WorldWideScience

Sample records for global antiretroviral procurement

  1. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices.

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    Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2009-11-18

    Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.

  2. The pricing and procurement of antiretroviral drugs: an observational study of data from the Global Fund.

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    Vasan, Ashwin; Hoos, David; Mukherjee, Joia S; Farmer, Paul E; Rosenfield, Allan G; Perriëns, Joseph H

    2006-05-01

    The Purchase price report released in August 2004 by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund) was the first publication of a significant amount of real transaction purchase data for antiretrovirals (ARVs). We did an observational study of the ARV transaction data in the Purchase price report to examine the procurement behaviour of principal recipients of Global Fund grants in developing countries. We found that, with a few exceptions for specific products (e.g. lamivudine) and regions (e.g. eastern Europe), prices in low-income countries were broadly consistent or lower than the lowest differential prices quoted by the research and development sector of the pharmaceutical industry. In lower middle-income countries, prices were more varied and in several instances (lopinavir/ritonavir, didanosine, and zidovudine/lamivudine) were very high compared with the per capita income of the country. In all low- and lower middle-income countries, ARV prices were still significantly high given limited local purchasing power and economic strength, thus reaffirming the need for donor support to achieve rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy. However, the price of ARVs will have to decrease to render scale-up financially sustainable for donors and eventually for governments themselves. An important first step in reducing prices will be to make available in the public domain as much ARV transaction data as possible to provide a factual basis for discussions on pricing. The price of ARVs has considerable implications for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) treatment in the developing world.

  3. Antiretroviral procurement and supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripin, David J; Jamieson, David; Meyers, Amy; Warty, Umesh; Dain, Mary; Khamsi, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Procurement, the country-level process of ordering antiretrovirals (ARVs), and supply chain management, the mechanism by which they are delivered to health-care facilities, are critical processes required to move ARVs from manufacturers to patients. To provide a glimpse into the ARV procurement and supply chain, the following pages provide an overview of the primary stakeholders, principal operating models, and policies and regulations involved in ARV procurement. Also presented are key challenges that need to be addressed to ensure that the supply chain is not a barrier to the goal of universal coverage. This article will cover the steps necessary to order and distribute ARVs, including different models of delivery, key stakeholders involved, strategic considerations that vary depending on context and policies affecting them. The single drug examples given illustrate the complications inherent in fragmented supply and demand-driven models of procurement and supply chain management, and suggest tools for navigating these hurdles that will ultimately result in more secure and reliable ARV provision. Understanding the dynamics of ARV supply chain is important for the global health community, both to ensure full and efficient treatment of persons living with HIV as well as to inform the supply chain decisions for other public health products.

  4. Can voluntary pooled procurement reduce the price of antiretroviral drugs? a case study of Efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Wook; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2017-05-01

    : A number of strategies have aimed to assist countries in procuring antiretroviral therapy (ARV) at lower prices. In 2009, as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) commenced a voluntary pooled procurement scheme, however, the impact of the scheme on ARV prices remains uncertain. This study aims to estimate the effect of VPP on drug prices using Efavirenz as a case study. This analysis uses WHO Global price report mechanism (GPRM) data from 2004 to 2013. Due to the highly skewed distribution of drug Prices, a generalized linear model (GLM) was used to conduct a difference-in-difference estimation of drug price changes over time. These analyses found that voluntary pooled procurement reduced both the ex-works price of generic Efavirenz and the incoterms price by 16.2 and 19.1%, respectively ( P <  0.001) in both cases). The year dummies were also statistically significant from 2006 to 2013 ( P <  0.001), indicating a strong decreasing trend in the price of Efavirenz over that period. Voluntary pooled procurement significantly reduced the price of 600 mg generic Efavirenz between 2009 and 2013. Voluntary pooled procurement therefore offers a potentially effective strategy for the reduction in HIV drug prices and the improvement of technical efficiency in HIV programming. Further work is required to establish if these findings hold also for other drugs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Advancing Respect for Labour Rights Globally through Public Procurement

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    Olga Martin-Ortega

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Governments are mega-consumers of many manufactured products and services. As such they should in principle be able to influence workers’ rights abroad via the terms of purchase contracts. Yet to date little attention has been paid to the potential of public procurement to promote respect for labour rights globally besides the international trade law framework. Building on a limited emerging scholarship and policy developments, this article addresses this gap. Section 2 considers legal definitions of public procurement and distinguishes primary and secondary aims of procurement under key international and regional procurement regimes. This highlights that, although historically used to advance labour rights domestically, these regimes have restricted public buyers’ scope to advance labour rights beyond national borders. Section 3 explores new international policy frameworks on responsible global value chains and supply chains which by contrast appear to augur the greater use of public procurement to promote labour rights globally in future. Section 4 argues, supported by analysis of the limited examples available, that public buying has the potential to positively influence enjoyment of labour rights in practice. Concluding, Section 5 reflects on what the more specific impacts of public procurement in this context may be, and how public buying should complement other mechanisms for improving labour conditions across supply chains, such as social clauses in trade agreements. Finally, we outline issues for further research and the future policy agenda.

  6. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  7. Antiretroviral drug expenditure, pricing and judicial demand: an analysis of federal procurement data in Brazil from 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have described expenditures for antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in Brazil through 2005. While prior studies examined overall expenditures, they have not have analyzed drug procurement data in order to describe the role of court litigation on access and pricing. Methods ARV drug procurement from private sector sources for the years 2004–2011 was obtained through the general procurement database of the Brazilian Federal Government (SIASG). Procurement was measured in Defined Daily Doses (DDD) per 1000 persons-under-treatment per day. Expenditures and price per DDD were calculated and expressed in U.S. Dollars. Justifications for ARV purchases were examined in order to determine the relationship between health litigation and incorporation into Brazil’s national treatment guidelines. Results Drug procurement of ARVs from private sources underwent marked expansion in 2005, peaked in 2009, and stabilized to 2008 levels by 2011. Expenditures followed procurement curves. Medications which were procured for the first time after 2007 cost more than medicines which were introduced before 2007. Judicial actions initially resulted in purchases of newer medications for a select number of patients in Brazil but ultimately expanded availability to a larger population through incorporation into the national treatment guidelines. Conclusions Drug procurement and expenditures for ARVs in Brazil varied between 2004–2011. The procurement of some drugs from the private sector ceased after public manufacturers started producing them locally. Judicial demand has resulted in the incorporation of newer drugs into the national treatment guidelines. In order for the AIDS treatment program to remain sustainable, efforts should be pursued to reduce prices through generic drugs, price negotiation and other public health flexibilities such as compulsory licensing. PMID:24735589

  8. Global strategies to reduce the price of antiretroviral medicines: evidence from transactional databases.

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    Waning, Brenda; Kaplan, Warren; King, Alexis C; Lawrence, Danielle A; Leufkens, Hubert G; Fox, Matthew P

    2009-07-01

    To estimate the impact of global strategies, such as pooled procurement arrangements, third-party price negotiation and differential pricing, on reducing the price of antiretrovirals (ARVs), which currently hinders universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment. We estimated the impact of global strategies to reduce ARV prices using data on 7253 procurement transactions (July 2002-October 2007) from databases hosted by WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. For 19 of 24 ARV dosage forms, we detected no association between price and volume purchased. For the other five ARVs, high-volume purchases were 4-21% less expensive than medium- or low-volume purchases. Nine of 13 generic ARVs were priced 6-36% lower when purchased under the Clinton Foundation HIV/AIDS Initiative (CHAI). Fifteen of 18 branded ARVs were priced 23-498% higher for differentially priced purchases compared with non-CHAI generic purchases. However, two branded, differentially priced ARVs were priced 63% and 73% lower, respectively, than generic non-CHAI equivalents. Large purchase volumes did not necessarily result in lower ARV prices. Although current plans for pooled procurement will further increase purchase volumes, savings are uncertain and should be balanced against programmatic costs. Third-party negotiation by CHAI resulted in lower generic ARV prices. Generics were less expensive than differentially priced branded ARVs, except where little generic competition exists. Alternative strategies for reducing ARV prices, such as streamlining financial management systems, improving demand forecasting and removing barriers to generics, should be explored.

  9. Modelling a Global EPCM (Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management Enterprise

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    Sekhar Chattopadhyay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the applicability of enterprise architectures in the context of current business environment by examining the application of Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture to WorleyParsons, a global engineering, procurement and construction management enterprise, under the backdrop of a similar study carried out on Fluor Daniel during mid-nineties of the last century. The outcome of this study recommends the need for new enterprise architecture, the People-Centric Enterprise Architecture that not only focuses on human dimension in modern enterprises as the central thread, but also includes more business characteristics of the enterprise other than engineerings.

  10. Long-term costs and health impact of continued global fund support for antiretroviral therapy.

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    John Stover

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: By the end of 2011 Global Fund investments will be supporting 3.5 million people on antiretroviral therapy (ART in 104 low- and middle-income countries. We estimated the cost and health impact of continuing treatment for these patients through 2020. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Survival on first-line and second-line ART regimens is estimated based on annual retention rates reported by national AIDS programs. Costs per patient-year were calculated from country-reported ARV procurement prices, and expenditures on laboratory tests, health care utilization and end-of-life care from in-depth costing studies. Of the 3.5 million ART patients in 2011, 2.3 million will still need treatment in 2020. The annual cost of maintaining ART falls from $1.9 billion in 2011 to $1.7 billion in 2020, as a result of a declining number of surviving patients partially offset by increasing costs as more patients migrate to second-line therapy. The Global Fund is expected to continue being a major contributor to meeting this financial need, alongside other international funders and domestic resources. Costs would be $150 million less in 2020 with an annual 5% decline in first-line ARV prices and $150-370 million less with a 5%-12% annual decline in second-line prices, but $200 million higher in 2020 with phase out of stavudine (d4T, or $200 million higher with increased migration to second-line regimens expected if all countries routinely adopted viral load monitoring. Deaths postponed by ART correspond to 830,000 life-years saved in 2011, increasing to around 2.3 million life-years every year between 2015 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Annual patient-level direct costs of supporting a patient cohort remain fairly stable over 2011-2020, if current antiretroviral prices and delivery costs are maintained. Second-line antiretroviral prices are a major cost driver, underscoring the importance of investing in treatment quality to improve retention on first-line regimens.

  11. Predicting Global Fund grant disbursements for procurement of artemisinin-based combination therapies

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    O'Brien Megan E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate forecast of global demand is essential to stabilize the market for artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and to ensure access to high-quality, life-saving medications at the lowest sustainable prices by avoiding underproduction and excessive overproduction, each of which can have negative consequences for the availability of affordable drugs. A robust forecast requires an understanding of the resources available to support procurement of these relatively expensive antimalarials, in particular from the Global Fund, at present the single largest source of ACT funding. Methods Predictive regression models estimating the timing and rate of disbursements from the Global Fund to recipient countries for each malaria grant were derived using a repeated split-sample procedure intended to avoid over-fitting. Predictions were compared against actual disbursements in a group of validation grants, and forecasts of ACT procurement extrapolated from disbursement predictions were evaluated against actual procurement in two sub-Saharan countries. Results Quarterly forecasts were correlated highly with actual smoothed disbursement rates (r = 0.987, p Conclusion This analysis derived predictive regression models that successfully forecasted disbursement patterning for individual Global Fund malaria grants. These results indicate the utility of this approach for demand forecasting of ACT and, potentially, for other commodities procured using funding from the Global Fund. Further validation using data from other countries in different regions and environments will be necessary to confirm its generalizability.

  12. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets

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    Hochstadt Jenny

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. Methods We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal and United States (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM, US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR and UNITAID. Results WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Conclusions Global initiatives

  13. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets.

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    Waning, Brenda; Kyle, Margaret; Diedrichsen, Ellen; Soucy, Lyne; Hochstadt, Jenny; Bärnighausen, Till; Moon, Suerie

    2010-05-25

    Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV) medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC) products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO) HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal) and United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM), US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and UNITAID. WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year) with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year) or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year) regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir) increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Global initiatives facilitated the creation of fairly efficient markets

  14. Long-term costs and health impact of continued global fund support for antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stover (John); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); M. Blakley (Matthew); R. Komatsu (Ryuichi); K.M. Viisainen (Kirsi); L. Bollinger (Lori); R. Atun (Rifat)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: By the end of 2011 Global Fund investments will be supporting 3.5 million people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 104 low- and middle-income countries. We estimated the cost and health impact of continuing treatment for these patients through 2020. Methods and Findings:

  15. The WTO Agreement on government procurement as a tool for Ukraine’s integration into the global value chains

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    GUZHVA IGOR

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the features of modern internationalization of production and economic relations among economic entities around the world based on the global value chains formation. The essence and the basic provisions of the multilateral WTO Agreement on Government Procurement as the integration tool of Ukraine’s industries into the global value chains are revealed. The Ukraine’s government procurement reforming progress towards the relevant WTO rules and regulations full implementati...

  16. Antiretroviral purchasing and prescription practices in Mexico: constraints, challenges and opportunities

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    Chaumont, Claire; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Bahena-González, Roberto Isaac; Sánchez-Juárez, Gerda Hitz; González de Araujo-Muriel, Arturo; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study examines the antiretroviral (ARV) market characteristics for drugs procured and prescribed to Mexico's Social Protection System in Health beneficiaries between 2008 and 2013, and compares them with international data. Materials and methods. Procurement information from the National Center for the Prevention and the Control of HIV/AIDS was analyzed to estimate volumes and prices of key ARV. Annual costs were compared with data from the World Health Organization's Global P...

  17. Impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral therapy on protease and reverse transcriptase genotype: results of a global collaboration.

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    Rami Kantor

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic differences among HIV-1 subtypes may be critical to clinical management and drug resistance surveillance as antiretroviral treatment is expanded to regions of the world where diverse non-subtype-B viruses predominate.To assess the impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral treatment on the distribution of mutations in protease and reverse transcriptase, a binomial response model using subtype and treatment as explanatory variables was used to analyze a large compiled dataset of non-subtype-B HIV-1 sequences. Non-subtype-B sequences from 3,686 persons with well characterized antiretroviral treatment histories were analyzed in comparison to subtype B sequences from 4,769 persons. The non-subtype-B sequences included 461 with subtype A, 1,185 with C, 331 with D, 245 with F, 293 with G, 513 with CRF01_AE, and 618 with CRF02_AG. Each of the 55 known subtype B drug-resistance mutations occurred in at least one non-B isolate, and 44 (80% of these mutations were significantly associated with antiretroviral treatment in at least one non-B subtype. Conversely, of 67 mutations found to be associated with antiretroviral therapy in at least one non-B subtype, 61 were also associated with antiretroviral therapy in subtype B isolates.Global surveillance and genotypic assessment of drug resistance should focus primarily on the known subtype B drug-resistance mutations.

  18. Act local, think global: how the Malawi experience of scaling up antiretroviral treatment has informed global policy

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    Anthony D. Harries

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in Malawi was based on a public health approach adapted to its resource-poor setting, with principles and practices borrowed from the successful tuberculosis control framework. From 2004 to 2015, the number of new patients started on ART increased from about 3000 to over 820,000. Despite being a small country, Malawi has made a significant contribution to the 15 million people globally on ART and has also contributed policy and service delivery innovations that have supported international guidelines and scale up in other countries. The first set of global guidelines for scaling up ART released by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2002 focused on providing clinical guidance. In Malawi, the ART guidelines adopted from the outset a more operational and programmatic approach with recommendations on health systems and services that were needed to deliver HIV treatment to affected populations. Seven years after the start of national scale-up, Malawi launched a new strategy offering all HIV-infected pregnant women lifelong ART regardless of the CD4-cell count, named Option B+. This strategy was subsequently incorporated into a WHO programmatic guide in 2012 and WHO ART guidelines in 2013, and has since then been adopted by the majority of countries worldwide. In conclusion, the Malawi experience of ART scale-up has become a blueprint for a public health response to HIV and has informed international efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

  19. Act local, think global: how the Malawi experience of scaling up antiretroviral treatment has informed global policy.

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    Harries, Anthony D; Ford, Nathan; Jahn, Andreas; Schouten, Erik J; Libamba, Edwin; Chimbwandira, Frank; Maher, Dermot

    2016-09-06

    The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Malawi was based on a public health approach adapted to its resource-poor setting, with principles and practices borrowed from the successful tuberculosis control framework. From 2004 to 2015, the number of new patients started on ART increased from about 3000 to over 820,000. Despite being a small country, Malawi has made a significant contribution to the 15 million people globally on ART and has also contributed policy and service delivery innovations that have supported international guidelines and scale up in other countries. The first set of global guidelines for scaling up ART released by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2002 focused on providing clinical guidance. In Malawi, the ART guidelines adopted from the outset a more operational and programmatic approach with recommendations on health systems and services that were needed to deliver HIV treatment to affected populations. Seven years after the start of national scale-up, Malawi launched a new strategy offering all HIV-infected pregnant women lifelong ART regardless of the CD4-cell count, named Option B+. This strategy was subsequently incorporated into a WHO programmatic guide in 2012 and WHO ART guidelines in 2013, and has since then been adopted by the majority of countries worldwide. In conclusion, the Malawi experience of ART scale-up has become a blueprint for a public health response to HIV and has informed international efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

  20. HIV drug resistance early warning indicators in cohorts of individuals starting antiretroviral therapy between 2004 and 2009: World Health Organization global report from 50 countries.

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    Bennett, Diane E; Jordan, Michael R; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Hong, Steven Y; Ravasi, Giovanni; McMahon, James H; Saadani, Ahmed; Kelley, Karen F

    2012-05-01

    The World Health Organization developed a set of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) to assess antiretroviral therapy clinic and program factors associated with HIVDR. EWIs are monitored by abstracting data routinely recorded in clinical records, and the results enable clinics and program managers to identify problems that should be addressed to minimize preventable emergence of HIVDR in clinic populations. As of June 2011, 50 countries monitored EWIs, covering 131 686 patients initiating antiretroviral treatment between 2004 and 2009 at 2107 clinics. HIVDR prevention is associated with patient care (appropriate prescribing and patient monitoring), patient behavior (adherence), and clinic/program management efforts to reduce treatment interruptions (follow up, retention on first-line ART, procurement and supply management of antiretroviral drugs). EWIs measure these factors and the results have been used to optimize patient and population treatment outcomes.

  1. Use of peers to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a global network meta-analysis.

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    Kanters, Steve; Park, Jay Jh; Chan, Keith; Ford, Nathan; Forrest, Jamie; Thorlund, Kristian; Nachega, Jean B; Mills, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether using peers can improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). To construct the World Health Organization's global guidance on adherence interventions, we conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of using peers for achieving adequate adherence and viral suppression. We searched for randomized clinical trials of peer-based interventions to promote adherence to ART in HIV populations. We searched six electronic databases from inception to July 2015 and major conference abstracts within the last three years. We examined the outcomes of adherence and viral suppression among trials done worldwide and those specific to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) using pairwise and network meta-analyses. Twenty-two trials met the inclusion criteria. We found similar results between pairwise and network meta-analyses, and between the global and LMIC settings. Peer supporter+Telephone was superior in improving adherence than standard-of-care in both the global network (odds-ratio [OR]=4.79, 95% credible intervals [CrI]: 1.02, 23.57) and the LMIC settings (OR=4.83, 95% CrI: 1.88, 13.55). Peer support alone, however, did not lead to improvement in ART adherence in both settings. For viral suppression, we found no difference of effects among interventions due to limited trials. Our analysis showed that peer support leads to modest improvement in adherence. These modest effects may be due to the fact that in many settings, particularly in LMICs, programmes already include peer supporters, adherence clubs and family disclosures for treatment support. Rather than introducing new interventions, a focus on improving the quality in the delivery of existing services may be a more practical and effective way to improve adherence to ART.

  2. Improving the Transparency/Anti-corruption Efforts in Defense Procurement: Recommendations from Global Practices

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    2011-12-01

    National Anti-Corruption Unit NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NED National Endowment for...important role it plays in both international trade and the economy. In some cases, such as in developing countries, public procurement may constitute ...World Trade Organization, the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) and the European Union prohibit them, for example. However, the GPA and the

  3. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

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    Jambert Elodie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been conducted but is needed to inform next steps towards improving child health. Methods We used information from the World Health Organization Prequalification Programme and the United States Food and Drug Administration to describe trends in quality-certification of pediatric formulations and used 7,989 donor-funded, pediatric ARV purchase transactions from 2002-2009 to measure uptake and dispersion of new pediatric ARV formulations across countries and programs. Prices for new pediatric ARV formulations were compared to alternative dosage forms. Results Fewer ARV options exist for HIV/AIDS treatment in children than adults. Before 2005, most pediatric ARVs were produced by innovator companies in single-component solid and liquid forms. Five 2-in1 and four 3-in-1 generic pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs in solid and dispersible forms have been quality-certified since 2005. Most (67% of these were produced by one quality-certified manufacturer. Uptake of new pediatric FDCs outside of UNITAID is low. UNITAID accounted for 97-100% of 2008-2009 market volume. In total, 33 and 34 countries reported solid or dispersible FDC purchases in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but most purchases were made through UNITAID. Only three Global Fund country recipients reported purchase of these FDCs in 2008. Prices for pediatric FDCs were considerably lower than liquids but typically higher than half of an adult FDC. Conclusion Pediatric ARV markets are more fragile than

  4. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children.

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    Waning, Brenda; Diedrichsen, Ellen; Jambert, Elodie; Bärnighausen, Till; Li, Yun; Pouw, Mieke; Moon, Suerie

    2010-10-17

    Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been conducted but is needed to inform next steps towards improving child health. We used information from the World Health Organization Prequalification Programme and the United States Food and Drug Administration to describe trends in quality-certification of pediatric formulations and used 7,989 donor-funded, pediatric ARV purchase transactions from 2002-2009 to measure uptake and dispersion of new pediatric ARV formulations across countries and programs. Prices for new pediatric ARV formulations were compared to alternative dosage forms. Fewer ARV options exist for HIV/AIDS treatment in children than adults. Before 2005, most pediatric ARVs were produced by innovator companies in single-component solid and liquid forms. Five 2-in1 and four 3-in-1 generic pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) in solid and dispersible forms have been quality-certified since 2005. Most (67%) of these were produced by one quality-certified manufacturer. Uptake of new pediatric FDCs outside of UNITAID is low. UNITAID accounted for 97-100% of 2008-2009 market volume. In total, 33 and 34 countries reported solid or dispersible FDC purchases in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but most purchases were made through UNITAID. Only three Global Fund country recipients reported purchase of these FDCs in 2008. Prices for pediatric FDCs were considerably lower than liquids but typically higher than half of an adult FDC. Pediatric ARV markets are more fragile than adult markets. Ensuring a long-term supply of quality, well

  5. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, Procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... is presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...

  6. Global patient safety and antiretroviral drug-drug interactions in the resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seden, Kay; Khoo, Saye H; Back, David; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Lamorde, Mohammed; Ryan, Mairin; Merry, Concepta

    2013-01-01

    Scale-up of HIV treatment services may have contributed to an increase in functional health facilities available in resource-limited settings and an increase in patient use of facilities and retention in care. As more patients are reached with medicines, monitoring patient safety is increasingly important. Limited data from resource-limited settings suggest that medication error and antiretroviral drug-drug interactions may pose a significant risk to patient safety. Commonly cited causes of medication error in the developed world include the speed and complexity of the medication use cycle combined with inadequate systems and processes. In resource-limited settings, specific factors may contribute, such as inadequate human resources and high disease burden. Management of drug-drug interactions may be complicated by limited access to alternative medicines or laboratory monitoring. Improving patient safety by addressing the issue of antiretroviral drug-drug interactions has the potential not just to improve healthcare for individuals, but also to strengthen health systems and improve vital communication among healthcare providers and with regulatory agencies.

  7. Human rights in global supply chains: Corporate social responsibility and public procurement in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Outhwaite, Opi; Martin-Ortega, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The global supply chains of multinational enterprises are complex and multi-tiered, often involving many stages of production and spanning several jurisdictions. Important questions remain about how to ensure that human rights are respected in these supply chains, including how multinational enterprises are to exercise the responsibility to respect human rights in their supply chains and the role that can be played by states in protecting human rights outside of their borders. This article fo...

  8. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system......‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...

  9. Antiretroviral drug supply challenges in the era of scaling up ART in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Erik J; Jahn, Andreas; Ben-Smith, Anne; Makombe, Simon D; Harries, Anthony D; Aboagye-Nyame, Francis; Chimbwandira, Frank

    2011-07-06

    The number of people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) has increased considerably in recent years and is expected to continue to grow in the coming years. A major challenge is to maintain uninterrupted supplies of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and prevent stock outs. This article discusses issues around the management of ARVs and prevention of stock outs in Malawi, a low-income country with a high HIV/AIDS burden, and a weak procurement and supply chain management system. This system for ARVs, paid for by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and bypassing the government Central Medical Stores, is in place, using the United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF's) procurement services. The system, managed by a handful of people who spend limited time on supply management, is characterized by a centrally coordinated quantification based on verified data from all national ART clinics, parallel procurement through UNICEF, and direct distribution to ART clinics. The model worked well in the first years of the ART programme with a single first-line ARV regimen, but with more regimens becoming available (e.g., alternative first-line, second-line and paediatric regimens), it has become more difficult to administer. Managing supplies through a parallel system has the advantage that weaknesses in the national system have limited influence on the ARV procurement and supply chain management system. However, as the current system operates without a central warehouse and national buffer stock capacity, it diminishes the ability to prevent ARV stock outs. The process of ordering ARVs, from the time that estimates are made to the arrival of supplies in health facilities, takes approximately one year. Addressing the challenges involved in maintaining ARVs through an efficient procurement and supply chain management system that prevents ARV stock outs through the establishment of a dedicated procurement team, a central warehouse and/or national buffer stock is a

  10. Global trends in antiretroviral resistance in treatment-naive individuals with HIV after rollout of antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited settings: a global collaborative study and meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Ravindra K.; Jordan, Michael R.; Sultan, Binta J.; Hill, Andrew; Davis, Daniel H. J.; Gregson, John; Sawyer, Anthony W.; Hamers, Raph L.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Pillay, Deenan; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Background The emergence and spread of high levels of HIV-1 drug resistance in resource-limited settings where combination antiretroviral treatment has been scaled up could compromise the effectiveness of national HIV treatment programmes. We aimed to estimate changes in the prevalence of HIV-1 drug

  11. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  12. Global Trends in CD4 Cell Count at the Start of Antiretroviral Therapy: Collaborative Study of Treatment Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderegg, Nanina; Panayidou, Klea; Abo, Yao; Alejos, Belen; Althoff, Keri N.; Anastos, Kathryn; Antinori, Andrea; Balestre, Eric; Becquet, Renaud; Castagna, Antonella; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Chêne, Geneviève; Coelho, Lara; Collins, Intira Jeannie; Costagliola, Dominique; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Dabis, Francois; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Davies, Mary-Ann; de Wit, Stéphane; Delpech, Valérie; de La Mata, Nicole L.; Duda, Stephany; Freeman, Aimee; Gange, Stephen J.; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Jiamsakul, Awachana; Kitahata, Mari M.; Law, Matthew; Manzardo, Christian; McGowan, Catherine; Meyer, Laurence; Moore, Richard; Mussini, Cristina; Nakigoz, Gertrude; Nash, Denis; tek Ng, Oon; Obel, Niels; Pantazis, Nikos; Poda, Armel; Raben, Dorthe; Reiss, Peter; Riggen, Larry; Sabin, Caroline; d'Amour Sinayobye, Jean; Sönnerborg, Anders; Stoeckle, Marcel; Thorne, Claire; Torti, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), at higher CD4 cell counts, prevents disease progression and reduces sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We describe the temporal trends in CD4 cell counts at the start of cART in adults from low-income,

  13. Problems associated with substandard and counterfeit drugs in developing countries: a review article on global implications of counterfeit drugs in the era of antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs in a free market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsimba, Stephen E D

    2008-12-01

    To review the global implications associated with the use of substandard and or counterfeit drugs in developing and may be developed countries. The focus of this review is particularly on antiretroviral (ARVs), antimalarials and other drugs. Review of various literatures through Pub-Med, Medline, Google and Internet search to retrieve and download published materials was done by the author of this review paper. When patients receive a counterfeit medicines, they are subjected to multiple risks. They often suffer more than just an inconvenience; as they become victims of fraud medicines and are all put at risk of adverse effects from unprescribed medicines or substandard ingredients. Additionally, patients may lose confidence in health care professionals including their physician and pharmacist, and potentially modern medicine or the pharmaceutical industry in general. Counterfeit or substandard (poor quality) drugs pose threats to society; not only to the individual in terms of the health side effects experienced, but also to the public in terms of trade relations, economic implications, and the effects on global pandemics. It is vital for suppliers, providers, and patients to be aware of current trends in counterfeiting in order to best prepare for encounters with suspicious products. Furthermore, this is an issue that needs to be continually dealt with on national and international policy levels. Developing countries should try their level best to establish good laboratories for monitoring and checking quality of all pharmaceuticals manufactured locally and those imported or donated to these countries. The Ministries of Health and all stakeholders involved in this issue must ensure that all drugs meet the set or established international standards and national standards. Failure to do so will be to misuse the hard earned forex that is normally borrowed from banks for the procurement and distribution of drugs to its people. Indeed sub-standard medications do more

  14. Global trends in antiretroviral resistance in treatment-naive individuals with HIV after rollout of antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited settings: a global collaborative study and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravindra K; Jordan, Michael R; Sultan, Binta J; Hill, Andrew; Davis, Daniel H J; Gregson, John; Sawyer, Anthony W; Hamers, Raph L; Ndembi, Nicaise; Pillay, Deenan; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2012-10-06

    The emergence and spread of high levels of HIV-1 drug resistance in resource-limited settings where combination antiretroviral treatment has been scaled up could compromise the effectiveness of national HIV treatment programmes. We aimed to estimate changes in the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in treatment-naive individuals with HIV since initiation of rollout in resource-limited settings. We did a systematic search for studies and conference abstracts published between January, 2001, and July, 2011, and included additional data from the WHO HIV drug resistance surveillance programme. We assessed the prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in untreated individuals with respect to time since rollout in a series of random-effects meta-regression models. Study-level data were available for 26,102 patients from sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. We recorded no difference between chronic and recent infection on the prevalence of one or more drug-resistance mutations for any region. East Africa had the highest estimated rate of increase at 29% per year (95% CI 15 to 45; p=0·0001) since rollout, with an estimated prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance at 8 years after rollout of 7·4% (4·3 to 12·7). We recorded an annual increase of 14% (0% to 29%; p=0·054) in southern Africa and a non-significant increase of 3% (-0·9 to 16; p=0·618) in west and central Africa. There was no change in resistance over time in Latin America, and because of much country-level heterogeneity the meta-regression analysis was not appropriate for Asia. With respect to class of antiretroviral, there were substantial increases in resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) in east Africa (36% per year [21 to 52]; pAfrica (23% per year [7 to 42]; p=0·0049). No increase was noted for the other drug classes in any region. Our findings suggest a significant increase in prevalence of drug resistance over time since antiretroviral rollout in regions of sub

  15. Networking for knowledge capacity building of procurement professionals in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissi Ernest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of public procurement professionals in achieving value for money in public procurement activities is widely acknowledged around the globe. This has inspired the organisation of training programmes and workshops for procurement professionals, particularly those in developing countries in order to hone their knowledge and skills for proper management of government projects. This paper sought to explore the opportunities in networking for knowledge capacity building of procurement professionals in Ghana. The study adopted quantitative research methods for both data collection and analysis. The paper revealed that professional networking can offer procurement professionals the opportunity to acquire new knowledge from external professionals, know global trends about procurement practice, and obtain new information from other institutions about procurement. It is recommended that a platform that can support a network of procurement professionals in Ghana should be developed in order to ensure effective interaction and communication among procurement professionals for their capacity building.

  16. Examining the production costs of antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Eloan; Vasan, Ashwin; Kim, Jim Yong; Lee, Evan; Guimier, Jean Marc; Perriens, Joseph

    2006-08-22

    To present direct manufacturing costs and price calculations of individual antiretroviral drugs, enabling those responsible for their procurement to have a better understanding of the cost structure of their production, and to indicate the prices at which these antiretroviral drugs could be offered in developing country markets. Direct manufacturing costs and factory prices for selected first and second-line antiretroviral drugs were calculated based on cost structure data from a state-owned company in Brazil. Prices for the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) were taken from a recent survey by the World Health Organization (WHO). The calculated prices for antiretroviral drugs are compared with quoted prices offered by privately-owned, for-profit manufacturers. The API represents the largest component of direct manufacturing costs (55-99%), while other inputs, such as salaries, equipment costs, and scale of production, have a minimal impact. The calculated prices for most of the antiretroviral drugs studied fall within the lower quartile of the range of quoted prices in developing country markets. The exceptions are those drugs, primarily for second-line therapy, for which the API is either under patent, in short supply, or in limited use in developing countries (e.g. abacavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir). The availability of data on the cost of antiretroviral drug production and calculation of factory prices under a sustainable business model provide benchmarks that bulk purchasers of antiretroviral drugs could use to negotiate lower prices. While truly significant price decreases for antiretroviral drugs will depend largely on the future evolution of API prices, the present study demonstrates that for several antiretroviral drugs price reduction is currently possible. Whether or not these reductions materialize will depend on the magnitude of indirect cost and profit added by each supplier over the direct production costs. The ability to

  17. Barriers and facilitators of interventions for improving antiretroviral therapy adherence: a systematic review of global qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyan; Tso, Lai Sze; Rich, Zachary C; Hall, Brian J; Beanland, Rachel; Li, Haochu; Lackey, Mellanye; Hu, Fengyu; Cai, Weiping; Doherty, Meg; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions can provide a deeper understanding of intervention facilitators and barriers. This systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative evidence of interventions for improving ART adherence and to inform patient-centred policymaking. We searched 19 databases to identify studies presenting primary qualitative data on the experiences, attitudes and acceptability of interventions to improve ART adherence among PLHIV and treatment providers. We used thematic synthesis to synthesize qualitative evidence and the CERQual (Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research) approach to assess the confidence of review findings. Of 2982 references identified, a total of 31 studies from 17 countries were included. Twelve studies were conducted in high-income countries, 13 in middle-income countries and six in low-income countries. Study populations focused on adults living with HIV (21 studies, n =1025), children living with HIV (two studies, n =46), adolescents living with HIV (four studies, n =70) and pregnant women living with HIV (one study, n =79). Twenty-three studies examined PLHIV perspectives and 13 studies examined healthcare provider perspectives. We identified six themes related to types of interventions, including task shifting, education, mobile phone text messaging, directly observed therapy, medical professional outreach and complex interventions. We also identified five cross-cutting themes, including strengthening social relationships, ensuring confidentiality, empowerment of PLHIV, compensation and integrating religious beliefs into interventions. Our qualitative evidence suggests that strengthening PLHIV social relationships, PLHIV empowerment and developing culturally appropriate interventions may facilitate adherence interventions. Our study indicates that potential barriers are inadequate training and compensation for lay health workers and inadvertent disclosure of

  18. Coverage of the WTO's Agreement on Government Procurement: Challenges of Integrating China and other Countries with a Large State Sector into the Global Trading System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Ping

    2007-01-01

    The WTO's plurilateral Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) is a significant WTO instrument to develop disciplines regulating government procurement. A recent major review of the GPA has led to a revised text, likely to enter into force in 2007. In the meanwhile, China, a country with a large state sector, has promised to initiate GPA accession negotiations by the end of 2007.The article provides a critical assessment of the extent to which the recent review of the coverage of the GPA ha...

  19. When to start antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred M

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have traditionally focused on providing treatment to persons who stand to benefit immediately from initiating the therapy. There is global consensus that any HIV+ person with CD4 counts less than 350 cells/μl should initiate ART. However, it rema...

  20. Procurement Tracking System (PTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Procurement Tracking System (PTS) is used solely by the procurement staff of the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) at the U.S. Office of Personnel Management...

  1. Discriminatory public procurement policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssennoga, Francis

    2010-01-01

    To achieve social economic objectives, governments usually institute discriminatory practices in their country’s public procurement framework. Discriminatory procurement is the practice by governments to favour their own domestic suppliers over foreign firms for advertised contracts. Favouring

  2. Public procurement process

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG Policy Brief: April 2017. Public ... transparency in public procurement; and greater concerns about efficiency, fairness, and equity. ... government enacted the Public Procurement Act (2007) [1] which provides legislative framework for.

  3. Procurement Career Management Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This handbook is the result of the Treasury Department's efforts to increase professionalism among its procurement employees nationwide through its Procurement Career Management Program. First, the scope and objectives of the Procurement Career Management Program are discussed. The remaining sections of the handbook deal with the following program…

  4. Providing insecticide treated bed nets in antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-replication.5-13 Mathematical models show that repeated ... antiretroviral treatment clinics in Malawi: a pilot ... related disease or AIDS.3 In addition, there are between 300 - ... and growing evidence of interactive pathology.1,2. HIV ..... by the HIV Unit and its partners. ... procurement and supply chain systems developed.

  5. Monitoring What Governments “Give for” and “Spend on” Vaccine Procurement: Vaccine Procurement Assistance and Vaccine Procurement Baseline

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, E. A. S.; Bloom, David E.; Mahoney, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Vaccine Action Plan will require, inter alia, the mobilization of financial resources from donors and national governments - both rich and poor. Vaccine Procurement Assistance (VPA) and Vaccine Procurement Baseline (VPB) are two metrics that could measure government performance and track resources in this arena. VPA is proposed as a new subcategory of Official Development Assistance (ODA) given for the procurement of vaccines and VPB is a previously suggested measure of...

  6. What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanefeld Johanna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the beginning of the 21st century, development assistance for HIV/AIDS has increasingly been provided through Global Health Initiatives, specifically the United States Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight HIV, TB and Malaria and the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Programme. Zambia, like many of the countries heavily affected by HIV/AIDS in southern Africa, also faces a shortage of human resources for health. The country receives significant amounts of funding from GHIs for the large-scale provision of antiretroviral treatment through the public and private sector. This paper examines the impact of GHIs on human resources for ART roll-out in Zambia, at national level, in one province and two districts. Methods It is a qualitative policy analysis relying on in-depth interviews with more than 90 policy-makers and implementers at all levels. Results Findings show that while GHIs do not provide significant funding for additional human resources, their interventions have significant impact on human resources for health at all levels. While GHIs successfully retrain a large number of health workers, evidence suggests that GHIs actively deplete the pool of skilled human resources for health by recruiting public sector staff to work for GHI-funded nongovernmental implementing agencies. The secondment of GHI staff into public sector facilities may help alleviate immediate staff shortages, but this practice risks undermining sustainability of programmes. GHI-supported programmes and initiatives add significantly to the workload of existing public sector staff at all levels, while incentives including salary top-ups and overtime payments mean that ART programmes are more popular among staff than services for non-focal diseases. Conclusion Research findings suggest that GHIs need to actively mediate against the potentially negative consequences of their funding on human resources for health. Evidence

  7. Indonesia - Procurement Modernization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation seeks to establish evidence on the possible effects of an intervention designed to modernize public procurement: effects on cost savings, performance...

  8. Public Procurement and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    be understood as a special case of innovation, where social processes – and consequently the institutions governing these social processes – need to be considered. This book contributes to our understanding with a detailed institutional analysis of the public procurement of innovation.......Max Rolfstam examines the increasing emphasis on public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation and the theoretical implications of this policy development. While ‘regular’ public procurement may be regarded as the outcome of anonymous market processes, public procurement of innovation must...

  9. Organ procurement: Spanish transplant procurement management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyalich, Martí; Mestres, Carlos A; Ballesté, Chloë; Páez, Gloria; Valero, Ricard; Gómez, María Paula

    2011-06-01

    Transplantation is an accepted therapeutic option to save or improve the quality of life when organ failure occurs or tissue replacements are needed. However, the lack of organs is the major limitation. The deceased organ procurement organization and professionals provide the solution to this international problem. In this review, we identify the elements involved in the organ procurement management process to analyze the possibility of implementation of deceased organ procurement for a transplantation program. While the donation rates are subject to several negative factors including religious, economic, cultural, and legal issues, the existence of well-trained professionals may considerably increase them. Professional training in organ donation along with the establishment of a solid organizational system has been identified as the crucial factor in developing efficient organ donation and transplantation programs.

  10. Procurement with Specialized Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Schottmuller, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal procurement mechanisms in a setting where the procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms’ cost functions and cares about quality as well as price. Low type firms are cheaper than high type firms in providing low quality but more expensive when

  11. Procurement with specialized firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmuller, C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze optimal procurement mechanisms when firms are specialized. The procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms' cost functions and values high quality as well as low price. Lower type firms are cheaper (more expensive) than higher type firms when providing low (high)

  12. Conflicts in Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lindskog

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of years, there has been a tendency to include more and more political goals into public procurements, such as environmental and societal considerations. This can result in higher prices paid by the public sector compared with similar procurements in the private sector. The decision makers at local level are elected and should represent the interest of their communities and voters, which includes promoting regional/local companies and economic development. This task can sometimes get into conflict with public procurement law or the political goals of a central government. (original abstract

  13. Brexit and government procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Dawar, Kamala

    2017-01-01

    This briefing paper looks at some of the legal issues that will affect the UK’s public procurement laws and policies following Brexit. For, once the UK revokes the European Communities Act 1972, it will no longer be obligated to follow the EU Procurement Directives, nor will it be subject to the commitments the EU has signed up to on behalf of the UK in the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) and in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Additionally, under the Devolution Settlement of ...

  14. Ukraine : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the country procurement assessment are to diagnose the public procurement system in Ukraine, assess compatibility of the country's laws, policies and procedures with international best practices, review compliance with the procurement laws and regulations and identify areas for improvement of the procurement system in Ukraine. With due recognition of the considerable...

  15. Croatia : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Based on the CPAR's analysis of the legislative framework, procurement practices, institutional capacity and the opportunity for corruption, the assessment found that the environment for conducting public procurement in Croatia is average. This report makes a series of recommendations designed to strengthen the public procurement environment of Croatia, including legislative reform, improving procurement procedures and practices, institutional reform, capacity building, and the development of...

  16. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In

  17. Monitoring what governments "give for" and "spend on" vaccine procurement: Vaccine Procurement Assistance and Vaccine Procurement Baseline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A S Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Vaccine Action Plan will require, inter alia, the mobilization of financial resources from donors and national governments - both rich and poor. Vaccine Procurement Assistance (VPA and Vaccine Procurement Baseline (VPB are two metrics that could measure government performance and track resources in this arena. VPA is proposed as a new subcategory of Official Development Assistance (ODA given for the procurement of vaccines and VPB is a previously suggested measure of the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP that governments spend on their own vaccine procurement. OBJECTIVE: To determine realistic targets for VPA and VPB. METHODS: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD and World Bank data for 2009 were analyzed to determine the proportions of bilateral ODA from the 23 Development Assistance Committee (DAC countries disbursed (as % of GDP in current US$ for infectious disease control. DAC country contributions to the GAVI Alliance for 2009 were assessed as a measure of multilateral donor support for vaccines and immunization programs. FINDINGS: In 2009, total DAC bilateral ODA was 0.16% of global GDP and 0.25% of DAC GDP. As a percentage of GDP, Norway (0.013% and United Kingdom (0.0085% disbursed the greatest proportion of bilateral ODA for infectious disease control, and Norway (0.024% and Canada (0.008% made the greatest contributions to the GAVI Alliance. In 2009 0.02% of DAC GDP was US$7.61 billion and 0.02% of the GDP of the poorest 117 countries was US$2.88 billion. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting 0.02% GDP as minimum targets for both VPA and VPB is based on realistic estimates of what both developed and developing countries should spend, and can afford to spend, to jointly ensure procurement of vaccines recommended by national and global bodies. New OECD purpose codes are needed to specifically track ODA disbursed for a vaccine procurement; and b immunization programs.

  18. Monitoring what governments "give for" and "spend on" vaccine procurement: Vaccine Procurement Assistance and Vaccine Procurement Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E A S; Bloom, David E; Mahoney, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    The Global Vaccine Action Plan will require, inter alia, the mobilization of financial resources from donors and national governments - both rich and poor. Vaccine Procurement Assistance (VPA) and Vaccine Procurement Baseline (VPB) are two metrics that could measure government performance and track resources in this arena. VPA is proposed as a new subcategory of Official Development Assistance (ODA) given for the procurement of vaccines and VPB is a previously suggested measure of the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that governments spend on their own vaccine procurement. To determine realistic targets for VPA and VPB. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and World Bank data for 2009 were analyzed to determine the proportions of bilateral ODA from the 23 Development Assistance Committee (DAC) countries disbursed (as % of GDP in current US$) for infectious disease control. DAC country contributions to the GAVI Alliance for 2009 were assessed as a measure of multilateral donor support for vaccines and immunization programs. In 2009, total DAC bilateral ODA was 0.16% of global GDP and 0.25% of DAC GDP. As a percentage of GDP, Norway (0.013%) and United Kingdom (0.0085%) disbursed the greatest proportion of bilateral ODA for infectious disease control, and Norway (0.024%) and Canada (0.008%) made the greatest contributions to the GAVI Alliance. In 2009 0.02% of DAC GDP was US$7.61 billion and 0.02% of the GDP of the poorest 117 countries was US$2.88 billion. Adopting 0.02% GDP as minimum targets for both VPA and VPB is based on realistic estimates of what both developed and developing countries should spend, and can afford to spend, to jointly ensure procurement of vaccines recommended by national and global bodies. New OECD purpose codes are needed to specifically track ODA disbursed for a) vaccine procurement; and b) immunization programs.

  19. Antiretroviral therapy: current drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Alice K; George, Jomy M

    2014-09-01

    The rapid advances in drug discovery and the development of antiretroviral therapy is unprecedented in the history of modern medicine. The administration of chronic combination antiretroviral therapy targeting different stages of the human immunodeficiency virus' replicative life cycle allows for durable and maximal suppression of plasma viremia. This suppression has resulted in dramatic improvement of patient survival. This article reviews the history of antiretroviral drug development and discusses the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and toxicities of the antiretroviral agents most commonly used in clinical practice to date. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... and external contingency factors and having a more detailed look at the structural dimensions chosen, beyond the well-known characteristics of centralization, formalization, participation, specialization, standardization and size. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be leveraged...

  1. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  2. Drug procurement and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhotra, V S

    2003-03-01

    A strong drug procurement and management system under the RNTCP is critical to programme success. Significant improvements in manufacturing, inspection, supply, storage and quality control practices and procedures have been achieved due to an intensive RNTCP network. Drugs used in RNTCP are rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and streptomycin. Patients of TB are categorised into I, II and III and each category has a different standarised treatment. Procurement, distribution system and quality assurance of drugs are narrated in brief in this article.

  3. Small Business Procurement Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  4. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In this thesis we analyze how tactical procurement can be managed to fight corruption and promote integrity in the decentralized context in local governments in Uganda. Specifically, we identify the mos...

  5. Antiretroviral purchasing and prescription practices in Mexico: constraints, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont, Claire; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Bahena-González, Roberto Isaac; Sánchez-Juárez, Gerda Hitz; González de Araujo-Muriel, Arturo; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the antiretroviral (ARV) market characteristics for drugs procured and prescribed to Mexico's Social Protection System in Health beneficiaries between 2008 and 2013, and compares them with international data. Procurement information from the National Center for the Prevention and the Control of HIV/AIDS was analyzed to estimate volumes and prices of key ARV. Annual costs were compared with data from the World Health Organization's Global Price Reporting Mechanism for similar countries. Finally, regimens reported in the ARV Drug Management, Logistics and Surveillance System database were reviewed to identify prescription trends and model ARV expenditures until 2018. Results show that the first-line ARV market is concentrated among a small number of patented treatments, in which prescription is clinically adequate, but which prices are higher than those paid by similar countries. The current set of legal and structural options available to policy makers to bring prices down is extremely limited. Different negotiation policies were not successful to decrease ARV high prices in the public health market. The closed list approach had a good impact on prescription quality but was ineffective in reducing prices. The Coordinating Commission for Negotiating the Price of Medicines and other Health Supplies also failed to obtain adequate prices. To maximize purchase efficiency, policy makers should focus on finding long-term legal and political safeguards to counter the high prices imposed by pharmaceutical companies.

  6. Data feature: Fuel procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a review of the effect of fuel costs on the procurement strategies of a utility and a conjecture that the same strategies may have an effect on the price of fuel. Factors affecting fuel costs are reviewed, and a number of procurement strategies taken to trim fuel costs are reviewed. The major trend is away from long-term enrichment contracts and into such strategies as: (1) Spot market purchases, (2) Inventory reduction, (3) Purchase of CIS material, and (4) Market-related contracts instead of base-escalated contracts

  7. Indonesia - Country Procurement Assessment Report : Reforming the Public Procurement System

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the Country Procurement Assessment Review (CPAR) are to diagnose the public procurement system in Indonesia, assess actual compliance with the country's procurement laws and regulations on the ground, and identify reforms to improve the existing system in line with internationally accepted principles. Section 1 gives an overview. Section 2 describes Indonesia's exist...

  8. CORRELATES OF PROCUREMENT PERFORMANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-22

    Feb 22, 2013 ... Purpose of this study is to investigate if procurement challenges, contractual procedures, designer's experience ... Design and Build, Project Management, Direct. Labour and ..... Government Procurement Performance in.

  9. Slovakia : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This update of the 1995 CPAR is based on the September 1999 PPA and the findings of the Bank CPAR mission to Slovakia in November 1999. The 1999 Public Procurement Act (PPA) is an improvement upon the previous PPAs in some respects, including the creation of an OPP, more detailed and clear procurement procedures, accreditation of procurement professionals, introduction of the Public Procu...

  10. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  11. OAS :: Accountability :: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's staffing, vacant posts, and a list of procurement notices for formal bids, links to the performance contract and travel control Performance Contract reports from January 2013 to June 2017 may be found.) Travel Information and Control

  12. Procurement Sustainable Building Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.

    1998-01-01

    Two aspects will be stressed in the frame of this topic: The Procurement Aspects and the Aspects of Conflict and Dispute Resolution. The Right for Environment - to introduce the following aspects - is not only the consequence of care-taking for Nature as an admirable phenomenon, but also as a source

  13. Public Procurement of Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, Danish policy interest in public procurement has mainly been driven by efficiency and cost-effectiveness concerns. Public-procurement policies have in general focused on the utilisation of economies of scale as a Means of achieving lower prices on goods and services. Attempts...... to develop mandatory procurement systems have also been gradually developing, while the focus on innovation has been relatively modest in Danish procurement policies until recently. This picture is currently changing, as several initiatives emphasising public procurement as a means of stimulating innovation...... have been launched. Whether this gradual change of focus in Danish procurement policies will make a deep and lasting impact on the role of public procurement as a driver for innovationis, however, yet an open question....

  14. Fostering Collective Creativity in Procurement : A Conceptualization and Application of Team Creativity Climate in Sourcing and Co-Innovation Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiratli, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    The world’s leading global companies excel because of world-class procurement organizations. Procurement contributes to the bottom- and top-line by operating at nearly 20 per cent lower costs and by securing profit margins up to 22 per cent higher than the average. Chief Procurement Officers (CPOs)

  15. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  16. Price competition in procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market's competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs

  17. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Usually, incremental funding is used to mitigate peaks and valleys in annual budgets caused by the cost of one item significantly changing the...base defense budget . DOD uses these funds to buy several different types of materiel, including  new items easily recognizable as military...pursues a policy of full funding for procurement, meaning that the total estimated cost of each unit must be funded in the year it is budgeted . In a

  18. Designing flexible procurement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Will

    1990-01-01

    The systems used for the procurement of buildings are organizational systems. They involve people in a series of strategic decisions, and a pattern of roles, responsibilities and relationships that combine to form the organizational structure of the project. To ensure effectiveness of the building team, this organizational structure needs to be contingent upon the environment within which the construction project takes place. In addition, a changing environment means that the organizational s...

  19. Procurement and participation opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovatt, D.

    1998-01-01

    The elements which drive the Sable Offshore Energy Project and its procurement processes were described. The project is privately financed, hence business practices must adhere to strict principles to be able to compete with alternative energy sources and to ensure success for all stakeholders including owners, contractors, suppliers and the business community. One of the objectives of the project is to adhere to the requirements of applicable legislation and not to compromise health, safety and environmental standards. To ensure this compliance by all concerned, the regulatory requirements are embedded in the contracting and procurement procedures. Details of the procurement cycle are described. A list of some of the successes that Nova Scotian companies have had in getting work on the project was provided as an illustration of the ingenuity and foresight of these companies to develop appropriate quality assurance and health, safety and environmental procedures, and to bring in the needed capacity and technology through the formation of joint ventures and alliances. The list of contracts represents more than 100 million dollars worth of work to date. 3 figs

  20. Multicriteria analysis in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan T. Tošev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The public procurement is one of the most important processes in modern company daily business. The quality of that process and its realization affect the overall company success and reputation. For that purpose, the management is obliged to prepare and carry out the procurement process carefully. The process is based on multicriteria tendering and the purpose of this paper is to present the analytical and hierarchical procurement methods in order to minimize failing in the selection and decision making process.

  1. Global survey of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) sales, procurement and lot verification practices: assessing the use of the WHO-FIND Malaria RDT Evaluation Programme (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, Sandra; Serra-Casas, Elisa; Champouillon, Nora; Nsanzabana, Christian; Cunningham, Jane; González, Iveth J

    2017-05-15

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) play a critical role in malaria case management, and assurance of quality is a key factor to promote good adherence to test results. Since 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) have coordinated a Malaria RDT Evaluation Programme, comprising a pre-purchase performance evaluation (product testing, PT) and a pre-distribution quality control of lots (lot testing, LT), the former being the basis of WHO recommendations for RDT procurement. Comprehensive information on malaria RDTs sold worldwide based on manufacturers' data and linked to independent performance data is currently not available, and detailed knowledge of procurement practices remains limited. The use of the PT/LT Programme results as well as procurement and lot verification practices were assessed through a large-scale survey, gathering product-specific RDT sales and procurement data (2011-14 period) from a total of 32 manufacturers, 12 procurers and 68 National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs). Manufacturers' reports showed that RDT sales had more than doubled over the four years, and confirmed a trend towards increased compliance with the WHO procurement criteria (from 83% in 2011 to 93% in 2014). Country-level reports indicated that 74% of NMCPs procured only 'WHO-compliant' RDT products, although procurers' transactions datasets revealed a surprisingly frequent overlap of different products and even product types (e.g., Plasmodium falciparum-only and Plasmodium-pan) in the same year and country (60 and 46% of countries, respectively). Importantly, the proportion of 'non-complying' (i.e., PT low scored or not evaluated) products was found to be higher in the private health care sector than in the public sector (32% vs 5%), and increasing over time (from 22% of private sector sales in 2011 to 39% in 2014). An estimated 70% of the RDT market was covered by the LT programme. The opinion about the PT

  2. How is service procurement different from goods procurement? Exploring ex ante costs and ex post problems in IT procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynstra, Finn; Rooks, Gerrit; Snijders, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Several studies suggest that, in practice, service procurement is more challenging than goods procurement. The underlying but largely implicit argument is that the procurement process for services involves higher buyer uncertainty and therefore requires extra efforts to mitigate this uncertainty.

  3. Buying green and social from abroad: Are biomassfocused voluntary sustainability standards useful for European public procurement?

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchelt, Tina

    2017-01-01

    European public procurement is becoming more sustainable. However, for goods with global supply chains, sustainable procurement faces several challenges. This paper highlights the sustainability challenges for biomass-based products, discusses the suitability of biomass-focused voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) to address them, and identifies experiences and knowledge gaps in the use of VSS in European public procurement. The paper is based on a comprehensive literature review and a ca...

  4. Corruption in emergency procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica; Søreide, Tina

    2008-12-01

    Corruption in emergency procurement reduces the resources available for life-saving operations, lowers the quality of products and services provided, and diverts aid from those who need it most.(1) It also negatively influences public support for humanitarian relief, both in the affected country and abroad. This paper aims to unpack and analyse the following question in order to mitigate risk: how and where does corruption typically occur, and what can be done? Suggested strategies reflect a multi-layered approach that stresses internal agency control mechanisms, conflict-sensitive management, and the need for common systems among operators.

  5. Procurement Sustainability Tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayezi, Sajad; Zomorrodi, Maryam; Bals, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    as stakeholder and institutional theory. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use a multiple case study approach. Data are collected through multiple interviews and archival data from eight case companies in Australia. Findings: The authors identify supply chain and company procurement sustainability...... of institutional distance, can characterize the manifestation of PSTs. Practical implications: The findings are instrumental for managers to make informed decisions when dealing with PSTs, and they pave the way for paradoxical leadership given the increasing importance of simultaneous development and balancing...

  6. Industry activities to resolve utility procurement issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1993-01-01

    There are several industry organizations which are active in assisting the utilities in their equipment procurement enhancement. They include the Nuclear Management Resources Council (NUMARC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC). The products include the NUMARC Procurement Initiatives, EPRI procurement related guidelines and databases, and NUPIC joint audits and commercial grade surveys. The industry procurement activities and products are reviewed, and their use by utilities to enhance their procurement process is related. 1 fig

  7. Uzbekistan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Uzbekistan inherited the Soviet system for the procurement of goods, works and services for State needs. This system was suitable for a command economy but lacks the essential elements of competitiveness, transparency and accountability, which are the hallmarks of a market-based approach to government contracting. This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) comes at a time when a num...

  8. Monitoring What Governments “Give for” and “Spend on” Vaccine Procurement: Vaccine Procurement Assistance and Vaccine Procurement Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. A. S.; Bloom, David E.; Mahoney, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Global Vaccine Action Plan will require, inter alia, the mobilization of financial resources from donors and national governments – both rich and poor. Vaccine Procurement Assistance (VPA) and Vaccine Procurement Baseline (VPB) are two metrics that could measure government performance and track resources in this arena. VPA is proposed as a new subcategory of Official Development Assistance (ODA) given for the procurement of vaccines and VPB is a previously suggested measure of the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that governments spend on their own vaccine procurement. Objective To determine realistic targets for VPA and VPB. Methods Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and World Bank data for 2009 were analyzed to determine the proportions of bilateral ODA from the 23 Development Assistance Committee (DAC) countries disbursed (as % of GDP in current US$) for infectious disease control. DAC country contributions to the GAVI Alliance for 2009 were assessed as a measure of multilateral donor support for vaccines and immunization programs. Findings In 2009, total DAC bilateral ODA was 0.16% of global GDP and 0.25% of DAC GDP. As a percentage of GDP, Norway (0.013%) and United Kingdom (0.0085%) disbursed the greatest proportion of bilateral ODA for infectious disease control, and Norway (0.024%) and Canada (0.008%) made the greatest contributions to the GAVI Alliance. In 2009 0.02% of DAC GDP was US$7.61 billion and 0.02% of the GDP of the poorest 117 countries was US$2.88 billion. Conclusions Adopting 0.02% GDP as minimum targets for both VPA and VPB is based on realistic estimates of what both developed and developing countries should spend, and can afford to spend, to jointly ensure procurement of vaccines recommended by national and global bodies. New OECD purpose codes are needed to specifically track ODA disbursed for a) vaccine procurement; and b) immunization programs. PMID:24586899

  9. Healthy Food Procurement Policies and Their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebylski, Mark L.; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R. C.; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E.; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Twohig, Patrick A.; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Liu, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213

  10. Interactivity of marketing and procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available General conclusions regarding the close links between marketing and procurement side of the marketing process would be expressed as follows: Interactive link between marketing and procurement is just proportionate to a level of company's market orientation. Establishment of an interactive link between marketing and procurement fields would reflect on pricing. Besides price competition, establishment of an integral approach through comprehensive understanding of market relations, will set up conditions for company to meet customers' needs in the most optimal way. Therefore the total result will be advanced and a company with this kind of orientation can become a market leader.

  11. 40 CFR 35.6565 - Procurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement methods. 35.6565 Section 35... Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6565 Procurement methods. The... purchase procedures are those relatively simple and informal procurement methods for securing services...

  12. PROMIS (Procurement Management Information System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The PROcurement Management Information System (PROMIS) provides both detailed and summary level information on all procurement actions performed within NASA's procurement offices at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It provides not only on-line access, but also schedules procurement actions, monitors their progress, and updates Forecast Award Dates. Except for a few computational routines coded in FORTRAN, the majority of the systems is coded in a high level language called NATURAL. A relational Data Base Management System called ADABAS is utilized. Certain fields, called descriptors, are set up on each file to allow the selection of records based on a specified value or range of values. The use of like descriptors on different files serves as the link between the falls, thus producing a relational data base. Twenty related files are currently being maintained on PROMIS.

  13. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Carros, Deborah L; Schaefer, Beth K; Truong, Linh; Palmer, Kevin A; Chun, Judy M; Smith, Jessica M; Abraham, Amanda M; Peters, Anthony R

    2007-01-01

    Congresswoman Louise M. Slaughter requested that the Inspector General (IG), DoD review the DoD procurement history for body armor and armored vehicles and determine whether officials properly followed contracting policies...

  14. Procurement engineering - the productivity factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargerstock, S.B. (TENERA, L.P., Chattanooga, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The industry is several years on the road to implementation of the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) initiatives on commercial-grade item dedication and procurement. Utilities have taken several approaches to involve engineering in the procurement process. A common result for the approaches is the additional operations and maintenance (O M) cost imposed by the added resource requirements. Procurement engineering productivity is a key element in controlling this business area. Experience shows that 400 to 500% improvements in productivity are possible with a 2-yr period. Improving the productivity of the procurement engineering function is important in today's competitive utility environment. Procurement engineering typically involves four distinct technical evaluation responsibilities along with several administrative areas. Technical evaluations include the functionally based safety classification of replacement components and parts (lacking a master parts list), the determination of dedication requirements for safety-related commercial-grade items, the preparation of a procurement specification to maintain the licensed design bases, and the equivalency evaluation of alternate items not requiring the design-change process. Administrative duties include obtaining technical review of vendor-supplied documentation, identifying obsolete parts and components, resolving material nonconformances, initiating the design-change process for replacement items (as needed), and providing technical support to O M. Although most utilities may not perform or require all the noted activities, a large percentage will apply to each utility station.

  15. The organization of organ procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottas, J M

    1989-01-01

    The American organ procurement system has improved and matured in the last five years. At the same time, the basic challenges facing it have remained substantially the same because the moral and legal framework of the system has not changed. Success at organ procurement continues to depend on the voluntary cooperation of medical professionals and the families of potential organ donors. The generosity of the American public is so great that the primary challenge facing organ procurement agencies is obtaining cooperation from hospitals and medical professionals. This calls for a "marketing" orientation aimed at those hospitals and professionals who are most likely to treat potential donors. The last five years have seen a more general acceptance of this appreciation of the central task of organ procurement. As a result, the overall effectiveness of the system has improved, as measured by the number of organs procured on a per capita basis and by the number of multiorgan donors obtained. Much of this improvement can be attributed to the diffusion of organizational techniques and approaches, and this diffusion has been encouraged by the involvement of national organizations and public bodies in the organ procurement community. The system remains uneven in its effectiveness and further improvement is possible. It is also possible that the next general round of improvement will result from the application of businesslike information management and marketing techniques.

  16. Procurement engineering - the productivity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargerstock, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    The industry is several years on the road to implementation of the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) initiatives on commercial-grade item dedication and procurement. Utilities have taken several approaches to involve engineering in the procurement process. A common result for the approaches is the additional operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost imposed by the added resource requirements. Procurement engineering productivity is a key element in controlling this business area. Experience shows that 400 to 500% improvements in productivity are possible with a 2-yr period. Improving the productivity of the procurement engineering function is important in today's competitive utility environment. Procurement engineering typically involves four distinct technical evaluation responsibilities along with several administrative areas. Technical evaluations include the functionally based safety classification of replacement components and parts (lacking a master parts list), the determination of dedication requirements for safety-related commercial-grade items, the preparation of a procurement specification to maintain the licensed design bases, and the equivalency evaluation of alternate items not requiring the design-change process. Administrative duties include obtaining technical review of vendor-supplied documentation, identifying obsolete parts and components, resolving material nonconformances, initiating the design-change process for replacement items (as needed), and providing technical support to O ampersand M. Although most utilities may not perform or require all the noted activities, a large percentage will apply to each utility station

  17. Sustainability, Public Procurement and SMEs - Challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    The global value of public procurement spending is enormous. Each year, approximately 19% of the EU GDP is spent by over 250,000 public authorities purchasing services, works and supplies. The sheer scale of public procurement spending and supplier selection decisions can literally create and shape...... supplies or services but, rather, it is understood as a process whereby organizations meet their needs in a way that achieves value for money on a lifetime basis and delivers aspects beyond savings. This includes doing business responsibly, taking a leadership position in the community and ensuring...

  18. Sustainable Procurement in Practice: Explaining the Degree of Sustainable Procurement from an Organisational Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grandia (Jolien); S.M. Groeneveld (Sandra); B.S. Kuipers (Ben); A.J. Steijn (Bram)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSustainable procurement is often used to reduce negative environmental impacts related to production and consumption. Several studies in the sustainable procurement literature have identified potential drivers of and barriers to sustainable procurement, which are often organisational in

  19. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV

  20. Rethinking health sector procurement as developmental linkages in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Maureen; Tibandebage, Paula; Karimi Njeru, Mercy; Kariuki Kungu, Joan; Israel, Caroline; Mujinja, Phares G M

    2018-03-01

    Health care forms a large economic sector in all countries, and procurement of medicines and other essential commodities necessarily creates economic linkages between a country's health sector and local and international industrial development. These procurement processes may be positive or negative in their effects on populations' access to appropriate treatment and on local industrial development, yet procurement in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains under-studied: generally analysed, when addressed at all, as a public sector technical and organisational challenge rather than a social and economic element of health system governance shaping its links to the wider economy. This article uses fieldwork in Tanzania and Kenya in 2012-15 to analyse procurement of essential medicines and supplies as a governance process for the health system and its industrial links, drawing on aspects of global value chain theory. We describe procurement work processes as experienced by front line staff in public, faith-based and private sectors, linking these experiences to wholesale funding sources and purchasing practices, and examining their implications for medicines access and for local industrial development within these East African countries. We show that in a context of poor access to reliable medicines, extensive reliance on private medicines purchase, and increasing globalisation of procurement systems, domestic linkages between health and industrial sectors have been weakened, especially in Tanzania. We argue in consequence for a more developmental perspective on health sector procurement design, including closer policy attention to strengthening vertical and horizontal relational working within local health-industry value chains, in the interests of both wider access to treatment and improved industrial development in Africa. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Strategic contracting practices to improve procurement of health commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Leslie; Yadav, Prashant; Miller, Roger; Wilkerson, Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Public-sector entities responsible for procurement of essential medicines and health commodities in developing countries often lack the technical capacity to efficiently ensure supply security. Under strict public scrutiny and pressures to be transparent, many agencies continue to use archaic procurement methods and to depend on inflexible forecasts and cumbersome tendering processes. On the basis of semi-structured literature reviews and interviews, we identified framework agreements as a strategic procurement practice used by the U.S. federal government that may also be suitable for global health supply chains. Framework agreements are long-term contracts that provide the terms and conditions under which smaller repeat purchasing orders may be issued for a defined period of time. Such agreements are common in U.S. and United Nations procurement systems and in other developed countries and multilateral organizations. In contrast, framework agreements appear to be seldom used in procurement of health commodities in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The current practice of floating tenders multiple times a year contributes to long lead times and stock-outs, and it hampers the manufacturer's or supplier's ability to plan and respond to the government's needs. To date, government's use of strategic contracting practices in public procurement of health commodities has not received much attention in most developing countries. It may present an opportunity for substantial improvements in procurement efficiency and commodity availability. Enabling legislation and strengthened technical capacity to develop and manage long-term contracts could facilitate the use of framework contracts in sub-Saharan Africa, with improved supply security and cost savings likely to result.

  2. Roles of sex and ethnicity in procurement coordinator--family communication during the organ donation discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughn, Daniel; Auerbach, Stephen M; Siminoff, Laura A

    2010-09-01

    Interpersonal relations with health care providers influence families' decisions to consent to solid-organ donation. However, previous research has been based on retrospective interviews with donation-eligible families and has not directly examined the interpersonal interactions between families and organ procurement coordinators. To increase understanding of the interpersonal interaction between procurement coordinators and families during the organ donation discussion, with special attention to the influence of the sex and race of the procurement coordinator and the race of the potential donor's family. A descriptive study in which standardized patients portrayed family members interacting with actual procurement coordinators in simulated donation request scenarios. Thirty-three videotaped interactions between standardized patients and 17 procurement coordinators involving 2 different scenarios depicting deceased donation were evaluated. Video recordings were rated by independent coders. Coders completed the Impact Message Inventory-Form C, the Participatory Style of Physician Scale, and the Siminoff Communication and Content and Affect Program-Global Observer Ratings scale. African American procurement coordinators, particularly African American women, were rated as more controlling and work-oriented than white procurement coordinators. Male procurement coordinators were more affiliative with the white family than the African American family, whereas female procurement coordinators were slightly less affiliative with the white family. African American procurement coordinators expressed more positive affect when interacting with the African American family than the white family, whereas the opposite was true for white procurement coordinators. Research is needed to cross-validate these exploratory findings and further examine cultural mistrust between procurement coordinators and families of ethnic minorities, especially given the negative attitudes of many

  3. PROCUREMENT INSOURCING VS. PROCUREMENT OUTSOURCING: EVIDENCE FROM SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Acimovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important strategic decisions of a company is to choose whether to insource or outsource a particular group of activities or a business function. The trend of outsourcing those activities which do not form a part of the company core competences is becoming more and more present in business practice. The aim of the analysis within this paper is to review the mentioned trend from the position of organizing the company procurement activities. The analysis shows that there is no unique trend concerning outsourcing all logistics activities, which do not form a part of the company core competences. Unlike the majority of other logistics activities, which as non-basic, tend to be outsourced, procurement dominantly stays insourced. Finally, based on the empirical evidence obtained from a survey carried out among 52 companies in Serbia, it is concluded that even if procurement is outsourced, this trend is more present among service than production companies.

  4. Delays in switching patients onto second-line antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: South Africa has one of the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes globally. In addition to increasing access to ART, it is important that the health system also focuses on the appropriate management of patients who fail first-line ART. Delays in switching patients onto second-line ART can adversely ...

  5. THE BARRIERS OF IMPLEMENTING E-PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Pop Sitar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of e-procurement has many different meanings ranging from shopping on theinternet (through reverse auction to collaborative initiatives taking place in virtualmeetings. There are many forms of e-procurement that can be found in the literature. In thispaper we define the most important forms of e-procurement. Next, we present the mainbarriers of implementing an e-procurement found in the literature. Furthermore, we presenta matrix with the main barriers of e-procurement classified in four main categories. Finally,we elaborated for managers some guidelines in order to overcome the barriers ofimplementing e-procurement.

  6. NASA Procurement Career Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Procurement Career Development Program establishes an agency-wide framework for the management of career development activity in the procurement field. Within this framework, installations are encouraged to modify the various components to meet installation-specific mission and organization requirements. This program provides a systematic process for the assessment of and planning for the development, training, and education required to increase the employees' competence in the procurement work functions. It includes the agency-wide basic knowledge and skills by career field and level upon which individual and organizational development plans are developed. Also, it provides a system that is compatible with other human resource management and development systems, processes, and activities. The compatibility and linkage are important in fostering the dual responsibility of the individual and the organization in the career development process.

  7. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  8. Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II (IPMS II) is online/ batch system for collecting developing, managing and disseminating procurementrelated data at NASA Johnson Space Center. Portions of IPMS II adaptable to other procurement situations.

  9. Public Procurement of Innovation in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Ågren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sweden is often thought of as a country with a strong tradition for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Early on, Sweden recognized and developed procedures for using public procurement as a technologydevelopment tool. After a period where emphasis was put on this aspect ...... government authorities to engage in public procurement for innovation, and by issuing guidance on the topic.......Sweden is often thought of as a country with a strong tradition for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Early on, Sweden recognized and developed procedures for using public procurement as a technologydevelopment tool. After a period where emphasis was put on this aspect...... of public procurement Sweden dropped many policy initiatives within this field. This was in part due to neo-liberal movements during the 1980s which in interaction with a distributed institutional setup led to the removal of incentives for a procuring authority to engage in public procurement of innovation...

  10. Procurement strategic analysis of nuclear safety equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Caixia; Yang Haifeng; Li Xiaoyang; Li Shixin

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear power development plan in China puts forward a challenge on procurement of nuclear safety equipment. Based on the characteristics of the procurement of nuclear safety equipment, requirements are raised for procurement process, including further clarification of equipment technical specification, establishment and improvement of the expert database of the nuclear power industry, adoption of more reasonable evaluation method and establishment of a unified platform for nuclear power plants to procure nuclear safety equipment. This paper makes recommendation of procurement strategy for nuclear power production enterprises from following aspects, making a plan of procurement progress, dividing procurement packages rationally, establishing supplier database through qualification review and implementing classified management, promoting localization process of key equipment continually and further improving the system and mechanism of procurement of nuclear safety equipment. (authors)

  11. EXAMINATION OF ETHICAL PROCUREMENT THROUGH ENTERPRISE EXAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Sz. G. Pató

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s business world is affected by the 21st century’s processes, like globalization, fluent online attendance, digitalization and their direct consequence depersonalisation. The authors are motivated by these facts and want to vivify the „old fashioned” correct business models and find the indispensable parameter of the well-functioning economy, in one word today’s equivalent of „honorable gentlemen”. The assumed key to success could be useful for the for-profit sector because not only profit can be the impelling in the professional life of a corporation. The human value added is one of the most important keystones of thrift. The aim to establish a balance between economic and ethical behaviour of corporations has been enounced serving the interest of all participants, consumers, corporations and society. The before natural thought values seem nowadays to turn into something different or to be neglected. As a consequence the question has been raised, if society has the force to establish and improve Ethics, will it be able to destroy it as well?! The main focus of the research is therefore the mapping of criteria and marks which belong to on the competitive market successful enterprises whose procurement decisions are ethical as well. These marks can be formal or informal. The results of the research show well that there are parameters of a company, for example, a code of conduct within guidelines concerning the procurement or procedure manuals in which also ethical issues appear in a formal way. From another point of view there are informal signs like customs arising from the corporate culture, daily routine or just human behaviour and convincement of the management and procurement employees that also support the ethical performance of the company. The results of the research can serve as best practice for the other enterprises too in their daily appearance on the market. Particularly in that area the company’s most important

  12. Medicine procurement in hospital pharmacies of Nepal: A qualitative study based on the Basel Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Eurek

    2018-01-01

    Background Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines “the Basel Statements”. Method We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements. Results Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors’ prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies’ marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none. Conclusions Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in

  13. Medicine procurement in hospital pharmacies of Nepal: A qualitative study based on the Basel Statements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shrestha

    Full Text Available Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements".We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements.Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none.Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal

  14. Medicine procurement in hospital pharmacies of Nepal: A qualitative study based on the Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Mina; Moles, Rebekah; Ranjit, Eurek; Chaar, Betty

    2018-01-01

    Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements". We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements. Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none. Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. Adoption and

  15. Access to hepatitis C virus treatment: Lessons from implementation of strategies for increasing access to antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibeltal Assefa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available At September’s 2017 United Nations General Assembly, a state-of-the-art HIV medicine was announced to be made available at just $75 per person per year. There have been a number of strategies that the global AIDS community and countries have utilized to reduce prices and make antiretrovirals (ARVs accessible for people living with HIV/AIDS. There appears to be an opportunity for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs to benefit from the often painful and laboured history of driving down the prices of ARVs. In general, the success of lowering prices for ARVs has stemmed from the politics needed to initially support generic entry into the on-patent market. The use of flexibilities present in the World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS have been used to overcome patent barriers, with the use of compulsory licenses and/or the threat of their use as instruments for strengthening the bargaining power in price negotiations.These strategies have been combined with new financing mechanisms that have promoted more effective procurement and price negotiations. Partnership among the different stakeholders has also been critical in this regard. Countries have also invested in their health systems and implemented several strategies to reduce stigma and discrimination to increase access to and improve utilization of ARVs. This article suggests that any future international initiatives to increase access to DAAs can learn from these lessons surrounding price reduction, improved financing, advocacy, as well as health systems strengthening and stigma reduction. Adopting and reconfiguring these strategies will also incur substantial savings in time, money and lives. Keywords: Acces to medicines, Hepatitis C virus, HIV, Antiretrovirals, Direct-acting antivirals

  16. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  17. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  18. public procurement, governance and economic growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    Development (OECD) sees public procurement ―as a strategic policy lever to advance ... financial markets and provision of advisory services to businesses and government. ... Procurement established by the Section 3 of the Act. The BPP is the ... present annual reports to the Minister on the public procurement processes;.

  19. 78 FR 37525 - Procurement List; Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    .... Contracting Activity: Dept of the Air Force, FA7014 AFDW A7KI, Andrews AFB, MD. Service Type/Location: Laundry... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action deletes products and services from the Procurement List that were... products and services listed below are no longer suitable for procurement by the Federal Government under...

  20. 22 CFR 226.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement records. 226.46 Section 226.46 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.46 Procurement records...

  1. 10 CFR 436.43 - Procurement planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement planning. 436.43 Section 436.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.43 Procurement planning. (a) Agencies should consider the...

  2. 10 CFR 21.31 - Procurement documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement documents. 21.31 Section 21.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION REPORTING OF DEFECTS AND NONCOMPLIANCE Procurement Documents § 21.31 Procurement documents. Each individual, corporation, partnership, dedicating entity, or other entity subject to the...

  3. 7 CFR 225.17 - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Procurements by public sponsors comply with applicable State or local laws and the standards set forth in 7 CFR part 3016; and (2) Procurements by private nonprofit sponsors comply with standards set forth in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement standards. 225.17 Section 225.17...

  4. 10 CFR 603.1300 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Used in this Part § 603.1300 Procurement contract. A Federal Government procurement contract. It is a... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement contract. 603.1300 Section 603.1300 Energy... Government and a State, a local government, or other non-government entity when the principal purpose of the...

  5. 32 CFR 37.1330 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1330 Procurement contract. A Federal Government procurement contract. It is a legal instrument which, consistent with 31 U.S... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement contract. 37.1330 Section 37.1330...

  6. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  7. 76 FR 43988 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... this work, based on applicable experience. Finally, the purpose of the JWOD Act and the responsibility... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be...

  8. 7 CFR 1780.72 - Procurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement methods. 1780.72 Section 1780.72..., Constructing and Inspections § 1780.72 Procurement methods. Procurement shall be made by one of the following methods: Small purchase procedures; competitive sealed bids (formal advertising); competitive negotiation...

  9. 76 FR 26279 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...-service area; clean and sanitize food service equipment, utensil cleaning, and dishwashing; clean pots... additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement... in this notice will be required to procure the services listed below from nonprofit agencies...

  10. Competitive Procurement and Asset Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorana, V.

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of asset specificity on the performance of procurement auctions with subcontracting and asset sales.The analysis highlights the role of several asset features like transfer costs, type of alternative uses and maintenance requirements.It is argued that, if bargaining

  11. Organ procurement: let's presume consent

    OpenAIRE

    Moustarah, F

    1998-01-01

    IN WINNING FIRST PRIZE in the Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest in 1997, Dr. Fady Moustarah made a strong and compelling argument in favour of presumed consent in the procurement of donor organs. He stressed that a major education campaign will be needed when such a policy is adopted lest some people begin to regard physicians as "organ vultures."

  12. Pakistan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This report analyzes Pakistan's procurement system, and presents an extensive set of recommendations for strengthening same. It reviews the legal, and regulatory framework, as well as the mandatory registration and/or pre-qualification of suppliers, and contractors, and negotiation practices, and, analyzes bidding document issues for recommendation. Human resources development, auditing pr...

  13. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  14. Bioanalysis, metabolism & clinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine, R. ter

    2009-01-01

    The aims of all studies described in this thesis were to develop new bioanalytical and more patient friendly methods for studying the clinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs and to ultimately improve antiretroviral treatment.

  15. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  16. Ethics and regulation in organ procurement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Terrence F; Winsett, Rebecca P

    2002-12-01

    This article explores the role of ethics and regulation in human research conducted by organ procurement agencies; basic ethical principles for human research are outlined. Organ procurement agencies are not required to observe federal regulations; however, voluntary adherence will ensure that procurement research is conducted according to current standards of ethical practice. Although most organ procurement research will qualify for exempt status, this determination should be made by an institutional review board. Even if studies qualify for exempt status, there is a moral presumption that informed consent should be sought, unless certain narrow conditions for waiver of consent are satisfied. Finally, when future research utilizing organ procurement records is anticipated, procurement coordinators should provide sufficiently detailed information to families about such plans to permit their advance informed consent to research activities.

  17. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  18. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  19. Evolution in public procurement and the impact of e-procurement platforms: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Pedro Manuel Mariano

    2010-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The aim of this project is to understand the evolution that occurred in the public procurement due to the new Public Contracts Code that changed the procurement procedures and forced public entities to use electronic procurement platforms. This work is a contribution to the understanding of the main procurement changes with this ...

  20. Services procurement under the WTO’s agreement on government procurement: whither market access?

    OpenAIRE

    Shingal, Anirudh

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the government procurement of services from foreign suppliers by conducting a statistical analysis of data submitted by Japan and Switzerland to the WTO's Committee on Government Procurement. Using several metrics, the paper examines if the WTO’s Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) has led to greater market access for foreign suppliers in services procurement. Our results indicate that despite the GPA, the proportions of services contracts awarded to foreigners have d...

  1. Infrastructure procurement skills gap amongst procurement personnel in Nigeria’s public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamadu, A.-M. ed; Manu, P.; Booth, C.; Olomolaiye, P.; Coker, A.; Ibrahim, A. ed; Lamond, J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - Procurement of public infrastructure that is fit for purpose partly depends on the competencies of procurement personnel. In many developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, there is a deficit in the quantity and quality of infrastructure and their procurement is further riddled with deficiencies in the capacity of public procuring entities. It is, however, unclear from the extant literature, what are the critical skills development needs of public personnel invol...

  2. Information Technology Procurement Authorization (ITPA) Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Information Technology Procurement Authorization (ITPA) Tracking System is used for gathering consistent data from U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) program...

  3. Contracting Out Government Procurement Functions: An Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamm, David; Yoder, Cory

    2008-01-01

    ...)), asked the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to analyze the contracting out of procurement functions currently being accomplished by Navy, Marine Corps, and other Department of Defense (DOD) Activities...

  4. The International Experience in Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysmenna Mariia S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the foreign experience of implementing public procurement, analyzing peculiarities of organizational, normative and procedural provision of public procurement in the Member States of the European Union. The relevance of the research topic is due to the need to harmonize the procurement policy of the Government of Ukraine with the international legal framework and with broad political objectives within the European integration strategy. The organizational framework and principles of implementing public procurement in the EU Member States were analyzed. Special attention was paid to normative provision of public procurement by the EU Member States; peculiarities of the use of national or harmonized rules of public procurement in accordance with the amount of the procurement contract; restrictions and conditions for public authorities in the selection of applicants for bidding. Five types of public procurement procedures used in the EU have been characterized, namely: open procedure, limited procedure, negotiation procedure, competitive dialog, electronic auctions. The need to address the social and legal aspects of public procurement in international practice has been substantiated and the possibilities for resolving these problems have been presented.

  5. Risk Management in Public Procurement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Manea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement represents an important part of the current economy reality. Throughout the procurement process, due to the effect of the interaction among the components of the public procurement system, certain actions with significant negative effects on its optimal operation may occur. Risks may turn into certainty either because of a simple error in the development and administration of the procurement process, or because of a deliberate deviation from the existing legal provisions. Therefore, there is an imperative for the implementation of certain risk-avoiding measures, as well as of measures aiming to reduce their negative effects in case of their occurrence.

  6. PUBLIC PROCUREMENT SYSTEM IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Trofimovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains information on the theoretical-methodological research of the Institute of public procurement. The focus is on the consideration of the implementation of the priority tasks for the state contract system and the role in their solving that regional level of management can play. Opportunities in the sphere of state regulation, that Moscow, as the subject of the Federation, has, are educed in the article. The problem of transformation the existing contractual mechanisms for the formation of the model of public contract system, is studied.

  7. International overview of hospital procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maud; Lariviere, David; Laurent, Claire; Roque, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This article was written by four French hospital director students at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Santé Publique (EHESP-School of Public Health) from a study conducted jointly with students at the Grenoble School of Management to present an international overview of hospital procurement methods in ten countries. An analysis of these methods showed that there was a general trend towards group purchasing, with some common aims in terms of costs and performance and some differences in legislation (competition), size of the public sector and centralization or decentralization.

  8. 48 CFR 752.225-71 - Local procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 1997) (a) Local procurement involves the use of appropriated funds to finance the procurement of goods... currency of the cooperating country. (b) All locally-financed procurements must be covered by source/origin...

  9. public procurement, governance and economic growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    (2003: 2), ―strong procurement management in the public sector is a tool for achieving political, economic and social goals‖. Thus .... professionalism in the public sector procurement system (Section 4, PPA, 2007). The functions and powers of the ..... K., Bose, N. and Haque, M.E. (2004). Public Expenditures, Bureaucratic.

  10. 75 FR 47550 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ...--Macintosh Apple NSN: MR 473--Fresh Linen NPA: Industries for the Blind, Inc., West Allis, WI Contracting... Service, 5777 S. Aviation Blvd., N. Charleston, SC NPA: Goodwill Industries of Lower South Carolina, Inc... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be...

  11. 75 FR 22745 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... General Services Administration. Services Service Type/Location: Laundry Services, Alaska VA Healthcare... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List products and services to be furnished by... concerning capability of qualified nonprofit agencies to provide the products and services and impact of the...

  12. 76 FR 80345 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... ARMY, W6QL ECC MIAMI DIV, MIAMI, FL. Service Type/Location: Industrial Laundry Service, Bureau of... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds services to the Procurement List that will be provided by... concerning capability of qualified nonprofit agencies to provide the services and impact of the additions on...

  13. 78 FR 48656 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO. Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, US Coast... Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the... required to procure the products and services listed below from nonprofit agencies employing persons who...

  14. 77 FR 27736 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Research Laboratory, Washington, DC. Service Type/Location: Laundry, Refurbishment, and Warehouse Services... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be... products and services and impact of the additions on the current or most recent contractors, the Committee...

  15. 77 FR 29596 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    .../Location: Laundry Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), (offsite: 1809 W 2nd Avenue... Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the... identified in this notice will be required to procure the products and services listed below from nonprofit...

  16. 75 FR 14576 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Inspection Service, Minneapolis, MN. M.R. Laundry Products NSN: MR 1103--Heavy Duty Laundry Bag. NSN: MR 1104... procurement list. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List products and services to be furnished by... products and services and impact of the additions on the current or most recent contractors, the Committee...

  17. 22 CFR 226.44 - Procurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.44 Procurement procedures. (a... and assistance, as appropriate, of such organizations as the Small Business Administration and the...

  18. Measuring the effect of Sustainable Public Procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp MC; Kok L; Valk E de; DMG; M&V; M&V

    2018-01-01

    Many purchasing services of the Dutch local and central governments, aim to include the effects of products and services on human health and the environment in the procurement process. Sustainable procurement (SP) encompasses more than just price and quality considerations. SP can result, for

  19. 42 CFR 457.940 - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement standards. 457.940 Section 457.940... Integrity § 457.940 Procurement standards. (a) A State must submit to CMS a written assurance that title XXI... public or private payment rates for comparable services for comparable populations, consistent with...

  20. International Research Study of Public Procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Harland, C.; Callender, G.; Harland, C.; Nassimbeni, G.; Schneller, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we examine the specific issue of public procurement, its importance to local, regional, national, and international economies as evidenced in a unique international comparative research study – the International Research Study of Public Procurement (IRSPP). First the public

  1. 7 CFR 210.21 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Responsibilities § 210.21 Procurement. (a) General. State agencies and school food authorities shall comply with... violation of law are to be referred to the local, State, or Federal authority that has proper jurisdiction... title are followed. A school food authority may use its own procurement procedures which reflect...

  2. 7 CFR 220.16 - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nature. Matters concerning violation of law are to be referred to the local, State or Federal authority... § 3016.60(b) and (c) of this title are followed. The school food authority may use its own procurement procedures which reflect applicable State and local laws and regulations, provided that procurements made...

  3. 78 FR 45183 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Requirement as aggregated by the General Services Administration. NSN: 7920-00-NIB-0564--Towel, Cleaning, Non... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a products and services to the Procurement List that will be... presented to it concerning capability of qualified nonprofit agencies to provide the products and services...

  4. How does procurement capability maturity affect e-Procurement adoption and leverage purchasing in supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongpanga Pongsuwan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the research model of Batenburg (2008 which defined procurement functions to six maturity dimensions; strategy, processes, control, organization, information, e-Technology as the starting point and indicates twenty two items to support capability maturity measurement which is called “Procurement Competitive Capability Maturity”(PCCM. This model is used for a company to assess current practices of procurement function and perceives the level of its capabilities. The data collection is from a survey of fifty-two selected procurement organizations in Southeast Asia (SEA countries; from Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the significant value of industry type, size of spending and centralized/decentralized procurement that affect procurement capability maturity. The results show that the industry has no relation to the capability maturity; the size of procurement spend has a positive relation to the capability maturity; and the centralized procurement has higher capability maturity than the decentralized. Moreover, this study extends the knowledge of e-Procurement and digital context to leverage procurement processes and visible procurement integration in an organization and across the supply chain.

  5. Measuring effects of public procurement of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Underway for quite some time now has been the discussion on using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. However - with some exceptions this has been mainly a conceptual discussion vastly surpassed a corresponding development of appropriate monitoring tools. Also, even if both...... qualitative and quantitative studies have been made, they tend to lack connection to the underlying mechanisms envisaged in the conceptual and/or case based literature. A challenge in this endeavour prevails in the nature of how public procurement of innovation works. Some of the effects rendered may...... about the usefulness of public procurement of innovation are at all realistic and feasible in practice. After reviewing different currently available means to measure both public procurement of innovation measures, as well as public procurement of innovation, the paper outlines a case-based approach...

  6. Public Procurement of Innovation as Endogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Public procurement used as an innovation policy instrument has attracted attention the last decade. It has been argued that public procurement can be used to stimulate innovation from the demand-side. This paper problematizes ‘demand’ understood as a problem defined by a public procurer given...... to potential suppliers to solve. By drawing on a cross-case analysis of two similar projects the paper attempts to explicate an understanding of the role of public procurement of innovation not primarily as a ‘demand-side innovation instrument’, as such thinking might run the risk of ignoring important...... underlying mechanisms critical for success. Instead the paper views public procurement of innovation as an instrument of endogenous- exogenous knowledge conversion....

  7. ONLINE PROCUREMENT IN SME`s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ICHIM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available E-Marketplaces are new business places for buying, selling products and services in many industries to support customers. The emergence of business-to-business (B2B in the online environment has opened up opportunities for effective online transactions between businesses. Research in this area is not enough to offer only fragmented perspectives in this area. Therefore, the targeted research problem was designed to investigate how business performance of online B2B purchases can be analyzed. The proposed study focuses on the online procurement in. Specifically, they try to answer questions such as: Does site, product, and vendor characteristics affect the online procurement in? Does online buying experience influence online procurement by? Participants are that use the Internet to procure products or services. Study respondents were SME managers who believe that online procurement will save time, money and effort, reducing costs.

  8. Decentralized Procurement in Light of Strategic Inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimor, Hans; Arya, Anil; Mittendorf, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The centralization versus decentralization choice is perhaps the quintessential organizational structure decision. In the operations realm, this choice is particularly critical when it comes to the procurement function. Why firms may opt to decentralize procurement has been often studied and conf......The centralization versus decentralization choice is perhaps the quintessential organizational structure decision. In the operations realm, this choice is particularly critical when it comes to the procurement function. Why firms may opt to decentralize procurement has been often studied...... and confirmed to be a multifaceted choice. This paper complements existing studies by detailing the trade-offs in the centralization versus decentralization decision in light of firm's decision to cede procurement choices to its individual devisions can help moderate inventory levels and provide a natural salve...

  9. Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Borg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new framework for structuring contract types and payment methods. Concerning procurement contracts, the first important new feature of this framework is a stepwise structure with three main steps in the contract design: (1 what will be procured—should the contract only include construction, or should it include both construction and operation/maintenance (2 who will do the detailed design of the premise and (3 how many contractors will the client use? The second important new feature of this framework is that both step 2 and step 3 include a continuum of alternatives. Concerning payment methods, the new framework is primarily based on how the specific risks of the project are shared. These frameworks can be useful for policy formulation in that they can help to avoid some problematic ways of formulating policies.

  10. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  11. Towards the procurement of the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.; Tivey, R.; Martin, A.; Pick, M.

    2006-01-01

    The procurement of the ITER divertor is planned to start in 2009. On the basis of the present common understanding of the sharing of the ITER components, the Japanese Participating Team (JAPT) will supply the outer vertical target, the Russian Federation (RF) PT the dome liner and will perform the high heat flux testing, the EU PT will supply the inner vertical targets and the cassette bodies, including final assembly of the divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs). The manufacturing of the PFCs of the ITER divertor represents a challenging endeavor due to the high technologies which are involved, and due to the unprecedented series production. To mitigate the associated risks, special arrangements need to be put in place prior to and during procurement to ensure quality and to keep to the time schedule. Before procurement can start, an ITER review of the qualification and production capability of each candidate PT is planned. Well in advance of the assumed start of the procurement, each PT which would like to contribute to the divertor PFC procurement, should first demonstrate its technical qualification to carry out the procurement with the required quality, and in an efficient and timely manner. Appropriate precautions, like subdivision of the procurement into stages, are also to be adopted during the procurement phase to mitigate the consequences of possible unexpected manufacturing problems. In preparation for writing the procurement specification for the vertical targets, the topic of setting acceptance criteria is also being addressed. This activity has the objective of defining workable acceptance criteria for the PFC armour joints. A complete set of analyses is also in progress to assess the latest design modifications against the design requirements. This task includes neutronic, shielding, thermo-mechanical and electromagnetic analyses. More than half of the ITER plasma parameters that must be measured and the related diagnostics are located in the

  12. Mexico - The Federal Procurement System : Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The World Bank carried out the first country procurement assessment review (CPAR) jointly with the Government in 2001, focusing on the features and performance of the federal procurement system. Based on the action plan included in the 2001 CPAR, the government reformed federal procurement laws and regulations in 2005 and furthered the development of Government Procurement Electronic Syste...

  13. 75 FR 49481 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... added to the Procurement List: Services Service Type/Locations: Laundry Service, Atlanta VA Medical...: Additions to and deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds services to the Procurement... disabilities and deletes a service from the Procurement List previously furnished by such agency. DATES...

  14. 78 FR 21916 - Procurement List; Addition And Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ..., the following service is added to the Procurement List: Service Service Type/Location: Laundry Service...: Addition to and Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a service to the Procurement... disabilities, and deletes products and services from the Procurement List previously furnished by such agencies...

  15. 22 CFR 201.23 - Procurement under private sector procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement under private sector procedures... § 201.23 Procurement under private sector procedures. (a) General requirements. Procurements under private sector procedures will normally be carried out by importers using negotiated procurement...

  16. 40 CFR 30.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained; and basis for award cost or price. ..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.46...

  17. 14 CFR 1260.146 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.146... of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained, and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ...

  18. 32 CFR 32.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.46... for lack of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained; and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ...

  19. 36 CFR 1210.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards...) Justification for lack of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained, and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ...

  20. 22 CFR 145.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 145... for lack of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained, and (c) basis for award cost or price. ...

  1. 2 CFR 215.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.46... of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained; and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ...

  2. 24 CFR 84.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84... for lack of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained; and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ...

  3. 7 CFR 3019.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Justification for lack of competition bids or offers are not obtained, and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement...

  4. 78 FR 38953 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Blind or Severely Disabled published notices of proposed additions to the Procurement List. After... Punch, Paper, Desktop, 3-Hole, Adjustable, 11 sheet capacity, Metallic Base, Black Grip. Coverage: A...

  5. 78 FR 12295 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... published notices of proposed additions to the Procurement List. After consideration of the material..., 508 Compliant, 12 Digit, Portable, Desktop, Battery Operated NPA: MidWest Enterprises for the Blind...

  6. Standard Procurement System Use and User Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The audit was performed in response to concerns expressed by the Chairman, House of Representatives Committee on Budget that DoD was not effectively spending Federal funds to acquire the Standard Procurement System (SPS...

  7. Federal Procurement Data System - FPDS API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Federal Procurement Data System (FPDS) Next Generation has been re-engineered as a real-time federal enterprise information system. Web services based on SOAP...

  8. Assessment of procurement methods used for executing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of procurement methods used for executing maintenance works in Lagos state. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Others are risk allocation, price competition and flexibility of contract. Finally, better ...

  9. 78 FR 40727 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products Towel.... 12/BX Cleaner, Brake Parts NSN: 6850-01-167-0678--17 oz. NPA: The Lighthouse for the Blind, St. Louis...

  10. 78 FR 35874 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products... Cleaner NPA: Winston-Salem Industries for the Blind, Inc., Winston-Salem, NC Contracting Activity: Defense...

  11. Industry Analysis for Body Armor Procurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foust, Coleen; Jenson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    .... In addition, the Office of Management and Budget has required that each agency create strategic sourcing initiatives, monitor the cost savings and report the results to the Office of Federal Procurement Policy...

  12. Turning the Kaleidoscope: Five Perspectives on Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkgaard Møller, Morten; Vammen, Søren

    Purpose of this paper The purpose of the paper is to provide a conceptual foundation to enhance the body of knowledge related to procurement and sourcing through a framework consisting of five perspectives. The perspectives are: (1) Strategic, (2) Organizational, (3) Capability, (4) Supplier......, and a (5) Customer Perspectives. The aim is to develop a holistic perspective of procurement by applying these five essential, but very different perspectives in order to achieve a holistic picture of the function. Design/methodology/approach The foundation is derived from various well-established theories...... within the five perspectives. Specifically, procurement was viewed from the perspective of organizational theory, network theory, resource/knowledge based views of the firm, transaction cost theory and various theories within the strategic field of research Findings By viewing procurement through...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF PROCUREMENT METHODS USED FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-08

    Oct 8, 2012 ... client/or representatives so as to arrive at a tender figure and other ... client have a great influence on maintenance procurement. ... satisfaction and project success and the ... Construction Industries, and Hotels) top the list.

  14. Government Procurement Agreements and Telecommunications Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Won Kang

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The opening of the telecommunications market is acceleration due to the world trends of deregulation and privatization under the WTO basic telecommunications agreements. Diversification of services and fast and efficient equipment procurement are becoming necessary conditions for the survival of telecommunications operators. However, the issue here is that telecommunications operators are still bound by the GPA (Government Procurement Agreement based on conditions of monopoly even though the procurement market in Korean is open substantially since 1997. Under such conditions, the continued application of the GPA on telecommunications operator who is highly competitive may result in a negative impact on the telecommunications business and quality of telecommunications service by undermining the autonomy of operator and decreasing operator’s procurement competitiveness. Therefore, this study examines the GPA and the issues raised by the agreement, and also attempts to suggest revisions or means of abrogating the unfair GPA with regards to the development and deregulation of the telecommunications business.

  15. The World Bank Group and Public Procurement--An Independent Evaluation : Volume 1. Building Procurement Capacity and Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2014-01-01

    Good public procurement practices are a major determinant of the effectiveness of public expenditure. On behalf of their citizens, governments typically spend as much as 5-20 percent of their gross domestic product on procurement of goods and services, and effective procurement policies enable better use of government budgets. Good national procurement practices are therefore an essential ...

  16. Utility procurement policies in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.; Nikazmerad, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; market history (historical uranium demand and production in the USA); recent long-term contract activity (expected US reactor demand and uranium production; expected US reactor demand and contracted uranium supplies); utility procurement attitudes; impact of inventories on procurement; current regulatory environment (spot-market price vs average long-term contract price); embargo and imports; conclusion. (U.K.)

  17. Best Value Procurement - The Practical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Storteboom, Arnoud

    2017-01-01

    Traditional procurement methods leave much room for improving risk management and value creation. However, Best Value Procurement (BVP) is designed to increase project value by mitigating risks and increasing the transparency by underscoring the pre-award phase. This shift in paradigm is reached by following a sequence of elements with the principles of transparency, performance information measuring and contractor clarification. The BVP philosophy is developed in the USA. Following is ...

  18. Empirical Analysis of Competition in Procurement Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Tukiainen, Janne

    2008-01-01

    A vast amount of public services and goods are contracted through procurement auctions. Therefore it is very important to design these auctions in an optimal way. Typically, we are interested in two different objectives. The first objective is efficiency. Efficiency means that the contract is awarded to the bidder that values it the most, which in the procurement setting means the bidder that has the lowest cost of providing a service with a given quality. The second objective is to maximize ...

  19. Multidimensional procurement auctions with unknown weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Thomas

    This paper studies the consequences of holding a procurement auction when the principal chooses not to show its preferences. My paper extends the procurement auction model of Che (1993) to a situation where both the principal and the agents have private information. Thus, unknown parameters of bo...... gives rise to an analysis of a principal that can not fully commit to the outcome induced by the scoring rule. Therefore, my result apply to contract theory and it’s problems with imperfect commitment....

  20. International public procurement: From scant facts to hard data

    OpenAIRE

    Cernat, Lucian; Kutlina-Dimitrova, Zornitsa

    2015-01-01

    Public procurement is a negotiating area gaining in importance at multilateral and bilateral level, as evidenced by a brief review of procurement provisions in existing trade agreements. The size of procurement spending stands in most developed economies at double-digit percentage points of GDP. However, despite the size and importance of these markets, the factual information available to trade negotiators remains scarce. Although public procurement patterns (e.g. size of procurement markets...

  1. What Is the Status of Indonesian E-Procurement?

    OpenAIRE

    Achmad Nurmandi

    2013-01-01

    E-procurement is an important intrument to prevent corruption in goods and services procurement budget. Indonesia has been implementing the e-procurement project since 2008 based on Presidential Decree. President has stipulating annual order (presidential instruction) has to be obey by all ministries and local governments to procure their budget through r-procurement mechanism. However, untill 2012 fiscal year, this research found that only around 10.26% of central government institution proc...

  2. The Malaysian Public Procurement's Prevalent System and its Weaknesses

    OpenAIRE

    Rohana Othman; Husein Zakaria; Norlaili Nordin; Zamzam Shahidan; Kamaruzaman Jusoff

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This study examined the public procurement system as prevalent in the Malaysian government system of administration. Various aspects of public procurement are outlined including types and the processes that entail public procurement. This study also highlighted the weaknesses in the manual public procurement processes that are opened to potential abuse and mismanagement resulting in corruption. This study places the Malaysian Government public procurement system under the s...

  3. Procurement management in scientific research and production project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yi

    2008-01-01

    To meet the requirement of development trend of scientific research and production, it is necessary to incorporate the modern procurement management theory in the whole procurement process for the items used in scientific research and production.This paper provided some suggestions to improve the procurement management by introducing the experiences in the application of the modern procurement management methods in the procurement of parts production. (author)

  4. Combined antiretroviral and anti- tuberculosis drug resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these epidemics, many challenges remain.[3] Antiretroviral and anti-TB drug resistance pose considerable threats to the control of these epidemics.[4,5]. The breakdown in HIV/TB control within prisons is another emerging threat.[6,7] We describe one of the first reports of combined antiretroviral and anti-TB drug resistance ...

  5. Preliminary investigation of adherence to antiretroviral therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of HIV with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in declining morbidity and mortality rates from HIV-associated diseases, but concerns regarding access and adherence are growing. To determine the adherence level and the reasons for non-adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among ...

  6. NEW DRUGS NEW TARGETS AND NOVEL ANTIRETROVIRALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-11-02

    Nov 2, 2005 ... Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has to date been based on use of a triple combination of drugs chosen from three classes of antiretrovirals (ARVs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs).

  7. An evaluation of transit procurement training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Weiner, Marc D; Klein, Nicholas J; Puniello, Orin D

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated a training course called "Orientation to Transit Procurement", designed and conducted by the National Transit Institute. This course is designed to provide Federal Transit Administration (FTA) grantees an overview of regulations and best practices related to the procurement process. Our objective in conducting the evaluation was to understand how transit agency staff made changes in procurement practices in response to the course training. The evaluation was mixed mode: an Internet survey followed by in-depth interviews with a small group of respondents. Survey respondents were also provided with an open-ended question providing us with additional context for our evaluation. Results show that the training is substantially successful at meeting the goal of improving procurement practices at transit agencies; indeed, most respondents report making changes at their agencies as the proximate result of the training. This was at odds with our exploration of knowledge of procurement topics, as most respondents gave inaccurate answers on multiple-choice "knowledge questions". This may have been due to question structure or, more likely, the nature of online surveys. Suitable training on the procurement of information technology was also a main concern. The lack of training in this area is indicative of the broader challenge facing public transit agencies in how to incorporate new forms of technology into their existing practices and bureaucratic structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agcaoili, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  9. Organizational determinants in the procurement and transplantation pathway: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triassi M

    2014-12-01

    were selected as potentially relevant. Results: We found three prevalent areas of interest focused on organizational elements: global organizational strategies scenario, clinical hospital organization, and citizenship and social scenario. Conclusion: We reached the conclusion that organization has a central role in different scenarios of procurement and transplantation in a continuum from government to hospital (the core of the system and finally among citizens. A standardized hospital pathway definitely remains the essential step in order to ameliorate either procurement or transplantation. Keywords: transplant procurement, management, organizational tool, network

  10. Access to hepatitis C virus treatment: Lessons from implementation of strategies for increasing access to antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Yibeltal; Hill, Peter S; Williams, Owain D

    2018-05-01

    At September's 2017 United Nations General Assembly, a state-of-the-art HIV medicine was announced to be made available at just $75 per person per year. There have been a number of strategies that the global AIDS community and countries have utilized to reduce prices and make antiretrovirals (ARVs) accessible for people living with HIV/AIDS. There appears to be an opportunity for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) to benefit from the often painful and laboured history of driving down the prices of ARVs. In general, the success of lowering prices for ARVs has stemmed from the politics needed to initially support generic entry into the on-patent market. The use of flexibilities present in the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) have been used to overcome patent barriers, with the use of compulsory licenses and/or the threat of their use as instruments for strengthening the bargaining power in price negotiations. These strategies have been combined with new financing mechanisms that have promoted more effective procurement and price negotiations. Partnership among the different stakeholders has also been critical in this regard. Countries have also invested in their health systems and implemented several strategies to reduce stigma and discrimination to increase access to and improve utilization of ARVs. This article suggests that any future international initiatives to increase access to DAAs can learn from these lessons surrounding price reduction, improved financing, advocacy, as well as health systems strengthening and stigma reduction. Adopting and reconfiguring these strategies will also incur substantial savings in time, money and lives. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Facilitators and barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence among adolescents in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, D.; Koster, E.S.; Teeuwisse, A.K.; Arhinful, D.K.; Agyepong, I.A.; Lartey, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known to be challenging among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, notwithstanding the life-saving importance of this therapy. Of the global total number of adolescents living with HIV in 2013, 83% reside in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed

  12. Cornea procurement, preservation and transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson Silva

    1999-01-01

    Our experience on this subject is 40 years and we have seen the developments everywhere during this total period. Cornea procurement has been an unsurmountable problem in a large number of countries, mostly due to social and cultural reasons. The requirements for a simple eye bank to manage the supply for a local hospital are minimal. What is the most important is the donor base. In Sri Lanka nurtured in the traditions of Theravada Buddhism the donor base was easy to prepare. We had no difficulties with Christians and Hindus. For Muslims there are Fatwas in favour of donating eyes. But we always found them to be a reluctant group. But in predominantly Muslim countries, it is imperative that social workers should take up this issue, so those thousands may be helped. In all areas where attempts are made to procure comeas, it is important to have a day-and-night service available at short notice to collect any eyes offered. A trained technician with sterilised instruments to obtain eyes and blood sample must be available at a convenient location preferably in a large hospital. Even in places where the supply is infrequent, it is essential to have the readily-sterilised instruments to proceed to a donor site at short notice. To get eyes, general publicity in mass media alone is not sufficient. Such publicity makes people aware of the need for donor eyes and where a technician/doctor is available. What is more important is to canvass personally after a person has died For this purpose trained social workers may be employed, or the technician can do the motivation, as we do in Sri Lanka. Once eyes are removed, it is essential to pay careful attention to the appearance of the cadaver. It should not (and need not) cause any deformity as such event has a profound negative effect on the campaign. Many different preservation methods have been used over the years. Mc Carey-Kaufmann (MK) medium has been the standard for many years, and gives a life span of 4-5 days. The formula

  13. Transformation of fraud activities in procurement system in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiani, N.; Huda, S. N.; Pulungan, R.; Winarko, E.

    2017-03-01

    E-procurement has been applied in Indonesia since 2008 through the adoption of Electronic Procurement System (SPSE). The purpose of the use of SPSE in the procurement process is to improve the efficiency of goods or services procurement. In the bidding process, intensive communication and data exchange between providers and organizers are urgently needed. Through SPSE, the frequency of face to face meetings between providers and the committee can be reduced. This is expected to minimize potential fraud behaviors in the goods or services procurement conducted through the tender process. There exists a transformation of activities in the procurement through SPSE from the tender process that was previously done manually. In this paper, we analyze this transformation between manual procurement process and SPSE-based procurement process. The result of the analysis is exploited for investigating the possibility of fraud behavior transformations in every phase of e-procurement activities.

  14. PUBLIC PROCUREMENT IN GHANA: THE IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES TO THE PUBLIC PROCUREMENT LAW 2003 (ACT 663

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameyaw, Collins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify various implementation bottlenecks to the Ghana Public Procurement Law 2003 (Act 663. The study adopted multiple research approaches, including; review of relevant literature, interviews and questionnaire survey of 49 District Assemblies and Metropolitan and Municipal Assemblies in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana. The study identified low capacity of procurement professionals, low interaction between procurement entities and Public Procurement Authority (PPA, deliberate controlling of competition, non-compliance with provisions of the law, splitting of contracts into smaller lots, lack of funds and non-cooperativeness of suppliers, as the major challenges militating against the implementation of the Public Procurement Law.

  15. IEA Task 24 Solar procurement 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K.; Oestergaard, I. [Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup. SolEnergiCentret (Denmark); Gramkow, L. [Esbensen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the project is to develop and improve large procurements of solar heating systems in order to be able to place large orders with manufacturers and suppliers. The project work will be carried out as an international co-operation under IEA Task 24 with the title 'Solar Procurement'. By co-ordinating the effort between the 4-6 participating countries, the objective is to purchase at least 10,000 solar heating systems, of this amount 1,000-2,000 in Denmark. Such large orders make it possible for manufacturers and suppliers to deliver systems considerably cheaper, and it will be possible to develop systems for given specifications on output and efficiency. These co-ordinated large orders are expected to improve the price/efficiency conditions by up to 50%. The so called 'procurement process' (co-ordinated international procurement based on goal-oriented system development in co-operation between customers and suppliers/manufacturers) will in the project be followed up by information/marketing, education, financing schemes, service schemes, quality assurance and technical support. The project is divided into two main areas (IEA subtasks). 1: 'Procurement and Marketing' and 2: 'Creation of Tools'. Denmark has been requested to be the project manager of subtask 2, 'Creation of Tools'. (EHS)

  16. IEA Task 24 Solar procurement 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellehauge, K.; Oestergaard, I.; Gramkow, L.

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the project is to develop and improve large procurements of solar heating systems in order to be able to place large orders with manufacturers and suppliers. The project work will be carried out as an international co-operation under IEA Task 24 with the title 'Solar Procurement'. By co-ordinating the effort between the 4-6 participating countries, the objective is to purchase at least 10,000 solar heating systems, of this amount 1,000-2,000 in Denmark. Such large orders make it possible for manufacturers and suppliers to deliver systems considerably cheaper, and it will be possible to develop systems for given specifications on output and efficiency. These co-ordinated large orders are expected to improve the price/efficiency conditions by up to 50%. The so called 'procurement process' (co-ordinated international procurement based on goal-oriented system development in co-operation between customers and suppliers/manufacturers) will in the project be followed up by information/marketing, education, financing schemes, service schemes, quality assurance and technical support. The project is divided into two main areas (IEA subtasks). 1: 'Procurement and Marketing' and 2: 'Creation of Tools'. Denmark has been requested to be the project manager of subtask 2, 'Creation of Tools'. (EHS)

  17. An information system to manage the rollout of the antiretroviral treatment programme in the Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Kotzé

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome epidemic, caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is a global crisis which threatens development gains, economies, and societies. Within sub-Saharan Africa, where the epidemic began the earliest and the HIV prevalence is the highest, African countries have death rates not seen before. In South Africa the epidemic has a devastating impact which creates profound suffering on individuals and their families, and the impact on the socio-economic level is of great concern. The eradication of HIV/AIDS represents one of humanity’s greatest challenges, which requires co-operation and comprehensive collaboration between many different role players. In this endeavour clinical information plays a major role. To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports to the antiretroviral management team. A need was identified to design a comprehensive antiretroviral data warehouse that will integrate data from several operational sources which are all associated with HIV/AIDS.

  18. Diagnostics of Procurement Activity of Industrial Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Veretennikova Anna B.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of procurement activity of industrial enterprise is substantiated in the article. The results of the critical analysis of the existing approaches to procurement effectiveness evaluating are presented. The main directions of diagnostics of procurement activity of industrial enterprise such as the quality of the organization and the resources, the effectiveness and efficiency, security of logistics operations.В статье обоснована актуальность диагностирования закупочной деятельнос...

  19. Organ procurement after euthanasia: Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysebaert, D; Van Beeumen, G; De Greef, K; Squifflet, J P; Detry, O; De Roover, A; Delbouille, M-H; Van Donink, W; Roeyen, G; Chapelle, T; Bosmans, J-L; Van Raemdonck, D; Faymonville, M E; Laureys, S; Lamy, M; Cras, P

    2009-03-01

    Euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002 for adults under strict conditions. The patient must be in a medically futile condition and of constant and unbearable physical or mental suffering that cannot be alleviated, resulting from a serious and incurable disorder caused by illness or accident. Between 2005 and 2007, 4 patients (3 in Antwerp and 1 in Liège) expressed their will for organ donation after their request for euthanasia was granted. Patients were aged 43 to 50 years and had a debilitating neurologic disease, either after severe cerebrovascular accident or primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Ethical boards requested complete written scenario with informed consent of donor and relatives, clear separation between euthanasia and organ procurement procedure, and all procedures to be performed by senior staff members and nursing staff on a voluntary basis. The euthanasia procedure was performed by three independent physicians in the operating room. After clinical diagnosis of cardiac death, organ procurement was performed by femoral vessel cannulation or quick laparotomy. In 2 patients, the liver, both kidneys, and pancreatic islets (one case) were procured and transplanted; in the other 2 patients, there was additional lung procurement and transplantation. Transplant centers were informed of the nature of the case and the elements of organ procurement. There was primary function of all organs. The involved physicians and transplant teams had the well-discussed opinion that this strong request for organ donation after euthanasia could not be waived. A clear separation between the euthanasia request, the euthanasia procedure, and the organ procurement procedure is necessary.

  20. Innovative Procurement and Partnerships in Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    strong requirements on the management style and company culture. Limitations of the research: The research is only based on two case studies, which obviously limits the possibility to generalize the results. Practical applications: The research presents two specific examples of innovative procurement......Aim: The aim of the paper is to present, analyse and identify learning from two case studies of innovative procurement in Facilities Management (FM) concerning the establishments of partnerships between clients and providers. Approach and methodology: A major study of FM best practice covering 36...

  1. Greening Non-Product-Related Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette; Riisgaard, Henrik; Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    link to the strategy for greening private consumption, as similarities exist and the purchasers lean on their private experiences when purchasing non-product related items; and finally, 3) Intensify the efforts in product categories in which strict normative legislation makes management more motivated....... environmental benefits of millions of procurement decisions do add up to large environmental improvement potentials. Thus, non-product-related procurement focuses on the similarities in the purchases made across different sectors. Explorative interviews with purchasers in Danish companies form the basis...

  2. Spare parts classification and procurement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlon, K.L.; Hassaballa, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The cost benefits have been demonstrated for an integrated program, which is currently being implemented for two PWR stations with two 1100-MW units each. The component classification efforts reduced the number of safety-related components in several systems. Furthermore, the knowledge of the component specific function has contributed to the reduction of many safety-related parts per component, in addition to ensuring the procurement of parts to the correct safety level. The use of qualified commercial grade parts and components with their lower cost and reasonable procurement lead time compared to their 10 CFR 21 counterparts has a pronounced economic effect on the utility balance sheets

  3. Vascularized Composite Allografts: Procurement, Allocation, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmel, Axel

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation is a continuously evolving area of modern transplant medicine. Recently, vascularized composite allografts (VCAs) have been formally classified as 'organs'. In this review, key aspects of VCA procurement are discussed, with a special focus on interaction with the procurement of classical solid organs. In addition, options for a matching and allocation system that ensures VCA donor organs are allocated to the best-suited recipients are looked at. Finally, the different steps needed to promote VCA transplantation in society in general and in the medical community in particular are highlighted.

  4. Sustainable Procurement in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Costa, Nives

    2011-01-01

    are highly contested among UN procurement officers and member states. However, so far the debate has mostly been based on assumptions about how the implementation of SP might affect developing country stakeholders. In fact, very few academic studies have been made of the economic, social and environmental......This paper deals with the integration of economic, social and environmental criteria into the purchasing practices of the United Nations (UN) system--also known as the UN engagement in sustainable procurement (SP). We argue that the debates about the pros and cons of the UN engaging in SP...

  5. Controlled procurement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, I.S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for establishing a controlled materials management system that facilitates materials procurement at nuclear power plants. This method is based on the determination of informational data requirements, appropriate input and approvals, and extent of administrative controls. Implementation of the techniques described herein will ensure that the accuracy of important procurement information is not compromised by unauthorized initial input or changes and/or failure to maintain the information. Needed material can thus be ordered through the materials management system with a high degree of confidence that the correct items are ordered, with minimal internal lead time and minimum delays during the receiving process

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Antiretroviral treatment for children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kaplan-Meier survival estimate for 407 children at 1 year was. 84% (95% ... highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to 3 million people living with HIV I AIDS in ... 5 Furthermore, improvements in growth and body composition parameters,.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Estimation of adult antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    workplace treatment programmes (WPTPs) and NGO ..... Our analysis also demonstrates significant inequality .... paying for their own treatment outside of DMPs,15 which may ... of antiretroviral coverage in men and women and to develop.

  8. Management of Contracts for F110 Engine Procurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    2001-01-01

    This audit was performed in response to an allegation to the Defense Hotline that the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Procurement Contracting Office made poor procurement decisions on F110 aircraft engine contracts...

  9. GPP Webinar: Solar Procurement Templates and Tools for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar on solar procurement for Higher Education which features various tools and templates that schools can use to shape and manage the solar procurement process to a successful outcome.

  10. Design of reactive power procurement in deregulated electricity market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    novel reactive power procurement model is proposed, which ensure secure and ..... The simulation is performed in the Matlab. .... focus of this paper is a reactive procurement market model, which is a basically two-step optimization process.

  11. 76 FR 37069 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Certification The following products and service are proposed for addition to Procurement List for production by... following product is proposed for deletion from the Procurement List: Product Detergent, Laundry NSN: 7930...

  12. Environmental Criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fuentes-Bargues

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green Public Procurement (GPP is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain group of countries, known as “Green 7”, in the European Union. Environmental criteria is the fourth criterion in importance, but its weight in the global of the process is much lower than other criteria such as price, memory of the construction process and the delivery time. National administrations use environmental criteria more frequently because they have more resources and staff training about environmental issues. Environmental criteria are more used in the tendering of civil projects and works whose budget exceeds ten million euro due to the environmental impact of these kind and/or size of projects.

  13. Does Pharmaceutical Pricing Transparency Matter? Examining Brazil's Public Procurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Jillian Clare; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Saadat, Faridah; Byng, Danalyn; Martinez, Martha Gabriela

    2015-08-04

    widely used medicines. This is indicative of a limited model for addressing the challenges in pharmaceutical procurement and puts into question the value of tools used globally to improve transparency in pharmaceutical pricing.

  14. Regional trade agreements & procurement rules : facilitators or hindrances?

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON, Robert D.; MÜLLER, Anna Caroline; PELLETIER, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This Working Paper considers the significance of government procurement chapters in regional trade agreements (RTAs), both in their own right and vis-à-vis the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA). The paper finds, inter alia, that: (i) a strong complementarity exists between government procurement trade commitments and general goods and services trade commitments, making integration of procurement commitments in a more general system such as the WTO Agreements desirable; (ii) govern...

  15. Innovation public procurement in Russia: problems of institutional arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korytcev Maxim, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.

  16. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy S; Fonseca, Elize M; Bastos, Francisco I; Gruskin, Sofia; Salomon, Joshua A

    2007-11-13

    Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005. We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r) have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase quantities of six specific drugs: patented lopinavir

  17. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Nunn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs, procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005.We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase quantities of six specific drugs

  18. Effects of Procurement Related Factors on Construction Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several Literatures in construction management support the view that procurements have impacts on project performance. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of procurement related factors of procurement selection criteria, tendering methods and variation orders on project performance. Purpose of the study is to ...

  19. 7 CFR 235.9 - Procurement and property management standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement and property management standards. 235.9... Procurement and property management standards. (a) Requirements. State agencies shall comply with the requirements of 7 CFR part 3016 concerning the procurement of supplies, equipment and other services with State...

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.507-2 - Procurement time schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement time schedule. 101-26.507-2 Section 101-26.507-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND...

  1. 7 CFR 248.21 - Procurement and property management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement and property management. 248.21 Section... Provisions § 248.21 Procurement and property management. (a) Requirements. State agencies shall comply with the requirements of 7 CFR part 3016 for procurement of supplies, equipment and other services with...

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.501-5 - Procurement time schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement time schedules. 101-26.501-5 Section 101-26.501-5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT...

  3. 76 FR 78248 - Procurement List; Addition and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    .... Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, Stratton Medical Center, 113 Holland Ave, Albany, NY. [[Page 78249...: Addition to and Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a service to the Procurement... disabilities, and deletes products and services from the Procurement List previously furnished by such agencies...

  4. Greening Operations Management: An Online Sustainable Procurement Course for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Helen L.; Gough, Stephen; Bakker, Elmer F.; Knight, Louise A.; McBain, Darian

    2009-01-01

    In the Operations Management field, sustainable procurement has emerged as a way to green the purchasing and supply process. This paper explores issues in sustainable procurement training. The authors formed an interdisciplinary team to design, deliver and evaluate a training programme to promote and develop sustainable procurement in the United…

  5. Nepal : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focused on the degree of readiness of Government of Nepal's (GoN's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from a traditional paper-based, manual procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). Some 20 public and private sector organizations, involved in a wide range of functions that relate to public...

  6. Maldives : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focuses on the degree of readiness of Government of The Maldives's (GoTM's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from traditional paper-based, manual methods of procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). The e-GP Assessment was discussed individually with informed respondents in the public and p...

  7. Study on Comparative Efficiencies in Vaccine Procurement Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bumpas, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Vaccinations are amongst the most cost-effective public health interventions. Vaccine procurement is a complex issue that interweaves the domains of public health, commodity security, ethics, and procurement. Its cross-disciplinary nature means that neither a straightforward analysis stemming from just one discipline nor a cookie-cutter application of World Bank procurement principles of e...

  8. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procurement contract, is the appropriate instrument, based on the following: (a) Purpose. (1) The grants... purpose is acquisition, then the grants officer shall judge that a procurement contract is the appropriate... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement. 22...

  9. Procurement maturity, alignment and performance: a Dutch hospital case comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    Procurement is an important supporting business function, with which competitive advantage can potentially be achieved. In this paper, the relation between maturity and alignment in procurement on the one hand, and procurement performance on the other, is investigated in the case study setting of

  10. Procurement Maturity, Alignment and Performance: a Dutch Hospital Case Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Procurement is an important supporting business function, with which competitive advantage can potentially be achieved. In this paper, the relation between maturity and alignment in procurement on the one hand, and procurement performance on the other, is investigated in the case study setting of

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.602-4 - Procurement of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of coal. 101... PROGRAM 26.6-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.602-4 Procurement of coal. (a) Federal agencies desiring to participate in the Defense Fuel Supply Center coal contracting program for carload delivery...

  12. 20 CFR 627.420 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sources, unless it is demonstrated that the JTPA-funded alternative services or facilities would be more...) Each State and subrecipient shall conduct procurements in a manner which provides full and open... pricing practices between firms or organizations or between affiliated companies or organizations; (iv...

  13. 38 CFR 49.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.46... of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained, and (c) Basis for award cost or price. (Authority: Pub. L. 104-156; 110 Stat. 1396) ...

  14. 45 CFR 2541.360 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foster greater economy and efficiency, grantees and subgrantees are encouraged to enter into State and... procured, and when necessary, shall set forth those minimum essential characteristics and standards to... grantee or subgrantee desires to have the review accomplished after a solicitation has been developed, the...

  15. 20 CFR 437.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... greater economy and efficiency, grantees and subgrantees are encouraged to enter into State and local... procured, and when necessary, must set forth those minimum essential characteristics and standards to which... desires to have the review accomplished after a solicitation has been developed, SSA may still review the...

  16. Online Reverse Auctions for Procurement of Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnline reverse auctions, in which a buyer seeks to select a supplier and suppliers compete for contracts by bidding online, revolutionized corporate procurement early this century. Shortly after they had been pioneered by General Electric, many companies rushed to adopt reverse auctions

  17. 21 CFR 1403.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be a selection criteria provided its application leaves an appropriate number of qualified firms... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement. 1403.36 Section 1403.36 Food and.... No employee, officer or agent of the grantee or subgrantee shall participate in selection, or in the...

  18. Procurement of medical equipment in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Terio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many hospitals in Sweden the importance of technology management is already accepted and accepted since the hospital managements have recognised that technology is an integral part of all major policy and planning decisions. Today’s medical devices are technically complex and sometimes a system of interacting devices is required to achieve the desired clinical function. If the hospitals want to use the latest, modern technology, then they need to make substantial investments in both equipment and competence. Complex technology, large investments and need of highly qualii ed personnel to handle the medical devices are factors that indicate a need of well-dei ned procurement process as an essential part of the total health technology management system that should be used in a hospital. In such a procurement process, carefully prepared planning of technology investments can reduce the running costs and costs for maintenance substantially. In addition, a well-dei ned procurement process contributes to increase the patient safety. In Karolinska University Hospital goods and services are purchased for more than 20% of the hospital’s €1.2 billion turnover. It is therefore very important that the procurement is carried out ef ectively.

  19. 78 FR 59658 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Accordingly, the following products and services are added to the Procurement List: Products Laundry Net... ADMINISTRATION, BOULDER, CO. Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, US Coast Guard Base, Portsmouth, VA. NPA... GUARD, BASE PORTSMOUTH, PORTSMOUTH, VA Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, Federal Bureau of Prisons...

  20. Pre-commercial procurement : regulatory effectiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostol, Anca Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Is public procurement of research and development (‘R&D’) services the key to European Union (‘EU’)’s sustainable welfare? Is it being regulated in accordance with economic prescripts for effectiveness? Is the regulatory and policy setting clear and comprehensive in order to stimulate a widespread

  1. 78 FR 34351 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    .... ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the...

  2. 78 FR 53734 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S Clark Street, Suite 10800... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  3. 78 FR 77105 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington, Virginia, 22202... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  4. 78 FR 50040 - Procurement List, Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington, Virginia, 22202... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  5. 78 FR 19248 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  6. Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A; Singh, M Fiatarone; Trey, T; Lavee, J

    2014-10-01

    Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China is internationally condemned, yet this practice continues unabated in 2014. This is despite repeated announcements from Chinese authorities that constructive measures have been undertaken to conform to accepted ethical standards. While there is unanimous agreement on the unethical nature of using organs from executed prisoners, due to its limitations on voluntary and informed consent, there is insufficient coverage of forced organ procurement from prisoners of conscience without consent. Strategies to influence positive change in China over the last few decades have failed to bring this practice to an end. While organ donation and transplantation services in China have undergone considerable structural changes in the last few years, fundamental attempts to shift practice to ethically sourced organs have floundered. In this article, we discuss the organ trade in China, reflect upon organ procurement from executed prisoners (including both capital prisoners and prisoners of conscience) and provide an overview of contradictory Chinese efforts to halt forced organ procurement from executed prisoners. Finally, we highlight current actions being taken to address this issue and offer comprehensive recommendations to bring this ethically indefensible practice to an immediate end. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care.

  8. 77 FR 70738 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Fire Fighters, Metal NSN: CBFF0053--Nameplate, Navy Fire Fighters, 2 Line, Metal NSN: CBFF0054--Collar, Brass, Navy Fire Fighters, Metal NSN: CBFF0055--Shorts, Navy Fire Fighters, Physical Training, Small... following products are added to the Procurement List: PRODUCTS: NSN: CBFF0001--Shirt, Navy Fire Fighters...

  9. SMEs cooperate to meet social procurement conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oden, Petra

    2015-01-01

    A growing amount of (semi) public organizations in the Netherlands write tenders with mandatory social conditions. It is important for SMEs to focus on social procurement in their business strategy. SMEs should be proactive and try to affect the conditions (semi) public organizations write in their

  10. 76 FR 57719 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0583--Refills, Bathroom Cleaner and Deodorizer, Cartridge Concentrate. NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0584--Starter Kit, Bathroom Cleaner and Deodorizer, Cartridge Concentrate. NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0585...

  11. 78 FR 12296 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... services are proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed... and Trailer Wash, 55 GL NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0649--Cleaner/Degreaser, Heavy Duty, Biodegradable, Car and Trucks, 5 GL NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0650--Cleaner/Degreaser, Heavy Duty, Biodegradable, Car and Trucks, 55 GL...

  12. 36 CFR 1207.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement. 1207.36 Section 1207.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... resonableness can be established on the basis of a catalog or market price of a commercial product sold in...

  13. Procurement Officer | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... efficient, and ethical and provide the best possible value to the IDRC; supporting the ... procurement processes are perceived by suppliers as fair, open and ethical; ... while ensuring to protect confidential information;; analyses, negotiates and ... and knowledge, and interpret, assess and communicate current IDRC policy, ...

  14. 78 FR 73504 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Logistics Support Detachment, Undisclosed Location*, Ft. Belvoir, VA. NPA: MVLE, Inc., Springfield, VA. Contracting Activity: Directorate of Contracting Procurement Logistics Support Detachment, Fort Belvoir, VA.... Lineback, Director, Business Operations. [FR Doc. 2013-29139 Filed 12-5-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6353-01-P ...

  15. 77 FR 60969 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Are Blind or Severely Disabled published a notice for additions to the Procurement List with the... Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published notices of proposed..., Phoenix, AZ. Service Type/Location: Custodial and Grounds Maintenance Services, Austin Courthouse, 501...

  16. Forward Commitment Procurement : A practical methodology that helps to manage risk in procuring innovative goods and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whyles, G.; Meerveld, H. van; Nauta, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Commitment Procurement (FCP) is a Public Procurement of Innovation (PPI) methodology. It was specifically designed to both provide a practical methodology for procurers to follow and to manage the perceived risk of the customer and supplier in innovation investments. The paper describes

  17. Alarm systems a guide to design, management and procurement

    CERN Document Server

    Engineering Equipment and Materials Users' Association. London

    2013-01-01

    Alarm systems form an essential part of the operator interfaces to large modern industrial facilities. They provide vital support to the operators by warning them of situations that need their attention and have an important role in preventing, controlling and mitigating the effects of abnormal situations. Since it was first published in 1999, EEMUA 191 has become the globally accepted and leading guide to good practice for all aspects of alarm systems. The guide, developed by users of alarm systems with input from the GB Health and Safety Executive, gives comprehensive guidance on designing, managing and procuring an effective alarm system. The new Third Edition has been comprehensively updated and includes guidance on implementing the alarm management philosophy in practice; applications in geographically distributed processes; and performance metrics and KPIs.

  18. Improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has transformed HIV infection into a treatable, chronic condition. However, the need to continue treatment for decades rather than years, calls for a long-term perspective of ART. Adherence to the regimen is essential for successful treatment and sustained viral control. Studies have indicated that at least 95% adherence to ART regimens is optimal. It has been demonstrated that a 10% higher level of adherence results in a 21% reduction in disease progression. The various factors affecting success of ART are social aspects like motivation to begin therapy, ability to adhere to therapy, lifestyle pattern, financial support, family support, pros and cons of starting therapy and pharmacological aspects like tolerability of the regimen, availability of the drugs. Also, the regimen′s pill burden, dosing frequency, food requirements, convenience, toxicity and drug interaction profile compared with other regimens are to be considered before starting ART. The lack of trust between clinician and patient, active drug and alcohol use, active mental illness (e.g. depression, lack of patient education and inability of patients to identify their medications, lack of reliable access to primary medical care or medication are considered to be predictors of inadequate adherence. Interventions at various levels, viz. patient level, medication level, healthcare level and community level, boost adherence and overall outcome of ART.

  19. The problems of accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalova Tatiana Volodymyrivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated main aspects of accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management. It was found essence of accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management, purpose, functions and tasks. It was determined main elements and essence of accountable and analytical information taking into consideration needs of modern management. In the article are exposed structural elements of accountable and analytical procuring. It was formed conceptual approaches of building accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management. It was analyzed main problems of improving accountable and analytical informational procuring of taking managerial decisions with the aim of solving economic problems due to current situation of national economy.

  20. Potential fraudulent behaviors in e-procurement implementation in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, S. N.; Setiani, N.; Pulungan, R.; Winarko, E.

    2017-03-01

    Corruptions in public procurement have occurred in various parts of the world, especially in developing countries. Implementation of SPSE (electronic procurement system) as the e-procurement system in Indonesia is based on the government’s intentions towards clean and good governance by fighting corruption, collusion, and nepotism. Procurement in Indonesia is carried out through SPSE, which is developed by LKPP (Government Policy on Procurement of Goods/Services). Although this system has brought many positive effects, there are still found many practices of fraud occurring in the implementation of the system. In this paper, we try to identify these practices and then to systematically categorize and analyze them.

  1. Public perspectives on biospecimen procurement: what biorepositories should consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Jamie; Murray, Jeffrey C; Newbury, Elizabeth; Shinkunas, Laura; Simon, Christian M

    2013-06-01

    Human biospecimens are central to biobanking efforts, yet how members of the public think about biobank procurement strategies is not well understood. This study aimed to explore public perspectives toward the procurement of residual clinical material versus "direct" procurement strategies such as the drawing of blood. Members of the public residing in and beyond the biobank catchment area of the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics were randomly selected to participate in focus groups and a telephone survey. The majority of survey participants (75%, n=559) found both residual and direct procurement strategies equally workable. Small proportions preferred either residual (15%; n=117) or direct (5%; n=40) procurement. Focus group participants (n=48) could identify benefits to both procurement strategies, but raised concerns about possible donor inconvenience/discomfort and reduced biospecimen accrual in the case of direct procurement. Residual procurement raised concerns about lower-quality samples being procured without full donor awareness. Biobanks should consider that members of the public in their research programs may be willing to make specimen donations regardless of whether a residual or direct procurement strategy is employed. Limiting patient discomfort and inconvenience may make direct procurement strategies more acceptable to some members of the public. Ensuring donor awareness through effective informed consent may allay public concerns about the indirectness of donating clinical biospecimens.

  2. EIA and green procurement: Opportunities for strengthening their coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uttam, Kedar; Faith-Ell, Charlotta; Balfors, Berit

    2012-01-01

    EIA plays an important role in enhancing the environmental performance of the construction sector. In recent years, the construction sector has been developing green procurement practices. Green procurement is a process that involves the incorporation of environmental requirements during the procurement of services and products. However, discussion on green procurement is rarely seen during the EIA phase. This paper addresses possible opportunities for improving the coordination between EIA and green procurement within the construction sector. The linking of EIA and green procurement has been postulated in the paper as an aid to strengthen the coordination between project planning and implementation. The paper is based on a literature review and is an outcome of an on-going research project concerning EIA and green procurement. This study indicated that it would be appropriate to introduce green procurement during the pre-decision phase of an EIA. In the present study, the opportunities for integrating green procurement at the stage of EIA are associated with the integration of project planning and EIA. Future research should investigate the mechanism through which the link can be established. - Highlights: ► This paper identifies opportunities to link EIA and green procurement. ► Pre-decision phase of EIA could be appropriate for planning green procurement. ► Future research should investigate the mechanism for establishing the link.

  3. EIA and green procurement: Opportunities for strengthening their coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uttam, Kedar, E-mail: kedar@kth.se [Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Faith-Ell, Charlotta, E-mail: charlotta.faith-ell@WSPGroup.se [WSP Sweden (Sweden); Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se [Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    EIA plays an important role in enhancing the environmental performance of the construction sector. In recent years, the construction sector has been developing green procurement practices. Green procurement is a process that involves the incorporation of environmental requirements during the procurement of services and products. However, discussion on green procurement is rarely seen during the EIA phase. This paper addresses possible opportunities for improving the coordination between EIA and green procurement within the construction sector. The linking of EIA and green procurement has been postulated in the paper as an aid to strengthen the coordination between project planning and implementation. The paper is based on a literature review and is an outcome of an on-going research project concerning EIA and green procurement. This study indicated that it would be appropriate to introduce green procurement during the pre-decision phase of an EIA. In the present study, the opportunities for integrating green procurement at the stage of EIA are associated with the integration of project planning and EIA. Future research should investigate the mechanism through which the link can be established. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper identifies opportunities to link EIA and green procurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-decision phase of EIA could be appropriate for planning green procurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future research should investigate the mechanism for establishing the link.

  4. Prices of second-line antiretroviral treatment for middle-income countries inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Bryony; Hill, Andrew; Ford, Nathan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2014-01-01

    Antiretrovirals are available at low prices in sub-Saharan Africa, but these prices may not be consistently available for middle-income countries in other regions with large HIV epidemics. Over 30% of HIV infected people live in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Several key antiretrovirals are still on patent, with generic production restricted. We assessed price variations for key antiretroviral drugs inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa. HIV drug prices used in national programmes (2010-2014) were extracted from the WHO Global Price Reporting Mechanism database for all reporting middle-income countries as classified by the World Bank. Treatment costs (branded and generic) were compared for countries inside sub-Saharan Africa versus those outside. Five key second-line antiretrovirals were analysed: abacavir, atazanavir, darunavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, raltegravir. Prices of branded antiretrovirals were significantly higher outside sub-Saharan Africa (psub-Saharan Africa versus $4689 (IQR $4075-5717) in non-African middle-income countries, an increase of 541%. However, when supplied by generic companies, most antiretrovirals were similarly priced between countries in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. Pharmaceutical companies are selling antiretrovirals to non-African middle-income countries at prices 74-541% higher than African countries with similar gross national incomes. However, generic companies are selling most of these drugs at similar prices across regions. Mechanisms to ensure fair pricing for patented antiretrovirals across both African and non-African middle-income countries need to be improved, to ensure sustainable treatment access.

  5. Strategic Use of Government Procurement to Spur Renewable Energy Generation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    KhairulNaim Adham; Chamhuri Siwar; Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan; Sarah Aziz Abd Ghani Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The energy sectorplays an important rolein Malaysia’s socioeconomic development. However energy productionisthe largest contributor toair pollution. Malaysia’s emission intensity levels of green house gases (GHGs) in the energy sector are above the global average. In this view, government procurement which refers to the acquisition of supplies, services and works by the government plays a vital role as an economic instrument to promote sustainable use of energy - by intensifying the developme...

  6. Platelet count kinetics following interruption of antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Baker, Jason V

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of platelet kinetics in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study that demonstrated excess mortality with CD4 guided episodic antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug conservation compared with continuous treatment viral suppression. Follow...

  7. The association between HIV, antiretroviral therapy, and gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soepnel, Larske M; Norris, Shane A; Schrier, Verena J M M; Browne, Joyce L; Rijken, Marcus J; Gray, Glenda; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The widespread, chronic use of antiretroviral therapy raises questions concerning the metabolic consequences of HIV infection and treatment. Antiretroviral therapy, and specifically protease inhibitors, has been associated with hyperglycemia. As pregnant women are vulnerable to

  8. Collaborative procurement for developing a sustainable campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Rahim, Syukran Abdul; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd; Ismail, Mohd. Noorizhar

    2016-08-01

    It is particularly challenging to achieve sustainability in campus universities, where a high volume of users and activities has made it more imperative to promote green buildings that reduce energy and water consumption while having a minimal carbon footprint. At present, the frameworks for sustainable campus have seldom focused on the project procurement method which would improve construction team integration in developing the physical aspect of campus development. Therefore, in response to that challenge, this paper investigates how the delivery team, responsible for the design and construction of a project, can be integrated to work together more efficiently and more using the collaborative procurement method known as partnering. This paper reports part of a previous research and sets the base for ongoing research on the critical factors in partnering for sustainable campus development. The outcome or result of this study will meet and support the requirement for construction, maintenance, and operation process for universities towards sustainable building/campus in the future.

  9. Green related practices for construction procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidin, Z. A.; Bohari, A. A. M.; Rais, S. L. A.; Saferi, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Environment degradation issue has been a worldwide problem and various efforts have been done to minimise the problem. Construction sectors are pointed as one of the major contributors to its construction activities. Green-oriented procurement [GP] is considered as an environmental strategy to integrate the environmental practices into the construction delivery. Thus, this paper reviews the concept of GP and the practices related to it. The outcome of this research findings provides a basis for understanding the concept of GP and the further development of GP. The listed GP practices identified from this paper can serve as guidelines for industry practitioners to design, implement, and benchmarking the green practices in their procurement delivery.

  10. Innovative Procurement and Partnerships in Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    A major study of facilities management best practice covering 36 cases from the Nordic countries in Europe shows, that the most outstanding examples of innovation in FM are initiated from the demand side and involves new forms of procurement with long term contracts. This paper considers in depth......-called operational partnerships with private providers concerning all municipal buildings and sports facilities in parts of a city. Each of the case studies has involved both the client and the provider side of the collaboration. The cases show that an essential element in a successful procurement and partnership...... is that the client allows the providers freedom to plan their activities. Thereby the providers can optimize the use of their productive capacity and utilize their competences with incentives to profit from such improvements. A major challenge is to balance the risks between the client and provider and to create...

  11. Antiretroviral therapy programme on control of HIV transmission in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiretroviral therapy programme on control of HIV transmission in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania: A challenge for development. ... The government and partners should improve access to ART services to enable many PLHIV to access the services. Key words: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment, ...

  12. Public Procurement: A performance management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Klevensparr, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this thesis is to explore what performance indicators that exist within public procurement in defence sector context and how such performance indicators can be categorized.   Methodology - For the purpose of this thesis, an abductive approach was applied. This thesis is characterized as an exploratory multimethod qualitative research, which emphasize a single case study and a comprehensive research literature review. The empirical data was collected using semi-structu...

  13. Socially Responsible Award of the Procurement Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hristina Blagoycehva

    2013-01-01

    With the Europe 2020 strategy the EU has set itself, under conditions of a changing world, the goal of becoming an intelligent, sustainable and inclusive economy. Under the current conditions of budget constraints and economic difficulties the conventional mechanisms for promoting social justice and social cohesion are insufficient. Through the inclusion of social criteria in the awarding of public procurement there can be guaranteed the compliance with social insurance legislation, furthered...

  14. Innovation, Procurement and Construction Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geard de Valence

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The implications for analysis of innovation in construction of theoretical developments in industrial organisation are considered in this research, as an attempt to outline a new approach to construction innovation incorporating the ideas found in knowledge based, technology centred models. The paper firstly summarises characteristics of the construction industry, focusing on their effects on innovation, before surveying some of the ideas about the sources of innovation and the expansion and application of knowledge. Construction can be seen as an industry with limited scope for knowledge externalities, where the procurement methods used by the industry’s clients do not pay for innovation. The following discussion uses recent developments in the research on the economics of innovation and industrial organization theory, such as research intensity and the endogenous sunk costs in competitive, fragmented, low research intensity industries. The effects on R&D of procurement methods and on industry structure are discussed, with a focus on the appropriability of innovations and the role of the client on the Heathrow Terminal 5 project. The paper concludes that the procurement methods used for building and construction projects appears to be a determining factor in the level of innovation in the construction industry

  15. New harvesting technology in forest fuel procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raitila, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: jyrki.raitila@vtt.fi; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi; Jylhae, P. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), Email: paula.jylha@metla.fi; Laitila, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), Email: juha.laitila@metla.fi

    2009-07-01

    In order to increase the use of forest fuels, a regional development project was launched in the fall of 2008. The co-ordinator of the project is Metsaekeskus Keski-Suomi (Forestry Centre of Central Finland), while VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) is in charge of research and technical development. The aim of this project is to enhance energy wood procurement from early thinnings, to develop the supply chains of pine stump extraction, and to reduce storage losses of energy wood at roadside landings and at terminals. The results of a pre-feasibility study on the first-generation feller-bundler (Fixteri) by Metsaeteho Oy and the Finnish Forest Research Institute indicates that whole-tree bundling might enable undercutting of the current costs of separate procurement of pulp-wood and energy wood from first-thinning stands. The greatest cost-saving potential lies in small-diameter (d{sub 1.3} = 7-10 cm) first-thinning stands, which are currently relatively unprofitable sites for conventional pulpwood procurement based on single-tree harvesting. Preliminary tests of seasoning of whole-tree bundles have been very encouraging. In some cases the moisture content of energy wood bundles has decreased from 55 % to 25 % after about year of seasoning at the roadside (two summers). One of the most promising devices for pine stump harvesting was developed by Karelian Puu ja Metalli Oy. (orig.)

  16. Paid organ procurement: pragmatic and ethical viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, A S

    2004-09-01

    None of the familiar arguments against paid organ procurement really works. Most arguments spring from revulsion that arises from the abuses of the practice rather than the act itself. This has not stopped official condemnation. However, the evidence we have at present is that such condemnation, aimed at correcting a perceived moral wrong rather than at abuses of a practice (the correction of which might actually bring some moral good), has utterly failed, and many more countries including the United States now harbor paid organ procurement. We can try to develop and articulate a truly compelling moral argument against paid organ procurement or we can try to minimize the harm that comes out of this practice. Since it is unlikely that all countries will agree on a standardized approach in such a muddled field, the best way may be to let every country decide on what is best for itself. Some may want to ban the practice using legislation. Others may want to try regulating the practice, knowing full well that they cannot stop it and that turning a blind eye to the practice, or simply condemning it, does no good whatsoever and actually increases the harm because everything is done underground, with middlemen and mafia-like organizations making a lot of money out of a lot of misery. Some countries may choose to find other, more innovative solutions. We call attention to an important resolution dealing with this subject at the December 2002 ethics and transplantation congress in Munich.

  17. Woodfuel procurement strategies of district heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.; Bohlin, F.; Hektor, B.; Hillring, B.

    2003-01-01

    Woodfuel use in the Swedish district heating sector increased significantly from 1985 to 1999. This study analysed strategies and considerations concerning woodfuel procurement in district heating plants. Priorities and concerns in the industry involved an increased woodfuel share, ambitions to create an environmental image, cost minimisation, awareness about the role of energy policies for fuel choice, improvement of woodfuel quality and the ambition to maintain a competitive woodfuel market with several suppliers. Factor analysis yielded five dimensions in the woodfuel procurement strategies among the district heating companies: (1) increased woodfuel use; (2) import; (3) spot market woodfuel purchases; (4) focus on refined woodfuels; and (5) using price only when deciding whether to use woodfuels or other fuels. Five clusters were defined along the three strategy dimensions (1)-(3). The clusters differed concerning size, experiences from the introduction of woodfuels, perceptions about woodfuels and strategies employed to date. This paper describes different strategies that the district heating companies apply on the woodfuel market. The conclusion is that policies should consider this diversity in procurement strategies, mitigate their negative side-effects and assist to make them cost-effective. (author)

  18. The Informing Needs of Procurement Officers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahel Giat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To develop and introduce a questionnaire that investigates the informing needs, information-seeking behavior, and supplier selection of procurement officers in Israel. The questionnaire’s internal consistency reliability is given. Additionally, we describe the demographic description of the procurement officers in Israel. Background: Procurement science is an important field that affects firms’ profits in the private sector and is significant to growth, innovation, sustainability, and welfare in the public sector. There is little research about the informing needs of procurement officers in general and particularly in Israel. Methodology: A quantitative questionnaire that is sent to all the procurement officers in Israel’s procuring association. Contribution: The questionnaire that is developed in this paper may be used by other researchers and practitioners to evaluate the information needs of procurement officers. Findings: The typical procurement officer is male, with a bachelor degree and is digitally proficient. Recommendations for Practitioners: The procuring side can use the questionnaire to develop better tools for obtaining information efficiently. The supplying side can use this knowledge to improve its exposure to potential customers and address its customer’s needs better. Recommendation for Researchers: The questionnaire can address theoretical questions such as how digital literacy affects the procuring process and provide empirical findings about active research areas such as supplier selection and information-seeking behavior. Future Research: Future research will examine the relationship between the various variables and demographic features to understand why specific information needs and information-seeking behaviors arise.

  19. Delivery of antiretroviral treatment services in India: Estimated costs incurred under the National AIDS Control Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Reshu; Rewari, Bharat Bhushan; Shastri, Suresh; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Rathore, Abhilakh Singh

    2017-04-01

    Competing domestic health priorities and shrinking financial support from external agencies necessitates that India's National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) brings in cost efficiencies to sustain the programme. In addition, current plans to expand the criteria for eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India will have significant financial implications in the near future. ART centres in India provide comprehensive services to people living with HIV (PLHIV): those fulfilling national eligibility criteria and receiving ART and those on pre-ART care, i.e. not on ART. ART centres are financially supported (i) directly by the NACP; and (ii) indirectly by general health systems. This study was conducted to determine (i) the cost incurred per patient per year of pre-ART and ART services at ART centres; and (ii) the proportion of this cost incurred by the NACP and by general health systems. The study used national data from April 2013 to March 2014, on ART costs and non-ART costs (human resources, laboratory tests, training, prophylaxis and management of opportunistic infections, hospitalization, operational, and programme management). Data were extracted from procurement records and reports, statements of expenditure at national and state level, records and reports from ART centres, databases of the National AIDS Control Organisation, and reports on use of antiretroviral drugs. The analysis estimates the cost for ART services as US$ 133.89 (?8032) per patient per year, of which 66% (US$ 88.66, ?5320) is for antiretroviral drugs and 34% (US$ 45.23, ?2712) is for non-ART recurrent expenditure, while the cost for pre-ART care is US$ 33.05 (?1983) per patient per year. The low costs incurred for patients in ART and pre-ART care services can be attributed mainly to the low costs of generic drugs. However, further integration with general health systems may facilitate additional cost saving, such as in human resources.

  20. 2016 Status Report on Major Equipment Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Department of National Defence made some progress in procurement in 2016 despite obstacles that included a continued drop in spending, the advent of a new federal Liberal government and uncertainty over the outcome of the Defence Policy Review. Four trends affected defence acquisitions in 2016. These include an ongoing slippage in recapitalizing the Canadian Armed Forces, some encouraging moves made on the shipbuilding and fighter jet files, mixed progress on implementing the 2014 Defence Procurement Strategy, and uncertainty over the Defence Policy Review. It is also too early to tell how the Trudeau government’s Policy on Results, known as the “deliverology” approach, will play out for defence procurement. However, Budget 2016’s major focus was not on defence, and it shifted some funding for capital equipment to a new endpoint of 2045. This suggests that delay in the overall defence procurement program continues. While the Liberals kept their pledge to make investment in the Royal Canadian Navy a priority, they also made good last year on a negative promise – not to purchase the F-35 stealth fighter bomber. However, further slowing things is the Liberals’ refusal to launch a competition to replace it until the Defence Policy Review is published. The government has made this situation more fraught with its intention to buy 18 Boeing Super Hornet fighter jets as interim aircraft, since Liberal policy requires the Royal Canadian Air Force to be capable of meeting both NORAD’s and NATO’s operational needs simultaneously. Prior to the release of the new defence policy, both the interim and permanent fighter aircraft projects lacked adequate funding. They were among several large projects that have been approved, but have not yet moved to the contract stage, and whose budgets were inadequate to move forward. Adding to this mix is the fact that a government-wide effort initiated in 2014 to streamline the defence procurement

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE FOREIGN GOVERNMENT AND CORPORATE PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Savchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of the experience of foreign government and corporate procurement management. Set out key aspects of the organization of procurement for government and corporate needs, disclosed issues of centralization and decentralization of procurement, as well as given clarifi cation of the concept of "procurement management system" and structured the main elements that make up this system. The purpose / goal. The purpose of the work is to study the nature and characteristics of the functioning of government and corporate experience in procurement management, identifying problems and prospects of its development. Methodology. To perform this work were used legal, comparative and statistical analysis methods. Results. As part of the presentation of the present article the author has examined the nature, objectives and stages of public and corporate procurement management.

  2. Antiretroviral therapy programme outcomes in Tshwane district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To ascertain patient retention on ART after 5 years on treatment in one district of Gauteng Province, SA, establish the number of patients ... A retrospective cohort study of patients initiated on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between January and March .... ferred-out patients from the total of 381 leaves.

  3. The discovery and development of antiretroviral agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Joep M. A.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983/1984, remarkable progress has been made in finding antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) that are effective against it. A major breakthrough occurred in 1996 when it was found that triple drug therapy (HAART) could durably suppress viral

  4. Perceived stigma and highly active antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived stigma and highly active antiretroviral treatment adherence among persons living with HIV/AIDS in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. ... Data on socio-demographic characteristics, stigma and adherence to drug regimen were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Data were ...

  5. Dual antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Vicente; Fernandez-Montero, Jose Vicente; Benitez-Gutierrez, Laura; Mendoza, Carmen de; Arias, Ana; Barreiro, Pablo; Peña, José M; Labarga, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    For two decades, triple combinations of antiretrovirals have been the standard treatment for HIV infection. The challenges of such lifelong therapy include long-term side effects, high costs and reduced drug adherence. The recent advent of more potent and safer antiretrovirals has renewed the interest for simpler HIV regimens. Areas covered: We discuss the pros and cons of dual antiretroviral therapies in both drug-naïve and in treatment-experienced patients with viral suppression (switch strategy). Expert opinion: Some dual antiretroviral regimens are safe and efficacious, particularly as maintenance therapy. At this time, combinations of dolutegravir plus rilpivirine represent the best dual regimen. Longer follow-up and larger study populations are needed before supporting dolutegravir plus lamivudine. In contrast, dual therapy based on maraviroc is less effective. Although dual regimens with boosted protease inhibitors plus either lamivudine or raltegravir may be effective, they are penalized by metabolic side effects and risk for drug interactions. The newest dual regimens could save money, reduce toxicity and spare drug options for the future. For the first time in HIV therapeutics, less can be more. Dual therapy switching has set up a new paradigm in HIV treatment that uses induction-maintenance.

  6. Insulin resistance induced by antiretroviral drugs: Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the prognosis of patients with AIDS, but it has also increased the incidence of various metabolic disorders, in particular insulin resistance accompanied by dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and lipodystrophy. This is often accompanied by frank type 2 ...

  7. CROI 2016: Advances in Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barbara S; Olender, Susan A; Tieu, Hong-Van; Wilkin, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections highlighted exciting advances in antiretroviral therapy, including important data on investigational antiretroviral drugs and clinical trials. Clinical trials demonstrated benefits from a long-acting injectable coformulation given as maintenance therapy, examined intravenous and subcutaneous administration of a monoclonal antibody directed at the CD4 binding site of HIV-1, and provided novel data on tenofovir alafenamide. Several studies focused on the role of HIV drug resistance, including the significance of minority variants, transmitted drug resistance, use of resistance testing, and drug class-related resistance. Novel data on the HIV care continuum in low- and middle-income settings concentrated on differentiated HIV care delivery models and outcomes. Data on progress toward reaching World Health Organization 90-90-90 targets as well as outcomes related to expedited initiation of HIV treatment and adherence strategies were presented. Results from a trial in Malawi showed reduced rates of mother-to-child transmission among HIV-infected women who initiated antiretroviral therapy prior to pregnancy, and several studies highlighted the effect of antiretroviral therapy in pediatric populations. A special session was dedicated to the findings of studies of Ebola virus disease and treatment during the outbreak in West Africa.

  8. Sales analysis as a basis for optimising gas procurement; Absatzanalyse als Grundlage optimierter Gasbeschaffung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungblut, Ralf [RWE Vertrieb AG, Dortmund (Germany). Produktmanagement, Marketing und Datenmanagement

    2012-01-15

    German energy suppliers are finding themselves in an increasingly difficult situation in the gas market. With the natural gas glut subsiding and global demand picking up, gas prices are expected to rise over the long term. Counter to the global trend, gas demand in Germany is expected to decrease. Furthermore, short-term fluctuations in economic activity with a potential for impacting on the demand for and price level of natural gas may pose significant economic risks. A detailed knowledge of one's own sales portfolio is therefore extremely important when it comes to gas procurement.

  9. Public Procurement and the Development of the Swedish Telecommunications Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lindskog, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes and analyses public procurement and its processes in general against the framework of industrial marketing and purchasing. In particular, it focuses on the public procurement of telecommunications (“telecom”) and its effects on the de-monopolization and development of the Swedish telecom market based on empirical material from three case studies, interviews and publicly available written sources. Public procurement is a significant part of any country’s economy. There is...

  10. Routines and Communities of Practice in Public Environmental Procurement Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Katarina; Svane, Örjan

    2005-01-01

    Environmental procurement has received increasing attention as a policy tool promoting change towards sustainable consumption and production. The successful implementation of public environmental procurement policy requires the establishment of new routines for user-producer-supplier relationships that enable the integration of environmental aspects. The aim of the study is to analyse the roles of different communities of practice and learning patterns in environmental procurement processes. ...

  11. Improving the effectiveness of public entities procurement practices

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M. Com. (Business Management) The media and the Auditor General have extensively reported on the ineffective and unethical conduct of public sector employees regarding the procurement of goods and services. The Auditor General’s report demonstrates that there is evidence that public sector procurement processes are less than adequate to achieve constitutional procurement goals, which are to conduct processes that are fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective The delivery...

  12. Considerations regarding procurement activities in institutions of local authority

    OpenAIRE

    Mãdãlina ALBU

    2013-01-01

    Objectives which they propose a public authority requires, among others, providing the necessary resources, including the material occupy a large proportion. This is done through the public procurement system. The procurement is part of the legal and economic reality of the Romanian society and covers all rules and actions on public spending and the application launched by public bodies meets the proposed offer of an operator. This paper presents an analysis of the public procurement system i...

  13. Sustainable Public Procurement : a new policy paradigm in France ?

    OpenAIRE

    Le Velly, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the “new paradigm” of sustainable public procurement in France, that is, its cognitive and normative frameworks. Firstly, the author shows that the newness of this paradigm has to do with the identification of sustainable procurement as a stake in its own right. Next, he shows that the good practices associated with sustainable procurement are also new (close relationships with suppliers, systematic thought about what is needed, innovative methods of co...

  14. Opportunities for public procurement procedures efficiency and optimization improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Junevičius, Algis; Ereminaitė, Simona

    2010-01-01

    Public procurement is one of the most actual problems of economics and a potential instrument of successful public policy, which can control money flows and manipulate the appearance of corruption opportunities. Procurement practices are relatively new in the public sector, but everyone knows the complicated regulation and coordination of this process. Despite the fact that society often discus about public procurement problems, the regulation of this process requires an in-depth evaluation b...

  15. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive patients aged less than 25 years, in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Pasomsub, Ekawat; Chantratita, Wasun

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) is a concern after global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). World Health Organization had developed threshold survey method for surveillance of TDR in resource-limited countries. ART in Thailand has been scaling up for >10 years. To evaluate the current TDR in Thailand, a cross-sectional study was conducted among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients aged Thailand after a decade of rapid scale-up of ART. Interventions to prevent TDR at the population level are essentially needed in Thailand. Surveillance for TDR in Thailand has to be regularly performed.

  16. Economic risks of the system of state and municipal procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the audit of economic risks at all stages of procurement for state and municipal needs from both customers and bidders is carried out on the basis of the implementation of the integrated approach . Stages in the procurement under a single contract system, which is characterized by the high economic risks are planning, supplier selection, conclusion and execution of the contract. A number of the measures according to the localization of economic risks are offered, in particular the implementation of compliance programs, which institutionalize the compliance by the organization, anti-corruption legislation; increasing qualification of specialists in public procurement and increased control through centralization of procurement.

  17. Challenges of public procurement in EU funded projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Šostar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Membership in the European Union implies adjustment of EU projects to the rules of Structural Funds, but also adoption of legal regulations, thus influencing the process of implementation of the public procurement in EU funded projects. Each successful applicant who expressed the need for procurement of goods, services and works of a certain value, must respect the principles of public procurement. Irregularities in the procurement process can lead to the failure of returning the EU funds even several years after the end of the project. Therefore, the knowledge and proper implementation of public procurement is the main precondition for the correct implementation of each project. In order to obtain information about the current absorption capacity of the public procurement liable parties, and to identify key obstacles that stakeholders face in procurement procedures, the research was conducted by surveying 30 entities that are subject of public procurement in Croatia. Research results imply the poor quality of public procurement in the implemented projects, which often results in financial corrections, disapproving project reports, etc.

  18. Critical factors for sustainable food procurement in zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Food procurement can play an important role in sustainable food supply chain management by zoos, linking organizational operations to the biodiversity conservation and sustainability mission of zoological collections. This study therefore examines the critical factors that shape sustainable food procurement in zoo and aquariums. Using a web-based survey data was collected from 41 members of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA). This included information on the sustainable food procurement practices of these institutions for both their human and animal food supply chains, as well as profile information and data on the factors contributing to and inhibiting sustainable procurement practices. Zoological collections operated by charities, and those with a certified sustainability standard, were found to have significantly higher levels of sustainable food procurement. Zoos and aquariums whose human food operations were not contracted to an external party were also found to have significantly higher levels of sustainable food procurement in their human food supply chain. The most important drivers of sustainable food procurement were cost savings, adequate financial support and improved product quality. The highest ranking barriers were higher costs, other issues taking priority and a lack of alternative suppliers. The results suggest that a number of critical factors shape sustainable food procurement in zoological collections in the British Isles. Financial factors, such as cost savings, were important considerations. The significance of mission-related factors, such as charity status, indicated that core values held by zoos and aquariums can also influence their food procurement practices. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  20. Playing the game of public procurement of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Given the emergence and diffusion of policies aiming at promoting the utilisation of public procurement as an innovation policy instrument, it is remarkable that very little scholarly attention has been given to the teaching of public procurement of innovation. This paper sets out to contribute...... towards mending this gap, by discussing some considerations made in the context of the development and set up of a university course in public procurement of innovation. A major challenge for such an endeavour is how to bring the complexities of real-life public procurement into a university class...

  1. E-Procurement and the U.S. Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doe, David

    2002-01-01

    .... Meanwhile, companies worldwide are undergoing transformation as they harness the power of Internet-enabled tools, One significant aspect of industry's transformation is electronic or e-procurement...

  2. 75 FR 1355 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    .../Location: Janitorial Services, Jamestown Service Center, 8430 Country Club Street, Jamestown, ND. NPA..., the following products and services are deleted from the Procurement List: Products Business Cards NSN...

  3. SCAlING UP THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAlS IN THE PUBLIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-08-01

    Aug 1, 2003 ... access also has to grapple with the challenge of ensuring that people take drugs ... scaling up procurement: provision of affordable drugs, and ... outside government. ... South Africa provide useful models for the design of an.

  4. A Procurement Performance Model for Construction Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Y M Lam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative construction frameworks have been developed in the United Kingdom (UK to create longer term relationships between clients and suppliers in order to improve project outcomes. Research undertaken into highways maintenance set within a major county council has confirmed that such collaborative procurement methods can improve time, cost and quality of construction projects. Building upon this and examining the same single case, this research aims to develop a performance model through identification of performance drivers in the whole project delivery process including pre and post contract phases. A priori performance model based on operational and sociological constructs was proposed and then checked by a pilot study. Factor analysis and central tendency statistics from the questionnaires as well as content analysis from the interview transcripts were conducted. It was confirmed that long term relationships, financial and non-financial incentives and stronger communication are the sociological behaviour factors driving performance. The interviews also established that key performance indicators (KPIs can be used as an operational measure to improve performance. With the posteriori performance model, client project managers can effectively collaboratively manage contractor performance through procurement measures including use of longer term and KPIs for the contract so that the expected project outcomes can be achieved. The findings also make significant contribution to construction framework procurement theory by identifying the interrelated sociological and operational performance drivers. This study is set predominantly in the field of highways civil engineering. It is suggested that building based projects or other projects that share characteristics are grouped together and used for further research of the phenomena discovered.

  5. Postmortem sperm procurement: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, S E; Seftel, A D; Resnick, M I

    1999-06-01

    Postmortem sperm procurement with subsequent artificial insemination has become a technically feasible method for posthumous conception. A variety of legal questions exist involving the rights and relationships of the deceased, his family and his issue. We addressed these questions and designed a workable protocol for postmortem sperm procurement. MEDLINE, WESTLAW and LEXIS medical literature, and case law searches were conducted. United States and international case law, United States (federal and state) statutes, Uniform Law Commissions Acts, and law review commentaries and articles were reviewed. While postmortem sperm procurement is being requested throughout the United States, no standard protocol or procedural guidelines have been established by federal or state statute. Furthermore, the courts have not yet addressed this specific scenario in reported case law. Statutes and case law do address related factual scenarios and issues, including property rights in human bodies, rules governing transplantation of human organs/body parts, rights of parties in in vivo sperm bank donations and responsibilities of parents to the conceptus of artificial insemination. A workable protocol can be established by analyzing case law and statutes addressing factually similar scenarios. Urologists must focus on the express intent of the decedent and limit any postmortem sperm retrieval to the specific requests made by the decedent. Decedent requests should be documented in writing. The decedent must be competent and of majority age. In the absence of decedent expressed affirmative directive calling for sperm retrieval, no other relative or guardian may authorize this retrieval. Issues regarding the legitimacy and inheritance rights of the conceptus will most consistently be addressed when explicitly provided for in the will of the decedent.

  6. The New EU Public Procurement Directives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , transparency requirements, competitive dialogue, framework agreements, use of social and environmental criteria, Partnering and Public Private Partnerships and concessions. This book contains contributions based on presentations given by a number of the international and Danish speakers at the conference.......31 March 2004 the EU adopted two new public procurement directives: one for the public sector (2004/18/EC) and one for utilities (2004/17/EC). The new directives aim at simplification and modernisation of the previously existing directives including adaptation to electronic purchasing techniques...

  7. Debating Organ Procurement Policy Without Illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippen, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    In this perspective, I review and critique claims that the transplant waiting list overstates the demand for kidneys and correct a few mischaracterizations of some structural barriers to increasing rates of transplantation. The solutions to the shortage of organs proffered by opponents of financial incentives fail to account for a panoply of clinical, regulatory, and financial realities of transplantation centers in the United States in ways that undermine the thesis that a trial of financial incentives for organ procurement is not warranted at this time. I conclude with some personal pessimistic reflections on the progress of this debate. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The World Bank Group and Public Procurement--An Independent Evaluation : Volume 2: Achieving Development Effectiveness through Procurement in Bank Financial Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2014-01-01

    Good public procurement practices are a major determinant of the effectiveness of public expenditure. On behalf of their citizens, governments typically spend as much as 5-20 percent of their gross domestic product on procurement of goods and services, and effective procurement policies enable better use of government budgets. Good national procurement practices are therefore an essential ...

  9. US utility uranium procurement: goals and tactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes and attempts to explain the results of a survey sent to 37 US utilities asking them two questions: What are the goals of your uranium procurement strategy? and what are the tactics you use in achieving those goals? The results are presented in a summary fashion to protect individual company proprietary information. This paper is directed particularly to non-US uranium market participants as an aid to gain further insight into ''the US market'' and to understand how the potential cumulative market responses of US utilities may influence their procurement plans. Out of 37 utilities surveyed, 25 responded. Some utilities were interviewed over the telephone. Some responses were as short as one paragraph, while others were 1 to 5 pages in length. The format was chosen to encourage original responses. The range of responses could be used in the future as a basis for a multiple-choice type survey to form a more statistically representative sample. The responses are summarized for each of the two questions. (author)

  10. The role of procurement in liabilities management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The new United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has as its primary purpose the management of the liabilities left from the nuclear R and D programme. When it was set up in its present form in 1994 (as UKAEA Government Division) it had as its core functions programme management and procurement. It aimed to be involved in project implementation and operations only in so far as it needed to be for purposes of control as nuclear site licensee, or where otherwise this represented best value for money for the taxpayer. This paper describes how the clear definition and split of client and contractor roles has enabled UKAEA to promote the development of a competitive market in decommissioning, to the benefit of the taxpayer and industry. The importance of procurement at the various stages of planning and implementation are explained, along with some of the initiatives UKAEA has taken to improve client-contractor relationships. It is argued that UKAEA's approach has helped to define the boundaries of what is permissible in contractorization within the terms of a nuclear site licence. (author)

  11. 78 FR 75912 - Procurement List; Addition and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to and deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a service to the Procurement...: General Services Administration, Fort Worth, TX Deletion On 11/1/2013 (78 FR 65618), the Committee for...

  12. 78 FR 27369 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to and Deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products to the Procurement..., Philadelphia, PA. Deletion On 4/5/2013 (78 FR 20622-20623), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are...

  13. 76 FR 5142 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to and deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds services to the Procurement.... Contracting Activity: Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Jamaica, NY. Deletion On...

  14. 78 FR 21348 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions; Recissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions and Deletions; Recissions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Rescission of Previous Procurement List Decision. SUMMARY: The Committee for Purchase...

  15. Develop risk-based procurement management tools for SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Anne; Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Walhof, Gert; Holman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance for developing risk-based management tools to improve the procurement (purchasing) performance of SMEs. Extant academic literature only offers little support on developing such tools and does not consider the wide variety of SMEs. The paper defines a procurement tool for

  16. 20 CFR 638.806 - Property management and procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property management and procurement. 638.806 Section 638.806 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS... management and procurement. The Job Corps Director shall develop procedures to establish and maintain a...

  17. 75 FR 36363 - Procurement List: Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, USDA National... proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies... Government identified in this notice will be required to procure the products and services listed below from...

  18. 76 FR 14942 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... DFAC. Service Type/Location: Laundry & Dry Cleaning Service, F.E. Warren, AFB, WY. NPA: Goodwill... Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA. NPA: GINFL Services, Inc...: Additions to and deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds services to the Procurement...

  19. 75 FR 41449 - Procurement List Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Customs and Border Protection, Office of Procurement, Washington, DC Service Type/Locations: Laundry.../Locations: Laundry Service, Naval Hospital System, 2800 Child Street, Jacksonville, FL NPA: GINFL Services...: Additions to and deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the...

  20. 76 FR 66913 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...&M, Philadelphia, PA. Service Service Type/Location: Industrial Laundry Service, Bureau of Engraving... proposing to add products and service to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies... identified in this notice will be required to procure the products and service listed below from nonprofit...

  1. 78 FR 53733 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    .../Location: Industrial Laundry Service, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 9000 Blue Mound Road, Fort Worth...: Additions to and Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the... severe disabilities, and deletes services from the Procurement List previously provided by such agencies...

  2. 22 CFR 226.40 - Purpose of procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of procurement standards. 226.40 Section 226.40 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.40 Purpose...

  3. 48 CFR 1323.404-70 - DOC affirmative procurement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOC affirmative procurement program. 1323.404-70 Section 1323.404-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Use of Recovered Materials 1323.404-70 DOC affirmative procurement...

  4. The impact of preferential procurement in South African construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of preferential procurement in South African construction industry. ... The outcome of this study shows that there are problems in the implementation of PPPFA during tendering and procurement processes and procedures for achieving success in government projects. Key words: HDIs, PPPFA, Policies, ...

  5. Malawi : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 3. Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The Malawi Country Procurement Assessment Report is a joint undertaking between the Malawi Government and the World Bank to analyze the country procurement system and recommend appropriate actions to improve the efficiency, economy and transparency of the system. This report is divided into (a) an Executive Summary, (b) Main Report on Findings and Recommendations, and (c) Annexes. Since th...

  6. Malawi : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Details and Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The Malawi Country Procurement Assessment Report is a joint undertaking between the Malawi Government and the World Bank to analyze the country procurement system and recommend appropriate actions to improve the efficiency, economy and transparency of the system. This report is divided into (a) an Executive Summary, (b) Main Report on Findings and Recommendations, and (c) Annexes. Since th...

  7. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  8. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 5. Annex 9

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  9. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 1. Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  10. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 4. Annex 8

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  11. Strengthening Procurement Systems in Latin America and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and the development of MSMEs and electronic commerce. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are key to modernizing public administration systems in general and public procurement in particular. In 2002, national government procurement bodies established the Inter-American Network for Government ...

  12. Implementing Sustainable Public Procurement : an organisational change perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grandia (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractFor the execution of policies, as well as for its own operations, governments procure goods and services, ranging from paper and pencils to fighter planes, cleaning services and public road works. In the European Union public procurement represents 16% of the gross domestic product.

  13. Corruption in Public Procurement: Finding the Right Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.; Deleanu, I.S.; Unger, B.

    2017-01-01

    Red flags are widely used to minimize the risk of various forms of economic misconduct, among which corruption in public procurement. Drawing on criminal investigations, the literature has developed several indicators of corruption in public procurements and has put them forward as viable risk

  14. Corruption in Public Procurement : Finding the Right Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, Joras; Deleanu, Ioana; Unger, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Red flags are widely used to minimize the risk of various forms of economic misconduct, among which corruption in public procurement. Drawing on criminal investigations, the literature has developed several indicators of corruption in public procurements and has put them forward as viable risk

  15. The EU Public Procurement regime - Does It Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Lars Gottlieb

    2001-01-01

    Has the Single Market for public procurement had the expected effects after six years in progress? The following article attempts to answer this question by first presenting alternative theoretical approaches to analysing the EU liberalisation of the public procurement market and then confronting...

  16. 7 CFR 246.24 - Procurement and property management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning violation of law are to be referred to such local, State or Federal authority as may have proper jurisdiction. (c) State regulations. The State or local agency may use its own procurement regulations which reflect applicable State and local regulations, provided that procurements made with Program funds adhere...

  17. 7 CFR 215.14a - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the local, State or Federal authority that has proper jurisdiction. (c) Procedures. The State... food authority or child care institution may use its own procurement procedures which reflect applicable State or local laws and regulations, provided that procurements made with nonprofit school food...

  18. 7 CFR 249.21 - Procurement and property management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to such local, State or Federal authority as may have proper jurisdiction. (c) State regulations. The... applicable State and local regulations; and (2) Any procurements made with SFMNP funds adhere to the... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement and property management. 249.21 Section...

  19. Procurement strategy formation : (re-)designing rail infrastructure project alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Henrico; Dorée, André

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the reasoning behind the development of new procurement approaches by public sector clients. Design/methodology/approach – A case study approach focuses on a procurement development process by a public sector client. It investigates the

  20. 19 CFR 162.11 - Authority to procure warrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority to procure warrants. 162.11 Section 162.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Search Warrants § 162.11 Authority to procure...

  1. Public procurement of innovation in construction : A design science approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenderink, B.; Halman, J. I.M.; Voordijk, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of innovation as a policy objective in public procurement has increased significantly at public organizations over the last years. However, public organizations often struggle with how they should stimulate innovation through public procurement as there are many different ways possible

  2. 48 CFR 2901.603-72 - Administrative procurement management reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Authority, and Responsibilities 2901.603-72 Administrative procurement management reviews. (a) The Senior... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative procurement management reviews. 2901.603-72 Section 2901.603-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Antiretroviral Resistance in HIV/AIDS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosuthi, W.; MD

    2018-03-01

    The higher prevalence of HIV drug resistance was observed in areas with greater ART coverage. The HIV resistance-associated mutations occur when people have inadequate levels of antiretroviral drugs as well as inadequate potency, inadequate adherence, and preexisting resistance. The degree to drug cross-resistance is observed depends on the specific mutations and number of mutation accumulation. In the Southeast Asia region, the challenging of people with treatment failure is the availability and accessibility to subsequent new antiretroviral drugs to construct he second and salvage regimen. Genotypic resistance testing is a useful tool because it can identify the existing drug resistance-associated mutations under the selective drug pressure. Thus, understanding the basic interpretation of HIV drug resistance- associated mutation is useful in guiding clinical decisions for treatment-experienced people living with HIV.

  4. Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Meintjes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available These guidelines are intended as an update to those published in the Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine in January 2008. Since the release of the previous guidelines, the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in Southern Africa has continued to grow. Cohort studies from the region show excellent clinical outcomes; however, ART is still being started late (in advanced disease, resulting in relatively high early mortality rates. New data on antiretroviral (ARV tolerability in the region and several new ARV drugs have become available. Although currently few in number, some patients in the region are failing protease inhibitor (PI-based second-line regimens. To address this, guidelines on third-line (or ‘salvage’ therapy have been expanded.

  5. Procurement Practices for the Composite Armored Vehicle and Composite Affordability Initiative Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether violations of procurement regulations occurred regarding procurement of selected components of the Army Crusader vehicle and the Joint Strike Fighter aircraft...

  6. Navy Acquisition Executive's Management Oversight and Procurement Authority Category I and II Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... This report discusses the management oversight and procurement authority within the Navy. Two other reports discussed the management oversight and procurement authority within the Army and Air Force...

  7. International Government-Procurement Obligations of the United States: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tatelman, Todd B

    2005-01-01

    .... The most notable agreements are contained in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement and the procurement chapter of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA...

  8. The role and duties of client in public procurement management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joković Radomir V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement is given great importance in all developed countries. The subject of this paper is to present the application of basic concepts of project management from the standpoint of public procurement in the higher education institution. Previous research, by examining the literature of domestic and foreign authors, and analysis of project performance management model is defined by the public procurement in the higher education institution whose application can improve overall process performance lrojekta and contribute to economic and efficient implementation of planned activities and time for reaching the goals. One of the objectives of model application of project management procurement at a higher education institution is to identify and determine the type and quantity of goods, uspuga, works, studies of conditions that influence their purchase, as well as finding ways of ensuring that goods, services, papers are available on the project in due time. This paper presents a model of project management public procurement in the higher education institution.

  9. Complications of HIV Disease and Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Luetkemeyer, Anne F.; Havlir, Diane V.; Currier, Judith S.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of long-term complications of HIV disease and its therapies. Specifically, studies focused on cardiovascular, renal, bone, and fat abnormalities were prominent at the 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Although enthusiasm about the effectiveness of current antiretroviral therapy remains strong, collectively, the ongoing work in the area of HIV disease and treatment complications appears to refl...

  10. Biomedicine, public health, and citizenship in the advent of antiretrovirals in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Fanny

    2014-08-01

    Often celebrated as a model of development in Africa, Botswana nonetheless endured a severe HIV epidemic. This article describes the singularity of the Botswana experience in facing AIDS and creating the widest possible access to antiretroviral medications for its citizens. Through exploration of different sets of actors and the construction of their ethics of treatment, it is possible to examine how free and universal access was created within the national antiretroviral program. This article underscores the importance of the site and the local dynamics in the advent of an ethics of access to treatment for Botswana citizens. At the intersection of national citizenship, pharmaceutical philanthropy, and biomedical collaborations, Botswana is an exemplary case (one of the first and unique in its kind) of global health programs for access to drugs in which patients' rights are tied to science and pharmaceutical development. As such it also bears some limitations and concerns over its sustainability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Risk Factors Influencing Construction Procurement Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan Dahiru

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing construction procurement performance is the failure to determine the risk related factors limiting its success. These risk factors can cause a significant increase in the procurement cost leading to an increase in the overall project cost. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the risk factors influencing construction procurement performance with a view to achieve the overall project performance. The objectives are to establish a relative significance index score for the most important risk factors limiting the procurement performance of the projects. A self administered questionnaire was employed to the construction industry professionals for responses. A total of 78 questionnaires were distributed to these professionals (architects, quantity surveyors, engineers, and contractors but 62 were returned and analyzed using influential index and later ranked in order of importance. Results of the analysis indicate a disparity in terms of ranking of the factors influencing construction procurement performance. Corruption related risk, conflict of interest, ineffective project technical feasibility, and lack of commitment to transparency were found to be the most significant factors limiting construction procurement performance. Communication barriers and unconfidential tender evaluation process were found to be the low weighted risk factors. The findings can serve as a supportive mechanism for risks management in public construction procurement management. Therefore, construction procurement personnel at all levels of government may find this study relevant, while improving construction procurement performance in the country. It is recommended that construction procurement system should be focused on risks related to corruption, conflict of interest, and effective technical feasibility for improving the overall project performance.

  12. Adipocytes Impair Efficacy of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jacob; Winchester, Lee C.; Suliburk, James W.; Wilkerson, Gregory K.; Podany, Anthony T.; Agarwal, Neeti; Chua, Corrine Ying Xuan; Nehete, Pramod N.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Sastry, K. Jagannadha; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Lake, Jordan E.; Balasubramanyan, Ashok; Lewis, Dorothy E.

    2018-01-01

    Adequate distribution of antiretroviral drugs to infected cells in HIV patients is critical for viral suppression. In humans and primates, HIV- and SIV-infected CD4 T cells in adipose tissues have recently been identified as reservoirs for infectious virus. To better characterize adipose tissue as a pharmacological sanctuary for HIV-infected cells, in vitro experiments were conducted to assess antiretroviral drug efficacy in the presence of adipocytes, and drug penetration in adipose tissue cells (stromal-vascular-fraction cells and mature adipocytes) was examined in treated humans and monkeys. Co-culture experiments between HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells and primary human adipocytes showed that adipocytes consistently reduced the antiviral efficacy of the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir and its prodrug forms tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). In HIV-infected persons, LC-MS/MS analysis of intracellular lysates derived from adipose tissue stromal-vascular-fraction cells or mature adipocytes suggested that integrase inhibitors penetrate adipose tissue, whereas penetration of nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as TDF, emtricitabine, abacavir, and lamivudine is restricted. The limited distribution and functions of key antiretroviral drugs within fat depots may contribute to viral persistence in adipose tissue. PMID:29630975

  13. Challenges in Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile L Tremblay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many clinical trials have shown that initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART at higher rather than lower CD4 T cell-positive counts results in survival benefit. Early treatment can help prevent end-organ damage associated with HIV replication and can decrease infectivity. The mainstay of treatment is either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. While effective at combating HIV, ART can produce adverse alterations of lipid parameters, with some studies suggesting a relationship between some anti-retroviral agents and cardiovascular disease. As the HIV-positive population ages, issues such as hypertension and diabetes must be taken into account when initiating ART. Adhering to ART can be difficult; however, nonoptimal adherence to ART can result in the development of resistance; thus, drug characteristics and the patient’s preparedness to begin therapy must be considered. Reducing the pill burden through the use of fixed-dose antiretroviral drug combinations can facilitate adherence.

  14. An Identification of Problems Relating to Federal Procurement of Library Materials Prepared for Commission on Government Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Library Committee, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Library Committee through the Task Force on Procurement Procedures in Federal Libraries is examining all problems and is recommending policies, procedures, and practices which will maximize the efficient procurement of library materials. It is suggested that the vehicle for this investigation be the appropriate Commission on Government…

  15. Procurement of timber for the Finnish forest industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    1995-01-01

    The procurement of timber to the forest industries in the Nordic countries is based on the log-length or shortwood system, and employs load-carrying forwarders and chainsaw of single-grip harvesters. This technology is characterized by high productivity, safety, suitability for small-sized trees, high recovery of timber, and environmental friendliness. About one fourth of the industrial timber in the whole world is harvested using the log-length system. The challenge of ecological sustainability, multiple use of forests, adoption of thinnings as a tool of management, trend toward improved utilization of forest biomass, and shift from natural forests to plantations all increase the global interest in the log-length system. The paper presents a review of the Finnish forest sector, the technology of timber harvesting and transport, productivity of logging work, and costs of timber at the mill. The highly mechanized logging systems of the forest industries and the lighter technology of self-employed forest owners are discussed separately. Furthermore, the use of residual biomass as a source of clean and renewable energy, the Finnish logging machine industry, and forest operations research in Finland are also reviewed. (46 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs.)

  16. Procurement of replacement pressure vessels for MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.A. Jr.; Edwards, C.B. Jr.; McKibben, J.C.; Schoone, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor Facility (MURR) located in Columbia, Missouri, is the highest powered, highest steady-state flux university research reactor in the United States. The reactor is a 10-MW pressurized loop, in-pool-type, light-water-moderated, beryllium-reflected, flux trap reactor. MURR has a compact core (0.033 m 3 ) composed of eight fuel elements of the materials test reactor type arranged as an annular right circular cylinder between the inner and outer aluminum pressure vessels. Conservative engineering judgment resulted in the decision in 1988 to purchase new inner and outer pressure vessels. This paper details the difficulties encountered in procuring replacements for aluminum pressure vessels built to standards that are no longer applicable in attempting to meet nuclear standards that are not applicable to nonferrous material

  17. AN EDUCATIONAL GAME IN CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT NEGOTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jye Dzeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Project managers are frequently required to negotiate during the procurement of construction materials and drawing up of contractual agreements. Training in negotiation training requires hands-on experience and interaction with multiple parties. However, in the conventional curriculum on construction management, negotiation is taught merely through lectures and case studies. This study addressed that shortcoming by developing a portfolio negotiation game in which students play different roles and actively make decisions while proceeding through a simulated negotiation process in a competitive context. The proposed game would be the first negotiation game within the domain of the construction industry. During the pilot study, 46 students (with or without industrial working experience played the game; the results showed an increase in learning interest, satisfaction, and effectiveness.

  18. An investigation into the effectiveness of public entities’ procurement practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moitswadi Mofokeng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The delivery of services through the procurement of goods and services requires proper strategic leadership and management processes. Inappropriate planning, under-spending of budgets and ineffective procurement form part of the root causes of poor service delivery, as this restricts the movement of resources to the right places. This study identified the leading procurement practices as: procurement strategy and leadership, the procurement process, human resource management, procurement information systems, supplier management and procurement performance management. These practices were then tested in public entities, mainly in Gauteng Province, South Africa, to determine the extent to which they are applied. The study found that there is a major divide between the perception of the level of application of the leading practices and actual implementation. Processes, skills, performance management, information technology (IT systems and supplier management are applied inadequately or inappropriately. Most entities thus show a poor understanding of customer needs and there seems to be a general lack of customer focus. The study highlighted the best practice areas in which public entities are able to focus their efforts to better achieve excellent customer service and thus service delivery.

  19. Sustainable promotion nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding work faced with certain risk in recent years, the domestic nuclear power enterprises in the bidding work never stop research and explore the effective ways to guard against legal risks, and has made considerable progress, the eighteenth big country advocates the safety and efficiency of nuclear power development policy, in the face of the subsequent nuclear power construction projects have started, nuclear power enterprise bidding risk management work shoulder heavy responsibilities article through nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management present situation, proposed the sustainable promotion nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management countermeasures. (author)

  20. A Framework for Usability Evaluation in EHR Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyllinen, Mari; Kaipio, Johanna; Lääveri, Tinja

    2018-01-01

    Usability should be considered already by the procuring organizations when selecting future systems. In this paper, we present a framework for usability evaluation during electronic health record (EHR) system procurement. We describe the objectives of the evaluation, the procedure, selected usability attributes and the evaluation methods to measure them. We also present the emphasis usability had in the selection process. We do not elaborate on the details of the results, the application of methods or gathering of data. Instead we focus on the components of the framework to inform and give an example to other similar procurement projects.

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability in Danish Public Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    2017-01-01

    understand the continuously developing concepts of SPP, as well as to identify the drivers and barriers that promote or hinder its further implementation. This article firstly deals with the relationship between the concepts of sustainability, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and public procurement....... Secondly, as Denmark has been known as a pioneer in sustainable development, including implementation of it in public purchasing this article focuses on recent developments in the areas of CSR and sustainable public procurement in Denmark, and analyses relevant Danish Public Procurement Complaints Board...

  2. E-PROCUREMENT: IMPORTANCIA Y APLICACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fernández Quesada

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se aborda uno de los aspectos externos del e-business: el e-procurement. Se valora la importancia de la utilización de la red en general y en la función logística y de compras, en particular. Partiendo de las actividades tradicionales de compras, se explicitan las ventajas que supone respecto a ellas el e-procurement y la importancia estratégica de su aplicación. Asimismo, se profundiza en el propio concepto de e-procurement y en su arquitectura desde el punto de vista de su implantación empresarial.

  3. Procuring load curtailment from local customers under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijatović, Aleksandar; Moriarty, John; Vogrinc, Jure

    2017-08-13

    Demand side response (DSR) provides a flexible approach to managing constrained power network assets. This is valuable if future asset utilization is uncertain. However there may be uncertainty over the process of procurement of DSR from customers. In this context we combine probabilistic modelling, simulation and optimization to identify economically optimal procurement policies from heterogeneous customers local to the asset, under chance constraints on the adequacy of the procured DSR. Mathematically this gives rise to a search over permutations, and we provide an illustrative example implementation and case study.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Use of commercial grade item dedication to reduce procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, the Nuclear Regulatory Industry (NRC) began inspecting utility practices of procuring and dedicating commercial grade items intended for plant safety-related applications. As a result of the industry efforts to address NRC concerns, nuclear utilities have enhanced existing programs and procedures for dedication of commercial grade items. Though these programs were originally enhanced to meet NRC concerns, utilities have discovered that the dedication of commercial grade items can also reduce overall procurement costs. This paper will discuss the enhancement of utility dedication programs and demonstrates how utilities have utilized them to reduce procurement costs

  5. QA in the procurement of items and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, H.

    1980-01-01

    Procurement of items and services is one of the important elements during the design and construction of Nuclear Power Plants. The purchaser has to establish and implement controls over the procurement process to ensure that the quality criteria, quality level and other quality requirements specified for the particuliar item or service are taken into account. The effect on safety of an error in service or the malfunction of an item is the most important factor to be considered in determining the extent of quality assurance efforts. A typical example of a procurement process will be demonstrated for safety related mechanical components. (orig./RW)

  6. Future Capacity Procurements Under Unknown Demand and Increasing Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolos Burnetas; Stephen Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study a situation in which a broker must manage the procurement of a short-life-cycle product. As the broker observes demand for the item, she learns about the demand process. However, as is often the case in practice, it becomes either more difficult or more expensive to procure the item as the selling season advances. Thus, the broker must trade off higher procurement costs against the benefit of making ordering decisions with better information about demand. Problems of th...

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.6-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101...

  8. 76 FR 53113 - Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement AGENCY: Office of Procurement and Property Management... that the Department of Agriculture, Office of Procurement and Property Management, is hereby requesting... comments to: Ron Buckhalt, USDA, Office of Procurement and Property Management, Room 361, Reporters...

  9. Public procurement as a tool to drive innovation in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is an analysis of the use of public procurement as a tool to drive innovation. It explores the meaning of innovative procurement or public procurement of innovation, as well as the rationale for using public procurement to drive innovation. It then focuses on South Africa and evaluates whether there is scope within ...

  10. Entering the United States Federal Procurement Market: success factors and barriers for foreign firms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Tim; Telgen, Jan; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The US federal procurement market is the largest procurement market in the world. Therefore, it is an attractive market for foreign companies to enter. Existing literature indicates the success factors and barriers for public procurement market entry in general, however not for the US procurement

  11. 13 CFR 121.407 - What are the size procedures for multiple item procurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements for Government Procurement § 121.407 What are the size procedures for multiple item procurements? If a procurement calls for two or more specific end items or types of services with different size... multiple item procurements? 121.407 Section 121.407 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  12. The World Bank Group and Public Procurement--An Independent Evaluation : Appendixes to Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2014-01-01

    Good public procurement practices are a major determinant of the effectiveness of public expenditure. On behalf of their citizens, governments typically spend as much as 5-20 percent of their gross domestic product on procurement of goods and services, and effective procurement policies enable better use of government budgets. Good national procurement practices are therefore an essential ...

  13. 76 FR 76808 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Organization (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of the United States-Australia Free Trade... out U.S. trade agreement obligations under the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of... Agreement on Government Procurement A. Central Government Entities Listed in U.S. Annex 1 (1) Procurement of...

  14. Procurement activities required by the nuclear program developed by nuclearelectrica national company- technical issues versus public acquisitions legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatamanu, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    Public procurement is one of the areas of the single market where the results of the liberalization drive have not yet measured up to expectations. This communication presents some technical issues versus public acquisition legal issues and suggests ways and means of improving contract award procedures. Procurement area includes the acquisition of goods, services and works, thus assumption not only for purchasing equipment, components, spare-parts or materials, but also hiring of the contractors or consultants to carry out services and works. Procurement is related to the function of management of supply, which encompasses aside range of planning function, coding and classification, stockholding policies, store-keeping, stores accounting, etc. but it is also related to the hiring of contractors or consultants for work or services. As an answer to the challenge of the increasing market globalization it has been developed the ISO quality system, within 9000 family of standards. The very intensive competition for all market clients, either locally or globally, encouraged development of a new concept of quality management systems. Due to its specificity of activity and with respect to the rules and legislation requirements imposed either by the internal Romanian Laws and Regulations or/and by international market rules and constrains, the development, construction and operation of a Nuclear Power Plant shall be performed in a controlled condition and based on specific authorizations obtained by the Owner of the NPP from the Romanian Regulatory Authorities. The experience, accumulated by over 10 years of operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 by our company, demonstrates the high importance of the Quality Management System that imposes the quality of the components installed on the plant, the services and the works developed to assure a safety operation of the nuclear unit, with a strongly dependence by the procurement system established for purchasing of goods, services and

  15. Antiretroviral Therapy during the Neonatal Period | Nuttall | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at 6–9 weeks of age has been shown to reduce early infant mortality by 76% and HIV progression by 75% compared with cART deferred until clinical or CD4 criteria were met. In the landmark Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) trial, although the ...

  16. Class of Antiretroviral Drugs and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Nina; Reiss, P; Sabin, CA

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated an association between combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. It is not clear whether this association differs according to the class of antiretroviral drugs. We conducted a study to investigate the association of cumu...

  17. Nurses' perceptions about Botswana patients' anti-retroviral therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-retroviral drugs(ARVs) are supplied free of charge in Botswana. Lifelong adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is vital to improve the patient's state of well-being and to prevent the development of strains of the human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) that are resistant to ART. Persons with ART-resistant strains of HIV ...

  18. Exploration of pain in children on antiretroviral treatment in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploration of pain in children on antiretroviral treatment in a regional hospital in South Africa. M Azam, L Campbell, A Ross. Abstract. Background: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease on antiretroviral therapy (ART) may experience pain for a variety of reasons, including the effects of the virus itself, ...

  19. New targets and novel antiretrovirals | Wood | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has to date been based on use of a triple combination of drugs chosen from three classes of antiretrovirals (ARVs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). These ARV classes ...

  20. Photovoltaic procurement strategies: an assessment of supply issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, D.; Costello, D.

    1980-02-01

    This review report presents the results of an analysis of alternative approaches to the design of a federal photovoltaics procurement program. Advantages and disadvantages of large purchases at fixed prices and smaller purchases for testing and demonstrating the technology are presented. The objectives and possible impacts of these purchase programs on the photovoltaic industry are described. The reactions of the industry to alternative purchase programs were assessed using personal interviews with selected companies currently active in photovoltaics. The report begins with a review of the impacts of federal procurements on other innovations, including the electronics industry, and suggests the relation of these procurements to photovoltaics. The methodology for conducting the interviews is presented next. The results of the interviews are summarized into possible scenarios of future developments in the industry and into discussions of key issues in the design of a procurement program. An appendix on the current structure of the photovoltaic industry is provided.

  1. 41 CFR 105-72.506 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards...) Justification for lack of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained, and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ...

  2. Procurement and Contracting, Transportation & Public Facilities, State of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visiting Alaska State Employees Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities header image Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities / Procurement and Contracting Search DOT& pages Department of Transportation & Public Facilities PO Box 112500 3132 Channel Drive Juneau

  3. Sustainable Public Procurement: A Tool for Greening the Economy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... power to influence market trends, and production conditions and requirements. ... -create a practical handbook and policy papers for policymakers on how ... and value of the Green Procurement Handbook and to demonstrate the multiplier ...

  4. Quality of Spousal Relationship on Procurement of Abortion in Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Spousal Relationship on Procurement of Abortion in Peri-Urban Nigeria. ... Communication was the only dimension of relationship quality that showed significant association with history of induced ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western ... chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. ... (ii) absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; ...

  6. [Posthumous sperm procurement and use--ethical and legal dilemmas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crha, I; Dostál, J; Ventruba, P; Kudela, M; Záková, J

    2004-07-01

    To present a review of bioethical discussion and recommendations concerning posthumous sperm procurement and postmortem parenthood. Review article. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Masaryk University, Brno, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Palacky University, Olomouc. Literature search in Database of Abstracts of Reviews of the Evidence (DARE) and MEDLINEplus. Posthumous sperm procurement and cryopreservation must be performed within 36 hours after death. To established appropriate medical practice, it is important to consider all stakeholders in the decision-making process: the deceased, the requesting party, the child, the physician and the society. There are only few legislative measures concerning postmortem parenthood and posthumous sperm procurement. The essential elements for postmortem reproduction are: judicial order, ethics committee approval, bereavement period of at least 6 month before use. Posthumous sperm procurement is fraught with ethical and legal implications. All stakeholder should be considered. Society for reproductive medicine should prepare acceptable standard protocol.

  7. REPUTATIONAL CAPITAL OF POLITICAL ACTORS AS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Rudakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the reputational characteristics of the formation of political actors at the expense of the state budget, the specificity of the mechanism of implementation of government procurement and modern Russian practice.

  8. Lives and choices, give and take: Altruism and organ procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Vicky

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, Wales introduced a deemed consent: soft opt-out system for organ procurement in order to address the chronic shortage of organs for transplant. Early statistical evidence suggests that this has had a positive impact on cadaveric organ donation. Such a system for procurement has previously been dismissed by the Organ Donation Taskforce, who suggested that opting out could potentially undermine the concept of donated organs as gifts and this could then negatively impact the number of organs offered for transplant. Considerable weight was placed upon the need to retain the altruistic gift element associated with an opt-in system. This article will consider the role of altruism in an organ procurement policy. A broad utilitarian approach will be taken when putting forward the arguments in favour of adopting a weak altruism position in a soft opt-out system for procurement with a combined registry.

  9. Innovation and Public Procurement: Terminology, Concepts, and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obwegeser, Nikolaus; Müller, Sune Dueholm

    2018-01-01

    as well as research gaps and opportunities for future research are identified. Based on analysis of existing research, the proposed framework provides an overview of state- of-the-art knowledge, a unified terminology, and a holistic understanding of innovation in public procurement. The framework is both...... review of the literature on innovation in public procurement. From categorizing publications based on innovation drivers, concepts, and research approaches, the emerging structure of the field is described and synthesized into a framework of innovation in public procurement. The proposed framework......The growing awareness of public procurement as an innovation policy tool has recently sparked the interest of both policy makers and researchers. While an increasing number of studies is being published every year, an overview of the field is missing. Researchers, practitioners, and policy makers...

  10. 77 FR 38775 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... addition to Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products NSN: 8415-MD-001..., Blend, Santa Fe, 6/16 oz Containers. NSN: 8950-01-E62-2187--Spice, Onion, Granulated, 6/18 oz Containers...

  11. 48 CFR 970.5223-2 - Affirmative procurement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-2 Affirmative procurement program. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57695, Sept. 22, 2010. As prescribed in 48 CFR (DEAR) 970.2304-2, insert the...

  12. 77 FR 62219 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Services Service Type... Maritime, Columbus, OH. SKILCRAFT-Spartan Chemical Cleaners NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0597--Tb-Cide Quat RTU...

  13. Nuclear power equipment procurement management under EPC mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuai Yuezhi

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power equipment procurement is one of the major constraints and management difficulties in the process of domestic nuclear power project construction for a long time. The construction of Hainan Changjiang Project can not meet the milestones due to the major equipment supply delay. Through the introduction to the organization and features of Changjiang project equipment procurement under EPC mode, and the main problems in the procurement process and its reason analysis, the purpose of this paper is to put forward ideas and suggestions of these items, i.e. selection of equipment suppliers, equipment localization, mass material design and procurement, complete system equipment supply, spare parts delivery and storage, owner process management, providing reference for follow-up projects. (author)

  14. Public procurement, governance and economic growth: some policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public procurement, governance and economic growth: some policy ... Employing the Keynesian income-expenditure approach to measuring the Gross Domestic ... reduce wastage, enhance the effectiveness of government spending, ensure ...

  15. The role of specification in public procurement of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    A taken for granted assertion in the literature discussing how public procurement can be used as a way of stimulating innovation is that functional specification should be applied. Unlike technical specification, where the exact details of the item to be procured is defined, it is assumed that......, by specifying only the function or envisaged performance of the item to be procured, this would allow the submission of bids involving innovative technology and solutions previously unknown to the procurer. The starting point for the article is the perception that these views are commonly held assertions which...... have received limited systematic scholarly attention. The article therefore analyzes specification in relation to buying situations, as knowledge conversion, in terms of resource requirements in relation to different specification levels. The generic conclusion the paper arrives...

  16. Federal Procurement Standards Applied to School Food Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanEgmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    1984-01-01

    Explains standards laid out in Federal Circular A-120 to ensure accountability, uniformity of standards, legal compliance, and efficiency in school food service procurement. Includes bidding and contract award procedures, contract compliance considerations, and cost-cutting methods. (MCG)

  17. A rational procedure for the selection of appropriate procurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Construction work is procured via a number of systems, such as being Open and ... routes for construction projects as a means to enhance the quality of management ... systems to decision-making procedures in the construction industry.

  18. Procurement in the Nuclear Industry, Quality, Safety and Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Marianne; Svenson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka

    2010-03-01

    The major purpose of the present study is partly to map and partly to make an analysis of the decision processes in the procurement routines in the nuclear industry in order to provide a basis for: 1. further development of safety inspections about procurements for Swedish Radiation Safety Authority 2. improvements of safety management in connection with procurement within a nuclear-power plant, 3 improvements of procurement routines in general in a nuclear power plant. The procurement processes at a nuclear power plant were analyzed from a decision theoretic perspective. Key staff at the plant was interviewed and written instructions as well as digitalized processes were used in the analysis. The results illustrate the most important moments during the procurement process with descriptions from interviews and documents. The staff at the nuclear power plant used a multi-attribute utility decision theory MAUT-inspired model in evaluation of alternatives and both compensatory (in which negative aspects can be compensated by positive aspects) and non-compensatory (in which certain 'pass' levels of attributes have to be exceeded for a choice) decision rules were used in the procurement process. Not surprising, nuclear safety was evaluated in a non-compensatory manner following regulatory criteria while costs were evaluated in trade-off compensatory rules, which means that a weakness in one consideration might be compensated by strength in another consideration. Thus, nuclear safety above the regulator's and law requirements are not integrated in a compensatory manner when procurement alternatives are evaluated. The nuclear plant assessed an organization's safety culture at an early stage of the purchasing process. A successful and a less successful procurement case were reported with the lessons learned from them. We find that the existing written instructions for purchase were well elaborated and adequate. There is a lack of personal resources when procurement teams

  19. Procurement Under The UNCITRAL Model Law: A Southern Africa Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen De La Harpe

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, economic integration, realised through regional integration, is seen as one of the driving factors that will improve the lives of its people. To enable regionalisation, economic growth and to unlock the potential of Africa its infrastructure will have to be improved. Infrastructure will on the whole be realised through public procurement. The stages for opening up procurement markets, referred to by Yukins and Schooner, is discussed and it is concluded that the states in SADC i...

  20. Procurement Under The UNCITRAL Model Law: A Southern Africa Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen De La Harpe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, economic integration, realised through regional integration, is seen as one of the driving factors that will improve the lives of its people. To enable regionalisation, economic growth and to unlock the potential of Africa its infrastructure will have to be improved. Infrastructure will on the whole be realised through public procurement. The stages for opening up procurement markets, referred to by Yukins and Schooner, is discussed and it is concluded that the states in SADC is still in the initial stages of opening its public procurement markets for regional competition. Although COMESA is not yet in full compliance with all four the stages great strides have been made and have elements of all stages been addressed. Because of the influence the Model Law has already played in COMESA, and the rest of Africa, it would be contra productive should SADC not take the same route as COMESA. If regard is had to the four categories of procurement rules that serves as barriers to national procurement markets, as set out by Arrowsmith it is clear that all of these are present in most SADC member states. Also in the case of COMESA these barriers still exist albeit to a lesser extent. What is necessary is a phased approach to address all of these barriers. This will be possible under the UNCITRAL Model Law as the 2011 Model Law does provide for the possibility of complying with international obligations and for states to allow for socio economic objectives in their procurement regimes. There can be little doubt that the 1994 Model Law has already had a marked influence on public procurement regulation in Africa and that the 2011 Model Law will in future continue to do so. Public procurement is essential for economic development and is the integration and harmonisation thereof on a regional basis the first step In this regard SADC, and especially South Africa, has an important role to play.

  1. Corruption and innovation in the Albanian public procurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Reida Kashta

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the measures and means used to fight against corruption in public procurement in Albania. Because public procurement is one of the key areas where the public sector and the private sector interact financially and this interaction is based on public money, it is a prime candidate for corrupt activity, cronyism and favoritism as well as outright bribery. The question marks that this paper raises are: what are the means used in the war against corruption in the public ...

  2. The government procurement agreement: Implications of economic theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mattoo, Aaditya

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the provisions of the new Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), drawing insights from trade theory and recent developments in the economics of information and law. A central conclusion is that in a world where imperfectly informed procurers purchase from imperfectly competitive firms on behalf of imperfectly informed tax-payers, it is not easy to devise rules which would be optimal in all situations. Nevertheless, the non-discriminatory provisions of the GPA seem to a...

  3. Environmental criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Bargues, José Luis; González-Cruz, María-Carmen; González-Gaya, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain g...

  4. Environmental Criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Fuentes-Bargues; Mª Carmen González-Cruz; Cristina González-Gaya

    2017-01-01

    Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain group ...

  5. Procuring complex performance:case: public infrastructure projects

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, T. (Tero)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This research studies procuring complex performance (PCP) in the case of public infrastructure projects. Focus of the research is on the interface between public clients and private sector contractors. Purpose of this research is to find out what are the main challenges of different project delivery methods according to literature (RQ1) and what are the practical challenges of public procurement (RQ2). As an end re...

  6. Procurement of complex performance in public infrastructure: a process perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Andreas; Roehrich, Jens; Davies, Andrew; Frederiksen, Lars; Davies, J.; Harrington, T.; Kirkwood, D.; Holweg, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the process of transitioning from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance in public infrastructure. The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during the transition process. Based on a multiple, longitudinal case study the paper proposes three generic transition stages towards increased performance and infrastructural complexity. These stag...

  7. West Bank and Gaza : Country Procurement Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of the CPIP is to assess the current state of pubic procurement in West Bank and Gaza in the form of a ''snap shot'' and accordingly, to provide a partial assessment, broadly along the lines of the OPCS paper that would address the following objectives. First, to assess the latest progress with regard to the procurement reform recommended by the 2004 CPAR and the commitment of...

  8. Which role for public procurement in Italy. A premise

    OpenAIRE

    Traù Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    This is a premise to a series of papers aimed at stressing the role that public procurement may play (and actually plays within specific industrial systems) as to the development and diffusion of innovative practices within manufacturing industry. The issue is addressed from the point of view of the guidelines for industrial policy recently set by National Authorities in the Italian experience. Among the papers a survey of the activity of the Italian Agency for public procurement (Consip) is ...

  9. The measurement and role of government procurement in macroeconomic statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Dey-Chowdhury; Geoff Tily

    2007-01-01

    Details the measurement and role of government procurement in the UK National Accounts, including existing data methodcollections, and identifies specific initiatives.This article details the measurement and role of government procurement in the UK National Accounts. The needfor an accurate estimate has increased following both internal and external users’ analytical requirements, in particularthe development of measures of market sector gross value added, emphasis on government productivit...

  10. Sequential improvements in organ procurement increase the organ donation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Adrian T; Sklare, Seth; Franklin, Glen A; Wright, Jerry; Morgan, Gary; O'Flynn, Paul E; Polk, Hiram C

    2012-11-01

    Organ demand exceeds availability of transplantable organs. Organ procurement continues to suffer from failures to identify potential donors, inability to obtain consent for donation, as well as failures to retrieve certain organs as donor demographics change. The purpose of this article is to propose how sequentially introduced measures can increase organ donation rates as well as improve organ procurement. We analysed the effect of stepwise improvements in the organ procurement process patients in a university-based surgical intensive care unit over a 20-year period. We related newly introduced measures in the organ retrieval process with changes in donation rates. We specifically targeted these three main steps in the donation process: donor identification, conversion of potential donors to actual donors, and organ protection during the procurement process. Finally, we assessed the effect of the same measures on organ procurement after introduction in other hospitals of the same organ procurement region. Introduction of quality improvement steps increased all of the observed parameters. The number of organ donors was stabilised due to a better identification of potential donors, a major increase in conversion from potential to actual donors, and an increase in extended criteria donor. Improvements in organ protection led to higher rates of organs transplanted per donor and increased recovery of lungs and hearts despite increasing donor age. The same measures were introduced successfully in other hospitals in our organ procurement region. Sequential improvements in organ procurement can increase the yield of retrieved organs. The same measures can be applied to other hospitals and lead to comparable improvements in organ donation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Flexible Procurement of Services with Uncertain Durations using Redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, S; Gerding, E; Rogers, A; Larson, K; Jennings, NR

    2009-01-01

    Emerging service-oriented technologies allow software agents to automatically procure distributed services to complete complex tasks. However, in many application scenarios, service providers demand financial remuneration, execution times are uncertain and consumers have deadlines for their tasks. In this paper, we address these issues by developing a novel approach that dynamically procures multiple, redundant services over time, in order to ensure success by the deadline. Specifically, we f...

  12. Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-16

    approaches, see CRS Report RL31404, Defense Procurement: Full Funding Policy— Background, Issues, and Options for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke and Stephen ...proposing  a multiyear procurement contract for FY2017-FY2021 for procuring UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters; and  a multiyear contract for FY2017-FY2021...as reported states: SEC. 112. Multiyear procurement authority for UH–60M and HH–60M Black Hawk helicopters. (a) Authority for multiyear procurement

  13. Efisiensi Sistem E-procurement dalam Pelelangan Umum Pengadaan Barang dan Jasa (Studi Kasus: Dinas Pekerjaan Umum Provinsi Bali)

    OpenAIRE

    Claudy, Fransiskus; Noak, Piers Andreas; Winaya, I Ketut

    2017-01-01

    E-procurement system in the procurement of government goods / services is essential to improve the efficiency of the procurement process, this is the purpose and principles of procurement process government goods / services, including the Public Works Department of Bali Province as one SKPD Bali Province who have used the e-procurement system in the procurement process. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency as well as the constraints of e-procurement system in the procurem...

  14. Monitoring and evaluation of green public procurement programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adell, Aure [Ecoinstitut, Barcelona (Spain); Schaefer, Bettina [Ecoinstitut, Barcelona (Spain); Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Corry, Jenny [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Effective procurement policies can help governments save considerable amounts of money while also reducing energy consumption. Additionally, private sector companies which purchase large numbers of energy-consuming devices can benefit from procurement policies that minimize life-cycle energy costs. Both public and private procurement programs offer opportunities to generate market-transforming demand for energy efficient appliances and lighting fixtures. In recent years, several governments have implemented policies to procure energy efficient products and services. When deploying these policies, efforts have focused on developing resources for implementation (guidelines, energy efficiency specifications for tenders, life cycle costing tools, training, etc.) rather than defining monitoring systems to track progress against the set objectives. Implementation resources are necessary to make effective policies; however, developing Monitoring and Evaluation (M and E) mechanisms are critical to ensure that the policies are effective. The purpose of this article is to provide policy makers and procurement officials with a preliminary map of existing approaches and key components to monitor Energy Efficient Procurement (EEP) programs in order to contribute to the improvement of their own systems. Case studies are used throughout the paper to illustrate promising approaches to improve the M and E of EEP programs, from the definition of the system or data collection to complementary instruments to improve both the monitoring response and program results.

  15. Current Administrative court practice in the procedure of Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Čović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the current conditions of complex and difficult economic and social circumstances and given the comparative possibilities and economic effects, the system of public procurement which is firstly at a legal level regulated by the Public Procurement Act 8 (Zakon o javnoj nabavi of 2011 (further referred to as: PPA (ZN, is of particular importance for the entire legal, political and economic system of the Republic of Croatia. Public procurement in essence represents contracting the procurement of goods, works or services. The specifities of that system are comprised, above all, of regulation of entering contractual relations between the public and private sector. Therefore, this system in principle must be formal in order to protect equality of competitors in the public procurement procedure and also in the general interest. Appreciating the legal tradition and indigenous particularities, the author’s fundamental aims consisted of providing and analysing administrative court practice in the context of international legal acquis communautaire showing some legal regulation in practice of disputable aspects of the system of public procurement in Croatia and the doubts emerging from current administrative court practice.

  16. Determinants of procurement strategy for construction works: quantity surveyors’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju AbdulLateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the ‘appropriate’ procurement strategy is a prerequisite to the success or failure of a construction project. This paper investigates the factors determining the selection of appropriate procurement strategy for construction works in Nigeria. Data for the study was collected through an online survey questionnaire. The survey administration involves only quantity surveyors. Quantity surveyors were targeted because they advise clients and other stakeholders on procurement and contractual issues on construction works. A total of 33 usable responses were received and analysed for this study. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that the selection of procurement strategies for construction depend on complex interrelated factors. The study could not detect a particular factor or few factors responsible for a procurement strategy selection. The findings of this study is useful because it argues that the construction sector needs to broaden its considerations on the procurement strategy’s determinants rather than focusing solely on the client’s type and nature of projects as is often cited. Future research could segment these factors in terms of class of construction works or increase the sample size, which might lead to different findings.

  17. Working in the Finance and Procurement Department

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Finance and Procurement (FP) Department handles around 35,000 internal purchase orders every year. A large number of them are processed by administrative assistant Sarah Pamelard and her two colleagues Dominique Trolliet and Laurence Fol. As you will see, this is not just any old desk job.   Sarah Pamelard in her office. Sarah Pamelard has worked at CERN for 23 years (see box). She began her career as an assistant in the electronics design office and has been an administrative assistant in the FP Department's purchasing service for the last year and a half. Her work involves processing all internal purchase orders for amounts not exceeding 10,000 CHF. "For each order we have to find the supplier who will provide the best services. Our search covers suppliers in all the Member States to ensure the best possible balance of financial return among them", explains Sarah. The skills that the job demands are not confined to the area of finance. Above all, you need to be very w...

  18. E-Procurement Service Quality in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Latifah binti Syed A. Kadir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic government in Malaysia has fully adopted and developed the applications and practices of ICTs, in order to provide better online services in enhancing the credibility of government. In order to understand service quality issues within this new delivery channel, this paper investigates E-procurement portal/websites’ through the use of E-Service-Quality (E-S-QUAL and E-Recovery Service-Quality (E- RecS-QUAL scales by using a questionnaire survey distributed to 400 respondents. The collected data was analysed using Smart PLS 3.0 to test the relationship between efficiency, system availability and privacy, responsiveness and contact. The results show that both E-S-QUAL and E-RecS-QUAL strongly influence perceived service quality and behavioural intentions. In addition, the evidence of perceived ser- vice quality on its role as a mediator of was significant. The findings constitute an empirical contribution to the extension of literature in the application of the electronic service quality.

  19. Accessing antiretroviral therapy for children: Caregivers' voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret (Maggie Williams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to scale up access to antiretroviral therapy (ART, particularly at primary health care (PHC facilities, antiretroviral therapy (ART continues to be out of reach formany human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive children in sub-Saharan Africa. In resource limited settings decentralisation of ART is required to scale up access to essential medication. Traditionally, paediatric HIV care has been provided in tertiary care facilities which have better human and material resources, but limited accessibility in terms of distance for caregivers of HIV-positive children. The focus of this article is on the experiences of caregivers whilst accessing ART for HIV-positive children at PHC (decentralised care facilities in Nelson Mandela Bay (NMB in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was used. The target population comprised caregivers of HIV-positive children. Data were collected by means of indepth individual interviews, which were thematically analysed. Guba's model was usedto ensure trustworthiness. Barriers to accessing ART at PHC clinics for HIV-positive children included personal issues, negative experiences, lack of support and finance, stigma and discrimination. The researchers recommend standardised programmes be developed and implemented in PHC clinics to assist in providing treatment, care and support for HIV positive children.

  20. Accessing antiretroviral therapy for children: Caregivers' voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret (Maggie Williams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to scale up access to antiretroviral therapy (ART, particularly at primary health care (PHC facilities, antiretroviral therapy (ART continues to be out of reach for many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive children in sub-Saharan Africa. In resource limited settings decentralisation of ART is required to scale up access to essential medication. Traditionally, paediatric HIV care has been provided in tertiary care facilities which have better human and material resources, but limited accessibility in terms of distance for caregivers of HIV-positive children. The focus of this article is on the experiences of caregivers whilst accessing ART for HIV-positive children at PHC (decentralised care facilities in Nelson Mandela Bay (NMB in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was used. The target population comprised caregivers of HIV-positive children. Data were collected by means of in-depth individual interviews, which were thematically analysed. Guba's model was used to ensure trustworthiness. Barriers to accessing ART at PHC clinics for HIV-positive children included personal issues, negative experiences, lack of support and finance, stigma and discrimination. The researchers recommend standardised programmes be developed and implemented in PHC clinics to assist in providing treatment, care and support for HIV-positive children.

  1. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignanci......ART initiation in reducing cancer risk, understand the relationship between long-term cART exposure and cancer incidence and assess whether adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies can reduce cancer risk during treated HIV infection.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies...... into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons. However, recent randomized data indicate that cART reduces risk...

  2. 'Procurement quality engineering': A measurement driven system to assure quality at each step in the procurement process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderman, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Procurement Quality Function' is an element of the Body of Knowledge of Quality Engineering, as defined by the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC). This paper describes the Procurement Quality function which has been installed as an integral part of the Quality Engineering group of the Technical and Management Support Services (T ampersand MSS) contractor to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Each of the elements of the T ampersand MSS Procurement Quality Engineering (PQE) system is discussed along with the measurements obtained. With the installation and development of the PQE system we have attained more meaningful evaluation of supplier capability, reduction of procurement document review reject ratios from 31% to less than 2% per quarter, more effective measurement and control of supplier performance, and the ability to enter into a meaningful teaming effort with T ampersand MSS suppliers

  3. Optimizing antiretroviral product selection: a sample approach to improving patient outcomes, saving money, and scaling-up health services in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, Carolyn D; Brisebois, Catherine; Essajee, Shaffiq; Koehler, Erin; Levin, Andrew D; Moore, Meredith C; Brown Ripin, David H; Sickler, Joanna J; Singh, Inder R

    2011-08-01

    Over the last decade, increased funding to support HIV treatment programs has enabled millions of new patients in developing countries to access the medications they need. Today, although demand for antiretrovirals continues to grow, the financial crisis has severely constrained funding leaving countries with difficult choices on program prioritization. Product optimization is one solution countries can pursue to continue to improve patient care while also uncovering savings that can be used for further scale up or other health system needs. Program managers can make procurement decisions that actually reduce program costs by considering additional factors beyond World Health Organization guidelines when making procurement decisions. These include in-country product availability, convenience, price, and logistics such as supply chain implications and laboratory testing requirements. Three immediate product selection opportunities in the HIV space include using boosted atazanavir in place of lopinovir for second-line therapy, lamivudine instead of emtricitabine in both first-line and second-line therapy, and tenofovir + lamivudine over abacavir + didanosine in second-line therapy. If these 3 opportunities were broadly implemented in sub-Saharan Africa and India today, approximately $300 million of savings would be realized over the next 5 years, enabling hundreds of thousands of additional patients to be treated. Although the discussion herein is specific to antriretrovirals, the principles of product selection are generalizable to diseases with multiple treatment options and fungible commodity procurement. Identifying and implementing approaches to overcome health system inefficiencies will help sustain and may expand quality care in resource-limited settings.

  4. Review of differentiated approaches to antiretroviral therapy distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nicole; Kanagat, Natasha; Sharer, Melissa; Eagan, Sabrina; Pearson, Jennifer; Amanyeiwe, Ugochukwu Ugo

    2018-02-22

    In response to global trends of maximizing the number of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), this review summarizes literature describing differentiated models of ART distribution at facility and community levels in order to highlight promising strategies and identify evidence gaps. Databases and gray literature were searched, yielding thirteen final articles on differentiated ART distribution models supporting stable adult patients. Of these, seven articles focused on distribution at facility level and six at community level. Findings suggest that differentiated models of ART distribution contribute to higher retention, lower attrition, and less loss to follow-up (LTFU). These models also reduced patient wait time, travel costs, and time lost from work for drug pick-up. Facility- and community-level ART distribution models have the potential to extend treatment availability, enable improved access and adherence among people living with HIV (PLHIV), and facilitate retention in treatment and care. Gaps remain in understanding the desirability of these models for PLHIV, and the need for more information the negative and positive impacts of stigma, and identifying models to reach traditionally marginalized groups such as key populations and youth. Replicating differentiated care so efforts can reach more PLHIV will be critical to scaling these approaches across varying contexts.

  5. NASA's Electronic Procurement System and the Impact on Small Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Three workshops, held in Lancaster, Orange County and Compton, were produced by the Los Angeles Regional Technology Alliance (LARTA) and NASA Far West Technology Transfer Center (FWRTTC). The workshops were held on December 12, 1997, February 5, 1998, and March 30, 1998, respectively. The purpose behind these workshops was to spread information regarding NASA procurement opportunities to small businesses in the region. This was accomplished by inviting economic and business development organizations to the three workshops, presenting NASA procurement resources to them, and asking them to distribute this information to the small businesses in their communities. With the assistance of LARTA, marketing and publicity in the form of direct mail, telemarketing, and promotion via a web site was implemented to publicize the workshops. These methods were remarkably effective because they enabled the workshops to attain its full capacity. Further publicity was provided by Wendy Reed of Valley Focus Magazine, an Antelope Valley Magazine aimed at business people. Her article entitled, "Doing Business with the Government" recapped the Lancaster workshop that she had attended and made references to several presentations. In the article, she discussed selling to the government via electronic commerce, and specifically mentioned Robert Medina, the NASA Dryden Small Business Specialist, as a contact person for those interested in pursuing procurement opportunities. The feedback provided by the participants is illustrated by the enclosed graphs and charts. These figures represent the number of participants who have frequented web sites presented at workshops, specifically the NASA procurement resources, and how extensive information dissemination was. Input from participants was favorable and encouraged more NASA Dryden workshops directly to the small business communities. There was an overwhelming response to the benefit of the NASA procurement opportunities presented at the

  6. United Kingdom: Procurement Related Nuclear Experience (Operating Experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Procurement of nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom is subject to nuclear site licence conditions issued by the Government through the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). Each nuclear facility in the United Kingdom must have a nuclear site licence and must comply with the 36 general conditions that are set out in the Licence Condition Handbook (October 2014). In addition, the ONR has published a technical assessment guide for the procurement of nuclear safety related items or services; a guide on intelligent customers and a guide on records management also apply to the procurement phase, and ONR interventions look across all three of these documents. Procurement governance arrangements need to be developed (including a policy, manual, procedures and template documents) and approved within the utility company. The ONR monitors the arrangements via interventions and deems the arrangements to be ‘adequate’. Some procurement contracts become lifetime records for nuclear safety related systems and need to be retained while the plant is in place. A formal record retention schedule needs to be created and managed by the procurement organization. The utility company may elect to set hold points during the various procurement stages and, importantly, obtain approval for the contract and its content from all technical stakeholders (with particular emphasis on the engineering, project management and design authority quality functions before contract award). For contracts with high nuclear safety significance, the ONR may enforce additional hold points before and/or after contract award. There is a general requirement that the utility puts in place adequate arrangements to ensure that suitably qualified and experienced personnel are employed to implement adequate management arrangements and to act as an intelligent customer. This includes being able to demonstrate that any contractor or supplier is suitable, capable and experienced, and has the necessary processes and

  7. Bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Sanhong; Fan Kai

    2005-01-01

    In a nuclear power project, bulk material is often not in an outstanding position, compared to equipment, yet bulk material is one of most difficult part in engineering and procurement management. If the schedule is not in good control, it will seriously hamper the progress of the whole project. The article explores bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS, illustrated with tables and graphs. First, major difficult aspects of bulk material procurement are described. On one hand, bulk material is really bulky in kind. We must have detail information of manufacturers, manufacture duration, and take good control of bidding schedule. On the other hand, when an order is placed, we need to make clear everything in the procurement package, such as material types, delivery batches, quantity of each batch and delivery schedule, which is a tremendous work. Then, a schedule conflict is analyzed: when an order is placed, the detail type and quantity cannot be defined (since the construction design is not finished yet). To settle this conflict, the concept 'Requirement Schedule Curve' is brought forward, along with the calculation method. To get this curve, we need to make use of the technical data of the reference power station, along with the site construction schedule, to produce a site quantity requirement curve varying from time, for each type of material. Last, based on the 'Requirement Schedule Curve', we are able to build a unified database to control the engineering, procurement, manufacturing and delivery schedule, so as to procure precisely, manufacture on time, and optimize the storage. In this way, the accurate control of bulk material engineering and procurement schedule can be achieved. (authors)

  8. Optimal Coordinated Strategy Analysis for the Procurement Logistics of a Steel Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the optimization of an internal coordinated procurement logistics system in a steel group and the decision on the coordinated procurement strategy by minimizing the logistics costs. Considering the coordinated procurement strategy and the procurement logistics costs, the aim of the optimization model was to maximize the degree of quality satisfaction and to minimize the procurement logistics costs. The model was transformed into a single-objective model and solved using a simulated annealing algorithm. In the algorithm, the supplier of each subsidiary was selected according to the evaluation result for independent procurement. Finally, the effect of different parameters on the coordinated procurement strategy was analysed. The results showed that the coordinated strategy can clearly save procurement costs; that the strategy appears to be more cooperative when the quality requirement is not stricter; and that the coordinated costs have a strong effect on the coordinated procurement strategy.

  9. Diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy, and emergence of resistance to antiretroviral agents in HIV-2 infection: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Hightower

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and type 2 (HIV-2 are the causative agents of AIDS. HIV-2 is prevalent at moderate to high rates in West African countries, such as Senegal, Guinea, Gambia, and Cape Verde. Diagnosis of HIV-2 is made with a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 ELISA or simple/rapid assay, followed by one or two confirmatory tests specific for HIV-2. Following CD4+ T cell counts, HIV-2 viral burden and clinical signs and symptoms of immunodeficiency are beneficial in monitoring HIV-2 disease progression. Although non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are ineffective in treating HIV-2, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors can be effective in dual and triple antiretroviral regimens. Their use can decrease HIV-2 viral load, increase CD4+ T cell counts and improve AIDS-related symptoms. HIV-2 resistance to various nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, including zidovudine, lamivudine, ritonavir and indinavir, has been identified in some HIV-2 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. The knowledge of HIV-2 peculiarities, when compared to HIV-1, is crucial to helping diagnose and guide the clinician in the choice of the initial antiretroviral regimen and for monitoring therapy success.

  10. Southern African HIV Clinicians Society adult antiretroviral therapy guidelines: Update on when to initiate antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Meintjes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most recent version of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society’s adult antiretroviral therapy (ART guidelines was published in December 2014. In the 27 August 2015 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine, two seminal randomised controlled trials that addressed the optimal timing of ART in HIV-infected patients with high CD4 counts were published: Strategic timing of antiretroviral therapy (START and TEMPRANO ANRS 12136 (Early antiretroviral treatment and/or early isoniazid prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults. The findings of these two trials were consistent: there was significant individual clinical benefit from starting ART immediately in patients with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells/μL rather than deferring until a certain lower CD4 threshold or clinical indication was met. The findings add to prior evidence showing that ART reduces the risk of onward HIV transmission. Therefore, early ART initiation has the public health benefits of potentially reducing both HIV incidence and morbidity. Given this new and important evidence, the Society took the decision to provide a specific update on the section of the adult ART guidelines relating to when ART should be initiated.

  11. Current status of topical antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Lut; Szpir, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that the vaginal delivery of antiretroviral (ARV) agents - such as tenofovir, dapivirine and UC781 - may be a promising way to reduce the high rates of HIV infection among women in developing countries. This review examines these developments. The Microbicide Trials Network 003 study, a large phase IIb trial, was unable to show that daily dosing with 1% tenofovir vaginal gel was effective for HIV prevention. Nevertheless, preclinical and early-phase clinical trials suggest that ARV drugs - formulated in vaginal gels, rings, films, tablets and diaphragms - could be effective for HIV chemoprophylaxis. Investigations of topical chemoprophylaxis methods have seen mixed results in the past 12-18 months. Product adherence may prove to be one of the field's greatest challenges. Phase II and III trials continue to explore different dosing strategies for topical products that contain one or more ARV agents.

  12. Green Component Procurement Collaboration for Improving Supply Chain Management in the High Technology Industries: A Case Study from the Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of high technology industries have been growing increasingly to technological innovations and global economic developments, while the concerns in sustainability are calling for facilitating green materials and cleaner production in the industrial value chains. Today’s manufacturing companies are not striving for individual capacities but for the effective working with green supply chains. However, in addition to environmental and social objectives, cost and economic feasibility has become one of the most critical success factors for improving supply chain management with green component procurement collaboration, especially for the electronics OEM (original equipment manufacturing companies whose procurement costs often make up a very high proportion of final product prices. This paper presents a case study from the systems perspective by using System Dynamics simulation analysis and statistical validations with empirical data. Empirical data were collected from Taiwanese manufacturing chains—among the world’s largest manufacturing clusters of high technology components and products—and their global green suppliers to examine the benefits of green component procurement collaborations in terms of shared costs and improved shipping time performance. Two different supply chain collaboration models, from multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC and universal serial bus 3.0 (USB 3.0 cable procurements, were benchmarked and statistically validated. The results suggest that the practices of collaborative planning for procurement quantity and accurate fulfillment by suppliers are significantly related to cost effectiveness and shipping time efficiency. Although the price negotiation of upstream raw materials for the collaborative suppliers has no statistically significant benefit to the shipping time efficiency, the shared cost reduction of component procurement is significantly positive for supply chain collaboration among green

  13. The cost of antiretroviral therapy in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzgerald Daniel W

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We determined direct medical costs, overhead costs, societal costs, and personnel requirements for the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART to patients with AIDS in Haiti. Methods We examined data from 218 treatment-naïve adults who were consecutively initiated on ART at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between December 23, 2003 and May 20, 2004 and calculated costs and personnel requirements for the first year of ART. Results The mean total cost of treatment per patient was $US 982 including $US 846 in direct costs, $US 114 for overhead, and $US 22 for societal costs. The direct cost per patient included generic ART medications $US 355, lab tests $US 130, nutrition $US 117, hospitalizations $US 62, pre-ART evaluation $US 58, labor $US 51, non-ART medications $US 39, outside referrals $US 31, and telephone cards for patient retention $US 3. Higher treatment costs were associated with hospitalization, change in ART regimen, TB treatment, and survival for one year. We estimate that 1.5 doctors and 2.5 nurses are required to treat 1000 patients in the first year after initiating ART. Conclusion Initial ART treatment in Haiti costs approximately $US 1,000 per patient per year. With generic first-line antiretroviral drugs, only 36% of the cost is for medications. Patients who change regimens are significantly more expensive to treat, highlighting the need for less-expensive second-line drugs. There may be sufficient health care personnel to treat all HIV-infected patients in urban areas of Haiti, but not in rural areas. New models of HIV care are needed for rural areas using assistant medical officers and community health workers.

  14. Energy-efficient Public Procurement: Best Practice in Program Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Weber, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Semple, Abby [Public Procurement Analysis, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    This document illustrates the key issues and considerations involved in implementing energy-efficient public procurement. Our primary sources of information have been our partners in the Super Efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative Procurement Working Group. Where applicable, we have highlighted specific ways in which working group participants have successfully overcome barriers to delivering effective programs. The following key points emerge from this analysis of programs for energy-efficient public procurement. Lessons for both developed and developing programs are highlighted throughout the guide. 1. Policy: Policy provides the initiative to begin a transition from first cost to life-cycle cost based purchasing methods and culture. Effective policy is well-communicated, establishes accountability from top to bottom of organizations and simplifies the processes necessary to comply. Flexibility and responsiveness are essential in policy development and implementation. Mandatory and voluntary policies may complement one another. 2. Procurement Criteria: Procurement staff must be confident that energy-efficient procurement criteria offer the best long-term value for their organization’s money and represent real environmental gains. Involving multiple stakeholders at the early stages of the criteria creation process can result in greater levels of cooperation from private industry. Criteria should make comparison of products easy for purchasers and require minimal additional calculations. Criteria will need to be regularly updated to reflect market developments. 3. Training: Resources for the creation of training programs are usually very limited, but well-targeted training is necessary in order for a program to be effective. Training must emphasize a process that is efficient for purchasers and simplifies compliance. Purchaser resources and policy must be well designed for training to be effective. Training program development is an

  15. Critical analysis of procurement techniques in construction management sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Suman Tiwari Suresh; Chan, Shiau Wei; Faraz Mubarak, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Over the last three decades, numerous procurement techniques have been one of the highlights of the Construction Management (CM) for ventures, administration contracting, venture management as well as design and construct. Due to the development and utilization of those techniques, various researchers have explored the criteria for their choice and their execution in terms of time, cost and quality. Nevertheless, there is a lack of giving an account on the relationship between the procurement techniques and the progressed related issues, for example, supply chain, sustainability, innovation and technology development, lean construction, constructability, value management, Building Information Modelling (BIM) as well as e-procurement. Through chosen papers from the reputable CM-related academic journals, the specified scopes of these issues are methodically assessed with the objective to explore the status and trend in procurement related research. The result of this paper contributes theoretically as well as practically to the researchers and industrialist in order to be aware and appreciate the development of procurement techniques.

  16. Human rights violations in organ procurement practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Norbert W; Caplan, Arthur; Shapiro, Michael E; Els, Charl; Allison, Kirk C; Li, Huige

    2017-02-08

    Over 90% of the organs transplanted in China before 2010 were procured from prisoners. Although Chinese officials announced in December 2014 that the country would completely cease using organs harvested from prisoners, no regulatory adjustments or changes in China's organ donation laws followed. As a result, the use of prisoner organs remains legal in China if consent is obtained. We have collected and analysed available evidence on human rights violations in the organ procurement practice in China. We demonstrate that the practice not only violates international ethics standards, it is also associated with a large scale neglect of fundamental human rights. This includes organ procurement without consent from prisoners or their families as well as procurement of organs from incompletely executed, still-living prisoners. The human rights critique of these practices will also address the specific situatedness of prisoners, often conditioned and traumatized by a cascade of human rights abuses in judicial structures. To end the unethical practice and the abuse associated with it, we suggest to inextricably bind the use of human organs procured in the Chinese transplant system to enacting Chinese legislation prohibiting the use of organs from executed prisoners and making explicit rules for law enforcement. Other than that, the international community must cease to abet the continuation of the present system by demanding an authoritative ban on the use of organs from executed Chinese prisoners.

  17. Procurement Service launches new eLearning module

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Procurement Service has launched a training module covering “Procurement of supplies at CERN up to 200,000 CHF” in the form of an eLearning, accessible to all users involved in the procurement process. A long version (30 minutes) and a short version (10 minutes) are now available via this link.   The objectives of this eLearning module are as follows: To improve users' knowledge of the Procurement Rules to facilitate the successful completion of a DAI. This will ensure their DAI is processed as quickly as possible; To decrease the number of single tender requests and to avoid non compliant procurement practices such as the fragmentation of requirements into smaller orders. The eLearning module in its short version covers a range of topics, including the role of the technical officer, estimation of order amount (and the subsequent procedure to follow) and preparation and completion of the DAI form. The longer version also includes useful informati...

  18. Procurement Engineering Process for Commercial Grade Item Dedication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Park, Jong-Eun; Kwak, Tack-Hun; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    Procurement Engineering Process for commercial grade item dedication plays an increasingly important role in operation management of Korea Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of the Procurement Engineering Process is the provision and assurance of a high quality and quantity of spare, replacement, retrofit and new parts and equipment while maximizing plant availability, minimizing downtime due to parts unavailability and providing reasonable overall program and inventory cost. In this paper, we will review the overview requirements, responsibilities and the process for demonstrating with reasonable assurance that a procured item for potential nuclear safety related services or other essential plant service is adequate with reasonable assurance for its application. This paper does not cover the details of technical evaluation, selecting critical characteristics, selecting acceptance methods, performing failure modes and effects analysis, performing source surveillance, performing quality surveys, performing special tests and inspections, and the other aspects of effective Procurement Engineering and Commercial Grade Item Dedication. The main contribution of this paper is to provide the provision of an overview of Procurement Engineering Process for commercial grade item

  19. Topical legal aspects of corruption counteraction in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Igorevich Zemlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the current developments in the Russian legislation on corruption counteraction and the legislation on public procurement system on this basis to study legal conflicts and gaps and to develop proposals under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. Methods historical formallegal logical and systemicfunctional structural and contextual approach to the study of law and theoretical propositions concerning the definition nature and characteristics of legal relations arising in the process of and relating to the corruption counteraction in the public procurement system. Results аn aggregate of theoretical conclusions and proposals aimed at perfection of anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system is presented. Scientific novelty the results of the author39s interpretation of changes in the Russian anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system existing legal conflicts and gaps. Practical significance developing proposals for improving the standards of anticorruption legislation and legislation on public procurement system under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. nbsp

  20. Procurement performance measurement system in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Ozdamar, Linet; Ng, Chai Peng

    2005-01-01

    The rising operating cost of providing healthcare is of concern to health care providers. As such, measurement of procurement performance will enable competitive advantage and provide a framework for continuous improvement. The objective of this paper is to develop a procurement performance measurement system. The paper reviews the existing literature in procurement performance measurement to identify the key areas of purchasing performance. By studying the three components in the supply chain collectively with the resources, procedures and output, a model is been developed. Additionally, a balanced scorecard is proposed by establishing a set of generic measures and six perspectives. A case study conducted at the Singapore Hospital applies the conceptual model to describe the purchasing department and the activities within and outside the department. The results indicate that the material management department has already made a good start in measuring the procurement process through the implementation of the balanced scorecard. There are many data that are collected but not properly collated and utilized. Areas lacking measurement include cycle time of delivery, order processing time, effectiveness, efficiency and reliability. Though a lot of hard work was involved, the advantages of establishing a measurement system outweigh the costs and efforts involved in its implementation. Results of balanced scorecard measurements provide decision-makers with critical information on efficiency and effectiveness of the purchasing department's work. The measurement model developed could be used for any hospital procurement system.

  1. Good Governance in Public Procurement: A South African Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Roos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article good governance in public procurement, with particular reference to accountability is discussed. The principle of providing adequate remedies in public procurement is put under the spotlight. This is done with reference to the decision in Steenkamp NO v Provincial Tender Board, Eastern Cape. In this case the Constitutional Court had to consider whether an initially successful tenderer could lodge a delictual claim for damages to compensate for expenses incurred after conclusion of a contract, which was subsequently rendered void on an application for review of the tender award. The applicable principles of good governance and the applicable provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Public Procurement and the WTO plurilateral Government Procurement Agreement are analysed. This is done to enable an evaluation of the decision by the Constitutional Court in the above case. It is concluded that the South African public procurement system does in this instance comply with the basic principles of good governance with regard to accountability.

  2. PVUSA procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dows, R.N.; Gough, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is one in a series of PVUSA reports on PVUSA experiences and lessons learned at the demonstration sites in Davis and Kerman, California, and from participating utility host sites. During the course of approximately 7 years (1988--1994), 10 PV systems have been installed ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW. Six 20-kW emerging module technology arrays, five on universal project-provided structures and one turnkey concentrator, and four turnkey utility-scale systems (200 to 500 kW) were installed. PVUSA took a very proactive approach in the procurement of these systems. In the absence of established procurement documents, the project team developed a comprehensive set of technical and commercial documents. These have been updated with each successive procurement. Working closely with vendors after the award in a two-way exchange provided designs better suited for utility applications. This report discusses the PVUSA procurement process through testing and acceptance, and rating of PV turnkey systems. Special emphasis is placed on the acceptance testing and rating methodology which completes the procurement process by verifying that PV systems meet contract requirements. Lessons learned and recommendations are provided based on PVUSA experience.

  3. Optimizing Eco-Efficiency Across the Procurement Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Rylie E O; Li, Mo; Smith, Timothy M; Lyon, Thomas P

    2016-06-07

    Manufacturing organizations' environmental impacts are often attributable to processes in the firm's upstream supply chain. Environmentally preferable procurement (EPP) and the establishment of environmental purchasing criteria can potentially reduce these indirect impacts. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) can help identify the purchasing criteria that are most effective in reducing environmental impacts. However, the high costs of LCA and the problems associated with the comparability of results have limited efforts to integrate procurement performance with quantitative organizational environmental performance targets. Moreover, environmental purchasing criteria, when implemented, are often established on a product-by-product basis without consideration of other products in the procurement portfolio. We develop an approach that utilizes streamlined LCA methods, together with linear programming, to determine optimal portfolios of product impact-reduction opportunities under budget constraints. The approach is illustrated through a simulated breakfast cereal manufacturing firm procuring grain, containerboard boxes, plastic packaging, electricity, and industrial cleaning solutions. Results suggest that extending EPP decisions and resources to the portfolio level, recently made feasible through the methods illustrated herein, can provide substantially greater CO2e and water-depletion reductions per dollar spend than a product-by-product approach, creating opportunities for procurement organizations to participate in firm-wide environmental impact reduction targets.

  4. Analysis of Market Concentration in Selected Sectors of Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Svoboda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is the analysis of influence of market concentration in selected areas of public procurement on chosen parameters of public procurement in years 2007 and 2011. Five concentration ratios and five parameters of contracts are calculated for each of five chosen areas of public tenders in 2007 and 2011. After this task, the correlation analysis between concentration ratios and parameters of contracts is done for finding out mutual relation between these two variables. Correlation analysis is then compared with four created hypotheses about the relationship between market concentration and parameters of public procurement The results of the analysis are surprising, because in most cases, the stated hypotheses were rejected, meaning that the correlations between the parameters of public procurement and market concentration were different than this study predicted based on economic theory. The possible reasons for this result, discussed in the article, are corruption and also poor quality of data from Information system of public procurement administered by the Ministry for Regional Development of Czech Republic.

  5. Opto-mechanical assembly procurement for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, W.; Simon, T.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of the small optics procurements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be in the form of completely assembled, tested, and cleaned subsystems. These subsystems will be integrated into the NIF at LLNL. To accomplish this task, the procurement packages will include, optical and mechanical drawings, acceptance test and cleanliness requirements. In January 1999, the first such integrated opto-mechanical assembly was received and evaluated at LLNL. With the successful completion of this important trial procurement, we were able to establish the viability of purchasing clean, ready to install, opto-mechanical assemblies from vendors within the optics industry. 32 vendors were chosen from our supplier database for quote, then five were chosen to purchase from. These five vendors represented a cross section of the optics industry. From a ''value'' catalog supplier (that did the whole job internally) to a partnership between three specialty companies, these vendors demonstrated they have the ingenuity and capability to deliver cost competitive, NIF-ready, opto- mechanical assemblies. This paper describes the vendor selection for this procurement, technical requirements including packaging, fabrication, coating, and cleanliness specifications, then testing and verification. It also gives real test results gathered from inspections performed at LLNL that show how our vendors scored on the various requirements. Keywords: Opto-Mechanical, assembly, NIF, packaging, shipping, specifications, procurement, MIL-STD-1246C, surface cleanliness

  6. Manifestações otoneurológicas associadas à terapia anti-retroviral Otoneurological manifestations associated with antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrêza Batista Cheloni Vieira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ototoxicidade e terapia anti-retroviral parecem estar associadas. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar essa possível correlação. Foram avaliados 779 prontuários médicos de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e regularmente acompanhados, sendo 162 tratados com terapia anti-retroviral e 122 não tratados (controle. Pacientes em tratamento eram mais velhos (média 42 anos, com maior tempo de confirmação sorológica (80 meses e com menor carga viral (p=0,00. CD4+ foi semelhante entre os grupos (P=0,60. No grupo tratado, três (1,8% casos de perda auditiva idiopática e dois (1,3% de perda auditiva relacionada a otosclerose foram observadas e ambas iniciadas após terapia anti-retroviral. Nenhuma diferença estatística relacionada à perda auditiva idiopática foi encontrada entre os grupos. Enquanto estudos descritivos consideram possível ototoxidade associada à terapia anti-retroviral, esse possível efeito adverso não foi relacionado à terapia anti-retroviral neste estudo. Contrariamente, otosclerose poderia estar correlacionada à terapia anti-retroviral. Este assunto merece ser estudado.Ototoxicity and antiretroviral therapy seem to be associated. The aim of this study was to evaluate this possible correlation. Evaluations were carried out on 779 medical records from HIV-infected patients who were being regularly followed up, of whom 162 were being treated with antiretroviral therapy and 122 were untreated (controls. The patients undergoing treatment were older (mean: 42 years, had had serological confirmation for longer times (80 months and had smaller viral loads (P = 0.00. CD4+ was similar between the groups (P = 0.60. In the treated group, three cases (1.8% of idiopathic hearing loss and two (1.3% of otosclerosis-related hearing loss were observed, which both started after antiretroviral therapy. No statistical difference relating to idiopathic hearing loss was found between the groups. While descriptive studies consider possible

  7. A Conjecture on Institutional Rationalities and Property Rights in Public Procurement of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågren, Robert; Rolfstam, Max

    2013-01-01

    The increased interest in using public procurement as a policy tool for innovation has renewed a need for understanding the procurement process. A conjecture on institutional rationalities and property rights is offered to explain the hurdles present for conducting successful procurement projects....... If an efficient negotiation solution is to be achieved participants in procurement projects need to be aware of the other participants’ institutional rationalities and actively consider these while concluding the terms of procurement projects. Consequently, future policy efforts towards increased innovation have...... to be targeting the process of public procurement of innovation, rather than focusing on regulatory issues....

  8. THE MODIFICATION OF A PUBLIC PROCUREMENT CONTRACT UNDER THE NEW EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES ON PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Vrâncianu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The modification of a contract is an area presenting a real interest for the practitioners in the field. More and more, the contractors tend to resolve their implementation problems through addendums which, most often, don’t respect the publicity conditions imposed by the national and European legislation. OUG nr. 34 and HG nr. 925 don’t have provisions regarding contract modifications, the principles being imposed by the European case-law. In present, the single act with a chapter on contract modification is Ordin nr. 543/2013. The real conflict is knowing when a modification can be qualified as substantial or not and which are the elements to be takeni into consideration during the evaluation process. The new Directive 2014/24/CE regarding public procurement goes beyond the case-law and poses new principles.

  9. The effects of enhanced access to antiretroviral therapy: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of enhanced access to antiretroviral therapy: a qualitative study of community perceptions in ... Twenty FGDs comprising of 190 participants and 12 KI interviews were conducted. ... All data was tape recorded with consent from

  10. Short-term treatment outcomes of children starting antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term treatment outcomes of children starting antiretroviral therapy in the intensive care unit, general medical wards and outpatient HIV clinics at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa: A retrospective cohort study.

  11. Adherence to antiretrovirals in refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwoguh, Francisca

    Adherence to antiretroviral regimes is essential in effective management of HIV. The cultural, social, religious and immigration status of refugees and asylum seekers can have an impact on their understanding of their care needs and maintenance of their treatment regimen.

  12. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven .... Table 1: Relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and HAART adherence among ... constraints (44%), stigma (15%), travel/migration.

  13. Determination of eligibility to antiretroviral therapy in resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Objective: This study was to determine eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte .... ART until CD4+ T cell counts fall below 200 cells/mm3 ... (Abbott Cell Dyne Operators manual) were checked for.

  14. Antiretroviral Drug Resistance- implications for HIV/AIDS reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa and other developing countries. ... Abstract: Background: The introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s has significantly reduced morbidities and prolonged the lifespan of people living with HIV. However ...

  15. Why HIV Positive Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment and/or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Why HIV Positive Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment and/or Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis Use Traditional Medicine: Perceptions of Health Workers, Traditional Healers and Patients: A Study in Two Provinces of South Africa.

  16. Anti-retroviral therapy induced diabetes in a Nigerian | Bakari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... Background:Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) using Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART) has led to ... HIV infected individuals on one hand, and side effects of chronic administration of these drugs on the other.

  17. Antiretroviral therapy in a community clinic - early lessons from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiretroviral therapy in a community clinic - early lessons from a pilot project. ... The HIV Research Unit, University of Cape Town, supplied training and ... Attention must be given to the diagnosis of tuberculosis during screening and early ART ...

  18. Long-Acting Antiretrovirals: Where Are We now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaku, Amesika N; Kelly, Sean G; Taiwo, Babafemi O

    2017-04-01

    Current HIV treatment options require daily use of combination antiretroviral drugs. Many persons living with HIV experience treatment fatigue and suboptimal adherence as a result. Long-acting antiretroviral drugs are being developed to expand options for HIV treatment. Here, we review the agents in development, and evaluate data from recent clinical trials. In addition, we anticipate challenges to successful widespread use of long-acting antiretrovirals. Parenteral nanosuspensions of cabotegravir and rilpivirine, and dapivirine vaginal ring are the farthest in clinical development. Long-acting modalities in earlier development stages employ drug-loaded implants, microparticles, or targeted mutagenesis, among other innovations. Long-acting antiretroviral drugs promise new options for HIV prevention and treatment, and ways to address poor adherence and treatment fatigue. Further studies will identify the long-acting agents or combinations that are suitable for routine use. Creative solutions will be needed for anticipated implementation challenges.

  19. A clinical assessment of antiretroviral-treated patients Referred from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HAART) on the immunological, virological and clinical status of two groups of patients in the South African government antiretroviral (ARV) programme in KwaZulu-Natal, viz. patients previously treated with ARVs in the private sector and then ...

  20. Antiretroviral Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS Treatment Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection All FDA-approved medicines used in the ...

  1. Corruption and innovation in the Albanian public procurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reida Kashta

    2014-07-01

    The question marks that this paper raises are: what are the means used in the war against corruption in the public procurement field in Albania? Did they had any real impact or they just reshaped the ways of doing corruption? The main finding of this paper is that introduction of e-procurement system was one of the most appropriate means to fight corruption in Albania, because this system fixed one of the biggest problems of the Albanian Public Procurement system; lack of transparency. The electronic system is transparent, since it provides the increasing of information passing through it, and the most important, it enhances the responsibility in relations between the contracting authorities and economic operators, enabling a more effective and efficient use of the tax payers’ money.

  2. Experience of public procurement of Open Compute servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärring, Olof; Guerri, Marco; Bonfillou, Eric; Valsan, Liviu; Grigore, Alexandru; Dore, Vincent; Gentit, Alain; Clement, Benoît; Grossir, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    The Open Compute Project. OCP (http://www.opencompute.org/). was launched by Facebook in 2011 with the objective of building efficient computing infrastructures at the lowest possible cost. The technologies are released as open hardware. with the goal to develop servers and data centres following the model traditionally associated with open source software projects. In 2013 CERN acquired a few OCP servers in order to compare performance and power consumption with standard hardware. The conclusions were that there are sufficient savings to motivate an attempt to procure a large scale installation. One objective is to evaluate if the OCP market is sufficiently mature and broad enough to meet the constraints of a public procurement. This paper summarizes this procurement. which started in September 2014 and involved the Request for information (RFI) to qualify bidders and Request for Tender (RFT).

  3. Technology transfer and technological learning through CERN's procurement activity

    CERN Document Server

    Autio, Erkko; Hameri, Ari-Pekka; CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    This report analyses the technological learning and innovation benefits derived from CERN's procurement activity during the period 1997-2001. The base population of our study, the technology-intensive suppliers to CERN, consisted of 629 companies out of 6806 companies during the same period, representing 1197 MCHF in procurement. The main findings from the study can be summarized as follows: the various learning and innovation benefits (e.g., technological learning, organizational capability development, market learning) tend to occur together. Learning and innovation benefits appear to be regulated by the quality of the supplier's relationship with CERN: the greater the amount of social capital built into the relationship, the greater the learning and innovation benefits. Regardless of relationship quality, virtually all suppliers derived significant marketing reference benefits from CERN. Many corollary benefits are associated with procurement activity. As an example, as many as 38% of the respondents devel...

  4. Procurement guideline for oil recovery boats; Oeljyntorjuntaveneen hankintaohje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajala, J.

    2011-12-15

    These guidelines have been compiled to assist in the procurement of oil recovery boats, with the intention of ensuring that new boats meet the future needs of oil spill response operations and that procurement will be carried out in a manner that is economically sound and technologically well-founded. Furthermore, the guidelines are intended to encourage the development and adoption of new solutions for oil recovery boats. The issues covered by these guidelines include: Multiple uses of boats, classification of boats and class-specific requirements, the principle of sustainable development and the boats' lifecycle, qualification to be set for the crews, procurement timeline, regulations and guidelines, inspections and approvals. (orig.)

  5. 2015 Status Report on Major Defence Equipment Procurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Federal elections may be good for democracy, but the campaigns — particularly the lengthy one recently held in Canada — can be crippling for plans to better arm our military. Just before the election was called, there were public signs of important progress being made in what has long been a frustratingly slow and bureaucratically complex procurement process. But then the campaign left the Department of National Defence and other federal departments unable to secure approvals from either a defence minister or the Treasury Board, until the election ended and the new prime minister appointed the current cabinet. There had already been upheaval prior to that: In the first seven months of 2015, the three senior leaders at the Canadian Forces and the Defence Department (including the minister had been replaced, along with many other people critical to the procurement process. In addition, there had been changes in the Public Works Department and the Defence Procurement Strategy Secretariat. Frustrating and disappointing delays have long been a matter of course in Canada’s defence procurement process. In 2014/15, the number of ministerial or Treasury Board approvals to allow projects to proceed was half of that in 2009/10. Yet the demand for approvals has not abated. In addition to the turnover of key figures involved in the procurement and approval process, delays have come from a number of major steps added to the process, making an already lengthy and complex system even more so. To be sure, these steps were added in the pursuit of improved financial management and project management, with the aim of addressing longstanding problems. But it will take years to see if those objectives have been realized. An irony here is that the budget for military procurement has increased. Between 2004 and 2009, the Defence Department’s procurement budget nearly doubled. But the funding was never matched by the capacity to manage it. In 2003, the Material

  6. Computerized engineering logic for procurement and dedication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulay, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work performed for designing the system and especially for calculating on-line expected performance and gives some significant results. In an attempt to better meet the needs of operations and maintenance organizations, many nuclear utility procurement engineering groups have simplified their procedures, developed on-line tools for performing the specification of replacement items, and developed relational databases containing part-level information necessary to automate the procurement process. Although these improvements have helped to reduce the engineering necessary to properly specify and accept/dedicate items for nuclear safety-related applications, a number of utilities have recognized that additional long-term savings can be realized by integrating a computerized logic to assist technical procurement engineering personnel

  7. Public-Private Partnership in the EU Public Procurement Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    , poses legal challenges for the procurement of PPP contracts. The overall research objective of my doctoral thesis is to analyse, clarify and discuss potential legal challenges resulting from European Union public procurement law - provided in Directive 2004/18/EC – which a public authority is obliged......My PhD research focuses on the relationship between the formation and operation of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and public procurement law as a legal framework for the award of the PPP contract. The complex nature of PPP projects including long term high value contracts, long award process...... to apply when awarding a Public-Private Partnership contract, as well as to analyse if a deregulation of PPP’s award framework could potentially resolve these potential legal challenges. The latter consideration of deregulation of PPP award framework is based on comparison of highly regulated European...

  8. Scientific Production about the Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia De Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the elite of authors about the subject adherence to antiretroviral therapy; to identify the journals turned to publishing articles about adherence to antiretroviral therapy; and to identify and analyze the most commonly used words in abstracts of articles about adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Method: A bibliometric study conducted through the Scopus base. We used articles published between 1996 and 2014, after application of the eligibility criteria, there were composed the sample with 24 articles. The data were analyzed descriptively. Were used the laws of bibliometric (Lotka, Bradford and Zipf and the conceptual cloud map of words, through the program Cmap tools. Results: Lotka's Law identified the 5 authors more productive (46% of the total published. Bradford is impaired in this study. Concerning Zipf, 3 zones were determined, 31.47% of the words with in the first zone, 26.46% in the second and 42.06% in the third. In the conceptual map, the words/factors that positively and negatively influence adherence were emphasized, among them the need for more research in the health services. Conclusion: There are few publications about the accession to antiretroviral therapy, and the scientific production is in the process of maturation. One can infer that the theme researched is not yet an obsolete topic. It should be noted that the Bibliometric was a relevant statistic tool to generate information about the publications about the antiretroviral therapy. Descriptors: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; Medication Adherence; Bibliometric; HIV; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

  9. Dyslipidemia in HIV Infected Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Anirban; Mukherjee, Aparna; Lakshmy, R; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to determine the associated risk factors for the same. The present cross-sectional study was conducted at a Pediatric Clinic of a tertiary care teaching center in India, from May 2011 through December 2012. HIV infected children aged 5-15 y were enrolled if they did not have any severe disease or hospital admission within last 3 mo or receive any medications known to affect the lipid profile. Eighty-one children were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for at least 6 mo and 16 were receiving no antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants' sociodemographic, nutritional, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded in addition to anthropometry and evidence of lipodystrophy. Fasting lipid profile, apolipoprotein A1 and B levels were done for all the children. Among the children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 38.3 % had dyslipidemia and 80.2 % had lipodystrophy, while 25 % antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV infected children had dyslipidemia. No clinically significant risk factors could be identified that increased the risk of dyslipidemia or lipodystrophy in children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There is a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children with HIV infection with an imminent need to establish facilities for testing and treatment of these children for metabolic abnormalities.

  10. CD4+ Count-Guided Interruption of Antiretroviral Treatment. The Strategies for Mangement of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sadr, WM; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Neaton, JD

    2006-01-01

    had a CD4+ cell count of more than 350 per cubic millimeter to the continuous use of antiretroviral therapy (the viral suppression group) or the episodic use of antiretroviral therapy (the drug conservation group). Episodic use involved the deferral of therapy until the CD4+ count decreased to less......BACKGROUND: Despite declines in morbidity and mortality with the use of combination antiretroviral therapy, its effectiveness is limited by adverse events, problems with adherence, and resistance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We randomly assigned persons infected with HIV who...... the risk of adverse events that have been associated with antiretroviral therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00027352 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society....

  11. Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sremac

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products. Electrical cable structure (wire, insulation, filling and mantle is in accordance with the technical specifications of individual cable components in terms of the incorporated materials. Materials used in cable manufacture are copper, aluminum, rubber and polyvinyl chloride. One of the key issues in managing the flow of goods pertains to the timing of procurement. The combination of the two concepts can take advantage of individual strengths of fuzzy logic and neural networks in hybrid systems of homogeneous structure. The model has high practical significance, as, with minor modifications, it can be applied in any enterprise responsible for managing the goods flows.

  12. Exponential and power laws in public procurement markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Skuhrovec, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2012), 28005-1-28005-6 ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118310; SVV(CZ) 265 504; GA TA ČR(CZ) TD010133 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Public procurement * Scaling * Power law Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.260, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/kristoufek-exponential and power laws in public procurement markets.pdf

  13. European defence industry consolidation and domestic procurement bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    2017-01-01

    How have European cross-border defence industrial mergers and acquisitions affected domestic procurement bias among the major EU powers? This article departs from the findings of Andrew Moravcsik more than two decades ago suggesting that major West European states had no ingrained preferences...... for defence industrial autarchy. When cross-national armament projects were derailed, this could be attributed to political efforts of national defence industrial champions favouring purely domestic projects. As former national champions join pan-European defence groups, their preferences are likely modified......-border defence industry consolidation will be analysed. Procurement bias is assessed in two industry segments characterised by pervasive consolidation....

  14. The EU Public Procurement Regime. Does It Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gottlieb; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    This article presents alternative theoretical approaches to analysing the EU liberalisation of the public procurement market and an empirical analysis based on the unit values, metric tons, and market shares of the intra-EU trade with 43 selected product groups in the combined nomenclature....... According to the analysis, it can not be ruled out that the liberalisation of the EU public procurement rules has manifested itself in parts of the market with the possibility that the effects will become increasingly evident in the longer term....

  15. Supply Chain Management: new organisational practices for changing procurement realities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2003-01-01

    How does the implementation of SCM strategies influence the organisation of prcurement? Based on case study of 15 Danish companies, this article develops a set of statements concerning the organisational role and job assignments of procurement in the light of SCM practice.......How does the implementation of SCM strategies influence the organisation of prcurement? Based on case study of 15 Danish companies, this article develops a set of statements concerning the organisational role and job assignments of procurement in the light of SCM practice....

  16. Cosima B2B - Sales Automation for E-Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kießling, Werner (Prof. Dr.); Fischer, Stefan; Döring, Sven

    2006-01-01

    E-procurement is one of the fastest growing application areas for e-commerce. Though B2B transaction costs could be reduced recently by establishing XML based standards for electronic product catalogs and data interchange, B2B sales costs are still high due to the amount of human interaction. For the first time we present a fully automated electronic sales agent for e-procurement portals. The key technologies for this breakthrough are based on preferences modeled as strict partial orders, ena...

  17. Procurement planning in oil refining industries considering blending operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsdottir, Thordis Anna; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses procurement planning in oil refining, which has until now only had limited attention in the literature. We introduce a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and develop a novel two-stage solution approach, which aims at computational efficiency while addressing...... parameters than in previous literature. The developed approach is tested using historical data from Statoil A/S as well as through a comprehensive numerical analysis. The approach generates a feasible procurement plan within acceptable computation time, is able to quickly adjust an existing plan to take...

  18. Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches - Background and Options for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Some observers have proposed procuring Navy ships using incremental funding or advance appropriations rather than the traditional full funding approach that has been used to procure most Navy ships...

  19. Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches - Background and Options for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Some observers have proposed procuring Navy ships using incremental funding or advance appropriations rather than the traditional full funding approach that has been used to procure most Navy ships...

  20. An Empirical Evaluation Of The Potential Of Public E-Procurement To Reduce Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Neupane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant potential benefits of e-procurement technology is reducing opportunities for corruption in public procurement processes. The authors identified anti-corruption capabilities of e-procurement through an extensive literature review and a theoretical model representing the impact of three latent variables: monopoly of power, information asymmetry, and transparency and accountability upon the dependent variable, the intent-to-adopt e-procurement. This research was guided by the Principal-Agent theory and collected the perceptions of 46 government officers of the potential of public e-procurement to reduce corruption in public procurement processes. Results were analysed using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM approach. The findings suggest that the intent-to-adopt e-procurement has a positive and significant relationship with the independent variables that might inform developing countries in strategies to combat corruption in public procurement.