-wide carbon reduction standpoint, Target 2 is significantly more stringent. In addition, these scenarios examine the implications of various CHP capacity expansion and contraction assumptions and energy prices. The largest CHP capacity expansion are observed in scenarios that included Target 1, but investments were scaled back in scenarios that incorporated Target 2. The latter scenario spurred rapid development of zero-emissions technologies within the electric sector, and purchased electricity increased dramatically in many end-use sectors. The results suggest that CHP may play a role in a carbon-c

  8. Electronic Markets Ontology: ideal architecture for global capital market

    Davide Khalil

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available When approaching electronic capital market design and microstructure with the focus of analysing and improving existing markets with end-state analysis, it is necessary to name an ideal objective. This serves the purposes of technology evaluation and the development of a standard framework for structural measurement in modeling and language paradigm design. An ideal capital market architecture is presented in this paper that is feasible with current technology based on the end-to-end functionality of existing capital markets including internal requirements of participants. Various architectural and ethical issues are introduced and discussed sketching a framework for further work in quantifying electronic markets.

  9. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holt, Ed [Ed Holt & Associates Inc., Harpeswell, ME (United States); Carroll, Ghita [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the potential effects that emerging mandatory carbon markets have for voluntary markets for renewable energy, or green power markets. In an era of carbon regulation, green power markets will continue to play an important role because many consumers may be interested in supporting renewable energy development beyond what is supported through mandates or other types of policy support. The paper examines the extent to which GHG benefits motivate consumers to make voluntary renewable energy purchases and summarizes key issues emerging as a result of these overlapping markets, such as the implications of carbon regulation for renewable energy marketing claims, the demand for and price of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and the use of RECs in multiple markets (disaggregation of attributes). It describes carbon regulation programs under development in the Northeast and California, and how these might affect renewable energy markets in these regions, as well as the potential interaction between voluntary renewable energy markets and voluntary carbon markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). It also briefly summarizes the experience in the European Union, where carbon is already regulated. Finally, the paper presents policy options for policymakers and regulators to consider in designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and voluntary renewable energy markets to work together.

  10. Cosmopolitan canvases: the globalization of markets for contemporary art

    Velthuis, O.; Baia Curioni, S.

    2015-01-01

    This book brings together recent, multidisciplinary, cutting edge research on the globalization of markets for contemporary art. Focusing on different regions including China, Russia, India, and Japan, the chapters in this book study the extent to which art markets have indeed become global. On the

  11. Globalization, Labor Markets and Inequality in India | CRDI - Centre ...

    Globalization, Labor Markets and Inequality in India. Couverture du livre Globalization, Labor Markets and Inequality in India. Auteur(s):. Dipak Mazumdar et Sandip Sarkar. Maison(s) d'édition: Routledge, CRDI. 30 janvier 2008. ISBN : 9780415436113. 384 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552503737. Téléchargez le PDF.

  12. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs.

  13. Coal and gas competition in global markets

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Global consumption of commercial energy totalled 18 Gt of coal equivalent in 2010. With a 28% share, coal ranked second after oil as one of the major sources of primary energy and natural gas (at 21%) ranked third. Gross power generation with coal was approximately 41% and gas 22%. Natural gas as a global commodity is growing rapidly with the advent of unconventional sources such as shale gas. Recently, gas has become the fuel of choice for new power generating plants in some countries. Overall production of coal has increased in the same time-frame. The share of coal in electricity production was constant in Europe from early 2000 but recently increased. This was due to the high cost of gas in Europe and a low emissions penalty levied by the regulator, making coal currently more competitive in Europe compared to gas. Coal utilisation continues to increase in Asia but is facing serious competition with gas in the USA, where the share of electricity generated with coal dropped in 2012. However, natural gas used to generate electricity in early 2013 was below the high level seen during the comparable 2012 period, when low natural gas prices led to significant displacement of coal by natural gas for power generation. The current consensus in the USA is that while coal may recover ground in the short term, it loses in the long term as coal plants are retired. The discovery, production and availability of significant amounts of gas have implications for not only the price of natural gas but also the price of coal as well as supply and demand, and utilisation of both fuels internationally. The interaction between coal and gas in the global markets today is investigated in this review and the near-term outlook and impact on both fuels is presented. In this report, reserves, production and trade, supply and demand, pricing, utilisation and consumption, public attitudes and finally near/short to medium-term prospects are discussed for both coal and gas.

  14. Benefits of carbon markets to small and medium enterprises (SMEs ...

    Harvested wooden handicrafts products have the ability to lock carbon for long time and mitigate climate change. These products are currently eligible for availing benefits from voluntary carbon markets. The market size and opportunities for carbon credits are likely to increase substantially for these products during the ...

  15. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs.

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-08-26

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼ 6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability.

  16. The carbon cycle and global warming

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Five land-use-based approaches can be used to slow the buildup of CO 2 in the atmosphere: slowing or stopping the loss of existing forests, thus preserving current carbon reservoirs; adding to the planet's vegetative cover through reforestation or other means, thus enlarging living terrestrial carbon reservoirs; increasing the carbon stored in nonliving carbon reservoirs such as agricultural soils; increasing the carbon stored in artificial reservoirs, including timber products; and substituting sustainable biomass energy sources for fossil fuel consumption, thus reducing energy-related carbon emissions. These approaches are all based on the same basic premise: adding to the planet's net carbon stores in vegetative cover or soil, or preventing any net loss, will help moderate global warming by keeping atmospheric CO 2 levels lower than they would otherwise be. Because biotic policy options appear capable of contributing significantly to the mitigation of global warming while also furthering many other public policy objectives, their role deserves careful consideration on a country-by-country basis

  17. Alaska gas pipeline and the global natural gas market

    Slutz, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global natural gas market was discussed in relation to the Alaska natural gas pipeline project. Natural gas supply forecasts to the year 2025 were presented. Details of the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market were discussed. Charts were included for United States natural gas production, consumption, and net imports up to the year 2030. The impact of high natural gas prices on the manufacturing sector and the chemicals industry, agricultural, and ethanol industries were discussed. Natural gas costs around the world were also reviewed. The LNG global market was discussed. A chart of world gas reserves was presented, and global LNG facilities were outlined. Issues related to the globalization of the natural gas trade were discussed. Natural gas imports and exports in the global natural gas market were reviewed. A chart of historical annual United States annual LNG imports was presented. tabs., figs

  18. The drivers behind the globalization of natural gas markets

    Ahmed El Hachemi Mazighi [Sonatrach Commercialisation, Algiers (Algeria)

    2006-06-15

    Today, the globalisation of natural gas markets is a topic much discussed amongst gas industry practitioners, policy makers and academics. If there is a consensus on a tendency towards the ''commoditisation'' of natural gas markets, there is less agreement on the certainty of the global approach to gas marketing. The aim of this paper is to untangle the main drivers behind the globalisation of natural gas markets, both on the demand and supply sides, and to discuss problems related to the market structure, such as price arbitrages and organised markets. The paper will conclude that the globalisation of natural gas markets cannot be approached as a deterministic problem and as a consequence, there is still no precise answer as to when the different regional gas markets will forge a global one. (author)

  19. The drivers behind the globalization of natural gas markets

    Ahmed El Hachemi Mazighi

    2006-01-01

    Today, the globalisation of natural gas markets is a topic much discussed amongst gas industry practitioners, policy makers and academics. If there is a consensus on a tendency towards the ''commoditisation'' of natural gas markets, there is less agreement on the certainty of the global approach to gas marketing. The aim of this paper is to untangle the main drivers behind the globalisation of natural gas markets, both on the demand and supply sides, and to discuss problems related to the market structure, such as price arbitrages and organised markets. The paper will conclude that the globalisation of natural gas markets cannot be approached as a deterministic problem and as a consequence, there is still no precise answer as to when the different regional gas markets will forge a global one. (author)

  20. Globalization of the art market [emerging art markets

    Velthuis, O.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and

  1. Global Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Coordination

    Telszewski, Maciej; Tanhua, Toste; Palacz, Artur

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of the marine carbon cycle and its numerous connections to carbon's atmospheric and terrestrial pathways means that a wide range of approaches have to be used in order to establish it's qualitative and quantitative role in the global climate system. Ocean carbon and biogeochemistry research, observations, and modelling are conducted at national, regional, and global levels to quantify the global ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 and to understand controls of this process, the variability of uptake and vulnerability of carbon fluxes into the ocean. These science activities require support by a sustained, international effort that provides a central communication forum and coordination services to facilitate the compatibility and comparability of results from individual efforts and development of the ocean carbon data products that can be integrated with the terrestrial, atmospheric and human dimensions components of the global carbon cycle. The International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP) was created in 2005 by the IOC of UNESCO and the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research. IOCCP provides an international, program-independent forum for global coordination of ocean carbon and biogeochemistry observations and integration with global carbon cycle science programs. The IOCCP coordinates an ever-increasing set of observations-related activities in the following domains: underway observations of biogeochemical water properties, ocean interior observations, ship-based time-series observations, large-scale ocean acidification monitoring, inorganic nutrients observations, biogeochemical instruments and autonomous sensors and data and information creation. Our contribution is through the facilitation of the development of globally acceptable strategies, methodologies, practices and standards homogenizing efforts of the research community and scientific advisory groups as well as integrating the ocean biogeochemistry observations with the

  2. Labor market deregulation and globalization: empirical evidence from OECD countries

    Potrafke , Niklas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper empirically investigates the influence of globalization on various aspects of labor market deregulation. I employ the data set by Bassanini and Duval (2006) on labor market institutions in OECD countries and the KOF index of globalization. The data set covers 20 OECD countries in the 1982?2003 period. The results suggest that globalization did neither influence the unemployment replacement rate, the unemployment benefit length, public expenditures on ALMP, the t...

  3. Key determinants of managing the marketing asset of global companies

    Tatyana Tsygankova; Roman Ponomarenko

    2016-01-01

    As a result of organization and summarization of key concepts of evolution of the marketing tools of global companies, the authors determined the role of the marketing assets in the system of modern marketing management (as a dialectically higher stage of development of the analyzed tools, which will allow overcoming the antagonistic contradiction of “P- and C-vectors” of their development). The article identified the optimal set of key elements of the system of marketing assets, which are th...

  4. Illegal markets: Estimates of global proceeds

    Marinković Darko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal markets represent a phenomenon of considerable economic, political and social significance whose annual income exceeds the value of a thousand billion USD. Illegal market participants are beyond the reach of government institutions and rule of law while social connections and personal acquaintances play an important role of functional substitute. In the last decade there was a significant increase of illegal trafficking of narcotics, people, fire arms, counterfeit products and natural resources. Both selling and purchase of these as well as other kinds of products and services at illegal markets are generally characterized by high level of organization and presence of strong criminal groups and networks. Although these activities existed in the past their present scope and geographic distribution are without precedent. Measuring unlawful financial flows at illegal markets represents quite a complex task. Various estimates are the result of inexistence of uniform and generally accepted methodology. In addition to this, the special problem is also the consensus of market actors, because of which the phenomenon of illegal markets and distribution of products and services at these markets is rather hidden. The paper defines and analyzes the key features of illegal markets, the role of organized crime at illegal markets, as well as the estimates of the values of financial flows at the markets of counterfeit products, narcotics, and people as goods, or human organs and sexual services, weapons, tobacco products and dirty money.

  5. Key determinants of managing the marketing asset of global companies

    Tatyana Tsygankova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of organization and summarization of key concepts of evolution of the marketing tools of global companies, the authors determined the role of the marketing assets in the system of modern marketing management (as a dialectically higher stage of development of the analyzed tools, which will allow overcoming the antagonistic contradiction of “P- and C-vectors” of their development. The article identified the optimal set of key elements of the system of marketing assets, which are the brand, customer loyalty, reputation, network cooperation, marketing strategy, internal marketing, marketing information system and marketing innovation. Due to correlation and regression analysis of the impact of each system elements on performance of global companies, the model of the "marketing asset octagon" was built as an integrative management tool. Also, as a result of construction of the said model, the authors identified the most profitable marketing assets, return on investment and development of competencies in the field of efficient management will bring the highest profit to the company. On the basis of summarizing the regional and branch features of managing the disparate elements of the marketing assets of global companies, the key regional and sectoral priorities of formation, development and improvement of existing concepts of the international marketing management were identified, particularly in terms of building an author’s integrative octagon model.

  6. 'Carbon-Money Exchange' to contain global warming and deforestation

    Nagase, Kozo

    2005-01-01

    This paper builds a basic theory of 'Carbon-Money Exchange' in which carbon as currency in nature's household (ecosystems) and money as currency in humankind's household (economy) are exchanged just like in a foreign exchange. The simple chemical equation below makes it possible (CO 2 →C+O 2 =C+O 2 →CO 2 ). The left-hand side represents the work of plants to remove atmospheric CO 2 . The right-hand side represents the work of humans as fossil fuel consumers to produce it. The exchange of the two currencies is possible by copying the fossil fuel market. The paper concludes that this new exchange can automatically contain global warming and deforestation, replacing onerous emissions trading. Moreover, it could revolutionize the conventional economy, creating counter-capitalism, or 'carbonism'

  7. Forestry and the carbon market response to stabilize climate

    Tavoni, Massimo; Sohngen, Brent; Bosetti, Valentina

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential contribution of forestry management in meeting a CO 2 stabilization policy of 550 ppmv by 2100. In order to assess the optimal response of the carbon market to forest sequestration, we couple two global models. An energy-economy-climate model for the study of climate policies is linked with a detailed forestry model through an iterative procedure to provide the optimal abatement strategy. Results show that forestry is a determinant abatement option and could lead to significantly lower policy costs if included. Linking forestry management to the carbon market has the potential to alleviate the policy burden of 50 ppmv or equivalently of 1/4 deg. C, and to significantly decrease the price of carbon. Biological sequestration will mostly come from avoided deforestation in tropical-forest-rich countries. The inclusion of this mitigation option is demonstrated to crowd out some of the traditional abatement in the energy sector and to lessen induced technological change in clean technologies

  8. Asia's growing role in the global energy markets

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Three articles are drawn together in this special Petroleum Economist survey on the growing role played by Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian Pacific area; the second describes the growth of Asia's natural gas industry and the third item celebrates the product surplus produced due to recent refinery expansion programs. (UK)

  9. Recurrence quantification analysis of global stock markets

    Bastos, João A.; Caiado, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the presence of deterministic dependencies in international stock markets using recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). The results are based on a large set of free float-adjusted market capitalization stock indices, covering a period of 15 years. The statistical tests suggest that the dynamics of stock prices in emerging markets is characterized by higher values of RQA measures when compared to their developed counterparts. The behavior of stock markets during critical financial events, such as the burst of the technology bubble, the Asian currency crisis, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis, is analyzed by performing RQA in sliding windows. It is shown that during these events stock markets exhibit a distinctive behavior that is characterized by temporary decreases in the fraction of recurrence points contained in diagonal and vertical structures.

  10. Global integration of European tuna markets

    Jiménez-Toribio, Ramòn; Guillotreau, Patrice; Mongruel, Rémi

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of integration between the world market and the major European marketplaces of frozen and canned tuna through both vertical and horizontal price relationships. Spatial linkages are investigated horizontally in order to estimate the connection between the European market and the world-wide market on the primary stage of the value chain. One of the key results is the high level of market integration at the ex-vessel stage, and the price leadership of yellowfin tuna over skipjack tuna. The same approach is applied at the ex-factory level. Basically, the European market for final goods appears to be segmented between the Northern countries consuming low-priced canned skipjack tuna imported from Asia (mainly Thailand) and the Southern countries (Italy, Spain) processing and importing yellowfin-based products sold at higher prices. France appears to be an intermediate market where both products are consumed. The former market is found to be well integrated to the world market and can be considered to be competitive, but there is a suspicion of market power being exercised on the latter. Price relationships are therefore tested vertically between the price of frozen tuna paid by the canneries and the price of canned fish in both Italy and France. The two species show an opposite pattern in prices transmission along the value chain: price changes along the chain are far better transmitted for the “global” skipjack tuna than for the more “European” yellowfin tuna. The results are discussed, along with their implications for the fishing industry.

  11. Carbon auctions, energy markets and market power: An experimental analysis

    Dormady, Noah C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an experimental analysis of a simultaneous energy-emissions market under conditions of market power. The experimental design employs real-world institutional features; including stochastic demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. The results suggest that dominant firms can utilize energy-emissions market linkages to simultaneously inflate the price of energy and suppress the price of emissions allowances. Whereas under prior market designs, regulators were concerned with dominant firms exercising their market power over the emissions market to exclude rivals and manipulate the permit market by hoarding permits; the results of this paper suggest that this strategy is less profitable to dominant firms in contemporary auction-based markets than strategic capacity withholding in the energy market and associated demand reduction in the emissions market. - Highlights: • Laboratory simulation of joint energy-emissions market. • Evaluates market power under collusion and real-world institutional features. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to inflate energy prices. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to suppress emissions prices. • Supply withholding is an implicit demand reduction in the emissions market

  12. Impact of global investment processes on ukrainian share market

    O.К. Zotsenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effects of financial and investment processes on the Ukrainian share market. The research analyzed and estimated investment climate in Ukraine. The study highlights a comparison of the domestic share market with share markets of other countries. In terms of share capitalization of listed companies in the GDP determined that equity is the most developed in the USA and UK. Largest share markets with highest capitalization rate characterized. The regional distribution of the share market capitalization by continents are shown. The study of the dynamics of Ukrainian and global share indexes revealed that the Ukrainian share market indexes show a constant volatility and unpredictability. Correlation Ukrainian stock indexes with indexes in Europe, Russia and America is very weak, which is a very negative trend of the stock market of Ukraine. The key problems and risks of the domestic investments are defined which are consequences of downturn in the Ukrainian share market.

  13. Spiced: The Global Marketing of Psychoactive Substances

    Graham, John

    2016-01-01

    Graham hopes to expose marketing’s role in sustaining our addiction to sugar, tobacco, and other psychoactive substances and to then inspire a discussion of strategies for reining in that marketing

  14. Uranium trade and global liberalization of markets

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    2003-01-01

    Present state of nuclear fuel market is reviewed. Political and economical aspects of nuclear fuel trade, traditional schemes of gain of nuclear fuel, tendencies and last innovations are treated. Price mechanisms, increase in part of traders, price indicators are discussed. Under the liberalization conditions the uranium market and common tendencies on the stages of nuclear fuel cycle as well as prospects of gain and sale of nuclear fuel, electronic trade are considered [ru

  15. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    Štefan Bojnec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27 member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparative disadvantages on global markets over the analysed years of 2000 to 2011. The revealed comparative advantages on the global markets are the most robust for Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Cyprus and Hungary. The revealed comparative advantage indices and their survival rates differ across the meat product groups. The heterogeneity in export competitiveness of the EU-27 member states suggests the importance of the differentiation of meat products in competitive export specialization on global markets.

  16. Neoliberal Optimism: Applying Market Techniques to Global Health.

    Mei, Yuyang

    2017-01-01

    Global health and neoliberalism are becoming increasingly intertwined as organizations utilize markets and profit motives to solve the traditional problems of poverty and population health. I use field work conducted over 14 months in a global health technology company to explore how the promise of neoliberalism re-envisions humanitarian efforts. In this company's vaccine refrigerator project, staff members expect their investors and their market to allow them to achieve scale and develop accountability to their users in developing countries. However, the translation of neoliberal techniques to the global health sphere falls short of the ideal, as profits are meager and purchasing power remains with donor organizations. The continued optimism in market principles amidst such a non-ideal market reveals the tenacious ideological commitment to neoliberalism in these global health projects.

  17. Impact of Global Financial Crisis on Nigerian Stock Market

    DrNneka

    Key words: Global financial crisis, Nigerian stock market, currency crisis, ... drop in all economic indices over a relatively short period of time leading to corporate .... magnitude and many countries with sound fundamentals also plunged into a ...

  18. Grazing the Commons. Global Carbon Emissions Forever?

    Melenberg, B. [CentER and Department of Econometrics and Operations Research, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Vollebergh, H.R.J. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, E. [SEOR-ECRi and Tinbergen Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the results from our investigation of the per-capita, long-term relation between carbon dioxide emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for the world, obtained with the use of a new, flexible estimator. Consistent with simple economic growth models, we find that regional, population-weighted per-capita emissions systematically increase with income (scale effect) and usually decline over time (composition and technology effect). Both our in-sample results and out-of-sample scenarios indicate that this negative time effect is unlikely to compensate for the upward-income effect at a global level, in the near future. In particular, even if China's specialization in carbon-intensive industrial sectors would come to a halt, recent trends outside China make a reversal of the overall global trend very unlikely.

  19. Ecommerce drivers and marketing partnerships in successful export marketing of Finnish born globals

    Penttinen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the utilization of ecommerce and marketing partnerships as part of born global internationalization strategies. The study will combine the existing literature of born global internationalization, export marketing strategies and ecommerce as part of internationalization to form an understanding on how two Finnish health and welfare sector born globals internationalize, and how ecommerce drivers affect their internationalization. Because of the explorative nature of the stud...

  20. Wood pellet market and trade: A global perspective

    Goh, C.S.; Cocchi, M.; Junginger, H.M.; Marchal, D.; Thrän, D.; Hennig, C.; Heinimo, J.; Nikolaisen, L.; Schouwenberg, P.P.; Bradley, D.; Hess, R.F.; Jacobson, J.; Ovard, L.; Deutmeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high signifi cance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million

  1. Pathways for implementing REDD+. Experiences from carbon markets and communities

    Zhu, X; Ravnkilde Moeller, L; Lopez, T De; Romero, M Z

    2011-07-01

    This issue of Carbon Market Perspectives on 'Pathways for implementing REDD+: Experience from carbon markets and communities' discusses the role of carbon markets in scaling up investments for REDD+ in developing countries. Nine articles authored by experienced negotiators on REDD+, carbon market actors, project developers and other leading experts share experiences and make suggestions on the key elements of a future international REDD+ regime: Architecture and underlying principles, measuring, reporting and verification (MRV), private-sector involvement, the rights of indigenous people and local communities, biodiversity conservation and environmental integrity. The articles are grouped under three main topics: the lessons of existing REDD+ projects; the future REDD+ regime and the role of carbon markets; and experiences and ideas about the involvement of indigenous people and local communities. (LN)

  2. Pathways for implementing REDD+. Experiences from carbon markets and communities

    Zhu, X.; Ravnkilde Moeller, L.; Lopez, T. De; Romero, M.Z.

    2011-07-01

    This issue of Carbon Market Perspectives on 'Pathways for implementing REDD+: Experience from carbon markets and communities' discusses the role of carbon markets in scaling up investments for REDD+ in developing countries. Nine articles authored by experienced negotiators on REDD+, carbon market actors, project developers and other leading experts share experiences and make suggestions on the key elements of a future international REDD+ regime: Architecture and underlying principles, measuring, reporting and verification (MRV), private-sector involvement, the rights of indigenous people and local communities, biodiversity conservation and environmental integrity. The articles are grouped under three main topics: the lessons of existing REDD+ projects; the future REDD+ regime and the role of carbon markets; and experiences and ideas about the involvement of indigenous people and local communities. (LN)

  3. The global carbon budget 1959–2011

    C. Le Quéré

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessments of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF are based on energy statistics, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC, including deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM is computed from the concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. Finally, the global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND is estimated by the difference of the other terms. For the last decade available (2002–2011, EFF was 8.3 ± 0.4 PgC yr−1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1PgC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND 2.6 ± 0.8 PgC yr−1. For year 2011 alone, EFF was 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, 3.0 percent above 2010, reflecting a continued trend in these emissions; ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, approximately constant throughout the decade; GATM was 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.7 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1. GATM was low in 2011

  4. Globalization and the marketing orientation of companies

    Aneta Oniszczuk-Jastrząbek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the enterprise in a constantly changing environ-ment means that companies should make the necessary transformation, meet challenges, and thus anticipate and shape the reality. Each company should be the instigator of continuous change, particularly innovative projects which success depends largely on the mobilization of all em-ployees for creative thinking, action and learning. Today, a company is considered as innovative and competitive, when it possesses the ability to use marketing in order to understand the market and results of scientific research, new concepts, ideas and inventions which are expected by consumers due to the high level of modernity.

  5. Globalization and innovation in emerging markets

    Gorodnichenko, Y.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 194-226 ISSN 1945-7707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2130; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : emerging market economies * foreign competition * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.158, year: 2010

  6. Marketing Needed to Make Universities Globally Competitive

    Naik, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article aims at improving the quality of higher and technical education in India to world class standard. Institutions in knowledge economy are reckoned to be the drivers of development. Indian institutions are making efforts, investing money, appointing professors, students are studying hard but due to the lack of marketing strategy, their…

  7. GLOBAL COMMODITY CHAINS NA PERSPECTIVA DE MARKETING

    Flávio Régio Brambilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visa a estabelecer uma relação entre as estratégias de canais globais com aspectos do marketing, como a força da marca. Trata-se de conciliar atributos de Estratégia e Marketing. As mudanças econômicas globais levaram a transformações na competição das empresas, obrigando-as a ingressar numa discussão aprimorada acerca das estratégias e competências. Com base na ideia da detenção do conhecimento e das habilidades como verdadeiros diferenciais competitivos, muitos players passam a atuar na gestão do design e da marca como elementos centrais das políticas de negócios, onde a proposição de valor pode ser mais bem definida aos mercados consumidores.

  8. Carbon emission trading system of China: a linked market vs. separated markets

    Liu, Yu; Feng, Shenghao; Cai, Songfeng; Zhang, Yaxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Yanbin; Chen, Zhanming

    2013-12-01

    The Chinese government intends to upgrade its current provincial carbon emission trading pilots to a nationwide scheme by 2015. This study investigates two of scenarios: separated provincial markets and a linked inter-provincial market. The carbon abatement effects of separated and linked markets are compared using two pilot provinces of Hubei and Guangdong based on a computable general equilibrium model termed Sino-TERMCo2. Simulation results show that the linked market can improve social welfare and reduce carbon emission intensity for the nation as well as for the Hubei-Guangdong bloc compared to the separated market. However, the combined system also distributes welfare more unevenly and thus increases social inequity. On the policy ground, the current results suggest that a well-constructed, nationwide carbon market complemented with adequate welfare transfer policies can be employed to replace the current top-down abatement target disaggregation practice.

  9. Global challenges and perspectives of marketing of healthy food products

    Mitić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.

  10. Globalization, Education, and Citizenship: Solidarity versus Markets?

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that globalization places limits on state autonomy and national sovereignty, affecting education in various ways. Educational policy and its contributions to citizenship, democracy, and multiculturalism will face unprecedented challenges if the logic of fear, exacerbated by the events of September 11, 2001 prevails. (Author/SLD)

  11. Price determinants of the European carbon market and interactions with energy markets

    Schumacher, Katja; Cludius, Johanna; Matthes, Felix [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Diekmann, Jochen; Zaklan, Aleksandar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    This report explores the determinants of short run price movements in the carbon market and their interaction with energy markets, in particular with the electricity market. Focusing on Phase 2 of the EU ETS we conduct econometric time series analysis based on continental EU and UK market data. Our findings suggest that market fundamentals have a dominant effect on the EUA price, but that non-fundamental factors may also play a role. We further found that the electricity price has a significant positive impact on the carbon price in the short run.

  12. The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management

    Socolow, R.

    2002-05-01

    The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean plus terrestrial sink remains at half the strength of this source - since 2.1 Gt (C) = 1 ppm, and the concentration today is already 370 ppm. Doubling is the most widely used boundary between acceptable and unacceptable Greenhouse-related environmental disruption, or, in the language of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the onset of "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." And 10 Gt(C)/yr is a conservative estimate of the average annual fossil-fuel carbon source over the century; it is now between 6 and 7 Gt(C). Conventional oil and gas are not sufficiently abundant to generate a serious Greenhouse problem on their own. Well before their cumulative carbon emissions reach 1000 Gt(C), both are expected to become non-competitive as a result of growing costs of access (costs related to resources being very deep underground, or below very deep water, or very remote, or very small.) But several times 1000 Gt(C) of coal resources will probably be competitive with non-fossil fuel alternatives, as will "unconventional" oil and gas resources, such as tar sands. The world will not be saved from a serious Greenhouse problem by fossil fuel depletion. There are four mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. Fossil fuels can cease to dominate the global energy system well before the end of the century, yielding large market share to some combination of renewable energy and nuclear (fission and fusion) energy sources. Fossil fuels can continue to dominate, but most of the carbon in the century's fossil fuels can be prevented from reaching the atmosphere (fossil-carbon

  13. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  14. Branding and Performance in the Global Beer Market

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    The mass market for beers is served by a few global breweries in an oligopoly structure covering most of the world market. The homogeneity of their main lager beers are very high and produced at large scaled plants at low costs. However, the breweries spend large amounts of money to promote some...... of the lager beers as premium beers and at a high and increasing price premium. Based on a database with prices for standard and premium lager, the paper study the development in the consumption of different types of beers on the global market in recent years. We estimate the price premium on premium beers...... and relate it to the rapid change in the oligopoly structure of the market through the merger and acquisition activities....

  15. Concentration and Competition in the Global Meat Market

    Bocharova Yuliia G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the condition, development specifics, concentration and competition in the global meat market. Both significance and role of meat in providing the food security has been substantiated. An analysis of the dynamics and structure (both geographical and commodity of production volumes, consumption, exports and imports of meat has been conducted. The major producers, consumers, exporters and importers of meat in the context of globalization have been identified. The country-based features, patterns of consumption and imports of meat have been characterized. On the basis of calculated five indicators of concentration (coefficient of concentration, the Herfindahl-Hirschman index, coefficient of relative concentration, dispersion of logarithms of market shares, index of the maximum share the features of competition in the global market of producers and consumers of meat have been determined.

  16. Globalization, capital market and economic development in Nigeria

    Olanrewaju Adewole Adediran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the economic integration caused by globalization and effect of capital market in Nigeria context. It establishes the type of relationship and level of significance of globalization and capital market on the economic development. Globalization concept is framed as import plus export divided by growth ratio. The capital market was determined in terms of proxy (by GDP by price index. The growth ratio assessed the level of development using econometric model. The results suggest that sound economic reform and financial policies are necessary to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria. However, there is need to increase exports, reduce imports and control exchange rate for Nigeria to achieve sustainable economic development.

  17. GlobalSoilMap and Global Carbon Predictions

    Hempel, Jonathan; McBratney, Alex B.; Arrouays, Dominique

    consistently produced soil property information at 100 m resolution across the world. This information will aid in solving some of the key environment and societal issues of the day, including food security, global climate change land degradation and carbon sequestration. Data would be produced using mostly...... the storehouse of existing legacy soils data along with geographic information and a range of covariates. A range of modeling techniques is used dependant on the complexity of the background soil survey information. The key soil properties that would be most useful to the modeling community and other users are...... of soil property values throughout the depth of each profile. Maps have been produced at the country level in the Australia, Canada, Denmark, Nigeria, South Korea and the US and work is on-going in many other parts of the world....

  18. First Nations carbon collaborative - indigenous peoples and carbon markets: an annotated bibliography

    Dohan, Rosemary; Voora, Vivek [International Institute for Sustainable Development (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    According to the United Nations declaration on the rights of indigenous people, First Nations must be involved in the development of carbon markets which could affect their traditional and current land in Canada. The aim of this document is to provide First Nations with unbiased information on carbon markets so they can decide whether or not they want to take advantage of the economic opportunities that these markets offer. This annotated bibliography has been built using peer reviewed materials, working papers, government publications, technical reports, newspapers and online news websites. This paper provides the reader with information on the impacts that carbon markets could have on First Nations and is accessible to all with academic as well as popular resources. This bibliography highlighted that little information is available on First Nations in Canada and carbon markets and that this needs to be addressed so that indigenous people can participate actively in carbon markets.

  19. Global Energy Market Trends and Learnings from German's Energiewende

    Kluesener, P.

    2016-01-01

    COP21 is the cornerstone for the decarbonization of energy markets globally: for the first time a commitment for the reduction of GHG emissions was reached on a global level. Although the national emission reduction contributions (INDC) don't yet fulfill a 2 degree of C path, they mark a big move in mind set for the need of emission reduction to limit climate change. But how can this goal be reached while sustaining energy supply security and affordability of energy. Germany is a pioneer in terms of a radical change of national energy system, but is the German 'Energiewende' a blue-line print for energy transition in general? Germany has made big progress in the installation of renewables esp. Wind and Solar PV. Installed capacity for Wind and Solar power reached more than 80 GW in 2015, but new installations esp. for Solar PV have significantly slowed down in the recent past after some years of record installation of 7-8 GW per year in 2010-2012. With the growing share of fluctuating renewables such and wind and solar PV the system integration became an issue. There are huge differences in Wind and Solar PV installations between the North and South of Germany. Peaks in power generation either from Wind or Solar can't be operated within the regions anymore. While the transmission line from North to South are missing and construction is substantially delayed, the temporary regional oversupply is managed more or less by power flows into neighbouring countries. Beside the technical aspects there are also economic issues. Despite significant cost reduction for renewables the EEG levy is continuously growing. Due to the regional imbalances the efforts for redispatch of conventional power plants are increasing and thereby the cost for system balance. The share of levies and taxes on retail electricity prices is above 50 percent since some years. So far the policy failed to limit the increase of retail electricity prices but affordability of energy became a greater

  20. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 392, č. 1 (2013), s. 184-193 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Capital market efficiency * Fractal dimension * Long-range dependence * Short-range dependence Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.722, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/kristoufek-measuring capital market efficiency global and local correlations structure.pdf

  1. Investors’ Risk Appetite and Global Financial Market Conditions

    Brenda Gonzalez-Hermosillo

    2008-01-01

    A structural vector autoregression model is developed to analyze the dynamics of bond spreads among a sample of mature and developing countries during periods of financial stress in the last decade. The model identifies and quantifies the contribution on bond spreads from global market conditions (including funding liquidity, market liquidity, as well as credit and volatility risks), contagion effects, and idiosyncratic factors. While idiosyncratic factors explain a large amount of the change...

  2. Canada's nuclear industry - a leader in the global market

    Saint-Pierre, G.

    1994-01-01

    The successes of the Canadian nuclear industry at home and abroad are recounted and extolled in this address. It is argued that the industry must become more global in order to compete more effectively in the export market. This means not only setting up operating bases (rather than mere marketing offices) abroad, but also employing nationals of prospective overseas purchasing countries in the headquarters of Canadian companies. Partnership with one or more Asian country may be the key to success

  3. Combating global warming. Possible rules, regulations and administrative arrangements for a global market in CO2 emission entitlements

    1994-12-01

    When in 1991 the UNCTAD secretariat launched its research into the idea of controlling carbon dioxide emissions through a system of 'tradeable permits', there was little support for this approach. Some felt that the idea was premature and should not detract from efforts to introduce more conventional measures, such as environmental taxes and new regulations. However, in a few short years, the idea of using tradeable market-based instruments to combat global warming has gained widespread acceptance. The UNCTAD secretariat's 1992 study on a global system of tradeable carbon emission entitlements (UNCTAD/RDP/DFP/1), was widely regarded as a major breakthrough in this area. This study argued that tradeable permits were both an efficient means of controlling man-made carbon dioxide emissions at minimum cost, and an effective mechanism for transferring resources to developing countries and countries in transition, to help them to contribute to the international effort to abate emissions of greenhouse gases. The study contained a detailed assessment of key technical elements of a tradeable CO 2 entitlements system, including permit allocation techniques, resource transfers, equity/distributional implications, institutional and administrative requirements. The present publication explores the institutional requirements for both policy-making and the organization of a global market in CO 2 emission allowances. It shows that one can start with a simple pilot scheme based on the joint implementation of commitments, which constitutes the cornerstone of the Framework Convention, and evolve gradually to a more complete system on the basis of 'learning by doing'. Since the use of markets can dramatically lower the cost of controlling greenhouse gas emissions, it is clearly in the self-interest of major emitters to act as 'market leaders' willing to pioneer

  4. From Kyoto to Copenhagen: the carbon markets expansion

    Alberola, Emilie; Fages, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the development of carbon markets in the world. Such markets are the main economic instrument of the international climate policy established by the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 and are being implemented by most industrialized countries. They are experimented by Europe since 2005 for industrial facilities and since 2008 by industrialized countries under Kyoto. The development of carbon markets will likely continue beyond 2012, when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Their expansion will be largely determined by the future international climate policy to be negotiated in Copenhagen in December 2009 and by the commitment of the largest economies like the United States. The authors describe the emergence of carbon markets, their basic principles and the experience of Kyoto and European markets. Then, they deal with the expected developments beyond 2012

  5. Carbon plants nutrition and global food security

    Mariani, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of carbon nutrition on agricultural productivity, a physiological-process-based crop simulation model, driven by the 1961-1990 monthly climate data from global FAO dataset, was developed and applied to four crops (wheat, maize, rice and soybean -WMRS) which account for 64% of the global caloric consumption of humans. Five different temperatures and CO2 scenarios (current; glacial; pre-industrial; future_1 with 560 ppmv for CO2 and +2 °C for temperature; and future_2 with 800 ppmv for CO2 and +4 °C) were investigated. The relative values of WMRS global productions for past and future scenarios were, respectively, 49% of the present-day scenario for glacial, 82% for pre-industrial, 115% for future_1 and 124% for future_2. A sensitive growth of productivity of future scenarios (respectively to 117% and 134%) was observed if the northward shift of crops was allowed, and a strong increase was obtained without water limitation (from 151% to 157% for the five scenarios) and without biotic and abiotic stresses (from 30% to 40% for WMRS subject to the current scenario). Furthermore since the beginning of the Green Revolution (roughly happened between the '30s and the '50s of the twentieth century) production losses due to sub-optimal levels of CO2 and to biotic and abiotic stresses have been masked by the strong technological innovation trend still ongoing, which, in the last century, led to a strong increase in the global crop production (+400%-600%). These results show the crucial relevance of the future choices of research and development in agriculture (genetics, land reclamation, irrigation, plant protection, and so on) to ensure global food security.

  6. HOW AFFECTED WAS WORLD INSURANCE MARKET BY GLOBAL CRISIS?

    ANA PREDA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economic and financial crisis triggered in 2008 had a significant impact with effects in economical life worldwide. Insurance industry wasn't spared but was less affected than other sectors of the world economy. The aim of the present paper is to underline the main crisis effects on global insurance market through a comparative study between different regions from the world, taking into consideration the main indicators which give us an insurance market dimension, such as: gross premium volume, insurance density and insurance penetration.

  7. The Destructuring and Restructuring of Global Labor Markets

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    in global labor markets and industrial relations. The third part situates more squarely the impact of globalization on the catching-up strategies of Russia and China, while the next section digs into the transformation of the industrial relations regimes in Russia and China in comparative perspective....... Finally, the paper rounds up by pointing to the main similarities and differences between industrial relations, work and labor market regulation in Russia and China, but also with implications for a broader context. In order to come to terms with the crisis of former socialist type societ...

  8. Malaysian diaspora strategies in a globalized Muslim market

    Fischer, Johan

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores Malaysia’s efforts to develop and dominate a global market in halal (literally, ‘lawful or ‘permitted’) commodities as a diaspora strategy and how Malaysian state institutions, entrepreneurs, restaurants and middle-class groups in London respond to and are affected...... and practise Malaysian diaspora strategies in the globalized market for halal products and services. This paper is based on ethnographic material from fieldwork among state institutions, entrepreneurs, restaurants and middle-class groups in Kuala Lumpur and London, namely participant observation...

  9. Dynamics of the youth travel market on a global level

    Timea DEMETER

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The segment of young tourists has been considered a niche market and was treated as a branch of the tourism industry. In the past 10 years, however, its market value has began to increase significantly bringing real benefits to the companies adapting to this segment by developing appropriate strategies and policies. Therefore, the aim of this project is to analyse the dynamics of the youth travel market, on a global level, taking into consideration the international youth arrivals, youth accommodation units and the behavioural habits of young tourists, serving as a starting point in the strategy development process.

  10. Carbon Pricing, Power Markets and the Competitiveness of Nuclear Power

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the competitiveness of nuclear power against coal- and gas-fired power generation in liberalized electricity markets with either CO 2 trading or carbon taxes. It uses daily price data for electricity, gas, coal and carbon from 2005 to 2010, which encompasses the first years of the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), the world's foremost carbon trading framework. The study shows that even with modest carbon pricing, competition for new investment in electricity markets will take place between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power struggling to be profitable. The data and analyses contained in this study provide a robust framework for assessing cost and investment issues in liberalized electricity markets with carbon pricing. (authors)

  11. Global marketing of cholesterol-lowering drugs as therapy.

    Elimimian, Jonathan U; Gilmore, James M; Singletary, Tony J

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing services (PMS) are a key component of pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies in that they create links between the pharmaceutical company and the physician. They are is also a link between physician and patients locally and globally. PMS discussed in this paper provide various services from tangible to intangible products in order to increase the physicians and pharmacists prescribing activities of their treatment modalities. Given the high cost of recruiting, training, and supporting PMS global marketing efforts, it is important for PMS channels to understand the significance of pharmaceutical multinational companies to ascribe to prescription drug services provided in Thailand. This created the unique marketing environment for the pharmaceutical companies. This study examines whether there is a gap in the existing cholesterol-lowering medication prescribed by physicians in Thailand and the newly introduced brand to the U.S. market. The degree of the new product adoption is analyzed through physician prescription frequency and records. Results of the study indicate there is significant improvement in the health conditions of the users of the new cholesterol medication among Thailand patients. Physicians in Thailand were, however, faced with competing brands in the market due to aggressiveness of advertising and promotion by multinational pharmaceutical marketing and manufacturers Associations. Perceived value and benefit to users were significant outcome of the study. More diagnostic and prescriptive research is recommended to cover Southeast Asia and other parts of the developing countries.

  12. Digital Innovations: Startup Marketing Strategy for Global Growth

    Gröhn, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses the relatively new phenomena of innovative digital products created by startup companies, who often must scale globally fast, before the volatile trends or the fierce competition of the digital marketspace take over. International entry itself is no longer the issue, but rather standing out in the crowd while balancing resources and flexibility. The focus is on how startups can induce global growth and tackle structural obstacles by means of marketing strategy. The t...

  13. Policy interactions, risk and price formation in carbon markets

    Blyth, William; Bunn, Derek; Kettunen, Janne; Wilson, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Carbon pricing is an important mechanism for providing companies with incentives to invest in carbon abatement. Price formation in carbon markets involves a complex interplay between policy targets, dynamic technology costs, and market rules. Carbon pricing may under-deliver investment due to R and D externalities, requiring additional policies which themselves affect market prices. Also, abatement costs depend on the extent of technology deployment due to learning-by-doing. This paper introduces an analytical framework based on marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves with the aim of providing an intuitive understanding of the key dynamics and risk factors in carbon markets. The framework extends the usual static MAC representation of the market to incorporate policy interactions and some technology cost dynamics. The analysis indicates that supporting large-scale deployment of mature abatement technologies suppresses the marginal cost of abatement, sometimes to zero, whilst increasing total abatement costs. However, support for early stage R and D may reduce both total abatement cost and carbon price risk. An important aspect of the analysis is in elevating risk management considerations into energy policy formation, as the results of the stochastic modelling indicate wide distributions for the emergence of carbon prices and public costs around the policy expectations. (author)

  14. Analysis of the German market for voluntary carbon offsetting; Analyse des deutschen Marktes zur freiwilligen Kompensation von Treibhausgasemissionen

    Kind, Christian; Duwe, Sebastian; Taenzler, Dennis; Reuster, Lena [adelphi research gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kleemann, Max; Krebs, Jan-Marten [sustainable AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In the past years the market for voluntary carbon offsetting has developed rapidly. Certificates sold on this market originate partly from the compliance market, i.e. from projects of the Clean Development Mechanism and the Joint Implementation. Mostly, however, certificates stem from projects of the voluntary carbon market. Voluntary carbon offsetting can serve as another mechanism to efficiently prevent emissions, while at the same time achieving co-benefits. Very little is known however of the exact state of the voluntary carbon market, e.g. factors like business volume, market actors, origin of certificates or the efficacy of the voluntary market. Analyses of the market on the global market for voluntary offsetting do exist (ENDS, Hamilton et al. 2007, 2008, 2009); however they do not allow any conclusions for the market situation in Germany. This study aims at closing this gap. From the end of 2009 until the beginning of 2010 adelphi and sustainable interviewed providers of offset services, intermediaries, certifiers and consumers like businesses and public institutions on their activities in the voluntary carbon offset market in Germany. (orig.)

  15. China and the global uranium market: prospects for peaceful coexistence.

    Massot, Pascale; Chen, Zhan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    China's recent reemergence has resulted in a significant increase in the global demand of commodities and is already having major impacts on the dynamics of global commodity markets. In the case of the global uranium market, we stand at the very beginning of a period of change. However, interesting trends are already emerging. Whereas China has had many policy reversals, and some difficulties in taking control of its procurement strategy in other commodity markets, it is seemingly more successful in managing its uranium procurement strategy. Why? The argument presented here is that a mixture of domestic and international level variables has allowed China more room for maneuver in fulfilling its uranium procurement strategy. On the domestic level, a centralized industry, and, on the international level, a geographically dispersed and uncoordinated market have allowed China to forge ahead with an ambitious civilian nuclear power plan and triple its total uranium imports, all within the span of a few years. Many challenges remain, not the least that of negative public opinion, which has surged since the Fukushima disaster in 2011. Nevertheless, should uranium demand continue to grow, this paper will consider the potential for continued peaceful coexistence among uranium market participants worldwide.

  16. Developing an urban forest carbon market

    M. Armstrong; J. Siry; Michael Bowker

    2009-01-01

    Countries, states, localities, businesses, and individuals are taking action to mitigate greenhouse gas levels and production as a response to concerns over climate change. Europe currently has mandatory greenhouse gas emission legislation and a large developed emission trading market, as opposed to the U.S. where voluntary markets to reduce green house gas emissions...

  17. Fair Trade: Social Regulation in Global Food Markets

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…

  18. Contagion as Domino Effect in Global Stock Markets

    T.D. Markwat (Thijs); H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper shows that stock market contagion operates through a domino effect, where small crashes evolve into more severe crashes. Using a novel unifying framework we model the occurrence of local, regional and global crashes in terms of past occurrences of these different crashes and

  19. Levels of Product Differentiation in the Global Mobile Phones Market

    Andonov, Stanimir

    2006-01-01

    The sixth product level called compliant product is a connecting element between the physical product characteristics and the strategy of the producer company. The article discusses the differentiation among the product offers of companies working in the global markets, as well as the strategies which they use and could use in that respect.

  20. Globalization, Labor Markets and Inequality in India | CRDI - Centre ...

    30 janv. 2008 ... India started on a program of reforms, both in its external and internal aspects, in the mid-1980s. While the increased exposure to world markets (globalization) and relaxation of domestic controls has undoubtedly given a spurt to the GDP growth rate, the impact of reforms on poverty, inequality and ...

  1. A Comparison of Global Financial Market Recovery after the 2008 Global Financial Crisis

    Foo Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Financial Crisis of 2007-2009 plunged countries into a Great Recession and focused the world’s attention on the global stock markets. The global contagion has a major impact on global stock markets, with the U.S. DJIA falling to 6,547.05 on March 9, 2009 from a high of 14,164.53 on October 9, 2007, with a loss of more than 54%. Other stock markets also had a precipitous drop during the financial crisis. However, some equity markets have recovered while others have not. This paper looks at how global markets compared in their recovery. This paper also investigates the advanced countries’ recovery relative to the emerging and developing countries in the aftermath of the financial crisis and their ability to climb back to the pre-financial crisis levels. Analysis is provided for 31 stock indexes from January 2005 to March 2013. In 2013 the majority of analysed stock markets recovered from the crises regardless of if they belong to the group of developed or emerging markets.

  2. The global uranium market: supply and demand 1992-2010

    1994-06-01

    This document looks at the supply of and demand for uranium on markets worldwide and covers the years 1992 to 2010. Uranium and nuclear fuel markets have become truly global with the inclusion of fuel cycle companies from Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) leading at the same time to additional supplies becoming available and new political constraints on uranium trading. This report includes new data from China, Eastern Europe and the CIS republics. As recycling plays on ever more important role, the global supply and demand balance for uranium and fuel services is altered. Prospects for nuclear power growth and for the uranium market in the next century remain uncertain. (UK)

  3. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  4. Carbon flows, financial markets and climate change mitigation

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    After initial debates and controversies, from the late 1980s onwards market instruments became fully accepted in environmental governance. However, with their inclusion in transnational and global environmental governance, market institutions seem to be in for a new round of discussions.

  5. Global Land Carbon Uptake from Trait Distributions

    Butler, E. E.; Datta, A.; Flores-Moreno, H.; Fazayeli, F.; Chen, M.; Wythers, K. R.; Banerjee, A.; Atkin, O. K.; Kattge, J.; Reich, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, functional diversity in land surface models has been represented through a range of plant functional types (PFTs), each of which has a single value for all of its functional traits. Here we expand the diversity of the land surface by using a distribution of trait values for each PFT. The data for these trait distributions is from a sub-set of the global database of plant traits, TRY, and this analysis uses three leaf traits: mass based nitrogen and phosphorus content and specific leaf area, which influence both photosynthesis and respiration. The data are extrapolated into continuous surfaces through two methodologies. The first, a categorical method, classifies the species observed in TRY into satellite estimates of their plant functional type abundances - analogous to how traits are currently assigned to PFTs in land surface models. Second, a Bayesian spatial method which additionally estimates how the distribution of a trait changes in accord with both climate and soil covariates. These two methods produce distinct patterns of diversity which are incorporated into a land surface model to estimate how the range of trait values affects the global land carbon budget.

  6. (Mismanaging labour markets? The decline of the contemporary global labour market for British seafarers.

    S. Ruggunan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate the ways in which states are still significant actors in creating and shaping the nature and characteristics of global labour markets. My argument is demonstrated through an empirical case study of the global labour market for British seafarers. Problem Investigated: The last 30 years has witnessed a decimation of the number of employed British seafarers, particularly at lower rank levels, such as ratings. I contend that despite Britain's long and rich maritime history, the British state has not acted meaningfully to reverse the decline of British seafarers. The lack of meaningful action I contend is an attempt to crew British owned ships with cheaper seafaring labour from Asia, particularly south east Asia. In so doing the British state has contributed to the decline of a once thriving labour market. There has simultaneously been an upsurge in the employment of seafarers of other nationalities, and thus the creation of new labour markets in countries such as the Philippines. This paper is an attempt to understand some of the factors responsible for the decline of the British labour market for seafarers. Methodology and Approach: This paper is the outcome of a larger qualitative study undertaken for my doctoral thesis in industrial sociology which examined the transformation of the global labour market for South African, Filipino and British seafarers. The methodology consists of in depth interviews with maritime officials and trade union leaders. These were conducted in person in London, United Kingdom between 2005 and 2008. These interviews are supported by extensive literature and documentary research, to validate, support and test claims made by my interviewees. Implications and Value of the Research: The theoretical contribution of this paper is to reinsert the state more critically into the literature on labour markets. Empirically, seafaring labour markets are largely ignored by the

  7. Carbon trading thickness and market efficiency

    Montagnoli, Alberto; De Vries, Frans P.

    2010-01-01

    This note tests for the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) in the market for CO 2 emission allowances in Phase I and Phase II of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). As usually is the case in emerging and non-competitive markets such as the EU ETS, trading often not occurs on a frequent basis. This has adverse implications for both the gains from permit trade as well as biases the EMH tests. Variance ratio tests are employed to adjust for the thin trading effect. The results indicate that Phase I - the trial and learning period - was inefficient, whereas the first period under Phase II shows signs of restoring market efficiency. (author)

  8. DYNAMICS AND NEW CHALLENGES IN THE GLOBAL COMMODITY MARKET

    MARIA CARTAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economy and particularly the world production of goods depends to a large extent on the supply of raw materials, of resource inputs extracted from the environment as well as an easy access to them. Commodities play an important part in the growth of global production and in the world trade in goods and services. The access to raw materials is vital for sustaining the productive capacity of the economy and also for satisfying domestic demand for industrial goods. On the other side, increasing demand for commodities and the need for assuring a sustainable supply pose great challenges on the world economy. The issue of raw materials supply represents a high - priority theme in the political agenda of the European Union. The Raw Materials Initiative launched in 2008 by the European Commission is based on three main pillars: - to ensure the access to raw materials on world market at undistorted conditions; - to foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources; - to reduce the EU's consumption of primary raw materials. (EC, 2008. To this end, EC has started to take action in order to ensure access to resources and avoid supply shortages. A great deal of attention is being paid to the study of recent developments in the global and particular commodity markets, taking into consideration fundamental aspects as supply concentration, governance of producing countries, the pressure of demand and its impact on prices, material's substitutability, stressing the role of resource consumption efficiency, recycling and substitution of vital raw materials and thus providing policy makers and industry with reliable information on how to efficiently manage resource inputs. This paper is dealing with the main developments which occurred during the past decade or so in the global commodity market, a major driver of the world economy, with particular reference to selected key -markets - as: aluminium, copper, nickel; cotton; corn, meat - swine

  9. A Journey from Regional Gas Markets to a Global Gas Market

    Waterlander, O.; Schlaak, T.; Donohue, T.; Sarraf, G.

    2008-06-01

    According to the authors understanding the landscape of gas markets in the short and medium terms has never been as challenging as it is today. In this article, they describe three potential market scenarios to illustrate the drivers of market globalization: (1) A supply-driven imbalance in which the Middle East's export ability is constrained; (2) A demand-driven imbalance in which binding CO2 legislation in the U.S. gives a sharp boost to gas-fired power generation; and (3) A scenario in which both situations occur in concert.

  10. IMPACT OF GLOBAL RETAILERS ON REGIONAL MARKET PARTICIPANTS

    A. A. Evtyugina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The given article is focused on a topical subject of global trade networks and the current trends of their development on a regional retail market. The authors believe that deep integration of international networks in the regions significantly increases the competition among network operators in the trade sector and creates a certain challenge for Russian retailers, and require introduction of innovative management techniques, automation of operational processes, expansion of assortment, better service, lower prices, etc. Research and assessment of the parameters given in the article help verifying an effect of international networks on the development process of regional market participants.

  11. The market effectiveness of electricity reform: A case of carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Xiao, Yao

    2017-03-01

    In the 13th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government proposed to achieve the national carbon emission trading market established by 2017. The establishment of carbon emission trading market is the most important one in power reform, which helps to promote the power reform and achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction. As the bond of connecting environment energy issues and the economic development, carbon emissions trading market has become a hot research topic in the related fields, by market means, it incentive the lower cost subject emissions to undertake more reductions and therefore to benefit, the body of the high cost finished the task by buying quota reduction, to achieve the effect of having the least social total cost. Shenzhen has become the first city in China to start carbon trading pilot formally on June 16, 2013, online trading on June 18. The paper analyzes the market effectiveness of electricity reform in China, which takes carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city for example, and gives some suggestions for future development.

  12. Buy coal. Deposit markets prevent carbon leakage

    Harstad, Baard [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Kellogg School of Management

    2010-03-15

    If a coalition of countries implements climate policies, nonparticipants tend to consume more, pollute more, and invest too little in renewable energy sources. In response, the coalition's equilibrium policy distorts trade and it is not time consistent. By adding a market for the right to exploit fossil fuel deposits, I show that these problems vanish and the first best is implemented. When the market for deposits clears, the coalition relies entirely on supply-side policies, which is simple to implement in practice. The result illustrates that efficiency can be obtained without Coasian negotiations ex post, if key inputs are tradable ex ante. (orig.)

  13. Complexity Analysis of Carbon Market Using the Modified Multi-Scale Entropy

    Jiuli Yin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon markets provide a market-based way to reduce climate pollution. Subject to general market regulations, the major existing emission trading markets present complex characteristics. This paper analyzes the complexity of carbon market by using the multi-scale entropy. Pilot carbon markets in China are taken as the example. Moving average is adopted to extract the scales due to the short length of the data set. Results show a low-level complexity inferring that China’s pilot carbon markets are quite immature in lack of market efficiency. However, the complexity varies in different time scales. China’s carbon markets (except for the Chongqing pilot are more complex in the short period than in the long term. Furthermore, complexity level in most pilot markets increases as the markets developed, showing an improvement in market efficiency. All these results demonstrate that an effective carbon market is required for the full function of emission trading.

  14. Carbon taxation and market structure: A CGE analysis for Russia

    Orlov, Anton; Grethe, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Russia is one of the world's major sources of carbon based energy as well as one its most intensive users. Introducing carbon taxes can lead to a reduction in emissions and encourage investment in energy efficiency. We investigate the economic effects of carbon taxes on the Russian economy under perfect competition and a Cournot oligopoly in output markets. The main findings are: (i) substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes can yield a strong double dividend in Russia; however, welfare gains strongly depend on the labour supply elasticity and elasticities of substitution between capital, labour, and energy. (ii) Under the assumption of a Cournot oligopoly with homogenous products and symmetric firms in the markets for natural gas, petroleum and chemical products, metals, and minerals, welfare costs of the environmental tax reform can be higher than under perfect competition. This is because introducing carbon taxes leads to a reduction in already sub-optimal output, thereby exacerbating pre-existing distortions arising from imperfect competition. (iii) Furthermore, increases in energy costs can result in higher mark-ups in some markets because of less competition resulting from firms' exit. - Highlights: ► Substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes in Russia can yield a double dividend. ► The labour supply elasticity and substitution possibilities between factors are crucial. ► Introducing carbon taxes can exacerbate distortions from imperfect competition. ► Increases in energy costs result in higher mark-ups because of less competition.

  15. Risks in global natural gas markets: Investment, hedging and trade

    Egging, Ruud; Holz, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Recent supply security concerns in Europe have revived interest into the natural gas market. We investigate infrastructure investment and trade in an imperfect market structure for various possible risks for both supply and demand. We focus on three possible scenarios in a stochastic global gas market model: (i) transit of Russian gas via Ukraine that may be disrupted from 2020 on; (ii) natural gas intensity of electricity generation in OECD countries that may lead to higher or lower natural gas demand after 2025; and (iii) availability of shale gas around the globe after 2030. We illustrate how the timing of investments is affected by inter-temporal hedging behavior of market agents, such as when LNG capacity provides ex-ante flexibility or an ex-post fallback option if domestic or nearby pipeline supply sources are low. Moreover, we find that investment in LNG capacities is more determined by demand side pull – due to higher needs in electric power generation – than by supply side push, e.g. higher shale gas supplies needing an outlet. We focus on Europe, North America, and China that are the world's most important gas consuming and supplying regions. - Highlights: •We use the stochastic variant of the multi-period Global Gas Model. •We investigate the effects of uncertainty in Russian exports, demand, and shale gas. •We find that LNG is preferred as hedging option in anticipation of uncertain events. •Pipelines may be chosen as recourse decision after uncertain events realized. •China will dominate the global natural gas market regardless the scenario.

  16. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    Štefan Bojnec; Imre Fertő

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27) member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparativ...

  17. Accommodating Global Markets: Malaysia's Response to Economic Crisis

    Helen Nesadurai

    1998-01-01

    The East Asian financial crisis has shown how governments in affected countries have had to contend both with the external constraint imposed by global capital mobility and domestic political dynamics when instituting adjustment to the crisis. Some commentators see the reform process in the East Asian states as an outcome of the disciplining behaviour of financial markets that will lead to the complete dismantling of those structures that supported the state- directed developmentalist mode of...

  18. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle

    Galina eChurkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40 % of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr and ~24 (15-39 % of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/yr from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC and landfills (~30 PgC. Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3 % of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the dynamics of these pools and accompanying uptake of carbon. Predictions of the future trajectories of the global carbon cycle will require a much better understanding of how urban development affects the carbon cycle over the long term.

  19. The Emerging Global Education Industry: Analysing Market-Making in Education through Market Sociology

    Verger, Antoni; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Lubienski, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the rise and consequences of an emerging global education industry (GEI), which represents new forms of private, for profit involvement in education across the globe. The paper explores the emergence within the GEI of new and varied, largely transnational, markets in education by focusing on three examples of the GEI at work.…

  20. The global market for oilseeds: prospects and challenges for Morocco

    Gosselet Nathalie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The global market for oilseeds, grains, vegetable oil and oilseed meal is a complex market which is growing at a very fast pace, and which is characterized by the large volume of production which is traded between countries. Offer is geographically constrained in this market: there are few exporting countries and these are mainly situated on the American continent. Demand on the other hand is more widespread, although highest in Asiatic countries, China in particular. As a result, small importing countries, like Morocco, are in a vulnerable position, and take the full brunt of price volatility. In the 90s, Moroccan oilseed production was relatively high, unfortunately production dropped over the years, and Morocco must now buy vegetable oil and proteins on the global market. Reviving oilseed production in Morocco would considerably help the country and provide numerous benefits, such as food security, improving the country’s trade balance, and enhancing the agronomic management of land thanks to the introduction of break crops. Finally, it would also boost the entire agricultural sector and help increase the income of farmers.

  1. Effects of raising US interest rates on global FX markets

    Kožul Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the global financial crisis of 2008, many countries decreased their domestic interest rates as a means of stimulating economic growth, while also providing protection from substantial default on debt. Low interest rates reduce the incentive to save, prompting consumers to purchase assets, such as housing, thus implicitly increasing wealth. In addition, they make the currency relatively cheaper, making exports more competitive, while reducing foreign demand for holding debt in that currency. All these should stimulate economy, albeit at the cost of reduced competitiveness in the world financial markets, where return on investment is largely determined by the interest rates. Low interest rates also prompt greater borrowing, which may not be sustainable once they start to rise. In addition, those that largely depend on interest rate income may seek more speculative and high-risk investments, potentially leading to significant defaults. Finally, as the market interest rate is composed of the real rate and inflation, decreasing rates changes the balance in this relationship, which may lead to inflationary economy. Now that the US has increased its domestic rates for the first time since 2006, it is important to examine the potential effects this will have on global markets and other economies. This paper offers some insights into the dynamics of the FX markets and discusses why the US rate is so closely watched worldwide.

  2. Cosmetic Surgery: Regulatory Challenges in a Global Beauty Market.

    Griffiths, Danielle; Mullock, Alex

    2017-02-28

    The market for cosmetic surgery tourism is growing with an increase in people travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. While the reasons for seeking cosmetic surgery abroad may vary the most common reason is financial, but does cheaper surgery abroad carry greater risks? We explore the risks of poorly regulated cosmetic surgery to society generally before discussing how harm might be magnified in the context of cosmetic tourism, where the demand for cheaper surgery drives the market and makes surgery accessible for increasing numbers of people. This contributes to the normalisation of surgical enhancement, creating unhealthy cultural pressure to undergo invasive and risky procedures in the name of beauty. In addressing the harms of poorly regulated surgery, a number of organisations purport to provide a register of safe and ethical plastic surgeons, yet this arguably achieves little and in the absence of improved regulation the risks are likely to grow as the global market expands to meet demand. While the evidence suggests that global regulation is needed, the paper concludes that since a global regulatory response is unlikely, more robust domestic regulation may be the best approach. While domestic regulation may increase the drive towards foreign providers it may also have a symbolic effect which will reduce this drive by making people more aware of the dangers of surgery, both to society and individual physical wellbeing.

  3. Family forest owners in the redwood region: management priorities and opportunities in a carbon market

    Erin Clover Kelly; Joanna Di Tommaso; Arielle Weisgrau

    2017-01-01

    California’s cap-and-trade carbon market has included forest offset projects, available to all private landowners across the United States. The redwood region has been at the forefront of the market, creating the earliest forest carbon projects. From carbon registries, we compiled a database of all forest carbon projects in the market, in order to determine...

  4. Panorama 2014 - Overview of new carbon markets at international level

    Coussy, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Although carbon prices on the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) are at their lowest since 2008 and international negotiations in relation to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have been stagnating since the 2009 Copenhagen Agreement, nearly seventeen emissions trading markets have been identified at international level. Without counting the European ETS which has existed since 2005, eleven new markets have emerged since 2008 and a further five are set to commence trading in 2014. Of these eleven active markets, five are in Asia, three are in North America, one is in Oceania, one is in Central Asia and one is in Europe. It should be pointed out that to date, no markets are scheduled to begin trading in Africa. Although four markets have announced their intention to work together between now and 2020, the creation of an international emissions trading scheme is not on the immediate horizon. (author)

  5. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  6. Will EU Biofuel Policies affect Global Agricultural Markets?

    Banse, M.; Vvan Meijl, H.; Tabeau, A.; Woltjer, G.

    2008-04-01

    This paper assesses the global and sectoral implications of the European Union Biofuels Directive (BFD) in a multi-region computable general equilibrium framework with endogenous determination of land supply. The results show that, without mandatory blending policies or subsidies to stimulate the use of biofuel crops in the petroleum sector, the targets of the BFD will not be met in 2010 and 2020. With a mandatory blending policy, the enhanced demand for biofuel crops has a strong impact on agriculture at the global and European levels. The additional demand from the energy sector leads to an increase in global land use and, ultimately, a decrease in biodiversity. The development, on the other hand, might slow or reverse the long-term process of declining real agricultural prices. Moreover, assuming a further liberalization of the European agricultural market imports of biofuels are expected to increase to more than 50% of the total biofuel demand in Europe

  7. The Global-Market Doctrine: A Study in Fundamentalist Theology. The Iconoclast.

    McMurty, John

    1997-01-01

    Presents an interesting metaphorical critique of the current enthusiasm for the global market and the free market system. Delineates 10 defining principles of a fundamentalist theological doctrine and then suggests replacing the term "global market" with "Supreme Ruler." Criticizes free market capitalism as being occasionally…

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL MARKETING STRATEGY

    V. Savelyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns with essence of assessment of the business environment and specific directions of analysis during the working out of global marketing strategy. The classification of the global marketing environment researches and tasks sequence in the context of the decisions made on each stage of global marketing strategy is proposed.

  9. Market-based carbon abatement policies: the case of coal subsidy phase-out

    Okogu, B.E.; Birol, F.

    1993-01-01

    The issue of coal subsidies in industrialized countries is explored and basic econometric techniques are used to quantify the impact on carbon emissions of phasing out such subsidies. Components with other measures for reducing global carbon emissions, such as a carbon or energy tax, deregulation of the coal market has at least equal merit in terms of cost, and it is certainly cheaper than engineering-based approaches, moreover, a policy of coal-subsidy phase-out will have a positive impact on the drive for a cleaner global environment and regional problems, such as acid rain. Coal mining is also an important source of the second major greenhouse gas, methane. Yet coal is the least taxed of all fossil fuels and enjoys significant subsidies in a number of industrialized countries. This raised serious doubts about the real intentions of the proposed new energy and environmental taxes in Europe and North America. (3 figures, 3 tables) (UK)

  10. Nuclear and global warming issues at a deregulated electricity market

    Mesarovic, M.

    2001-01-01

    The present challenge is to develop such an energy mix that best supports industrial and societal development and improves the quality of life, while simultaneously minimizing health and environmental impacts. Although two decades ago nuclear was considered to be the energy of the future, it is often overlooked in this context and is now even being questioned in many parts of the world. But, for a world facing increased energy demand and growing concerns about global warming due to the emissions of the 'greenhouse' gasses from burning fossil fuels, nuclear power may become the first priority again, since the nuclear power plants proved to be a reliable and safe source of electricity that produce no greenhouse or acid rain gases, and have already demonstrated their economic competitiveness with alternative generating sources of electrical energy. The competitiveness of nuclear power depends essentially on capital investments which must remain low enough to secure its competitive position. However, nuclear electricity in most countries is less competitive than coal and gas, particularly so after deregulation and liberalization of electricity markets have taken place. In the European Union (EU) there are at present 151 reactor blocks and 68 more in the rest of the European continent. Nuclear power plants in EU currently generate about 35% of electricity, but with the new competitive markets, a major decline in the use of coal is compensated for by an increase in gas because of its lower carbon content, and thus almost all new power stations fully or partially use gas as fuel. However, nuclear power is expected to remain a necessary component of the EU's energy mix for the next 20 years and beyond, and in Central and Eastern Europe it is continuing its growth. While Hungary recently gave up plans to construct two more blocks in its 'Pacs' plant, the Czech government agreed to continue construction of two blocks at its 'Temelin' plant. In Rumania, the second unit of

  11. Carbon Market and Integrated Waste Solutions : a Case Study of ...

    Carbon Market and Integrated Waste Solutions : a Case Study of Indonesia ... dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve sustainable development ... with a view to devising integrated waste management solutions in urban centres ... and disseminate them through national, regional and international networks.

  12. The Paris Agreement: Consequences for the EU and Carbon Markets?

    Steinar Andresen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most observers argue that this agreement is a step in the right direction. However, we do not know how effective it will be in terms of reducing emissions. We therefore discuss its potential effectiveness regarding EU climate policies and carbon markets. We argue that the Paris Agreement may have a positive effect but uncertainties abound.

  13. State forestry agency perspectives on carbon management and carbon market assistance to family forest owners

    Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Michael A. Kilgore

    2015-01-01

    Family forest owners within the United States could potentially make significant contributions to sequestration efforts. However, we expect that landowners will need assistance if they are to successfully implement carbon management techniques and/or navigate through complex carbon market requirements. State forestry agencies were surveyed to gather their perspectives...

  14. Interactions of Reduced Deforestation and the Carbon Market: The Role of Market Regulations and Future Commitments

    Anger, Niels; Dixon, Alistair; Livengood, Erich

    2009-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) has been proposed as a potentially inexpensive and plentiful source of emission abatement to supplement other longterm climate policies. However, critics doubt that REDD credits are environmentally equivalent to domestic emission reductions, and suggest an excess supply may disrupt carbon markets. In this context, we investigate the economic implications of emissions market regulations and future emissions reduction commitments, as ...

  15. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming.

    Crowther, T W; Todd-Brown, K E O; Rowe, C W; Wieder, W R; Carey, J C; Machmuller, M B; Snoek, B L; Fang, S; Zhou, G; Allison, S D; Blair, J M; Bridgham, S D; Burton, A J; Carrillo, Y; Reich, P B; Clark, J S; Classen, A T; Dijkstra, F A; Elberling, B; Emmett, B A; Estiarte, M; Frey, S D; Guo, J; Harte, J; Jiang, L; Johnson, B R; Kröel-Dulay, G; Larsen, K S; Laudon, H; Lavallee, J M; Luo, Y; Lupascu, M; Ma, L N; Marhan, S; Michelsen, A; Mohan, J; Niu, S; Pendall, E; Peñuelas, J; Pfeifer-Meister, L; Poll, C; Reinsch, S; Reynolds, L L; Schmidt, I K; Sistla, S; Sokol, N W; Templer, P H; Treseder, K K; Welker, J M; Bradford, M A

    2016-11-30

    The majority of the Earth's terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia. We find that the effects of warming are contingent on the size of the initial soil carbon stock, with considerable losses occurring in high-latitude areas. By extrapolating this empirical relationship to the global scale, we provide estimates of soil carbon sensitivity to warming that may help to constrain Earth system model projections. Our empirical relationship suggests that global soil carbon stocks in the upper soil horizons will fall by 30 ± 30 petagrams of carbon to 203 ± 161 petagrams of carbon under one degree of warming, depending on the rate at which the effects of warming are realized. Under the conservative assumption that the response of soil carbon to warming occurs within a year, a business-as-usual climate scenario would drive the loss of 55 ± 50 petagrams of carbon from the upper soil horizons by 2050. This value is around 12-17 per cent of the expected anthropogenic emissions over this period. Despite the considerable uncertainty in our estimates, the direction of the global soil carbon response is consistent across all scenarios. This provides strong empirical support for the idea that rising temperatures will stimulate the net loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere, driving a positive land carbon-climate feedback that could accelerate climate change.

  16. REDD+, RFM, Development, and Carbon Markets

    Mario Chacón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Combining responsible forest management (RFM experiences with literature reviews and stakeholder discussions allows an assessment of the potential role of RFM in reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+. RFM contributes to greater carbon storage and biodiversity in forest biomass in comparison to conventional logging and deforestation. Using an adjusted von Thünen model to explain land user behavior in relation to different variables, considering a general forest transition curve and looking at a potential relation between governance and deforestation rates, the authors conclude that reduction of deforestation and forest degradation can only be achieved by a combined approach of increasing forest rent relative to other land uses and reducing transaction costs for forest management and conservation. More than providing an additional income for a privileged few, REDD+ will need to address the barriers that have been identified in RFM over the past 30 years of investment in forest management and conservation. Most of these are of an institutional nature, but also culture and social organization as well as locally specific development trends play a significant role in increasing the potential for application of RFM and REDD+.

  17. Global impact of uncertainties in China’s gas market

    Xunpeng, Shi; Variam, Hari Malamakkavu Padinjare; Tao, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the uncertainties in Chinese gas markets, analyze the reasons and quantify their impact on the world gas market. A literature review found significant variability among the outlooks on China's gas sector. Further assessment found that uncertainties in economic growth, structural change in markets, environmental regulations, price and institutional changes contribute to the uncertainties. The analysis of China’s demand and supply uncertainties with a world gas-trading model found significant changes in global production, trade patterns and spot prices, with pipeline exporters being most affected. China's domestic production and pipeline imports from Central Asia are the major buffers that can offset much of the uncertainties. The study finds an asymmetric phenomenon. Pipeline imports are responding to China's uncertainties in both low and high demand scenarios while LNG imports are only responding to high demand scenario. The major reasons are higher TOP levels and the current practice of import only up to the minimum TOP levels for LNG, as well as a lack of liberalized gas markets. The study shows that it is necessary to create LNG markets that can respond to market dynamics, through either a reduction of TOP levels or change of pricing mechanisms to hub indexation. - Highlights: • Economic growth, regulations, reforms and shale gas cause the uncertainties. • Pipeline exporters to China and Southeast Asian and Australian LNG exporters affected the most. • China’s domestic production and pipe imports offset much of the uncertainties. • Pipeline imports are responding to China’s uncertainties in both low and high demand. • LNG imports are only responding to high demand scenario.

  18. Globalization, Publishing, and the Marketing of “Hispanic” Identities

    Jill Robbins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available My article explores the complex Spanish reaction to recent changes in the Spanish-language publishing business as indicative of an ambivalence toward Spain’s place in the new global order, particularly by liberal intellectuals who associate books and bookstores with resistance and solidarity. The purchase of important Spanish publishers by international media conglomerates also implies to some a loss of national identity and cultural values, at the same time as the internationalization of the publishing business represents Spain’s incorporation into the European community and the world economy. The European Union, however, and Spain in particular, have globalized and marketed Latin America through business ventures, NGOs and cooperative efforts linked both to the embassies and to the international corporations. The resulting contradictions –the resistance to and welcoming of globalization, the nostalgia for, economic colonization of and rejection of Latin America– affect what is currently published in Spain by Spanish and Latin American authors and how it is marketed.

  19. Current Trends in the Nuclear Power Global Market

    Mariya Mikhailovna Osetskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The review of the nuclear energy technologies market, namely the main processes of the initial and final stages of the nuclear fuel cycle (NTC was shown. The authors reveal key players in the markets of natural uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fabrication of nuclear fuel, direct disposal, and reprocessing as well as determine their market shares. The article shows the fundamental factors influencing the development trends of the global nuclear power market such as: units’ commissioning in China, India, the Republic of Korea and other countries, the restart of the Japanese nuclear power plants, growth of uranium supplies long-term contracting planned for the period up to 2025, volatility of world prices of the NFC initial and final stages, political, economic and environmental reasons for the nuclear power generation choice. The article presents the results of analyses of Russian and world prices on the NFC initial and final stages main processes’ allowing to draw a conclusion about the current competitiveness of Russian nuclear energy technologies

  20. Global patterns of aboveground carbon stock and sequestration in mangroves

    GUSTAVO C.D. ESTRADA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to contribute to understand the factors that control the provisioning of the ecosystem service of carbon storage by mangroves, data on carbon stock and sequestration in the aboveground biomass (AGB from 73 articles were averaged and tested for the dependence on latitude, climatic parameters, physiographic types and age. Global means of carbon stock (78.0 ± 64.5 tC.ha-1 and sequestration (2.9 ± 2.2 tC.ha-1.yr-1 showed that mangroves are among the forest ecosystems with greater capacity of carbon storage in AGB per area. On the global scale, carbon stock increases toward the equator (R²=0.22 and is dependent on 13 climatic parameters, which can be integrated in the following predictive equation: Carbon Stock in AGB = -16.342 + (8.341 x Isothermality + (0.021 x Annual Precipitation [R²=0.34; p < 0.05]. It was shown that almost 70% of carbon stock variability is explained by age. Carbon stock and sequestration also vary according to physiographic types, indicating the importance of hydroperiod and edaphic parameters to the local variability of carbon stock. By demonstrating the contribution of local and regional-global factors to carbon stock, this study provides information to the forecast of the effects of future climate changes and local anthropogenic forcings on this ecosystem service.

  1. Carbon and environmental footprinting of global biofuel production

    Hammond, Geoff P.; Seth, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon and environmental footprints associated with the global production of biofuels have been computed from a baseline of 2007-2009 out until 2019. Estimates of future global biofuel production were adopted from OECD-FAO and related projections. In order to determine the footprints associated with these (essentially 'first generation') biofuel resources, the overall environmental footprint was disaggregated into bioproductive land, built land, carbon, embodied energy, materials and wast...

  2. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets.

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  3. Exploring how the carbon market could work for the poor | IDRC ...

    Exploring how the carbon market could work for the poor ... projects to the carbon market through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) might be a ... Financial barriers remain an obstacle to the full registration of this project to the CDM.

  4. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets.

    Zomer, Robert J; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-07-20

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha(-1). Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases.

  5. Tendances Carbone no. 92. Carbon markets and the post-2020 Agreement

    Marcu, Andrei

    2014-06-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. Beside some statistical figures about energy production/consumption and carbon markets, this issue specifically addresses the following points: - EU ETS reforms: on 25 June, the EU Commission will host a panel of experts to discuss technical aspects of the proposal of the Market Stability Reserve. - Market Stability Reserve of the EU ETS: Germany supports the Commission proposal of a market stability reserve and calls for a launch of the mechanism significantly before 2020, i.e. already in 2017. - 2030 energy and climate package: on 26 and 27 June, the EU Council will discuss the target of CO 2 emissions reduction of 40% by 2030 to take a final decision as soon as possible and later in October 2014

  6. Isotopes and innovation: Canadian success in a global market

    West, S.

    2012-01-01

    Canadian nuclear technology for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease has a global presence. Innovation has as much to do with the way you take a product to market as with the product itself. Nordion targeted therapies are used in the treatment in a variety of cancers. TheraSphere fills a specific medical need for a targeted liver cancer treatment. Nordion is the world's leading supplier of Cobalt-60, the isotope producing gamma radiation required to destroy micro-organisms. Nordion is a world leader in medical isotope processing, packaging and delivery.

  7. Isotopes and innovation: Canadian success in a global market

    West, S. [Nordion Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Canadian nuclear technology for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease has a global presence. Innovation has as much to do with the way you take a product to market as with the product itself. Nordion targeted therapies are used in the treatment in a variety of cancers. TheraSphere fills a specific medical need for a targeted liver cancer treatment. Nordion is the world's leading supplier of Cobalt-60, the isotope producing gamma radiation required to destroy micro-organisms. Nordion is a world leader in medical isotope processing, packaging and delivery.

  8. The carbon dioxide thermometer and the cause of global warming

    Calder, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide in the air may be increasing because the world is warming. This possibility, which contradicts the hypothesis of an enhanced greenhouse warming driven by manmade emissions, is here pursued in two ways. First, increments in carbon dioxide are treated as readings of a natural thermometer that tracks global and hemispheric temperature deviations, as gauged by meteorologists' thermometers. Calibration of the carbon dioxide thermometer to conventional temperatures then leads to a history of carbon dioxide since 1856 that diverges from the ice-core record. Secondly, the increments of carbon dioxide can also be accounted for, without reference to temperature, by the combined effects of cosmic rays, El Nino and volcanoes. The most durable effect is due to cosmic rays. A solar wind history, used as a long-term proxy for the cosmic rays, gives a carbon dioxide history similar to that inferred from the global temperature deviations. (author)

  9. Impact of global financial crisis on stylized facts between energy markets and stock markets

    Leng, Tan Kim; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the stylized facts is extremely important and has becomes a hot issue nowadays. However, recent global financial crisis that started from United States had spread all over the world and adversely affected the commodities and financial sectors of both developed and developing countries. This paper tends to examine the impact of crisis on stylized facts between energy and stock markets using ARCH-family models based on the experience over 2008 global financial crisis. Empirical results denote that there is long lasting, persists and positively significant the autocorrelation function of absolute returns and their squares in both markets for before and during crisis. Besides that, leverage effects are found in stock markets whereby bad news has a greater impact on volatility than good news for both before and during crisis. However, crisis does not indicate any impact on risk-return tradeoff for both energy and stock markets. For forecasting evaluations, GARCH model and FIAPARCH model indicate superior out of sample forecasts for before and during crisis respectively.

  10. FINANCIAL RISK COVERAGE IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION FINANCIAL MARKETS

    María Esperanza González-del Foyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized environment, the increase of risks that assume the international commerce makes necessary the to articulate the instruments of covering. The enterprise activity and the country in matter will condition in a great measure the type of covering that be needed to contract, the principal consist in: knowing the risks, evaluate its incidence, decide to cover it or assume it and in both cases the right choise most be the aplication of the strategy thatt be more efective. The States put under disposition of the enterprises a series of public mechanismes to help them to promote its internationalitation . One of the pillars where this politics rest is the use of mechanismes of riskes cover in the internacional commerce. In correspondence with the previous, to reflect on the aplications of the financial risk and the formulation of strategies to cover them in conditions of globalization of the financial markets, constitute the objetive of this article. 

  11. Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks

    Luyssaert, S; Schulze, E.D.; Börner, A.

    2008-01-01

    Old- growth forests remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere(1,2) at rates that vary with climate and nitrogen deposition(3). The sequestered carbon dioxide is stored in live woody tissues and slowly decomposing organic matter in litter and soil(4). Old- growth forests therefore serve as a global

  12. Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: A Failed Experiment

    Ribeiro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…

  13. Prospective of Transformation of Current Models of the Global Pharmaceutical Market

    Yuriy Solodkovskyy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article thoroughly analyzes the current state of the global pharmaceutical market, defines the key factors for its development and outlines the promising areas of transformation of existing business models of top companies. The forecasted data relating to the market development until 2015 have been investigated. The global, market, technological and organizational factors of transformation of modern model of the global pharmaceutical market have been identified.

  14. ASSESSING INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACHES: RELATED LITERATURE AT A GLANCE AND SUGGESSTIONS FOR GLOBAL COMPANIES

    Nacar, Ramazan; Uray, Nimet

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing role of globalization, international market segmentation has become a critical success factor for global companies, which aim for international market expansion. Despite the practice of numerous methods and bases for international market segmentation, international market segmentation is still a complex and an under-researched area. By considering all these issues, underdeveloped and under-researched international market segmentation bases such as social, cultural, psychol...

  15. Biomass energy and the global carbon balance

    Hall, D.O.; House, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    Studies on climate change and energy production increasingly recognise the crucial role of biological systems. Carbon sinks in forests (above and below ground), CO 2 emissions from deforestation, planting trees for carbon storage, and biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels are some of the key issues which arise. Halting deforestation is of paramount importance, but there is also great potential for reforestation of degraded lands, agroforestry and improved forest management. It is concluded that biomass energy plantations and other types of energy cropping could be a more effective strategy for carbon mitigation than simply growing trees as a carbon store, particularly on higher productivity lands. Use of the biomass produced as an energy source has the added advantage of a wide range of other environmental, social and economic benefits. (author)

  16. Fusion power in a future low carbon global electricity system

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Bustreo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Fusion is one of the technologies that may contribute to a future, low carbon, global energy supply system. In this article we investigate the role that it may play under different scenarios. The global energy model ETM (originally EFDA TIMES Model) has been used to analyse the participation...

  17. Soil Carbon Chemistry and Greenhouse Gas Production in Global Peatlands

    Normand, A. E.; Turner, B. L.; Lamit, L. J.; Smith, A. N.; Baiser, B.; Clark, M. W.; Hazlett, C.; Lilleskov, E.; Long, J.; Grover, S.; Reddy, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands play a critical role in the global carbon cycle because they contain approximately 30% of the 1500 Pg of carbon stored in soils worldwide. However, the stability of these vast stores of carbon is under threat from climate and land-use change, with important consequences for global climate. Ecosystem models predict the impact of peatland perturbation on carbon fluxes based on total soil carbon pools, but responses could vary markedly depending on the chemical composition of soil organic matter. Here we combine experimental and observational studies to quantify the chemical nature and response to perturbation of soil organic matter in peatlands worldwide. We quantified carbon functional groups in a global sample of 125 freshwater peatlands using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the drivers of molecular composition of soil organic matter. We then incubated a representative subset of the soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to determine how organic matter composition influences carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions following drainage or flooding. The functional chemistry of peat varied markedly at large and small spatial scales, due to long-term land use change, mean annual temperature, nutrient status, and vegetation, but not pH. Despite this variation, we found predictable responses of greenhouse gas production following drainage based on soil carbon chemistry, defined by a novel Global Peat Stability Index, with greater CO2 and CH4 fluxes from soils enriched in oxygen-containing organic carbon (O-alkyl C) and depleted in aromatic and hydrophobic compounds. Incorporation of the Global Peat Stability Index of peatland organic matter into earth system models and management strategies, which will improve estimates of GHG fluxes from peatlands and ultimately advance management to reduce carbon loss from these sensitive ecosystems.

  18. Environment and economic risk: An analysis of carbon emission market and portfolio management.

    Luo, Cuicui; Wu, Desheng

    2016-08-01

    Climate change has been one of the biggest and most controversial environmental issues of our times. It affects the global economy, environment and human health. Many researchers find that carbon dioxide (CO2) has contributed the most to climate change between 1750 and 2005. In this study, the orthogonal GARCH (OGARCH) model is applied to examine the time-varying correlations in European CO2 allowance, crude oil and stock markets in US, Europe and China during the Protocol's first commitment period. The results show that the correlations between EUA carbon spot price and the equity markets are higher and more volatile in US and Europe than in China. Then the optimal portfolios consisting these five time series are selected by Mean-Variance and Mean-CVAR models. It shows that the optimal portfolio selected by MV-OGARCH model has the best performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The potential global market size and public health value of an HIV-1 vaccine in a complex global market.

    Marzetta, Carol A; Lee, Stephen S; Wrobel, Sandra J; Singh, Kanwarjit J; Russell, Nina; Esparza, José

    2010-07-05

    An effective HIV vaccine will be essential for the control of the HIV pandemic. This study evaluated the potential global market size and value of a hypothetical HIV vaccine and considered clade diversity, disease burden, partial prevention of acquisition, impact of a reduction in viral load resulting in a decrease in transmission and delay to treatment, health care system differences regarding access, and HIV screening and vaccination, across all public and private markets. Vaccine product profiles varied from a vaccine that would have no effect on preventing infection to a vaccine that would effectively prevent infection and reduce viral load. High disease burden countries (HDBC; HIV prevalence > or = 1%) were assumed to routinely vaccinate pre-sexually active adolescents (10 years old), whereas low disease burden countries (LDBC; HIV prevalence rate market value of $210 million to $2.7 billion, depending on the vaccine product profile. If one-time catch-up campaigns were included (11-14 years old for HDBC and higher risk groups for LDBC), the additional cumulative approximately 70-237 million doses were needed over a 10-year period with a potential market value of approximately $695 million to $13.4 billion, depending on the vaccine product profile. Market size and value varied across market segments with the majority of the value in high income countries and the majority of the demand in low income countries. However, the value of the potential market in low income countries is still significant with up to $550 million annually for routine vaccination only and up to $1.7 billion for a one-time only catch-up campaign in 11-14 years old. In the most detail to date, this study evaluated market size and value of a potential multi-clade HIV vaccine, accounting for differences in disease burden, product profile and health care complexities. These findings provide donors and suppliers highly credible new data to consider in their continued efforts to develop an HIV-1

  20. [German poultry farming between animal welfare and global market].

    Erhard, Michael; Damme, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the positive tendencies concerning sales output in the poultry production, the margins per single animal are extremely low. This circumstance leads inevitably to an increasing number of animals per farm. Also the German egg production is currently confronted with a great challenge due to changes of the legislation of animal welfare in animal farming (German Tierschutz-Nutztierhaltungs-Verordnung), the EU-zoonosis-regulation (2160/2003) and because of the avian influenza difficulties. In addition, the globalization has tightened the competitive conditions during production. Therefore, innovation potential and specialization are mandatory premises for the continuity within a free market economy. In all farming systems there has to be made a consideration between animal welfare, economy and ecology, whereas, based on animal welfare, the "ethical limit" has the utmost importance. It has to be accounted for the concept of fulfilment of demand and prevention of harm. The success of agricultural animal farming depends, last but not least, on a good and robust state of health of the live stock. The German consumer will have to accept that a high quality and high welfare poultry product will have their price, even in the global market. The sale orientation on non-European production methods is not acceptable under the aspect of animal welfare.

  1. GLOBAL TO DOMESTIC PRICE TRANSMISSION BETWEEN THE SEGMENTED CEREALS MARKETS: A STUDY OF AFGHAN RICE MARKETS

    Najibullah Hassanzoy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines cointegration and the difference in the extent of price transmission, and speed of adjustment between global and domestic prices of high and low quality rice. Unit root tests, cointegration tests and error correction models are employed in the analysis. While there are no comparable studies in the literature, the findings of this study indicate that the dynamics of price transmission may be different between high and low quality rice markets. That is, the extent of price transmission appears to be larger for the global prices of low quality rice whereas the speed of adjustment to the long-run equilibrium may be faster for domestic prices of high quality rice. Moreover, a shock in the global prices of low quality rice may have a long-lasting effect on domestic prices of low quality rice as compared to their high quality counterparts affecting domestic prices of high quality rice.

  2. Branding Serbia as a Tourist Destination on the Global Market

    Ivan Paunović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Destination branding has become one of the most popular contemporary topics, both among tourism practitioners and politicians, because there is strong evidence that strong national destination brand supports commercial brands in industries related to tourism. Therefore, factors that influence destination brand loyalty are of crucial importance for understanding and promoting the brand. Building brand loyalty is not just about repeat buying, but also about building customers emotional attachment to the brand. Global growth and diversification of tourist markets has transformed destinations from “vacation industry” concept, to “industry of experience” concept.The study performed statistical tests with a goal to analyze the factors influencing brand loyalty in Serbia: age, length of stay and daily spending. Additionally, sub-brand loyalty levels are presented (by major destinations inside Serbia, markets of origin and by major themes for travel in order to identify groups of tourists that are more loyal, and the ones that are less loyal to the destination brand of Serbia. The study results and recommendations should be used as a contribution towards designing national and regional destination marketing strategies.

  3. Influence of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon storage

    Yue, Kai; Fornara, Dario A; Yang, Wanqin

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum of their indivi......The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum...... additive effects of multiple global change drivers into future assessments of the C storage ability of terrestrial ecosystems....

  4. Estimating global "blue carbon" emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems.

    Linwood Pendleton

    Full Text Available Recent attention has focused on the high rates of annual carbon sequestration in vegetated coastal ecosystems--marshes, mangroves, and seagrasses--that may be lost with habitat destruction ('conversion'. Relatively unappreciated, however, is that conversion of these coastal ecosystems also impacts very large pools of previously-sequestered carbon. Residing mostly in sediments, this 'blue carbon' can be released to the atmosphere when these ecosystems are converted or degraded. Here we provide the first global estimates of this impact and evaluate its economic implications. Combining the best available data on global area, land-use conversion rates, and near-surface carbon stocks in each of the three ecosystems, using an uncertainty-propagation approach, we estimate that 0.15-1.02 Pg (billion tons of carbon dioxide are being released annually, several times higher than previous estimates that account only for lost sequestration. These emissions are equivalent to 3-19% of those from deforestation globally, and result in economic damages of $US 6-42 billion annually. The largest sources of uncertainty in these estimates stems from limited certitude in global area and rates of land-use conversion, but research is also needed on the fates of ecosystem carbon upon conversion. Currently, carbon emissions from the conversion of vegetated coastal ecosystems are not included in emissions accounting or carbon market protocols, but this analysis suggests they may be disproportionally important to both. Although the relevant science supporting these initial estimates will need to be refined in coming years, it is clear that policies encouraging the sustainable management of coastal ecosystems could significantly reduce carbon emissions from the land-use sector, in addition to sustaining the well-recognized ecosystem services of coastal habitats.

  5. The carbon-sequestration potential of a global afforestation program

    Nilsson, S.; Schopfhauser, W.

    1995-01-01

    The authors analyzed the changes in the carbon cycle that could be achieved with a global large-scale afforestation program that is economically, politically and technically feasible. They estimated that of the areas regarded as suitable for large-scale plantations, only about 345 million ha would actually be available for plantations and agroforestry for the sole purpose of sequestering carbon. The maximum annual rate of carbon fixation (1.48 Gt/yr) would only be achieved 60 years after the establishment of the plantation - 1.14 Gt by above-ground biomass and 0.34 Gt by below-ground biomass. Over the periods from 1995 to 2095, a total of 104 Gt of carbon would be sequestered. This is substantially lower than the amount of carbon required to offset current carbon emissions (3.8 Gt/yr) in order to stabilize the carbon content of the atmosphere. 108 refs., 1 fig., 14 tabs

  6. Global controls on carbon storage in mangrove soils

    Rovai, André S.; Twilley, Robert R.; Castañeda-Moya, Edward; Riul, Pablo; Cifuentes-Jara, Miguel; Manrow-Villalobos, Marilyn; Horta, Paulo A.; Simonassi, José C.; Fonseca, Alessandra L.; Pagliosa, Paulo R.

    2018-06-01

    Global-scale variation in mangrove ecosystem properties has been explained using a conceptual framework linking geomorphological processes to distinct coastal environmental settings (CES) for nearly 50 years. However, these assumptions have not been empirically tested at the global scale. Here, we show that CES account for global variability in mangrove soil C:N:P stoichiometry and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Using this ecogeomorphology framework, we developed a global model that captures variation in mangrove SOC stocks compatible with distinct CES. We show that mangrove SOC stocks have been underestimated by up to 50% (a difference of roughly 200 Mg ha-1) in carbonate settings and overestimated by up to 86% (around 400 Mg ha-1) in deltaic coastlines. Moreover, we provide information for 57 nations that currently lack SOC data, enabling these and other countries to develop or evaluate their blue carbon inventories.

  7. The Influence of Low-carbon Economy on Global Trade Pattern

    Xiao-jing, Guo

    Since global warming has seriously endangered the living environment of human being and their health and safety, the development of low-carbon economy has become an irreversible global trend. Under the background of economic globalization, low-carbon economy will surely exert a significant impact on global trade pattern. Countries are paying more and more attention to the green trade. The emission permits trade of carbon between the developed countries and the developing countries has become more mature than ever. The carbon tariff caused by the distribution of the "big cake" will make the low-cost advantage in developing countries cease to exist, which will, in turn, affect the foreign trade, economic development, employment and people's living in developing countries. Therefore, under the background of this trend, we should perfect the relevant laws and regulations on trade and environment as soon as possible, optimize trade structure, promote greatly the development of service trade, transform thoroughly the mode of development in foreign trade, take advantage of the international carbon trading market by increasing the added value of export products resulted from technological innovation to achieve mutual benefit and win-win results and promote common development.

  8. Achieving Carbon Neutrality in the Global Aluminum Industry

    Das, Subodh

    2012-02-01

    In the 21st century, sustainability is widely regarded as the new corporate culture, and leading manufacturing companies (Toyota, GE, and Alcoa) and service companies (Google and Federal Express) are striving towards carbon neutrality. The current carbon footprint of the global aluminum industry is estimated at 500 million metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), representing about 1.7% of global emissions from all sources. For the global aluminum industry, carbon neutrality is defined as a state where the total "in-use" CO2eq saved from all products in current use, including incremental process efficiency improvements, recycling, and urban mining activities, equals the CO2eq expended to produce the global output of aluminum. This paper outlines an integrated and quantifiable plan for achieving "carbon neutrality" in the global aluminum industry by advocating five actionable steps: (1) increase use of "green" electrical energy grid by 8%, (2) reduce process energy needs by 16%, (3) deploy 35% of products in "in-use" energy saving applications, (4) divert 6.1 million metric tonnes/year from landfills, and (5) mine 4.5 million metric tonnes/year from aluminum-rich "urban mines." Since it takes 20 times more energy to make aluminum from bauxite ore than to recycle it from scrap, the global aluminum industry could set a reasonable, self-imposed energy/carbon neutrality goal to incrementally increase the supply of recycled aluminum by at least 1.05 metric tonnes for every tonne of incremental production via primary aluminum smelter capacity. Furthermore, the aluminum industry can and should take a global leadership position by actively developing internationally accepted and approved carbon footprint credit protocols.

  9. Competitiveness of the Russian Federation in the Global Tourism Market

    Slavomir Bucher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the tourist industry is one of the fastest growing economic branches of the global economy. For many countries, it brings a significant portion of revenues to their national economies. In the article, the identification and assessment of the secondary data of the World Economic Forum published in The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report are carried out. In the Report, the strengths and weaknesses of some countries in the international tourist market are specified in detail. The plan of the analysis is in a more precise specification of competitiveness indices, which consist of compound indices: I — legal framework; II — business environment and infrastructure; III — human, cultural and natural resources for the Russian Federation and some states of Post-Soviet geopolitical space. The goals of the paper are the evaluation of the 14 factors that affect destination competitiveness and the comparison of the competitiveness levels in the Russian Federation. The paper also aimed to provide an understanding of the Russian position in the international tourism market and provide suggestions in order to improve weaknesses of the country. The competitiveness ranking 2015 for the tourism infrastructure, prioritization of travel and tourism, and national tourism perceptions suggest that Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia rank the top, relative to other former Soviet Union countries in the sample. Since these countries outperform in a tourism infrastructure, it is likely that they continuously try to improve their physical and financial infrastructure for tourists in the country. Therefore, it is a great challenge for Russia to constantly monitoring new trends and occurrences in the international tourism market, which are more diverse needs and demands of the tourist clientele. The findings of this study also shed light on the competitiveness of the Russian Federation operating in the international tourism market. As understood from

  10. Renewable energies development: what contribution of the carbon market?

    Bordier, Cecile

    2008-12-01

    In the climate-energy package, the European Union has committed to achieve objectives differentiated by countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and developing renewable energies. Part of the emissions reduction must be achieved through a common mechanism to all Member States: the European CO 2 trading market (EU ETS) covers about 40% of emissions of gas European greenhouse from five major industrial sectors, including power generation. The development of renewable energy is the responsibility of each member state. To meet its commitments in terms of renewable energy, each Member State may adopt economic incentives: tendering, purchase prices or green certificates. This Climate Report describes two national policies with different instruments: aid mechanism by prices in France and definition of quantitative targets in the UK. The author attempts to evaluate these policies for the production of renewable electricity in terms of cost per ton of carbon avoided to compare with the price of carbon quotas in the EU ETS. The results show that the cost of national incentive policies for renewable energy per ton of CO 2 avoided varies significantly from one country to another, but in both cases higher than the quota price on the European market. It is difficult to draw definitive conclusions on economic effectiveness of different policy instruments. The first phase of the European exchange of CO 2 quotas market has induced a stress relatively low, weighing mainly on the electricity generation sector. The allocations to the electricity sector have been reduced from 2008 and quotas will be auctioned from 2013 within the limits of an overall ceiling will decrease year by year. This increase in stress on emissions should play a key role in the deployment of CO 2 emission reduction solutions in this sector, including the development of renewable energies. The incentive mechanisms at the national level could complement the impact of the European carbon market by accelerating

  11. The Status Quo and Developing Trend Analysis of Global Carbon Finance

    Liu Qian; Wang Yao

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic view of the new trends of global carbon finance innovation under the challenge of global climate change and in the process of transition to achieve economic growth from "high carbon" to 'low carbon', covering the following aspects: the structure, status quo and developing trend of global carbon market. The paper discusses the innovation in financial organization and service systems and governments' overall guidance and policy support, and draws the conclusion that the world is undergoing massive changes with governments actively responding to carbon finance to embrace the tremendous opportunities for clean energy and climate change in financial industry. To seize the opportunity, a complete and overall carbon finance system of China should be put in the top of the agenda. Given the current tasks of energy conservation and pollution reduction and the growing demand for capital input, China needs to construct an clear of policy guidance, a diversified financia service system, and a multi-approach carbon finance system to intensify and widen the participation of financial industry, to expand financing channels for sustainable economy and spread risks, and finally, work out an inexpensive solution to the realization of China's low carbon target.

  12. U.S. origin coking coal in the global market : a seismic shift in the global coal market

    Thrasher, E.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discussed conditions in the global coal market and its impact on producers in the United States (U.S). The significant factors include the strong recovery in Asia, the switch from annual benchmark pricing to quarterly pricing, and the return of U.S. origin coking coal as a long-term supply source for Asia. The global recovery in manufacturing is strong in Asia and weak in more mature economies. A shift in trade patterns has occurred in that 4 of the top 10 destinations for U.S. coking coal exports are now in Asia, up from 1 in 2009, and the tonnage increases to these destinations are at unprecedented levels. Demand for U.S. origin coal will continue to increase as the economies in Western Europe improve and the emerging economies in Eastern Europe and South America grow. Looking at the U.S. coking coal supply, high volume type A coal will be used in the domestic market while high volume type B coal will be used for international demand. Government regulatory agencies create an uncertain environment for investments. Geology and the effects of regulatory actions have decreased productivity. An improvement to the supply chain is that lower cost ocean freight lowers the cost of delivered coal. The prices of coking coal have stabilized at levels that support reasonable returns on investment. The seaborne coking coal market has changed with China's shift to being a significant importer. Mine, rail, and port capacity will constrain the ability of producers in the U.S. to export coking coal to some degree. 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  13. Certification of Markets, Markets of Certificates: Tracing Sustainability in Global Agro-Food Value Chains

    Arthur P. J. Mol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a blossoming of voluntary certification initiatives for sustainable agro-food products and production processes. With these certification initiatives come traceability in supply chains, to guarantee the sustainability of the products consumed. No systematic analysis exists of traceability systems for sustainability in agro-food supply chains. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyze the prevalence of four different traceability systems to guarantee sustainability; to identify the factors that determine the kind of traceability systems applied in particular supply chains; and to assess what the emergence of economic and market logics in traceability mean for sustainability. Two conclusions are drawn. Globalizing markets for sustainable agro-food products induces the emergence of book-and-claim traceability systems, but the other three systems (identity preservation, segregation and mass balance will continue to exist as different factors drive traceability requirements in different supply chains. Secondly, traceability itself is becoming a market driven by economic and market logics, and this may have consequences for sustainability in agro-food supply chains in the future.

  14. A Tri-Country Marketing Project--Preparing Students for the Realities of a Global Marketplace

    Freeman, Ina; Knight, Peter; Butt, Irfan

    2011-01-01

    With rapidly increasing globalization, business students are required to understand complex global markets and adapt to the rapid changes in the global landscape. This paper discusses a project where students from International Marketing courses in Pakistan, the United States, and France used an interactive platform as a base to jointly explore…

  15. Mapping the global health employment market: an analysis of global health jobs.

    Keralis, Jessica M; Riggin-Pathak, Brianne L; Majeski, Theresa; Pathak, Bogdan A; Foggia, Janine; Cullinen, Kathleen M; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; West, Heidi S

    2018-02-27

    The number of university global health training programs has grown in recent years. However, there is little research on the needs of the global health profession. We therefore set out to characterize the global health employment market by analyzing global health job vacancies. We collected data from advertised, paid positions posted to web-based job boards, email listservs, and global health organization websites from November 2015 to May 2016. Data on requirements for education, language proficiency, technical expertise, physical location, and experience level were analyzed for all vacancies. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the aforementioned job characteristics. Associations between technical specialty area and requirements for non-English language proficiency and overseas experience were calculated using Chi-square statistics. A qualitative thematic analysis was performed on a subset of vacancies. We analyzed the data from 1007 global health job vacancies from 127 employers. Among private and non-profit sector vacancies, 40% (n = 354) were for technical or subject matter experts, 20% (n = 177) for program directors, and 16% (n = 139) for managers, compared to 9.8% (n = 87) for entry-level and 13.6% (n = 120) for mid-level positions. The most common technical focus area was program or project management, followed by HIV/AIDS and quantitative analysis. Thematic analysis demonstrated a common emphasis on program operations, relations, design and planning, communication, and management. Our analysis shows a demand for candidates with several years of experience with global health programs, particularly program managers/directors and technical experts, with very few entry-level positions accessible to recent graduates of global health training programs. It is unlikely that global health training programs equip graduates to be competitive for the majority of positions that are currently available in this field.

  16. Global low-carbon transition and China's response strategies

    Jian-Kun He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement establishes a new mechanism for post-2020 global climate governance, and sets long-term goals for global response to climate change, which will accelerate worldwide low-carbon transformation of economic development pattern, promote the revolutionary reform of energy system, boost a fundamental change in the mode of social production and consumption, and further the civilization of human society from industrial civilization to eco-civilization. The urgency of global low-carbon transition will reshape the competition situation of world's economy, trade and technology. Taking the construction of eco-civilization as a guide, China explores green and low-carbon development paths, establishes ambitious intended nationally determined contribution (INDC targets and action plans, advances energy production and consumption revolution, and speeds up the transformation of economic development pattern. These strategies and actions not only confirm to the trend of the world low-carbon transition, but also meet the intrinsic requirements for easing the domestic resources and environment constraints and realizing sustainable development. They are multi-win-win strategies for promotion of economic development and environmental protection and mitigation of carbon emissions. China should take the global long-term emission reduction targets as a guide, and formulate medium and long-term low-carbon development strategy, build the core competitiveness of low-carbon advanced technology and development pattern, and take an in-depth part in global governance so as to reflect the responsibility of China as a great power in constructing a community of common destiny for all mankind and addressing global ecological crisis.

  17. Swindling. The carbon market hackers; Arnaque - les pirates du marche carbone

    Chandes, C.; James, O.

    2011-02-15

    The author briefly describes how hackers robbed millions of carbon credits by breaking data system security and entering national registers which contain all operations related to carbon credits. Few companies acknowledge that they have been victims of these robberies. These robbed credits are tracked by Europol and Interpol. These attacks are suspected to come from mafia networks in Israel, Pakistan, Italy and Romania, who took advantage of the credit market fragilities

  18. Modeling of the global carbon cycle - isotopic data requirements

    Ciais, P.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopes are powerful tools to constrain carbon cycle models. For example, the combinations of the CO 2 and the 13 C budget allows to calculate the net-carbon fluxes between atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere. Observations of natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon allow to estimate gross carbon exchange fluxes between different reservoirs and to deduce time scales of carbon overturning in important reservoirs. 18 O in CO 2 is potentially a tool to make the deconvolution of C fluxes within the land biosphere (assimilation vs respirations). The scope of this article is to identify gaps in our present knowledge about isotopes in the light of their use as constraint for the global carbon cycle. In the following we will present a list of some future data requirements for carbon cycle models. (authors)

  19. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, the voluntary over-the-counter (OTC) carbon market has reached a significant market volume. It is particularly interesting for forest mitigation projects which are either ineligible in compliance markets or confronted with a plethora of technical and financial hurdles and lacking market demand. As the OTC market is not regulated, voluntary standards have been created to secure the social and environmental integrity of the traded mitigation projects and thus to ensure the quality of the resulting carbon credits. Building on a theoretical efficiency-legitimacy framework, this study aims to identify and analyse the characteristics and indicators that determine the efficiency and organisational legitimacy of standards for afforestation/reforestation carbon projects. Results All interviewed market actors consider third-party certification and standards as a crucial component of market functionality, which provide quality assurance mechanisms that reduce information asymmetries and moral hazard between the actors regarding the quality of carbon credits, and thus reduce transaction costs. Despite this development, the recent evolution of many new and differing standards is seen as a major obstacle that renders it difficult for project developers and buyers to select an appropriate standard. According to the interviewed experts the most important legitimating factors of standards are assurance of a sufficient level of quality of carbon credits, scientifically substantiated methodological accounting and independent third-party verification, independence of standard bodies, transparency, wide market acceptance, back-up of the wider community including experts and NGOs, rigorous procedures, and the resemblance to the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R) CDM due to its international policy endorsements. In addition, standards must provide evidence that projects contribute to a positive social and environmental development, do no harm as a minimum

  20. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market

    Merger Eduard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the voluntary over-the-counter (OTC carbon market has reached a significant market volume. It is particularly interesting for forest mitigation projects which are either ineligible in compliance markets or confronted with a plethora of technical and financial hurdles and lacking market demand. As the OTC market is not regulated, voluntary standards have been created to secure the social and environmental integrity of the traded mitigation projects and thus to ensure the quality of the resulting carbon credits. Building on a theoretical efficiency-legitimacy framework, this study aims to identify and analyse the characteristics and indicators that determine the efficiency and organisational legitimacy of standards for afforestation/reforestation carbon projects. Results All interviewed market actors consider third-party certification and standards as a crucial component of market functionality, which provide quality assurance mechanisms that reduce information asymmetries and moral hazard between the actors regarding the quality of carbon credits, and thus reduce transaction costs. Despite this development, the recent evolution of many new and differing standards is seen as a major obstacle that renders it difficult for project developers and buyers to select an appropriate standard. According to the interviewed experts the most important legitimating factors of standards are assurance of a sufficient level of quality of carbon credits, scientifically substantiated methodological accounting and independent third-party verification, independence of standard bodies, transparency, wide market acceptance, back-up of the wider community including experts and NGOs, rigorous procedures, and the resemblance to the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R CDM due to its international policy endorsements. In addition, standards must provide evidence that projects contribute to a positive social and environmental development, do

  1. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market.

    Merger, Eduard; Pistorius, Till

    2011-08-17

    In recent years, the voluntary over-the-counter (OTC) carbon market has reached a significant market volume. It is particularly interesting for forest mitigation projects which are either ineligible in compliance markets or confronted with a plethora of technical and financial hurdles and lacking market demand. As the OTC market is not regulated, voluntary standards have been created to secure the social and environmental integrity of the traded mitigation projects and thus to ensure the quality of the resulting carbon credits. Building on a theoretical efficiency-legitimacy framework, this study aims to identify and analyse the characteristics and indicators that determine the efficiency and organisational legitimacy of standards for afforestation/reforestation carbon projects. All interviewed market actors consider third-party certification and standards as a crucial component of market functionality, which provide quality assurance mechanisms that reduce information asymmetries and moral hazard between the actors regarding the quality of carbon credits, and thus reduce transaction costs. Despite this development, the recent evolution of many new and differing standards is seen as a major obstacle that renders it difficult for project developers and buyers to select an appropriate standard. According to the interviewed experts the most important legitimating factors of standards are assurance of a sufficient level of quality of carbon credits, scientifically substantiated methodological accounting and independent third-party verification, independence of standard bodies, transparency, wide market acceptance, back-up of the wider community including experts and NGOs, rigorous procedures, and the resemblance to the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R) CDM due to its international policy endorsements. In addition, standards must provide evidence that projects contribute to a positive social and environmental development, do no harm as a minimum requirement and build a

  2. Rare earths: Market disruption, innovation, and global supply chains

    Eggert, Roderick; Wadia, Cyrus; Anderson, Corby; Bauer, Diana; Fields, Fletcher; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Taylor, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths, sometimes called the vitamins of modern materials, captured public attention when their prices increased more than ten-fold in 2010 and 2011. As prices fell between 2011 and 2016, rare earths receded from public view—but less visibly they became a major focus of innovative activity in companies, government laboratories and universities. Geoscientists worked to better understand the resource base and improve our knowledge about mineral deposits that will be mines in the future. Process engineers carried out research that is making primary production and recycling more efficient. Materials scientists and engineers searched for substitutes that will require fewer or no rare earths while providing properties comparable or superior to those of existing materials. As a result, even though global supply chains are not significantly different now than they were before the market disruption, the innovative activity motivated by the disruption likely will have far-reaching, if unpredictable, consequences for supply chains of rare earths in the future.

  3. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  4. Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils

    Chmura, G.L.; Anisfeld, S.C.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbon-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4??S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5??N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil carbon density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ?? 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ?? 0.003 g cm-3). Soil carbon density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, carbon sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of carbon sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. Globally, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as carbon sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more carbon per unit area. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Global Market Entry Strategy and Point-A Perspective of Chinese Pharmaceutical Enterprise

    TonyZhang

    2003-01-01

    After joining WTO, China will not only open its door wider to foreign investment and operations in Chinese market, but also play an increasing role in global market. However, unlike many other Chinese industries that are already major suppliers or producers of consumer products at global market, majority of pharmaceutical enterprises in China remain domestic operations. Today there are still major obstacles for Chinese pharmaceutical enterprises to overcome in entering key markets such as US and Europe.

  6. The national security dividend of global carbon mitigation

    Mignone, Bryan K.

    2007-01-01

    Energy and environmental security objectives are often conflated in political circles and in the popular press. Results from a well-established integrated assessment model suggest that policies designed to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at levels above ∼500 ppm generally do not align with policies to curb global oil dependence, because these atmospheric objectives can be achieved largely through reductions in global coal consumption. Policies designed to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide at levels below ∼500 ppm, on the other hand, directly facilitate the alignment of environmental and security objectives because atmospheric targets in this range demand significant reductions in both coal and oil use. Greater recognition that investment in carbon mitigation can yield significant security dividends may alter the political cost-benefit calculus of energy-importing nations and could increase the willingness of some key global actors to seek binding cooperative targets under any post-Kyoto climate treaty regime

  7. Global impact of carbon-14 from nuclear power reactors

    Moghissi, A.A.; Carter, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon-14 is produced by nuclear power reactors, predominently as a result of the interaction of a neutron and nitrogen-14 both in the fuel and in the coolant. Several other reactions also contribute to the production of carbon-14. Present operational procedures, in general, for reactors and fuel reprocessing plants result in the release of carbon-14 into the environment. Combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial operations contribute to the supply of CO 2 in the atmosphere and this contribution is essentially free of carbon-14. Future carbon-14 burdens by assuming a thorough mixing of all CO 2 in the atmosphere is predicted. Available data on electric power generation, fossil fuel combustion and certain other information are used to calculate the projected specific activity of carbon-14 by the year 2000 and the twenty-first century. According to these calculations, the global population dose from carbon-14 can be substantial. Also, carbon-14 in the vicinity of nuclear power reactors is considered. Because of the chemistry of carbon-14, it is shown that local problems may be more significant around BWR's as compared to PWR's. Based on environmental considerations of carbon-14, its increasing production and discharge into the atmosphere, and available control technology, it is recommended that nitrogen use and its presence be minimized in pertinent reactor components and operations

  8. Sugar rush: Prospects for a global ethanol market

    Hira, Anil, E-mail: ahira@sfu.ca [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    In 2005, the major economies of the world, including the G8 and 5 developing nations (Mexico, India, Brazil, China, and South Africa), along with the United Nations, the International Energy Agency, and the European Union launched the Global Bioenergy Partnership to discuss ways to promote the sustained use and production of biofuels around the globe, reflecting growing concerns for finding economically viable substitutes for petroleum. This paper examines whether and if a vibrant global market in biofuels based on sugarcane-based ethanol is economically feasible. The paper finds that while there is already international trading in biofuels, it is highly limited compared with its potential. In the current climate of accelerating fossil fuel prices, biofuels represent an increasingly attractive displacement for some of our fossil fuel addiction. Not only do they substitute for petrol, but they also produce lower emissions. The paper finds that sugarcane ethanol could make an important contribution to substituting for a portion of petroleum and also offer potential benefits for international development.

  9. Sugar rush: Prospects for a global ethanol market

    Hira, Anil

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the major economies of the world, including the G8 and 5 developing nations (Mexico, India, Brazil, China, and South Africa), along with the United Nations, the International Energy Agency, and the European Union launched the Global Bioenergy Partnership to discuss ways to promote the sustained use and production of biofuels around the globe, reflecting growing concerns for finding economically viable substitutes for petroleum. This paper examines whether and if a vibrant global market in biofuels based on sugarcane-based ethanol is economically feasible. The paper finds that while there is already international trading in biofuels, it is highly limited compared with its potential. In the current climate of accelerating fossil fuel prices, biofuels represent an increasingly attractive displacement for some of our fossil fuel addiction. Not only do they substitute for petrol, but they also produce lower emissions. The paper finds that sugarcane ethanol could make an important contribution to substituting for a portion of petroleum and also offer potential benefits for international development.

  10. When do increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming? A note on the green paradox

    Edenhofer, Ottmar [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, PO Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kalkuhl, Matthias, E-mail: kalkuhl@pik-potsdam.d [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, PO Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The 'green paradox' by Hans-Werner Sinn suggests that increasing resource taxes accelerate global warming because resource owners increase near-term extraction in fear of higher future taxation. In this note we show that this effect does only occur for the specific set of carbon taxes that increase at a rate higher than the effective discount rate of the resource owners. We calculate a critical initial value for the carbon tax that leads to a decreased cumulative consumption over the entire (infinite) time horizon. Applying our formal findings to carbon taxes for several mitigation targets, we conclude that there is a low risk of a green paradox in case the regulator implements and commits to a permanently mal-adjusted tax. This remaining risk can be avoided by emissions trading scheme as suggested by Sinn-as long as the emission caps are set appropriately and the intertemporal permit market works correctly. - Research highlights: {yields} Fast increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming if they start at a low level. {yields} Appropriately high carbon taxes can always reduce cumulative emissions. {yields} Many existing tax proposals are unlikely to accelerate global warming. {yields} Capital income taxes cannot reduce cumulative emissions.

  11. When do increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming? A note on the green paradox

    Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The 'green paradox' by Hans-Werner Sinn suggests that increasing resource taxes accelerate global warming because resource owners increase near-term extraction in fear of higher future taxation. In this note we show that this effect does only occur for the specific set of carbon taxes that increase at a rate higher than the effective discount rate of the resource owners. We calculate a critical initial value for the carbon tax that leads to a decreased cumulative consumption over the entire (infinite) time horizon. Applying our formal findings to carbon taxes for several mitigation targets, we conclude that there is a low risk of a green paradox in case the regulator implements and commits to a permanently mal-adjusted tax. This remaining risk can be avoided by emissions trading scheme as suggested by Sinn-as long as the emission caps are set appropriately and the intertemporal permit market works correctly. - Research highlights: → Fast increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming if they start at a low level. → Appropriately high carbon taxes can always reduce cumulative emissions. → Many existing tax proposals are unlikely to accelerate global warming. → Capital income taxes cannot reduce cumulative emissions.

  12. Permanence of agricultural afforestation for carbon sequestration under stylized carbon markets in the U.S.

    David Haim; Eric White; Ralph J. Alig

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the permanence of agricultural land afforestation under stylized carbon markets at the regional level in the US. Attention is focused on Southern and Midwest regions which historically have experienced a relatively large amount of land-use change between the agriculture and forest sectors. The Forest and Agriculture Sector Optimization Model–...

  13. An exploratory study of services marketing in global markets: major areas of inquiry for the health care services industry.

    Young, S; Erdem, S A

    1996-01-01

    It has been stated that one of the major challenges for the international marketer is the design of an efficient strategy for marketing services to international markets. This paper reviews some of the issues associated with services marketing in global markets along with the basic variables of service industries. An exploratory assessment of the health care services industry results in a list composed of several inquiry areas which should be examined by multinational companies. It is hoped that the review of the issues raised in this paper provides a basis for decision making and further research.

  14. Measuring Urban Carbon Footprint from Carbon Flows in the Global Supply Chain.

    Hu, Yuanchao; Lin, Jianyi; Cui, Shenghui; Khanna, Nina Zheng

    2016-06-21

    A global multiregional input-output (MRIO) model was built for eight Chinese cities to track their carbon flows. For in-depth understanding of urban carbon footprint from the perspectives of production, consumption, and trade balance, four kinds of footprints and four redefined measurement indicators were calculated. From the global supply chain, urban carbon inflows from Mainland China were larger than outflows, while the carbon outflows to European, principal North American countries and East Asia were much larger than inflows. With the rapid urbanization of China, Construction was the largest consumer and Utilities was the largest producer. Cities with higher consumption (such as Dalian, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Beijing) should change their consumption patterns, while cities with lower production efficiency (such as Dalian, Shanghai, Ningbo, and Chongqing) should improve their technology. The cities of net carbon consumption tended to transfer carbon emissions out of them by trading in carbon-intensive products, while the cities of net carbon production tended to produce carbon-intensive products for nonlocal consumers. Our results indicated that urban carbon abatement requires not only rational consumption and industrial symbiosis at the city level, but also tighter collaboration along all stages of the global supply chain.

  15. A global network topology of stock markets: Transmitters and receivers of spillover effects

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Hernandez, Jose Areola; Rehman, Mobeen Ur; Al-Yahyaee, Khamis Hamed; Zakaria, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    This paper applies a bivariate cross-quantilogram approach to examine the spillover network structure in the stock markets of 58 countries according to bearish, normal and bullish market scenarios. Our aim is to identify the strongest interdependencies, the directionality of the spillover risk effects, and to detect those equity markets with the potential to cause global systemic risk. The results highlight the role of the US and Canadian equity markets as major spillover transmitters, while the stock markets of Romania, Taiwan and Mexico act mainly as spillover receivers. Particularly strong spillovers are observed from the Canadian and US equity markets towards the Irish market, and from the Brazilian equity market towards the Kenyan equivalent. The equity market networks suggest that only the US equity market can trigger systemic risk on a global scale. Implications of the results are discussed.

  16. Bottom-up linking of carbon markets under far-sighted cap coordination and reversibility

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kornek, Ulrike

    2018-03-01

    The Paris Agreement relies on nationally determined contributions to reach its targets and asks countries to increase ambitions over time, leaving open the details of this process. Although overcoming countries' myopic `free-riding' incentives requires cooperation, the global public good character of mitigation makes forming coalitions difficult. To cooperate, countries may link their carbon markets1, but is this option beneficial2? Some countries might not participate, not agree to lower caps, or not comply to agreements. While non-compliance might be deterred3, countries can hope that if they don't participate, others might still form a coalition. When considering only one coalition whose members can leave freely, the literature following the publication of refs 4,5 finds meagre prospects for effective collaboration6. Countries also face incentives to increase emissions when linking their markets without a cap agreement7,8. Here, we analyse the dynamics of market linkage using a game-theoretic model of far-sighted coalition formation. In contrast to non-dynamic models and dynamic models without far-sightedness9,10, in our model an efficient global coalition always forms eventually if players are sufficiently far-sighted or caps are coordinated immediately when markets are linked.

  17. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    Mazarrasa, I.; Marbà , N.; Lovelock, C. E.; Serrano, O.; Lavery, P. S.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kennedy, H.; Mateo, M. A.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Steven, A. D. L.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha−1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha−1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of −8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha−1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentrations and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m−2 yr−1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr−1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2

  18. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    Mazarrasa, I.

    2015-08-24

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha−1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha−1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of −8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha−1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentrations and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m−2 yr−1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr−1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2

  19. Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms

    Warnecke, Carsten; Wartmann, Sina; Höhne, Niklas; Blok, Kornelis

    2014-01-01

    The current project-based carbon market mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI) do not have a direct impact on global greenhouse gas emission levels, because they only replace or offset emissions. Nor do they contribute to host country's national greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Contributions to net emission reductions in host countries is likely to become mandatory in new mechanisms under development such as in the framework for various approaches, a new market-based mechanism and even in a reformed JI. This research analysed the question if approaches for carbon market-based mechanisms exist that allow the generation of net emission reductions in host countries while keeping project initiation attractive. We present a criteria-based assessment method and apply it for four generic options in existing mechanisms and derive implications for future mechanism frameworks. We identified the application of “discounts” on the amount of avoided emissions for the issuance of carbon credits and “standardisation below business as usual” as most promising options over “limiting the crediting period” and “over-conservativeness”. We propose to apply these options differentiated over project types based on internal rate of return to ensure cost-efficiency and attractiveness. - Highlights: • Options for net emission reductions of market-based mechanisms are assessed. • Research combines past and current views for project and sector-based mechanisms. • Implementation ensures initiation of mitigation activities is not discouraged. • Important insights for methodological design of new market-based mechanisms. • Profitability-based approach for project-based mechanisms suggested

  20. Soil carbon sequestration, carbon markets, and conservation agriculture practices: A hypothetical examination in Mozambique

    Timoteo E. Simone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Payments for Environmental Services (PES are relatively novel mechanisms whereby the adoption of sustainable management practices by a stakeholder is rewarded by incentives linked to external markets. Adoption of PES for conservation agricultural practices (CAPS by smallholder farmers may provide opportunities to increase household income or cover the technology costs of adoption if the carbon sequestration benefits of CAPS are quantifiable, adoption rates are accelerated and maintained, a mechanism exists whereby carbon sequestration services can be compensated, and carbon offset exchange markets are viable. This research suggests a methodology to examine a PES market for carbon offsets generated by the adoption of CAPS by farmers in Mozambique. Assuming a cumulative adoption of 60% over a 20-year period, revenue from PES market participation to CA adopters was two times higher than revenue earned when disadoption occurred midway through the simulation. Lower adoption targets are associated with higher per household returns when fertilizer rates typical to the region are increased. Establishing and maintaining a sustainable PES system in the study region would require significant investment in time and resources. The lack of on-the-ground institutions or local support for such a program would also challenge successful implementation. Finally, the programs where participant success depends on external markets, such as the hypothetical one suggested here, are subject to the ebb and flow of foreign demand for carbon offsets. Addressing these three broad constraints to a PES/CAPS program in the region would require grass-roots driven policy initiatives with buy-in at multiple social, economic, and political levels.

  1. Carbon dioxide: Global warning for nephrologists.

    Marano, Marco; D'Amato, Anna; Cantone, Alessandra

    2016-09-06

    The large prevalence of respiratory acid-base disorders overlapping metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis population should prompt nephrologists to deal with the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) complying with the reduced bicarbonate concentration. What the most suitable formula to compute pCO2 is reviewed. Then, the neglected issue of CO2 content in the dialysis fluid is under the spotlight. In fact, a considerable amount of CO2 comes to patients' bloodstream every hemodialysis treatment and "acidosis by dialysate" may occur if lungs do not properly clear away this burden of CO2. Moreover, vascular access recirculation may be easy diagnosed by detecting CO2 in the arterial line of extracorporeal circuit if CO2-enriched blood from the filter reenters arterial needle.

  2. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2008 Annual Review

    2009-01-01

    2008 was the year in which power deal values came down from their record-breaking highs of the two preceding years as the financial crisis and a number of market uncertainties had a negative impact on deal activity. Nonetheless, total deal numbers leapt by 24% as companies concentrated on smaller deals and took advantage of new opportunities that arose in the changed market conditions. Europe was least affected by the downturn in deal values and accounted for over half of all bidder and target power deal value. In contrast, power deals in Australia, which had previously been a main motor of growing M and A activity in the Asia Pacific region, virtually stalled as uncertainty over new carbon emission policies combined with the financial crisis to deter deal flow. In North America, like Europe, big deals were fewer but underlying deal activity was comparable with previous years. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector, drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key electricity and gas utilities markets. Looking to the future, the easing of the financial crisis will be key to deal flow but the near-term outlook looks less robust than the recent past, especially as debt markets will be further constrained by calls from the public financing required to support government bail-out programmes. Set against this, the underlying imperatives of consolidation, supply security and capitalisation remain in place and will create increasing pent-up deal demand. A lower energy price environment will change the metrics for more expensive cleaner power assets, placing an even higher importance on the outcome of global climate talks and the run-up to the December 2009 UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen

  3. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2008 Annual Review

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    2008 was the year in which power deal values came down from their record-breaking highs of the two preceding years as the financial crisis and a number of market uncertainties had a negative impact on deal activity. Nonetheless, total deal numbers leapt by 24% as companies concentrated on smaller deals and took advantage of new opportunities that arose in the changed market conditions. Europe was least affected by the downturn in deal values and accounted for over half of all bidder and target power deal value. In contrast, power deals in Australia, which had previously been a main motor of growing M and A activity in the Asia Pacific region, virtually stalled as uncertainty over new carbon emission policies combined with the financial crisis to deter deal flow. In North America, like Europe, big deals were fewer but underlying deal activity was comparable with previous years. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector, drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key electricity and gas utilities markets. Looking to the future, the easing of the financial crisis will be key to deal flow but the near-term outlook looks less robust than the recent past, especially as debt markets will be further constrained by calls from the public financing required to support government bail-out programmes. Set against this, the underlying imperatives of consolidation, supply security and capitalisation remain in place and will create increasing pent-up deal demand. A lower energy price environment will change the metrics for more expensive cleaner power assets, placing an even higher importance on the outcome of global climate talks and the run-up to the December 2009 UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen.

  4. Terrestrial nitrogen-carbon cycle interactions at the global scale.

    Zaehle, S

    2013-07-05

    Interactions between the terrestrial nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycles shape the response of ecosystems to global change. However, the global distribution of nitrogen availability and its importance in global biogeochemistry and biogeochemical interactions with the climate system remain uncertain. Based on projections of a terrestrial biosphere model scaling ecological understanding of nitrogen-carbon cycle interactions to global scales, anthropogenic nitrogen additions since 1860 are estimated to have enriched the terrestrial biosphere by 1.3 Pg N, supporting the sequestration of 11.2 Pg C. Over the same time period, CO2 fertilization has increased terrestrial carbon storage by 134.0 Pg C, increasing the terrestrial nitrogen stock by 1.2 Pg N. In 2001-2010, terrestrial ecosystems sequestered an estimated total of 27 Tg N yr(-1) (1.9 Pg C yr(-1)), of which 10 Tg N yr(-1) (0.2 Pg C yr(-1)) are due to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen availability already limits terrestrial carbon sequestration in the boreal and temperate zone, and will constrain future carbon sequestration in response to CO2 fertilization (regionally by up to 70% compared with an estimate without considering nitrogen-carbon interactions). This reduced terrestrial carbon uptake will probably dominate the role of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle in the climate system, as it accelerates the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. However, increases of N2O emissions owing to anthropogenic nitrogen and climate change (at a rate of approx. 0.5 Tg N yr(-1) per 1°C degree climate warming) will add an important long-term climate forcing.

  5. Global stock market linkages reduce potential for diversification

    Karen K. Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Recent European government debt difficulties demonstrate how linked stock markets have become. Problems in countries such as Greece and Italy have depressed stock markets not only on the continent but also in the United States. Such comovement across international financial markets highlights U.S. equity markets’ exposure to foreign markets.

  6. Contribution of soil respiration to the global carbon equation.

    Xu, Ming; Shang, Hua

    2016-09-20

    Soil respiration (Rs) is the second largest carbon flux next to GPP between the terrestrial ecosystem (the largest organic carbon pool) and the atmosphere at a global scale. Given their critical role in the global carbon cycle, Rs measurement and modeling issues have been well reviewed in previous studies. In this paper, we briefly review advances in soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition processes and the factors affecting Rs. We examine the spatial and temporal distribution of Rs measurements available in the literature and found that most of the measurements were conducted in North America, Europe, and East Asia, with major gaps in Africa, East Europe, North Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia, especially in dry ecosystems. We discuss the potential problems of measuring Rs on slope soils and propose using obliquely-cut soil collars to solve the existing problems. We synthesize previous estimates of global Rs flux and find that the estimates ranged from 50 PgC/yr to 98 PgC/yr and the error associated with each estimation was also high (4 PgC/yr to 33.2 PgC/yr). Using a newly integrated database of Rs measurements and the MODIS vegetation map, we estimate that the global annual Rs flux is 94.3 PgC/yr with an estimation error of 17.9 PgC/yr at a 95% confidence level. The uneven distribution of Rs measurements limits our ability to improve the accuracy of estimation. Based on the global estimation of Rs flux, we found that Rs is highly correlated with GPP and NPP at the biome level, highlighting the role of Rs in global carbon budgets. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Carbon market: to which emission quota to devote?

    Chandes, Camille

    2013-01-01

    As the European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is entering its third phase, an article discusses uncertainties and problems regarding this system: CO 2 price is falling down, French industrials do not know which quantity they'll have to buy for their installations, and even some frauds and swindles occurred. Besides the fact that the low level of carbon price is not a motivation for investors, the market is criticised for its imbalance between supply and demand. As some industrials find the costs too high, some sectors may consider off-shoring their activities. Some actors suggest the creation of a central bank of carbon. Countries are using the product of emission bidding in different sectors: housing rehabilitation in France, industry support in Germany, reduction of budget deficit in Italy and Great Britain, construction of passive dwellings in Czech Republic

  8. Mitigation of Global Warming with Focus on Personal Carbon Allowances

    Meyer, Niels I

    2008-01-01

    The mitigation of global warming requires new efficient systems and methods. The paper presents a new proposal called personal carbon allowances with caps on the CO2 emission from household heating and electricity and on emission from transport in private cars and in personal air flights. Results...

  9. Timing of carbon emissions from global forest clearance

    J. Mason Earles; Sonia Yeh; Kenneth E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    Land-use change, primarily from conventional agricultural expansion and deforestation, contributes to approximately 17% of global greenhouse-gas emissions1. The fate of cleared wood and subsequent carbon storage as wood products, however, has not been consistently estimated, and is largely ignored or oversimplified by most models estimating...

  10. 1km Global Terrestrial Carbon Flux: Estimations and Evaluations

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Kato, S.; Saito, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Hiraki, K.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Estimating global scale of the terrestrial carbon flux change with high accuracy and high resolution is important to understand global environmental changes. Furthermore the estimations of the global spatiotemporal distribution may contribute to the political and social activities such as REDD+. In order to reveal the current state of terrestrial carbon fluxes covering all over the world and a decadal scale. The satellite-based diagnostic biosphere model is suitable for achieving this purpose owing to observing on the present global land surface condition uniformly at some time interval. In this study, we estimated the global terrestrial carbon fluxes with 1km grids by using the terrestrial biosphere model (BEAMS). And we evaluated our new carbon flux estimations on various spatial scales and showed the transition of forest carbon stocks in some regions. Because BEAMS required high resolution meteorological data and satellite data as input data, we made 1km interpolated data using a kriging method. The data used in this study were JRA-55, GPCP, GOSAT L4B atmospheric CO2 data as meteorological data, and MODIS land product as land surface satellite data. Interpolating process was performed on the meteorological data because of insufficient resolution, but not on MODIS data. We evaluated our new carbon flux estimations using the flux tower measurement (FLUXNET2015 Datasets) in a point scale. We used 166 sites data for evaluating our model results. These flux sites are classified following vegetation type (DBF, EBF, ENF, mixed forests, grass lands, croplands, shrub lands, Savannas, wetlands). In global scale, the BEAMS estimations was underestimated compared to the flux measurements in the case of carbon uptake and release. The monthly variations of NEP showed relatively high correlations in DBF and mixed forests, but the correlation coefficients of EBF, ENF, and grass lands were less than 0.5. In the meteorological factors, air temperature and solar radiation showed

  11. Model rules and regulations for a global CO2 emissions credit market

    Sandor, R.L.; Cole, J.B.; Kelly, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    On 21 April 1993, on the occasion of Earth Day, the United States affirmed its commitment to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000. In doing so, the United States joined the European Union (EU), Japan, and approximately 141 other countries that had either committed themselves to this international objective or subscribed to the general principles contained in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed at UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. The commitment of these three trading groups provides the basis for recommending that a market for tradeable carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission entitlements among these groups be implemented as soon as an initial set of rules and regulations can be drafted. The goal of a tradeable CO 2 entitlement or credit market is to lower the cost of limiting emissions. The Costs of CO 2 emission abatement are lowered because the market encourages more emission reductions to be produced by the most efficient resources. The ability easily to selI CO 2 credits created through large emission cuts allows cost recovery by, and incentives for, the most efficient sources of emission reductions. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate debate by providing model rules and regulations for a tradeable CO 2 emission credit market. The trading rules and regulations proposed here are meant to initiate a process whereby participants will iterate toward a final set of rules and regulations. Therefore, our proposal should create a point of departure for further adjustments and transformation to the initial set of recommendations. A specific proposal will be advanced at this point in order to provide a basis for the conceptualization of this global market. Moreover, this specific proposal will help focus dialogue and may provide insight into the general recommendations presented in the balance of this paper

  12. International coal trade: the evolution of a global market

    1998-01-01

    The international coal market has developed over the last 25 years to a mature stable market, largely free of government involvement. It is evident, however, that while the coal market is considered widely to be reliable and mature, there is only limited understanding of the way in which the market operates. Understanding energy market mechanisms is fundamental to encourage confidence in the continuing performance of liberalized markets. This publication seeks to address this need by providing a brief descriptive analysis of the operation of the coal market. The report draws attention to the considerable changes that have been experienced to date in the market, where freely operating market mechanisms have coped well. Further change is on the horizon. Coal demand in Europe is stagnating while growing rapidly in Asia. The once-dominant European market remains the region where price is formed but the Asian market is growing rapidly and becoming more flexible. Increasing competition for market share, low margins, and pressure on utilities to reduce costs as electricity markets are liberalized, will continue to stimulate productivity improvement and may lead to innovations in marketing to cope with stable real prices, high transport, and transaction costs

  13. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T. A. (Environmental Sciences Div., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)), e-mail: andresrj@ornl.gov; Gregg, J. S. (Risoe DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Losey, L. (Dept. of Space Studies, Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    2011-07-15

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models

  14. What role will climate change play in EU agricultural markets? An integrated assessment taking into account carbon fertilization effects

    Martinez, P.; Blanco, M.; Van Doorslaer, B.; Ramos, F.; Ceglar, A.

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies point to climate change being one of the long-term drivers of agricultural market uncertainty. To advance in the understanding of the influence of climate change on future agricultural market developments, we compared a baseline scenario for the year 2030 with alternative simulation scenarios that differ regarding: (1) emission scenarios; (2) climate projections; and (3) the consideration of carbon fertilization effects on crop growth. For each simulation scenario, the CAPRI model provides global and EU-wide impacts of climate change on agricultural markets. Results showed that climate change would considerably affect agrifood markets up to 2030. Nevertheless, market-driven adaptation strategies (production intensification, trade adjustments) would soften the impact of yield shocks on supply and demand. As a result, regional changes in production would be lower than foreseen by other studies focused on supply effects.

  15. What role will climate change play in EU agricultural markets? An integrated assessment taking into account carbon fertilization effects

    Martinez, P.; Blanco, M.; Van Doorslaer, B.; Ramos, F.; Ceglar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies point to climate change being one of the long-term drivers of agricultural market uncertainty. To advance in the understanding of the influence of climate change on future agricultural market developments, we compared a baseline scenario for the year 2030 with alternative simulation scenarios that differ regarding: (1) emission scenarios; (2) climate projections; and (3) the consideration of carbon fertilization effects on crop growth. For each simulation scenario, the CAPRI model provides global and EU-wide impacts of climate change on agricultural markets. Results showed that climate change would considerably affect agrifood markets up to 2030. Nevertheless, market-driven adaptation strategies (production intensification, trade adjustments) would soften the impact of yield shocks on supply and demand. As a result, regional changes in production would be lower than foreseen by other studies focused on supply effects.

  16. Soil organic matter dynamics and the global carbon cycle

    Post, W.M.; Emanuel, W.R.; King, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    The large size and potentially long residence time of the soil organic matter pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. Net terrestrial primary production of about 60 Pg C·yr -1 is, over a several-year period of time, balanced by an equivalent flux of litter production and subsequent decomposition of detritus and soil organic matter. We will review many of the major factors that influence soil organic matter dynamics that need to be explicitly considered in development of global estimates of carbon turnover in the world's soils. We will also discuss current decomposition models that are general enough to be used to develop a representation of global soil organic matter dynamics

  17. 'Carbon-Money Exchange' to contain global warming and deforestation

    Nagase, Kozo E-mail: nagase@de.mbn.or.jp

    2005-07-01

    This paper builds a basic theory of 'Carbon-Money Exchange' in which carbon as currency in nature's household (ecosystems) and money as currency in humankind's household (economy) are exchanged just like in a foreign exchange. The simple chemical equation below makes it possible (CO{sub 2}{yields}C+O{sub 2}=C+O{sub 2}{yields}CO{sub 2}). The left-hand side represents the work of plants to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The right-hand side represents the work of humans as fossil fuel consumers to produce it. The exchange of the two currencies is possible by copying the fossil fuel market. The paper concludes that this new exchange can automatically contain global warming and deforestation, replacing onerous emissions trading. Moreover, it could revolutionize the conventional economy, creating counter-capitalism, or 'carbonism'.

  18. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  19. Global Market Access in the Internet Era: South Africa's Wood Furniture Industry.

    Moodley, Sagren

    2002-01-01

    Explores the link between Internet connectivity and access to global markets, and uses the South African wood furniture producers as they are integrated into global value chains and exposed to the demands of more sophisticated markets. Articulates policy recommendations to promote greater diffusion of e-commerce technologies in the wood furniture…

  20. U.S. Government Electronic Data Sources for Global Marketing Decisions: An Evaluation and Classroom Application.

    Judd, Vaughan C.; Tims, Betty J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. government publishes considerable information applicable to business people interested in global marketing opportunities, much of which is available via the Internet and CD-ROMs. Evaluates the usefulness of four of the government's electronic sources of global marketing information (e.g., the World Fact Book), describing workshops using…

  1. Global nuclear markets in the context of climate change and sustainable development. Chapter 2

    Morrison, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article (Chapter Two) focuses on the global nuclear markets in the context of policies regarding climate change and sustainable development. The global market realities and the export potential of the canadian nuclear industry are becoming crucial features of the nuclear political economy. The article examines the role of exports in the evolution of nuclear policy in Canada, and looks more closely at nuclear power and CANDU projects in the specific context of global competitive markets. It examines the trends in electricity and nuclear energy in the market for nuclear reactors. Finally, this article locates these changes in the context of the issues that are inherent in climate change and sustainable development

  2. Detrending the realized volatility in the global FX market

    Schmidt, Anatoly B.

    2009-05-01

    There has been growing interest in realized volatility (RV) of financial assets that is calculated using intra-day returns. The choice of optimal time grid for these calculations is not trivial and generally requires analysis of RV dependence on the grid spacing (so-called RV signature). Typical RV signatures have a maximum at the finest time grid spacing available, which is attributed to the microstructure effects. This maximum decays into a plateau at lower frequencies, which implies (almost) stationary return variance. We found that the RV signatures in the modern global FX market may have no plateau or even have a maximum at lower frequencies. Simple averaging methods used to address the microstructure effects in equities have no practical effect on the FX RV signatures. We show that local detrending of the high-frequency FX rate samples yields RV signatures with a pronounced plateau. This implies that FX rates can be described with a Brownian motion having non-stationary trend and stationary variance. We point at a role of algorithmic trading as a possible cause of micro-trends in FX rates.

  3. Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage : Canadian market development

    Hendriks, A.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is used to extend the life of light oil reservoirs in Canada. An additional 13 per cent of original oil in place is typically recovered using CO 2 flooding processes. However, a carbon capture and storage (CCS) market is needed in order to commercialize CO 2 flooding technologies. CO 2 can be obtained from naturally-occurring accumulations in underground reservoirs, electrical and coal-fired generation plants, petrochemical facilities, and upstream oil and gas processing facilities. CO 2 is sequestered in EOR processes, in sour gas disposal processes, solvent recovery processes, and in coalbed methane (CBM) extraction. It is also disposed in depleted fields and aquifers. While CCS technologies are mature, project economics remain marginal. However, CCS in EOR is commercially feasible at current high oil prices. No transportation infrastructure is in place to transport sources of CO 2 in the high volumes needed to establish a market. While governments have created a favourable public policy environment for CCS, governments will need to address issues related to infrastructure, public perception of CCS, and stakeholder engagement with CCS projects. It was concluded that CCS and CO 2 flooding techniques have the capacity to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while helping to sustain light oil production. tabs., figs

  4. Speculative and hedging activities in the European carbon market

    Lucia, Julio J.; Mansanet-Bataller, Maria; Pardo, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    We explore the dynamics of the speculative and hedging activities in European futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. A comparison of the three phases in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) reveals that (i) Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date and (ii) the highest degree of speculative activity for every single phase occurs at the moment of listing the contracts for the first time. A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year, related to the schedule of deadlines of the EU ETS. In addition, a time series analysis confirms that most of the speculative activity each year occurs in the front contract, whereas the hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract. -- Highlights: •This study explores the evolution of speculative and hedging activities in futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. •Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date. •A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year. •Most of the speculative activity occurs in the front contract. •The hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract

  5. Carbon emission intensity in electricity production: A global analysis

    Ang, B.W.; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We study changes in the aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity at the global and country levels. The ACI is defined as the energy-related CO_2 emissions in electricity production divided by the electricity produced. It is a performance indicator since a decrease in its value is a desirable outcome from the environmental and climate change viewpoints. From 1990 to 2013, the ACI computed at the global level decreased only marginally. However, fairly substantial decreases were observed in many countries. This apparent anomaly arises from a geographical shift in global electricity production with countries having a high ACI increasingly taking up a larger electricity production share. It is found that globally and in most major electricity producing countries, reduction in their ACI was due mainly to improvements in the thermal efficiency of electricity generation rather than to fuel switching. Estimates of the above-mentioned effects are made using LMDI decomposition analysis. Our study reveals several challenges in reducing global CO_2 emissions from the electricity production sector although technically the reduction potential for the sector is known to be great. - Highlights: •Variations of aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity of world countries are analysed. •Main drivers of changes in ACI of major electricity producing countries are studied using index decomposition analysis. •Geographical shift in electricity production had a significant impact on global ACI. •Improvements in the thermal efficiency of generation were the main driver of reduction in ACI.

  6. Investing in Global Markets: Big Data and Applications of Robust Regression

    John eGuerard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis of the risk and return of stocks in global markets, we apply several applications of robust regression techniques in producing stock selection models and several optimization techniques in portfolio construction in global stock universes. We find that (1 the robust regression applications are appropriate for modeling stock returns in global markets; and (2 mean-variance techniques continue to produce portfolios capable of generating excess returns above transaction costs and statistically significant asset selection. We estimate expected return models in a global equity markets using a given stock selection model and generate statistically significant active returns from various portfolio construction techniques.

  7. The changing global carbon cycle: Linking plant-soil carbon dynamics to global consequences

    Chapin, F. S.; McFarland, J.; McGuire, David A.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Ruess, Roger W.; Kielland, K.

    2009-01-01

    Most current climate-carbon cycle models that include the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle are based on a model developed 40 years ago by Woodwell & Whittaker (1968) and omit advances in biogeochemical understanding since that time. Their model treats net C emissions from ecosystems as the balance between net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (HR, i.e. primarily decomposition).

  8. Panorama 2015 - The global market for compact cars

    Vinot, Simon; Ivanic, Tanja

    2014-12-01

    The search for fuel-saving solutions has led to a trend for acquiring smaller and lighter cars. Small compact cars, whether powered by internal combustion or electric engines, have gained and are continuing to gain market share, in both mature automobile markets such as Europe or Japan and emerging markets such as India. (authors)

  9. Market Economy under Rapid Globalization and Rising Productivity

    Konov, Joshua Ioji

    2012-01-01

    Market economy of enhancing business laws in contracting, bonding, insuring, legal corporate structures , e.g. will marginalize the economic agents and tools that make market competition unfair, empower small and medium businesses and investors, and boost business activities, fiscal strength, employment, and capital transmission. Keynesian capital infusion will extend its market effect in such higher security marketplace.

  10. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle : Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

    Bloom, A Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle

  11. Quantification of the "global" authigenic carbonate δ13C value and implications for carbon cycling

    Loyd, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Relationships among early Earth ocean chemistry, atmospheric chemistry and the evolution/radiation of life have been inferred from carbon isotope compositions (δ13C) of marine carbonates. Under steady-state conditions, the isotope compositions of marine carbonates reflect both the amount and δ13C of carbon entering and leaving the oceans. Recently the traditional "two-output" (marine carbonate and organic matter) mass-balance equation has been modified to include a third, authigenic carbonate output term. However, the formation mechanisms of authigenic carbonates remain poorly understood, particularly from a global prospective. The utility of the new mass-balance approach will be limited until authigenic carbonates are better characterized (e.g., through δ13C analyses). Authigenic carbonates form largely as a result of 1) the respiratory degradation of organic matter (e.g., sulfate reduction), 2) the oxidation of methane and 3) the production of methane. These major reaction pathways can produce authigenic carbonates with highly variable δ13C compositions (δ13Cac). Spatiotemporal variation in the extent and prevalence of different pathways therefore exert a first order control on "global" δ13Cac. Here, values are compiled from new and existing data sets and a modern, global δ13Cac is calculated. When calculated as an average of all data or an averaged mean of individual sites, this value is very similar to normal marine sedimentary organic matter. This finding suggests that marine sediments behave largely as closed systems in the context of organic matter degradation and carbonate authigenesis. In addition, the lack of significant difference between authigenic and organic δ13C implies that these two mass-balance output terms can be considered collectively in more recent time intervals. It may be appropriate to separate these two terms when characterizing more ancient settings when redox characteristics promoted more reducing organic matter degradation

  12. CARBON ACCOUNTING INITIATIVES: CASE STUDY OF A PETROLEUM REFINERY IN MALAYSIA TO PREPARE FOR FUTURE CARBON MARKET

    AMANDA H.L. CHEE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum refining process produces a large amount of atmospheric pollutants including greenhouse gases which are attributed to global warming. The international community inevitably addressed the global warming issue by introducing a market-based mechanism known as Emission Trading Systems (ETS under the Kyoto Protocol which imposes binding limits to developed nations using three flexibility mechanisms, including the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. This case study was carried out in a petroleum refinery in Malaysia to explore the possibility for the refinery to participate in CDM. Information was collected through observatory field survey at the refinery and documentation review. Results show that the current monitoring tool using indirect calculation of fuel consumption provides a comprehensive coverage of emission sources but the reporting frequency should be increased for data accuracy. An accounting system was then created to predict the emissions gap of the refinery with reference to the baseline-year set by the Kyoto Protocol. It was concluded that the refinery showed promising potential to participate in CDM to benefit from technology transfer by selling their ‘credits’ to Annex I countries despite the uncertainty on the impact of the carbon market in a Non-Annex I country.

  13. Secondary Market Products in the Mortgage System and Global Practices

    Erhan Eroğlu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, the mortgage market has two faces, the primary and the secondary markets. The primary market covers housing mortgage loans. On the other side of the mechanism, these loans are securitized and issued in financial markets with different form of securities in secondary markets. The common name of these instruments is “mortgage backed securities - MBS”. A mortgage backed security is a financial instrument issued in capital markets for investors, derived from either backed by the cash flow of the housing loan repayments (which is called pay-through or backed by directly selling the mortgage pools to the MBS issuers (which is called passthrough. The most trading secondary mortgage market instruments and world practices are explained in this article.

  14. TOURISM MARKETING - KEY CONCEPT OF TOURISM IN A WORLD OF GLOBALIZATION

    STOICA Ana-Maria; CRETOIU Raluca Ionela

    2012-01-01

    The latest trends in tourism emphasize the power of the globalized tourist-consumer, in the context of mondialisation of the market and of the diversity of tourism services, the tourism organizations must answer to a range of different tourism motivations meant to meet the needs and wishes of the tourism consumers over the period they travel for. Tourism marketing is a result of globalization, since, just like the globalization process, it creates links between the states of the world, the au...

  15. From Brand Management to Global Business Management in Market-Driven Companies

    Emilio Zito

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years, the most competitive mass-market companies (automobile, high-tech, consumer and retail, etc.) have been experiencing a new strategic approach around the concept of Market-Driven strategy, as opposed to a pure marketing-focused approach known as Customer-Driven strategy. A fast-moving, mass-market global company would likely have a precise performance measurement system in place with broad performance indicators based on: project economics, ratios analysis (ROI, in...

  16. Research on the Development of Green Finance in Shenzhen to Boost the Carbon Trading Market

    Zhou, Jiping; Xiong, Siqin; Zhou, Yucheng; Zou, Zijian; Ma, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    This paper analyses the current development situations of Shenzhen carbon trading market and China’s green finance, and makes the policy recommendations for promoting the carbon trading market by developing green finance in Shenzhen. Shenzhen should take the lead in driving the localized application of green principle, and formulate Shenzhen green bond guidelines ASAP, to promote carbon trading associated enterprises to finance by using green bonds; it shall work to lower the threshold for financial institutions to participate in carbon trading market, and explore development of carbon derivatives.

  17. Techniques for Analyzing the Attractiveness of International Commodity Markets Under Conditions of Economic Globalization

    Olha Pryhara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines existing techniques and proposes its own for analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in light of the globalization of world economic processes. Taking into account the supranational nature of the world economic environment when examining categories in the attractiveness of international commodity markets, the author introduces a multilevel system of indicators: market attractiveness at the mega-level – global level; market attractiveness at the macro-level national level; market attractiveness at the mezo-level – level of an individual sector. The attractiveness of international commodity markets is considered to be the degree of conformity between market environment factors and the mega-, macro- and mezo-levels of the economic interests of enterprises concerning the entry into and strategies for their activity on the international commodity markets in the short-, medium- and long-term. The author designs a stage-by-stage technique for strategically analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in order to frame efficient market strategies of enterprises. Relying on the proposed techniques, she rates the integrated indicators of market accessibility and the possibility of realizing the economic interests of enterprises in target markets, bringing the index data into a matrix of «market accessibility – opportunity for realizing the economic interests of enterprises.» The analysis of a country’s position in the matrix makes it possible to frame efficient market strategies for enterprises.

  18. Estimation of the global climate effect of brown carbon

    Zhang, A.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Song, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols significantly affect global radiative forcing and climate through absorption and scattering of sunlight. Black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) are light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols. The global distribution and climate effect of BrC is uncertain. A recent study suggests that BrC absorption is comparable to BC in the upper troposphere over biomass burning region and that the resulting heating tends to stabilize the atmosphere. Yet current climate models do not include proper treatments of BrC. In this study, we derived a BrC global biomass burning emission inventory from Global Fire Emissions Database 4 (GFED4) and developed a BrC module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) of Community Earth System Model (CESM) model. The model simulations compared well to BrC observations of the Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC-3) campaigns and includes BrC bleaching. Model results suggested that BrC in the upper troposphere due to convective transport is as important an absorber as BC globally. Upper tropospheric BrC radiative forcing is particularly significant over the tropics, affecting the atmosphere stability and Hadley circulation.

  19. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Losey, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80......% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly...

  20. SWITCHING FROM THE GLOBALIZATION OF MARKETS TO THE GLOBALIZATION OF PRODUCTION AND SERVICES IN A SEMIGLOBALIZED WORLD

    Serghei M RGULESCU; Elena M RGULESCU

    2009-01-01

    The retrospective of the theoretical approaches of the phenomenon of economic globalization in the last three decades emphasizes the movement of attention from the globalization of markets, from the\\'80s, to the globalization of production and services in the current decade. This trend is essentially the result of implementing new strategies by multinational companies. It also requires accepting the idea that the current status of the world economy is in reality one of semiglobalization and n...

  1. Automobile industry and globalization in Asian market; Asia ni okeru jidosha sangyo to globalization

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Asian countries are now attracting attention of automobile manufacturers of the world for their capabilities of buying, producing, and assembling of automobiles, and producing and supplying of parts, which means that the Asian market is now exposed to globalization. As for the automobile and part manufacturers of Japan, in the presence of economic depression lingering in Asia affecting motorization and rapid changes in the circumstances Japan`s automobile industry finds itself under, are pressed to work out new strategies as a member of the Asian community. A panel discussion of the same name as the subject held in 1997 won favor as a fine initiative to suitably cope with the difficult situation. Useful suggestions and proposals were made concerning the panel discussion, calling the event a new type of round-table talks well responding to the rapid changes in the world economy since 1997, by learned and experienced people, the government offices concerned, staffers of manufacturers in charge of overseas marketing, and international information analysts. They related to the current state and tasks of automobile manufacturing in Asia, trends of regulations and standardization, rolls of technical assistance and the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Ltd., expressed from a wide angle covering various problems relative to environmental protection, safety, etc. (NEDO)

  2. Competition and wage effects in the global online market for microwork and services outsourcing

    Beerepoot, N.; Lambregts, B.; Nicholson, B.; Babin, R.; Lacity, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    A new form of service outsourcing has emerged, namely the global online job marketplace for freelance contractors. Such platforms are currently the closest proxy to the idea of a global labor market. In this chapter, we examine how competition manifests itself on one such global online platform,

  3. The consequences of product markets globalization for Ukraine’s national economy

    Ivashchenko Maryna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The features of global commodity markets have been considered in the article. The purpose of the article is to identify the sources and consequences of commodity markets globalization observable in the world economy and to develop the recommendations as for the state and corporate governance in the context of global competition. The author’s attention is paid to transnational corporations that make up the most significant competition in the global commodity markets. The influence of transnational business on product markets has been investigated. The last is defined as a product of globalization on the one hand, and becomes a catalyst of globalization processes on the other hand. Also the place of Ukraine in global ratings has been traced. It has been proved that the most effective way of behavior of Ukrainian enterprises on the global commodity markets among all the possible variants is the way of innovation development. Despite the reduction of the government regulatory role in the global economy it has been recommended the adoption of effective management decisions to support of the domestic producers but not at the expense of a healthy global competition.

  4. Author Correction: The carbon footprint of global tourism

    Lenzen, Manfred; Sun, Ya-Yen; Faturay, Futu; Ting, Yuan-Peng; Geschke, Arne; Malik, Arunima

    2018-06-01

    In the version of this Article originally published, in the penultimate paragraph of the section "Gas species and supply chains", in the sentence "In this assessment, the contribution of air travel emissions amounts to 20% (0.9 GtCO2e) of tourism's global carbon footprint..." the values should have read "12% (0.55 GtCO2e)"; this error has now been corrected, and Supplementary Table 9 has been amended to clarify this change.

  5. Tropical wetlands: A missing link in the global carbon cycle?

    Sjögersten, Sofie; Black, Colin R; Evers, Stephanie; Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Wright, Emma L; Turner, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH4) and contributing a large fraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the carbon balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical wetlands, which limits the ability of global change models to make accurate predictions about future climate. We show that the available data on in situ carbon gas fluxes in undisturbed forested tropical wetlands indicate marked spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions, with exceptionally large fluxes in Southeast Asia and the Neotropics. By upscaling short-term measurements, we calculate that approximately 90 ± 77 Tg CH4 year−1 and 4540 ± 1480 Tg CO2 year−1 are released from tropical wetlands globally. CH4 fluxes are greater from mineral than organic soils, whereas CO2 fluxes do not differ between soil types. The high CO2 and CH4 emissions are mirrored by high rates of net primary productivity and litter decay. Net ecosystem productivity was estimated to be greater in peat-forming wetlands than on mineral soils, but the available data are insufficient to construct reliable carbon balances or estimate gas fluxes at regional scales. We conclude that there is an urgent need for systematic data on carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands to provide a robust understanding of how they differ from well-studied northern wetlands and allow incorporation of tropical wetlands into global climate change models. PMID:26074666

  6. Time-varying correlations in global real estate markets: A multivariate GARCH with spatial effects approach

    Gu, Huaying; Liu, Zhixue; Weng, Yingliang

    2017-04-01

    The present study applies the multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) with spatial effects approach for the analysis of the time-varying conditional correlations and contagion effects among global real estate markets. A distinguishing feature of the proposed model is that it can simultaneously capture the spatial interactions and the dynamic conditional correlations compared with the traditional MGARCH models. Results reveal that the estimated dynamic conditional correlations have exhibited significant increases during the global financial crisis from 2007 to 2009, thereby suggesting contagion effects among global real estate markets. The analysis further indicates that the returns of the regional real estate markets that are in close geographic and economic proximities exhibit strong co-movement. In addition, evidence of significantly positive leverage effects in global real estate markets is also determined. The findings have significant implications on global portfolio diversification opportunities and risk management practices.

  7. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle

    J. F. Tjiputra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with a business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a long period, smaller eruptions similar to Pinatubo in amplitude, but set to occur frequently, would have a stronger impact on future climate change. In a scenario where the volcanic external forcings are prescribed with a five-year frequency, the induced cooling immediately lower the global temperature by more than one degree before it returns to the warming trend. Therefore, the climate change is approximately delayed by several decades, and by the end of the 21st century, the warming is still below two degrees when compared to the present day period. Our climate-carbon feedback analysis shows that future volcanic eruptions induce positive feedbacks (i.e., more carbon sink on both the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle. The feedback signal on the ocean is consistently smaller than the terrestrial counterpart and the feedback strength is proportionally related to the frequency of the volcanic eruption events. The cooler climate reduces the terrestrial heterotrophic respiration in the northern high latitude and increases net primary production in the tropics, which contributes to more than 45 % increase in accumulated carbon uptake over land. The increased solubility of CO2 gas in seawater associated with cooler SST is offset by a reduced CO2 partial pressure gradient between the ocean and the atmosphere, which results in small changes in net ocean carbon uptake. Similarly, there is nearly no change in the seawater buffer capacity simulated between the different volcanic scenarios. Our study shows that even

  8. Carbonic Anhydrase: An Efficient Enzyme with Possible Global Implications

    Christopher D. Boone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As the global atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2 and other greenhouse gases continue to grow to record-setting levels, so do the demands for an efficient and inexpensive carbon sequestration system. Concurrently, the first-world dependence on crude oil and natural gas provokes concerns for long-term availability and emphasizes the need for alternative fuel sources. At the forefront of both of these research areas are a family of enzymes known as the carbonic anhydrases (CAs, which reversibly catalyze the hydration of CO2 into bicarbonate. CAs are among the fastest enzymes known, which have a maximum catalytic efficiency approaching the diffusion limit of 108 M−1s−1. As such, CAs are being utilized in various industrial and research settings to help lower CO2 atmospheric emissions and promote biofuel production. This review will highlight some of the recent accomplishments in these areas along with a discussion on their current limitations.

  9. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  10. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  11. Global Trends and Development Prospects for Oil and the Oil Products Market

    Maria Dorozhkina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the important issue of the development of the global market of oil and oil products. It offers an overview of how this market was formed and its current status, classification, location and potential of countries in the oil and oil processing business. It analyzes the Ukrainian oil products market. The article discusses the shortcomings and strategic areas for the development of Ukraine’s oil transport system. It presents an optimum method for creating integration groups in order to develop the oil processing business in Ukraine for the future. The article considers the main trends and outlines development prospects for the global oil and oil products market.

  12. Exploitation of Free Markets and Globalization to Finance Terrorists

    2008-09-01

    is their capability to exploit the black market peso exchange or the international foreign exchange arbitrage . Under the scenario of a weak U.S...appears legitimate. By using intermediaries or legitimate businesses, the financial markets are wide open for terrorists to hedge funds and

  13. Evolution of FX Markets via Globalization of Capital

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    This paper is about money, and why today's foreign exchange (FX) markets are unstable. According to the literature [1], FX markets were fundamentally different before and after WW I. Any attempt to discuss this topic within standard economic theory necessarily fails because money/liquidity/uncertainty is completely excluded from that theory [2]. Fortunately, our market dynamics models adequately serve our purpose. Eichengreen [1] has presented a stimulating history of the evolution of FX markets from the gold standard of the late nineteenth century through the Bretton Woods Agreement (post WWII-1971) and later the floating currencies of our present market deregulation era (1971-present). He asserts a change from stability to instability over the time interval of WWI. Making his argument precise, we describe how speculators could have made money systematically from a market in statistical equilibrium. The present era normal liquid FX markets are in contrast very hard, to a first approximation impossible, to beat, and consequently are described as `martingales'. The ideas of martingales and options/hedging were irrelevant in the pre-WWI era. I end my historical discussion with the empirical evidence for the stochastic model that describes FX market dynamics quantitatively accurately during the last 7-17 years [3].

  14. Global Distribution of Businesses Marketing Stem Cell-Based Interventions.

    Berger, Israel; Ahmad, Amina; Bansal, Akhil; Kapoor, Tanvir; Sipp, Douglas; Rasko, John E J

    2016-08-04

    A structured search reveals that online marketing of stem-cell-based interventions is skewed toward developed economies including the United States, Ireland, Australia, and Germany. Websites made broad, imprecise therapeutic claims and frequently failed to detail procedures. Widespread marketing poses challenges to regulators, bioethicists, and those seeking realistic hope from therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemistry of organic carbon in soil with relationship to the global carbon cycle

    Post, W.M. III.

    1988-01-01

    Various ecosystem disturbances alter the balances between production of organic matter and its decomposition and therefore change the amount of carbon in soil. The most severe perturbation is conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops. Conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops results in a lowered input of slowly decomposing material which causes a reduction in overall carbon levels. Disruption of soil matrix structure by cultivation leads to lowered physical protection of organic matter resulting in an increased net mineralization rate of soil carbon. Climate change is another perturbation that affects the amount and composition of plant production, litter inputs, and decomposition regimes but does not affect soil structure directly. Nevertheless, large changes in soil carbon storage are probable with anticipated CO 2 induced climate change, particularly in northern latitudes where anticipated climate change will be greatest (MacCracken and Luther 1985) and large amounts of soil organic matter are found. It is impossible, given the current state of knowledge of soil organic matter processes and transformations to develop detailed process models of soil carbon dynamics. Largely phenomenological models appear to be developing into predictive tools for understanding the role of soil organic matter in the global carbon cycle. In particular, these models will be useful in quantifying soil carbon changes due to human land-use and to anticipated global climate and vegetation changes. 47 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Global variation of carbon use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems

    Tang, Xiaolu; Carvalhais, Nuno; Moura, Catarina; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the ratio between net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP), is an emergent property of vegetation that describes its effectiveness in storing carbon (C) and is of significance for understanding C biosphere-atmosphere exchange dynamics. A constant CUE value of 0.5 has been widely used in terrestrial C-cycle models, such as the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach model, or the Marine Biological Laboratory/Soil Plant-Atmosphere Canopy Model, for regional or global modeling purposes. However, increasing evidence argues that CUE is not constant, but varies with ecosystem types, site fertility, climate, site management and forest age. Hence, the assumption of a constant CUE of 0.5 can produce great uncertainty in estimating global carbon dynamics between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Here, in order to analyze the global variations in CUE and understand how CUE varies with environmental variables, a global database was constructed based on published data for crops, forests, grasslands, wetlands and tundra ecosystems. In addition to CUE data, were also collected: GPP and NPP; site variables (e.g. climate zone, site management and plant function type); climate variables (e.g. temperature and precipitation); additional carbon fluxes (e.g. soil respiration, autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration); and carbon pools (e.g. stem, leaf and root biomass). Different climate metrics were derived to diagnose seasonal temperature (mean annual temperature, MAT, and maximum temperature, Tmax) and water availability proxies (mean annual precipitation, MAP, and Palmer Drought Severity Index), in order to improve the local representation of environmental variables. Additionally were also included vegetation phenology dynamics as observed by different vegetation indices from the MODIS satellite. The mean CUE of all terrestrial ecosystems was 0.45, 10% lower than the previous assumed constant CUE of 0

  17. Towards a global assessment of pyrogenic carbon from vegetation fires.

    Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H; Kane, Evan S; Masiello, Caroline A; Ohlson, Mikael; de la Rosa, Jose Maria; Preston, Caroline M; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The production of pyrogenic carbon (PyC; a continuum of organic carbon (C) ranging from partially charred biomass and charcoal to soot) is a widely acknowledged C sink, with the latest estimates indicating that ~50% of the PyC produced by vegetation fires potentially sequesters C over centuries. Nevertheless, the quantitative importance of PyC in the global C balance remains contentious, and therefore, PyC is rarely considered in global C cycle and climate studies. Here we examine the robustness of existing evidence and identify the main research gaps in the production, fluxes and fate of PyC from vegetation fires. Much of the previous work on PyC production has focused on selected components of total PyC generated in vegetation fires, likely leading to underestimates. We suggest that global PyC production could be in the range of 116-385 Tg C yr(-1) , that is ~0.2-0.6% of the annual terrestrial net primary production. According to our estimations, atmospheric emissions of soot/black C might be a smaller fraction of total PyC (<2%) than previously reported. Research on the fate of PyC in the environment has mainly focused on its degradation pathways, and its accumulation and resilience either in situ (surface soils) or in ultimate sinks (marine sediments). Off-site transport, transformation and PyC storage in intermediate pools are often overlooked, which could explain the fate of a substantial fraction of the PyC mobilized annually. We propose new research directions addressing gaps in the global PyC cycle to fully understand the importance of the products of burning in global C cycle dynamics. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Global carbon cycle and possible disturbances due to man's interventions

    Pankrath, J

    1979-01-01

    Global atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration has increased since the beginning of reliable monitoring in 1958 at a mean rate of about 0.9 ppM CO/sub 2//y. Now, atmospheric, CO/sub 2/ concentration is at 330 ppM. From about 1860 up to 1974, man's intervention in the global carbon cycle caused a likely increase of 76.6 x 10/sup 15/ g C, corresponding to 36 ppM CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere, if a preindustrial content of 294 ppM CO/sub 2/ or 625.3 x 10/sup 15/ g C is adopted to be valid. A further rise of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ seems to be inevitable and probably will be responsible for a climatic warming in the next several decades; therefore, a global examination of carbon reservoirs and carbon fluxes has been undertaken to determine their storage capacity for excess carbon which originated mainly from burning of fossil fuels and from land clearing. During 1860 to 1974 about 136 x 10/sup 15/ g C have been emitted into the atmosphere by fossil fuel combustion and cement production. At present, the emission rate is about 5 x 10/sup 15/ g C/y. The worldwide examination of carbon release, primarily by deforestation and soil cultivation since 1860, is estimated to be about 120 x 10/sup 15/ g C. The net transfer of carbon to the atmosphere owing to man's interference with the biosphere is now believed to be about 2.4 x 10/sup 15/ g C/y. An oceanic uptake of rougly 179 x 10/sup 15/ g C since 1860 is open to discussion. According to the chemical buffering of sea surface water only about 35.5 x 10/sup 15/ g C could have been absorbed. It is argued, however, that oceanic circulations might have been more effective in removing atmospheric excess carbon of anthropogenic origin.

  19. Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets

    Reichenbach, Johanna

    2011-07-19

    I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

  20. Applicability of Markets to Global Scheduling in Grids: Critical Examination of General Equilibrium Theory and Market Folklore

    Nakai, Junko; VanDerWijngaart, Rob F.

    2003-01-01

    Markets are often considered superior to other global scheduling mechanisms for distributed computing systems. This claim is supported by: a casual observation from our every-day life that markets successfully equilibrate supply and demand, and the features of markets which originate in the general equilibrium theory, e.g., efficiency and the lack of necessity of 2 central controller. This paper describes why such beliefs in markets are not warranted. It does so by examining the general equilibrium theory, in terms of scope, abstraction, and interpretation. Not only does the general equilibrium theory fail to provide a satisfactory explanation of actual economies, including a computing-resource economy, it also falls short of supplying theoretical foundations for commonly held views of market desirability. This paper also points out that the argument for the desirability of markets involves circular reasoning and that the desirability can be established only vis-a-vis a scheduling goal. Finally, recasting the conclusion of Arrow's Impossibility Theorem as that for global scheduling, we conclude that there exists no market-based scheduler that is rational (in the sense defined in microeconomic theory), takes into account utility of more than one user, and yet yields a Pareto-optimal outcome for arbitrary user utility functions.

  1. Variability in the carbon storage of seagrass habitats and its implications for global estimates of blue carbon ecosystem service.

    Paul S Lavery

    Full Text Available The recent focus on carbon trading has intensified interest in 'Blue Carbon'-carbon sequestered by coastal vegetated ecosystems, particularly seagrasses. Most information on seagrass carbon storage is derived from studies of a single species, Posidonia oceanica, from the Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed 17 Australian seagrass habitats to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic carbon (C org stocks. The habitats encompassed 10 species, in mono-specific or mixed meadows, depositional to exposed habitats and temperate to tropical habitats. There was an 18-fold difference in the Corg stock (1.09-20.14 mg C org cm(-3 for a temperate Posidonia sinuosa and a temperate, estuarine P. australis meadow, respectively. Integrated over the top 25 cm of sediment, this equated to an areal stock of 262-4833 g C org m(-2. For some species, there was an effect of water depth on the C org stocks, with greater stocks in deeper sites; no differences were found among sub-tidal and inter-tidal habitats. The estimated carbon storage in Australian seagrass ecosystems, taking into account inter-habitat variability, was 155 Mt. At a 2014-15 fixed carbon price of A$25.40 t(-1 and an estimated market price of $35 t(-1 in 2020, the C org stock in the top 25 cm of seagrass habitats has a potential value of $AUD 3.9-5.4 bill. The estimates of annual C org accumulation by Australian seagrasses ranged from 0.093 to 6.15 Mt, with a most probable estimate of 0.93 Mt y(-1 (10.1 t. km(-2 y(-1. These estimates, while large, were one-third of those that would be calculated if inter-habitat variability in carbon stocks were not taken into account. We conclude that there is an urgent need for more information on the variability in seagrass carbon stock and accumulation rates, and the factors driving this variability, in order to improve global estimates of seagrass Blue Carbon storage.

  2. Trade networks evolution under the conditions of stock market globalization

    Kopylova Olga Volodymyrivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern perception of the stock market in terms of information technologies rapid development and under the institutionalists influence has been significantly modified and becomes multifaceted. It was detected that the main function of the market is activated, information asymmetry is minimized and more advanced financial architecture space is formed through trade networks. Formation of the modern trade networks has started on the basis of the old infrastructure, that had the highest tendency to self-organization and adaptation. The proposed architecture of trade networks of the stock market has a very clear vector of subordination – from top to bottom and has a number of positive points.

  3. The Global Petrochemical Industry: the market. Market Analysis - 2017-2023 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    2017-02-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview, The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Environment, Demand, Supply, Trade; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Environment, Structure of Competition, Business Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  4. The Global Oil and Gas Industry: the Market. Market Analysis - 2017-2020 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    2017-07-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Overview, Supply, Demand, Prices, Trade; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Environment, Leaders' Recent Performances, Corporate Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  5. The Global Renewable Energy Equipment Industry: the Market. Market Analysis - 2017-2035 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    2017-08-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview, The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Overview, Demand, Supply; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Forces, Structure of Competition, Corporate Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  6. The effect of global oil price shocks on China's metal markets

    Zhang, Chuanguo; Tu, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated the impacts of global oil price shocks on the whole metal market and two typical metal markets: copper and aluminum. We applied the autoregressive conditional jump intensity (ARJI) model, combining with the generalized conditional heteroscedasticity (GRACH) method, to describe the volatility process and jump behavior in the global oil market. We separated the oil price shocks into positive and negative parts, to analyze whether oil price volatility had symmetric impacts on China’s metal markets. We further used the likelihood ratio test to examine the symmetric effect of oil price shocks. In addition, we considered the jump behavior in oil prices as an input factor to investigate how China’s metal markets are affected when jumps occur in the global oil market, in contrast to the existing research paying little attention to this issue. Our results indicate that crude oil price shocks have significant impacts on China's metal markets and the impacts are symmetric. When compared with aluminum, copper is more easily affected by oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigated the effect of oil price shocks on China’s metal markets. • The oil price shocks had significant impacts on China's metal markets • The oil price shocks on China's metal markets were symmetric. • Copper is more easily affected by oil price shocks than aluminum.

  7. Evaluation of the Committed Carbon Emissions and Global Warming due to the Permafrost Carbon Feedback

    Elshorbany, Y. F.; Schaefer, K. M.; Jafarov, E. E.; Yumashev, D.; Hope, C.

    2017-12-01

    We quantify the increase in carbon emissions and temperature due to Permafrost Carbon feedback (PCF), defined as the amplification of anthropogenic warming due to carbon emissions from thawing permafrost (i.e., of near-surface layers to 3 m depth). We simulate the Committed PCF emissions, the cumulative total emissions from thawing permafrost by 2300 for a given global temperature increase by 2100, and investigate the resulting global warming using the Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach SiBCASA model. We estimate the committed PCF emissions and warming for the Fifth Assessment Report, Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 using two ensembles of five projections. For the 2 °C warming target of the global climate change treaty, committed PCF emissions increase to 24 Gt C by 2100 and 76 Gt C by 2300 and the committed PCF warming is 0.23 °C by 2300. Our calculations show that as the global temperature increase by 2100 approaches 5.8 °C, the entire stock of frozen carbon thaws out, resulting in maximum committed PCF emissions of 560 Gt C by 2300.

  8. Second-best carbon taxation in the global economy: The Green Paradox and carbon leakage revisited

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Acceleration of global warming resulting from a future carbon tax is large if the price elasticities of oil demand are large and that of oil supply is small. The fall in the world interest rate weakens this weak Green Paradox effect, especially if intertemporal substitution is weak. Still, social

  9. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget

    Cole, J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvil, L.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, P.; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth’s surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking

  10. Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change: implications for the global carbon cycle

    Edward A.G. Schuur; James Bockheim; Josep G. Canadell; Eugenie Euskirchen; Christopher B. Field; Sergey V. Goryachkin; Stefan Hagemann; Peter Kuhry; Peter M. Lafleur; Hanna Lee; Galina Mazhitova; Frederick E. Nelson; Annette Rinke; Vladimir E. Romanovsky; Nikolay Shiklomanov; Charles Tarnocai; Sergey Venevsky; Jason G. Vogel; Sergei A. Zimov

    2008-01-01

    Thawing permafrost and the resulting microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon (C) is one of the most significant potential feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a changing climate. In this article we present an overview of the global permafrost C pool and of the processes that might transfer this C into the atmosphere, as well as...

  11. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets

    Hochstadt Jenny

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. Methods We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal and United States (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM, US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR and UNITAID. Results WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Conclusions Global initiatives

  12. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets.

    Waning, Brenda; Kyle, Margaret; Diedrichsen, Ellen; Soucy, Lyne; Hochstadt, Jenny; Bärnighausen, Till; Moon, Suerie

    2010-05-25

    Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV) medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC) products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO) HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal) and United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM), US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and UNITAID. WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year) with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year) or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year) regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir) increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Global initiatives facilitated the creation of fairly efficient markets

  13. Enabling socio-economic activities: Opening global markets for the marginalized through secure ICT use

    Phahlamohlaka, Jackie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and describes five economic activities through which ICT could effectively be used to open global markets for rural and marginalized communities. The activities are identified in contexts where there are no industries...

  14. Why Have Labour Markets Reacted to the Global Crisis in Different Ways?

    Kwiatkowski Eugeniusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the effects of the global crisis on employment and unemployment in the EU countries and indicate factors which may explain the differentiated response of labour markets to this crisis.

  15. Features of competition and development of markets in an age of globalized economy

    Dr.Sc. Skender Kërçuku

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fall of communism in Eastern Europe in the beginning of the 90-ies of the 20th century marked the beginning of a historical process of triumph of market economy in a wide geographical area and a large population, which had to have an influence on global developments. This age is characterized not only by a comprehensive ruling of capitalist market economy, but also by a series of important structural changes in economies of various countries, national and international mechanisms of market functioning, and relevant institutions thereto. Distinct authors have various opinions on characteristics and positive and negative outcomes of a globalized economy era. Some consider the globalization of world economy as a quantitative and qualitative expansion of market economy throughout the world, similar to the situation before the World War I. Other more serious authors consider the globalization of world economy as a new qualitative era, with important consequences on many areas.

  16. Stable isotopic constraints on global soil organic carbon turnover

    Wang, Chao; Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Liu, Dongwei; Hou, Jianfeng; Cheng, Weixin; Bai, Edith

    2018-02-01

    Carbon dioxide release during soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover is a pivotal component of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global climate change. However, reliably measuring SOC turnover rates on large spatial and temporal scales remains challenging. Here we use a natural carbon isotope approach, defined as beta (β), which was quantified from the δ13C of vegetation and soil reported in the literature (176 separate soil profiles), to examine large-scale controls of climate, soil physical properties and nutrients over patterns of SOC turnover across terrestrial biomes worldwide. We report a significant relationship between β and calculated soil C turnover rates (k), which were estimated by dividing soil heterotrophic respiration rates by SOC pools. ln( - β) exhibits a significant linear relationship with mean annual temperature, but a more complex polynomial relationship with mean annual precipitation, implying strong-feedbacks of SOC turnover to climate changes. Soil nitrogen (N) and clay content correlate strongly and positively with ln( - β), revealing the additional influence of nutrients and physical soil properties on SOC decomposition rates. Furthermore, a strong (R2 = 0.76; p turnover and thereby improving predictions of multiple global change influences over terrestrial C-climate feedback.

  17. An Analysis of American Animated Movies Marketing Strategies on the Angle of Globalization

    康静丹

    2016-01-01

    In a global age, the American animated film in⁃dustry that features a solid industrial foundation with the mature operational mechanism and takes a large share of global market. The thesis is going to illustrate the operational system and pat⁃terns of American animated film industry on the basis of the sta⁃tus quo of American cartoon movie market, to be a reference to the further development of Chinese cartoon movie industry.

  18. The Role of Multicultural Marketing on Malay Consumers Perceptions towards Global vs. Local Ethnic Food Brands

    Umair, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation combines two different elements of interest in International Marketing Research. The objective of this research is the comparison of global versus local brand within the context of ethnic marketing in the multicultural society of Malaysia. The product instant noodle in the category of ethnic food was chosen in the variant of Asam Laksa as the target sample focused specifically on Malay consumers. Comparison was done between Maggi (global) and Mamee (local). The sample compri...

  19. The influencing factors of China carbon price: a study based on carbon trading market in hubei province

    Li, Hao; Lei, Ming

    2018-02-01

    For the carbon market, good trading mechanism is the basis for the healthy development of the carbon trading market. In order to explore the core problem of carbon price formation, our research explores the influencing factors of the price of carbon trading market. After the preliminary statistical analysis, our study found that Hubei Province is in the leading position among seven pilots in the carbon trading volume and the transaction, so our study of carbon price takes Hubei Province as sample of the empirical research. Multi-time series model and ARCH model analysis method are used in the research, we use the data of Hubei carbon trading pilot from June 2014 to December 2016 to carry out empirical research, the results found that industrial income, energy price, government intervention and the number of participating corporation have significant effect on the carbon price, which provides a meaningful reference for the other pilots in-depth study, as well as the construction of a national carbon trading market.

  20. Mesoscale Effects on Carbon Export: A Global Perspective

    Harrison, Cheryl S.; Long, Matthew C.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.; Moore, Jefferson K.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon export from the surface to the deep ocean is a primary control on global carbon budgets and is mediated by plankton that are sensitive to physical forcing. Earth system models generally do not resolve ocean mesoscale circulation (O(10-100) km), scales that strongly affect transport of nutrients and plankton. The role of mesoscale circulation in modulating export is evaluated by comparing global ocean simulations conducted at 1° and 0.1° horizontal resolution. Mesoscale resolution produces a small reduction in globally integrated export production (export production can be large (±50%), with compensating effects in different ocean basins. With mesoscale resolution, improved representation of coastal jets block off-shelf transport, leading to lower export in regions where shelf-derived nutrients fuel production. Export is further reduced in these regions by resolution of mesoscale turbulence, which restricts the spatial area of production. Maximum mixed layer depths are narrower and deeper across the Subantarctic at higher resolution, driving locally stronger nutrient entrainment and enhanced summer export production. In energetic regions with seasonal blooms, such as the Subantarctic and North Pacific, internally generated mesoscale variability drives substantial interannual variation in local export production. These results suggest that biogeochemical tracer dynamics show different sensitivities to transport biases than temperature and salinity, which should be considered in the formulation and validation of physical parameterizations. Efforts to compare estimates of export production from observations and models should account for large variability in space and time expected for regions strongly affected by mesoscale circulation.

  1. Alternative Approaches for Educating Future Global Marketing Professionals: A Comparison of Foreign Study and Research-Intensive Marketing Programs

    Kaufman, Peter A.; Melton, Horace L.; Varner, Iris I.; Hoelscher, Mark; Schmidt, Klaus; Spaulding, Aslihan D.

    2011-01-01

    Using an experiential learning model as a conceptual background, this article discusses characteristics and learning objectives for well-known foreign study programs such as study tours, study abroad, and internships and compares them with a less common overseas program called the "Global Marketing Program" (GMP). GMP involves…

  2. Globalization of authorship in the marketing discipline: Does it help or hinder the field?

    S. Stremersch (Stefan); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMarketing scholars have reflected upon the marketing discipline's internal evolution before. However, no prior study has assessed the globalization of authorship in our discipline, let alone assessed its consequences for the field. This paper addresses the following two questions: (1) Is

  3. Globalization of authorship in the marketing discipline : Does it help or hinder the field?

    Stremersch, S; Verhoef, PC

    2005-01-01

    Marketing scholars have reflected upon the marketing discipline's internal evolution before. However, no prior study has assessed the globalization of authorship in our discipline, let alone assessed its consequences for the field. This paper addresses the following two questions: (1) Is there

  4. 77 FR 37804 - Rules for Investigations Relating to Global and Bilateral Safeguard Actions, Market Disruption...

    2012-06-25

    ... Bilateral Safeguard Actions, Market Disruption, Trade Diversion, and Review of Relief Actions AGENCY: United... disruption, trade diversion, and review of relief actions (part 206 of its Rules). The final rule principally...--INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARG ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  5. Exploring E-marketing Opportunities for Exporting Education Services : Case HAAGA-HELIA Global Education Services

    Gómez , Julio

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis examines online marketing opportunities for exporting education programs and education consulting services from Finland and internationally. The objective of the study is to determine how is the current B2B environment in e-marketing communications. The purpose of this research is to provide useful information on e-marketing strategies that would benefit HAAGA-HELIA Global Education Services (HAAGA-HELIA GES). This study consists of a theoretical section tha...

  6. Ethical And Social Responsibility In Global Marketing: An Evaluation Of Corporate Commitment To Stakeholders

    Ephraim Okoro

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, globalization of markets and business organizations has increased the number of entrepreneurs and corporate executives involved in international and multinational joint ventures and strategic alliances. Others are interested in direct investments in foreign markets in an attempt to extend domestic operations, increase profit margins, and expand market shares. While these strategic business initiatives and efforts are increasingly attractive because of their potential ...

  7. Volatility in financial markets: The impact of the global financial crisis

    Valls Ruiz, Natàlia

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on volatility in financial markets, with a special concern for: (i) volatility transmission between different financial markets and asset categories and, (ii) the effect of macroeconomic announcements on the returns, volatility and correlation of stock markets. These issues are analysed taking into account the phenomenon of asymmetric volatility and incorporating the period of financial turmoil caused by the Global Financial Crisis. The study focuses the attention on...

  8. Financial Integration of European Money Market: from EMU to the Global Crisis and Beyond

    Avadanei Andreea; Avadanei Anamaria; Ghiba Nicolae

    2010-01-01

    The scope of this article is to illustrate the general issues relevant for understanding the implications of the global crisis on European money market integration. We structured our paper on chapters that present the evolution of the considered market from the launch of euro until the financial turmoil, its main features in the actual context, and the central banks response to the rising tensions on the money market. Given its function of channeling funds to enable banks to cover their most ...

  9. Trends in the market of poultry production in the conditions of globalization

    Kyryliuk O.F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available according to the author, in modern conditions of globalization of food markets, the researching the state of the domestic market of poultry products in order to provide the population with high-grade food products is important. It is established that the formation of demand in the poultry market is mainly due to production by domestic producers, while imports for the period under review are being reduced and meet mainly the needs of processing industry enterprises.

  10. [Regional and global estimates of carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity in forest ecosystems: A review].

    Liu, Wei-wei; Wang, Xiao-ke; Lu, Fei; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-09-01

    As a dominant part of terrestrial ecosystems, forest ecosystem plays an important role in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and global climate change mitigation. From the aspects of zonal climate and geographical distribution, the present carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem were comprehensively examined based on the review of the latest literatures. The influences of land use change on forest carbon sequestration were analyzed, and factors that leading to the uncertainty of carbon sequestration assessment in forest ecosystem were also discussed. It was estimated that the current forest carbon stock was in the range of 652 to 927 Pg C and the carbon sequestration capacity was approximately 4.02 Pg C · a(-1). In terms of zonal climate, the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of tropical forest were the maximum, about 471 Pg C and 1.02-1.3 Pg C · a(-1) respectively; then the carbon stock of boreal forest was about 272 Pg C, while its carbon sequestration capacity was the minimum, approximately 0.5 Pg C · a(-1); for temperate forest, the carbon stock was minimal, around 113 to 159 Pg C and its carbon sequestration capacity was 0.8 Pg C · a(-1). From the aspect of geographical distribution, the carbon stock of forest ecosystem in South America was the largest (187.7-290 Pg C), then followed by European (162.6 Pg C), North America (106.7 Pg C), Africa (98.2 Pg C) and Asia (74.5 Pg C), and Oceania (21.7 Pg C). In addition, carbon sequestration capacity of regional forest ecosystem was summed up as listed below: Tropical South America forest was the maximum (1276 Tg C · a(-1)), then were Tropical Africa (753 Tg C · a(-1)), North America (248 Tg C · a(-1)) and European (239 Tg C · a(-1)), and East Asia (98.8-136.5 Tg C · a(-1)) was minimum. To further reduce the uncertainty in the estimations of the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem, comprehensive application of long-term observation, inventories

  11. What moves the European carbon market? Insights from conditional jump models

    Gronwald, Marc; Ketterer, Janina [Munich Univ. (Germany). Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research

    2012-04-15

    This paper is concerned with carbon price volatility and the underlying causes of large price movements in the European emissions trading market. Based on the application of a combined jump-GARCH model the behavior of EUA prices is characterized. The jump- GARCH model explains the unsteady carbon price movement well and, moreover, shows that between 40 and 60 percent of the carbon price variance are triggered by jumps. Information regarding EUA supply and news from international carbon markets are identified as important drivers of these price spikes. These results can lead regulators the way if smoother carbon prices are desired.

  12. Global climate change impacts on forests and markets

    Xiaohui Tian; Brent Sohngen; John B Kim; Sara Ohrel; Jefferson Cole

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an economic analysis of climate change impacts in the global forest sector. It illustrates how potential future climate change impacts can be integrated into a dynamic forestry economics model using data from a global dynamic vegetation model, theMC2model. The results suggest that climate change will cause forest outputs (such as timber) to increase...

  13. Constraining the global carbon budget from global to regional scales - The measurement challenge

    Francey, R.J.; Rayner, P.J.; Allison, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Carbon Cycle can be modelled by a Bayesian synthesis inversion technique, where measured atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and isotopic compositions are analysed by use of an atmospheric transport model and estimates of regional sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon. The uncertainty associated to carbon flux estimates even on a regional scale can be improved considerably using the inversion technique. In this approach, besides the necessary control on the precision of atmospheric transport models and on the constraints for surface fluxes, an important component is the calibration of atmospheric CO 2 concentration and isotope measurements. The recent improved situation in respect to data comparability is discussed using results of conducted interlaboratory comparison exercises and larger scale calibration programs are proposed for the future to further improve the comparability of analytical data. (author)

  14. Are the global REIT markets efficient by a new approach?

    Fang Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a panel KSS test by Nuri Ucar and Tolga Omay (2009, with a Fourier function based on the sequential panel selection method (SPSM procedure proposed by Georgios Chortareas and George Kapetanios (2009 to test the efficiency of REIT markets in 16 countries from 28 March 2008 to 27 June 2011. A Fourier approximation often captures the behavior of an unknown break, and testing for a unit root increases its power to do so. Moreover, SPSM can determine the mix of I(0 and I(1 series in a panel setting to clarify how many and which are random walk processes. Our empirical results demonstrate that REIT markets are efficient in all sampled countries except the UK. Our results imply that investors in countries with efficient REIT markets can adopt more passive portfolio strategies.

  15. Global patterns in mangrove soil carbon stocks and losses

    Atwood, Trisha B.

    2017-06-26

    Mangrove soils represent a large sink for otherwise rapidly recycled carbon (C). However, widespread deforestation threatens the preservation of this important C stock. It is therefore imperative that global patterns in mangrove soil C stocks and their susceptibility to remineralization are understood. Here, we present patterns in mangrove soil C stocks across hemispheres, latitudes, countries and mangrove community compositions, and estimate potential annual CO2 emissions for countries where mangroves occur. Global potential CO2 emissions from soils as a result of mangrove loss were estimated to be ~7.0 Tg CO2e yr−1. Countries with the highest potential CO2 emissions from soils are Indonesia (3,410 Gg CO2e yr−1) and Malaysia (1,288 Gg CO2e yr−1). The patterns described serve as a baseline by which countries can assess their mangrove soil C stocks and potential emissions from mangrove deforestation.

  16. Global Action to Advance Carbon Capture and Storage

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Representing one-fifth of total global CO2 emissions currently, industrial sectors such as cement, iron and steel, chemicals and refining are expected to emit even more CO2 over the coming decades. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently the only large-scale mitigation option available to cut the emissions intensity of production by over 50% in these sectors. CCS is already proven in some industrial sectors, such as natural gas processing. Yet, the commercial-scale demonstration stage in key sectors such as iron and steel, cement or some processes in the refining sector has not been reached. To achieve decarbonisation goals, policy makers must pay more attention to industrial applications of CCS, while not undermining the global competitiveness of these sectors.

  17. Global Wine Markets, 1961 to 2009: A statistical compendium

    Anderson, Kym; Nelgen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    Until very recently, most grape-based wine was consumed close to where it was produced, and mostly that was in Europe. Barely one-tenth of the world’s wine production was exported prior to the 1970s, even counting intra-European trade. The latest wave of globalization has changed that forever. Now more than one-third of all wine consumed globally is produced in another country, and Europe’s dominance of global wine trade has been greatly diminished by the surge of exports from ‘New World’ pro...

  18. Structural Break, Stock Prices of Clean Energy Firms and Carbon Market

    Wang, Yubao; Cai, Junyu

    2018-03-01

    This paper uses EU ETS carbon future price and Germany/UK clean energy firms stock indices to study the relationship between carbon market and clean energy market. By structural break test, it is found that the ‘non-stationary’ variables judged by classical unit root test do own unit roots and need taking first difference. After analysis of VAR and Granger causality test, no causal relationships are found between the two markets. However, when Hsiao’s version of causality test is employed, carbon market is found to have power in explaining the movement of stock prices of clean energy firms, and stock prices of clean energy firms also affect the carbon market.

  19. Alpine hydropower in a low carbon economy: Assessing the local implication of global policies

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In the global transition towards a more efficient and low-carbon economy, renewable energy plays a major role in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In Europe, Variable Renewable Sources (VRS), such as wind and solar power sources, are becoming a relevant share of the generation portfolios in many countries. Beside the indisputable social and environmental advantages of VRS, on the short medium term the VRS-induced lowering energy prices and increasing price's volatility might challenge traditional power sources and, among them, hydropower production, because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. In this study, we focus on the Swiss hydropower sector analysing how different low-carbon targets and strategies established at the Swiss and European level might affect energy price formation and thus impact - through hydropower operation - water availability and ecosystems services at the catchment scale. We combine a hydrological model to simulate future water availability and an electricity market model to simulate future evolution of energy prices based on official Swiss and European energy roadmaps and CO2 price trends in the European Union. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design alternative hydropower reservoir operation strategies, aiming to maximise the hydropower companies' income or to provide reliable energy supply with respect to the energy demand. This integrated model allows analysing to which extent global low-carbon policies impact reservoir operation at the local scale, and to gain insight on how to prioritise compensation measures and/or adaptation strategies to mitigate the impact of VRS on hydropower companies in increasingly water constrained settings. Numerical results are shown for a real-world case study in the Swiss Alps.

  20. Modeling variation in global consumer’ participation behaviour intentions using an institutional market index

    Schumann, J.H.; Nijssen, E.J.; Lentz, P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Enhancing customer participation behaviour (CPB) is critical for service firms. However, in a global context, cultural and local market factors are relevant. This study details how and why global service firms can and should account for such factors. Prior research relied on cultural value

  1. Globalization and Institutional Change : Are Emerging Market Economies in Europe and Asia Converging?

    Hoen, Herman W.

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that globalization leads to a smaller world by institutional convergence. Politico-economic orders become alike across the world. The article analyzes institutional change triggered by the global financial crisis of 2008/2009 and compares developments in emerging markets in Europe

  2. Alternative Food in the Global South: Reflections on a Direct Marketing Initiative in Kenya

    Freidberg, Susanne; Goldstein, Lissa

    2011-01-01

    Amidst booming scholarship on alternative food networks (AFNs) in the global North, research on AFN in the global South remains scarce. Partly this is because explicitly alternative initiatives are themselves scarce, except for those focused on export markets. Yet in countries such as Kenya, urban consumers and rural smallholders have good reason…

  3. IBM announces global Grid computing solutions for banking, financial markets

    2003-01-01

    "IBM has announced a series of Grid projects around the world as part of its Grid computing program. They include IBM new Grid-based product offerings with business intelligence software provider SAS and other partners that address the computer-intensive needs of the banking and financial markets industry (1 page)."

  4. Google and global market search: information signals and knowledge indices

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Choi, Chong-Ju; Millar, Hartley

    2008-01-01

    With perfect information an economically rational market is expected. In the ICT age the introduction of a shopping/price comparison facility (Froogle) by a company with a search reputation as pre-eminent as Google leads to the expectation that it will allow comparison of products in terms not only

  5. Evaluation of Effect of Global Economic Meltdown on Capital Market Performance

    ONAOLAPO ADEKUNLE RAHMAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis that loomed the global economy was considered more inclusive than any other period of financial turmoil in the past 60 years. This paper evaluates the implications of the global economic meltdown on the Nigerian Capital Market Performance using the market capitalization of the Nigerian Stock Exchange as a major indicator. When the global economic meltdown came, it poses a recession on the Market Capitalization and the volume of share index of the Nation. This study depends entirely on secondary data in form of annual aggregate time series data of Market capitalization (dependent variable, exchange rate, interest rate, inflation rate, market share index with Dummy variable to represent the period of economic crisis. Ordinary least square of multiple regressions was used to analyze the data into econometric model while F-statistics was used to test for the formulated hypothesis. This study depicts that the global economic meltdown has a negative effect on the Capital Market Performance. It was therefore recommended that the Federal government and the regulatory agencies (CBN, NSE, SEC etc. should come up with intervention and fiscal policies that will suppress these effects and jumpstart the capital market and that the policies should be properly implemented and monitored.

  6. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives; Regulacao tributaria do mercado de carbono no Brasil: entraves e perspectivas

    Marques, Fernando; Magalhaes, Gerusa [Madrona Hong Mazzuco Brandao - Sociedade de Advogados (MHM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: gerusa.magalhaes@mhmlaw.com.br; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br; Romeiro, Viviane [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: viviromeiro@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  7. QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION OF COMPANIES AND MARKETS

    N. Kovtun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of improving the author’s methodology linked with the assessment of companies’ and markets’ globalization level were presented in this paper. Based on the analysis of the global companies’ and global markets’ features referred to in scientific literature, the specifications which can be used to determine the globalization level of companies and markets were suggested. In addition, the globalization level of the largest top-ten companies (according to the rating of Forbes Global 2000 Leading Companies in 2015 was identified as well as that of corresponding industry markets: auto and truck manufacturers, major banks, software and programming, large department stores (retailers, telecommunication services, electronics producers, electronics, oil and gas operations.

  8. Stock return predictability and market integration: The role of global and local information

    David G. McMillan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the predictability of a range of international stock markets where we allow the presence of both local and global predictive factors. Recent research has argued that US returns have predictive power for international stock returns. We expand this line of research, following work on market integration, to include a more general definition of the global factor, based on principal components analysis. Results identify three global expected returns factors, one related to the major stock markets of the US, UK and Asia and one related to the other markets analysed. The third component is related to dividend growth. A single dominant realised returns factor is also noted. A forecasting exercise comparing the principal components based factors to a US return factor and local market only factors, as well as the historical mean benchmark finds supportive evidence for the former approach. It is hoped that the results from this paper will be informative on three counts. First, to academics interested in understanding the dynamics asset price movement. Second, to market participants who aim to time the market and engage in portfolio and risk management. Third, to those (policy makers and others who are interested in linkages across international markets and the nature and degree of integration.

  9. Crude oil price shocks and stock returns. Evidence from Turkish stock market under global liquidity conditions

    Berk, Istemi [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Aydogan, Berna [Izmir Univ. of Economics (Turkey). Dept. of International Trade and Finance

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of crude oil price variations on the Turkish stock market returns. We have employed vector autoregression (V AR) model using daily observations of Brent crude oil prices and Istanbul Stock Exchange National Index (ISE- 1 00) returns for the period between January 2, 1990 and November 1, 2011. We have also tested the relationship between oil prices and stock market returns under global liquidity conditions by incorporating a liquidity proxy variable, Chicago Board of Exchange's (CBOE) S and P 500 market volatility index (VIX), into the model. Variance decomposition test results suggest little empirical evidence that crude oil price shocks have been rationally evaluated in the Turkish stock market. Rather, it was global liquidity conditions that were found to account for the greatest amount of variation in stock market returns.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF SWINGS IN GLOBAL WHEAT PRICES ON THE DOMESTIC MARKETS IN AFGHANISTAN

    Najibullah Hassanzoy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent shocks in global prices of cereals and the spillover effects of trade restrictive policies adversely affected domestic markets, particularly in the net food importing countries such as Afghanistan. This paper investigates the effects of 2007–2008 spikes in global wheat prices on the dynamics of price transmission and long-run equilibrium relationship between global and domestic wheat markets. The findings indicate that domestic and global wheat markets may be cointegrated in Regime-I (pre-break, Regime-II (post-break and the overall sample period. Moreover, the elasticity of price transmission and speed of adjustment towards the long-run equilibrium are substantially different between the two regimes, i.e., they appear to be larger in Regime-I as compared to Regime-II. Similarly, the effect of a shock in global wheat prices on domestic wheat markets might be long-lasting in Regime-I but transitory in Regime-II. This research underlines the need for mitigating the adverse effect of spikes in global wheat prices on domestic wheat markets in the context of a landlocked net food importing country.

  11. Assessing Students' Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Understanding of Global Carbon Cycling

    You, Hye Sun; Marshall, Jill A.; Delgado, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Global carbon cycling describes the movement of carbon through atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere; it lies at the heart of climate change and sustainability. To understand the global carbon cycle, students will require "interdisciplinary knowledge." While standards documents in science education have long promoted…

  12. GOING GLOBAL — ACTING LOCAL: SIEMENS IN THE CHINESE ELECTRICAL MARKET, 1904-1937

    Mathias Mutz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The German electrical manufacturer Siemens has been active in the Chinese market since the 1870s and established its first office in Shanghai in 1904. Focusing on marketing, the paper analyzes Siemens' business activities in China in the period from 1904 to 1937, and argues that the company exemplified a strategy of "glocalization," i.e. combining global business objectives and local adjustments. At the same time, the growing importance of international markets affected the development of the company as a whole. Referring to the contributions of "product," "price, "place" and "promotion" to the enterprise's development, this paper emphasizes the close connection between marketing and internationalization.

  13. Impacts of continental arcs on global carbon cycling and climate

    Lee, C. T.; Jiang, H.; Carter, L.; Dasgupta, R.; Cao, W.; Lackey, J. S.; Lenardic, A.; Barnes, J.; McKenzie, R.

    2017-12-01

    On myr timescales, climatic variability is tied to variations in atmospheric CO2, which in turn is driven by geologic sources of CO2 and modulated by the efficiency of chemical weathering and carbonate precipitation (sinks). Long-term variability in CO2 has largely been attributed to changes in mid-ocean ridge inputs or the efficiency of global weathering. For example, the Cretaceous greenhouse is thought to be related to enhanced oceanic crust production, while the late Cenozoic icehouse is attributed to enhanced chemical weathering associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Here, we show that continental arcs may play a more important role in controlling climate, both in terms of sources and sinks. Continental arcs differ from island arcs and mid-ocean ridges in that the continental plate through which arc magmas pass may contain large amounts of sedimentary carbonate, accumulated over the history of the continent. Interaction of arc magmas with crustal carbonates via assimilation, reaction or heating can significantly add to the mantle-sourced CO2 flux. Detrital zircons and global mapping of basement rocks shows that the length of continental arcs in the Cretaceous was more than twice that in the mid-Cenozoic; maps also show many of these arcs intersected crustal carbonates. The increased length of continental arc magmatism coincided with increased oceanic spreading rates, placing convergent margins into compression, which favors continental arcs. Around 50 Ma, however, nearly all the continental arcs in Eurasia and North America terminated as India collided with Eurasia and the western Pacific rolled back, initiating the Marianas-Tonga-Kermadec intra-oceanic subduction complex and possibly leading to a decrease in global CO2 production. Meanwhile, extinct continental arcs continued to erode, resulting in regionally enhanced chemical weathering unsupported by magmatic fluxes of CO2. Continental arcs, during their magmatic lifetimes, are thus a source of CO2, driving

  14. Systemic risk and the hysteria generated in the global market

    Thalles Alexandre Takada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The negotiating arrangements ordered by an economic order focused to supply the financial market creates an inherent weakness to the system itself. This weakness reflects the decision taking of individuals through the socioeconomic events arising in this market. Simple news reports may trigger a systemic crisis. The present article investigates this proposition, in other words, which economic and legal factors can cause and control the drastic effects on the economy, like the bank run the most visible of these phenomena. Using economic theories related to legal doctrine, it shows up in an interdisciplinary way that society is not a square matrix of linear factors, but a complex system of negotiation exchange governed by the human (irrationality.

  15. The Global Carbon Cycle: It's a Small World

    Ineson, Philip; Milcu, Alexander; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wildman, Dennis; Anderson, Robert; Manning, Peter; Heinemeyer, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Predicting future atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), together with the impacts of these changes on global climate, are some of the most urgent and important challenges facing mankind. Modelling is the only way in which such predictions can be made, leading to the current generation of increasingly complex computer simulations, with associated concerns about embedded assumptions and conflicting model outputs. Alongside analysis of past climates, the GCMs currently represent our only hope of establishing the importance of potential runaway positive feedbacks linking climate change and atmospheric greenhouse gases yet the incorporation of necessary biospheric responses into GCMs markedly increases the uncertainty of predictions. Analysis of the importance of the major components of the global carbon (C) cycle reveals that an understanding of the conditions under which the terrestrial biosphere could switch from an overall carbon (C) sink to a source is critical to our ability to make future climate predictions. Here we present an alternative approach to assessing the short term biotic (plant and soil) sensitivities to elevated temperature and atmospheric CO2 through the use of a purely physical analogue. Centred on the concept of materially-closed systems containing scaled-down ratios of the global C stocks for the atmosphere, vegetation and soil we show that, in these model systems, the terrestrial biosphere is able to buffer a rise of 3oC even when coupled to very strong CO2-temperature positive feedbacks. The system respiratory response appears to be extremely well linked to temperature and is critical in deciding atmospheric concentrations of CO2. Simulated anthropogenic emissions of CO2 into the model systems showed an initial corresponding increase in atmospheric CO2 but, somewhat surprisingly, CO2 concentrations levelled off at ca. 480 p.p.m.v., despite continuing additions of CO2. Experiments were performed in which reversion of atmospheric

  16. Is the corporate loan market globally integrated? a pricing puzzle

    Mark S. Carey; Gregory P. Nini

    2004-01-01

    We offer evidence that interest rate spreads on syndicated loans to corporate borrowers are economically significantly smaller in Europe than in the U.S., other things equal. Differences in borrower, loan and lender characteristics associated with equilibrium mechanisms suggested in the literature do not appear to explain the phenomenon. Borrowers overwhelmingly issue in their natural home market and bank portfolios display significant home "bias." This may explain why pricing discrepancies a...

  17. OPENING GLOBAL MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURE: THE NEXT WTO ROUND

    Sumner, Daniel A.

    2000-01-01

    More open international markets benefit the economy as a whole, as well as most U.S. agricultural producers. The Uruguay Round Agreement laid out a useful framework. Specifically addressed here is why the key to further liberalizing agricultural trade is reduction of tariffs as comprehensively and rapidly as politics will allow. Other issues such as export subsidies, tariff-rate quota quantities, and developing-country relationships are also important, especially while tariffs are coming down...

  18. Global ocean carbon uptake: magnitude, variability and trends

    R. Wanninkhof

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The globally integrated sea–air anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 flux from 1990 to 2009 is determined from models and data-based approaches as part of the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP project. Numerical methods include ocean inverse models, atmospheric inverse models, and ocean general circulation models with parameterized biogeochemistry (OBGCMs. The median value of different approaches shows good agreement in average uptake. The best estimate of anthropogenic CO2 uptake for the time period based on a compilation of approaches is −2.0 Pg C yr−1. The interannual variability in the sea–air flux is largely driven by large-scale climate re-organizations and is estimated at 0.2 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades with some systematic differences between approaches. The largest differences between approaches are seen in the decadal trends. The trends range from −0.13 (Pg C yr−1 decade−1 to −0.50 (Pg C yr−1 decade−1 for the two decades under investigation. The OBGCMs and the data-based sea–air CO2 flux estimates show appreciably smaller decadal trends than estimates based on changes in carbon inventory suggesting that methods capable of resolving shorter timescales are showing a slowing of the rate of ocean CO2 uptake. RECCAP model outputs for five decades show similar differences in trends between approaches.

  19. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Global climate change, energy subsidies and national carbon taxes

    Larsen, B.; Shah, A.

    1995-01-01

    In the previous chapter of the book it is indicated that fossil-fuel burning is one of the main environmental culprits. Nevertheless, many countries continue to subsidize fossil fuels. In this chapter estimates of subsidies to energy and energy complements in OECD and non-OECD countries are provided. The authors conclude that the removal of energy subsidies in OECD countries on the order of US$30 billion annually (primarily in the US and Germany) and subsidies to complements on the order of US$50-90 (United States) are likely to have only little impact on CO-emissions. In contrast, the removal of energy subsidies of US$270-330 billion in non-OECD countries could substantially curb the growth of global CO 2 emissions, equivalent to the impact of a carbon tax on the order of US$60-70 per ton in the OECD countries. Nonetheless, even with the removal of energy subsidies, the growth in CO 2 emissions in non-OECD countries is projected to increase by 80% from the year 1990 to 2010. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of a revenue-neutral national carbon tax, in addition to energy subsidy removal, can yield significant health benefits from the reduction in local pollution. The authors note that carbon taxes are considerably less regressive relative to lifetime income or annual consumption expenditures than to annual income. 7 tabs., 23 refs

  1. Global gas processing will strengthen to meet expanding markets

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.; Gist, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The worldwide LPG industry continues to expand faster than the petroleum industry -- 4%/year for LPG vs. 2%/year for petroleum in 1995 and less than 1%/year in the early 1990s. This rapid expansion of LPG markets is occurring in virtually every region of the world, including such developing countries as China. The Far East is the focus of much of the LPG industry's attention, but many opportunities exist in other regions such as the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The investment climate is improving in all phases of downstream LPG marketing, including terminaling, storage, and wholesale and retail distribution. The world LPG supply/demand balance has been relatively tight since the Gulf War and should remain so. Base demand (the portion of demand that is not highly price-sensitive) is expanding more rapidly than supplies. As a result, the proportion of total LPG supplies available for price-sensitive petrochemical feedstock markets is declining, at least in the short term. The paper discusses importers, price patterns, world LPG demand, world LPG supply, US NGL supply, US gas processing, ethane and propane supply, butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline supply, and US NGL demand

  2. Global land-use and market interactions between climate and bioenergy policies

    Golub, A.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past few years, interest in bioenergy has boomed with higher oil prices and concerns about energy security, farm incomes, and mitigation of climate change. Large-scale commercial bioenergy production could have far reaching implications for regional and global land use and output markets associated with food, forestry, chemical, and energy sectors, as well as household welfare. Similarly, there is significant interest in international agricultural and forestry based carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, which could also provide revenue to developing countries and farmers in exchange for modifying land management practices. However, bioenergy and climate policies are being formulated largely independent of one another. Understanding the interaction between these potentially competing policy objectives is important for identifying possible constraints that one policy might place on the other, potential complementarities that could be exploited in policy design, and net land-use change and management implications over time. This study develops a new dynamic global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model GDyn-E-AEZ to assess the interaction between biofuels production and climate mitigation policies. The model is built on several existing CGE platforms, including 1) GTAP-AEZ-GHG model (Golub et al., 2009), 2) GTAP-BIO (Birur et al., 2008; Taheripour and Tyner, 2011), and 3) GDyn framework (Ianchovichina and McDougall, 2001) extended to investigate the role of population and per capita income growth, changing consumption patterns, and global economic integration in determining long-run patterns of land-use change. The new model is used to assess the effects of domestic and global bioenergy expansion on future land use, as well as sectoral, regional and global GHG emissions mitigation potential. Do bioenergy programs facilitate or constrain GHG mitigation opportunities? For instance, Golub et al. (2009) estimate substantial GHG

  3. Implications of carbon cap-and-trade for US voluntary renewable energy markets

    Bird, Lori A.; Holt, Edward; Levenstein Carroll, Ghita

    2008-01-01

    Many consumers today are purchasing renewable energy in large part for the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits that they provide. Emerging carbon regulation in the US has the potential to affect existing markets for renewable energy. Carbon cap-and-trade programs are now under development in the Northeast under the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and in early stages of development in the West and Midwest. There is increasing discussion about carbon regulation at the national level as well. While renewable energy will likely benefit from carbon cap-and-trade programs because compliance with the cap will increase the costs of fossil fuel generation, cap-and-trade programs can also impact the ability of renewable energy generation to affect overall CO 2 emissions levels and obtain value for those emissions benefits. This paper summarizes key issues for renewable energy markets that are emerging with carbon regulation, such as the implications for emissions benefits claims and voluntary market demand and the use of renewable energy certificates (RECs) in multiple markets. It also explores policy options under consideration for designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and renewable energy markets to work together

  4. a European Global Navigation Satellite System — the German Market and Value Adding Chain Effects

    Vollerthun, A.; Wieser, M.

    2002-03-01

    Since Europe is considering to establish a "market-driven" European Global Navigation Satellite System, the German Center of Aerospace initiated a market research to justify a German investment in such a European project. The market research performed included the following market segments: aviation, railway, road traffic, shipping, surveying, farming, military, space applications, leisure, and sport. In these market segments, the forementioned inputs were determined for satellite navigation hardware (receivers) as well as satellite navigation services. The forecast period was from year 2007 to 2017. For the considered period, the market amounts to a total of DM 83.0 billion (approx. US $50 billion), whereas the satellite navigation equipment market makes up DM 39.8 billion, and charges for value-added-services amount to DM 43.2 billion. On closer examination road traffic can be identified as the dominant market share, both in the receiver-market and service-market. With a share of 96% for receivers and 73% for services the significance of the road traffic segment becomes obvious. The second part of this paper investigates the effects the market potential has on the Value-Adding-Chain. Therefore, all participants in the Value-Adding-Chain are identified, using industrial cost structure models the employment effect is analyzed, and possible tax revenues for the state are examined.

  5. Think Local-Act Local: Is It Time to Slow Down the Accelerated Move to Global Marketing?

    Schuiling, Isabelle

    2001-01-01

    In view of the accelerated move of great corporations towards global marketing, the strategic changes of such companies raise interesting questions. Is marketing globalization reaching its limits after years of implementation? Is it time for companies to rethink their strategies and move back, like Coca-Cola, to a multi-domestic marketing approach?

  6. Higher Education in the Global Market: Opportunities and Threats

    Singh, Navin

    2011-01-01

    The world is marked by the twin processes of economic and cultural globalization in an era of information technology. The identities of all societies are evolving as social and political boundaries are shrinking day-by-day. As a result of significant economic and political changes, cross-cultural contact is at an all-time high in human history.…

  7. EU effect: Exporting emission standards for vehicles through the global market economy.

    Crippa, M; Janssens-Maenhout, G; Guizzardi, D; Galmarini, S

    2016-12-01

    Emission data from EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research), rather than economic data, are used to estimate the effect of policies and of the global exports of policy-regulated goods, such as vehicles, on global emissions. The results clearly show that the adoption of emission standards for the road transport sector in the two main global markets (Europe and North America) has led to the global proliferation of emission-regulated vehicles through exports, regardless the domestic regulation in the country of destination. It is in fact more economically convenient for vehicle manufacturers to produce and sell a standard product to the widest possible market and in the greatest possible amounts. The EU effect (European Union effect) is introduced as a global counterpart to the California effect. The former is a direct consequence of the penetration of the EURO standards in the global markets by European and Japanese manufacturers, which effectively export the standard worldwide. We analyze the effect on PM 2.5 emissions by comparing a scenario of non-EURO standards against the current estimates provided by EDGAR. We find that PM 2.5 emissions were reduced by more than 60% since the 1990s worldwide. Similar investigations on other pollutants confirm the hypothesis that the combined effect of technological regulations and their diffusion through global markets can also produce a positive effect on the global environment. While we acknowledge the positive feedback, we also demonstrate that current efforts and standards will be totally insufficient should the passenger car fleets in emerging markets reach Western per capita figures. If emerging countries reach the per capita vehicle number of the USA and Europe under current technological conditions, then the world will suffer pre-1990 emission levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon markets and low-carbon investment in emerging economies: A synthesis of parallel workshops in Brazil and India

    Hultman, Nathan E.; Pulver, Simone; Pacca, Sergio; Saran, Samir; Powell, Lydia; Romeiro, Viviane; Benney, Tabitha

    2011-01-01

    While policy experiments targeted at energy and innovation transitions have not been deployed consistently across all countries, market mechanisms such as carbon pricing have been tested over the past decade in disparate development contexts, and therefore provide some opportunities for analysis. This brief communication reports on two parallel workshops recently held in Sao Paulo, Brazil and New Delhi, India to address questions of how well these carbon pricing policies have worked in affecting corporate decisions to invest in low-carbon technology. Convening practitioners and scholars from multiple countries, the workshops elicited participants' perspectives on business investment decisions under international carbon markets in emerging economies across multiple energy-intensive sectors. We review the resulting perspectives on low-carbon policies and present guidance on a research agenda that could clarify how international and national policies could help encourage both energy transitions and energy innovations in emerging economies.

  9. The Evolution of Foreign Exchange Markets in the Context of Global Crisis

    Mariana Trandafir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The FX market is the world’s largest financial market. The global financial systeminvolves effective and efficient exchange of currencies. Corporations and investors participate in themarket for operational needs: to reduce risk by hedging currency exposures; to convert their returnsfrom international investments into domestic currencies and to make cross-border investments andraise finance outside home markets. Central banks participate in the market. This paper analyzesforeign exchange marketsactivity before and under the condition the global crisis. The method ofresearch is the comparative analysis used on the global and European level. The research is importantand actual because it reveals the changeswhich have defined a new paradigm forthe foreignexchange marketsand which contributed to the increasing of the global foreign exchange marketturnover during the global crisis. The main conclusion of the paper is that the innovativedevelopments in electronic trading technology and institutional trading arrangements are behind theevolution of the foreign exchange markets. The analysis is supported by statistical tables and uses therecent officialBank for International Settlements and European Central Bank statistic databases.

  10. The unknown story of the European carbon market: an archaeology of the electrical sector

    Cartel, Melodie; Aggeri, Franck; Caneill, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    In economic literature, the creation of the European carbon market is presented as a major institutional innovation that can be viewed as a direct application of economic theory. In this article, we propose another version of how the European carbon market came about that emphasizes the active role played by companies. For a period of three years, these companies designed and tested a prototype carbon market, while being observed by European experts. Drawing on archive documents, we analyze this experimentation process and examine in detail its influence on the European carbon market. We then discuss the role of companies in the processes of institutional innovation, a process that generally remains invisible. Finally it is explained how such experiments, conducted in protected spaces, can facilitate the design and testing of new concepts

  11. NAMAs and the carbon market. Nationally appropriate mitigation actions of developing countries

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.; Hinostroza, M.

    2009-07-01

    The role of carbon markets in scaling up mitigation actions in developing countries in the post-2012 climate regime is the topic of Perspectives 2009: NAMAs and the Carbon Market - Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions of Developing Countries. The eight papers presented explore how mitigation actions in developing countries, in the context of sustainable development, may be supported by technology, finance and capacity development in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner. Key issues discussed are the pros and cons of market and non-market mechanisms in raising private and public finance, and the appropriate governance structures at the international and national levels. The aim of this publication is to present possible answers to these questions, with a specific focus on the role of existing and emerging carbon markets to finance NAMAs. (LN)

  12. TRENDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES MARKET IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD ECONOMY

    Cristian, SIMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are not homogeneous in nature, having certain features in the productive process that require grouping them into different categories by different criteria. Consequently, natural resources cannot be addressed all at once, but only distinctly, according to relevant criteria selected based on the proposed goals. Changing approaches based resources (materials to the knowledge, from quantity to quality, from mass products to new concepts of higher added value, follows a development that is based on eco-efficiency and sustainable products and services. In this respect, integrated research will become key factors towards global processing. Also, global digitalization requires a new approach on the role of information in the development of economy and increase of competitiveness.

  13. GLOBALIZATION OF FINANCIAL MARKETS AND ISLAMIC FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    KHAN, M. ALI

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, I reflect on the implications of financial globalization for Islamic financial institutions in terms of coordinates selected from both history and theory. I present in outline the 18th century case for and against commerce, the 19th century case for and against a central institution acting as a lender of last resort, and modern theoretical developments in finance and insurance based on the law of large numbers and centered around the notions of arbitrage, naive and efficient di...

  14. Climate Change, Global Food Markets, and Urban Unrest

    2013-02-01

    Francis Gavin 512-471-6267 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Climate Change, Global Food...Russia led then-President Dmitry Medvedev to impose export restrictions on wheat, barley, and rye . Food security is fundamental to human security. Prior...how much food is grown and where it is grown. Second, climate change will increase the frequency of localized crop failures due to more frequent

  15. Going global: LNG could open up gas market

    Jaremko, D.

    2004-01-01

    The probability of liquefied natural gas becoming a major source of energy in North America is discussed. Although the safety of the technology of transporting LNG was proven more than 40 years ago, there are considerable hurdles to be overcome when it comes to establishing LNG terminals. Industry insiders contend that the obstacles to finding suitable sites are primarily NIMBY (not-in-my-backyard) or BANANA (build-absolutely-nothing-anywhere-near-anyone) issues that will be overcome in time with better public information as to what the real hazards are, but the time is not yet ripe for any serious LNG development. Proposed LNG projects in Malaysia, Nigeria, Angola are reviewed, in addition to four projects in the United States, one in the Gulf of Mexico, and three along the American east coast. A Canadian project at Bear Head near Point Tupper, Nova Scotia, which has support from the business community, government and industry, and would provide the shortest distance to eastern North American markets for Atlantic basin shippers is also reviewed. LNG technological and transportation issues apart, there is also direct competition from the long-proposed Alaska pipeline which, if and when built, will provide long-term steady supply of gas for the U. S. market. Alaskan natural gas is clearly the preferred alternative to LNG at the present time

  16. Implementing transparency in an Eastern European office market: preparing Warsaw for global investments

    Nadine Bitterer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of an increasing integration of property and financial markets, the real estate industry is subject to soaring internationalization processes. Since international institutional investors appeared, transnational real estate investments have increased tremendously. In recent years, Central and Eastern European countries have been becoming more attractive to institutional investors and are therefore being integrated into international market structures. Within these countries, Warsaw emerged as the most dynamic and important real estate market. But what are the mechanisms and practices through which the real estate market of Warsaw becomes international? Which networks, intermediaries and frames are necessary to constitute a mature real estate market? The article argues that international real estate consultants are playing a crucial role in the underlying internationalization process. They are acting at the interface between investors, developers, construction companies and tenants and are therefore becoming a crucial hinge between real estate actors. With the example of the Warsaw real estate market we argue that international real estate consultancies are key drivers of the transformation process from a local to a global market. They transfer global knowledge, competence and practices and implement transparent and professional structures in the emerging Warsaw real estate market.

  17. Speculation on commodities futures markets and destabilization of global food prices: exploring the connections.

    Ghosh, Jayati; Heintz, James; Pollin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Price Index surpassed its previous peak of June 2008, and prices remained at this level through September 2011. This pattern is creating justified fears of a renewal or intensification of the global food crisis. This paper reviews arguments and evidence to inform debates on how to regulate commodity futures markets in the face of such price volatility and sustained high prices. We focus on the relationship between market liquidity and price patterns in asset markets in general and in commodities futures markets in particular, as well as the relationship between spot and futures market prices for food. We find strong evidence supporting the need to limit huge increases in trading volume on futures markets through regulations. We find that arguments opposing regulation are not supported. We find no support for the claim that liquidity in futures markets stabilizes prices at "fundamental" values or that spot market prices are free of any significant influence from futures markets. Given these results, the most appropriate position for regulators is precautionary: they should enact and enforce policies capable of effectively dampening excessive speculative trading on the commodities markets for food.

  18. Trading carbon for food: global comparison of carbon stocks vs. crop yields on agricultural land.

    West, Paul C; Gibbs, Holly K; Monfreda, Chad; Wagner, John; Barford, Carol C; Carpenter, Stephen R; Foley, Jonathan A

    2010-11-16

    Expanding croplands to meet the needs of a growing population, changing diets, and biofuel production comes at the cost of reduced carbon stocks in natural vegetation and soils. Here, we present a spatially explicit global analysis of tradeoffs between carbon stocks and current crop yields. The difference among regions is striking. For example, for each unit of land cleared, the tropics lose nearly two times as much carbon (∼120 tons·ha(-1) vs. ∼63 tons·ha(-1)) and produce less than one-half the annual crop yield compared with temperate regions (1.71 tons·ha(-1)·y(-1) vs. 3.84 tons·ha(-1)·y(-1)). Therefore, newly cleared land in the tropics releases nearly 3 tons of carbon for every 1 ton of annual crop yield compared with a similar area cleared in the temperate zone. By factoring crop yield into the analysis, we specify the tradeoff between carbon stocks and crops for all areas where crops are currently grown and thereby, substantially enhance the spatial resolution relative to previous regional estimates. Particularly in the tropics, emphasis should be placed on increasing yields on existing croplands rather than clearing new lands. Our high-resolution approach can be used to determine the net effect of local land use decisions.

  19. The global financial crisis: Is there any contagion between real estate and equity markets?

    Hui, Eddie Chi-man; Chan, Ka Kwan Kevin

    2014-07-01

    This study examines contagion across equity and securitized real estate markets of Hong Kong, US and UK during the global financial crisis by the Forbes-Rigobon, coskewness and cokurtosis tests. In particular, this is the first study to use the cokurtosis test to examine contagion between real estate and equity markets. The results show that the cokurtosis test can detect additional channels of contagion, and hence is a more powerful test. In contrary to Fry et al. (2010), we find that the cokurtosis test shows a highly significant evidence of contagion between the equity and real estate markets in both directions. In particular, the contagion between US's equity and real estate markets is the most significant. This reflects that US is the centre of shock of the global financial crisis.

  20. Policy Approaches for Regulating Alcohol Marketing in a Global Context: A Public Health Perspective.

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is responsible for 3.3 million deaths globally or nearly 6% of all deaths. Alcohol use contributes to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, as well as violence and injuries. The purpose of this review is to discuss, in the context of the expansion of transnational alcohol corporations and harms associated with alcohol use, policy options for regulating exposure to alcohol marketing. We first provide an overview of the public health problem of harmful alcohol consumption and describe the association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. We then discuss the growth and concentration of global alcohol corporations and their marketing practices in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in higher-income societies. We review the use and effectiveness of various approaches for regulating alcohol marketing in various countries before discussing challenges and opportunities to protect public health.

  1. Soil carbon model alternatives for ECHAM5/JSBACH climate model: Evaluation and impacts on global carbon cycle estimates

    Thum, T.; Raisanen, P.; Sevanto, S.

    2011-01-01

    The response of soil organic carbon to climate change might lead to significant feedbacks affecting global warming. This response can be studied by coupled climate-carbon cycle models but so far the description of soil organic carbon cycle in these models has been quite simple. In this work we used...... the coupled climate-carbon cycle model ECHAM5/JSBACH (European Center/Hamburg Model 5/Jena Scheme for Biosphere-Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg) with two different soil carbon modules, namely (1) the original soil carbon model of JSBACH called CBALANCE and (2) a new soil carbon model Yasso07, to study...... the interaction between climate variability and soil organic carbon. Equivalent ECHAM5/JSBACH simulations were conducted using both soil carbon models, with freely varying atmospheric CO2 for the last 30 years (1977-2006). In this study, anthropogenic CO2 emissions and ocean carbon cycle were excluded. The new...

  2. Tecnatom, a Spanish engineering in a global market

    Loizaga, I.; Rejas, L.; Izquierdo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Tecnatom has been successfully developing its activities for more than fifty years thanks to a fully committed working team, its working capacity and its orientation toward innovation. During the past years, a set of skills and expertise have been developed focussing upon the international market. Nowadays, Tecnatom is carrying on its activities in countries such as United States, Brazil, Argentina, China and United Arab Emirates to name but a few. The activities carried out here cover an ample range of tasks. Tecnatom is involved in the initial and continuous training of operational staff not only in facilities already in commercial operation but also in green field developments. Technical support during commissioning, emergency readiness plans drawing, development of innovative aids for operations and designing and developing main control rooms and full scope simulators are other mainstream projects on the way. (Author)

  3. Tecnatom, a Spanish engineering in a global market

    Loizaga, I.; Rejas, L.; Izquierdo, R.

    2013-10-01

    Tecnatom has been successfully developing its activities for more than fifty years thanks to a fully committed working team, its working capacity and its orientation toward innovation. During the past years, a set of skills and expertise have been developed focussing upon the international market. Nowadays, Tecnatom is carrying on its activities in countries such as United States, Brazil, Argentina, China and United Arab Emirates to name but a few. The activities carried out here cover an ample range of tasks. Tecnatom is involved in the initial and continuous training of operational staff not only in facilities already in commercial operation but also in green field developments. Technical support during commissioning, emergency readiness plans drawing, development of innovative aids for operations and designing and developing main control rooms and full scope simulators are other mainstream projects on the way. (Author)

  4. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Establishing a Supervised Classification of Global Blue Carbon Mangrove Ecosystems

    Baltezar, P.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding change in mangroves over time will aid forest management systems working to protect them from over exploitation. Mangroves are one of the most carbon dense terrestrial ecosystems on the planet and are therefore a high priority for sustainable forest management. Although they represent 1% of terrestrial cover, they could account for about 10% of global carbon emissions. The foundation of this analysis uses remote sensing to establish a supervised classification of mangrove forests for discrete regions in the Zambezi Delta of Mozambique and the Rufiji Delta of Tanzania. Open-source mapping platforms provided a dynamic space for analyzing satellite imagery in the Google Earth Engine (GEE) coding environment. C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar data from Sentinel 1 was used in the model as a mask by optimizing SAR parameters. Exclusion metrics identified within Global Land Surface Temperature data from MODIS and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission were used to accentuate mangrove features. Variance was accounted for in exclusion metrics by statistically calculating thresholds for radar, thermal, and elevation data. Optical imagery from the Landsat 8 archive aided a quality mosaic in extracting the highest spectral index values most appropriate for vegetative mapping. The enhanced radar, thermal, and digital elevation imagery were then incorporated into the quality mosaic. Training sites were selected from Google Earth imagery and used in the classification with a resulting output of four mangrove cover map models for each site. The model was assessed for accuracy by observing the differences between the mangrove classification models to the reference maps. Although the model was over predicting mangroves in non-mangrove regions, it was more accurately classifying mangrove regions established by the references. Future refinements will expand the model with an objective degree of accuracy.

  6. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak

    Nikolay Khabarov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP. We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels.

  7. The Strategic Importance of the Global Oil Market

    2015-06-01

    cho- sen as PACOM Professional of the Year and U.S. Fed- eral Employee of the Year in 2006 and 2007. General David Petraeus awarded him the Joint...recovery may not be im- minent, signs are mounting that the tide is turning. The most tangible price effect is on the supply side. In this sense , a low oil...different.” Nothing short of a wholesale culture change in our global financial institutions is required, one that recognizes that the urgency of the

  8. Prospects for global market expansion of China’s wind turbine manufacturing industry

    Gosens, Jorrit; Lu, Yonglong

    2014-01-01

    Emerging economies are increasingly contributing to global innovation, including clean-tech innovation. The development of China’s wind power sector has often been used to illustrate this point. China’s domestic wind power market is the largest in the world and is largely supplied by domestic manufacturers. Competition for market share in the domestic market may pressure firms to innovate, which consecutively improves prospects for global expansion. This paper reviews developments in China’s domestic wind turbine market using the Technological Innovation System framework. We analyze the pressure to innovate arising from market competition and assess the prospects for global expansion of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers. We conclude that domestic customers are not pressured or incentivized to perform with respect to power output, such that turbine manufacturers are not pressured to perform with respect to turbine efficiency or maintenance needs. Pressure to innovate is further reduced by formalizing connections between wind farm developers and turbine manufacturers. Chinese turbine manufacturers cannot yet compete with leading global brands in technological leadership. The prospects for exports are improved, however, by the preferential supply of project financing from institutional investors, such as the China Development Bank, from Chinese utilities that seek global expansion and from the manufacturers themselves. - Highlights: • We assess the pressure to innovate in the Chinese wind turbine market. • Customer demand is focused more strongly on turbine cost than quality. • Formalizing connections between users and suppliers reduce pressure to innovate. • Chinese manufacturers cannot yet compete globally in technological quality. • Preferential supplies of project finance may provide a vehicle for exports

  9. Model-based synthesis of locally contingent responses to global market signals

    Magliocca, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Rural livelihoods and the land systems on which they depend are increasingly influenced by distant markets through economic globalization. Place-based analyses of land and livelihood system sustainability must then consider both proximate and distant influences on local decision-making. Thus, advancing land change theory in the context of economic globalization calls for a systematic understanding of the general processes as well as local contingencies shaping local responses to global signals. Synthesis of insights from place-based case studies of land and livelihood change is a path forward for developing such systematic knowledge. This paper introduces a model-based synthesis approach to investigating the influence of local socio-environmental and agent-level factors in mediating land-use and livelihood responses to changing global market signals. A generalized agent-based modeling framework is applied to six case-study sites that differ in environmental conditions, market access and influence, and livelihood settings. The largest modeled land conversions and livelihood transitions to market-oriented production occurred in sties with relatively productive agricultural land and/or with limited livelihood options. Experimental shifts in the distributions of agents' risk tolerances generally acted to attenuate or amplify responses to changes in global market signals. Importantly, however, responses of agents at different points in the risk tolerance distribution varied widely, with the wealth gap growing wider between agents with higher or lower risk tolerance. These results demonstrate model-based synthesis is a promising approach to overcome many of the challenges of current synthesis methods in land change science, and to identify generalized as well as locally contingent responses to global market signals.

  10. The Risk-Return Profiles Of Global Portfolios: Some Evidence From Asia-Pacific And European Equity Markets

    H. Christine Hsu

    2011-01-01

    As world financial markets are integrated, national stock markets tend to move together. Empirical evidence on correlations among equity markets worldwide suggests an increasing interdependence between most national markets in recent years. This is disconcerting, to say the least, to investors and portfolio managers seeking risk diversification via global equity investing. The objective of this study is to investigate whether there is still room for global portfolio diversification from the U...

  11. Global Health, Medical Anthropology, and Social Marketing: Steps to the Ecology of Collaboration.

    Whiteford, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Anthropology and global health have long been a focus of research for both biological and medical anthropologists. Research has looked at physiological adaptations to high altitudes, community responses to water-borne diseases, the integration of traditional and biomedical approaches to health, global responses to HIV/AIDS, and more recently, to the application of cultural approaches to the control of the Ebola epidemic. Academic anthropology has employed theory and methods to extend knowledge, but less often to apply that knowledge. However, anthropologists outside of the academy have tackled global health issues such as family planning and breast-feeding by bringing together applied medical anthropology and social marketing. In 2014, that potent and provocative combination resulted in the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida being made the home of an innovative center designed to combine academic and applied anthropology with social marketing in order to facilitate social change. This article discusses how inter- and intra-disciplinary research/application has led to the development of Florida's first World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC), and the first such center to focus on social marketing, social change and non-communicable diseases. This article explains the genesis of the Center and presents readers with a brief overview, basic principles and applications of social marketing by reviewing a case study of a water conservation project. The article concludes with thoughts on the ecology of collaboration among global health, medical anthropology and social marketing practitioners.

  12. Microbial Carbonic Anhydrases in Biomimetic Carbon Sequestration for Mitigating Global Warming: Prospects and Perspectives

    Himadri Bose

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available All the leading cities in the world are slowly becoming inhospitable for human life with global warming playing havoc with the living conditions. Biomineralization of carbon dioxide using carbonic anhydrase (CA is one of the most economical methods for mitigating global warming. The burning of fossil fuels results in the emission of large quantities of flue gas. The temperature of flue gas is quite high. Alkaline conditions are necessary for CaCO3 precipitation in the mineralization process. In order to use CAs for biomimetic carbon sequestration, thermo-alkali-stable CAs are, therefore, essential. CAs must be stable in the presence of various flue gas contaminants too. The extreme environments on earth harbor a variety of polyextremophilic microbes that are rich sources of thermo-alkali-stable CAs. CAs are the fastest among the known enzymes, which are of six basic types with no apparent sequence homology, thus represent an elegant example of convergent evolution. The current review focuses on the utility of thermo-alkali-stable CAs in biomineralization based strategies. A variety of roles that CAs play in various living organisms, the use of CA inhibitors as drug targets and strategies for overproduction of CAs to meet the demand are also briefly discussed.

  13. Microbial Carbonic Anhydrases in Biomimetic Carbon Sequestration for Mitigating Global Warming: Prospects and Perspectives.

    Bose, Himadri; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2017-01-01

    All the leading cities in the world are slowly becoming inhospitable for human life with global warming playing havoc with the living conditions. Biomineralization of carbon dioxide using carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of the most economical methods for mitigating global warming. The burning of fossil fuels results in the emission of large quantities of flue gas. The temperature of flue gas is quite high. Alkaline conditions are necessary for CaCO 3 precipitation in the mineralization process. In order to use CAs for biomimetic carbon sequestration, thermo-alkali-stable CAs are, therefore, essential. CAs must be stable in the presence of various flue gas contaminants too. The extreme environments on earth harbor a variety of polyextremophilic microbes that are rich sources of thermo-alkali-stable CAs. CAs are the fastest among the known enzymes, which are of six basic types with no apparent sequence homology, thus represent an elegant example of convergent evolution. The current review focuses on the utility of thermo-alkali-stable CAs in biomineralization based strategies. A variety of roles that CAs play in various living organisms, the use of CA inhibitors as drug targets and strategies for overproduction of CAs to meet the demand are also briefly discussed.

  14. Fractal Markets Hypothesis and the Global Financial Crisis: Scaling, Investment Horizons and Liquidity

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2012), 1250065-1-1250065-13 ISSN 0219-5259 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118310; SVV(CZ) 265 504 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : fractal markets hypothesis * scaling * fractality * investment horizons * efficient markets hypothesis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/kristoufek-fractal markets hypothesis and the global financial crisis scaling investment horizons and liquidity.pdf

  15. It is desirable allocative function of the food market in a global economy?

    Leon Rodriguez, Nohra

    2008-01-01

    This article brings forth the free market influence on product patterns, agricultural output quantities and prices in the global economy? casting doubt over the allocative efficiency of markets and intending to outline some risks brought on by excessive reliance on free markets regarding consumer welfare, food security and negative impact on the environment and sustainable economic growth. As the main analytic element it is presented the preeminence of agricultural food multinational producers, as well as the scale of their influence in terms of product supply and commercialization, responding exclusively to profit maximization incentives without taking into account their role in terms of food nutrition patterns and production

  16. Product development strategy in the Danish agricultural complex: Global interaction with clusters of marketing excellence

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    1992-01-01

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently, the Danish agro-industrial complex been singled out in other studies as a paradigmatic...... produce and utilize sticky and fastchanging information about production and markets respectively. It is precisely by not interacting wi market business-to-business demand from changing end-user market that the Danish agro-industrial complex has avoided being insulated. The managerial implication...... is that a company in search of partners for joint development in global agro-industra networks can realize a competitive advantage by applying a market view that is euclidean upstream and equidstant downstream....

  17. Critical carbon input to maintain current soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems.

    Wang, Guocheng; Luo, Zhongkui; Han, Pengfei; Chen, Huansheng; Xu, Jingjing

    2016-01-13

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  18. Quantified carbon input for maintaining existing soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems

    Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1°× 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  19. Decommissioning and waste markets attract new global alliances

    Shepherd, John

    2014-01-01

    Renewed global efforts to broaden knowledge and expertise in the field of radwaste management and identify the most promising technologies for clean-up and treatment of nuclear wastes are being led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In its recently-published annual report for 2013, the IAEA has given details of the development of new projects for the management of intermediate-level waste and large amounts of waste. Decommissioning can be a lucrative prospect. The availability of skills will be a key factor. Whatever technological advances are made in the coming years, there needs to be corresponding investment in attracting new recruits to the nuclear industry and equipping them with the skills that the industry will need.

  20. Decommissioning and waste markets attract new global alliances

    Shepherd, John [nuclear24, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Renewed global efforts to broaden knowledge and expertise in the field of radwaste management and identify the most promising technologies for clean-up and treatment of nuclear wastes are being led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In its recently-published annual report for 2013, the IAEA has given details of the development of new projects for the management of intermediate-level waste and large amounts of waste. Decommissioning can be a lucrative prospect. The availability of skills will be a key factor. Whatever technological advances are made in the coming years, there needs to be corresponding investment in attracting new recruits to the nuclear industry and equipping them with the skills that the industry will need.

  1. Globalizing Social Welfare and Labor Markets in East and Southeast Asia

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2007-01-01

    experienced social pressures for restricting the workings of globalization: The first is the fear of job losses through the mechanisms of outsourcing and imports of cheapers industrial products. The second is the anxiety of ethnic and cultural dilution due to the emergence of new patters of labor migration...... and workers negotiate for the promotion of national development and the creation of a civil society which might minimize the adverse effects of globalization! This paper explores the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor markets and social welfare in East and Southeast Asia. It draws upon recent...... debates in the framework of comparative political economy over the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor market regulation and social welfare adjustment. The focus is on the radical change of work arrangements with an accompanying loss of the social relevance of the work place and of labour...

  2. Carbon price instead of support schemes: wind power investments by the electricity market

    Petitet, Marie; Finon, Dominique; Janssen, Tanguy

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we study the development of wind power by the electricity market without any usual support scheme which is aimed at subsidizing non mature renewables, with the sole incentive of a significant carbon price. Long term electricity market and investment decisions simulation by system dynamics modelling is used to trace the electricity generation mix evolution over a 20-year period in a pure thermal system. A range of stable carbon price, as a tax could be, is tested in order to determine the value above which wind power development by market forces becomes economically possible. Not only economic competitiveness in terms of cost price, but also profitability against traditional fossil fuel technologies are necessary for a market-driven development of wind power. Results stress that wind power is really profitable for investors only if the carbon price is very significantly higher than the price required for making wind power MWh's cost price competitive with CCGT and coal-fired plants on the simplistic basis of levelized costs. In this context, the market-driven development of wind power seems only possible if there is a strong commitment to climate policy, reflected by the preference for a stable and high carbon price rather than a fuzzy price of an emission trading scheme. Besides, results show that market-driven development of wind power would require a sky-rocketing carbon price if the initial technology mix includes a share of nuclear plants even with a moratorium on new nuclear development. (authors)

  3. Strategic closed-loop facility location problem with carbon market trading

    Diabat, A.; Abdallah, T.; Al-Refaie, A.

    2013-01-01

    and recovery of products in a closed-loop configuration. Remanufacturing is the basis of profit-oriented reverse logistics in which recovered products are restored to a marketable condition in order to be resold to the primary or secondary market. In this paper, we introduce a multiechelon multicommodity...... facility location problem with a trading price of carbon emissions and a cost of procurement. The company might either incur costs if the carbon cap, normally assigned by regulatory agencies, is lower than the total emissions, or gain profit if the carbon cap is higher than the total emissions. A numerical...

  4. Systematic framework for carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes to reduce the global carbon dioxide emissions

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Gani, Rafiqul

    information-data on various carbon dioxide emission sources and available capture-utilization technologies; the model and solution libraries [2]; and the generic 3-stage approach for determining more sustainable solutions [3] through superstructure (processing networks) based optimization – adopted for global...... need to provide, amongst other options: useful data from in-house databases on carbon dioxide emission sources; mathematical models from a library of process-property models; numerical solvers from library of implemented solvers; and, work-flows and data-flows for different benefit scenarios...... to be investigated. It is useful to start by developing a prototype framework and then augmenting its application range by increasing the contents of its databases, libraries and work-flows and data-flows. The objective is to present such a prototype framework with its implemented database containing collected...

  5. Perspectives of the Evolution of Romanian Financial Market in the Context of Global Financial Market

    Dalia SIMION; Daniel TOBA

    2008-01-01

    Economical financial reality proves that, in time, globalisation has an impact not only on commodities economy but also on all financial domains, leading to remodelling of financial arrangement, increase of business opportunities but as well competition between financial institutions. Due to the expansion of financial markets, the consequences of globalisation processes converge to an efficiency of economic systems, through an increase of financing capacity and quick transformation of investm...

  6. Environmental market failures. Are there any local market-based corrective mechanisms for global problems?

    Ayres, R.U.

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews various policy tools that have been discussed in the literature, including legal, administrative and fiscal (tax) schemes, as well as tradeable emission permits and concludes that none of them are really suitable for dealing with global problems. An alternative is suggested, namely the use of tradeable individual consumption quotas for traded commodities at the national level, to be extended later to the global level by trading quotas among nations (assuming agreement can be reached on the basis for determining quotas). 28 refs

  7. THE INDONESIAN STOCK MARKET PERFORMANCE DURING ASIAN ECONOMIC CRISIS AND GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    MARIA PRAPTININGSIH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Volatility in the stock market had strongly affected by the movement of publicly or even inside information. The movements of this information will generate the perspectives and expectations of investors in decision-making. How strong is the level of market efficiency in determining the movement of stock market, especially to achieve stability in the stock market during the economic crisis? How effective are the policies of central banks in controlling the movement of the stock market? This study aims to measure the factors that influence changes in the movement of stock price in Indonesian stock market in terms of market efficiency hypothesis. This research also aims to investigate the effectiveness of central bank policy in controlling and stabilizing the movement of stocks in Indonesia. The research will focus on the economic crisis in 1997 and the global crisis in 2008 as case studies. Thepaperutilizesthe vector error-correction model, impulse responses and variance decomposition in measuring the contribution of the factors that affect the movement of stock and determine the effectiveness of central bank policy. The findings are beneficialto central banks, governments, companies and investors in strengthening the Indonesian Stock Market particularly in facing the threat of financial crisis.

  8. Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment

    Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

    2009-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

  9. Developing a Pedagogy for Globalization: A Marketing and Political Science Multi-Disciplinary and Transnational Approach

    Arsenault, Paul M.; Stevenson, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing social science and marketing programs in the start of the 21st century is how to "globalize" our curriculums, so that our tech-savvy, but often internationally and cross-culturally inexperienced students have, understand, and are prepared to embrace the diverse opportunities that will be an…

  10. Measuring success in global health diplomacy: lessons from marketing food to children in India.

    Smith, Richard; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-06-16

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) focuses on international negotiation; principally between nation states, but increasingly non-state actors However, agreements made at the global level have to be enacted at the national, and in some cases the sub-national level. This presents two related problems: (1) how can success be measured in global health diplomacy and (2) at what point should success be evaluated? This commentary highlights these issues through examining the relationship between India and the WHO Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children, endorsed by Resolution WHA63.14 at the 63rd World Health Assembly in 2010.

  11. Growth of the Asian health-care market: global implications for the pharmaceutical industry.

    Epstein, Richard J

    2007-10-01

    The global economy is being transformed by an explosion of information unleashed by the internet, the digital revolution, communications and increased international mobility. This transformation is manifesting in many ways, including rapid development of countries such as China, commoditization of public services, mobilization of workforces, shifting of market control from suppliers to consumers, interlinked rises in product demand and customer expectations, and problems regulating international business competition. As Asia is home to half of the world's population, and offers both a large relatively low-cost workforce in some countries and a potentially huge retail market, this region could be central to the future of the global economy. Like other industries, the pharmaceutical industry faces a new array of Asia-specific opportunities and challenges. Success in meeting these challenges will go to those pharmaceutical companies that best understand the unique strengths and constraints of Asia's diverse cultures, talents and markets.

  12. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  13. Concurrent Engineering with IT-Tools for successful industrial products in a global market

    Conrad, Finn

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses research results concerning Concurrent Engineering with IT-Tools for Successful Industrial Products on a Global Market. Concurrent Engineering, often is called just ¿CE¿, that is a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and related...... on the world market and the increasing global public demands, requirements and regulations for protection of the environment are both driving forces and challenges for improving the development of control and engineering design. There has always been an ongoing desire to develop and design systems to improve...... performance of products, productivity and efficiency of process operations. Smart use of simulation and modelling IT tools can improve many enterprises ability to compete and survive on the market. European Enterprises developing, designing and manufacturing hydraulic components and hydraulic systems...

  14. Criterion 5: Maintenance of forest contributions to global carbon cycles

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Northern forests cover more than 42 percent of the region and are enormous reservoirs of carbon. Through photosynthesis, live trees emit oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide they pull from the atmosphere. As a tree grows it stores carbon in wood above and below ground, and sequestered carbon comprises about half of its dry weight. Dead trees and down logs are also...

  15. Meeting global policy commitments carbon sequestration and southern pine forests

    Kurt H. Johnsen; David N. Wear; R. Oren; R.O. Teskey; Felipe Sanchez; Rodney E. Will; John Butnor; D. Markewitz; D. Richter; T. Rials; H.L. Allen; J. Seiler; D. Ellsworth; Christopher Maier; G. Katul; P.M. Dougherty

    2001-01-01

    In managed forests, the amount of carbon further sequestered will be determined by (1) the increased amount of carbon in standing biomass (resulting from land-use changes and increased productivity); (2) the amount of recalcitrant carbon remaining below ground at the end of rotations; and (3) the amount of carbon sequestered in products created from harvested wood....

  16. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: a duopoly market pricing competition and cooperation under the carbon emissions cap.

    Jian, Ming; He, Hua; Ma, Changsong; Wu, Yan; Yang, Hao

    2017-05-17

    This article studies the price competition and cooperation in a duopoly that is subjected to carbon emissions cap. The study assumes that in a departure from the classical Bertrand game, there is still a market for both firms' goods regardless of the product price, even though production capacity is limited by carbon emissions regulation. Through the decentralized decision making of both firms under perfect information, the results are unstable. The firm with the lower maximum production capacity under carbon emissions regulation and the firm with the higher maximum production capacity both seek market price cooperation. By designing an internal carbon credits trading mechanism, we can ensure that the production capacity of the firm with the higher maximum production capacity under carbon emissions regulation reaches price equilibrium. Also, the negotiation power of the duopoly would affect the price equilibrium.

  17. The carbon fibre market and uses for composite wind blades

    Lowe, J R [Tenax Fibers Gmbh and Co. KG, Wuppertal (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Due to its excellent fatigue properties, low weight and high stiffness, carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) is the ideal material to use for the manufacture of wind blades. The present use of CFRP in the wind energy sector however is very low in comparison to glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) materials. The main reason for this low use of CFRP is cost since at present times carbon fibre is valued ten times as much as glass fibre. This paper introduces carbon fibre as an alternative material to glass and examines the use of CFRP components in other high fatigue applications. (au)

  18. Labor Market Efficiency as One of the Pillars of the Global Competitiveness of an Economy - Conclusions for the Labor Market Regimes of the EU Countries

    Izabela Ostoj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Labor market activity may have an effect on global economy competitiveness. This issue has been described as "labor market efficiency" (LME, which is a constituent of The Global Competitiveness Index published by The World Economic Forum (WEF. The article's purpose is to clarify the phenomenon of LME and explain the mechanisms which help the constituents affect economy competitiveness. The structure of LME points at the meaning of labor market regime, especially after considering the fact that European Union countries operate within various models of regime. The analysis of the LME diversity may help determine what type of labor market regimes are most efficient in enhancing economy competitiveness

  19. Global learning on carbon capture and storage: A call for strong international cooperation on CCS demonstration

    Coninck, Heleen de; Stephens, Jennie C.; Metz, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Closing the gap between carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) rhetoric and technical progress is critically important to global climate mitigation efforts. Developing strong international cooperation on CCS demonstration with global coordination, transparency, cost-sharing and communication as guiding principles would facilitate efficient and cost-effective collaborative global learning on CCS, would allow for improved understanding of the global capacity and applicability of CCS, and would strengthen global trust, awareness and public confidence in the technology.

  20. Understanding Global Supply Chains and Seafood Markets for the Rebuilding Prospects of Northern Gulf Cod Fisheries

    Ahmed S. Khan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although fisheries production and seafood trade are global in scope, with billions of dollars in exports, the rebuilding of collapsed fisheries often focus on national fisheries policy and management measures, with little attention to global supply chains and international consumer markets. Even with two moratoria and two decades of policy changes since the Northern Gulf cod fisheries collapsed in eastern Canada, rebuilding has stalled and the fishing industry and coastal communities continue to undergo challenges with economic viability and resource sustainability. This paper examines and analyzes the global supply chain and marketing dimension of Northern Gulf cod fisheries. Drawing upon fisheries bioeconomics and governance theory, a pre- and post-collapse analysis is undertaken to understand key drivers and institutional mechanisms along global fish supply chains for an effective and successful rebuilding. Findings indicate that the collapse of the cod fishery has cascading effects that go beyond ecosystem changes to new harvesting activities, industry restructuring, supply chain reorganization, new global markets and consumer preference for certified seafood. This suggests that a holistic rebuilding approach is necessary, one that integrates institutional and behavioral changes for both producers and consumers at various scales of fisheries production, political economy issues, as well as cross-scale policies on marine conservation and regional economic development.

  1. Benefits of carbon markets to small and medium enterprises (SMEs ...

    Administrator

    furniture can store carbon for more than 100 years. (Haripriya Gundimeda .... centre of wholesale and retail trade, particularly in grain, timber and textiles. The description of ... local wood carving cottage industry and other demands. There are ...

  2. Labor markets and employment insecurity: impacts of globalization on service and healthcare-sector workforces.

    Ostry, Aleck S; Spiegel, Jerry M

    2004-01-01

    Global changes in the economies of most developed nations have impacted the way healthcare is organized, even within largely public systems, and the working conditions of healthcare workers. Since the acceleration of globalization in the 1970s, service-sector workers in developed nations have faced high unemployment, increased skill requirements for most jobs, and a rise in non-traditional work arrangements. These secular shifts in service-sector labor markets have occurred against the background of an erosion of the welfare state and growing income inequality. As well, many healthcare systems, including Canada's, were severely downsized and restructured in the 1990s, exacerbating the underlying negative secular trends in the service sector, and worsening the working conditions for many healthcare workers. Globalization has altered the labor market and shifted working conditions in ways that have been unfavorable to many healthcare workers.

  3. Market influence on the low carbon energy refurbishment of existing multi-residential buildings

    Atkinson, Jonathan G.B.; Jackson, Tim; Mullings-Smith, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the energy market; the political and regulatory context; and energy design decisions for existing multi-residential buildings, to determine what form the energy market landscape would take if tailored to encourage low carbon solutions. The links between market dynamics, Government strategies, and building designs are mapped to understand the steps that achieve carbon reduction from building operation. This is achieved using a model that takes financial and energy components with market and design variables to provide net present cost and annual carbon outputs. The financial component applies discounted cash flow analysis over the building lifespan, with discount rates reflecting contractual characteristics; the carbon component uses Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) 2005. A scenario approach is adopted to test alternative strategies selected to encourage low carbon solutions in two residential and two office designs. The results show that the forward assumption of energy price escalation is the most influential factor on energy investment, together with the expected differentiation between the escalation of gas and electricity prices. Using this, and other influencing factors, the research reveals trends and strategies that will achieve mainstream application of energy efficiency and microgeneration technologies, and reduce carbon emissions in the existing multi-residential sector.

  4. Global investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of carbon nanotubes

    Xu, Tiantian

    2016-11-17

    Understanding the complex nonlinear dynamics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential to enable utilization of these structures in devices and practical applications. We present in this work an investigation of the global nonlinear dynamics of a slacked CNT when actuated by large electrostatic and electrodynamic excitations. The coexistence of several attractors is observed. The CNT is modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam. A reduced-order model based on the Galerkin method is developed and utilized to simulate the static and dynamic responses. Critical computational challenges are posed due to the complicated form of the electrostatic force, which describes the interaction between the upper electrode, consisting of the cylindrically shaped CNT, and the lower electrode. Toward this, we approximate the electrostatic force using the Padé expansion. We explore the dynamics near the primary and superharmonic resonances. The nanostructure exhibits several attractors with different characteristics. To achieve deep insight and describe the complexity and richness of the behavior, we analyze the nonlinear response from an attractor-basins point of view. The competition of attractors is highlighted. Compactness and/or fractality of their basins are discussed. Both the effects of varying the excitation frequency and amplitude are examined up to the dynamic pull-in instability.

  5. Technology learning in a global - local perspective: - the interplay between technology diffusion, niche markets and experience curves

    Martinsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    for energy services to the Markal model and to carry forward the influence of spillover into the MSG6 macro economic model. With the soft-link it is possible to investigate feedback on demand for energy service from the non-energy sectors of the economy at a sector level. Finally, a method to evaluate technology specific national policies to the realization of a global scenario is suggested.The assessment shows that the national technology composition and Co2 emissions exhibit sensitivity to spillover and thus the global scenario. Moreover, spillover may generate substantial benefit for a small open economy like Norway. Without the spillover from international deployment a domestic technology relies only on endogenous national learning. However, with high but realistic learning rates offshore floating wind power may become cost-efficient even if initially deployed only in Norwegian niche markets. The influence of spillover on the non-energy sectors, though modest, is most pronounced on the industrial chemicals production. Implementing a technology specific policy, e.g., a feed-in tariff in response to an Eu directive in addition to spillover and the general Co2 incentive, increases early deployment. The elucidation of the application of spillover on the national energy system analysis in a globalized energy technology market and the combination of spillover and a national soft-linked hybrid model, exchanging information at a sector level, and adds new elements to national policy analysis. Moreover, the exertion to coordinate national efforts with a portfolio of globally desirable low-carbon technologies provides a new indicator for the national contribution to a shift in the global technology path.(au)

  6. The timeline of trading frictions in the European carbon market

    Medina, Vicente; Pardo, Ángel; Pascual, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    During its trial phase (Phase I), the EU Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) collapsed because of an over-allocation of emission allowances. We evaluate the progress of this market from the trial phase to the next commitment period (Phase II) from a microstructure angle. We show that trading frictions, as measured by the relative spread, information-asymmetry risk, and market-making profits decreased from Phase I to Phase II. Although volatility decreased, its noise-related component gained in importance at the expense of its information-related component, resulting in lower quality of the price changes. - Highlights: • We compare Phases I and II of the EU-ETS from a microstructure angle. • Phase II shows lower spreads, information-asymmetry risk and market making profits. • The contribution of noise to the volatility of prices increased during Phase II

  7. 77 FR 11157 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change...

    2012-02-24

    ... the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change in Start Time of Public Hearing AGENCY... investigation No. 332-525, Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Project Leader Alan Treat (202-205- 3426 or [email protected] ), Deputy Project Leader...

  8. The 2008 Global Financial Crisis: The Case of a Market with Consistent Losses Ever Since

    Hadeel Yaseen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the 2008 global financial crisis, and in common with many stock markets around the world, the Amman Securities Exchange (ASE experienced some heavy losses. However, what makes the Jordanian market probably different is its inability to recover. The weighted price index fell from 7519.3 points in 2007 to 5520.1 points in 2009, to 4593.9 points in 2012, and to 4336.7 points by the end of 2013 respectively. With a statutory minimum tick which is equal to one pence, this observation has some serious implications to the liquidity cost that prevails in the Jordanian capital market, and the cost of financing listed firms. The primary aim of this research paper is to examine the impact of the stock market crash in Jordan on liquidity cost. Based on a total number of 108 listed stocks and daily data during the years 2007 and 2009, the empirical results indicate that liquidity cost on the Jordanian capital market is high. In addition, the results show that the 2009 stock market crash has led to a substantial increase in liquidity cost. In other words, the market must consider a number of remedial measures to improve its’ operational efficiency.

  9. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  10. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E.

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW th ) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW th ) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are the main

  11. Ecosystem services and biogeochemical cycles on a global scale: valuation of water, carbon and nitrogen processes

    Watanabe, Marcos D.B.; Ortega, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are provided by healthy ecosystems and are fundamental to support human life. However, natural systems have been degraded all over the world and the process of degradation is partially attributed to the lack of knowledge regarding the economic benefits associated with ES, which usually are not captured in the market. To valuate ES without using conventional approaches, such as the human's willingness-to-pay for ecosystem goods and services, this paper uses a different method based on Energy Systems Theory to estimate prices for biogeochemical flows that affect ecosystem services by considering their emergy content converted to equivalent monetary terms. Ecosystem services related to water, carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical flows were assessed since they are connected to a range of final ecosystem services including climate regulation, hydrological regulation, food production, soil formation and others. Results in this paper indicate that aquifer recharge, groundwater flow, carbon dioxide sequestration, methane emission, biological nitrogen fixation, nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen leaching/runoff are the most critical biogeochemical flows in terrestrial systems. Moreover, monetary values related to biogeochemical flows on a global scale could provide important information for policymakers concerned with payment mechanisms for ecosystem services and costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Powernext Carbon, an organized market at the service of the fight against greenhouse effect.

    2006-01-01

    The European Community directive no 2003/87/CE aims at fighting against climatic change by the implementation of a greenhouse gas emissions trading system. This architecture has been precised in the European Regulation no 2216/2004 relative to the normalized and secured registers system. This document describes the principles of Powernext Carbon, the quotas trading market, launched by Powernext in partnership with Caisse des Depots and Euronext: context, size of the European CO 2 market, regulatory situation, Powernext Carbon - the European CO 2 quotas stock exchange (partnership, architecture, spot products, European members network), theory and practice of Powernext Carbon continuous market (reference electronic platform, 3-step negotiation, invoicing and added value tax, tariffing. (J.S.)

  13. Tendances Carbone no. 93. The EU ETS Market Stability Reserve: a debate on its effectiveness

    Alberola, Emilie; Desai, Zuheir

    2014-07-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. Beside some statistical figures about energy production/consumption and carbon markets, this issue specifically addresses the following points: - Auctioning of aviation allowances: Will restart from September 2014. - Market Stability Reserve: Germany and France have clarified their positions. Germany wants back loaded allowances to return to the reserve, France suggests setting higher threshold. - EU ETS Phase 4: The EU Commission held its first stakeholder meeting on June 13 to discuss experiences of free allocation with regards to carbon leakage from phases 2 and 3 to improve the fourth phase

  14. Of neoliberalism and global health: human capital, market failure and sin/social taxes.

    Reubi, David

    2016-10-19

    This article tells a different but equally important story about neoliberalism and global health than the narrative on structural adjustment policies usually found in the literature. Rather than focus on macroeconomic structural adjustment policies, this story draws our attention to microeconomic taxation policies on tobacco, alcohol and sugar now widely recognised as the best strategy to control the global non-communicable disease epidemic. Structural adjustment policies are the product of the shift from statist to market-based development models, which was brought about by neoliberal thinkers like Peter Blau and Deepak Lal. In contrast, taxation policies are the result of a different epistemological rupture in international development: the move from economies and physical capital to people and human capital, advocated by Gary Becker and others. This move was part of wider change, which saw Chicago School economists, under the influence of rational choice theory, redefine the object of their discipline, from the study of markets to individual choices. It was this concern with people and their choices that made it possible for Becker and others to identify the importance of price for the demand for tobacco, alcohol and sugar. The same concern also made it easier for them to recognise that there were inefficiencies in the tobacco, alcohol and sugar markets that required government intervention. This story, I suggest, shows that structural adjustment policies and pro-market ideology do not exhaust the relationship between neoliberalism and global health and should not monopolise how we, as political and social scientists, conceive it.

  15. Interactions between carbon and power markets in transition

    Richstein, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, several improvements to the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) were analysed. The EU ETS is a market for emission allowances and the European Union's main instrument for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (of which CO2 is the main component). However, the CO2 allowance

  16. Credit Rating As a Factor of Stability in the Global Capital Market

    Ismail Musabegović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Credit rating has an outstanding importance on the capital market. Opinions and assessments of rating agencies help us to improve growth, stability and efficiency of international and domestic markets, which now include over 80 trillion dollars of rated bonds and other securities with the fixed income. The contribution of the credit agencies to the market stability and efficiency is reflected in their ability to provide accurate, clear and reliable assessments of the solvency of participants on the financial markets. An adequate and proper risk assessment of securities contributes to stability. In order to achieve a given goal and to satisfy its purpose, the assessments should be based on a fundamental understanding of the key components of the credit risk. Also, in order to ensure a reliable framework for making investment decisions, the rating agencies are obliged to offer and to provide a wide range of securities, which are based on a global comparability of rating symbols and onthe support given by the credit rating assignment committee and by the other relevant decision making bodies. Markets for structured products could not have developed without the quality assurance provided by CRAs. When analyzing a securitization program CRAs examine legal and structural protections provided to investors. Since the globalization is an inevitable phenomenon in today’s world the importance of the credit rating becomes more noticeable. On the other hand, the rating agencies have an obligation to reanalyze their decision making models in order to contribute tothe reliability of the evaluation.

  17. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Sujit Das, Josh Warren, Devin West, Susan M. Schexnayder

    2016-05-01

    This analysis identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas — wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels — that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  18. An empirical analysis of freight rate and vessel price volatility transmission in global dry bulk shipping market

    Lei Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global dry bulk shipping market is an important element of global economy and trade. Since newbuilding and secondhand vessels are often traded as assets and the freight rate is the key determinant of vessel price, it is important for shipping market participants to understand the market dynamics and price transmission mechanism over time to make suitable strategic decisions. To address this issue, a multi-variate GARCH model was applied in this paper to explore the volatility spillover effects across the vessel markets (including newbuilding and secondhand vessel markets and freight market. Specifically, the BEKK parameterization of the multi-variate GARCH model (BEKK GARCH was proposed to capture the volatility transmission effect from the freight market, newbuilding and secondhand vessel markets in the global dry bulk shipping industry. Empirical results reveal that significant volatility transmission effects exist in each market sector, i.e. capesize, panamax, handymax and handysize. Besides, the market volatility transmission mechanism varies among different vessel types. Moreover, some bilateral effects are found in the dry bulk shipping market, showing that lagged variances could affect the current variance in a counterpart market, regardless of the volatility transmission. A simple ratio is proposed to guide investors optimizing their portfolio allocations. The findings in this paper could provide unique insights for investors to understand the market and hedge their portfolios well.

  19. Managing the Planned Cessation of a Global Supply Market: Lessons Learned From the Global Cessation of the Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Market.

    Rubin, Jennifer; Ottosen, Ann; Ghazieh, Andisheh; Fournier-Caruana, Jacqueline; Ntow, Abraham Kofi; Gonzalez, Alejandro Ramirez

    2017-07-01

    The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 calls for the phased withdrawal of OPV, beginning with the globally synchronized cessation of tOPV by mid 2016. From a global vaccine supply management perspective, the strategy provided two key challenges; (1) the planned cessation of a high volume vaccine market; and (2) the uncertainty of demand leading and timeline as total vaccine requirements were contingent on epidemiology. The withdrawal of trivalent OPV provided a number of useful lessons that could be applied for the final OPV cessation. If carefully planned for and based on a close collaboration between programme partners and manufacturers, the cessation of a supply market can be undertaken with a successful outcome for both parties. As financial risks to manufacturers increase even further with OPV cessation, early engagement from the cessation planning phase and consideration of production lead times will be critical to ensure sufficient supply throughout to achieve programmatic objectives. As the GPEI will need to rely on residual stocks including with manufacturers through to the last campaign to achieve its objectives, the GPEI should consider to decide on and communicate a suitable mechanism for co-sharing of financial risks or other financial arrangement for the outer years. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. The role of bioethics in the international prescription drug market: economics and global justice.

    Newland, Shelby E

    2006-01-01

    In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market.