WorldWideScience

Sample records for global agro-food system

  1. Governance of global organic agro-food networks from Africa

    Glin, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing global concerns with regard to agro-food risks and the subsequent consumerist turn in the global food economy challenges the conventional chemical-intensive agricultural production. In fact, the post-war dominant agro-industrial development fostered the intensive use of chemical

  2. Certification of Markets, Markets of Certificates: Tracing Sustainability in Global Agro-Food Value Chains

    Arthur P. J. Mol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a blossoming of voluntary certification initiatives for sustainable agro-food products and production processes. With these certification initiatives come traceability in supply chains, to guarantee the sustainability of the products consumed. No systematic analysis exists of traceability systems for sustainability in agro-food supply chains. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyze the prevalence of four different traceability systems to guarantee sustainability; to identify the factors that determine the kind of traceability systems applied in particular supply chains; and to assess what the emergence of economic and market logics in traceability mean for sustainability. Two conclusions are drawn. Globalizing markets for sustainable agro-food products induces the emergence of book-and-claim traceability systems, but the other three systems (identity preservation, segregation and mass balance will continue to exist as different factors drive traceability requirements in different supply chains. Secondly, traceability itself is becoming a market driven by economic and market logics, and this may have consequences for sustainability in agro-food supply chains in the future.

  3. Framing in innovation. Towards sustainable agro-food systems

    Zwartkruis, J.V.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability issues in the agro-food sector have become increasingly important, and in order to deal with these sustainability issues, innovations are deemed necessary. Only introducing new technologies is not enough, system innovations are needed in which changes in the whole socio-technical

  4. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global market. This study assesses

  5. COMPETITION AMONG FOREIGN AND CHINESE AGRO-FOOD ENTERPRISES IN THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Wei, Anning; Cacho, Joyce A.

    1999-01-01

    Based on various case studies, this article examines the interaction of foreign investors and local operators in globalization in the agro-food market in China. The study found that to break the limitation of the high-end market and to position mainly in the middle market were critical for international brands to succeed. Asian companies approached the China market as an insider because of cultural proximity. The latter, plus focused management and effective technology, made their operations ...

  6. Strategies of EU agro-food cooperatives to confront globalization: The case of wine cooperatives

    Juan Sebastián Castillo Valero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to globalization and market integration, the agro-food cooperative sector needs to be more competitive. This generates new challenges for cooperative enterprises in the agro-food sector. In this article the analysis of the wine producing sector is undertaken in the area of greatest world-wide wine production and commercialization, Castilla-La Mancha. EU wineries and cooperatives should propose strategic lines within an economy marked by a globalization process in world markets. The paradigmatic case is analyzed in this paper of the comparison of strategies followed by cooperatives confronting capitalist winery enterprises. Therefore, the degree of suitability is aimed to be elucidated and the success of the foundations of international commercial strategies that cooperative enterprises of the sector have followed, depending on their characteristics. Moreover, an exhaustive diagnosis is offered of the current strategic situation of cooperatives and their probability of gaining access to and/or growing in the international market. The parameters that have resulted significant are used as conclusions and recommendations so that cooperatives will reformulate their strategies and the organizations linked to the agro-food sector will know what factors to foment and support in their internationalization and global competitive positioning.

  7. The role of GLOBAL G.A.P.: In improving competitiveness of agro-food industry

    Bešić Cariša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of food safety, standards and food quality represent a challenge for every food company which has to cope with in order to survive. The change in consumers attitudes has considerably been influenced by certain incidents related to food safety which clearly showed that more attention should be paid to food safety. Different actors should work together on this issue, from food producers (primary and final, consumer associations, international organizations, big retailers to the state. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current situation in implementation of certification schemes for agro-food industry in which GLOBAL G.A.P. has been recognized as a perspective one. A special attention is paid to two directions: (1 Comparison of implementing GLOBAL G.A.P. standard and other Certification schemes and (2 Overview and opportunities for Serbia and neighboring countries, in relation to its EU food law and food safety certification schemes harmonization efforts.

  8. KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY VS. SUSTAINABLE AGRO-FOOD SYSTEMS; BEST PRACTICES

    Carmen Beatrice PĂUNA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge based economy, found in more than one fields, started – considering agriculture – from a transition premise towards sustainable agro-food systems. The conceptual boundaries between the two major paradigms on sustainable development of agriculture, namely the agro-industrial paradigm and the integrated territorial paradigm, is used nowadays for teaching and research purpose, as a comparison basis with an ideal case, mostly because we only have hybrid models which tend to coexist, always improving the food and goods production, also promoting innovative agro-food systems. This paper highlights the idea that the establishment of an institutional and legal framework, will have a catalytic role acting as an engine of economic growth and boosting the development of agricultural systems by mobilizing entrepreneurs in agriculture and related areas. In this regard, we present best practices of economic actors engaged in meta network of agriculture clusters.

  9. Territorial Governance. A Comparative Research of Local Agro-Food Systems in Mexico

    Torres-Salcido, Gerardo; Sanz-Cañada, Javier

    2018-01-01

    The article attempts to provide a theoretical discussion on territorial governance by presenting both the neo-institutionalist position and the De Sousa Santos’ alternative models, with a view of highlighting the dimensions that can be relevant to understanding the territorial dynamics of Local Agro-food Systems (LAFS). The paper aims to build up a system of indicators, structured in four dimensions, concerning the territorial governance of LAFS: (i) multi-level coordination; (ii) democratic ...

  10. Certification of Markets, Markets of Certificates: Tracing Sustainability in Global Agro-Food Value Chains

    Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a blossoming of voluntary certification initiatives for sustainable agro-food products and production processes. With these certification initiatives come traceability in supply chains, to guarantee the sustainability of the products consumed. No systematic analysis exists of traceability

  11. Two contrasted future scenarios for the French agro-food system.

    Billen, Gilles; Le Noë, Julia; Garnier, Josette

    2018-10-01

    Narratives of two prospective scenarios for the future of French agriculture were elaborated by pushing several trends already acting on the dynamics of the current system to their logical end. The first one pursues the opening and specialization characterizing the long-term evolution of the last 50 years of most French agricultural regions, while the second assumes a shift, already perceptible through weak signals, towards more autonomy at the farm and regional scales, a reconnection of crop and livestock farming and a more frugal human diet. A procedure is proposed to translate these qualitative narratives into a quantitative description of the corresponding nutrient fluxes using the GRAFS (Generalized Representation of Agro-Food Systems) methodology, thus allowing a comprehensive exploration of the agronomical and environmental performance of these two scenarios. The results show that the pursuit of the opening and specialization of French agriculture, even complying with regulations regarding reasoned fertilization, would result in considerable environmental burdens namely in terms of water pollution. The scenario generalizing organic farming practices, reconnection of crop and livestock farming systems and a demitarian human diet makes it possible to meet the future national food demand while still exporting significant amounts of cereals to the international market and ensuring better groundwater quality in most French regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Territorial Governance. A Comparative Research of Local Agro-Food Systems in Mexico

    Gerardo Torres-Salcido

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to provide a theoretical discussion on territorial governance by presenting both the neo-institutionalist position and the De Sousa Santos’ alternative models, with a view of highlighting the dimensions that can be relevant to understanding the territorial dynamics of Local Agro-food Systems (LAFS. The paper aims to build up a system of indicators, structured in four dimensions, concerning the territorial governance of LAFS: (i multi-level coordination; (ii democratic participation and accountability; (iii cooperation among producers and other stakeholders and (iv relationships with the environment. We verify, as a hypothesis, that the typology of markets to which the identity-based products are directed plays a decisive role in the way that processes of territorial governance of LAFS are constructed. The results of an empirical research, developed in four LAFS in Mexico, are presented: prickly pear cactus in Morelos, blackberry in Michoacán, cuitlacoche (corn smut in Tlaxcala and coffee in Veracruz. Two types of territorial governance of LAFS may be distinguished: those that can be strengthened by the geographical and organisational proximity of the markets and the action of local stakeholders and governments—prickly pear cactus and cuitlacoche—versus those which are devoted to export and are conducted by large companies in which marketing networks involve certification mechanisms and a large number of institutions—coffee and blackberry.

  13. Geographies of Origin and Proximity: Approaches to Local Agro-Food Systems

    Sanz-Cañada, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to provide a critical review with respect to the literature on Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS in America and Europe over the last two decades, devoted to investigating the geographies of the relationships between territory and identity-based food products. In studies on LAFS, the concept of origin of food products is based upon a historical and bio-cultural analysis of food identity. Debates on territorial anchorage focus on the causal factors —natural, cultural and socio-economic— that a distinctive territory imprints on the specific attributes of identity-based foods. Moreover, the notion of geographical and organisational proximity aligns with a socio-cultural and economic approach to collective action aiming at rural development. A LAFS implies a certain spatial density and a network of mutually cooperating farms, firms and institutions, specialised in producing and marketing an identity-based food product, what can in turn be used to valorise the food identity both on the markets and also by contributing to the creation of common and public goods. A transdisciplinary view is required both for comprehending the emergence and evolution over centuries of the identity-based foods and also for understanding the role they play in constructing more sustainable rural development in the future.El artículo tiene como objetivo efectuar una revisión crítica de la literatura aparecida en las dos últimas décadas sobre los Sistemas Agroalimentarios Locales (SIAL en América y en Europa, que investiga la geografía de las relaciones existentes entre el territorio y los productos alimentarios identitarios. En los estudios sobre SIAL, el concepto de origen está basado en un análisis histórico y bio-cultural de la identidad de los alimentos. Los debates sobre el anclaje territorial se focalizan en los factores causales —naturales, culturales y socioeconómicos— que un territorio distintivo incide en los atributos espec

  14. Towards an Agro-Industrial Ecology: A review of nutrient flow modelling and assessment tools in agro-food systems at the local scale

    Fernandez-Mena, Hugo; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in nutrient recycling in agriculture is essential to maintain food production while minimising nutrient pollution of the environment. For this purpose, understanding and modelling nutrient cycles in food and related agro-industrial systems is a crucial task. Although nutrient management has been addressed at the plot and farm scales for many years now in the agricultural sciences, there is a need to upscale these approaches to capture the additional drivers of nutrient cycles that may occur at the local, i.e. district, scale. Industrial ecology principles provide sound bases to analyse nutrient cycling in complex systems. However, since agro-food social-ecological systems have specific ecological and social dimensions, we argue that a new field, referred to as “Agro-Industrial Ecology”, is needed to study these systems. In this paper, we review the literature on nutrient cycling in complex social-ecological systems that can provide a basis for Agro-Industrial Ecology. We identify and describe three major approaches: Environmental Assessment tools, Stock and Flow Analysis methods and Agent-based models. We then discuss their advantages and drawbacks for assessing and modelling nutrient cycles in agro-food systems in terms of their purpose and scope, object representation and time-spatial dynamics. We finally argue that combining stock-flow methods with both agent-based models and environmental impact assessment tools is a promising way to analyse the role of economic agents on nutrient flows and losses and to explore scenarios that better close the nutrient cycles at the local scale. - Highlights: • An Agro-Industrial Ecology perspective is essential to model local agro-food systems. • We provide a classification of nutrient (N, P) models, methods and assessment tools. • We distinguished Environmental Assessment, Stock and flow and Agent-based approaches. • The pros and cons of these nutrient cycle models, methods and tools are discussed.

  15. Towards an Agro-Industrial Ecology: A review of nutrient flow modelling and assessment tools in agro-food systems at the local scale

    Fernandez-Mena, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.fernandez@bordeaux.inra.fr [Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33175 Gradignan (France); INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33883 Villenave d' Ornon (France); Nesme, Thomas [Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Pellerin, Sylvain [INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33883 Villenave d' Ornon (France)

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in nutrient recycling in agriculture is essential to maintain food production while minimising nutrient pollution of the environment. For this purpose, understanding and modelling nutrient cycles in food and related agro-industrial systems is a crucial task. Although nutrient management has been addressed at the plot and farm scales for many years now in the agricultural sciences, there is a need to upscale these approaches to capture the additional drivers of nutrient cycles that may occur at the local, i.e. district, scale. Industrial ecology principles provide sound bases to analyse nutrient cycling in complex systems. However, since agro-food social-ecological systems have specific ecological and social dimensions, we argue that a new field, referred to as “Agro-Industrial Ecology”, is needed to study these systems. In this paper, we review the literature on nutrient cycling in complex social-ecological systems that can provide a basis for Agro-Industrial Ecology. We identify and describe three major approaches: Environmental Assessment tools, Stock and Flow Analysis methods and Agent-based models. We then discuss their advantages and drawbacks for assessing and modelling nutrient cycles in agro-food systems in terms of their purpose and scope, object representation and time-spatial dynamics. We finally argue that combining stock-flow methods with both agent-based models and environmental impact assessment tools is a promising way to analyse the role of economic agents on nutrient flows and losses and to explore scenarios that better close the nutrient cycles at the local scale. - Highlights: • An Agro-Industrial Ecology perspective is essential to model local agro-food systems. • We provide a classification of nutrient (N, P) models, methods and assessment tools. • We distinguished Environmental Assessment, Stock and flow and Agent-based approaches. • The pros and cons of these nutrient cycle models, methods and tools are discussed.

  16. EBITDA/EBIT and cash flow based ICRs: A comparative approach in the agro-food system in Italy

    Mattia Iotti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest coverage ratios (ICRs are used to quantify the ability of firms to pay financial debts; ICRs are then considered by banks such as covenants in the financing term sheet, and are used by researchers and the rating agencies to estimate the probability of default of firms. Typically, ICRs calculation is based on profit margins, such as EBITDA and EBIT; EBITDA and EBIT approximate, but do not directly express, cash flows available to pay financial debts. The article aims to evaluate whether there are significant differences in results using ICRs based on EBITDA or EBIT and ICRs based on different definitions of cash flow (CF. The application is made to a sample of firms characterized by high absorption of capital operating in the Italian agro-food sector. The article highlights that there are statistically significant differences using ICRs EBITDA and EBIT based and ICRs based on different CF definitions.

  17. Towards an Agro-Industrial Ecology: A review of nutrient flow modelling and assessment tools in agro-food systems at the local scale.

    Fernandez-Mena, Hugo; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in nutrient recycling in agriculture is essential to maintain food production while minimising nutrient pollution of the environment. For this purpose, understanding and modelling nutrient cycles in food and related agro-industrial systems is a crucial task. Although nutrient management has been addressed at the plot and farm scales for many years now in the agricultural sciences, there is a need to upscale these approaches to capture the additional drivers of nutrient cycles that may occur at the local, i.e. district, scale. Industrial ecology principles provide sound bases to analyse nutrient cycling in complex systems. However, since agro-food social-ecological systems have specific ecological and social dimensions, we argue that a new field, referred to as "Agro-Industrial Ecology", is needed to study these systems. In this paper, we review the literature on nutrient cycling in complex social-ecological systems that can provide a basis for Agro-Industrial Ecology. We identify and describe three major approaches: Environmental Assessment tools, Stock and Flow Analysis methods and Agent-based models. We then discuss their advantages and drawbacks for assessing and modelling nutrient cycles in agro-food systems in terms of their purpose and scope, object representation and time-spatial dynamics. We finally argue that combining stock-flow methods with both agent-based models and environmental impact assessment tools is a promising way to analyse the role of economic agents on nutrient flows and losses and to explore scenarios that better close the nutrient cycles at the local scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Social media as a new playing field for the governance of agro-food sustainability

    Stevens, T.M.; Aarts, N.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Dewulf, A.

    2016-01-01

    Social media bring various stakeholders of the agro-food system together into a new playing field. This article reveals the dynamics of this playing field and the ways in which this can influence the governance of agro-food sustainability. We delineate three pathways that highlight the ways in

  19. Enabling Sustainable Agro-Food Futures: Exploring Fault Lines and Synergies Between the Integrated Territorial Paradigm, Rural Eco-Economy and Circular Economy

    Kristensen, Dan Kristian; Kjeldsen, Chris; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard

    2016-01-01

    What kind of futures does agro-food imaginaries enable and who can get involved in the making of agro-food futures? In this respect, what can the increasingly influential idea of circular economy potentially offer in terms of enabling more sustainable agrofood futures? We approach this task...... important contributions in relation to studies of alternative food networks and the “quality” turn. These research agendas have challenged the current logic of the food system in terms of offering alternative visions of future development. We highlight two examples from the literature—the eco......-economy and the integrated territorial agri-food paradigm—that develop broader frameworks for rethinking the future of the agro-food system and which have distinguished themselves in contrast to the industrialized and globalized conventional food system. We find that with respect to reorienting and reconfiguring economic...

  20. Phosphorus budget in the water-agro-food system at nested scales in two contrasted regions of the world (ASEAN-8 and EU-27)

    Garnier, Josette; Lassaletta, Luis; Billen, Gilles; Romero, Estela; Grizzetti, Bruna; Némery, Julien; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Pistocchi, Chiara; Aissa-Grouz, Najla; Luu, Thi Nguyet Minh; Vilmin, Lauriane; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Phosphorus (P) plays a strategic role in agricultural production as well as in the occurrence of freshwater and marine eutrophication episodes throughout the world. Moreover, the scarcity and uneven distribution of minable P resources is raising concerns about the sustainability of long-term exploitation. In this paper we analyze the P cycle in anthropic systems with an original multiscale approach (world region, country, and large basin scales) in two contrasting world regions representative of different trajectories in socioeconomic development for the 1961-2009 period: Europe (EU-27)/France and the Seine River Basin, and Asia (ASEAN-8)/Vietnam and the Red River Basin. Our approach highlights different trends in the agricultural and food production systems of the two regions. Whereas crop production increased until the 1980s in Europe and France and has stabilized thereafter, in ASEAN-8 and Vietnam it began to increase in the 1980s and it is still rising today. These trends are related to the increasing use of fertilizers, although in European countries the amount of fertilizers sharply decreased after the 1980s. On average, the total P delivered from rivers to the sea is 3 times higher for ASEAN-8 (300 kg P km-2 yr-1) than for EU-27 countries (100 kg P km-2 yr-1) and is twice as high in the Red River (200 kg P km-2 yr-1) than in the Seine River (110 kg P km-2 yr-1), with agricultural losses to water in ASEAN-8 3 times higher than in EU-27. Based on the P flux budgets, this study discusses early warnings and management options according to the particularities of the two world regions, newly integrating the perspective of surface water quality with agricultural issues (fertilizers, crop production, and surplus), food/feed exchanges, and diet, defining the so-called water-agro-food system.

  1. Biological assets and the agricultural products in the context of the implementation of the IAS 41: A case study of the Romanian agro-food system

    Mates Dorel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the contribution of agriculture and agro-food industry to the GDP is a significant, in Romania’s case we appreciate that the economic aspects of this area also deserve a specific approach. The aim of this paper was to identify the incompatibility of the recognition and assessment criteria of agriculture production, biological assets and agriculture products imposed by the application of these standards in agro-food companies, and to analyze its effects concerning the financial position and performance of these entities. The paper takes into consideration the economic-financial harmonization process, which is now in full progress, both in the EU and other states, by applying the specific standards (IAS/IFRS in the preparation of annual/interim financial reports. Finally, referring strictly to the case of Romania, after thorough research into the field in question, we suggest a presentation of the controversial assessment criteria provided by the IAS 41 standard, and also refer to the difficulties related to the implementation of this standard in the agro-food industry.

  2. Local resources, foreign influences, value creation, tradition and modernity. The case of a Local Agro-food System in Jämtland, Sweden

    Rytkönen, Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980’s collective action was initiated with the purpose of saving the remnants of traditional livestock farming in Jämtland. This led to the articulation of a local agro-food system (LAFS that managed to commercialize important elements of traditional agriculture by adding elements of modernity. Farm diversification was an important strategy that led to the forward integration of farms that includes the start of small scale farm dairies, farm cafes, direct sales, at the farm, through markets and other local channels, B&Bs and outdoor tourism operations. In the mentioned process, foreign knowledge and experience led to the opening of a new market for traditional products. This case shows that the localization and appropriation of foreign elements can be a fruitful strategy to promote territorial development in regions like Jämtland. This article highlights how a LAFS was articulated within the frame of the birth of a new industry, composed by small, semi-artisan dairy firms and which institutional side effects that this experience has led to.Durante la década de los 80, un proceso de acción colectiva se inició con el propósito de salvar los restos de la ganadería tradicional en Jämtland. Esto resultó en la creación de un sistema agroalimentario local que logró comercializar elementos importantes de la agricultura tradicional, añadiendo elementos de modernidad. La diversificación de las fincas fue la estrategia más importante, dentro de la cual se promovió la creación de un sector de pequeñas industrias lácteas en las fincas, cafés rurales y asimismo la venta directa a los consumidores en dichas fincas, en mercados y otros canales de comercialización, servicios de alojamiento y desayuno y operaciones turísticas al aire libre. En este proceso, conocimiento y experiencias extranjeras jugaron un papel clave en la apertura de un nuevo mercado para los productos lácteos tradicionales. Este caso demuestra que la

  3. Training requirements for agro-food industry in Portugal

    Pedro D. Gaspar; Rita Pinheiro; Cláudia Domingues; Celestino Almeida; Teresa Paiva; Carlos D. Pereira; Manuela Vaz-Velho

    2015-01-01

    Agro-food companies are aware that the technical and soft skills of their employees directly influence business performance and, consequently, improving those skills will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of their companies. This paper presents the main results of the AgriTraining project “Training requirements for the agro-food industry". Activities in pursuit of the objectives of this project involved: (1) analysis of the training needs in the agro-food industry in Portugal; (2) anal...

  4. Emerging 'Standard Complex' and Corporate Social Responsibility of Agro-food Businesses: A Case Study of Dole Food Company

    Sekine, Kae; Boutonnet, Jean-Pierre; Hisano, Shuji

    2008-01-01

    Recently as a reaction to the social movement of fair trade and the like, multinational agro-food businesses are getting remodelled to suit a growing public awareness of the spread of 'corporate social responsibility', which is now adopted as a new strategy by major corporations across sectors. This phenomenon raises questions about the nature of fair trade as an alternative movement against the globalisation and industrialisation of the agro-food system. Dole Food Company is one of these agr...

  5. Training requirements for agro-food industry in Portugal

    Pedro D. Gaspar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agro-food companies are aware that the technical and soft skills of their employees directly influence business performance and, consequently, improving those skills will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of their companies. This paper presents the main results of the AgriTraining project “Training requirements for the agro-food industry". Activities in pursuit of the objectives of this project involved: (1 analysis of the training needs in the agro-food industry in Portugal; (2 analysis of the training provision and the training organizations; (3 analysis of market trends; (4 definition of a training strategy; and (5 adjustment and development of training strategies for the agro-food sector. This last activity comprised the development of training curricula, suitable for the food sector as a whole and adjusted for the specific needs of some traditional industries, in order to promote the development and competitiveness of the agro-food industry in Portugal. Such training curricula aimed to promote the uptake of innovative technologies and methodologies, increase the ability of agro-food industries to invest and take risks, and enable adoption of European Community standards for production and marketing. Gaps in training supply were identified and the training provision was updated according to the needs of the agro-food companies. It was determined that companies need and demand knowledge and innovation to increase their competitive position for internationalization purposes. It was possible to define a training strategy based on market-orientation for agro-food differentiation.

  6. Quality Regimes in Agro-Food Industries

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine the transformative potential of changing quality regimes in agro-food industries through the analysis of whether Fair Trade wine in Argentina provides a meaningful economic alternative that goes beyond the impact it has on direct beneficiaries. The wine sector has a long...... history in valorizing a variety of quality dimensions, and has developed one of the most complex and sophisticated quality infrastructures, making it an ideal terrain of analysis. Furthermore, it is going through a major process of restructuring in which the battle-lines are drawn along the application......, challenge and re-interpretation of different quality content. Through the lenses of a sector-adjusted version of regulation theory, we show that the Fair Trade wine sector does not substantially deviate from the conventional wine economy in Argentina. Instead of empowering the most vulnerable groups, those...

  7. Innovation in agro-food supply chains – The EU policy context

    Materia, V.C.; Dries, L.K.E.; Pascucci, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides insights into the definition of innovation and specifically how policies affect knowledge creation and innovation in agro-food supply chains (D9.1a, objective 1), considering innovation as a key determinant for competitiveness. The innovation system – rather than the linear

  8. Convention Theory in the Anglophone Agro-food Literature

    Ponte, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, convention theory has been applied in various branches of agro-food studies, providing analytical and theoretical insight for examining alternative food networks, coordination and governance in agro-food value chains, and the so-called 'quality turn' in food production...... and consumption. In this article, I examine convention theory applications in the Anglophone literature on agro-food studies through the review of 51 relevant contributions. I highlight how CT has helped explain different modes of organization and coordination of agro-food operations in different places, and how...... (Salais and Storper, 1992; Storper and Salais, 1997); and another applying the 'orders of worth' approach of Boltanski and Thevenot (1991[2006]) and further elaborations of 'quality conventions'. After tracing broad trajectories and the significance of new developments in this literature, I highlight its...

  9. Mental innovation space of Vietnamese agro-food firms

    De Koning, Jotte; Crul, Marcel; Engelen, van Johannes; Wever, Renee; Brezet, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - Vietnamese agro-food firms are often small and have short value chains. They are facing increasing competition from multinationals to serve the consumers of the rising middle class. It is assumed that co-creation or open-innovation can be a competitive innovation strategy for the

  10. Agro-food chains and networks for development

    Ruben, R.; Slingerland, M.A.; Nijhoff, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    Agro-food chains and networks play an increasingly important role in providing access to markets for producers from developing countries. In developing countries companies become integrated into geographically dispersed supply networks that link producers, traders and processors from the South with

  11. Innovative Agro-food Technologies Implementation through Instructional Communication Mechanisms

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current research represents the valorization of the dissemination the design framework of an interdisciplinary area of research, validated through SPAS European FP6 project and a national BIOSIG- PN2 and has as objective to channel communication on target market, through personalized solution of instructional communication mechanisms. The main objective of the national research grant being the implementation of innovative biotechnology on agro-food market, in order to improve the fish diet’s benefits, the prospects must be provided with valuable explicit information. This paper is about the commitment to embedding the actual consumer experience from PN2 fish market research and agro-food agents’ capitalization knowledge behavior from SPAS virtual platform, through designing the adequate communication framework, in order to support and accelerate the implementation of the innovation biotechnology, through improving the target market experience. The projected solution is mainly concerning to offer adequate solutions to insure against current consumers fragilities, but we also underline the vulnerabilities of the whole agro food value chain, in terms of communication strategy, which is lacking of adequate common interest coordination. The current research solution is regarding the rising awareness about the translation from consumer preferences to perceived detriment by integrating previous validated solution of agro food market analysis.

  12. Innovative Agro-Food Technologies to Minimize Consumer Detriment

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to offer a solution for accelerating the implementation of new biotechnologies designated to prevent consumer detriment. Designing an intervention mechanism along current inefficient chain of consumer feed- back information is a must. Upon different interconnected knowledge area of expertise, both on consumer detriment and biotechnologies for human food safety and security, we propose our approach relying upon relevant experiences on innovational biotechnologies as response to consumer fragilities data from recent validated agro food market research. We target the rising awareness regarding the translation from consumer preferences, to perceived detriment.

  13. ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AND ITS MANAGEMENT

    Cornel COSER

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the competitiveness of food products can be found in many research studies in the field. They reveal the essence of agro-food competitiveness, while expressing management tools and method. At the level of agro-food competitiveness management, this article highlights also the possibility of influencing factors determining the defining characteristics of the respective competitiveness.

  14. Economic essence of competitiveness of agro-food products and its management

    Coser Cornel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the competitiveness of food products can be found in many research studies in the field. They reveal the essence of agro-food competitiveness, while expressing management tools and method. At the level of agro-food competitiveness management, this article highlights also the possibility of influencing factors determining the defining characteristics of the respective competitiveness.

  15. Nanofiltration and Tight Ultrafiltration Membranes for the Recovery of Polyphenols from Agro-Food By-Products

    Alfredo Cassano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure-driven membrane-based technologies represent a valid approach to reduce the environmental pollution of several agro-food by-products. Recently, in relation to the major interest for natural compounds with biological activities, their use has been also addressed to the recovery, separation and fractionation of phenolic compounds from such by-products. In particular, tight ultrafiltration (UF and nanolfiltration (NF membranes have been recognized for their capability to recover phenolic compounds from several types of agro-food by-products. The separation capability of these membranes, as well as their productivity, depends on multiple factors such as membrane material, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO and operating conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, feed flow rate, volume reduction factor, etc.. This paper aims at providing a critical overview of the influence of these parameters on the recovery of phenolic compounds from agro-food by-products by using tight UF and NF membranes. The literature data are analyzed and discussed in relation to separation processes, molecule properties, membrane characteristics and other phenomena occurring in the process. Current extraction methodologies of phenolic compounds from raw materials are also introduced in order to drive the implementation of integrated systems for the production of actractive phenolic formulations of potential interest as food antioxidants.

  16. Nanofiltration and Tight Ultrafiltration Membranes for the Recovery of Polyphenols from Agro-Food By-Products.

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby-Figueroa, René; Castro-Muñoz, Roberto

    2018-01-24

    Pressure-driven membrane-based technologies represent a valid approach to reduce the environmental pollution of several agro-food by-products. Recently, in relation to the major interest for natural compounds with biological activities, their use has been also addressed to the recovery, separation and fractionation of phenolic compounds from such by-products. In particular, tight ultrafiltration (UF) and nanolfiltration (NF) membranes have been recognized for their capability to recover phenolic compounds from several types of agro-food by-products. The separation capability of these membranes, as well as their productivity, depends on multiple factors such as membrane material, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and operating conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, feed flow rate, volume reduction factor, etc.). This paper aims at providing a critical overview of the influence of these parameters on the recovery of phenolic compounds from agro-food by-products by using tight UF and NF membranes. The literature data are analyzed and discussed in relation to separation processes, molecule properties, membrane characteristics and other phenomena occurring in the process. Current extraction methodologies of phenolic compounds from raw materials are also introduced in order to drive the implementation of integrated systems for the production of actractive phenolic formulations of potential interest as food antioxidants.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ON ROMANIA’S AGRO-FOOD EXPORT AND IMPORT BY EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRY GROUP AND AGRO-FOOD PRODUCT GROUP

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was the analysis of Romania’s the agro-food export, import and trade balance by the EU country group and agro-food product group based on the statistical data in the year 2010 in order to identify the commercial relationships with a positive and respectively a negative impact of the trade balance. The EU trade partners were divided into 4 groups: Central Eastern (CE, Western (W, Northern (N and Southern (S EU countries and the agro-food product groups were: Live animals and preparations of animal origin, Vegetal products, Fats and oils of vegetal and animal origin, Food, beverages and tobacco. The data were processed using the share and comparison methods. In 2010, Romania registered a negative agro-food trade balance with a deficit of Euro thousand 903,148.This was due to the unefficient commerce with the CE and W EU countries, which together recorded Euro Thousand 1,400,298 deficit. The balance was positively influenced by the Southern EU trade partners whose contribution accounted for Euro thousand 513,953. Therefore, the agro-food trade has to be intensified with the Southern EU countries and to become more relaxed with the CE and W EU countries, especially regarding imports. Live animals are mainly required in the CE and W EU countries, vegetal products in the W and S EU countries, fats and oils in the CE and S EU countries, and finally, food, beverages and tobacco in the S and the CE EU countries. Agro-food imports have to be substantially diminished as long as Romania’ s agriculture is able to produce for the internal market and export has to be intensified especially with the countries with a positive impact on the trade balance.

  18. Investigating Food and Agribusiness Corporations as Global Water Security, Management and Governance Agents: The case of Nestlé, Bunge and Cargill

    Suvi Sojamo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the agency of the world’s largest food and agribusiness corporations in global water security via case studies of Nestlé, Bunge and Cargill by analysing their position in the political economy of the world agro-food system and the ways they intentionally and non-intentionally manage and govern water in their value chains and wider networks of influence. The concentrated power of a few corporations in global agro-food value chains and their ability to influence the agro-food market dynamics and networks throughout the world pose asymmetric conditions for reaching not only global food security but also water security. The article will analyse the different forms of power exercised by the corporations in focus in relation to global water security and the emerging transnational water governance regime, and the extent to which their value chain position and stakeholder interaction reflect or drive their actions. Due to their vast infrastructural and technological capacity and major role in the global agro-food political economy, food and agribusiness corporations cannot avoid increasingly engaging, for endogenous and exogenous reasons, in multi-stakeholder initiatives and partnerships to devise methods of managing the agro-food value chains and markets to promote global water security. However, their asymmetric position in relation to their stakeholders demands continuous scrutiny.

  19. TRENDS IN ROMANIA'S AGRO-FOOD FOREIGN TRADE IN THE PERIOD 2007-2012

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the analysis of Romania's agro-food foreign trade dynamics in the period 2007-2012 in order to identify its major trends and changes. In 2012, the agro-food export reached Euro Million 2,812, and import Euro Million 3,834. The Euro Million -1,021 balance deficit proved that Romania is still a net exporting country. The EU accounts for about 72 % in export and 70% in import value, of which agro-food trade contributes by 8.90 % and, respectively by 9.54% in Romania's import. In 2012, the agro-food export structure was the following one:Vegetable products 38.66%, Prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco 36.02 %, and Live animals and animal products 18.99 %, and the agro-food import structure was: Prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco 38.39 %, Vegetal products 30.89 %, and Live animals and animal products 25.62 %. The main Romania's trade partners are Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, Greece, France, Austria and United Kingdom for agro-food export (88.14 % and Hungary, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Bulgaria, Italy, France, Austria, the Czech Republic and Greece for agro-food import (88.38 %. In the period 2007-2012, an improved efficiency of the agro-food trade was noticed in terms of export/import ratio, export value per GDP and per inhabitant, and lower and lower deficit of the trade balance.

  20. Sustainable agro-food supply chain design using two-stage hybrid multi-objective decision-making approach

    Allaoui, Hamid; Guo, Yuhan; Choudhary, Alok; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability of agro-food supply chains has recently become the subject of greater interest from consumers, firms, governmental organizations and academia as the environment continues to deteriorate. One of the most critical factors influencing the sustainability of an agro-food supply chain is

  1. The role of research in the future of the agro-food sector

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agro-food industry,in line with the European Commission’s White Paper on Food Safety,it is now firmly acknowledged that quality must be planned and developed through- out the food production chain, irrespective of whether the food is of plant or animal origin. Food safety depends on all operators in the food sector, specifically with regard to foods of animal origin,where safety begins with animal nutrition and,even before that,in the “field”. The objective of food safety must be viewed in the context of a dynamic situation which is the result of advances in knowledge,the development of investigative tools and the results sought in terms of guarantees to be provided to consumers. With respect to food of animal origin, present-day consumers are concerned about a series of problems which,apart from intrinsic food safety issues,ultimately involve a whole set of aspects typical of the productive system.These include worker protection,environmen- tal safeguards and,today,even animal welfare,though the possibility of identifying which foods are obtained with “animal-friendly”methods is still hardly present in many countries, given current labelling practices.

  2. EVALUACIÓN DE PRERREQUISITOS EN EL SISTEMA HACCP EN EMPRESAS DEL SECTOR AGROALIMENTARIO AVALIAÇÃO DE PRERREQUISITOS NO SISTEMA HACCP EM EMPRESAS DO SETOR AGROALIMENTAR EVALUATION OF PREREQUISITES IN HACCP SYSTEM IN AGRO-FOOD INDUSTRY

    Nelson Gutiérrez

    2011-06-01

    the prerequisites of a HACCP system in 53 agri-food industries operating in the department of Huila in Colombia. The evaluation methodology corresponded to the verification of the compliance of checklists for two instruments: GHYCAL (Management of Hygiene and Quality and S&Q (Safety and Quality on Food. The results allowed to find levels of hygiene management on a percentage scale and classify 34 companies in low level of compliance, including levels between 0 % and 75 %; 12 companies in basic compliance level, to obtain ratings from 75 % to 95 %, and 7 companies with higher compliance level, with evaluations higher than 95 %; additionally the similarities and differences between companies and between the sectors studied, using multivariate statistical analysis, were assessed.

  3. Triple P business development in the Dutch agro-food sector : 9 cases of strategic innovation

    Someren, van T.C.R.; Nijhof, A.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The 21st Century will be dominated by innovations in order to realize sustainable development. Innovative entrepreneurs will search for and create Triple P business cases and thereby transform industries. The Dutch agro-food sector innovation programme TransForum has stimulated and supported a wide

  4. International Agro-food Chains and Networks as Instruments for Development

    Ruben, R.; Slingerland, M.A.; Nijhoff, H.

    2006-01-01

    Agro-food chains and networks play an increasingly important role in providing access to markets for producers from developing countries. In developing countries companies become integrated into geographically dispersed supply networks that link producers, traders and processors from the South with

  5. Gasification of fruit wastes and agro-food residues in supercritical water

    Nanda, Sonil; Isen, Jamie; Dalai, Ajay K.; Kozinski, Janusz A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Supercritical water gasification of various fruit wastes and agro-food residues. • Coconut shell had superior carbon content and calorific value due to high lignin. • Maximum H_2 yields at 600 °C with 1:10 biomass-to-water ratio, 45 min and 23–25 MPa. • High H_2 yields from coconut shell, bagasse and aloe vera rind with 2 wt% K_2CO_3. • High CH_4 yields from coconut shell with 2 wt% NaOH due to methanation reaction. - Abstract: Considerable amounts of fruit wastes and agro-food residues are generated worldwide as a result of food processing. Converting the bioactive components (e.g., carbohydrates, lipids, fats, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in food wastes to biofuels is a potential remediation approach. This study highlights the characterization and hydrothermal conversion of several fruit wastes and agro-food residues such as aloe vera rind, banana peel, coconut shell, lemon peel, orange peel, pineapple peel and sugarcane bagasse to hydrogen-rich syngas through supercritical water gasification. The agro-food wastes were gasified in supercritical water to study the impacts of temperature (400–600 °C), biomass-to-water ratio (1:5 and 1:10) and reaction time (15–45 min) at a pressure range of 23–25 MPa. The catalytic effects of NaOH and K_2CO_3 were also investigated to maximize the hydrogen yields and selectivity. The elevated temperature (600 °C), longer reaction time (45 min) and lower feed concentration (1:10 biomass-to-water ratio) were optimal for higher hydrogen yield (0.91 mmol/g) and total gas yield (5.5 mmol/g) from orange peel. However, coconut shell with 2 wt% K_2CO_3 at 600 °C and 1:10 biomass-to-water ratio for 45 min revealed superior hydrogen yield (4.8 mmol/g), hydrogen selectivity (45.8%) and total gas yield (15 mmol/g) with enhanced lower heating value of the gas product (1595 kJ/Nm"3). The overall findings suggest that supercritical water gasification of fruit wastes and agro-food residues could serve as

  6. Agro-food industry growth and obesity in China: what role for regulating food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling?

    Hawkes, C

    2008-03-01

    Taking a food supply chain approach, this paper examines the regulation of food marketing and nutrition labelling as strategies to help combat obesity in China in an era of rapid agro-food industry growth. China is the largest food producer and consumer in the world. Since the early 1980s, the agro-food industry has undergone phenomenal expansion throughout the food supply chain, from agricultural production to trade, agro-food processing to food retailing, and from food service to advertising and promotion. This industry growth, alongside related socioeconomic changes and government policies, has encouraged a 'nutrition transition'. China's population, especially in urban areas, is now consuming significantly more energy from dietary fat, which is leading to higher rates of obesity. Regulation of food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling has the potential to help prevent the further growth of obesity in China and encourage the agro-food industry to supplier healthier foods. Government legislation and guidance, as well as self-regulation and voluntary initiatives, are needed to reduce children's exposure to food advertising and promotion, and increase the effectiveness of nutrition labelling. Policies on food marketing and nutrition labelling should be adapted to the China context, and accompanied by further action throughout the food supply chain. Given China's unique characteristics and position in the world today, there is an opportunity for the government and the agro-food industry to lead the world by creating a balanced, health promoting model of complementary legislation and industry action.

  7. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments. PMID:27077083

  8. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015 [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments.

  9. A review on the applications of portable near-infrared spectrometers in the agro-food industry.

    dos Santos, Cláudia A Teixeira; Lopo, Miguel; Páscoa, Ricardo N M J; Lopes, João A

    2013-11-01

    Industry has created the need for a cost-effective and nondestructive quality-control analysis system. This requirement has increased interest in near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, leading to the development and marketing of handheld devices that enable new applications that can be implemented in situ. Portable NIR spectrometers are powerful instruments offering several advantages for nondestructive, online, or in situ analysis: small size, low cost, robustness, simplicity of analysis, sample user interface, portability, and ergonomic design. Several studies of on-site NIR applications are presented: characterization of internal and external parameters of fruits and vegetables; conservation state and fat content of meat and fish; distinguishing among and quality evaluation of beverages and dairy products; protein content of cereals; evaluation of grape ripeness in vineyards; and soil analysis. Chemometrics is an essential part of NIR spectroscopy manipulation because wavelength-dependent scattering effects, instrumental noise, ambient effects, and other sources of variability may complicate the spectra. As a consequence, it is difficult to assign specific absorption bands to specific functional groups. To achieve useful and meaningful results, multivariate statistical techniques (essentially involving regression techniques coupled with spectral preprocessing) are therefore required to extract the information hidden in the spectra. This work reviews the evolution of the use of portable near-infrared spectrometers in the agro-food industry.

  10. Waking Up from Four Decades' Long Dream of Valorizing Agro-Food Byproducts: Toward Practical Applications of the Gained Knowledge.

    Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2018-03-28

    The late 1970s was the onset of literature about the first research outputs on alternatives to create added-value to agro-food byproducts focused on the reduction of the dependency on raw materials and, simultaneously, helping to reduce the environmental impacts of the agricultural activities. This trend, increased over the years and during the past decade, has been boosted by the growing concern of the socio-economic impact of wastes from agro-food activities, however, with little success of the proposed applications. Throughout four decades an array of studies have emerged, aimed to gain evidence on the relevance of innovation in the agro-food industry, as well as to overcome this situation. To our knowledge, only a few cases, summarized in the present perspective, represent the main alternatives currently available for the valorization of agro-food byproducts, with indications of some constraints that need to be addressed, in the coming years, to obtain a real profit from these products.

  11. Comparison and Evolution of Energy Consumption in Moroccan Agro-food Industries

    El Badaoui, Meryem; Touzani, Abdellatif

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish a comparison between the Moroccan energy consumption and the BREF the reference document on best available techniques in the food industries, then an evolution of this consumption by 2030 in order to better understand it and to define strategies to reduce energy bill. According to a survey conducted among 5000 Moroccan companies, we were able to compare the energy consumption of the agro-food industries including sugar industry, dairy industry, cereal industry; fatty substances industry and fishing industry with that of the BREF. Also an evolution of Moroccan consumption was established by 2030 using the linear regression method, and then calculated a non-negligible average annual growth rate (AAGR). The results show that the Moroccan energy consumption is adequate to that of the BREF, and an energy consumption constantly increasing by registering a non-negligible AAGR.

  12. "Do non-R&D intensive industries benefit of spillovers from public research? The case of the Agro-food industry

    Vincent Mangematin; Nadine Mandran

    2001-01-01

    The agro-food industry is a sector in which the percentage of firms which have done innovation in the past three years is high, whereas they have a low research capacity. According to an innovation survey (1986-90) in France, 70% of agro-food firms which responded in the Community Innovation Survey (CIS), reported innovations while less than 5% of them had internal research capacities. Our paper models estimates of determinants of innovation in the agro-food industry. Based on the comparison ...

  13. HOW TO PERCEIVE THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE AGRO-FOOD COMPANIES?

    iveta Ubrežiová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of the article is to evaluate the extent of a companies´ engagement with CSR as well as to uncover the nature and type of CSR activities in the agro-food companies operating in the Slovak Republic. In order to fulfill the basic aim, we set the partial aims which involve several research questions. Primary information and data were obtained by the questionnaire survey in order to assess the level of companies´ engagement with CSR policy and activities they carry out within this policy. Secondary data consist of various publications, web-pages of selected companies, their annual general statements and statements concerning CSR policy. To every company, one questionnaire was distributed – in some case, it was possible to send it directly to person responsible for CSR activities. To graphically display our results, we used MS Excel and for other statistical processing SAS and SPSS. According to the results and findings from the questionnaire survey, the authors of the article finds it appropriate to offer several recommendations and ideas dealing with support of CSR in the Slovak Republic.

  14. Fingerprinting and quantification of GMOs in the agro-food sector.

    Taverniers, I; Van Bockstaele, E; De Loose, M

    2003-01-01

    Most strategies for analyzing GMOs in plants and derived food and feed products, are based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In conventional PCR methods, a 'known' sequence between two specific primers is amplified. To the contrary, with the 'anchor PCR' technique, unknown sequences adjacent to a known sequence, can be amplified. Because T-DNA/plant border sequences are being amplified, anchor PCR is the perfect tool for unique identification of transgenes, including non-authorized GMOs. In this work, anchor PCR was applied to characterize the 'transgene locus' and to clarify the complete molecular structure of at least six different commercial transgenic plants. Based on sequences of T-DNA/plant border junctions, obtained by anchor PCR, event specific primers were developed. The junction fragments, together with endogeneous reference gene targets, were cloned in plasmids. The latter were then used as event specific calibrators in real-time PCR, a new technique for the accurate relative quantification of GMOs. We demonstrate here the importance of anchor PCR for identification and the usefulness of plasmid DNA calibrators in quantification strategies for GMOs, throughout the agro-food sector.

  15. Investigation of hydrogenase molecular marker to optimize hydrogen production from organic wastes and effluents of agro-food industries [abstract

    Hamilton, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years policy makers have started looking for alternatives to fossil fuels, not only to counter the threat of global warming, but also to reduce the risk of overdependence on imported oil and gas supplies. By contrast with hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen (H2, whether burned directly or used in fuel cells, is intrinsically a clean energy vector with near zero emission. However the main current method of producing hydrogen, steam reforming of methane, involves the release of large quantities of greenhouse gases. So although hydrogen already accounts for around 2% of world consumption of energy, its more widespread adoption is limited by several challenges. Therefore new processes are investigated, especially those using renewable raw material, e.g. woods and organic wastes, and/or involving microorganisms. Indeed, for some algae and bacteria, the generation of molecular hydrogen is an essential part of their energy metabolism. The approach with the greatest commercial potential is fermentative hydrogen generation (dark fermentation by bacteria from the Clostridium genus. This biological process, as a part of the methane-producing anaerobic digestion process, is very promising since it allows the production of hydrogen from a wide variety of renewable resources such as carbohydrate waste from the agricultural and agro-food industries or processed urban waste and sewage. To date most publications on hydrogen production by Clostridium strains have focused on the effects of operating parameters (such as temperature, pH, dilution rate, etc.. We now need to extend this knowledge by identifying and monitoring the various different metabolic agents involved in high H2 activity. Consequently the aim of this research at the CWBI in the University of Liege is to investigate the role of [Fe] hydrogenases, the key enzymes that remove excess electrons accumulating during fermentation. Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009, the strain used for these investigations

  16. Imagining and doing agro-food futures otherwise: Exploring the pig city experiment in the foodscape of Denmark

    Kristensen, Dan Kristian; Kjeldsen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate Pig City; a project that proposes to combine pig-, tomato- and energy production. We argue that Pig City was an experiment challenging the established trajectory of the Danish pig production industry. Utilizing sensibilities from science and technology studies and actor-network...... theory we follow Pig City and the heterogeneous world making practices that took place in the context of this project. Through our narrative of the Pig City experiment we draw attention to the ways in which different visions of the future of agro-food are inscribed materially and discursively. We discuss...

  17. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.

    2012-01-01

    How can the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run be addressed? We argue that sustainable agro-food systems cannot be developed through a simple improvement of existing systems, but will require a transition. Therefore, we focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and

  18. [Study of the bacteriological quality of water used in the agro-food industry in the North of Morocco].

    Haijoubi, El Houcine; Benyahya, Fatiha; Bendahou, Abdrezzak; Essadqui, Faima Zahra; Behhari, Mohammed El; El Mamoune, Ahmed Fouad; Ghailani, Naima Nourouti; Mechita, Mohcine Bennani; Barakat, Amina

    2017-01-01

    Water is used predominantly in food manufacturing process. Northern morocco agro-food industries use different sources of water, but public water and wells water are the main sources of water used. This water can be the main source of possible food contaminations and alterations. This study aims is to assess the bacteriological quality of water used in the agro-food industries in the Northern region of Morocco, to identify the different types of germs responsible for the pollution of these waters and to establish the main causes of this pollution. Water samples taken from taps or wells were analyzed to detect pollution indicator germs (total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), intestinal enterococci (E), revivable microorganisms (RM), sulphite-reducing anaerobes) and pathogens (Salmonella, Staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The enumeration of the bacteria was performed by filtration technique and incorporation obtained through supercooled solid state. The results showed that public-supply waters were of satisfactory bacteriological quality while 40% of the wells water was non-compliant with water quality standards due to the presence of TC, FC, E and RM pollution indicators. In contrast, pathogens, particularly Salmonellae, were absent in all the wells water analyzed. Well water pollution was generally due to failure to meet hygienic requirements for water pumping. Bacteriological quality of these wells water could be improved by adequate protection.

  19. The health-nutrition dimension: a methodological approach to assess the nutritional sustainability of typical agro-food products and the Mediterranean diet.

    Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Turrini, Aida; Intorre, Federica; Lo Feudo, Gabriella; Capone, Roberto; Bottalico, Francesco; El Bilali, Hamid; Polito, Angela

    2018-01-09

    The aim of this paper is to provide a methodological approach to evaluate the nutritional sustainability of typical agro-food products, representing Mediterranean eating habits and included in the Mediterranean food pyramid. For each group of foods, suitable and easily measurable indicators were identified. Two macro-indicators were used to assess the nutritional sustainability of each product. The first macro-indicator, called 'business distinctiveness', takes into account the application of different regulations and standards regarding quality, safety and traceability as well as the origin of raw materials. The second macro-indicator, called 'nutritional quality', assesses product nutritional quality taking into account the contents of key compounds including micronutrients and bioactive phytochemicals. For each indicator a 0-10 scoring system was set up, with scores from 0 (unsustainable) to 10 (very sustainable), with 5 as a sustainability benchmark value. The benchmark value is the value from which a product can be considered sustainable. A simple formula was developed to produce a sustainability index. The proposed sustainability index could be considered a useful tool to describe both the qualitative and quantitative value of micronutrients and bioactive phytochemical present in foodstuffs. This methodological approach can also be applied beyond the Mediterranean, to food products in other world regions. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Novel approaches mediated by tailor-made green solvents for the extraction of phenolic compounds from agro-food industrial by-products.

    Fernández, María de Los Ángeles; Espino, Magdalena; Gomez, Federico J V; Silva, María Fernanda

    2018-01-15

    An environmentally friendly method for the phenolic compound extraction from agro-food industrial by-products was developed in order to contribute with their sustainable valorization. A Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent was chemometrically-designed for the first time and compared with traditional solvents in terms of analyte stabilization. The combination of lactic acid, glucose and 15% water (LGH-15) was selected as optimal. A high-efficiency ultrasound-assisted extraction mediated by LGH-15 prior to HPLC-DAD allows the determination of 14 phenols in onion, olive, tomato and pear industrial by-products. NADES synthesis as well as the extraction procedures were optimized by Response Surface Methodology. Thus, phenolic determination in these complex samples was achieved by a simple, non-expensive, eco-friendly and robust system. The application to different matrices demonstrated the versatility of the proposed method. NADES opens interesting perspectives for their potential use as vehicles of bioactive compounds as food additives or pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of an acid/alkaline treatment on the release of antioxidants and cellulose from different agro-food wastes.

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Moncalvo, Alessandro; Dordoni, Roberta; Spigno, Giorgia

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the release of both antioxidants and cellulosic fibre from different agro-food wastes. Cost-effective and easily available agro-food residues (brewers' spent grains, hazelnut shells, orange peels and wheat straw) were selected and submitted to a double-step acid/alkaline fractionation process. The obtained acid and alkaline liquors were analysed for total phenols content and antioxidant capacity. The final fibre residue was analysed for the cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose content. The total phenols content and antioxidant capacity of the acid liquors were higher than the alkaline hydrolysates. Orange peels and wheat straw gave, respectively, the highest (19.70±0.68mg/g dm ) and the lowest (4.70±0.29mg/g dm ) total phenols release. Correlation between antioxidant capacity of the liquors and their origin depended on the analytical assay used to evaluate it. All the acid liquors were also rich in sugar degradation products (mainly furfural). HPLC analysis revealed that the most abundant phenolic compound in the acid liquors was vanillin for brewers' spent grains, hazelnut shells and wheat straw, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid for orange peels. Wheat straw served as the best raw material for cellulose isolation, providing a final residue with a high cellulose content (84%) which corresponded to 45% of the original cellulose. The applied process removed more than 90% of the hemicellulose fraction in all the samples, while delignification degree ranged from 67% (in hazelnut shells), to 93% (in brewers' spent grains). It was not possible to select a unique raw material for the release of highest levels of both total phenols and cellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Official Control beyond the Official Control. How To Plan And Schedule Controls Starting From Risk Assessment Along The Agro-Food Supply Chain.

    Panunzio, M F; Caporizzi, R; Lagravinese, D; Conversano, M

    2015-01-01

    Every year the Italian Ministry of Health, on the basis of regional data, draws up the "Report on Official Controls" to be submitted to the Parliament. The report contains abundant data, diagrams and charts and illustrates the number and type of official controls (OC) performed by the pertinent Bodies (Ministry of Health, Regional and Local Health Authorities) over the previous year on Food Business Operators (FBO), in accordance with the EC Regulation 882/2004. The trend - which has consolidated over the years - relates to the multiplicity of OC and shows a decrease of such controls compared to an increase in "non-conformities". OC frequency is established by the Regional Authorities on the basis of the categorisation of both a "generic risk" for companies calculated taking into account the probability of occurrence of a "non-conformity", and a "specific" risk, assessed on the basis of the results of the OC actually performed on a given "Operatore del Settore Alimentare" (Food Sector Operator, in Italian: OSA). Thus, categorisation (i.e. the probability of occurrence of non-conformities) is the main driver of the OC scheduling and planning process. We have been asking ourselves whether the current OC planning/scheduling method is still suitable for ensuring food safety in the face of internalisation of the food supply chain. As a matter of fact, food safety is now becoming increasingly variable due to the globalization of consumption where "farm to fork", rather than "border to fork", food safety must be ensured. On the basis of these considerations, a different OC planning /scheduling method is being proposed based on the assessment of risks and the estimation of the occurrence of the same along the agro-food chain.

  3. Cold recovery during regasification of LNG part two: Applications in an Agro Food Industry and a Hypermarket

    La Rocca, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the cold energy available during LNG regasification, which can be recovered and utilized both inside the LNG regasification area and at a distance, such as in deep freezing agro food industry facilities and for space conditioning in the commercial and residential sector (e.g. Supermarkets and Hypermarkets). The feasibility study of this kind of application has been carried out at DREAM, Palermo University, within the framework of a research program. The results of a feasibility study of the kind of venture proposed, starting from its conceptual design and with a thorough thermodynamic and economic analysis, demonstrated the suitability and the profitability of the applications proposed. They seem very attractive due to expected wide future exploitation of LNG regasification in the World. -- Highlights: → Proposal pertaining cold recovery during LNG regasification. → Cold utilization far from the regasification site. → Transfer of liquid/gaseous carbon dioxide pipeline. → Exergetic and economic analysis of venture pertaining applications proposed. → Results of venture economic analysis.

  4. Challenges of Agro-Food Standards Conformity: Lessons from East Africa and Policy Implications

    Bolwig, Simon; Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Standards are used to govern an increasing share of global food trade, and have been interpreted by academics both as market access barriers and opportunities for low-income country producers, exporters and workers. Donors have mostly chosen to treat them as opportunities and today finance...... of a research programme on standards conformity in East Africa. These demonstrate that most interventions underestimate the nature of the challenges faced and that significant impacts are achieved only under rather restricted conditions. The solutions lay not only in more selective support to standard...... development and better-informed interventions, but also to focus more squarely on supply capacity and welfare outcomes in project planning....

  5. The global event system

    Winans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different

  6. Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is the system used by the Global Forecast System (GFS) model to place observations into a gridded model space for the...

  7. Global Peace through the Global University System

    Cengiz Hakan AYDIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utopia is defined in Encarta Dictionary as “an ideal and perfect place or state, where everyone lives in harmony and everything is for the best.” Developments all around the world especially in the last decade have supported the idea that global peace is nothing but just a utopian dream. However, for centuries a group of believers have always been in search of global peace via different means. This book, titled as “Global Peace through the Global University System”, can be considered as one of the artifacts of this search.Actually this book is a collection of papers presented in working conference on the Global University System (GUS hosted by the University of Tampere, Finland in 1999. The main goal of the conference was bringing international experts to share their philosophy, past and present experiences about the GUS. The conference was held by the University of Tampere because UNESCO has an agreement with the University to establish the UNESCOChair in Global e-Learning.

  8. The Global File System

    Soltis, Steven R.; Ruwart, Thomas M.; OKeefe, Matthew T.

    1996-01-01

    The global file system (GFS) is a prototype design for a distributed file system in which cluster nodes physically share storage devices connected via a network-like fiber channel. Networks and network-attached storage devices have advanced to a level of performance and extensibility so that the previous disadvantages of shared disk architectures are no longer valid. This shared storage architecture attempts to exploit the sophistication of storage device technologies whereas a server architecture diminishes a device's role to that of a simple component. GFS distributes the file system responsibilities across processing nodes, storage across the devices, and file system resources across the entire storage pool. GFS caches data on the storage devices instead of the main memories of the machines. Consistency is established by using a locking mechanism maintained by the storage devices to facilitate atomic read-modify-write operations. The locking mechanism is being prototyped in the Silicon Graphics IRIX operating system and is accessed using standard Unix commands and modules.

  9. Determination of pesticides in sewage sludge from an agro-food industry using QuEChERS extraction followed by analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Ponce-Robles, Laura; Rivas, Gracia; Esteban, Belen; Oller, Isabel; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

    2017-10-01

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of ten pesticides in sewage sludge coming from an agro-food industry. The method was based on the application of Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction for solid sewage sludge and SPE extraction for sludge aqueous phase, followed by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QqLIT-MS). The QuEChERS method was reported 14 years ago and nowadays is mainly applied to the analysis of pesticides in food. More recent applications have been reported in other matrices as sewage sludge, but the complexity of the matrix makes necessary the optimization of the cleanup step to improve the efficiency of the analysis. With this aim, several dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup sorbents were tested, choosing C18 + PSA as a d-SPE sorbent. The proposed method was satisfactorily validated for most compounds investigated, showing recoveries higher than 80% in most cases, with the only exception of prochloraz (71%) at low concentration level. Limits of quantification were lower than 40 ng l -1 in the aqueous phase and below 40 ng g -1 in the solid phase for the majority of the analytes. The method was applied to solid sludge and the sludge aqueous phase coming from an agro-food industry which processes fruits and vegetables. Graphical abstract Application of LC/MS/MS advanced analytical techniques for determination of pesticides contained in sewage sludge.

  10. GLOBAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The most significant transformations that globalization produces occur in production. Since the '60s, a new division of labor has made its presence felt in the world, arising from the "de-industrialization" of the developed and transfer production capacity of resource-intensive industries and pollutants from these countries to the developing world. "Dislocation" industry had the interim foreign direct investment made in the new industrialized countries, the latter becoming, in turn, sources of direct foreign investment, taking its capital in other countries in developing handsets. Currently, FDI destination is no longer a priority in developing countries, yet they are increasingly leaning towards the developed countries, due to the attractiveness offered by their economies.

  11. La industria agroalimentaria leonesa: un replanteamienti estratégico = The agro-food industry in León: a strategic reassessment

    Alfredo Macías Vázquez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available León cuenta con una importante diversidad y riqueza de recursos agroalimentarios a escala local. La industria alimentaria debe constituirse en un eje central de la estrategia de desarrollo provincial. En el marco de las transiciones posindustriales, la industria agroalimentaria está experimentando una renovación sustancial de los factores que explican la evolución de la competitividad y los procesos de desarrollo de dicha industria. Priorizar la industria agroalimentaria desde la perspectiva de la calidad territorial permitiría ensamblar los procesos de desarrollo económico y territorial. Leon has locally an important diversity and richness of agro-food resources. The food industry should become a strategic aim of the provincial development strategy. As part of the post-industrial transition, the food industry is undergoing a substantial renovation of the factors that explain the evolution of competitiveness and development processes of the industry. Prioritize the food industry from the perspective of territorial quality would join the processes of economic and territorial development.

  12. Potential applications of nanotechnology in the agro-food sector Potenciais aplicações de nanotecnologia no setor agro-alimentar

    Mario García

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscience and nanotechnology are new frontiers of this century. Their application to the agriculture and food sectors is relatively recent compared with their use in drug delivery and pharmaceuticals. Smart delivery of nutrients, bioseparation of proteins, rapid sampling of biological and chemical contaminants, and nanoencapsulation of nutraceuticals are some of the emerging topics of nanotechnology for food and agriculture. In this review, some applications of nanotechnology in agro-food sector are discussed.Nanociências e nanotecnologia são fronteiras novas deste século. Suas aplicações à agricultura e ao setor alimentar são relativamente recentes quando comparadas com a sua utilização em entrega de fármacos. Entrega inteligente de nutrientes, biosseparação de proteínas, amostragem rápida de contaminantes químicos e biológicos e nanoencapsulamento de nutracêuticos são alguns dos tópicos emergentes relativamente à aplicação de nanotecnologia em agricultura e alimentação. Nesta revisão, abordam-se possíveis aplicações de nanotecnologia no sector agroalimentar.

  13. Global supply chain: The consolidators’ role

    Rosa Caiazza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenges and opportunities of the global market lead agro-food small and medium firms (SMEs to focus their source of value on production of high quality goods and implementation of flexible and robust supply chains. Despite the relevance of consolidators in the supply chain, few articles demonstrate their role in internationalization strategies of SMEs. In order to fill this literature gap, this article shows factors that affect global success of SMEs and offers some advice to decision makers.

  14. Upgrading of smallholder agro-food production in Africa: the role of lead firm strategies and new markets

    Fold, Niels; Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted

    2011-01-01

    of the co-existing collaboration and intensified rivalry between lead firms within the same chain. The other is caused by new opportunities and challenges stemming from increased requirements on retailer-driven markets in the North and expansion of new markets in the South. The paper points out the need...... to rectify the heavily biased policy focus on standard compliance with the purpose of strengthening smallholder incorporation and upgrading in retailer-driven strands of global value chains ending in the North. Instead, markets in the South and in emerging economies may function as a training ground...

  15. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  16. Ferrous ions reused as catalysts in Fenton-like reactions for remediation of agro-food industrial wastewater.

    Leifeld, Vanessa; Dos Santos, Tâmisa Pires Machado; Zelinski, Danielle Wisniewski; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana

    2018-09-15

    Cassava is the most important tuberous root in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being the third largest source of carbohydrates. The root processing is related to the production of starch, an important industrial input, which releases a highly toxic liquid wastewater due to its complex composition, which inhibits high performances of conventional effluent treatments. This study aims to evaluate Fenton-like and photo-Fenton-like reactions for treatment of cassava wastewater, reusing ferrous ions from the preliminary coagulation stage. Pre-treated cassava wastewater was submitted to oxidation in three variations of hydrogen peroxide concentrations, with more relevant analytical responses verified in color, turbidity, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), and acute toxicity in Artemia salina, besides the action of radicals during Fenton-like reactions. At higher peroxide concentrations, a decrease of 68% in turbidity and 70% in COD on the photo-Fenton-like system was observed, even at slow reaction rates (fastest rate constant k = 2 × 10 -4 min -1 ). Inclusion of UV increases the viability of the Fenton-like reactions by supplementing the reaction medium with hydroxyl radicals, verified by the tert-butanol tests. The oxidation process leads to high EC 50 values in 24 h of incubation in Fenton-like reactions and 48 h in photo-Fenton-like reactions. Final COD and turbidity suggests that the reuse of iron, which remains in the preliminary treatment step shows a great potential as a catalyst for Fenton-like advanced oxidation processes. Tertiary treatment can be less expensive and harmful to the environment, reducing production of residual sludge and metal content in the final effluent, which reduces polluting potential of the effluent regarding solid waste. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Global Banking System Regulatory Environment

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities relates directly to all the entities and only stable banking system can withstand the crisis phenomena. Therefore, as a result of the analysis, it is proved that not only reduction of risks of banks is needed, but also introduction of the effective supervision system over implementation of the requirements and standards to prevent these risks. According to modern international approaches, banks use the so-called prudential supervision, which is based on the risk management assessment policy on the part of the Bank’s management, and regulatory bodies contribute to implementation of such policy. The authors have concluded that not only modern specificity of banks, but also the impact of supervision systems and regulation of modern trends in development of the banking should be analysed. Application of the general regulatory principles and banking risks methodology is required. The task of supervision is distribution of reliable risk management practices in the banking system, taking into account national peculiarities of development.

  18. LOCALIZATION OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN GLOBAL CITIES

    I. A. Vershinina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the S. Sassen’s research and writing focuses on globalization (including social, economic and political dimensions, global cities, migration, the new networked technologies, and changes within the liberal state that result from current transnational conditions. The main features of the global cities are examined on examples. The global economy is far from being placeless, has and needs very specific territorial insertions, and that this need is sharpest in the case of highly globalized and electronic sectors such as finance. Large corporate firms needed access to a whole new mix of complex specialized services almost impossible to produce in-house as had been the practice. This new economic logic would generate high-level jobs and lowwage jobs; it would need far fewer middle-range jobs than traditional corporations. The transformation of the socio-economic systems at the global and national levels, the associated changes of urban communities life is considered.

  19. Global entanglement in multiparticle systems

    Meyer, David A.; Wallach, Nolan R.

    2002-01-01

    We define a polynomial measure of multiparticle entanglement which is scalable, i.e., which applies to any number of spin-(1/2) particles. By evaluating it for three particle states, for eigenstates of the one dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet and on quantum error correcting code subspaces, we illustrate the extent to which it quantifies global entanglement. We also apply it to track the evolution of entanglement during a quantum computation

  20. GLOBALIZATION: A WORLD-SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE

    Christopher Chase-Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the world-systems perspective, this essay discusses the trajectories of several types of globalization over the last 100 years and the recent surge in public cognizance of global processes. It is found that different types of global-ization have different temporal characteristics. Some are long-term upward trends, while others display large cyclical oscillations. The factors that explain the recent emergence of the globalization discourse are examined, and this phenomenon is analyzed in terms of the contradictory interests of powerful and less-powerful groups. I contend that there is a lag between economic and political/cultural globalization, and that the latter needs to catch up if we are to convert the contemporary world-system of "casino capitalism" in to a more humane, democratic, balanced and sustainable world society.

  1. Greening the global water system

    Hoff, H.; Falkenmark, M.; Gerten, D.; Gordon, L.; Karlberg, L.; Rockström, J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryRecent developments of global models and data sets enable a new, spatially explicit and process-based assessment of green and blue water in food production and trade. An initial intercomparison of a range of different (hydrological, vegetation, crop, water resources and economic) models, confirms that green water use in global crop production is about 4-5 times greater than consumptive blue water use. Hence, the full green-to-blue spectrum of agricultural water management options needs to be used when tackling the increasing water gap in food production. The different models calculate considerable potentials for complementing the conventional approach of adding irrigation, with measures to increase water productivity, such as rainwater harvesting, supplementary irrigation, vapour shift and soil and nutrient management. Several models highlight Africa, in particular sub-Saharan Africa, as a key region for improving water productivity in agriculture, by implementing these measures. Virtual water trade, mostly based on green water, helps to close the water gap in a number of countries. It is likely to become even more important in the future, when inequities in water availability are projected to grow, due to climate, population and other drivers of change. Further model developments and a rigorous green-blue water model intercomparison are proposed, to improve simulations at global and regional scale and to enable tradeoff analyses for the different adaptation options.

  2. Concepts for a global resources information system

    Billingsley, F. C.; Urena, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Global Resources Information System (GRIS) is to establish an effective and efficient information management system to meet the data access requirements of NASA and NASA-related scientists conducting large-scale, multi-disciplinary, multi-mission scientific investigations. Using standard interfaces and operating guidelines, diverse data systems can be integrated to provide the capabilities to access and process multiple geographically dispersed data sets and to develop the necessary procedures and algorithms to derive global resource information.

  3. The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System

    Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

  4. A global flash flood forecasting system

    Baugh, Calum; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Hewson, Tim; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    The sudden and devastating nature of flash flood events means it is imperative to provide early warnings such as those derived from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts. Currently such systems exist on basin, national and continental scales in Europe, North America and Australia but rely on high resolution NWP forecasts or rainfall-radar nowcasting, neither of which have global coverage. To produce global flash flood forecasts this work investigates the possibility of using forecasts from a global NWP system. In particular we: (i) discuss how global NWP can be used for flash flood forecasting and discuss strengths and weaknesses; (ii) demonstrate how a robust evaluation can be performed given the rarity of the event; (iii) highlight the challenges and opportunities in communicating flash flood uncertainty to decision makers; and (iv) explore future developments which would significantly improve global flash flood forecasting. The proposed forecast system uses ensemble surface runoff forecasts from the ECMWF H-TESSEL land surface scheme. A flash flood index is generated using the ERIC (Enhanced Runoff Index based on Climatology) methodology [Raynaud et al., 2014]. This global methodology is applied to a series of flash floods across southern Europe. Results from the system are compared against warnings produced using the higher resolution COSMO-LEPS limited area model. The global system is evaluated by comparing forecasted warning locations against a flash flood database of media reports created in partnership with floodlist.com. To deal with the lack of objectivity in media reports we carefully assess the suitability of different skill scores and apply spatial uncertainty thresholds to the observations. To communicate the uncertainties of the flash flood system output we experiment with a dynamic region-growing algorithm. This automatically clusters regions of similar return period exceedence probabilities, thus presenting the at-risk areas at a spatial

  5. Global Forecast System (GFS) [1 Deg.

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Forecast System (GFS) is a weather forecast model produced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Dozens of atmospheric and...

  6. Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) [1 Deg.

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) is a weather forecast model made up of 21 separate forecasts, or ensemble members. The National Centers for Environmental...

  7. The ILC global control system

    Carwardine, J.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Saunders, C.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.; Banerjee, B.; Chase, B.; Gottschalk, E.; Joireman, P.; Kasley, P.; Lackey, S.; McBride, P.; Pavlicek, V.; Patrick, J.; Votava, M.; Wolbers, S.; Furukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Larsen, R.S.; Downing, R.

    2008-01-01

    The scale and performance parameters of the ILC require new thinking in regards to control system design. This design work has begun quite early in comparison to most accelerator projects, with the goal of uniquely high overall accelerator availability. Among the design challenges are high control system availability, precision timing and rf phase reference distribution, standardizing of interfaces, operability, and maintainability. We present the current state of the design and take a prospective look at ongoing research and development projects.

  8. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System

    2015-09-30

    through an improvement to the sea ice albedo . Fig. 3: 2-m Temperature bias (deg C) of 120-h forecasts for the month of May 2014 for the Arctic...forecast system (NAVGEM) and ocean- sea ice forecast system (HYCOM/CICE) have never been coupled at high resolution. The coupled processes will be...winds and currents across the interface. The sea - ice component of this project requires modification of CICE versions 4 and 5 to run in the coupled

  9. Globalization and localization of Management Control Systems

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Through an empirical case study this article examines the operation of multiple management control systems as a package in a Danish manufacturing company. The analysis focuses on four different management control systems; cybernetic controls, planning controls, reward controls, and administrative...... have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls are glocal systems and reward & compensation controls assume local characteristics. The finding leads...... controls, through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. The analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, whereby some are universal throughout the organization and others...

  10. Indigenous Social Capital in Traditional Agro-Food Marketing Systems: The Role of Trust in Governance Structure Selection in the Philippine Highlands

    Milagrosa, Aimee; Slangen, Louis H.G.

    2006-01-01

    The decision-making of indigenous Ibaloi and Kankanaey growers in seven highland communities of Benguet, Cordillera region Philippines was captured in three models. The models explain factors affecting their selection of primary transacting partners. The farmers three main primary marketing links are commissioners, wholesalers and contractors. Commissioner-led governance structures are market-based and the relationship is motivated by profit. Wholesaler-led governance structures are partly-ma...

  11. The Emerging Geopolitics of Food: A Strategic Response to Supply Risks of Critical Imports for the Dutch Agro-Food Sector

    Ridder, de M.; Jong, de S.; Selleslaghs, J.; Achterbosch, T.J.; Jongeneel, R.A.; Berkhout, P.; Heide, van der M.

    2013-01-01

    Interdependencies in the field of food, agriculture, and raw materials are growing. Global population growth, rising prosperity, and changing consumption patterns in emerging economies have increased the demand for all three. Geopolitical trends shape global markets for food, agriculture, and raw

  12. Study of by-products of agro-food industries which could be used for bio-fuel production (animal fat, used food oils, and wine production by-products). Synthesis of the final report

    Gomy, Catherine; Thonier, Gregoire; Gagnepain, Bruno; Mhiri, Tarek

    2015-04-01

    As the Renewable Energy directive proposes the implementation of incentive arrangements for the production of bio-fuels from biomass, this report proposes a synthesis of a study which addressed three by-products of agro-food industry and of catering (collective, traditional, fast) which can help to reach objectives of energy production from biomass: used food oils, rendered animal fat of category 1 and 2, and vinification by-products (grape marc, lees, sludge). The objectives were to quantify, at the French national and regional levels, present resources and uses for these three by-products, non-valorised volumes and thus potentially available volumes for the production of liquid bio-fuels, to identify present actors and their interactions, and to study the potential of local production of liquid bio-fuels. The study comprised a comprehensive analysis of production and valorisation sectors for the three addressed types of by-products, and an identification of recent experiments implemented for the production of liquid bio-fuels. This synthesis states the lessons learned from the study of these three different sectors, and proposes recommendations for further developments

  13. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.

    environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global...... warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction....

  14. PHYSICS UPDATE: The global positioning system

    Walton, Alan J.; Black, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A hand-held global positioning system receiver displays the operator's latitude, longitude and velocity. Knowledge of GCSE-level physics will allow the basic principles of the system to be understood; knowledge of A-level physics will allow many important aspects of their implementation to be comprehended. A discussion of the system provides many simple numerical calculations relevant to school and first-year undergraduate syllabuses.

  15. The Global Positioning System: Theory and operation

    Tucker, Lester Plunkett

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study is to document the theory, development, and training needs of the United States Global Positioning System for the United States Air Force. This subject area had very little information and to assess the United States Air Force training needs required an investigation into existing training accomplished on the Global Positioning System. The United States Air Force has only one place to obtain the data at Headquarters Air Education and Training Command. Findings and conclusion. The United States Air Force, at the time of this study, does not have a theory and operations course dealing with the newest technology advancement in world navigation. Although this new technology is being provided on aircraft in the form of new navigation hardware, no official course of study is provided by the United States Air Force to it's pilots and navigators dealing with theory and operation. Based on the latest reports dealing with the Global Positioning System, a course on the Global Positioning System was developed in the Instructional Systems Design format to provide background information and understanding of this new technology. Readers of this study must be aware that the information contained in this study is very dynamic. Technology is advancing so fast in this area that it might make this information obsolete in a short amount of time.

  16. Changing Foundations for Global Business Systems Solutions

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Gubi, Ebbe

    2011-01-01

    Companies are actively seeking new competitive advantages by changing the location and ownership of their manufacturing processes. This process results in increasing fragmentation and dispersion of global business systems of companies. The purpose of this paper is to identify how companies may...... improve the integration of such business systems. The paper draws on a case study of a Danish industrial equipment firm. The paper describes and analyzes the company’s operations network configurations, which lay at the foundations of the company’s global business system. It is demonstrated how...... the operations configurations have been changing over time and affecting the overall business system. The paper identifies the key determinants and outcomes of this change. Moreover, it proposes how the design of operations configurations can be improved through the development of a distinct systemic approach...

  17. Coherent regimes of globally coupled dynamical systems

    de Monte, Silvia; D'ovidio, Francesco; Mosekilde, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This Letter presents a method by which the mean field dynamics of a population of dynamical systems with parameter diversity and global coupling can be described in terms of a few macroscopic degrees of freedom. The method applies to populations of any size and functional form in the region...

  18. The Mathematics of the Global Positioning System.

    Nord, Gail D.; Jabon, David; Nord, John

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that illustrates the application of mathematics to modern navigation and utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that enables receivers to compute their position anywhere on the earth with great accuracy. (DDR)

  19. Global Plate Velocities from the Global Positioning System

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Philipsen, Steven

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed 204 days of Global Positioning System (GPS) data from the global GPS network spanning January 1991 through March 1996. On the basis of these GPS coordinate solutions, we have estimated velocities for 38 sites, mostly located on the interiors of the Africa, Antarctica, Australia, Eurasia, Nazca, North America, Pacific, and South America plates. The uncertainties of the horizontal velocity components range from 1.2 to 5.0 mm/yr. With the exception of sites on the Pacific and Nazca plates, the GPS velocities agree with absolute plate model predictions within 95% confidence. For most of the sites in North America, Antarctica, and Eurasia, the agreement is better than 2 mm/yr. We find no persuasive evidence for significant vertical motions (less than 3 standard deviations), except at four sites. Three of these four were sites constrained to geodetic reference frame velocities. The GPS velocities were then used to estimate angular velocities for eight tectonic plates. Absolute angular velocities derived from the GPS data agree with the no net rotation (NNR) NUVEL-1A model within 95% confidence except for the Pacific plate. Our pole of rotation for the Pacific plate lies 11.5 deg west of the NNR NUVEL-1A pole, with an angular speed 10% faster. Our relative angular velocities agree with NUVEL-1A except for some involving the Pacific plate. While our Pacific-North America angular velocity differs significantly from NUVEL-1A, our model and NUVEL-1A predict very small differences in relative motion along the Pacific-North America plate boundary itself. Our Pacific-Australia and Pacific- Eurasia angular velocities are significantly faster than NUVEL-1A, predicting more rapid convergence at these two plate boundaries. Along the East Pacific Pise, our Pacific-Nazca angular velocity agrees in both rate and azimuth with NUVFL-1A.

  20. Global quantum discord in multipartite systems

    Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    We propose a global measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the global quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase transition in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.

  1. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  2. The Creation of Differential Correction Systems and the Systems of Global Navigation Satellite System Monitoring

    Polishchuk, G. M; Kozlov, V. I; Urlichich, Y. M; Dvorkin, V. V; Gvozdev, V. V

    2002-01-01

    ... for the Russian Federation and a system of global navigation satellite system monitoring. These projects are some of the basic ones in the Federal program "Global Navigation System," aimed at maintenance and development of the GLONASS system...

  3. RHIC 10 Hz global orbit feedback system

    Michnoff, R.; Arnold, L.; Carboni, L.; Cerniglia, P.; Curcio, A.; DeSanto, L.; Folz, C.; Ho, C.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.; Karl, R.; Luo, Y.; Liu, C.; MacKay, W.; Mahler, G.; Meng, W.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Olsen, R.; Piacentino, J.; Popken, P.; Przybylinski, R.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ritter, J.; Schoenfeld, R.; Thieberger, P.; Tuozzolo, J.; Weston, A.; White, J.; Ziminski, P.; Zimmerman, P.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrations of the cryogenic triplet magnets at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are suspected to be causing the horizontal beam perturbations observed at frequencies around 10 Hz. Several solutions to counteract the effect have been considered in the past, including a local beam feedback system at each of the two experimental areas, reinforcing the magnet base support assembly, and a mechanical servo feedback system. However, the local feedback system was insufficient because perturbation amplitudes outside the experimental areas were still problematic, and the mechanical solutions are very expensive. A global 10 Hz orbit feedback system consisting of 36 beam position monitors (BPMs) and 12 small dedicated dipole corrector magnets in each of the two 3.8 km circumference counter-rotating rings has been developed and commissioned in February 2011. A description of the system architecture and results with beam will be discussed.

  4. Global aspects of classical integrable systems

    Cushman, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a uniquely complete description of the geometry of the energy momentum mapping of five classical integrable systems: the 2-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the geodesic flow on the 3-sphere, the Euler top, the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. It presents for the first time in book form a general theory of symmetry reduction which allows one to reduce the symmetries in the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. Also the monodromy obstruction to the existence of global action angle coordinates is calculated for the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. The book addresses professional mathematicians and graduate students and can be used as a textbook on advanced classical mechanics or global analysis.

  5. The Impact of Globalization on the Formation of a Global Political System

    Ilyin, Ilya V.; Rozanov, Alexander Sergeevich

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of globalization on the formation of a global political system. Design/methodology/approach: Taking into account the fact of global political evolution, the authors of the paper point out that the global political structures tend to change. Findings: During the past millennium the global…

  6. Tracabilité dans la filière animale. Analytical methods for the authentification of agro-food products. Gembloux (Belgium. 20 Oct 1999.

    Haezebroeck V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat channel traceability. The development of new emerging molecular genetic methods allows to determine characteristic patterns of any individual and opens the way to the identification and traceability of individuals and their products by the ""DNA fingerprinting"" procedure. Microsatellite DNA sequences analysis gives very effective information for the individual discrimination and paternity testing. This information can be obtained with traces of biological sample. DNA fingerprinting with microsatellite analysis is now a reliable, practical and cheap method for identification, certification and authentication of transformed and untransformed meat products. The first step in the molecular traceability in the bovine sector requires a hair data bank where the samples can be conserved for many years. This is obtained with the ""pilotheque project"" in relation with the SANITEL control system and seems to be the best way to complete the identification of bovine animals at the production stage. With the new labelling system of bovine meat, DNA fingerprinting associated to SANITEL system will become an objective control criterion at the marketing stage

  7. Toward a System of Global Accountability

    Cameron, J.

    2016-01-01

    Post-Fukushima, the public expects and demands that nuclear regulators and operators worldwide have used lessons learned to identify and implement important actions and measures to prevent a similar event from happening again. Considerable work has been done at the national and international levels to achieve this. However, verifying the adequacy and appropriateness of measures taken in each country requires an enhanced level of global accountability that does not presently exist. The current global nuclear regulatory safety framework is based on the principle of national sovereignty and the result is that the world lacks a forum for publicizing safety concerns, beyond the national regulator, to the highest levels of government within member states. This runs the risk of significant deficiencies or non-compliance with internationally approved practices continuing unchecked even though some parties are aware of them. This also applies to flagging cases of insufficiently independent regulators or identifying inadequately prepared regulators in new nuclear countries. There are many vehicles for enhancing this transparency, e.g., WANO/INPO, regional regulatory fora, and international organizations including the OECD/NEA and IAEA. The world has never been more interconnected and it is time that the nuclear sector leverages this reality and adopts a system of global accountability for nuclear safety. (author)

  8. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  9. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  10. Tevatron global radius and 0s system

    Bristol, S.; Kerns, C.; Kerns, Q.; Miller, H.W.

    1985-06-01

    It has been found to be practical to extract a turn-average measurement of bunch beam phase relative to cavity gap voltage. This 0s signal shows the bunch position on the rf wave throughout injection, acceleration and extraction, including coherent synchrotron oscillations when present. In turn, the time derivative of 0s is a direct measure of global radial position error. We use the 0s signal, driving a phase shifter in the rf low-level system, to damp coherent synchrotron oscillations. Design and operation will be discussed including single beam bunch operation if available. 8 refs., 5 figs

  11. Global Change and the Earth System

    Pollack, Henry N.

    2004-08-01

    The Earth system in recent years has come to mean the complex interactions of the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere, through an intricate network of feedback loops. This system has operated over geologic time, driven principally by processes with long time scales. Over the lifetime of the solar system, the Sun has slowly become more radiant, and the geography of continents and oceans basins has evolved via plate tectonics. This geography has placed a first-order constraint on the circulation of ocean waters, and thus has strongly influenced regional and global climate. At shorter time scales, the Earth system has been influenced by Milankovitch orbital factors and occasional exogenous events such as bolide impacts. Under these influences the system chugged along for eons, until some few hundred thousand years ago, when one remarkable species evolved: Homo sapiens. As individuals, humans are of course insignificant in shaping the Earth system, but collectively the six billion human occupants of the planet now rival ``natural'' processes in modifying the Earth system. This profound human influence underlies the dubbing of the present epoch of geologic history as the ``Anthropocene.''

  12. Developing a Molecular Identification Assay of Old Landraces for the Genetic Authentication of Typical Agro-Food Products: The Case Study of the Barley ‘Agordino’

    Gianni Barcaccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The orzo Agordino is a very old local variety of domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. distichum L. that is native to the Agordo District, Province of Belluno, and is widespread in the Veneto Region, Italy. Seeds of this landrace are widely used for the preparation of very famous dishes of the dolomitic culinary tradition such as barley soup, bakery products and local beer. Understanding the genetic diversity and identity of the Agordino barley landrace is a key step to establish conservation and valorisation strategies of this local variety and also to provide molecular traceability tools useful to ascertain the authenticity of its derivatives. The gene pool of the Agordino barley landrace was reconstructed using 60 phenotypically representative individual plants and its genotypic relationships with commercial varieties were investigated using 21 pure lines widely cultivated in the Veneto Region. For genomic DNA analysis, following an initial screening of 14 mapped microsatellite (SSR loci, seven discriminant markers were selected on the basis of their genomic position across linkage groups and polymorphic marker alleles per locus. The genetic identity of the local barley landrace was determined by analysing all SSR markers in a single multi-locus PCR assay. Extent of genotypic variation within the Agordino barley landrace and the genotypic differentiation between the landrace individuals and the commercial varieties was determined. Then, as few as four highly informative SSR loci were selected and used to develop a molecular traceability system exploitable to verify the genetic authenticity of food products deriving from the Agordino landrace. This genetic authentication assay was validated using both DNA pools from individual Agordino barley plants and DNA samples from Agordino barley food products. On the whole, our data support the usefulness and robustness of this DNA-based diagnostic tool for the orzo Agordino identification, which

  13. Development of new strategies based on solar photocatalysis for water regeneration in an agro-food industry; Desarrollo de nuevas estrategias basadas en fotocatalisis solar para la regeneracion de aguas de una industria agro-alimentaria

    Jimenez Tototzintie, M.

    2015-07-01

    Continuous discharge of effluents coming from the agro-food industry could significantly increase contamination of water resources (both surface water and groundwater). This is mainly due to the presence of many xenobiotic compounds used for increased productivity or for pre- and post- harvest preservation of the fruits and vegetables used in the industry. In 2013, the European Unión Council Directive 2013/39/UE proposed identifying the main causes of water pollution in order to treat contaminant discharge at the source in a sustainable way and without harming the environment. In this context, conventional biological process do not always provide satisfactory results, especially for industrial wastewater treatment, since many of the organic substances are toxic or resistant to biological treatment. Today, biological processes combined with photoassisted advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have shown a great potential for treating different kinds of industrial wastewaters. The AOPs have been widely proposed as a highly efficient alternative for tertiary treatments in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants due to their versatility and ability to remove recalcitrant pollutants. AOPs are characterized by the production of hydroxyl radicals (OH) able to oxidize and mineralize almost any organic molecule, yielding CO2 and inorganic ions. The attention of researchers has been focused on AOPs that can be driven by solar radiation to avoid the high operating costs of UV lamps. Heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 has been suggested for the elimination of several types of contaminants in water due to its beneficial characteristics, including physical and chemical stability, low cost and toxicity, and excellent optical properties. However, as TiO2 is used as slurry in water, it must be removed before water disposal. Recuperating the photocatalyst is a complex process and as a result of this, research in different immobilization techniques in various types of

  14. PHYSICAL METHODS IN AGRO-FOOD CHAIN

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical additives (fertilizers and plant protection preparations are largely used for improving the production yield of food produce. Their application often causes the contamination of raw materials for food production, which can be dangerous for the health of consumers. Alternative methods are developed and implemented to improve and ensure the safety of on-farm production. The substitution of chemical fertilizers and soil additives with alternative treatment methods, such as irradiation, ultrasound and the use of electromagnetic energy are discussed. Successful application of physical methods in different stages of food-preparation is recommended.

  15. Climate smartness in agro-food standards

    Ingram, V.J.; Bezlepkina, I.; Verburg, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    This report contributes to the BO-10-020-003 project 'Aligning good agricultural practices and climate smart agriculture' commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and led by Plant Research International. The aim of this memorandum is to provide insight into the question who determines

  16. Workshop Proceedings: Utilizing global information systems

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This one day workshop was attended by 50 delegates representing 20 countries. Fourteen papers dealing with cleaner production/cleaner technology global information systems were presented. The objective of the workshop was to increase cooperation and interaction on international clean production/clean technology information transfer activities and to identify ways to ensure continued cooperation and system improvements. Topics discussed included information format to meet user needs; coordination of effort to avoid duplication and to encourage consistency in information delivery; and marketing, to expand the dissemination of information on cleaner production/cleaner technology. In terms of information format, content, systems and reliability were identified as target issues. The group discussing coordination of effort suggested that a wholesale/retail approach to information dissemination be adopted. The group also called for regular meetings to supplement communication via the Internet. The marketing group suggested that there is a need to show the benefits of technologies and to establish links to industrial associations as being critical to success.

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL TERTIARY EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS

    Ciumas Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Higher education system occupies a special place in the policy of each nation. Regardless of geographical location, socio-economic or cultural differences, the need to improve the education offered for population by facilitating access to higher education becomes more and more important. Providing a suitable framework for the personal development of each student is expensive and involves high amounts of money. From the analyses carried out we couldn\\'t identify the substantial differences between the way it is structured and organized education system worldwide. However, we were able to identify a number of common elements that create a global University System. The need to invest in human resources through structural reforms in each country is present, and therefore a higher indention to pay greater attention to the development of the higher education system. In our work we decided to analyze education systems in countries like United States of America (USA, United Kingdom (GB, China (CHN, Germany (DE, France (FR, Russian Federation (RU, Japan (JPN average values recorded for EU-27 and last but not least Romania (RO. Although the investment in the University system is hard to quantify, it is unanimously acknowledged that a country can achieve a competitive advantage in international relations through a very well prepared and trained personnel. The countries reviewed in this paper have different policies when it comes to financial support of the University System. If Germany and France have decided to get involved directly in supporting the system by allocating the necessary funds from the State budget, another European country, the United Kingdom, decided to apply a policy diametrically opposite, similar to that existing in the USA and cover in a lesser degree the needs of universities in Government funds. Regardless of the policy adopted the results are intended to be the same: facilitating access to university education, a high quality of

  18. Global properties of systems quantized via bundles

    Doebner, H.D.; Werth, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Take a smooth manifold M and a Lie algebra action (g-ation) theta on M as the geometrical arena of a physical system moving on M with momenta given by theta. It is proposed to quantize the system with a Mackey-like method via the associated vector bundle xisub(rho) of a principal bundle xi=(P,π,M,H) with model dependent structure group H and with g-action phi on P lifted from theta on M. This (quantization) bundle xisub(rho) gives the Hilbert space equal to L 2 (xisub(rho),ω) of the system as the linear space of sections in xisub(rho) being square integrable with respect to a volume form ω on M; the usual position operators are obtained; phi leads to a vector field representation D(phisub(rho),theta) of g in an hence Hilbert space to momentum operators. So Hilbert space carries the quantum kinematics. In this quantuzation the physically important connection between geometrical properties of the system, e.g. quasi-completeness of theta and G-maximality of phisub(rho), and global properties of its quantized kinematics, e.g. skew-adjointness of the momenta and integrability of D(phisub(rho), theta) can easily be studied. The relation to Nelson's construction of a skew-adjoint non-integrable Lie algebra representation and to Palais' local G-action is discussed. Finally the results are applied to actions induced by coverings as examples of non-maximal phisub(rho) on Esub(rho) lifted from maximal theta on M which lead to direct consequences for the corresponding quantum kinematics

  19. The Global Systems Science High School Curriculum

    Gould, A. D.; Sneider, C.; Farmer, E.; Erickson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Global Systems Science (GSS), a high school integrated interdisciplinary science project based at Lawrence Hall of Science at UC Berkeley, began in the early 1990s as a single book "Planet at Risk" which was only about climate change. Federal grants enabled the project to enlist about 150 teachers to field test materials in their classes and then meeting in summer institutes to share results and effect changes. The result was a series of smaller modules dealing not only with climate change, but other related topics including energy flow, energy use, ozone, loss of biodiversity, and ecosystem change. Other relevant societal issues have also been incorporated including economics, psychology and sociology. The course has many investigations/activities for student to pursue, interviews with scientists working in specific areas of research, and historical contexts. The interconnectedness of a myriad of small and large systems became an overarching theme of the resulting course materials which are now available to teachers for free online at http://www.globalsystemsscience.org/

  20. Global positioning system theory and practice

    Hofmann-Wellenhof, Bernhard; Collins, James

    2001-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Dr. Benjamin William Remondi for many reasons. The project of writing a Global Positioning System (GPS) book was con­ ceived in April 1988 at a GPS meeting in Darmstadt, Germany. Dr. Remondi discussed with me the need for an additional GPS textbook and suggested a possible joint effort. In 1989, I was willing to commit myself to such a project. Unfortunately, the timing was less than ideal for Dr. Remondi. Therefore, I decided to start the project with other coauthors. Dr. Remondi agreed and indicated his willingness to be a reviewer. I selected Dr. Herbert Lichtenegger, my colleague from the Technical University Graz, Austria, and Dr. James Collins from Rockville, Maryland, U.S.A. In my opinion, the knowledge ofthe three authors should cover the wide spectrum of GPS. Dr. Lichtenegger is a geodesist with broad experience in both theory and practice. He has specialized his research to geodetic astron­ omy including orbital theory and geodynamical phenomena. Since 1986, Dr. Lichteneg...

  1. GNSS global navigation satellite systems : GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and more

    Hofmann-Wellenhof, Bernhard; Wasle, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    This book is an extension to the acclaimed scientific bestseller "GPS - Theory and Practice". It covers Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and includes the Russian GLONASS, the European system Galileo, and additional systems.

  2. Connect Global Positioning System RF Module

    Franklin, Garth W.; Young, Lawrence E.; Ciminera, Michael A.; Tien, Jeffrey Y.; Gorelik, Jacob; Okihiro, Brian Bachman; Koelewyn, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    The CoNNeCT Global Positioning System RF Module (GPSM) slice is part of the JPL CoNNeCT Software Defined Radio (SDR). CoNNeCT is the Communications, Navigation, and Net working reconfigurable Testbed project that is part of NASA's Space Communication and Nav igation (SCaN) Program. The CoNNeCT project is an experimental dem onstration that will lead to the advancement of SDRs and provide a path for new space communication and navigation systems for future NASA exploration missions. The JPL CoNNeCT SDR will be flying on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2012 in support of the SCaN CoNNeCT program. The GPSM is a radio-frequency sampler module (see Figure 1) that directly sub-harmonically samples the filtered GPS L-band signals at L1 (1575.42 MHz), L2 (1227.6 MHz), and L5 (1176.45 MHz). The JPL SDR receives GPS signals through a Dorne & Margolin antenna mounted onto a choke ring. The GPS signal is filtered against interference, amplified, split, and fed into three channels: L1, L2, and L5. In each of the L-band channels, there is a chain of bandpass filters and amplifiers, and the signal is fed through each of these channels to where the GPSM performs a one-bit analog-to-digital conversion (see Figure 2). The GPSM uses a sub-harmonic, single-bit L1, L2, and L5 sampler that samples at a clock rate of 38.656 MHz. The new capability is the down-conversion and sampling of the L5 signal when previous hardware did not provide this capability. The first GPS IIF Satellite was launched in 2010, providing the new L5 signal. With the JPL SDR flying on the ISS, it will be possible to demonstrate navigation solutions with 10-meter 3-D accuracy at 10-second intervals using a field-program mable gate array (FPGA)-based feedback loop running at 50 Hz. The GPS data bits will be decoded and used in the SDR. The GPSM will also allow other waveforms that are installed in the SDR to demonstrate various GNSS tracking techniques.

  3. Global structure of a polynomial autonomous system on the plane

    Nguyen Van Chau.

    1991-10-01

    This note is to study the global behaviour of a polynomial autonomous system on the plane with divergence non-positive outside a bounded set. It is shown that in some certain conditions the global structure of such system can be simple. The main result here can be seen as an improvement of the result of Olech and Meister concerning with the global asymptotical stable conjecture of Markur and Yamable and the Jacobian Conjecture. (author). 13 refs

  4. Studying the Impacts of Globalization on Iranian Education System

    Chahardahcheriki, Mitra Abdolahi; Shahi, Sakine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of globalization of important indicators of education system in Iran including teaching approaches, educational tools and facilities, curriculums and contents, and education management. Findings suggest that the situation of Iranian education system has some distance with the globalized level and…

  5. Continental and global scale flood forecasting systems

    Emerton, Rebecca E.; Stephens, Elisabeth M.; Pappenberger, Florian; Pagano, Thomas P.; Weerts, A.H.; Wood, A.; Salamon, Peter; Brown, James D.; Hjerdt, Niclas; Donnelly, Chantal; Baugh, Calum A.; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent of natural disasters, affecting millions of people across the globe every year. The anticipation and forecasting of floods at the global scale is crucial to preparing for severe events and providing early awareness where local flood models and warning services may not

  6. The Global Drought Information System - A Decision Support Tool with Global Applications

    Arndt, D. S.; Brewer, M.; Heim, R. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is a natural hazard which can cause famine in developing countries and severe economic hardship in developed countries. Given current concerns with the increasing frequency and magnitude of droughts in many regions of the world, especially in the light of expected climate change, drought monitoring and dissemination of early warning information in a timely fashion on a global scale is a critical concern as an important adaptation and mitigation strategy. While a number of nations, and a few continental-scale activities have developed drought information system activities, a global drought early warning system (GDEWS) remains elusive, despite the benefits highlighted by ministers to the Global Earth Observation System of System in 2008. In an effort to begin a process of drought monitoring with international collaboration, the National Integrated Drought Information System's (NIDIS) U.S. Drought Portal, a web-based information system created to address drought services and early warning in the United States, including drought monitoring, forecasting, impacts, mitigation, research, and education, volunteered to develop a prototype Global Drought Monitoring Portal (GDMP). Through integration of data and information at the global level, and with four continental-level partners, the GDMP has proven successful as a tool to monitor drought around the globe. At a past meeting between NIDIS, the World Meteorological Organization, and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems, it was recommended that the GDMP form the basis for a Global Drought Information System (GDIS). Currently, GDIS activities are focused around providing operational global drought monitoring products and assessments, incorporating additional drought monitoring information, especially from those areas without regional or continental-scale input, and incorporating drought-specific climate forecast information from the World Climate Research Programme. Additional GDIS pilot activities are

  7. Establishment of the system of innovative management of global corporations

    Yevhen Panchenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been highlighted the relevant issues of system establishment of the innovative management of global corporations and generalized the experience of the leading world corporations in the achievement and keeping leading positions on the highly technological segments of the global market. It shows the significance of the creative personal qualities of managers in the generation and implementation of effective innovative solutions in the global business, grounds the categorical and functional imperatives of the innovative development of global corporations. In the context of formation of the new knowledge economy there were highlighted contradictions and available instruments of reinforcement of leading positions among the leading global corporations in the innovative sphere. There was paid attention to the implementation of the new concepts of global corporations’ leadership of BRIC countries, in particular, Chinese highly technological companies. There has been made a conclusion about global institutionalization of the innovative activity.

  8. Strengthening the Global Refugee Protection System: Recommendations for the Global Compact on Refugees

    Kevin Appleby

    2017-12-01

    • the adoption of coherent strategies, involving all sectors, to address large movements of refugees. This paper draws heavily, albeit not exclusively, from a series of papers published as a special collection in the Journal on Migration and Human Security[1] on strengthening the global system of refugee protection. [1] Rethinking the Global Refugee Protection System, Journal on Migration and Human Security, Center for Migration Studies, 2016-2017. See http://cmsny.org/cms_research/refugeeproject/.

  9. systemic chemical education reform [scer] in the global era

    IICBA01

    growing the systemic way of thinking of our students that is one of the most important characteristics of Global Era. Here is the systemic education reform which means the change of our educational system from linearity to systemic in which we design the curriculum and write content systemically, which presented by SATL ...

  10. Global fluctuations of cerebral blood flow indicate a global brain network independent of systemic factors.

    Zhao, Li; Alsop, David C; Detre, John A; Dai, Weiying

    2017-01-01

    Global synchronization across specialized brain networks is a common feature of network models and in-vivo electrical measurements. Although the imaging of specialized brain networks with blood oxygenation sensitive resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has enabled detailed study of regional networks, the study of globally correlated fluctuations with rsfMRI is confounded by spurious contributions to the global signal from systemic physiologic factors and other noise sources. Here we use an alternative rsfMRI method, arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI, to characterize global correlations and their relationship to correlations and anti-correlations between regional networks. Global fluctuations that cannot be explained by systemic factors dominate the fluctuations in cerebral blood flow. Power spectra of these fluctuations are band limited to below 0.05 Hz, similar to prior measurements of regional network fluctuations in the brain. Removal of these global fluctuations prior to measurement of regional networks reduces all regional network fluctuation amplitudes to below the global fluctuation amplitude and changes the strength and sign of inter network correlations. Our findings support large amplitude, globally synchronized activity across networks that require a reassessment of regional network amplitude and correlation measures.

  11. GRIN-Global: An International Project to Develop a Global Plant Genebank Information Management System

    The mission of the GRIN-Global Project is to create a new, scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information System (GRIN) to provide the world’s crop genebanks with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use plant genetic resource (PGR) information management system. The system will help safeguard PGR ...

  12. Localised Agri-food Systems in Italy: strategies for competitiveness and role of institutional factors

    Mantino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of localised agricultural and agro-food system as unit of analysis (LAFS). LAFSs appear to be as quite resilient and dynamic systems. As we will see, the analysis of exports in the last years can provide enough evidence of their strong resilience and capability to respond to economic crisis. This dynamics does not seem understandable by only using either classical variables (size of farm holdings, intensity of capital investment, human capital, rate of technol...

  13. Global drivers for transformation of energy systems

    Christensen, John M.; Radka, M.

    2006-01-01

    With climate change gradually emerging as a major global environmental concern, illustrated by the establishment of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and later the negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol (KP)the role of the energy sector as the main emitter of greenhouse gases has brought a new political rationale for the development of more climate-friendly energy supply and increased efficiency. The last couple of years have seen the increasing importance in the global energy market of rapidly-expanding national economies, notably China and India. Together with other geopolitical developments such as political changes in some of the major oil producing regions, this has produced strong political concerns about future security of supply. This has been compounded by simultaneous dramatic increases in oil and gas prices. The role of energy supply as a key facilitator for economic development in the poorer regions of the world has been increasingly recognised over the last decade. Developing countries are devoting more attention to securing their future energy supplies for a variety of uses: industry, and urban uses and for the poorer communities in both rural and peri-urban areas communities. Global energy policy is therefore dominated by three overriding concerns making them drivers for future energy development activities: 1) security of supply; 2) climate change; 3) energy for development and poverty alleviation. The three areas are in several ways interlinked, and every energy policy or programme should ideally promote them allor at least not have negative effects in any area. In practice, however, many national policy landscapes have been dominated by just one of these factors. (au)

  14. Fusion power in a future low carbon global electricity system

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Bustreo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Fusion is one of the technologies that may contribute to a future, low carbon, global energy supply system. In this article we investigate the role that it may play under different scenarios. The global energy model ETM (originally EFDA TIMES Model) has been used to analyse the participation...

  15. New Results of Global Exponential Stabilization for BLDCMs System

    Fengxia Tian; Fangchao Zhen; Guopeng Zhou; Xiaoxin Liao

    2015-01-01

    The global exponential stabilization for brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) system is studied. Four linear and simple feedback controllers are proposed to realize the global stabilization of BLDCM with exponential convergence rate; the control law used in each theorem is less conservative and more concise. Finally, an example is given to demonstrate the correctness of the proposed results.

  16. Global Hawk Systems Engineering. Case Study

    2010-01-01

    Management Core System ( TBMCS ) (complex software development) • F-111 Fighter (joint program with significant involvement by the Office of the...Software Requirements Specification TACC Tailored Airworthiness Certification Criteria TBMCS Theater Battle Management Core System TEMP Test and

  17. NOAA/NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) Atmospheric Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) numerical weather...

  18. Global Forecast System (GFS) [0.5 Deg.

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Forecast System (GFS) is a weather forecast model produced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Dozens of atmospheric and...

  19. Fairtrade, Food Security and Globalization: Building Alternative Food Systems

    Martin Calisto Friant

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the politics and practices of Fairtrade certification in order to assess whether this alternative trading system could contribute to innovative solutions for global food security. The analysis begins by assessing the main challenges and problems characterizing the contemporary global food system. It then explores the history, vision and certification standards of the Fairtrade label. In the third section, the results of the impact studies of Fairtrade certification on producer livelihoods are discussed, analyzing the various strengths and weaknesses. Finally the article analyzes whether, and how, the Fairtrade system could positively contribute to improving global food security. To conclude this paper argues that the greatest strength of Fairtrate is not the certification mechanism itself but rather the social and environmental principles it represents. Fairtrade standards could serve to inform broader international policies, which could lead to a sustainable transformation of the global food system.

  20. Global Mercury Observatory System Land-based Monitoring Data Portal

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Global Mercury Observation System On-line Data Portal. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Carbone, F., A. Bruno, A. Naccarato, F. De Simone,...

  1. Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) [2.5 Deg.

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) is a weather forecast model made up of 21 separate forecasts, or ensemble members. The National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Multiprocessor Global Scheduling on Frame-Based DVFS Systems

    Berten, Vandy; Goossens, Joël

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this work, we are interested in multiprocessor energy efficient systems where task durations are not known in advance but are known stochastically. More precisely we consider global scheduling algorithms for frame-based multiprocessor stochastic DVFS (Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling) systems. Moreover we consider processors with a discrete set of available frequencies. We provide a global scheduling algorithm, and formally show that no deadline will ever be mi...

  3. Blind beamforming techniques for global tracking systems

    Zhou, M.

    2015-01-01

    After the development in the past 120 years since the invention of the first radio transmission, worldwide wireless communication systems are nowadays part of daily life. Behind the shining and astonishing achievement of modern communication systems, the exhaustion of existing frequency spectrum

  4. Real-time precision pedestrian navigation solution using Inertial Navigation System and Global Positioning System

    Yong-Jin Yoon; King Ho Holden Li; Jiahe Steven Lee; Woo-Tae Park

    2015-01-01

    Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System can be used to determine position and velocity. A Global Positioning System module is able to accurately determine position without sensor drift, but its usage is limited in heavily urbanized environments and heavy vegetation. While high-cost tactical-grade Inertial Navigation System can determine position accurately, low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system Inertial Navigation System sensors are plagued by significant errors. Global Po...

  5. Assessing the evolving fragility of the global food system

    Puma, Michael J.; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-02-01

    The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992-2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18 year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85% of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90%, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9% (3.8%) for 1992-1996, increasing to 11% (5.7%) for 2005-2009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2% (2.2%) to 14% (5.2%). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity.

  6. Assessing the evolving fragility of the global food system

    Puma, Michael J; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I

    2015-01-01

    The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992–2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18 year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85% of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90%, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9% (3.8%) for 1992–1996, increasing to 11% (5.7%) for 2005–2009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2% (2.2%) to 14% (5.2%). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity. (letter)

  7. Assessing the Evolving Fragility of the Global Food System

    Puma, Michael Joseph; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992-2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18-year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85 of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9 (3.8) for 1992-1996, increasing to 11 (5.7) for 20052009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2 (2.2) to 14 (5.2). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity.

  8. Global Navigation Satellite System and Augmentation

    aircraft-based augmentation system (ABAS). ... segment, the ground segment (or) control segment and the user segment ... control station (MCS), and ground antennas. ... repeatability, multipath rejection, size, profile, and environmental.

  9. Fourth Global Health Systems Research Symposium features ...

    2017-01-13

    Jan 13, 2017 ... Home · Resources · Publications ... These solutions touch on diverse aspects of health systems, ... Read more on how IDRC is helping increase equitable access to health services for the poor in Mali and Burkina Faso.

  10. Study on CO2 global recycling system

    Takeuchi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Niwa, S.

    2001-01-01

    In order to assist in finding ways to mitigate CO 2 emission and to slow the depletion of fossil fuels we have established and evaluated a representative system, which consists of three technologies developed in our laboratory. These technologies were in CO 2 recovery, hydrogen production and methanol synthesis and in addition we established the necessary supporting systems. Analysis of outline designs of the large scale renewable energy power generation system and this system and energy input for building plant, energy input for running plant has been conducted based on a case using this system for a 1000-MW coal fired power plant, followed by an evaluation of the material balance and energy balance. The results are as follows. Energy efficiency is 34%, the CO 2 reduction rate is 41%, the balance ratio of the energy and CO 2 of the system is 2.2 and 1.8, respectively, on the assumption that the primary renewable energy is solar thermal power generation, the stationary CO 2 emission source is a coal-fired power plant and the generation efficiency of the methanol power plant is 60%. By adopting the system, 3.7 million tons of CO 2 can be recovered, approximately 2.7 million tons of methanol can be produced, and 15.4 billion kWh of electricity can be generated per year. Compared to generating all electrical power using only coal, approximately 2.6 million tons of coal per year can be saved and approximately 2.15 million tons of CO 2 emission can be reduced. Therefore, it is clearly revealed that this system would be effective to reduce CO 2 emissions and to utilize renewable energy

  11. Principles of the Organization of the Global Economic System

    Dyatlov, Sergey A.; Bulavko, Olga A.; Balanovskaya, Anna V.; Nikitina, Natalia V.; Chudaeva, Alexandra A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the economic system is not a spontaneous but a programmed and controlled process. Economy is always a controlled system in which there is always an appropriate subject of management. The article considers principles of the organization of the global economic system. The characteristic of the principle of "hierarchy of…

  12. Global consensus for discrete-time competitive systems

    Shih, C.-W.; Tseng, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    Grossberg established a remarkable convergence theorem for a class of competitive systems without knowing and using Lyapunov function for the systems. We present the parallel investigations for the discrete-time version of the Grossberg's model. Through developing an extended component-competing analysis for the coupled system, without knowing a Lyapunov function and applying the LaSalle's invariance principle, the global pattern formation or the so-called global consensus for the system can be achieved. A numerical simulation is performed to illustrate the present theory.

  13. Global health initiative investments and health systems strengthening: a content analysis of global fund investments

    Warren, Ashley E; Wyss, Kaspar; Shakarishvili, George; Atun, Rifat; de Savigny, Don

    2013-01-01

    Background: Millions of dollars are invested annually under the umbrella of national health systems strengthening. Global health initiatives provide funding for low- and middle-income countries through disease-oriented programmes while maintaining that the interventions simultaneously strengthen systems. However, it is as yet unclear which, and to what extent, system-level interventions are being funded by these initiatives, nor is it clear how much funding they allocate to disease-specific a...

  14. Transforming Power Systems Through Global Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  15. Transforming Power Systems through Global Collaboration

    None, None

    2016-04-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  16. Measuring the global domain name system

    Casalicchio, E.; Shen, Xuemin; Caselli, M.; Coletta, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is a worldwide distributed critical infrastructure, and it is composed of many vital components. While IP routing is the most important service, today the Domain Name System can be classified as the second most important, and has been defined as a critical infrastructure as well. DNS

  17. Global health initiative investments and health systems strengthening: a content analysis of global fund investments.

    Warren, Ashley E; Wyss, Kaspar; Shakarishvili, George; Atun, Rifat; de Savigny, Don

    2013-07-26

    Millions of dollars are invested annually under the umbrella of national health systems strengthening. Global health initiatives provide funding for low- and middle-income countries through disease-oriented programmes while maintaining that the interventions simultaneously strengthen systems. However, it is as yet unclear which, and to what extent, system-level interventions are being funded by these initiatives, nor is it clear how much funding they allocate to disease-specific activities - through conventional 'vertical-programming' approach. Such funding can be channelled to one or more of the health system building blocks while targeting disease(s) or explicitly to system-wide activities. We operationalized the World Health Organization health system framework of the six building blocks to conduct a detailed assessment of Global Fund health system investments. Our application of this framework framework provides a comprehensive quantification of system-level interventions. We applied this systematically to a random subset of 52 of the 139 grants funded in Round 8 of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (totalling approximately US$1 billion). According to the analysis, 37% (US$ 362 million) of the Global Fund Round 8 funding was allocated to health systems strengthening. Of that, 38% (US$ 139 million) was for generic system-level interventions, rather than disease-specific system support. Around 82% of health systems strengthening funding (US$ 296 million) was allocated to service delivery, human resources, and medicines & technology, and within each of these to two to three interventions. Governance, financing, and information building blocks received relatively low funding. This study shows that a substantial portion of Global Fund's Round 8 funds was devoted to health systems strengthening. Dramatic skewing among the health system building blocks suggests opportunities for more balanced investments with regard to governance, financing, and

  18. Globalization and Localization of the Management Control System package

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Through an empirical case study, this article examines the operation of multiple management control systems as a package in a Danish manufacturing company. The analysis focuses on four different management control systems – cybernetic controls, planning controls, reward controls, and administrative...... the organization and others have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls and reward and compensation controls are glocal systems. The finding leads to the conclusion...... controls – through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. Based on a single-case study, the analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, some of which are universal throughout...

  19. Systemic sclerosis: a world wide global analysis.

    Coral-Alvarado, Paola; Pardo, Aryce L; Castaño-Rodriguez, Natalia; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze epidemiological tendencies of systemic sclerosis (SSc) around the world in order to identify possible local variations in the presentation and occurrence of the disease. A systematic review of the literature was performed through electronic databases using the keywords "Systemic Sclerosis" and "Clinical Characteristics." Out of a total of 167 articles, 41 were included in the analysis. Significant differences in the mean age at the time of diagnosis, subsets of SSc, clinical characteristics, and presence of antibodies were found between different regions of the word. Because variations in both additive and nonadditive genetic factors and the environmental variance are specific to the investigated population, ethnicity and geography are important characteristics to be considered in the study of SSc and other autoimmune diseases.

  20. High-resolution global irradiance monitoring from photovoltaic systems

    Buchmann, Tina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Siegmund, Alexander; Meilinger, Stefanie; Mayer, Bernhard; Pinitz, Sven; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and regional differentiated power forecasts are required to guarantee an efficient and economic energy transition towards renewable energies. Amongst other renewable energy technologies, e.g. wind mills, photovoltaic systems are an essential component of this transition being cost-efficient and simply to install. Reliable power forecasts are however required for a grid integration of photovoltaic systems, which among other data requires high-resolution spatio-temporal global irradiance data. Hence the generation of robust reviewed global irradiance data is an essential contribution for the energy transition. To achieve this goal our studies introduce a novel method which makes use of photovoltaic power generation in order to infer global irradiance. The method allows to determine high-resolution temporal global irradiance data (one data point every 15 minutes at each location) from power data of operated photovoltaic systems. Due to the multitude of installed photovoltaic systems (in Germany) the detailed spatial coverage is much better than for example only using global irradiance data from conventional pyranometer networks (e.g. from the German Weather Service). Our designated method is composed of two components: a forward component, i.e. to conclude from predicted global irradiance to photovoltaic (PV) power, and a backward component, i.e. from PV power with suitable calibration to global irradiance. The forward process is modelled by using the radiation transport model libRadtran (B. Mayer and A. Kylling (1)) for clear skies to obtain the characteristics (orientation, size, temperature dependence, …) of individual PV systems. For PV systems in the vicinity of a meteorological station, these data are validated against calibrated pyranometer readings. The forward-modelled global irradiance is used to determine the power efficiency for each photovoltaic system using non-linear optimisation techniques. The backward component uses the power efficiency

  1. LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Victor MOROZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge of the food sector in the Republic of Moldova is to identify specific needs and opportunities for agriculture and rural development throughout food supply chains, and focusing investment in areas where the most impact will be made. The identification and allocation of resources requires analysis of main dimensions of food supply chains, in order to establish links and determine local factors. In small transition economies the diagnosis of the food supply chains, is typically based on limited data and incomplete information. In order to investigate the actual state of food supply chains were used specific methods and techniques: statistical and economic analysis of macro-economic indicators, semi-structured interviews of key stakeholders, analysis of the impact of public policies on the agro-food sector. In the article is analyzed the process of food systems formation and integration at the local and global level. Although it is a small part of the overall agricultural sector, various local food systems are under development in the Republic of Moldova. These systems bring consumers in close contact with farmers and mobilize them to support local farms and sustainable farming practices. While local food systems continue to face many barriers, many of them show considerable potential for growth.

  2. Securing the Global Airspace System Via Identity-Based Security

    Ivancic, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Current telecommunications systems have very good security architectures that include authentication and authorization as well as accounting. These three features enable an edge system to obtain access into a radio communication network, request specific Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements and ensure proper billing for service. Furthermore, the links are secure. Widely used telecommunication technologies are Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) This paper provides a system-level view of network-centric operations for the global airspace system and the problems and issues with deploying new technologies into the system. The paper then focuses on applying the basic security architectures of commercial telecommunication systems and deployment of federated Authentication, Authorization and Accounting systems to provide a scalable, evolvable reliable and maintainable solution to enable a globally deployable identity-based secure airspace system.

  3. Advantages of Hybrid Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Asim Bilajbegović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a decision-making situation, what kind of GPS equipment to purchase, one always has a dilemma, tobuy hybrid (GPS+GLONASS or only GPS receivers? In the case of completeness of the GLONASS satellite system, this dilemma probably would not have existed. The answer to this dilemma is given in the present paper, but for the constellation of the GLONASS satellites in summer 2006 (14 satellites operational. Due to the short operational period of these satellites (for example GLONASS-M, 5 years, and not launching new ones, at this moment (February 25, 2007, only 10 satellites are operational. For the sake of research and giving answers to these questions, about 252 RTK measurements have been done using (GPS and GNSS receivers, on points with different obstructions of horizon. Besides that, initialisation time has been investigated for both systems from about 480 measurements, using rover's antenna with metal cover, during a time interval of 0.5, 2 and 5 seconds. Moreover, accuracy, firmware declared accuracy and redundancy of GPS and GNSS RTK measurements have been investigating.  

  4. Engineering Amorphous Systems, Using Global-to-Local Compilation

    Nagpal, Radhika

    Emerging technologies are making it possible to assemble systems that incorporate myriad of information-processing units at almost no cost: smart materials, selfassembling structures, vast sensor networks, pervasive computing. How does one engineer robust and prespecified global behavior from the local interactions of immense numbers of unreliable parts? We discuss organizing principles and programming methodologies that have emerged from Amorphous Computing research, that allow us to compile a specification of global behavior into a robust program for local behavior.

  5. Using Systems Thinking to train future leaders in global health.

    Paxton, Anne; Frost, Laura J

    2017-07-09

    Systems Thinking provides a useful set of concepts and tools that can be used to train students to be effective and innovative global health leaders in an ever-changing and often chaotic world. This paper describes an experiential, multi-disciplinary curriculum that uses Systems Thinking to frame and analyse global health policies and practices. The curriculum uses case studies and hands-on activities to deepen students' understanding of the following concepts: complex adaptive systems, dynamic complexity, inter-relationships, feedback loops, policy resistance, mental models, boundary critique, leverage points, and multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral, and multi-stakeholder thinking and action. A sample of Systems Thinking tools for analysing global health policies and practices are also introduced.

  6. Agile Data Management with the Global Change Information System

    Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Goldstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    We describe experiences applying agile software development techniques to the realm of data management during the development of the Global Change Information System (GCIS), a web service and API for authoritative global change information under development by the US Global Change Research Program. Some of the challenges during system design and implementation have been : (1) balancing the need for a rigorous mechanism for ensuring information quality with the realities of large data sets whose contents are often in flux, (2) utilizing existing data to inform decisions about the scope and nature of new data, and (3) continuously incorporating new knowledge and concepts into a relational data model. The workflow for managing the content of the system has much in common with the development of the system itself. We examine various aspects of agile software development and discuss whether or how we have been able to use them for data curation as well as software development.

  7. Global solvability for involutive systems on the torus

    Cleber de Medeira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider a class of involutive systems of n smooth vector fields on the torus of dimension n+1. We prove that the global solvability of this class is related to an algebraic condition involving Liouville forms and the connectedness of all sublevel and superlevel sets of the primitive of a certain 1-form associated with the system.

  8. Effects of globalization on state budgeting system in Ukraine

    Bobukh S.О.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When writing the scientific article the scientific approaches of scientists concerning the essence of budgeting have been described. The paper deals with the principles of budgeting on the basis of which three main methodological components are singled out. It also analyzes the budgeting goals. The author investigates the impact of globalization on the system of state budgeting in Ukraine, its positive and negative effects. Despite significant achievements it is necessary to explore the effects of globalization on the system of state budgeting in Ukraine. Budgeting is the management technology that provides the formation of budgets for the selected objects and their use to ensure optimal structure and correlation of profits and expenses, income and expenditure, assets and liabilities of the organization or its components to achieve the set goals taking into account the influence of the environment. It should be emphasized that budgeting in no way replaces the control system, but only creates a new approach to management from the standpoint of the balance of incomes and expenditures, profits and expenses, assets and liabilities of the organization as a whole or its components. The state budgeting of the country as the part of the financial system is the channel through which economic globalization, namely financial globalization, affects economic development of the state. Favorable global effect occurs, in particular, in terms of the impact on financial development. Therefore, it is necessary to + the nature of the relationship between these two processes.

  9. Mobility induces global synchronization of oscillators in periodic extended systems

    Peruani, Fernando; Nicola, Ernesto M; Morelli, Luis G

    2010-01-01

    We study the synchronization of locally coupled noisy phase oscillators that move diffusively in a one-dimensional ring. Together with the disordered and the globally synchronized states, the system also exhibits wave-like states displaying local order. We use a statistical description valid for a large number of oscillators to show that for any finite system there is a critical mobility above which all wave-like solutions become unstable. Through Langevin simulations, we show that the transition to global synchronization is mediated by a shift in the relative size of attractor basins associated with wave-like states. Mobility disrupts these states and paves the way for the system to attain global synchronization.

  10. Position of the European Union in the Global Trade System

    Jovićević Mladen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago, the main drivers of globalization were the exchange of goods and capital flows, while the global trading system of today, fuelled by rapid technological changes increasingly bases itself on knowledge. The Key events - such as the use of the Internet and the increasingly important role of the rising countries economies - have contributed to a faster global exchange, but to a new nature as well. In order to illustrate the scope of the increase, perhaps it would be the best to mention the fact that in the 1970’s the share of trade in the world GDP amounted to 20%, whereas today it makes about one half. On the other hand, modern products represent compounds of raw materials, components, technologies and services originating from different areas and different continents, which has globalized the products themselves. In such conditions of the market competition, imposed by globalization and liberalization, for the European Union to remain as a leader, it had to prepare a sound and well-founded foreign policy strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current position of the European Union in the global trading system, instruments of foreign trade policy, goals, foreign trade and the main challenges placed before the Union.

  11. Systems Approaches: A Global and Historical Perspective on Integrative Medicine

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of healing systems is a dance of cultural awareness and cultural dominance that has arisen throughout history. With the development of greater communication and interest in whole-systems approaches to healing, the opportunity for the development of a global perspective on healing has emerged with new life force. The birth of integrative holistic healing systems in the West, such as naturopathic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, integral and functional medicine, and others, echoes the ocean of wisdom present in traditional healing systems, such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. In working to integrate the lessons from these systems, we see the inextricable link between man and the natural world, we work to understand the root cause of disease, we focus on the whole person to return balance, and we use empiric observation in large populations over time to grasp the interrelationships inherent in the whole-systems view of illness and wellness. PMID:24278794

  12. Global dynamics of a reaction-diffusion system

    Yuncheng You

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the existence of a global attractor for the semiflow of weak solutions of a two-cell Brusselator system is proved. The method of grouping estimation is exploited to deal with the challenge in proving the absorbing property and the asymptotic compactness of this type of coupled reaction-diffusion systems with cubic autocatalytic nonlinearity and linear coupling. It is proved that the Hausdorff dimension and the fractal dimension of the global attractor are finite. Moreover, the existence of an exponential attractor for this solution semiflow is shown.

  13. [Economic damage caused by lowered prices in the agro-food sector in areas contaminated by radioactive materials leaked from the nuclear power plant severely damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake--consideration from the viewpoints of epidemiology, economics and social psychology].

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of radioactive materials were leaked into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company, which was severely damaged by the 2011 Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake and accompanying tsunami. Economic damage due to lowered prices and supplies of food products produced in the areas contaminated by the radioactive materials leaked from the damaged FDNPP to the agro-food sector in the affected areas is notable. In Japanese, this is known as fuhyo higai. In this study, we investigated fuhyo higai from the viewpoints of epidemiology, economics, and social psychology in an effort to seek solutions. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet. Fuhyo higai, or economic damage of the agro-food sector, which is the main industry in the contaminated areas, is serious because it is difficult to reassure the general population regarding food safety. This fuhyo higai does not derive solely from rumor. It has been reported that improving the science literacy of the general population is important as a countermeasure against fuhyo higai, but this may not be effective because of the human social structure and behavior of people who seek subjective safety. Almost all radiological laboratory results of samples of food produced in the contaminated areas were below detectable limits. Very high values were rarely detected. In general, information about the dose-response relationship is obtained under the assumption that there may be error in the response but not in the dose. The rare cases of extremely high radiological values of food samples from the contaminated areas may correspond to large errors in dose. However, it is difficult to deny a high-dose risk. The reported information on the dose-response relationship obtained under the assumption that there is no error in dose is not sufficient. Thus, response, i.e., health risk, cannot be correctly estimated. This leads the general

  14. The Global Geodetic Observing System: Recent Activities and Accomplishments

    Gross, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) provides the basis on which future advances in geosciences can be built. By considering the Earth system as a whole (including the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere), monitoring Earth system components and their interactions by geodetic techniques and studying them from the geodetic point of view, the geodetic community provides the global geosciences community with a powerful tool consisting mainly of high-quality services, standards and references, and theoretical and observational innovations. The mission of GGOS is: (a) to provide the observations needed to monitor, map and understand changes in the Earth's shape, rotation and mass distribution; (b) to provide the global frame of reference that is the fundamental backbone for measuring and consistently interpreting key global change processes and for many other scientific and societal applications; and (c) to benefit science and society by providing the foundation upon which advances in Earth and planetary system science and applications are built. The goals of GGOS are: (1) to be the primary source for all global geodetic information and expertise serving society and Earth system science; (2) to actively promote, sustain, improve, and evolve the integrated global geodetic infrastructure needed to meet Earth science and societal requirements; (3) to coordinate with the international geodetic services that are the main source of key parameters and products needed to realize a stable global frame of reference and to observe and study changes in the dynamic Earth system; (4) to communicate and advocate the benefits of GGOS to user communities, policy makers, funding organizations, and society. In order to accomplish its mission and goals, GGOS depends on the IAG Services, Commissions, and Inter-Commission Committees. The Services provide the infrastructure and products on which all contributions

  15. Toward GEOS-6, A Global Cloud System Resolving Atmospheric Model

    Putman, William M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is committed to observing and understanding the weather and climate of our home planet through the use of multi-scale modeling systems and space-based observations. Global climate models have evolved to take advantage of the influx of multi- and many-core computing technologies and the availability of large clusters of multi-core microprocessors. GEOS-6 is a next-generation cloud system resolving atmospheric model that will place NASA at the forefront of scientific exploration of our atmosphere and climate. Model simulations with GEOS-6 will produce a realistic representation of our atmosphere on the scale of typical satellite observations, bringing a visual comprehension of model results to a new level among the climate enthusiasts. In preparation for GEOS-6, the agency's flagship Earth System Modeling Framework [JDl] has been enhanced to support cutting-edge high-resolution global climate and weather simulations. Improvements include a cubed-sphere grid that exposes parallelism; a non-hydrostatic finite volume dynamical core, and algorithm designed for co-processor technologies, among others. GEOS-6 represents a fundamental advancement in the capability of global Earth system models. The ability to directly compare global simulations at the resolution of spaceborne satellite images will lead to algorithm improvements and better utilization of space-based observations within the GOES data assimilation system

  16. Global Positioning System: Political Support, Directions of Development, and Expectations

    Krzysztof Czaplewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the Global Positioning System has become a global, multifunctional tool which provides services that are an integral part of U.S. national security as well as the security of other highly developed countries. Economic development, transport security as well as homeland security are important elements of the global economic infrastructure. In 2000 the United States acknowledged the growing significance of GPS for civilian users and stopped intentionally degrading accuracy for non-military signals that are known as “Selective Availability”. Since then, commercial applications of satellite systems have been proliferating even more rapidly, and therefore, their importance in everyday life has greatly increased. Currently, services that depend on information obtained from the Global Positioning System are the driving force behind economic growth, economic development and the improvement in life safety. This economic development would not be possible without the financial and political support of the US government to maintain the operation of the GPS system. Therefore it is important to have knowledge about the intentions of the US government how system GPS will be developed in the future. Decisions taken in the last 3 months are the subject of this article.

  17. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  18. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  19. Global and Local Sensitivity Analysis Methods for a Physical System

    Morio, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is the study of how the different input variations of a mathematical model influence the variability of its output. In this paper, we review the principle of global and local sensitivity analyses of a complex black-box system. A simulated case of application is given at the end of this paper to compare both approaches.…

  20. The Ether Wind and the Global Positioning System.

    Muller, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Explains how students can perform a refutation of the ether theory using information from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Discusses the functioning of the GPS, qualitatively describes how position determination would be affected by an ether wind, and illustrates the pertinent ideas with a simple quantitative model. (WRM)

  1. Fast interpolation for Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite orbits

    Clynch, James R.; Sagovac, Christopher Patrick; Danielson, D. A. (Donald A.); Neta, Beny

    1995-01-01

    In this report, we discuss and compare several methods for polynomial interpolation of Global Positioning Systems ephemeris data. We show that the use of difference tables is more efficient than the method currently in use to construct and evaluate the Lagrange polynomials.

  2. The Evolution of Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology.

    Kumar, Sameer; Moore, Kevin B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes technological advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is also known as the NAVSTAR GPS satellite constellation program developed in 1937, and changes in the nature of our world by GPS in the areas of agriculture, health, military, transportation, environment, wildlife biology, surveying and mapping, space applications, and…

  3. Information content in reflected global navigation satellite system signals

    Høeg, Per; Carlstrom, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The direct signals from satellites in global satellite navigation satellites systems (GNSS) as, GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO, constitute the primary source for positioning, navigation and timing from space. But also the reflected GNSS signals contain an important information content of signal travel...

  4. Global Optimization of a Periodic System using a Genetic Algorithm

    Stucke, David; Crespi, Vincent

    2001-03-01

    We use a novel application of a genetic algorithm global optimizatin technique to find the lowest energy structures for periodic systems. We apply this technique to colloidal crystals for several different stoichiometries of binary and trinary colloidal crystals. This application of a genetic algorithm is decribed and results of likely candidate structures are presented.

  5. Global attractors for the coupled suspension bridge system with temperature

    Dell'Oro, Filippo; Giorgi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2016), s. 864-875 ISSN 0170-4214 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : absorbing set * coupled bridge system * global attractor Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mma.3526/abstract

  6. 78 FR 22554 - Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS)

    2013-04-16

    ... accuracy and integrity of the Global Positioning System (GPS) derived positions for surface transportation..., contact LT Luke Byrd, Coast Guard, NDGPS Program Manager, telephone 202-372-1547 or email Robert.l.byrd... The NDGPS augments GPS with an additional differential correction signal. Differential GPS (DGPS...

  7. Error Analysis of Determining Airplane Location by Global Positioning System

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Burat, Alper

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the error analysis of determining airplane location by global positioning system (GPS) using statistical testing method. The Newton Rhapson method positions the airplane at the intersection point of four spheres. Absolute errors, relative errors and standard deviation have been calculated The results show that the positioning error of the airplane varies with the coordinates of GPS satellite and the airplane.

  8. Understanding Global Change: Frameworks and Models for Teaching Systems Thinking

    Bean, J. R.; Mitchell, K.; Zoehfeld, K.; Oshry, A.; Menicucci, A. J.; White, L. D.; Marshall, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific and education communities must impart to teachers, students, and the public an understanding of how the various factors that drive climate and global change operate, and why the rates and magnitudes of these changes related to human perturbation of Earth system processes today are cause for deep concern. Even though effective educational modules explaining components of the Earth and climate system exist, interdisciplinary learning tools are necessary to conceptually link the causes and consequences of global changes. To address this issue, the Understanding Global Change Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley developed an interdisciplinary framework that organizes global change topics into three categories: (1) causes of climate change, both human and non-human (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, Earth's tilt and orbit), (2) Earth system processes that shape the way the Earth works (e.g., Earth's energy budget, water cycle), and (3) the measurable changes in the Earth system (e.g., temperature, precipitation, ocean acidification). To facilitate student learning about the Earth as a dynamic, interacting system, a website will provide visualizations of Earth system models and written descriptions of how each framework topic is conceptually linked to other components of the framework. These visualizations and textual summarizations of relationships and feedbacks in the Earth system are a unique and crucial contribution to science communication and education, informed by a team of interdisciplinary scientists and educators. The system models are also mechanisms by which scientists can communicate how their own work informs our understanding of the Earth system. Educators can provide context and relevancy for authentic datasets and concurrently can assess student understanding of the interconnectedness of global change phenomena. The UGC resources will be available through a web-based platform and

  9. USA IN THE EMERGING SYSTEM OF GLOBAL FINANCIAL REGULATION

    V. K. Kulakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the globalizing world of fi nancial and economic interdependence, a polycentric, multi-level, and hierarchical system of global financial regulation is emerging. The article highlights two vectors of recent development in international fi nancial regulation: the rise of cooperation through the mechanisms of the Group of Twenty (G-20 on the one hand, and the efforts to maintain the US leading role in global fi nance, on the other hand. In the circumstances of the global fi nancial crisis of 2008, the G-20 countries initiated an international reform of fi nancial regulation. According to G-20 decisions, international standardsetting organizations developed transnational regulatory regimes in the fi elds of banking, derivatives and bankruptcy resolution, and the states now implement these regimes in their jurisdictions. The so-called “soft law system”, which is not legally binding, allows the states to sustain national sovereignty in their fi nancial policy. The United States play a leading role in the international fi nancial reform, as well as in the shaping of the global fi nancial regulation system. The American regulators push for extraterritorial application of the US norms and take other unilateral actions on the international arena. The article also touches upon legitimacy problems of the emerging system of global fi nancial regulation. The most important constrains are the excessive infl uence of the fi nancial industry (“regulatory capture”, the weakness of civil society participation, and also the fact that for the rest of the world the American norms lack legitimacy, as they are adopted by regulators assigned by offi cials elected by population of a foreign territory.

  10. Global Linear Representations of Nonlinear Systems and the Adjoint Map

    Banks, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we shall study the global linearization of nonlinear systems on a manifold by two methods. The first consists of an expansion of the vector field in the space of square integrable vector fields. In the second method we use the adjoint representation of the Lie algebra vector fields to obtain an infinite-dimensional matrix representation of the system. A connection between the two approaches will be developed.

  11. Helicopter precision approach capability using the Global Positioning System

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1992-01-01

    The period between 1 July and 31 December, 1992, was spent developing a research plan as well as a navigation system document and flight test plan to investigate helicopter precision approach capability using the Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition, all hardware and software required for the research was acquired, developed, installed, and verified on both the test aircraft and the ground-based reference station.

  12. An Optimal Method for Developing Global Supply Chain Management System

    Hao-Chun Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the transparency in supply chains, enhancing competitiveness of industries becomes a vital factor. Therefore, many developing countries look for a possible method to save costs. In this point of view, this study deals with the complicated liberalization policies in the global supply chain management system and proposes a mathematical model via the flow-control constraints, which are utilized to cope with the bonded warehouses for obtaining maximal profits. Numerical experiments illustrate that the proposed model can be effectively solved to obtain the optimal profits in the global supply chain environment.

  13. MR-AFS: a global hierarchical file-system

    Reuter, H.

    2000-01-01

    The next generation of fusion experiments will use object-oriented technology creating the need for world wide sharing of an underlying hierarchical file-system. The Andrew file system (AFS) is a well known and widely spread global distributed file-system. Multiple-resident-AFS (MR-AFS) combines the features of AFS with hierarchical storage management systems. Files in MR-AFS therefore may be migrated on secondary storage, such as roboted tape libraries. MR-AFS is in use at IPP for the current experiments and data originating from super-computer applications. Experiences and scalability issues are discussed

  14. Understanding global health governance as a complex adaptive system.

    Hill, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    The transition from international to global health reflects the rapid growth in the numbers and nature of stakeholders in health, as well as the constant change embodied in the process of globalisation itself. This paper argues that global health governance shares the characteristics of complex adaptive systems, with its multiple and diverse players, and their polyvalent and constantly evolving relationships, and rich and dynamic interactions. The sheer quantum of initiatives, the multiple networks through which stakeholders (re)configure their influence, the range of contexts in which development for health is played out - all compound the complexity of this system. This paper maps out the characteristics of complex adaptive systems as they apply to global health governance, linking them to developments in the past two decades, and the multiple responses to these changes. Examining global health governance through the frame of complexity theory offers insight into the current dynamics of governance, and while providing a framework for making meaning of the whole, opens up ways of accessing this complexity through local points of engagement.

  15. Linked Open Data in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    Tilmes, Curt A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program (http://globalchange.gov) coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will centralize access to data and information related to global change across the U.S. federal government. The first implementation will focus on the 2013 National Climate Assessment (NCA) . (http://assessment.globalchange.gov) The NCA integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the USGCRP; analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. The NCA has received over 500 distinct technical inputs to the process, many of which are reports distilling and synthesizing even more information, coming from thousands of individuals around the federal, state and local governments, academic institutions and non-governmental organizations. The GCIS will present a web-based version of the NCA including annotations linking the findings and content of the NCA with the scientific research, datasets, models, observations, etc. that led to its conclusions. It will use semantic tagging and a linked data approach, assigning globally unique, persistent, resolvable identifiers to all of the related entities and capturing and presenting the relationships between them, both internally and referencing out to other linked data sources and back to agency data centers. The developing W3C PROV Data Model and ontology will be used to capture the provenance trail and present it in both human readable web pages and machine readable formats such as RDF and SPARQL. This will improve visibility into the assessment process, increase

  16. Global chaos synchronization of new chaotic systems via nonlinear control

    Chen, H.-K.

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear control is an effective method for making two identical chaotic systems or two different chaotic systems be synchronized. However, this method assumes that the Lyapunov function of error dynamic (e) of synchronization is always formed as V (e) = 1/2e T e. In this paper, modification based on Lyapunov stability theory to design a controller is proposed in order to overcome this limitation. The method has been applied successfully to make two identical new systems and two different chaotic systems (new system and Lorenz system) globally asymptotically synchronized. Since the Lyapunov exponents are not required for the calculation, this method is effective and convenient to synchronize two identical systems and two different chaotic systems. Numerical simulations are also given to validate the proposed synchronization approach

  17. Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames.

    Benatar, Solomon

    2016-08-06

    Striking disparities in access to healthcare and in health outcomes are major characteristics of health across the globe. This inequitable state of global health and how it could be improved has become a highly popularized field of academic study. In a series of articles in this journal the roles of power and politics in global health have been addressed in considerable detail. Three points are added here to this debate. The first is consideration of how the use of definitions and common terms, for example 'poverty eradication,' can mask full exposure of the extent of rectification required, with consequent failure to understand what poverty eradication should mean, how this could be achieved and that a new definition is called for. Secondly, a criticism is offered of how the term 'global health' is used in a restricted manner to describe activities that focus on an anthropocentric and biomedical conception of health across the world. It is proposed that the discourse on 'global health' should be extended beyond conventional boundaries towards an ecocentric conception of global/planetary health in an increasingly interdependent planet characterised by a multitude of interlinked crises. Finally, it is noted that the paucity of workable strategies towards achieving greater equity in sustainable global health is not so much due to lack of understanding of, or insight into, the invisible dimensions of power, but is rather the outcome of seeking solutions from within belief systems and cognitive biases that cannot offer solutions. Hence the need for a new framing perspective for global health that could reshape our thinking and actions. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  18. Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames

    Benatar, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Striking disparities in access to healthcare and in health outcomes are major characteristics of health across the globe. This inequitable state of global health and how it could be improved has become a highly popularized field of academic study. In a series of articles in this journal the roles of power and politics in global health have been addressed in considerable detail. Three points are added here to this debate. The first is consideration of how the use of definitions and common terms, for example ‘poverty eradication,’ can mask full exposure of the extent of rectification required, with consequent failure to understand what poverty eradication should mean, how this could be achieved and that a new definition is called for. Secondly, a criticism is offered of how the term ‘global health’ is used in a restricted manner to describe activities that focus on an anthropocentric and biomedical conception of health across the world. It is proposed that the discourse on ‘global health’ should be extended beyond conventional boundaries towards an ecocentric conception of global/planetary health in an increasingly interdependent planet characterised by a multitude of interlinked crises. Finally, it is noted that the paucity of workable strategies towards achieving greater equity in sustainable global health is not so much due to lack of understanding of, or insight into, the invisible dimensions of power, but is rather the outcome of seeking solutions from within belief systems and cognitive biases that cannot offer solutions. Hence the need for a new framing perspective for global health that could reshape our thinking and actions. PMID:27694651

  19. Approaches to Building Global Strategic Deterrence System after 2021

    Vitaliy V. Kabernik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies prospective for transformation of the current global deterrence system in 21st century, paying special attention to the structures of treaties past 2021. After the mainstay arms control treaty (New START expiration development of the new system of treaties and agreements seems inevitable, quite possibly, on multilateral basis. The hypothesis stressing possibility of multilateral deterrence system for global stability is quite popular nowadays. Studying the dynamics of nuclear arms cuts and monitoring progress on New START treaty, we can see numerous positive effects. However, the nuclear modernization programs currently in progress or planned for the near future should be taken into account for future agreements. This is when geospatialanalysis is important, demonstrating effectively which states are deterring each other and for which ones this is simply impossible because of the available weapons delivery range. This analysis is performed for three possible candidates for future multilateral treaties: USA, Russia and China, mentioning Great Britain and France as well. Going further into geospatial analysis, strategic ABM factor is accounted and the role of global ABM is estimated for future treaties. Numerical estimates of nuclear potentials of third countries - incomparable to the current numbers in possession of two main nuclear powers - performed specifically. Based on the analysis provided we can effectively deny the possibility of multilateral agreements for future deterrence scenarios. However, some steps for involving third countries into the global process of nuclear regulations can be outlined. This includes a number of bilateral agreements for arms control in certain regions, specifically developed to form a system of treaties aimed for global tensions reduction moving towards a safer world in the 21st century.

  20. Approaches to Building Global Strategic Deterrence System after 2021

    Vitaliy V. Kabernik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies prospective for transformation of the current global deterrence system in 21 century, paying special attention to the structures of treaties past 2021. After the mainstay arms control treaty (New START expiration development of the new system of treaties and agreements seems inevitable, quite possibly, on multilateral basis. The hypothesis stressing possibility of multilateral deterrence system for global stability is quite popular nowadays. Studying the dynamics of nuclear arms cuts and monitoring progress on New START treaty, we can see numerous positive effects. However, the nuclear modernization programs currently in progress or planned for the near future should be taken into account for future agreements. This is when geospatialanalysis is important, demonstrating effectively which states are deterring each other and for which ones this is simply impossible because of the available weapons delivery range. This analysis is performed for three possible candidates for future multilateral treaties: USA, Russia and China, mentioning Great Britain and France as well. Going further into geospatial analysis, strategic ABM factor is accounted and the role of global ABM is estimated for future treaties. Numerical estimates of nuclear potentials of third countries - incomparable to the current numbers in possession of two main nuclear powers - performed specifically. Based on the analysis provided we can effectively deny the possibility of multilateral agreements for future deterrence scenarios. However, some steps for involving third countries into the global process of nuclear regulations can be outlined. This includes a number of bilateral agreements for arms control in certain regions, specifically developed to form a system of treaties aimed for global tensions reduction moving towards a safer world in the 21st century.

  1. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  2. Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modelling: An Earth Systems Modelling Program

    Moore, Berrien, III; Sahagian, Dork

    1997-01-01

    The Goal of the GAIM is: To advance the study of the coupled dynamics of the Earth system using as tools both data and models; to develop a strategy for the rapid development, evaluation, and application of comprehensive prognostic models of the Global Biogeochemical Subsystem which could eventually be linked with models of the Physical-Climate Subsystem; to propose, promote, and facilitate experiments with existing models or by linking subcomponent models, especially those associated with IGBP Core Projects and with WCRP efforts. Such experiments would be focused upon resolving interface issues and questions associated with developing an understanding of the prognostic behavior of key processes; to clarify key scientific issues facing the development of Global Biogeochemical Models and the coupling of these models to General Circulation Models; to assist the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process by conducting timely studies that focus upon elucidating important unresolved scientific issues associated with the changing biogeochemical cycles of the planet and upon the role of the biosphere in the physical-climate subsystem, particularly its role in the global hydrological cycle; and to advise the SC-IGBP on progress in developing comprehensive Global Biogeochemical Models and to maintain scientific liaison with the WCRP Steering Group on Global Climate Modelling.

  3. Progress and challenges to the global waste management system.

    Singh, Jagdeep; Laurenti, Rafael; Sinha, Rajib; Frostell, Björn

    2014-09-01

    Rapid economic growth, urbanization and increasing population have caused (materially intensive) resource consumption to increase, and consequently the release of large amounts of waste to the environment. From a global perspective, current waste and resource management lacks a holistic approach covering the whole chain of product design, raw material extraction, production, consumption, recycling and waste management. In this article, progress and different sustainability challenges facing the global waste management system are presented and discussed. The study leads to the conclusion that the current, rather isolated efforts, in different systems for waste management, waste reduction and resource management are indeed not sufficient in a long term sustainability perspective. In the future, to manage resources and wastes sustainably, waste management requires a more systems-oriented approach that addresses the root causes for the problems. A specific issue to address is the development of improved feedback information (statistics) on how waste generation is linked to consumption. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Dealing with the Hidden Effects of Global Business Systems

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Gubi, Ebbe

    2011-01-01

    Companies are actively seeking competitive advantage through their choice of location and ownership of manufacturing processes. This has, however, increased the distance between the headquarters and the increasingly dispersed operations network. The purpose of this paper is to identify how...... companies may reduce this distance through reorganization and development of adequate global business systems solutions. The paper draws on a case study of a Danish industrial equipment firm. The paper describes and analyzes the company’s operations network configurations, which lay at the foundations...... of the company’s global business system. It is demonstrated how the operations configurations have been changing over time and affecting the overall business system. The paper identifies the key determinants and outcomes of this change and hidden effects of this change. Moreover, it proposes how the design...

  5. A global conservation system for climate-change adaptation.

    Hannah, Lee

    2010-02-01

    Climate change has created the need for a new strategic framework for conservation. This framework needs to include new protected areas that account for species range shifts and management that addresses large-scale change across international borders. Actions within the framework must be effective in international waters and across political frontiers and have the ability to accommodate large income and ability-to-pay discrepancies between countries. A global protected-area system responds to these needs. A fully implemented global system of protected areas will help in the transition to a new conservation paradigm robust to climate change and will ensure the integrity of the climate services provided by carbon sequestration from the world's natural habitats. The internationally coordinated response to climate change afforded by such a system could have significant cost savings relative to a system of climate adaptation that unfolds solely at a country level. Implementation of a global system is needed very soon because the effects of climate change on species and ecosystems are already well underway.

  6. Requirements for a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System

    Duren, R.; Boland, S.; Lempert, R.; Miller, C.

    2008-12-01

    A global greenhouse gas information system will prove a critical component of any successful effort to mitigate climate change which relies on limiting the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. The system will provide the situational awareness necessary to actively reduce emissions, influence land use change, and sequester carbon. The information from such a system will be subject to intense scrutiny. Therefore, an effective system must openly and transparently produce data of unassailable quality. A global greenhouse gas information system will likely require a combination of space-and air-based remote- sensing assets, ground-based measurements, carbon cycle modeling and self-reporting. The specific requirements on such a system will be shaped by the degree of international cooperation it enjoys and the needs of the policy regime it aims to support, which might range from verifying treaty obligations, to certifying the tradable permits and offsets underlying a market in greenhouse gas emission reductions, to providing a comprehensive inventory of high and low emitters that could be used by non-governmental organizations and other international actors. While some technical studies have examined particular system components in single scenarios, there remains a need for a comprehensive survey of the range of potential requirements, options, and strategies for the overall system. We have initiated such a survey and recently hosted a workshop which engaged a diverse community of stakeholders to begin synthesizing requirements for such a system, with an initial focus on carbon dioxide. In this paper we describe our plan for completing the definition of the requirements, options, and strategies for a global greenhouse gas monitoring system. We discuss our overall approach and provide a status on the initial requirements synthesis activity.

  7. Sustaining Air Force Space Systems: A Model for the Global Positioning System

    Snyder, Don; Mills, Patrick; Comanor, Katherine; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ... and sustainment affect the performance of space systems. In this monograph, we develop a pilot framework for analyzing these and related questions in the ground segment of the Global Positioning System and recommend steps for implementing this framework...

  8. Provenance Representation in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is a topic that has become very controversial despite strong support within the scientific community. It is common for agencies releasing information about climate change to be served with Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for everything that led to that conclusion. Capturing and presenting the provenance, linking to the research papers, data sets, models, analyses, observation instruments and satellites, etc. supporting key findings has the potential to mitigate skepticism in this domain. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is now coordinating the production of a National Climate Assessment (NCA) that presents our best understanding of global change. We are now developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will present the content of that report and its provenance, including the scientific support for the findings of the assessment. We are using an approach that will present this information both through a human accessible web site as well as a machine readable interface for automated mining of the provenance graph. We plan to use the developing W3C PROV Data Model and Ontology for this system.

  9. From globally coupled maps to complex-systems biology

    Kaneko, Kunihiko, E-mail: kaneko@complex.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for Complex Systems Biology, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Studies of globally coupled maps, introduced as a network of chaotic dynamics, are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on novel concepts therein, which are universal in high-dimensional dynamical systems. They include clustering of synchronized oscillations, hierarchical clustering, chimera of synchronization and desynchronization, partition complexity, prevalence of Milnor attractors, chaotic itinerancy, and collective chaos. The degrees of freedom necessary for high dimensionality are proposed to equal the number in which the combinatorial exceeds the exponential. Future analysis of high-dimensional dynamical systems with regard to complex-systems biology is briefly discussed.

  10. Instabilities and nonstatistical behavior in globally coupled systems

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1992-08-01

    The mean field in a globally coupled system of chaotic logistic maps does not obey the standard rules of statistics, even for systems of very large sizes. This indicates the existence of intrinsic instabilities in its evolution. Here these instabilities are related to the very non-smooth behavior of mean values in a single logistic map, as a function of its parameter. Problems of this kind do not affect a similar system of coupled tent maps, where good statistical behavior has been found. We also explore the transition between these two regimes. (author). 15 refs, 9 figs

  11. Instabilities and nonstatistical behavior in globally coupled systems

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The mean field in a globally coupled system of chaotic logistic maps does not obey the standard rules of statistics, even for systems of very large sizes. This indicates the existence of intrinsic instabilities in its evolution. Here these instabilities are related to the very nonsmooth behavior of mean values in a single logistic map, as a function of its parameter. Problems of this kind do not affect a similar system of coupled tent maps, where good statistical behavior has been found. We also explore the transition between these two regimes

  12. Network flexibility of the IRIDIUM (R) Global Mobile Satellite System

    Hutcheson, Jonathan; Laurin, Mala

    1995-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a global personal communications system supported by a constellation of 66 low earth orbit (LEO) satellites and a collection of earth-based 'gateway' switching installations. Like traditional wireless cellular systems, coverage is achieved by a grid of cells in which bandwidth is reused for spectral efficiency. Unlike any cellular system ever built, the moving cells can be shared by multiple switching facilities. Noteworthy features of the IRIDIUM system include inter-satellite links, a GSM-based telephony architecture, and a geographically controlled system access process. These features, working in concert, permit flexible and reliable administration of the worldwide service area by gateway operators. This paper will explore this unique concept.

  13. Globally reasoning about localised security policies in distributed systems

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario

    In this report, we aim at establishing proper ways for model checking the global security of distributed systems, which are designed consisting of set of localised security policies that enforce specific issues about the security expected. The systems are formally specified following a syntax......, defined in detail in this report, and their behaviour is clearly established by the Semantics, also defined in detail in this report. The systems include the formal attachment of security policies into their locations, whose intended interactions are trapped by the policies, aiming at taking access...... control decisions of the system, and the Semantics also takes care of this. Using the Semantics, a Labelled Transition System (LTS) can be induced for every particular system, and over this LTS some model checking tasks could be done. We identify how this LTS is indeed obtained, and propose an alternative...

  14. Methodology for global nonlinear analysis of nuclear systems

    Cacuci, D.G.; Cacuci, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines a general method for globally computing the crucial features of nonlinear problems: bifurcations, limit points, saddle points, extrema (maxima and minima); our method also yields the local sensitivities (i.e., first order derivatives) of the system's state variables (e.g., fluxes, power, temperatures, flows) at any point in the system's phase space. We also present an application of this method to the nonlinear BWR model discussed in Refs. 8 and 11. The most significant novel feature of our method is the recasting of a general mathematical problem comprising three aspects: (1) nonlinear constrained optimization, (2) sensitivity analysis, into a fixed point problem of the form F[u(s), λ(s)] = 0 whose global zeros and singular points are related to the special features (i.e., extrema, bifurcations, etc.) of the original problem

  15. Implications of climate change (global warming) for the healthcare system.

    Raffa, R B; Eltoukhy, N S; Raffa, K F

    2012-10-01

    Temperature-sensitive pathogenic species and their vectors and hosts are emerging in previously colder regions as a consequence of several factors, including global warming. As a result, an increasing number of people will be exposed to pathogens against which they have not previously needed defences. We illustrate this with a specific example of recent emergence of Cryptococcus gattii infections in more temperate climates. The outbreaks in more temperate climates of the highly virulent--but usually tropically restricted--C. gattii is illustrative of an anticipated growing challenge for the healthcare system. There is a need for preparedness by healthcare professionals in anticipation and for management of such outbreaks, including other infections whose recent increased prevalence in temperate climates can be at least partly associated with global warming. (Re)emergence of temperature-sensitive pathogenic species in more temperate climates will present new challenges for healthcare systems. Preparation for outbreaks should precede their occurrence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Setting the global thermostat with an exhaustible tradeable permit system

    Kosobud, R.G.; Quinn, K.G.; Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL; South, D.W.; Daly, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The global warming policy debate has centered largely on near-term objectives such as freezing 1990 CO 2 emissions without regard to long-run implications. A policy of freezing CO 2 emissions is shown to slow but not halt global warming, while requiring expensive near-term adjustments. If the long-run temperature change outcome of the freeze policy is set as the goal of a more graduated control policy, one which allows the market to determine annual emissions, a more cost-effective solution is obtained that reduces the negative adjustment effects on the energy and other affected industries. The most cost-effective emissions time path of a graduated control policy could be achieved by an evaporative marketable CO 2 emissions permit system. This paper provides a preliminary examination of an evaporative permit system used to achieve long-run stabilization of greenhouse-induced temperature change

  17. CHAOS THEORY, GLOBAL SYSTEMIC CHANGE, AND HYBRID WARS

    A. Korybko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global system is being rocked by the dueling ambitions of two competing blocs, with the US and its allies fighting to reinforce their unipolar system while Russia and its partners struggle to forge a multipolar future. The rapidity and scope with which events are unfolding makes it overwhelming for the casual observer to make sense of all of the complex processes currently at play, and truth be told, it’s understandable that all of this can appear confusing. In an attempt to clarify the present state of global affairs and forecast the direction that it’s all headed in, the article begins by explaining the nature of chaos theory and describing how it’s applicable to conceptualizing contemporary international relations. Afterwards, the idea of “chaos sequencing” is proposed, which in essence is a model that can be used in understanding the process of chaotic change. Following that, the article addresses the topic of global systemic change and includes the most relevant examples for how this relates to the present day. Next, the research combines these two aforementioned elements (chaos theory and global systemic change and presents a forward-looking geopolitical analysis that incorporates cutting-edge Hybrid War theory and aims to put the New Cold War into its proper perspective. Finally, the article ends on a suggestive note in encouraging analysts to study the authors’ conceptualization of Hybrid War in order to better prepare themselves for understanding and responding to forthcoming international events.

  18. An alternative ionospheric correction model for global navigation satellite systems

    Hoque, M. M.; Jakowski, N.

    2015-04-01

    The ionosphere is recognized as a major error source for single-frequency operations of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). To enhance single-frequency operations the global positioning system (GPS) uses an ionospheric correction algorithm (ICA) driven by 8 coefficients broadcasted in the navigation message every 24 h. Similarly, the global navigation satellite system Galileo uses the electron density NeQuick model for ionospheric correction. The Galileo satellite vehicles (SVs) transmit 3 ionospheric correction coefficients as driver parameters of the NeQuick model. In the present work, we propose an alternative ionospheric correction algorithm called Neustrelitz TEC broadcast model NTCM-BC that is also applicable for global satellite navigation systems. Like the GPS ICA or Galileo NeQuick, the NTCM-BC can be optimized on a daily basis by utilizing GNSS data obtained at the previous day at monitor stations. To drive the NTCM-BC, 9 ionospheric correction coefficients need to be uploaded to the SVs for broadcasting in the navigation message. Our investigation using GPS data of about 200 worldwide ground stations shows that the 24-h-ahead prediction performance of the NTCM-BC is better than the GPS ICA and comparable to the Galileo NeQuick model. We have found that the 95 percentiles of the prediction error are about 16.1, 16.1 and 13.4 TECU for the GPS ICA, Galileo NeQuick and NTCM-BC, respectively, during a selected quiet ionospheric period, whereas the corresponding numbers are found about 40.5, 28.2 and 26.5 TECU during a selected geomagnetic perturbed period. However, in terms of complexity the NTCM-BC is easier to handle than the Galileo NeQuick and in this respect comparable to the GPS ICA.

  19. Living is information processing: from molecules to global systems

    Farnsworth, Keith D.; Nelson, John; Gershenson, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    We extend the concept that life is an informational phenomenon, at every level of organisation, from molecules to the global ecological system. According to this thesis: (a) living is information processing, in which memory is maintained by both molecular states and ecological states as well as the more obvious nucleic acid coding; (b) this information processing has one overall function - to perpetuate itself; and (c) the processing method is filtration (cognition) of, and synthesis of, info...

  20. An experimental system for flood risk forecasting at global scale

    Alfieri, L.; Dottori, F.; Kalas, M.; Lorini, V.; Bianchi, A.; Hirpa, F. A.; Feyen, L.; Salamon, P.

    2016-12-01

    Global flood forecasting and monitoring systems are nowadays a reality and are being applied by an increasing range of users and practitioners in disaster risk management. Furthermore, there is an increasing demand from users to integrate flood early warning systems with risk based forecasts, combining streamflow estimations with expected inundated areas and flood impacts. To this end, we have developed an experimental procedure for near-real time flood mapping and impact assessment based on the daily forecasts issued by the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The methodology translates GloFAS streamflow forecasts into event-based flood hazard maps based on the predicted flow magnitude and the forecast lead time and a database of flood hazard maps with global coverage. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information to derive flood risk. Impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, and affected population, infrastructures and cities. To further increase the reliability of the proposed methodology we integrated model-based estimations with an innovative methodology for social media monitoring, which allows for real-time verification of impact forecasts. The preliminary tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management. In particular, the link with social media is crucial for improving the accuracy of impact predictions.

  1. Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)

    Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and

  2. Towards a Global Monitoring System for CMS Computing Operations

    Bauerdick, L. A.T. [Fermilab; Sciaba, Andrea [CERN

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the CMS computing system requires a complex monitoring system to cover all its aspects: central services, databases, the distributed computing infrastructure, production and analysis workflows, the global overview of the CMS computing activities and the related historical information. Several tools are available to provide this information, developed both inside and outside of the collaboration and often used in common with other experiments. Despite the fact that the current monitoring allowed CMS to successfully perform its computing operations, an evolution of the system is clearly required, to adapt to the recent changes in the data and workload management tools and models and to address some shortcomings that make its usage less than optimal. Therefore, a recent and ongoing coordinated effort was started in CMS, aiming at improving the entire monitoring system by identifying its weaknesses and the new requirements from the stakeholders, rationalise and streamline existing components and drive future software development. This contribution gives a complete overview of the CMS monitoring system and a description of all the recent activities that have been started with the goal of providing a more integrated, modern and functional global monitoring system for computing operations.

  3. The Role of Discrete Global Grid Systems in the Global Statistical Geospatial Framework

    Purss, M. B. J.; Peterson, P.; Minchin, S. A.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) has proposed the development of a Global Statistical Geospatial Framework (GSGF) as a mechanism for the establishment of common analytical systems that enable the integration of statistical and geospatial information. Conventional coordinate reference systems address the globe with a continuous field of points suitable for repeatable navigation and analytical geometry. While this continuous field is represented on a computer in a digitized and discrete fashion by tuples of fixed-precision floating point values, it is a non-trivial exercise to relate point observations spatially referenced in this way to areal coverages on the surface of the Earth. The GSGF states the need to move to gridded data delivery and the importance of using common geographies and geocoding. The challenges associated with meeting these goals are not new and there has been a significant effort within the geospatial community to develop nested gridding standards to tackle these issues over many years. These efforts have recently culminated in the development of a Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS) standard which has been developed under the auspices of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). DGGS provide a fixed areal based geospatial reference frame for the persistent location of measured Earth observations, feature interpretations, and modelled predictions. DGGS address the entire planet by partitioning it into a discrete hierarchical tessellation of progressively finer resolution cells, which are referenced by a unique index that facilitates rapid computation, query and analysis. The geometry and location of the cell is the principle aspect of a DGGS. Data integration, decomposition, and aggregation is optimised in the DGGS hierarchical structure and can be exploited for efficient multi-source data processing, storage, discovery, transmission, visualization, computation, analysis, and modelling. During

  4. Global crisis and the Europe-Latin America migration system

    Susana M. Sassone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the changes in the connections of the European-Latin American migration system over the past decades. First, we analyse the changing trends and re-routing of the flows between the two ends of the system. Then, we address the complex rearrangements of immigration policies, which in both spaces are again beginning to turn inwards. Lastly, we briefly review the partnerships that are being established between Europe and Latin America via Spain. Within this framework, we wonder whether we are entering a new phase of the globalisation of migration, the dynamic of which is a pendulum with global and regional effects.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  6. U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

  7. Vision for an Open, Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    Duren, R. M.; Butler, J. H.; Rotman, D.; Ciais, P.; Greenhouse Gas Information System Team

    2010-12-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through the earth system. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, synthesis analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about anthropogenic and natural sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at temporal and spatial scales relevant to decision making. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a vision for an open, global GHGIS including latest analysis of system requirements, critical gaps, and relationship to related efforts at various agencies, the Group on Earth Observations, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  8. Astronomical relativistic reference systems with multipolar expansion: the global one

    Xie Yi

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of techniques for astronomical observations, the precision of measurements has been significantly increasing. Theories describing astronomical relativistic reference systems, which are the foundation for processing and interpreting these data now and in the future, may require extensions to satisfy the needs of these trends. Besides building a framework compatible with alternative theories of gravity and the pursuit of higher order post-Newtonian approximation, it will also be necessary to make the first order post-Newtonian multipole moments of celestial bodies be explicitly expressed in the astronomical relativistic reference systems. This will bring some convenience into modeling the observations and experiments and make it easier to distinguish different contributions in measurements. As a first step, the global solar system reference system is expressed as a multipolar expansion and the post-Newtonian mass and spin moments are shown explicitly in the metric which describes the coordinates of the system. The full expression of the global metric is given. (research papers)

  9. Environmental radiation monitoring system with GPS (global positioning system)

    Komoto, Itsuro

    2000-01-01

    This system combines a radiation monitoring car with GPS and a data processor (personal computer). It distributes the position information acquired through GPS to the data such as measured environmental radiation dose rate and energy spectrum. It also displays and edits the data for each measuring position on a map. Transmitting the data to the power station through mobile phone enables plan managers to easily monitor the environmental radiation dose rate nearby and proper emergency monitoring. (author)

  10. Antimicrobial resistance: A global emerging threat to public health systems.

    Ferri, Maurizio; Ranucci, Elena; Romagnoli, Paola; Giaccone, Valerio

    2017-09-02

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) became in the last two decades a global threat to public health systems in the world. Since the antibiotic era, with the discovery of the first antibiotics that provided consistent health benefits to human medicine, the misuse and abuse of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine have accelerated the growing worldwide phenomenon of AMR. This article presents an extensive overview of the epidemiology of AMR, with a focus on the link between food producing-animals and humans and on the legal framework and policies currently implemented at the EU level and globally. The ways of responding to the AMR challenges foresee an array of measures that include: designing more effective preventive measures at farm level to reduce the use of antimicrobials; development of novel antimicrobials; strengthening of AMR surveillance system in animal and human populations; better knowledge of the ecology of resistant bacteria and resistant genes; increased awareness of stakeholders on the prudent use of antibiotics in animal productions and clinical arena; and the public health and environmental consequences of AMR. Based on the global nature of AMR and considering that bacterial resistance does not recognize barriers and can spread to people and the environment, the article ends with specific recommendations structured around a holistic approach and targeted to different stakeholders.

  11. Global Recession and the National System of Innovation in China

    Muchie, Mammo; Baskaran, Angethvar

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s China’s economy has emerged one of the leading economies in the world using judicial mix of policies of economic liberalisation and protection. China’s national system of innovation (NSI) has been evolving and has been adapting to the challenges posed the globalisation. China...... China, which was triggered by the global credit crunch and slow down of trade. Major economies across the world have introduced a series of measures in response to recession and to stem the tide of its negative impacts. These measures included: bank bailouts, rescue packages, fiscal stimuli, and, most...... economies in the world due to the differences among their NSIs.In the case of China, to reduce the negative impacts of the global recession, it announced a fiscal stimulus package of $586b (14% of GDP) in November 2008 aimed to stimulate the domestic demand and also to boost the income of the poor...

  12. BOLDMirror: a global mirror system of DNA barcode data.

    Liu, D; Liu, L; Guo, G; Wang, W; Sun, Q; Parani, M; Ma, J

    2013-11-01

    DNA barcoding is a novel concept for taxonomic identification using short, specific genetic markers and has been applied to study a large number of eukaryotes. The huge amount of data output generated by DNA barcoding requires well-organized information systems. Besides the Barcode of Life Data system (BOLD) established in Canada, the mirror system is also important for the international barcode of life project (iBOL). For this purpose, we developed the BOLDMirror, a global mirror system of DNA barcode data. It is open-sourced and can run on the LAMP (Linux + Apache + MySQL + PHP) environment. BOLDMirror has data synchronization, data representation and statistics modules, and also provides spaces to store user operation history. BOLDMirror can be accessed at http://www.boldmirror.net and several countries have used it to setup their site of DNA barcoding. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Towards a global monitoring system for CMS computing operations

    CERN. Geneva; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the CMS computing system requires a complex monitoring system to cover all its aspects: central services, databases, the distributed computing infrastructure, production and analysis workflows, the global overview of the CMS computing activities and the related historical information. Several tools are available to provide this information, developed both inside and outside of the collaboration and often used in common with other experiments. Despite the fact that the current monitoring allowed CMS to successfully perform its computing operations, an evolution of the system is clearly required, to adapt to the recent changes in the data and workload management tools and models and to address some shortcomings that make its usage less than optimal. Therefore, a recent and ongoing coordinated effort was started in CMS, aiming at improving the entire monitoring system by identifying its weaknesses and the new requirements from the stakeholders, rationalise and streamline existing components and ...

  14. Initial Assessment of Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) Observations

    McKague, D. S.; Ruf, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYNSS) mission provides high temporal resolution observations of cyclones from a constellation of eight low-Earth orbiting satellites. Using the relatively new technique of Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R), all-weather observations are possible, penetrating even deep convection within hurricane eye walls. The compact nature of the GNSS-R receivers permits the use of small satellites, which in turn enables the launch of a constellation of satellites from a single launch vehicle. Launched in December of 2016, the eight CYGNSS satellites provide 25 km resolution observations of mean square slope (surface roughness) and surface winds with a 2.8 hour median revisit time from 38 S to 38 N degrees latitude. In addition to the calibration and validation of CYGNSS sea state observations, the CYGNSS science team is assessing the ability of the mission to provide estimates of cyclone size, intensity, and integrated kinetic energy. With its all-weather ability and high temporal resolution, the CYGNSS mission will add significantly to our ability to monitor cyclone genesis and intensification and will significantly reduce uncertainties in our ability to estimate cyclone intensity, a key variable in predicting its destructive potential. Members of the CYGNSS Science Team are also assessing the assimilation of CYGNSS data into hurricane forecast models to determine the impact of the data on forecast skill, using the data to study extra-tropical cyclones, and looking at connections between tropical cyclones and global scale weather, including the global hydrologic cycle. This presentation will focus on the assessment of early on-orbit observations of cyclones with respect to these various applications.

  15. Losses, inefficiencies and waste in the global food system.

    Alexander, Peter; Brown, Calum; Arneth, Almut; Finnigan, John; Moran, Dominic; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-05-01

    Losses at every stage in the food system influence the extent to which nutritional requirements of a growing global population can be sustainably met. Inefficiencies and losses in agricultural production and consumer behaviour all play a role. This paper aims to understand better the magnitude of different losses and to provide insights into how these influence overall food system efficiency. We take a systems view from primary production of agricultural biomass through to human food requirements and consumption. Quantities and losses over ten stages are calculated and compared in terms of dry mass, wet mass, protein and energy. The comparison reveals significant differences between these measurements, and the potential for wet mass figures used in previous studies to be misleading. The results suggest that due to cumulative losses, the proportion of global agricultural dry biomass consumed as food is just 6% (9.0% for energy and 7.6% for protein), and 24.8% of harvest biomass (31.9% for energy and 27.8% for protein). The highest rates of loss are associated with livestock production, although the largest absolute losses of biomass occur prior to harvest. Losses of harvested crops were also found to be substantial, with 44.0% of crop dry matter (36.9% of energy and 50.1% of protein) lost prior to human consumption. If human over-consumption, defined as food consumption in excess of nutritional requirements, is included as an additional inefficiency, 48.4% of harvested crops were found to be lost (53.2% of energy and 42.3% of protein). Over-eating was found to be at least as large a contributor to food system losses as consumer food waste. The findings suggest that influencing consumer behaviour, e.g. to eat less animal products, or to reduce per capita consumption closer to nutrient requirements, offer substantial potential to improve food security for the rising global population in a sustainable manner.

  16. Identification of metabolic system parameters using global optimization methods

    Gatzke Edward P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of estimating the parameters of dynamic models of complex biological systems from time series data is becoming increasingly important. Methods and results Particular consideration is given to metabolic systems that are formulated as Generalized Mass Action (GMA models. The estimation problem is posed as a global optimization task, for which novel techniques can be applied to determine the best set of parameter values given the measured responses of the biological system. The challenge is that this task is nonconvex. Nonetheless, deterministic optimization techniques can be used to find a global solution that best reconciles the model parameters and measurements. Specifically, the paper employs branch-and-bound principles to identify the best set of model parameters from observed time course data and illustrates this method with an existing model of the fermentation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This is a relatively simple yet representative system with five dependent states and a total of 19 unknown parameters of which the values are to be determined. Conclusion The efficacy of the branch-and-reduce algorithm is illustrated by the S. cerevisiae example. The method described in this paper is likely to be widely applicable in the dynamic modeling of metabolic networks.

  17. Integrated management system - ground for the global performance

    Pereira Filho, Jorge Amorim

    2000-01-01

    Organizations working in the pursuit of a sustainable development must create and continuously update their management systems, in order to achieve harmonic and lasting global results, capable of satisfying partners and clients in short and long terms. Such an improvement can be obtained by integrating preexisting classic management models, applicable to organizations of all types and scales. The implementation of this unique resulting system obeys systematic steps of planning, development, checking and correction, aiming to continuously improve the management. It is in fact a very challenging process because it demands changing people minds, increasing the amount of work and learning of new skills. Though hard-working, such implementation is encouraged both by perceiving the necessity to attain the strategic objectives and by seeing that there are some requisites not yet fully covered by the present system. Finally, this improved management system results in a better global performance, recorded under four angles: financial, increased client satisfaction, better internal processes and continuous learning, driving the organization to be more competitive and successful in the future. (author)

  18. On the global dynamics of the Rabinovich system

    Llibre, Jaume; Messias, Marcelo; Silva, Paulo R da

    2008-01-01

    In this paper by using the Poincare compactification in R 3 we make a global analysis of the Rabinovich system x-dot=hy-v 1 x+yz, y-dot=hx-v 2 y-xz, z-dot=-v 3 z+xy, where (x,y,z) element of R 3 and (h,v 1 ,v 2 ,v 3 ) element of R 4 . We give the complete description of its dynamics on the sphere at infinity. For ten sets of the parameter values the system has either first integrals or invariants. For these ten sets we provide the global phase portrait of the Rabinovich system in the Poincare ball (i.e. in the compactification of R 3 with the sphere S 2 of the infinity). We prove that for convenient values of the parameters the system has two families of singularly degenerate heteroclinic cycles. Then changing slightly the parameters we numerically found a four wings butterfly shaped strange attractor

  19. On the global dynamics of the Rabinovich system

    Llibre, Jaume [Departament de Matematiques, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Messias, Marcelo [Departamento de Matematica EstatIstica e Computacao, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia- UNESP, Rua Roberto Simonsen, 305, Cx. Postal 467, CEP 19060-900 P Prudente, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Silva, Paulo R da [Departamento de Matematica-IBILCE-UNESP, Rua C Colombo, 2265, CEP 15054-000 S J Rio Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: jllibre@mat.uab.cat, E-mail: marcelo@fct.unesp.br, E-mail: prs@ibilce.unesp.br

    2008-07-11

    In this paper by using the Poincare compactification in R{sup 3} we make a global analysis of the Rabinovich system x-dot=hy-v{sub 1}x+yz, y-dot=hx-v{sub 2}y-xz, z-dot=-v{sub 3}z+xy, where (x,y,z) element of R{sup 3} and (h,v{sub 1},v{sub 2},v{sub 3}) element of R{sup 4}. We give the complete description of its dynamics on the sphere at infinity. For ten sets of the parameter values the system has either first integrals or invariants. For these ten sets we provide the global phase portrait of the Rabinovich system in the Poincare ball (i.e. in the compactification of R{sup 3} with the sphere S{sup 2} of the infinity). We prove that for convenient values of the parameters the system has two families of singularly degenerate heteroclinic cycles. Then changing slightly the parameters we numerically found a four wings butterfly shaped strange attractor.

  20. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS): New developments

    Summerhayes, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    GOOS will provide information about the present and future states of seas and oceans and their living resources, and on the role of the oceans in climate change. Among other things, it will include monitoring the extent to which the sea is polluted, and applying models enabling the behaviour of polluted environments to be forecast given a variety of forcing conditions including anthropogenic and natural changes. Implementation has begun through integration of previously separate existing observing systems into a GOOS Initial Observing System, and through the development of Pilot Projects, most notably in the coastal seas of Europe and North-east Asia. Although the present emphasis is on the measurement of physical properties, plans are underway for increasing the observation of chemical and biological parameters. The main biological thrust at present comes through the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN). Consideration needs to be given to incorporation into the GOOS Initial Observing System of present national, international and global chemical and biological monitoring systems, and the development and implementation of new chemical and biological monitoring subsystems, especially in coastal seas for monitoring the health of those environments. GOOS will offer marine scientists and other users a scheme of continuing measurements on a scale larger in time and space than can be accomplished by individuals for their own applications, and a vastly improved store of basic marine environmental data for a multitude of purposes. For GOOS news see the GOOS Homepage at http://ioc.unesco.org/GOOS/. (author)

  1. Towards a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    Duren, Riley; Butler, James; Rotman, Doug; Miller, Charles; Decola, Phil; Sheffner, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Mitchiner, John; Jonietz, Karl; Dimotakis, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems and in the oceans. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, meta-analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to rigorously identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a status of the GHGIS effort including our latest analysis and ideas for potential near-term pilot projects with potential relevance to European initiatives including the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS).

  2. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  3. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  4. The Cyclicity of the Development of the Global Economic System amid Present-Day Globalization

    Mihail N. Dudin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this topic is associated with the diversity of causes behind crisis processes in economics and the individuality of each particular crisis. This necessitates classifying them in a detailed fashion. The present downturn is a manifestation of the cyclicity of the development of the global economic system amid present-day globalization and the established architecture of the institutional space. The formal (legislation, contractual rules, corporate norms, etc. and non-formal institutes (rules, customs, traditions, behavior as a whole, etc., undergoing changes in their structure and mechanisms, caused the emergence of financial innovations whose yield surpassed that of the real sector of the economy multifold. This facilitated the concentration of money in financial markets and transforming them into a thing-in-itself. The theory of economic cycles is one of the theories of economic dynamics which explain the movement of the national economy. While the theory of economic growth explores factors and conditions for growth as a long-term trend, the theory of cycles deals with causes behind fluctuations in economic activity through time. Results. In accordance with the aims of this study, the authors established that crises can have the following causes: objective, which are associated with the cyclical development of the system, modernization and restructuring needs, and the impact of external factors, and subjective, which reflect errors in management, shortcomings in the organization of production, and the imperfections of innovation and investment policy. A crisis can take its course manifestly and be easily detected or can be inconspicuous and take its course in a latent form. The most dangerous are crises that affect the system as a whole. In a situation of this kind, there forms a train of complex issues resolving which depends on the timeliness of detecting them and professionalism in managing the organization, municipal

  5. Launch vehicle tracking enhancement through Global Positioning System Metric Tracking

    Moore, T. C.; Li, Hanchu; Gray, T.; Doran, A.

    United Launch Alliance (ULA) initiated operational flights of both the Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicle families in 2002. The Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicles were developed jointly with the US Air Force (USAF) as part of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program. Both Launch Vehicle (LV) families have provided 100% mission success since their respective inaugural launches and demonstrated launch capability from both Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) on the Western Test Range and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on the Eastern Test Range. However, the current EELV fleet communications, tracking, & control architecture & technology, which date back to the origins of the space launch business, require support by a large and high cost ground footprint. The USAF has embarked on an initiative known as Future Flight Safety System (FFSS) that will significantly reduce Test Range Operations and Maintenance (O& M) cost by closing facilities and decommissioning ground assets. In support of the FFSS, a Global Positioning System Metric Tracking (GPS MT) System based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation has been developed for EELV which will allow both Ranges to divest some of their radar assets. The Air Force, ULA and Space Vector have flown the first 2 Atlas Certification vehicles demonstrating the successful operation of the GPS MT System. The first Atlas V certification flight was completed in February 2012 from CCAFS, the second Atlas V certification flight from VAFB was completed in September 2012 and the third certification flight on a Delta IV was completed October 2012 from CCAFS. The GPS MT System will provide precise LV position, velocity and timing information that can replace ground radar tracking resource functionality. The GPS MT system will provide an independent position/velocity S-Band telemetry downlink to support the current man-in-the-loop ground-based commanded destruct of an anomalous flight- The system

  6. A global "imaging'' view on systems approaches in immunology.

    Ludewig, Burkhard; Stein, Jens V; Sharpe, James; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Thiel, Volker; Bocharov, Gennady

    2012-12-01

    The immune system exhibits an enormous complexity. High throughput methods such as the "-omic'' technologies generate vast amounts of data that facilitate dissection of immunological processes at ever finer resolution. Using high-resolution data-driven systems analysis, causal relationships between complex molecular processes and particular immunological phenotypes can be constructed. However, processes in tissues, organs, and the organism itself (so-called higher level processes) also control and regulate the molecular (lower level) processes. Reverse systems engineering approaches, which focus on the examination of the structure, dynamics and control of the immune system, can help to understand the construction principles of the immune system. Such integrative mechanistic models can properly describe, explain, and predict the behavior of the immune system in health and disease by combining both higher and lower level processes. Moving from molecular and cellular levels to a multiscale systems understanding requires the development of methodologies that integrate data from different biological levels into multiscale mechanistic models. In particular, 3D imaging techniques and 4D modeling of the spatiotemporal dynamics of immune processes within lymphoid tissues are central for such integrative approaches. Both dynamic and global organ imaging technologies will be instrumental in facilitating comprehensive multiscale systems immunology analyses as discussed in this review. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Building resilience of the Global Positioning System to space weather

    Fisher, Genene; Kunches, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Almost every aspect of the global economy now depends on GPS. Worldwide, nations are working to create a robust Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), which will provide global positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) services for applications such as aviation, electric power distribution, financial exchange, maritime navigation, and emergency management. The U.S. government is examining the vulnerabilities of GPS, and it is well known that space weather events, such as geomagnetic storms, contribute to errors in single-frequency GPS and are a significant factor for differential GPS. The GPS industry has lately begun to recognize that total electron content (TEC) signal delays, ionospheric scintillation, and solar radio bursts can also interfere with daily operations and that these threats grow with the approach of the next solar maximum, expected to occur in 2013. The key challenges raised by these circumstances are, first, to better understand the vulnerability of GPS technologies and services to space weather and, second, to develop policies that will build resilience and mitigate risk.

  8. Global biogeography of mating system variation in seed plants.

    Moeller, David A; Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Moe, Annika M; Geber, Monica A; Goodwillie, Carol; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Eckert, Christopher G; Elle, Elizabeth; Johnston, Mark O; Kalisz, Susan; Ree, Richard H; Sargent, Risa D; Vallejo-Marin, Mario; Winn, Alice A

    2017-03-01

    Latitudinal gradients in biotic interactions have been suggested as causes of global patterns of biodiversity and phenotypic variation. Plant biologists have long speculated that outcrossing mating systems are more common at low than high latitudes owing to a greater predictability of plant-pollinator interactions in the tropics; however, these ideas have not previously been tested. Here, we present the first global biogeographic analysis of plant mating systems based on 624 published studies from 492 taxa. We found a weak decline in outcrossing rate towards higher latitudes and among some biomes, but no biogeographic patterns in the frequency of self-incompatibility. Incorporating life history and growth form into biogeographic analyses reduced or eliminated the importance of latitude and biome in predicting outcrossing or self-incompatibility. Our results suggest that biogeographic patterns in mating system are more likely a reflection of the frequency of life forms across latitudes rather than the strength of plant-pollinator interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. The global positioning system and ArcGIS

    Kennedy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Foreword to the First EditionForeword to the Second EditionPreface for the Instructor, Third EditionAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorIntroductionChapter 1: Basic Concepts OverviewWhere Are You?What Time Is It?GPS and GISAnatomy of the Term ""Global Positioning System""How We Know Where Something IsStep-by-StepDisclaimerFirst OffDifferent Receivers and Different SoftwarePreparationProject 1AUnderstanding the Screens and ControlsProject 1BProject 1CChapter 2: Automated Data CollectionOverviewHow'd They Do That?How It Works: Measuring Distance by Measuring TimeFactors Affecting When and How to Coll

  10. Combining Innovation Systems and Global Value Chains for Development

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Lema, Rasmus; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2018-01-01

    This paper contributes to ongoing work which seeks to bring together the national innovation system and global value chain literatures for the study of economic development. We depart from the view that such a new combination will be helpful both in enhancing understanding of socioeconomic...... processes in developing countries and in building a more useful knowledge base for action. To this aim, we combine bibliometric analysis with a qualitative review of work from both bodies of literature. The purpose is to inform a research agenda suited for policy-relevant studies of economic development...

  11. "Competing Conceptions of Globalization" Revisited: Relocating the Tension between World-Systems Analysis and Globalization Analysis

    Clayton, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many scholars have become fascinated by a contemporary, multidimensional process that has come to be known as "globalization." Globalization originally described economic developments at the world level. More specifically, scholars invoked the concept in reference to the process of global economic integration and the seemingly…

  12. Global Scale Remote Sensing Monitoring of Endorheic Lake Systems

    Scuderi, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Semi-arid regions of the world contain thousands of endorheic lakes in large shallow basins. Due to their generally remote locations few are continuously monitored. Documentation of recent variability is essential to assessing how endorheic lakes respond to short-term meteorological conditions and longer-term decadal-scale climatic variability and is critical in determining future disturbance of hydrological regimes with respect to predicted warming and drying in the mid-latitudes. Short- and long-term departures from climatic averages, rapid environmental shifts and increased population pressures may result in significant fluctuations in the hydrologic budgets of these lakes and adversely impact endorheic lake/basin ecosystems. Information on flooding variability is also critical in estimating changes in P/E balances and on the production of exposed and easily deflated surfaces that may impact dust loading locally and regionally. In order to provide information on how these lakes respond we need to understand how entire systems respond hydrologically to different climatic inputs. This requires monitoring and analysis of regional to continental-scale systems. To date, this level of monitoring has not been achieved in an operational system. In order to assess the possibility of creating a global-scale lake inundation database we analyzed two contrasting lake systems in western North America (Mexico and New Mexico, USA) and China (Inner Mongolia). We asked two major questions: 1) is it possible to quickly and accurately quantify current lake inundation events in near real time using remote sensing? and, 2) is it possible to differentiate variable meteorological sources and resultant lake inundation responses using this type of database? With respect to these results we outline an automated lake monitoring approach using MODIS data and real-time processing systems that may provide future global monitoring capabilities.

  13. The emergence of global administrative systems: the case of sport.

    L. Casini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “global” dimension of sport is, in the first instance, regulatory, and it embraces the whole complex of norms produced and implemented by regulatory sporting regimes at the international and domestic levels. These rules include not only private norms set by the International Olympic Committee (IOC and by International Federations (IFs but also “hybrid” public-private norms approved by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA and international law (such as the UNESCO Convention Against Doping in Sport. Sports law, therefore, is highly heterogeneous, and, above all, it is not simply transnational, but actually “global”. This law represents an autonomous global legal system, which displays distinctive features such as the presence of some separation of powers (in particular quasi-judicial, with the strategic role played by the Court of Arbitration for Sport and the development of relevant procedural principles (e.g. fairness and due process; and these principles operate both in rulemaking procedures (e.g. the adoption of the WADA Code and in adjudicatory ones (e.g. for disciplinary measures. Finally, this global legal system is made up with several international regulatory regimes, both private – such as the Olympic movement – and hybrid public and private – such as the world anti-doping regime. The paper will deal in particular with this latter issue. The analysis will focus on the global administrative dimensions of sports regimes, together with their inter-institutional relationships and its legal implications for the public and private interaction.

  14. Application of the NAVSTAR/GLOBAL positioning system on instrumented ranges

    Reinhart, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This report treats the application of the NAVSTAR/Global Positioning System as the Position/Location System in Real Time Casualty Assessment experiments. The desirable characteristics of a position/location system are listed. A current position/location system, the Range Measuring System, is used as a comparison reference for the Global Positioning System. Operation and parameters of the Global Positioning System are presented. A d...

  15. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS: The Utmost Interdisciplinary Integrator

    Bernd Eissfeller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently four global satellite navigation systems are under modernization and development: The US American GPS III, the Russian GLONASS, the European Galileo and Chinese BeiDou systems. In the paper the interdisciplinary contributions of different scientific areas to GNSS are assessed. It is outlined that GNSS is not only a technical system but also a basic element of mobile computing high-tech market. At the same time a GNSS has the role of a force enabler in security related applications. Technology, market and security policies are interdependent and are sometimes in a relationship of tension. The goal of the paper is to describe the overall systemics of GNSS from a holistic point of view. The paper also addresses the human factor side of GNSS. The requirements on human resources in GNSS are at least two-fold: On the one hand very specialized engineers are needed; on the other hand the generalists are necessary who are able to understand the system aspects. Decision makers in institutions and industry need special knowledge in technologies, economics and political strategies. Is the current university system able to educate and prepare such generalists? Are specialized master courses for GNSS needed? Are external training courses necessary?

  16. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  17. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  18. High accuracy autonomous navigation using the global positioning system (GPS)

    Truong, Son H.; Hart, Roger C.; Shoan, Wendy C.; Wood, Terri; Long, Anne C.; Oza, Dipak H.; Lee, Taesul

    1997-01-01

    The application of global positioning system (GPS) technology to the improvement of the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation, is reported. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are currently being qualified in conjunction with the GPS attitude determination flyer (GADFLY) experiment for the small satellite technology initiative Lewis spacecraft. Preflight performance assessments indicated that these algorithms are able to provide a real time total position accuracy of better than 10 m and a velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 m/s, with selective availability at typical levels. It is expected that the position accuracy will be increased to 2 m if corrections are provided by the GPS wide area augmentation system.

  19. Global optimization for quantum dynamics of few-fermion systems

    Li, Xikun; Pecak, Daniel; Sowiński, Tomasz; Sherson, Jacob; Nielsen, Anne E. B.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum state preparation is vital to quantum computation and quantum information processing tasks. In adiabatic state preparation, the target state is theoretically obtained with nearly perfect fidelity if the control parameter is tuned slowly enough. As this, however, leads to slow dynamics, it is often desirable to be able to carry out processes more rapidly. In this work, we employ two global optimization methods to estimate the quantum speed limit for few-fermion systems confined in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. Such systems can be produced experimentally in a well-controlled manner. We determine the optimized control fields and achieve a reduction in the ramping time of more than a factor of four compared to linear ramping. We also investigate how robust the fidelity is to small variations of the control fields away from the optimized shapes.

  20. 78 FR 13396 - 90th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

    2013-02-27

    ... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the eighty-ninth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS). DATES...

  1. 78 FR 57672 - 91st Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

    2013-09-19

    ... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the ninety-first meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) DATES...

  2. 77 FR 12106 - 88th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning System (GPS)

    2012-02-28

    ... 159, Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The..., Global Positioning System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held March 13-16, 2012, from 9 a.m.-4:30 p.m...

  3. 78 FR 31576 - Enforcement Proceeding; Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and...

    2013-05-24

    ...-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of... importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof by reason... importation any two-way global satellite communication devices, system, and components thereof that infringe...

  4. A global empirical system for probabilistic seasonal climate prediction

    Eden, J. M.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; Hawkins, E.; Suckling, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    Preparing for episodes with risks of anomalous weather a month to a year ahead is an important challenge for governments, non-governmental organisations, and private companies and is dependent on the availability of reliable forecasts. The majority of operational seasonal forecasts are made using process-based dynamical models, which are complex, computationally challenging and prone to biases. Empirical forecast approaches built on statistical models to represent physical processes offer an alternative to dynamical systems and can provide either a benchmark for comparison or independent supplementary forecasts. Here, we present a simple empirical system based on multiple linear regression for producing probabilistic forecasts of seasonal surface air temperature and precipitation across the globe. The global CO2-equivalent concentration is taken as the primary predictor; subsequent predictors, including large-scale modes of variability in the climate system and local-scale information, are selected on the basis of their physical relationship with the predictand. The focus given to the climate change signal as a source of skill and the probabilistic nature of the forecasts produced constitute a novel approach to global empirical prediction. Hindcasts for the period 1961-2013 are validated against observations using deterministic (correlation of seasonal means) and probabilistic (continuous rank probability skill scores) metrics. Good skill is found in many regions, particularly for surface air temperature and most notably in much of Europe during the spring and summer seasons. For precipitation, skill is generally limited to regions with known El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections. The system is used in a quasi-operational framework to generate empirical seasonal forecasts on a monthly basis.

  5. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research.

    Yao, Qiang; Chen, Kai; Yao, Lan; Lyu, Peng-hui; Yang, Tian-an; Luo, Fei; Chen, Shan-quan; He, Lu-yang; Liu, Zhi-yong

    2014-06-05

    In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of hospital have been identified as the

  6. Global positioning method based on polarized light compass system

    Liu, Jun; Yang, Jiangtao; Wang, Yubo; Tang, Jun; Shen, Chong

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a global positioning method based on a polarized light compass system. A main limitation of polarization positioning is the environment such as weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, and the solution to the positioning problem is given in this paper which is polarization image de-noising and segmentation. Therefore, the pulse coupled neural network is employed for enhancing positioning performance. The prominent advantages of the present positioning technique are as follows: (i) compared to the existing position method based on polarized light, better sun tracking accuracy can be achieved and (ii) the robustness and accuracy of positioning under weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, such as cloudy or building shielding, are improved significantly. Finally, some field experiments are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed global positioning technique. The experiments have shown that our proposed method outperforms the conventional polarization positioning method, the real time longitude and latitude with accuracy up to 0.0461° and 0.0911°, respectively.

  7. Global voltage control for the LEP RF system

    Ciapala, E.; Butterworth, A.; Peschardt, E.

    1993-01-01

    The LEG RF system is installed as independent 16 cavity units. In addition to the eight copper cavity units originally installed 12 units with super-conducting cavities are being added for the LEP200 energy upgrade. The total RF voltage determines the synchrotron tune (Qs) and must be controlled precisely during energy ramping. Local function generators in each of the RF units are pre-loaded such that when triggered simultaneously by ramp timing events transmitted over the general timing system the total voltage varies to give the Qs function required. A disadvantage is that loss of RF in a unit at any time after the loading process cannot be corrected. As the number of RF units increases automatic control of the total RF voltage and its distribution around LEP becomes desirable. A global voltage control system, based on a central VME controller, has recently been installed. It has direct and rapid access to the RF units over the LEP time division multiplexing system. Initial tests on operation and performance at fixed energy and during energy ramping are described, as well as the implementation of a Qs loop in which Qs can be set directly using on-line synchrotron frequency measurements

  8. Link System Performance at the First Global Test of the CMS Alignment System

    Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C.F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L. [Universidad de Cantabria (Spain); Barcala, J.M.; Fernandez, M.G.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    A test of components and a global test of the CMS alignment system was performed at the 14 hall of the ISR tunnel at CERN along Summer 2000. Positions are reconstructed and compared to survey measurements. The obtained results from the measurements of the Link System are presented here. (Author) 12 refs.

  9. Link System Performance at the First Global Test of the CMS Alignment System

    Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Barcala, J. M.; Fernandez, M. G.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    A test of components and a global test of the CMS alignment system was performed at the 14 hall of the ISR tunnel at CERN along Summer 2000. Positions are reconstructed and compared to survey measurements. The obtained results from the measurements of the Link System are presented here. (Author) 12 refs

  10. WHO's role in the global health system: what can be learned from global R&D debates?

    Moon, Suerie

    2014-02-01

    Recent global debates on the research and development (R&D) of health technologies, such as drugs, diagnostics and vaccines, can be seen as a microcosm of discussions on the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the global health system more broadly. The global R&D system has come under heightened scrutiny with the publication of a 2012 report by the WHO Consultative Expert Working Group on Research and Development (CEWG), which made a number of recommendations to more equitably meet global health needs. The CEWG report followed a decade-long process of debate at the WHO on the weaknesses of the global R&D system, which include problems of affordability, limited research where market returns are small or uncertain (such as the 'neglected diseases' that predominantly affect the world's poorest), inefficient overlap of research efforts, and overuse of medicines such as antibiotics. The CEWG report called on WHO Member States to develop a global framework to improve monitoring, coordination and financing of R&D efforts through the establishment of a Global Health R&D Observatory and the negotiation of a binding treaty on R&D. While the treaty option has been put on the back-burner for several years, Member States nevertheless agreed at the 2013 World Health Assembly (WHA) on concrete steps towards a global framework. Progress at the 2013 WHA reaffirmed the central role of WHO as a convener, and the WHA's decision to create the Observatory within the WHO Secretariat underscored the organization's role as a source of strategic knowledge in the global health system. However, despite WHO's constitutional mandate as the 'directing and coordinating authority on international health work', in reality it faces major challenges in coordinating autonomous R&D actors such as states, firms and foundations in the global system. Strengthening its ability to do so requires, at a minimum, reforming its financing arrangements to provide it with a greater degree of

  11. Contributions of Global Health Diplomacy to Health Systems in Sub ...

    New research will help boost Africa's bargaining power in global health diplomacy, ... need to assert their public health interests in global health diplomacy from an ... Brazil, and India; and 3) the involvement of African actors in getting universal ...

  12. A priori estimates of global solutions of superlinear parabolic systems

    Julius Pacuta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the parabolic system $ u_{t}-\\Delta u = u^{r}v^{p}$, $v_{t}-\\Delta v = u^{q}v^{s}$ in $\\Omega\\times(0,\\infty$, complemented by the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions and the initial conditions $(u,v(\\cdot,0 = (u_{0},v_{0}$ in $\\Omega$, where $\\Omega $ is a smooth bounded domain in $ \\mathbb{R}^{N} $ and $ u_{0},v_{0}\\in L^{\\infty}(\\Omega$ are nonnegative functions. We find conditions on $ p,q,r,s $ guaranteeing a priori estimates of nonnegative classical global solutions. More precisely every such solution is bounded by a constant depending on suitable norm of the initial data. Our proofs are based on bootstrap in weighted Lebesgue spaces, universal estimates of auxiliary functions and estimates of the Dirichlet heat kernel.

  13. The global greenhouse effect and the advanced nuclear energy system

    Byong Whi Lee

    1998-01-01

    In spite of future uncertainty, Korea is very much committed to nuclear energy as a major source of electric power expansion, because of its lack of domestic energy resources. A long term nuclear power program has resulted in 11 nuclear power plants of 9.6 GWe in operation, 2 units under construction and 7 planned. This means that the share of nuclear power in Korean electricity production would be about 38% in 2006. Many other countries were faced with the problem of global warming which is related to carbondioxide emission from the use of fossil fuels. According to Korean experience, it could be concluded that substitution of fossil fuels would be the most efficient and economic means of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to nuclear and hydropower, the most promising other non-fossil sources are geothermal energy, biomass, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic systems, wind power, tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal electric conversion

  14. Global conservation laws and femtoscopy of small systems

    Chajecki, Zbigniew; Lisa, Mike

    2008-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand, in detail, two-pion correlations measured in p+p and d+A collisions. In particular, one wishes to understand the femtoscopic correlations to compare to similar measurements in heavy-ion collisions. However, in the low-multiplicity final states of these systems, global conservation laws generate significant N-body correlations that project onto the two-pion space in nontrivial ways and complicate the femtoscopic analysis. We discuss a formalism to calculate and account for these correlations in collisions dominated by a single particle species (e.g., pions). We also discuss effects on two-particle correlations between nonidentical particles, the understanding of which may be important in the study of femtoscopic space-time asymmetries

  15. CooMan - a global collaborative project management system

    Souza, J.M. de; Palma, S.

    1994-01-01

    Project Coordination and Management have long been recognized as an area with growing problems and unsatisfactory solutions. Conciliating flexibility with target achievements is historically the main problem to face. The difficulties have been growing at more than linear ratio with the size and complexity of the Projects being developed in the present days. The HEP communities suffer additional challenges because of the distributed nature of the collaborations, the novelty of each project; and the less authoritarian form of leadership and management of team and individual. This prevents the adoption of more centralized focus on decision. CooMan intends to be a Global Collaborative Project Management System. This paper discusses the basic aspects of the concepts involved, outlining how task coordination, acts of speech, and World-Wide hyper media can be used to support project management activities. A distributed tool to implement such proposition is described, and a first prototype is presented

  16. A Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Global Mercury Observation System

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS Project includes a specific Work Package aimed at developing tools (i.e. databases, catalogs, services to collect GMOS datasets, harvest mercury databases, and offer services like search, view, and download spatial datasets from the GMOS portal (www.gmos.eu. The system will be developed under the framework of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE Directive and the Directive 2003/4/EC on public access to environmental information, which both aim to make relevant, harmonized, high-quality geographic information available to support the formulation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and activities that have a direct or indirect impact on the environment. Three databases have been proposed (on emissions, field data and model results, and each will be equipped with state-of-the-art, open-source software to allow for the highest performance possible. Web-based user-interfaces and prototype applications will be developed to demonstrate the potential of blending different datasets from different servers for environmental assessment studies. Several services (i.e. catalog browsers, WMS and WCS services, web GIS services will be developed to facilitate data integration, data re-use, and data exchange within and beyond the GMOS project. Different types of measurement and model datasets provided by project partners and other sources will be integrated into PostgreSQL-PostGIS, harmonized by creating INSPIRE-compliant metadata and made available to a larger community of stakeholders, policy makers, scientists, and NGOs (as well as to other public and private institutions, as dictated by the Directive 2003/4/EC. Since interoperability is a central concept for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS, the Global Monitoring for Environmental and Security (GMES and the INSPIRE Directive, guidelines developed in these three frameworks will be

  17. Lithuanian financial system transformation in the context of globalization

    Arturas Balkevicius

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to discuss the transformation of the Lithuania finance system in the context of globalization. Exploring the interdependence between the financial system and the economy, in different periods. Analyze the country’s financial system transformation after the crisis period. Methods: Contribution use general scientific methods, especially analysis, synthesis, comparison, induction and deduction. Essential sources of information were professional publications , statistic data of state Statistics Department, Bank of Lithuania, Euro stat. Scientific aim: Main aim of this article is to analyze the transformation of the Lithuania financial system and fined out the country’s economic growth and the financial system correlation, the main factors having a both positive and negative impact on economic growth. Findings: Findings of this article are new information in this area, which can be useful for another research. The correlation between the banks ‚ loans and GDP. However, this does not apply at the time of the economy fall. Conclusions: Economic growth in the financial sector and economic development is best visible analyzing in the correlation between the banks ‚ loans and GDP. However, this does not apply at the time of the economy fall. Banks ‚ relative indicators better reflects the weight of the financial sector and the impact on the national economy. We can see that 2011 banks relative indicators dropped to 2006 level. This shows how much the financial sector’s contribution decreased to economic development. Banks’ loans demand fall down. Lithuania has taken strict fiscal discipline and austerity measures. This have produced results quite quickly, in 2010 GDP grew by 3.4 percent, and in 2011 even 11.5 percent. Lithuania’s economy is recovering, but the financial sector and in particular banks still not recovering. The economic crisis has intervened in the banking system and has been surviving

  18. Global structural optimizations of surface systems with a genetic algorithm

    Chuang, Feng-Chuan

    2005-01-01

    Global structural optimizations with a genetic algorithm were performed for atomic cluster and surface systems including aluminum atomic clusters, Si magic clusters on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface, silicon high-index surfaces, and Ag-induced Si(111) reconstructions. First, the global structural optimizations of neutral aluminum clusters Al n (n up to 23) were performed using a genetic algorithm coupled with a tight-binding potential. Second, a genetic algorithm in combination with tight-binding and first-principles calculations were performed to study the structures of magic clusters on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface. Extensive calculations show that the magic cluster observed in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments consist of eight Si atoms. Simulated STM images of the Si magic cluster exhibit a ring-like feature similar to STM experiments. Third, a genetic algorithm coupled with a highly optimized empirical potential were used to determine the lowest energy structure of high-index semiconductor surfaces. The lowest energy structures of Si(105) and Si(114) were determined successfully. The results of Si(105) and Si(114) are reported within the framework of highly optimized empirical potential and first-principles calculations. Finally, a genetic algorithm coupled with Si and Ag tight-binding potentials were used to search for Ag-induced Si(111) reconstructions at various Ag and Si coverages. The optimized structural models of √3 x √3, 3 x 1, and 5 x 2 phases were reported using first-principles calculations. A novel model is found to have lower surface energy than the proposed double-honeycomb chained (DHC) model both for Au/Si(111) 5 x 2 and Ag/Si(111) 5 x 2 systems

  19. Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants for Commercial Refrigeration Systems

    Fricke, Brian A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Vishaldeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Environmental concerns are driving regulations for the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry towards lower GWP alternatives to HFC refrigerants. Existing lower GWP refrigerant alternatives include hydrocarbons, such as propane (R-290) and isobutane (R-600a), as well as carbon dioxide (R-744), ammonia (R-717), and R-32. In addition, new lower GWP refrigerant alternatives are currently being developed by refrigerant manufacturers, including hydrofluoro-olefin (HFO) and unsaturated hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFO) refrigerants. The selection of an appropriate refrigerant for a given refrigeration application should be based on several factors, including the GWP of the refrigerant, the energy consumption of the refrigeration system over its operating lifetime, and leakage of refrigerant over the system lifetime. For example, focusing on energy efficiency alone may overlook the significant environmental impact of refrigerant leakage; while focusing on GWP alone might result in lower efficiency systems that result in higher indirect impact over the equipment lifetime. Thus, the objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between

  20. A global renewable energy system: A modelling exercise in ETSAP/TIAM

    Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Balyk, Olexandr

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to test the ETSAP2-TIAM global energy system model and to try out how far it can go towards a global 100% renewable energy system with the existing model database. This will show where limits in global resources are met and where limits in the data fed to the model until now are met...

  1. Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities

    Fisher, Genene

    2011-01-01

    When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

  2. Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    2001-01-01

    The US DOE continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE OST sponsors the Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDP). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of statements defining specific needs or problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One of the stated needs was for developing technologies that would reduce costs and shorten DDOE/EM--0552DOE/EM--0552 and D schedules by providing radiological characterizations to meet the free-release criteria. The Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner (GPRS system shown in Figure 1) utilizes a detection system; a portable computer, a differential global positioning system (d-gps), and a four wheel drive vehicle. Once the survey data has been collected, a software program called GeoSofttrademark generates a graphical representation of the radiological contamination extent. Baseline technology involves gridding the area and hand surveying each grid. This demonstration investigated the associated costs and the required time to evaluate the radiological characterization data from the GPRS with respect to the baseline technology. The GPRS system performs in-situ, real-time analyses to identify the extent of radiological contamination. Benefits expected from using the new innovative technology (GPRS) include: Reduced labor hours associated with performing the survey; Increased number of survey data points; Reduced

  3. Quality assurance systems – the difficulties in providing a global unified system for Surveyors

    Goodhead, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper will analyse the difficulties in providing a global quality assurance system for Surveyors. Using case studies from the United Kingdom and elsewhere opportunities for harmonising Quality Assurance systems will be explored. The difficulties in moving towards common quality assurance systems will be analysed. Possible alternatives in the form of the development a knowledge bank of mutual agreements and top up qualifications will be investigated. The paper also looks at the role of FI...

  4. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files)...

  5. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Data (30-second sampling, 1 hour files) from NASA CDDIS

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) daily 30-second sampled data available from the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS). Global Navigation...

  6. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  7. Derivation of global vegetation biophysical parameters from EUMETSAT Polar System

    García-Haro, Francisco Javier; Campos-Taberner, Manuel; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Laparra, Valero; Camacho, Fernando; Sánchez-Zapero, Jorge; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the algorithm developed in LSA-SAF (Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis) for the derivation of global vegetation parameters from the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) sensor on board MetOp (Meteorological-Operational) satellites forming the EUMETSAT (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Polar System (EPS). The suite of LSA-SAF EPS vegetation products includes the leaf area index (LAI), the fractional vegetation cover (FVC), and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR). LAI, FAPAR, and FVC characterize the structure and the functioning of vegetation and are key parameters for a wide range of land-biosphere applications. The algorithm is based on a hybrid approach that blends the generalization capabilities offered by physical radiative transfer models with the accuracy and computational efficiency of machine learning methods. One major feature is the implementation of multi-output retrieval methods able to jointly and more consistently estimate all the biophysical parameters at the same time. We propose a multi-output Gaussian process regression (GPRmulti), which outperforms other considered methods over PROSAIL (coupling of PROSPECT and SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrary Inclined Leaves) radiative transfer models) EPS simulations. The global EPS products include uncertainty estimates taking into account the uncertainty captured by the retrieval method and input errors propagation. A sensitivity analysis is performed to assess several sources of uncertainties in retrievals and maximize the positive impact of modeling the noise in training simulations. The paper discusses initial validation studies and provides details about the characteristics and overall quality of the products, which can be of interest to assist the successful use of the data by a broad user's community. The consistent generation and distribution of the EPS vegetation products will

  8. Individual Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    Force, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides providing position, navigation, and timing (PNT) to terrestrial users, GPS is currently used to provide for precision orbit determination, precise time synchronization, real-time spacecraft navigation, and three-axis control of Earth orbiting satellites. With additional Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service (GLONASS, Beidou, and Galileo), it will be possible to provide these services by using other GNSS constellations. The paper, "GPS in the Space Service Volume," presented at the ION GNSS 19th International Technical Meeting in 2006 (Ref. 1), defined the Space Service Volume, and analyzed the performance of GPS out to 70,000 km. This paper will report a similar analysis of the performance of each of the additional GNSS and compare them with GPS alone. The Space Service Volume, defined as the volume between 3,000 km altitude and geosynchronous altitude, as compared with the Terrestrial Service Volume between the surface and 3,000 km. In the Terrestrial Service Volume, GNSS performance will be similar to performance on the Earth's surface. The GPS system has established signal requirements for the Space Service Volume. A separate paper presented at the conference covers the use of multiple GNSS in the Space Service Volume.

  9. GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR GRAVITATIONAL LENS SYSTEMS WITH REGULARIZED SOURCES

    Rogers, Adam; Fiege, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Several approaches exist to model gravitational lens systems. In this study, we apply global optimization methods to find the optimal set of lens parameters using a genetic algorithm. We treat the full optimization procedure as a two-step process: an analytical description of the source plane intensity distribution is used to find an initial approximation to the optimal lens parameters; the second stage of the optimization uses a pixelated source plane with the semilinear method to determine an optimal source. Regularization is handled by means of an iterative method and the generalized cross validation (GCV) and unbiased predictive risk estimator (UPRE) functions that are commonly used in standard image deconvolution problems. This approach simultaneously estimates the optimal regularization parameter and the number of degrees of freedom in the source. Using the GCV and UPRE functions, we are able to justify an estimation of the number of source degrees of freedom found in previous work. We test our approach by applying our code to a subset of the lens systems included in the SLACS survey.

  10. Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS): towards a global surveillance system.

    Chiang, Laura F; Kress, Howard; Sumner, Steven A; Gleckel, Jessie; Kawemama, Philbert; Gordon, Rebecca N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS). The survey is a national, household survey that systematically measures the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual, physical and emotional violence against children. This report provides information about the history, implementation, ethical protections, utility, results, limitations, and future directions of the VACS work. The study has been implemented in 11 countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, providing each of these countries with baseline data and momentum to address violence against children as a public health and human rights priority. These data are novel in each country, and VACS is well poised to contribute to an existing surveillance system or be used as the basis of a periodic surveillance system. Without ongoing surveillance to assess prevalence and the impact of policy, prevention and response programming, violence will likely continue to be overlooked as the linchpin public health crisis that it is, globally and in individual countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. The Global Communication Infrastructure of the International Monitoring System

    Lastowka, L.; Gray, A.; Anichenko, A.

    2007-05-01

    The Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI) employs 6 satellites in various frequency bands distributed around the globe. Communications with the PTS (Provisional Technical Secretariat) in Vienna, Austria are achieved through VSAT technologies, international leased data circuits and Virtual Private Network (VPN) connections over the Internet. To date, 210 independent VSAT circuits have been connected to Vienna as well as special circuits connecting to the Antarctic and to independent sub-networks. Data volumes from all technologies currently reach 8 Gigabytes per day. The first level of support and a 24/7 help desk remains with the GCI contractor, but performance is monitored actively by the PTS/GCI operations team. GCI operations are being progressively introduced into the PTS operations centre. An Operations centre fully integrated with the GCI segment of the IMS network will ensure a more focused response to incidents and will maximize the availability of the IMS network. Existing trouble tickets systems are being merged to ensure the commission manages GCI incidents in the context of the IMS as a whole. A focus on a single source of data for GCI network performance has enabled reporting systems to be developed which allow for improved and automated reports. The contracted availability for each individual virtual circuit is 99.5% and this performance is regularly reviewed on a monthly basis

  12. Global petroleum fiscal systems compared by contractor take

    Johnston, D.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum fiscal terms in most countries are tougher than in the US, but these countries have more geological potential and still may be economically attractive. The market for exploration capital and technology is super competitive and getting more sophisticated. Governments are increasingly aware of the global market for exploration acreage or rehabilitation projects. For many oil companies, an important part of the negotiations is to secure terms acceptable to the potential partner. Knowing the market and what terms are realistic depends on a region's potential and other factors. Most countries developing petroleum fiscal systems are opting for the production sharing contract (PSC). This trend began in the 1960s. Now, nearly half of the countries with petroleum potential have a system based on the PSC. However, financial results could be the same in a royalty/tax arrangement. Economics depend primarily on division of profits or what is known as government/contractor take. The paper discusses contractor take, estimating take, Indonesian split, and take implications

  13. Determinants of agro-food price changes in Slovenia

    Gričar, Sergej; Bojnec, Štefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of the current economic developments, the Euro adoption, and input prices on the consumer food prices. The focus of the analysis is on the consumer food price developments during the Slovenian adjustments towards the European Union membership, the Euro adoption by the followed increased in consumer prices, and the current economic and financial conditions. The empirical analysis on the determinants of the consumer food prices is based on the monthly statist...

  14. Towards innovative environmental management in the agro-food industry

    Bremmers, H.J.; Haverkamp, D.J.; Sabidussi, A.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the problem: what external (stakeholder) and internal (structural/organizational) factors drive companies in the food- and agribusiness towards innovative environmental management? Innovative companies are those considered to have adopted a supply-chain perspective, instead

  15. Global Rapid Flood Mapping System with Spaceborne SAR Data

    Yun, S. H.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Fattahi, H.; Liang, C.; Manipon, G.; Fielding, E. J.; Rosen, P. A.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project for Natural Hazards, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, we have developed an automated system that produces derived products for flood extent map generation using spaceborne SAR data. The system takes user's input of area of interest polygons and time window for SAR data search (pre- and post-event). Then the system automatically searches and downloads SAR data, processes them to produce coregistered SAR image pairs, and generates log amplitude ratio images from each pair. Currently the system is automated to support SAR data from the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1A/B satellites. We have used the system to produce flood extent maps from Sentinel-1 SAR data for the May 2017 Sri Lanka floods, which killed more than 200 people and displaced about 600,000 people. Our flood extent maps were delivered to the Red Cross to support response efforts. Earlier we also responded to the historic August 2016 Louisiana floods in the United States, which claimed 13 people's lives and caused over $10 billion property damage. For this event, we made synchronized observations from space, air, and ground in close collaboration with USGS and NOAA. The USGS field crews acquired ground observation data, and NOAA acquired high-resolution airborne optical imagery within the time window of +/-2 hours of the SAR data acquisition by JAXA's ALOS-2 satellite. The USGS coordinates of flood water boundaries were used to calibrate our flood extent map derived from the ALOS-2 SAR data, and the map was delivered to FEMA for estimating the number of households affected. Based on the lessons learned from this response effort, we customized the ARIA system automation for rapid flood mapping and developed a mobile friendly web app that can easily be used in the field for data collection. Rapid automatic generation of SAR-based global flood maps calibrated with independent observations from

  16. Roundtable discussion on the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Balabanova, Dina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Health systems experts from around the world discuss why they were meeting at the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research while people were dying of Ebola in West Africa.......Health systems experts from around the world discuss why they were meeting at the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research while people were dying of Ebola in West Africa....

  17. Roles of Governments in Multi-Actor Sustainable Supply Chain. Governance Systems and the effectiveness of their interventions. An exploratory study

    Vermeulen, W.; Uitenboogaart, Y.; Pesqueira, L.D.I.; Metselaar, J.; Kok, M.

    2010-11-01

    During the last decade, a growing number of market-based certification systems has been introduced for sustainable products consumed in the Netherlands and the EU but sourced through international supply chains. These systems, which cover agro-food products as well as non-food products, consist of requirements for products from developing countries with regard to environmental and social-ethical issues. These systems aim to improve production processes at the front end of the supply chain. These so called 'sustainable supply chain systems' have been initiated and are managed mainly by the market and civil society, without directly involving the government. This raises questions about the effectiveness, transparency, and legitimacy of such forms of self-regulation and about the most appropriate role for national government in relation to these emerging systems. This exploratory study analyses some of the earliest multi-actor sustainable supply chain governance systems in order to answer the key research questions: Which strategies and instruments do governments - national and supranational - apply in advancing sustainable production and consumption in global supply chains; and What is known about the effectiveness of these strategies and instruments? The study focuses on two supply chains with the longest history of addressing imports from developing countries (tropical timber and coffee). These two supply chains are compared with two supply chains that are gaining increasing attention: cocoa and tea. This study shows that the two most 'mature' global sustainable supply chains are market led in issuing voluntary certification and that buying certified products is starting to become mainstream and increasingly effective. The sustainable supply chains for tea and cacoa are more recent developments but may develop faster because of the lessons learnt in sustainable supply chains developed earlier.

  18. Roles of Governments in Multi-Actor Sustainable Supply Chain. Governance Systems and the effectiveness of their interventions. An exploratory study

    Vermeulen, W.; Uitenboogaart, Y.; Pesqueira, L.D.I.; Metselaar, J. [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kok, M. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    During the last decade, a growing number of market-based certification systems has been introduced for sustainable products consumed in the Netherlands and the EU but sourced through international supply chains. These systems, which cover agro-food products as well as non-food products, consist of requirements for products from developing countries with regard to environmental and social-ethical issues. These systems aim to improve production processes at the front end of the supply chain. These so called 'sustainable supply chain systems' have been initiated and are managed mainly by the market and civil society, without directly involving the government. This raises questions about the effectiveness, transparency, and legitimacy of such forms of self-regulation and about the most appropriate role for national government in relation to these emerging systems. This exploratory study analyses some of the earliest multi-actor sustainable supply chain governance systems in order to answer the key research questions: Which strategies and instruments do governments - national and supranational - apply in advancing sustainable production and consumption in global supply chains; and What is known about the effectiveness of these strategies and instruments? The study focuses on two supply chains with the longest history of addressing imports from developing countries (tropical timber and coffee). These two supply chains are compared with two supply chains that are gaining increasing attention: cocoa and tea. This study shows that the two most 'mature' global sustainable supply chains are market led in issuing voluntary certification and that buying certified products is starting to become mainstream and increasingly effective. The sustainable supply chains for tea and cacoa are more recent developments but may develop faster because of the lessons learnt in sustainable supply chains developed earlier.

  19. Opening Up: Higher Education Systems in Global Perspective

    van der Wende, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Globalisation has strongly influenced higher education during the last decades. As in many other sectors, this has generated contradictory outcomes. Enhanced competition for reputation, talent, and resources was driven by the paradigm of the global knowledge economy and fuelled by global rankings,

  20. Global Accelerator Network, Control Systems And Beam Diagnostics

    Raich, U

    2003-01-01

    Falling funds force all accelerator centers to look for new sources of financing and for the most efficient way of implementing new projects. This very often leads to collaborations between institutes scattered around the globe, a problem well known to big high energy physics experiments. The collaborations working on big detectors e.g. for LHC started thinking about detector acquisition and control systems which can be remotely used from their respective home institutes with minimal support on the spot. This idea was taken up by A. Wagner from DESY for the TESLA machine, who proposed the “Global Accelerator Network” (GAN) enabling users from around the world to run an accelerator remotely. Questions around this subject that immediately come to mind Is the GAN only relevant to big labs ? Or is it reasonable e.g. for operators or engineers in charge to do certain manipulations from home? Are our instruments ready for the GAN? Does the fact of being “GAN ready” increa...

  1. Helicopter Approach Capability Using the Differential Global Positioning System

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1994-01-01

    The results of flight tests to determine the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the Differential mode (DGPS) to provide high accuracy, precision navigation and guidance for helicopter approaches to landing are presented. The airborne DGPS receiver and associated equipment is installed in a NASA UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The ground-based DGPS reference receiver is located at a surveyed test site and is equipped with a real-time VHF data link to transmit correction information to the airborne DGPS receiver. The corrected airborne DGPS information, together with the preset approach geometry, is used to calculate guidance commands which are sent to the aircraft's approach guidance instruments. The use of DGPS derived guidance for helicopter approaches to landing is evaluated by comparing the DGPS data with the laser tracker truth data. The errors indicate that the helicopter position based on DGPS guidance satisfies the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category 1 (CAT 1) lateral and vertical navigational accuracy requirements.

  2. Assessing the global sustainability of different electricity generation systems

    Cartelle Barros, Juan José; Lara Coira, Manuel; Cruz López, María Pilar de la; Caño Gochi, Alfredo del

    2015-01-01

    A model is presented for assessing the global sustainability of power plants. It uses requirement trees, value functions and the analytic hierarchy process. The model consists of 27 parameters and makes it possible to obtain a sustainability index for each conventional or renewable energy plant, throughout its life-cycle. Here the aim is to make society aware of the sustainability level for each type of power system. As a result, decision making can be done with greater objectivity in both the public and private sectors. The model can be useful for engineers, researchers and, in general, decision makers in the energy policy field. With the exception of biomass fuels, the results obtained reinforce the idea that renewable energies make a greater contribution to sustainable development than their conventional counterparts. Renewable energies have a sustainability index that varies between 0.39 and 0.80; 0 and 1 being the lowest and highest contribution to sustainability, respectively. On the other hand, conventional power plants obtained results that fall between 0.29 and 0.57. High temperature solar-thermal plants, wind farms, photovoltaic solar plants and mini-hydroelectric power plants occupy the first four places, in this order. - Highlights: • A model for assessing the integral sustainability of power plants is proposed. • Different energy alternatives are ordered according to sustainability criteria. • Except for biomass, renewable energies contribute more to sustainable development. • The model aids the decision making process in the energy policy field

  3. Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies

    Larson, K.M.; Cervelli, Peter; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta; Segall, P.; Owen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/???h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Factors that influencing the usage of global distribution system

    Budiasa, I. M.; Suparta, I. K.; Nadra, N. M.

    2018-01-01

    The advancement of Tourism is supported by Information and Communication Technology (ICT) innovation and changes. The use of GDS (Global Distribution System) i.e. Amadeus, Galileo, Sabre, and Worldspan in the tourism industry can increase the availability, frequency and speed of communication among the companies in providing services to potential tourists. This research is to investigate the factors that influence the actual use of GDS in the tourism industry especially travel agents, airlines and hotels in Bali. This research employed a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Field surveys were conducted and 80 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed by using SPSS 17.0; descriptive, correlation, factor analysis and regression tests were conducted. The variables used are Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness (Technology Acceptance Model); Awareness, Perceived Risk and Communication Channels are examined. This research revealed that Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Awareness, and Communication Channels influence the Behavioural intention to use GDS, whereas Perceived Risk were found not significant influence the use of GDS. These findings enable travel agent, airline and hotel companies to make provision decision with respect to the actual use of GDS.

  5. Measuring progress of the global sea level observing system

    Woodworth, Philip L.; Aarup, Thorkild; Merrifield, Mark; Mitchum, Gary T.; Le Provost, Christian

    Sea level is such a fundamental parameter in the sciences of oceanography geophysics, and climate change, that in the mid-1980s, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) established the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). GLOSS was to improve the quantity and quality of data provided to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), and thereby, data for input to studies of long-term sea level change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It would also provide the key data needed for international programs, such as the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and later, the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR).GLOSS is now one of the main observation components of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of IOC and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Progress and deficiencies in GLOSS were presented in July to the 22nd IOC Assembly at UNESCO in Paris and are contained in the GLOSS Assessment Report (GAR) [IOC, 2003a].

  6. Skill of a global seasonal streamflow forecasting system, relative roles of initial conditions and meteorological forcing

    Candogan Yossef, N.; Winsemius, H.C.; Weerts, A.; Van Beek, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through

  7. 75 FR 2581 - Eighty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    2010-01-15

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is... System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held February 2-5, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. (unless stated...

  8. 76 FR 27744 - Eighty-Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    2011-05-12

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is... System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held May 26, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 11:45 a.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  9. 76 FR 67019 - Eighty-Seventh: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    2011-10-28

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) 87th meeting. DATES: The meeting will be held November 14-18...

  10. 76 FR 33022 - Eighty-Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    2011-06-07

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is... System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held June 13-17, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  11. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation...

  12. Error control coding schemes in digital systems | Kwaha | Global ...

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 3 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Global Implications of the Indigenous Epistemological System from the East

    Li, Peter Ping

    2016-01-01

    -competition balance (co-opetition), globalization-localization balance (glocalization), institution-agency balance (institutional entrepreneurship), simultaneously positive and negative attitudes toward an entity (ambivalence), and etic-emic balance (geocentric) across all domains of management research. Originality...

  14. Emerging global logistics networks : Implications for transport systems and policies

    Tavasszy, LA; Ruijgrok, CJ; Thissen, MJPM

    2003-01-01

    Logistics chains are constantly changing to facilitate increasingly global movements. In qualitative terms, long term trends in logistics services indicate a growing degree of product customization and an increased responsiveness in order delivery. These trends impact on the development of

  15. Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) surface observation data.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — GMOS global surface elemental mercury (Hg0) observations from 2013 & 2014. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sprovieri, F., N. Pirrone,...

  16. GLObal RIsk MANagement system for plant operations GLORIMAN

    Silverman, Eugene B.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable effort has been expended by nuclear power plants in the preparation of their Independent Plant Evaluation (IPE) programs. The result of these projects is the generation of very useful information concerning plant operations, states, availability and risk. The potential application of this information is often unrealized due to the unwieldy form of the data as reported in the IPE. Plant personnel would benefit greatly from quick access to risk information as a means of supporting day-to-day decisions, but the information exists only in a difficult to understand and inaccessible form. There is a need to translate the costs invested in Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) projects into a useable tool for plant personnel. This paper describes a software tool developed by ARD Corporation to be used by plants to assist in determining the operational risks and benefits associated with modifying the plant state during normal and off-normal operations for performing maintenance. This tool integrates a relational database with an easy-to-use graphical user interface and several unique software features. The result is a responsive, easy-to-understand tool that integrates an organization's PRA/IPE into the operational and maintenance needs of the station. The Global Risk Management System is designed to allow the user to evaluate the risk associated with current and proposed plant states. The impact of changes in plant configuration, operational modes and equipment availability are assessed from a risk management perspective, but displayed in an easy-to-understand form for personnel not familiar with risk methodology. Additionally, pipe and instrumentation drawings can be retrieved by the user and displayed as a reference tool. (author)

  17. A Global Rapid Integrated Monitoring System for Water Cycle and Water Resource Assessment (Global-RIMS)

    Roads, John; Voeroesmarty, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The main focus of our work was to solidify underlying data sets, the data processing tools and the modeling environment needed to perform a series of long-term global and regional hydrological simulations leading eventually to routine hydrometeorological predictions. A water and energy budget synthesis was developed for the Mississippi River Basin (Roads et al. 2003), in order to understand better what kinds of errors exist in current hydrometeorological data sets. This study is now being extended globally with a larger number of observations and model based data sets under the new NASA NEWS program. A global comparison of a number of precipitation data sets was subsequently carried out (Fekete et al. 2004) in which it was further shown that reanalysis precipitation has substantial problems, which subsequently led us to the development of a precipitation assimilation effort (Nunes and Roads 2005). We believe that with current levels of model skill in predicting precipitation that precipitation assimilation is necessary to get the appropriate land surface forcing.

  18. Combined Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    Force, Dale A.; Miller, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Besides providing position, velocity, and timing (PVT) for terrestrial users, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is also being used to provide PVT information for earth orbiting satellites. In 2006, F. H. Bauer, et. al., defined the Space Service Volume in the paper GPS in the Space Service Volume , presented at ION s 19th international Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division, and looked at GPS coverage for orbiting satellites. With GLONASS already operational, and the first satellites of the Galileo and Beidou/COMPASS constellations already in orbit, it is time to look at the use of the new Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service to provide PVT information for earth orbiting satellites. This presentation extends GPS in the Space Service Volume by examining the coverage capability of combinations of the new constellations with GPS GPS was first explored as a system for refining the position, velocity, and timing of other spacecraft equipped with GPS receivers in the early eighties. Because of this, a new GPS utility developed beyond the original purpose of providing position, velocity, and timing services for land, maritime, and aerial applications. GPS signals are now received and processed by spacecraft both above and below the GPS constellation, including signals that spill over the limb of the earth. Support of GPS space applications is now part of the system plan for GPS, and support of the Space Service Volume by other GNSS providers has been proposed to the UN International Committee on GNSS (ICG). GPS has been demonstrated to provide decimeter level position accuracy in real-time for satellites in low Earth orbit (centimeter level in non-real-time applications). GPS has been proven useful for satellites in geosynchronous orbit, and also for satellites in highly elliptical orbits. Depending on how many satellites are in view, one can keep time locked to the GNSS standard, and through that to Universal Time as long as at least one

  19. A global first integral for certain dynamical systems and related remarks

    Gonzalez-Gascon, F.

    1977-01-01

    A global first integral for certain dynamical systems and the related remarks are presented. In particular, it is shown that for these dynamical systems by introducing the (intrinsic) definition of the divergence of a vector field defined on an orientable differentiable manifold, the first integral, i.e. the (intrinsic) divergence of a vector field is now, automatically, a global first integral. (author)

  20. 77 FR 58579 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof...

    2012-09-21

    ... Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337... certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof that infringe one or... within the United States after importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices...

  1. 75 FR 14658 - Invitation for Public Comment on Mitigation Options for Global Positioning System Satellite...

    2010-03-26

    ... Public Comment on Mitigation Options for Global Positioning System Satellite Vehicle Number 49 AGENCY... options prior to changing the health status of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite IIR-20M (satellite vehicle number 49--SVN 49) from unhealthy to healthy. The potential mitigations are each designed...

  2. 'Earth system governance' as a crosscutting theme of global change research

    Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the four global change research programmes 'urgently' called for 'an ethical framework for global stewardship and strategies for Earth System management'. Yet this notion of 'earth system management' remains vaguely defined: It is too elusive for natural scientists, and too ambitious or too

  3. ‘Earth system governance’ as a crosscutting theme of global change research

    Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the four global change research programmes 'urgently' called for 'an ethical framework for global stewardship and strategies for Earth System management'. Yet this notion of 'earth system management' remains vaguely defined: It is too elusive for natural scientists, and too ambitious or too

  4. Precise mean sea level measurements using the Global Positioning System

    Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Parke, Michael E.; Rocken, Christian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a sea level measurement test conducted off La Jolla, California, in November of 1991. The purpose of this test was to determine accurate sea level measurements using a Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buoy. These measurements were intended to be used as the sea level component for calibration of the ERS 1 satellite altimeter. Measurements were collected on November 25 and 28 when the ERS 1 satellite overflew the calibration area. Two different types of buoys were used. A waverider design was used on November 25 and a spar design on November 28. This provided the opportunity to examine how dynamic effects of the measurement platform might affect the sea level accuracy. The two buoys were deployed at locations approximately 1.2 km apart and about 15 km west of a reference GPS receiver located on the rooftop of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. GPS solutions were computed for 45 minutes on each day and used to produce two sea level time series. An estimate of the mean sea level at both locations was computed by subtracting tide gage data collected at the Scripps Pier from the GPS-determined sea level measurements and then filtering out the high-frequency components due to waves and buoy dynamics. In both cases the GPS estimate differed from Rapp's mean altimetric surface by 0.06 m. Thus, the gradient in the GPS measurements matched the gradient in Rapp's surface. These results suggest that accurate sea level can be determined using GPS on widely differing platforms as long as care is taken to determine the height of the GPS antenna phase center above water level. Application areas include measurement of absolute sea level, of temporal variations in sea level, and of sea level gradients (dominantly the geoid). Specific applications would include ocean altimeter calibration, monitoring of sea level in remote regions, and regional experiments requiring spatial and

  5. A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)

    D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

  6. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) ADJACENT BAND COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENT

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Global Positioning System (GPS) Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment is to evaluate the maximum transmitted power levels of adjacent band radiofrequency (RF) systems that can be tolerated by G...

  7. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Rapid Clock Product Summary from NASA CDDIS

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Rapid Clock Product Summary from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS)....

  8. Using satellite technology (global positioning system) to teach the spherical polar coordinate system

    O'Brien, William P Jr

    2003-01-01

    Students discover the equivalence between plausible geographic variables (co-latitude and longitude) of the Earth and less-familiar geometric variables (polar and azimuthal angles) of spherical polar coordinates by collecting and analysing positional data recorded during field exercises with a handheld global positioning system (GPS) receiver. This pedagogical approach to teaching spherical geometry, based on field experience rather than classroom theory, uses GPS technology to capture the curiosity of contemporary students, technical or otherwise, who might not normally find the topic of the spherical polar coordinate system comprehensible, relevant or interesting

  9. Global Stability in Dynamical Systems with Multiple Feedback Mechanisms

    Andersen, Morten; Vinther, Frank; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2016-01-01

    A class of n-dimensional ODEs with up to n feedbacks from the n’th variable is analysed. The feedbacks are represented by non-specific, bounded, non-negative C1 functions. The main result is the formulation and proof of an easily applicable criterion for existence of a globally stable fixed point...

  10. Postmodern Educational Capitalism, Global Information Systems and New Media Networks

    Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reinterprets Lyotard's argument in "The Postmodern Condition" as a basis for a radical political economy approach to knowledge capitalism focusing on post-industrialism in order to put the case that education and knowledge are increasingly becoming part of a globally integrated world capitalism (IWC) that is structured through…

  11. Influence of Globalization and Privatization on Croatian Educational System

    Rajic, Višnja

    2010-01-01

    Globalization has made a big impact on all spheres of today's society. One of its most obvious impacts is the effect it has on education. It greatly influenced the economics and funding of public education, as well as the development of educational policies. International organizations set the benchmark for educational quality, evaluation and…

  12. Contributions of Global Health Diplomacy to Health Systems in Sub ...

    African policymakers and other relevant actors will be exposed to the arguments, methods, and challenges of global health diplomacy so they can engage more ... L'Association internationale de ressources en eau (IWRA), en étroite collaboration avec le CRDI, organise un webinaire intitulé "Changements climatiques et ...

  13. Semantic Data Integration and Ontology Use within the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Global Water Cycle Data Integration System

    Pozzi, W.; Fekete, B.; Piasecki, M.; McGuinness, D.; Fox, P.; Lawford, R.; Vorosmarty, C.; Houser, P.; Imam, B.

    2008-12-01

    The inadequacies of water cycle observations for monitoring long-term changes in the global water system, as well as their feedback into the climate system, poses a major constraint on sustainable development of water resources and improvement of water management practices. Hence, The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has established Task WA-08-01, "Integration of in situ and satellite data for water cycle monitoring," an integrative initiative combining different types of satellite and in situ observations related to key variables of the water cycle with model outputs for improved accuracy and global coverage. This presentation proposes development of the Rapid, Integrated Monitoring System for the Water Cycle (Global-RIMS)--already employed by the GEO Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H)--as either one of the main components or linked with the Asian system to constitute the modeling system of GEOSS for water cycle monitoring. We further propose expanded, augmented capability to run multiple grids to embrace some of the heterogeneous methods and formats of the Earth Science, Hydrology, and Hydraulic Engineering communities. Different methodologies are employed by the Earth Science (land surface modeling), the Hydrological (GIS), and the Hydraulic Engineering Communities; with each community employing models that require different input data. Data will be routed as input variables to the models through web services, allowing satellite and in situ data to be integrated together within the modeling framework. Semantic data integration will provide the automation to enable this system to operate in near-real-time. Multiple data collections for ground water, precipitation, soil moisture satellite data, such as SMAP, and lake data will require multiple low level ontologies, and an upper level ontology will permit user-friendly water management knowledge to be synthesized. These ontologies will have to have overlapping terms mapped and linked together. so

  14. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) GLOBAL HAWK ADVANCED VERTICAL ATMOSPHERIC PROFILING SYSTEM (AVAPS) DROPSONDE SYSTEM V2

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Global Hawk Advanced Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS) Dropsonde System dataset was collected by the...

  15. Globalization Competencies in Information Systems and E-Learning

    Pawlowski, Jan; Holtkamp, Philipp; Kalb, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. Internationalization and globalization competences play a major role for graduates and employees in IS related enterprises. In contrast to other disciplines such as Business or Economics, the IS discipline rarely addresses this competence area. In the paper, we identify generic competence areas: coordination, communication, and cooperation. We derive domain specific competences for the field of E-Learning in Higher Education. The paper concludes with an outlook of promising research...

  16. Driverless transport systems. Globally and versatility in operation; Fahrerlose Transportsysteme. Global und vielseitig im Einsatz

    Irrgang Reinhard

    2013-05-10

    Driverless transport systems enjoy a strong international demand and just versatile applications. The application possibilities are across all industries and include applications in the automotive industry, the pharmaceutical industry as well as banks, clinics and mechanical engineering.

  17. The Globalization of Food Systems: A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Patterns

    Senauer, Benjamin; Venturini, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of stylized facts and empirical patterns regarding agri-food trade flows as well as foreign direct investments in food processing and retailing. This evidence supports the hypothesis of an increasingly global food system. We identify the main factors at work such as push/supply side, pull/demand-side, and enabling/external factors. We show how the shift from national to global retailing is a recent phenomenon whose relevance for the globalization of upstream sect...

  18. Lesvos Island UNESCO Global Geopark, Greece : Systems Thinking on Sustainable Value

    Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-01

    The study is an original research suggesting Lesvos Island UNESCO Global Geopark as a platform for systems thinking on sustainable value. The study provides information on Global Geoparks Network, European Geoparks Network and detailed description of Lesvos Island UNESCO Global Geopark emphasizing its distinct features. The formation of Lesvos landscape during the Miocene period due to volcanic eruptions, creation of petrified forests, geological faults and geosites coupled with natural, cult...

  19. Estimation of the Carbon Footprint and Global Warming Potential in Rice Production Systems

    Dastan, S.; Soltani, F.; Noormohamadi, G.; Madani, H.; Yadi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal management approaches can be adopted in order to increase crop productivity and lower the carbon footprint of grain products. The objective of this study was to estimate the carbon (C) footprint and global warming potential of rice production systems. In this experiment, rice production systems (including SRI, improved and conventional) were studied. All activities, field operations and data in production methods and at different input rates were monitored and recorded during 2012. Results showed that average global warming potential across production systems was equal to 2803.25 kg CO 2 -eq ha-1. The highest and least global warming potential were observed in the SRI and conventional systems, respectively. global warming potential per unit energy input was the least and most in SRI and conventional systems, respectively. Also, the SRI and conventional systems had the maximum and minimum global warming potential per unit energy output, respectively. SRI and conventional system had the greatest and least global warming potential per unit energy output, respectively. Therefore, the optimal management approach found in SRI resulted in a reduction in GHGs, global warming potential and the carbon footprint.

  20. Synthesis and Assimilation Systems - Essential Adjuncts to the Global Ocean Observing System

    Rienecker, Michele M.; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Barnier, Bernard; Behringer, David; Bell, Mike; Bourassa, Mark; Brasseur, Pierre; Breivik, Lars-Anders; Carton, James; hide

    2009-01-01

    Ocean assimilation systems synthesize diverse in situ and satellite data streams into four-dimensional state estimates by combining the various observations with the model. Assimilation is particularly important for the ocean where subsurface observations, even today, are sparse and intermittent compared with the scales needed to represent ocean variability and where satellites only sense the surface. Developments in assimilation and in the observing system have advanced our understanding and prediction of ocean variations at mesoscale and climate scales. Use of these systems for assessing the observing system helps identify the strengths of each observation type. Results indicate that the ocean remains under-sampled and that further improvements in the observing system are needed. Prospects for future advances lie in improved models and better estimates of error statistics for both models and observations. Future developments will be increasingly towards consistent analyses across components of the Earth system. However, even today ocean synthesis and assimilation systems are providing products that are useful for many applications and should be considered an integral part of the global ocean observing and information system.

  1. Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2) Defense Acquisition...Secretary of Defense PB - President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be...Date Assigned: Program Information Program Name Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2) DoD Component Army Responsible

  2. Global stabilization of linear continuous time-varying systems with bounded controls

    Phat, V.N.

    2004-08-01

    This paper deals with the problem of global stabilization of a class of linear continuous time-varying systems with bounded controls. Based on the controllability of the nominal system, a sufficient condition for the global stabilizability is proposed without solving any Riccati differential equation. Moreover, we give sufficient conditions for the robust stabilizability of perturbation/uncertain linear time-varying systems with bounded controls. (author)

  3. "Power quality system," a new system of quality management for globalization: towards innovation and competitive advantages.

    Abdul-Rahman, H; Berawi, M A

    Knowledge Management (KM) addresses the critical issues of organizational adoption, survival and competence in the face of an increasingly changing environment. KM embodies organizational processes that seek a synergistic combination of the data and information processing capabilities of information and communication technologies (ICT), and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to improve ICT In that role, knowledge management will improve quality management and avoid or minimize losses and weakness that usually come from poor performance as well as increase the competitive level of the company and its ability to survive in the global marketplace. To achieve quality, all parties including the clients, company consultants, contractors, entrepreneurs, suppliers, and the governing bodies (i.e., all involved stake-holders) need to collaborate and commit to achieving quality. The design based organizations in major business and construction companies have to be quality driven to support healthy growth in today's competitive market. In the march towards vision 2020 and globalization (i.e., the one world community) of many companies, their design based organizations need to have superior quality management and knowledge management to anticipate changes. The implementation of a quality system such as the ISO 9000 Standards, Total Quality Management, or Quality Function Deployment (QFD) focuses the company's resources towards achieving faster and better results in the global market with less cost. To anticipate the needs of the marketplace and clients as the world and technology change, a new system, which we call Power Quality System (PQS), has been designed. PQS is a combination of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to meet the challenges of the new world business and to develop high quality products.

  4. A System of Systems Approach to Integrating Global Sea Level Change Application Programs

    Bambachus, M. J.; Foster, R. S.; Powell, C.; Cole, M.

    2005-12-01

    The global sea level change application community has numerous disparate models used to make predications over various regional and temporal scales. These models have typically been focused on limited sets of data and optimized for specific areas or questions of interest. Increasingly, decision makers at the national, international, and local/regional levels require access to these application data models and want to be able to integrate large disparate data sets, with new ubiquitous sensor data, and use these data across models from multiple sources. These requirements will force the Global Sea Level Change application community to take a new system-of-systems approach to their programs. We present a new technical architecture approach to the global sea level change program that provides external access to the vast stores of global sea level change data, provides a collaboration forum for the discussion and visualization of data, and provides a simulation environment to evaluate decisions. This architectural approach will provide the tools to support multi-disciplinary decision making. A conceptual system of systems approach is needed to address questions around the multiple approaches to tracking and predicting Sea Level Change. A systems of systems approach would include (1) a forum of data providers, modelers, and users, (2) a service oriented architecture including interoperable web services with a backbone of Grid computing capability, and (3) discovery and access functionality to the information developed through this structure. Each of these three areas would be clearly designed to maximize communication, data use for decision making and flexibility and extensibility for evolution of technology and requirements. In contemplating a system-of-systems approach, it is important to highlight common understanding and coordination as foundational to success across the multiple systems. The workflow of science in different applications is often conceptually similar

  5. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Core Spacecraft Systems Engineering Challenges

    Bundas, David J.; ONeill, Deborah; Field, Thomas; Meadows, Gary; Patterson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other US and international partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses the status of some key trade studies, including the geolocation budgeting, design considerations for spacecraft charging, and design issues related to the mitigation of orbital debris.

  7. Evolution of the global energy system: technology and other factors

    de Leone, R.

    Future directions in government energy policies are assessed in light of the energy evolution following the 1973 oil crisis and the impacts created by technology transfer and other factors. In particular, the paper examines changes which are occurring in global marketing and commercialization trends, and in public opinion, especially in response to the techniques employed by planners in assessing new energy sources and technologies designed to lessen dependency on oil imports. It is noted that greater consideration must be given by scientists and engineers to the socio-economic impacts of their research efforts.

  8. Improved Hydrology over Peatlands in a Global Land Modeling System

    Bechtold, M.; Delannoy, G.; Reichle, R.; Koster, R.; Mahanama, S.; Roose, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Peatlands of the Northern Hemisphere represent an important carbon pool that mainly accumulated since the last ice age under permanently wet conditions in specific geological and climatic settings. The carbon balance of peatlands is closely coupled to water table dynamics. Consequently, the future carbon balance over peatlands is strongly dependent on how hydrology in peatlands will react to changing boundary conditions, e.g. due to climate change or regional water level drawdown of connected aquifers or streams. Global land surface modeling over organic-rich regions can provide valuable global-scale insights on where and how peatlands are in transition due to changing boundary conditions. However, the current global land surface models are not able to reproduce typical hydrological dynamics in peatlands well. We implemented specific structural and parametric changes to account for key hydrological characteristics of peatlands into NASA's GEOS-5 Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM, Koster et al. 2000). The main modifications pertain to the modeling of partial inundation, and the definition of peatland-specific runoff and evapotranspiration schemes. We ran a set of simulations on a high performance cluster using different CLSM configurations and validated the results with a newly compiled global in-situ dataset of water table depths in peatlands. The results demonstrate that an update of soil hydraulic properties for peat soils alone does not improve the performance of CLSM over peatlands. However, structural model changes for peatlands are able to improve the skill metrics for water table depth. The validation results for the water table depth indicate a reduction of the bias from 2.5 to 0.2 m, and an improvement of the temporal correlation coefficient from 0.5 to 0.65, and from 0.4 to 0.55 for the anomalies. Our validation data set includes both bogs (rain-fed) and fens (ground and/or surface water influence) and reveals that the metrics improved less for fens. In

  9. GRIN-Global: An International Project to Develop a Global Plant Genebank and Information Management System

    Many of the world's national genebanks, responsible for the safeguarding and availability of their country's Plant Genetic Resource (PGR) collections, have lacked access to high quality IT needed to document and manage their collections electronically. The Germplasm Resource Information System (GRI...

  10. ECG Identification System Using Neural Network with Global and Local Features

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Lee, Dachao; Chen, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a human identification system via extracted electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Two hierarchical classification structures based on global shape feature and local statistical feature is used to extract ECG signals. Global shape feature represents the outline information of ECG signals and local statistical feature extracts the…

  11. Managing the tensions in integrating global organisations : The role of performance management systems

    Busco, C.; Giovannoni, E.; Scapens, R.W.

    The paper explores the role of performance management systems (PMSs) in integrating global organisations (GOs). It investigates the ways in which the diverse entities that comprise a GO can be co-ordinated and integrated to achieve a global unity of effort, while leaving space for local adaptation,

  12. E-Business Reporting: Towards a Global Standard for Financial Reporting Systems Using XBRL

    Long, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Reporting systems can provide transparency into financial markets necessary for a sustainable, prosperous global economy. The most widely used global platform for exchanging electronic information about companies to regulatory bodies is XBRL. Standards for this platform are in the process of becoming legally harmonized, but not all countries are…

  13. Applications of TRMM-based Multi-Satellite Precipitation Estimation for Global Runoff Simulation: Prototyping a Global Flood Monitoring System

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Pierce, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Advances in flood monitoring/forecasting have been constrained by the difficulty in estimating rainfall continuously over space (catchment-, national-, continental-, or even global-scale areas) and flood-relevant time scale. With the recent availability of satellite rainfall estimates at fine time and space resolution, this paper describes a prototype research framework for global flood monitoring by combining real-time satellite observations with a database of global terrestrial characteristics through a hydrologically relevant modeling scheme. Four major components included in the framework are (1) real-time precipitation input from NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA); (2) a central geospatial database to preprocess the land surface characteristics: water divides, slopes, soils, land use, flow directions, flow accumulation, drainage network etc.; (3) a modified distributed hydrological model to convert rainfall to runoff and route the flow through the stream network in order to predict the timing and severity of the flood wave, and (4) an open-access web interface to quickly disseminate flood alerts for potential decision-making. Retrospective simulations for 1998-2006 demonstrate that the Global Flood Monitor (GFM) system performs consistently at both station and catchment levels. The GFM website (experimental version) has been running at near real-time in an effort to offer a cost-effective solution to the ultimate challenge of building natural disaster early warning systems for the data-sparse regions of the world. The interactive GFM website shows close-up maps of the flood risks overlaid on topography/population or integrated with the Google-Earth visualization tool. One additional capability, which extends forecast lead-time by assimilating QPF into the GFM, also will be implemented in the future.

  14. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  15. Using Systems Thinking to Advance Global Health Engagement in Education and Practice.

    Phillips, Janet M; Stalter, Ann M

    2018-04-01

    The integration of global health into nursing practice within complex systems requires a strategic approach. The System-Level Awareness Model (SAM) can be used to guide the process of enhancing systems thinking for global health. The purpose of this article is to explain the SAM and how to use it for integrating systems thinking into nursing education in academic, professional development, and continuing education settings to promote global health across the nursing continuum. Tips are provided on how to teach systems thinking for global health in nursing education and practice, consistent with continuing education national learning competencies for health care professionals. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2018;49(4):154-156. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Integrated regional changes in arctic climate feedbacks: Implications for the global climate system

    McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F. S.; Walsh, J.E.; Wirth, C.; ,

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic is a key part of the global climate system because the net positive energy input to the tropics must ultimately be resolved through substantial energy losses in high-latitude regions. The Arctic influences the global climate system through both positive and negative feedbacks that involve physical, ecological, and human systems of the Arctic. The balance of evidence suggests that positive feedbacks to global warming will likely dominate in the Arctic during the next 50 to 100 years. However, the negative feedbacks associated with changing the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean might abruptly launch the planet into another glacial period on longer timescales. In light of uncertainties and the vulnerabilities of the climate system to responses in the Arctic, it is important that we improve our understanding of how integrated regional changes in the Arctic will likely influence the evolution of the global climate system. Copyright ?? 2006 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  17. Global monitoring of dynamic information systems a case study in the international supply chain

    Pruksasri, P.; Berg, J. van den; Hofman, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Global information systems are becoming more complex and dynamic everyday: huge amounts of data and messages through those systems show dynamically changing traffic patterns. Because of this, diagnosing when sub-systems are not working properly is difficult. System failures or errors in information

  18. Global Positioning System: Observations on Quarterly Reports from the Air Force

    2016-10-17

    Positioning System : Observations on Quarterly Reports from the Air Force The satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) provides positioning , navigation...infrastructure, and transportation safety. The Department of Defense (DOD)—specifically, the Air Force—develops and operates the GPS system , which...programs, including the most recent detailed assessment of the next generation operational control system (OCX)

  19. The politics of control : New dynamics of agrarian change in Bolivia's Soy Complex

    B. McKay (Ben)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractAround the world, plantation economies are on the rise. Increasing concerns over food, energy, and financial security combined with a geopolitical restructuring of the global agro-food system have led to a new wave and rush to secure control over resources. Corporate-controlled

  20. Technical comparison of several global mobile satellite communications systems

    Comparetto, Gary M.

    The era of satellite-based mobile satellite communications (MSC) systems started with the first MARISAT satellite which was launched into a geostationary orbit over the Pacific Ocean in 1976 to provide communications between ships and shore stations. The combination of high cost and unacceptably large equipment has kept the space-based MSC systems from appealing to the wider market of personal mobile communications. The progress made over the last ten years, however, in digital voice processing, satellite technology, and component miniaturization has resulted in the viability of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems to meet the growing market in personal mobile communications using handsets similar to those currently in use with land-based cellular systems. Three of the more mature LEO/MEO satellite systems are addressed in this paper including GLOBALSTAR, Iridium, and Odyssey. The system architectures of each system are presented along with a description of the satellite and user handset designs and the multiaccess techniques employed. It will be shown that, although a number of similarities exist among the system addressed, each system is unique in a variety of significant design areas. It is concluded that the technical feasibility of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems seems to be secure. It will be challenging, however, for the vendors to actually develop and deploy these systems in a cost effective, timely, and reliable way that meets a continually evolving set of requirements based upon a rapidly changing technology base.

  1. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and global positioning system techniques with hydrological modeling

    Thakur, Jay Krishna; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Ekanthalu, Vicky Shettigondahalli

    2017-07-01

    Integration of remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) are emerging research areas in the field of groundwater hydrology, resource management, environmental monitoring and during emergency response. Recent advancements in the fields of RS, GIS, GPS and higher level of computation will help in providing and handling a range of data simultaneously in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This review paper deals with hydrological modeling, uses of remote sensing and GIS in hydrological modeling, models of integrations and their need and in last the conclusion. After dealing with these issues conceptually and technically, we can develop better methods and novel approaches to handle large data sets and in a better way to communicate information related with rapidly decreasing societal resources, i.e. groundwater.

  2. A Short Tutorial on Inertial Navigation System and Global Positioning System Integration

    Smalling, Kyle M.; Eure, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a simple method of integrating Inertial Navigation System (INS) information with Global Positioning System (GPS) information for an improved estimate of vehicle attitude and position. A simple two dimensional (2D) case is considered. The attitude estimates are derived from sensor data and used in the estimation of vehicle position and velocity through dead reckoning within the INS. The INS estimates are updated with GPS estimates using a Kalman filter. This tutorial is intended for the novice user with a focus on bringing the reader from raw sensor measurements to an integrated position and attitude estimate. An application is given using a remotely controlled ground vehicle operating in assumed 2D environment. The theory is developed first followed by an illustrative example.

  3. The Impact of Tourism on the Global Economic System

    Serban-Comanescu Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a true sector of services, tourism remains a branch of consequence, the development ofwhich will be constantly in close correlation with the levels and rhythms of development of theother branches of the national economy (Snak, O., 1976, Economia şi organizarea turismului(Economy and organization of tourism, Sport-Turism Publishing House, Bucharest, p 61. This istrue, but it should not be absolutized: of course, there is a close interdependence between tourismand other branches, but its development as a domain may in some cases be independent from othereconomic sectors. Tourism is the most complex industry on a global scale, the whole society beinginvolved in its service, being considered a barometer in terms of assessing the state of the society.

  4. Building a Rice Decision Support System to Support Global Food Security and Commodity Markets, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rice is an important crop globally that influences food security and the Earth system. Rice is the predominant food staple in many regions with approximately 700...

  5. Action-embedded transformational leadership in self-managing global information systems development teams

    Eseryel, U. Yeliz; Eseryel, Deniz

    While software development teams are becoming more and more distributed around the globe, most software development methodologies used by global teams prescribe self-managing teams. Transformational leadership is the key to successful information systems development and use for competitive

  6. Software Test Description (STD) for the Globally Relocatable Navy Tide/Atmospheric Modeling System (PCTides)

    Posey, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Software Test Description (STD) is to establish formal test cases to be used by personnel tasked with the installation and verification of the Globally Relocatable Navy Tide/Atmospheric Modeling System (PCTides...

  7. Estimation of Subdaily Polar Motion with the Global Positioning System During the Spoch '92 Campaign

    Ibanez-Meier, R.; Freedman, A. P.; Herring, T. A.; Gross, R. S.; Lichten, S. M.; Lindqwister, U. J.

    1994-01-01

    Data collected over six days from a worldwide Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking network during the Epoch '92 campaign are used to estimate variations of the Earth's pole position every 30 minutes.

  8. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  9. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  10. Report to Congress : recapitalization plan for the nationwide differential global positioning system (NDGPS).

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has developed a recpitlaization plan to reduce technical, cost, and programmatic risks of the DOT-funded inland segment of the Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS)

  11. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) NCEP-Global Forecast System (GFS) Precipitation Forecast Product

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Forecast System (GFS) forecast precipitation data at 37.5km resolution is created at the NOAA Climate Prediction Center for the purpose of near real-time...

  12. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) provides numerical guidance and products in support of a wide range of Navy oceanographic and...

  13. Review: Lorenzo Cotula, The Great African Land Grab?: Agricultural Investments and the Global Food System (2013

    Kerstin Nolte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Lorenzo Cotula, The Great African Land Grab?: Agricultural Investments and the Global Food System, London, New York: Zed Books, 2013, ISBN 9781780324203, 248 pages

  14. Exploring the Potential Impacts of Historic Volcanic Eruptions on the Contemporary Global Food System

    Puma, Michael J.; Chon, S.; Wada, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of volcanic impacts on crops is urgently needed, as volcanic eruptions and the associated climate anomalies can cause unanticipated shocks to food production. Such shocks are a major concern given the fragility of the global food system.

  15. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Combined Broadcast Ephemeris Data (daily files of all distinct navigation messages...

  16. NCDC feed of Global Telecommunication System (GTS) marine observations in International Maritime Meteorological Archive (IMMA) Format

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained here are surface marine observations from many different sources via the NCDC Global Telecommunication System (GTS) Marine in International...

  17. MDOT implementation plan for global positioning systems (GPS) technology in planning, design, and construction delivery.

    2010-09-13

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers advantages to transportation agencies in the planning, design and construction stages of project delivery. This research study will develop a guide for Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) ...

  18. Global asymptotic behavior in a Lotka–Volterra competition system with spatio-temporal delays

    Zhang, Jia-Fang; Chen, Heshan

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a Lotka–Volterra competition system with spatio-temporal delays. By using the linearization method, we show the local asymptotic behavior of the nonnegative steady-state solutions. Especially, the global asymptotic stability of the positive steady-state solution is investigated by the method of upper and lower solutions. The result of global asymptotic stability implies that the system has no nonconstant positive steady-state solution

  19. Global chaos synchronization of electro-mechanical gyrostat systems via variable substitution control

    Chen Yun; Wu Xiaofeng; Liu Zhong

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies global synchronization of non-autonomous chaotic electro-mechanical gyrostat systems via variable substitution control. A master-slave non-autonomous synchronization scheme with variable substitution control is mathematically presented. Based on the scheme, some sufficient algebraic criteria for global chaos synchronization of master and slave electro-mechanical gyrostat systems via various single-variable coupling are derived. The effectiveness of the obtained criteria is numerically illustrated by the examples.

  20. Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models

    Tachiiri, K.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Annan, J. D.; Oka, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Kawamiya, M.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the uncertainty in the global carbon cycle may have a significant impact on the climate. Since state of the art models are too computationally expensive for it to be possible to explore their parametric uncertainty in anything approaching a comprehensive fashion, we have developed a simplified system for investigating this problem. By combining the strong points of general circulation models (GCMs), which contain detailed and complex processes, and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs), which are quick and capable of large ensembles, we have developed a loosely coupled model (LCM) which can represent the outputs of a GCM-based Earth system model, using much smaller computational resources. We address the problem of relatively poor representation of precipitation within our EMIC, which prevents us from directly coupling it to a vegetation model, by coupling it to a precomputed transient simulation using a full GCM. The LCM consists of three components: an EMIC (MIROC-lite) which consists of a 2-D energy balance atmosphere coupled to a low resolution 3-D GCM ocean (COCO) including an ocean carbon cycle (an NPZD-type marine ecosystem model); a state of the art vegetation model (Sim-CYCLE); and a database of daily temperature, precipitation, and other necessary climatic fields to drive Sim-CYCLE from a precomputed transient simulation from a state of the art AOGCM. The transient warming of the climate system is calculated from MIROC-lite, with the global temperature anomaly used to select the most appropriate annual climatic field from the pre-computed AOGCM simulation which, in this case, is a 1% pa increasing CO2 concentration scenario. By adjusting the effective climate sensitivity (equivalent to the equilibrium climate sensitivity for an energy balance model) of MIROC-lite, the transient warming of the LCM could be adjusted to closely follow the low sensitivity (with an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 4.0 K

  1. Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models

    K. Tachiiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that the uncertainty in the global carbon cycle may have a significant impact on the climate. Since state of the art models are too computationally expensive for it to be possible to explore their parametric uncertainty in anything approaching a comprehensive fashion, we have developed a simplified system for investigating this problem. By combining the strong points of general circulation models (GCMs, which contain detailed and complex processes, and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs, which are quick and capable of large ensembles, we have developed a loosely coupled model (LCM which can represent the outputs of a GCM-based Earth system model, using much smaller computational resources. We address the problem of relatively poor representation of precipitation within our EMIC, which prevents us from directly coupling it to a vegetation model, by coupling it to a precomputed transient simulation using a full GCM. The LCM consists of three components: an EMIC (MIROC-lite which consists of a 2-D energy balance atmosphere coupled to a low resolution 3-D GCM ocean (COCO including an ocean carbon cycle (an NPZD-type marine ecosystem model; a state of the art vegetation model (Sim-CYCLE; and a database of daily temperature, precipitation, and other necessary climatic fields to drive Sim-CYCLE from a precomputed transient simulation from a state of the art AOGCM. The transient warming of the climate system is calculated from MIROC-lite, with the global temperature anomaly used to select the most appropriate annual climatic field from the pre-computed AOGCM simulation which, in this case, is a 1% pa increasing CO2 concentration scenario.

    By adjusting the effective climate sensitivity (equivalent to the equilibrium climate sensitivity for an energy balance model of MIROC-lite, the transient warming of the LCM could be adjusted to closely follow the low sensitivity (with an equilibrium

  2. Globally Asymptotic Stability of Stochastic Nonlinear Systems with Time-Varying Delays via Output Feedback Control

    Mingzhu Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of globally asymptotic stability for a class of stochastic nonlinear systems with time-varying delays. By the backstepping method and Lyapunov theory, we design a linear output feedback controller recursively based on the observable linearization for a class of stochastic nonlinear systems with time-varying delays to guarantee that the closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable in probability. In particular, we extend the deterministic nonlinear system to stochastic nonlinear systems with time-varying delays. Finally, an example and its simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  3. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  4. Migrating Legacy Systems in the Global Merger & Acquisition Environment

    Katerattanakul, Pairin; Kam, Hwee-Joo; Lee, James J.; Hong, Soongoo

    2009-01-01

    The MetaFrame system migration project at WorldPharma, while driven by merger and acquisition, had faced complexities caused by both technical challenges and organizational issues in the climate of uncertainties. However, WorldPharma still insisted on instigating this post-merger system migration project. This project served to (1) consolidate the…

  5. Assess and control global change in agriculture through ecosystem models integrated in geographic information systems

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Iannetta, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    ENEA has created, in collaboration with the University of California at Berkeley, the Global Change Biology project that, for the first time, has made available in Europe a technology that can be It used to interpret and effectively manage change Global agriculture. The aim of the project was to provide tools to summarize, manage and analyze data Ecological on the effects of global change in agricultural systems, using traditional Mediterranean crops (Eg. Vineyards and olive) as model systems (http: // cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/89728_en.html). [it

  6. Prospects for development of unified global flood observation and prediction systems (Invited)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Floods are among the most damaging of natural hazards, with global flood losses in 2011 alone estimated to have exceeded $100B. Historically, flood economic damages have been highest in the developed world (due in part to encroachment on historical flood plains), but loss of life, and human impacts have been greatest in the developing world. However, as the 2011 Thailand floods show, industrializing countries, many of which do not have well developed flood protection systems, are increasingly vulnerable to economic damages as they become more industrialized. At present, unified global flood observation and prediction systems are in their infancy; notwithstanding that global weather forecasting is a mature field. The summary for this session identifies two evolving capabilities that hold promise for development of more sophisticated global flood forecast systems: global hydrologic models and satellite remote sensing (primarily of precipitation, but also of flood inundation). To this I would add the increasing sophistication and accuracy of global precipitation analysis (and forecast) fields from numerical weather prediction models. In this brief overview, I will review progress in all three areas, and especially the evolution of hydrologic data assimilation which integrates modeling and data sources. I will also comment on inter-governmental and inter-agency cooperation, and related issues that have impeded progress in the development and utilization of global flood observation and prediction systems.

  7. Information data systems for a global change technology initiative architecture trade study

    Murray, Nicholas D.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) was established to develop technology which will enable use of satellite systems of Earth observations on a global scale, enable use of the observations to predictively model Earth's changes, and provide scientists, government, business, and industry with quick access to the resulting information. At LaRC, a GCTI Architecture Trade Study was undertaken to develop and evaluate the architectural implications to meet the requirements of the global change studies and the eventual implementation of a global change system. The output of the trade study are recommended technologies for the GCTI. That portion of the study concerned with the information data system is documented. The information data system for an earth global change modeling system can be very extensive and beyond affordability in terms of today's costs. Therefore, an incremental approach to gaining a system is most likely. An options approach to levels of capability versus needed technologies was developed. The primary drivers of the requirements for the information data system evaluation were the needed science products, the science measurements, the spacecraft orbits, the instruments configurations, and the spacecraft configurations and their attendant architectures. The science products requirements were not studied here; however, some consideration of the product needs were included in the evaluation results. The information data system technology items were identified from the viewpoint of the desirable overall information system characteristics.

  8. Estimating the potential intensification of global grazing systems based on climate adjusted yield gap analysis

    Sheehan, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    We report here a first-of-its-kind analysis of the potential for intensification of global grazing systems. Intensification is calculated using the statistical yield gap methodology developed previously by others (Mueller et al 2012 and Licker et al 2010) for global crop systems. Yield gaps are estimated by binning global pasture land area into 100 equal area sized bins of similar climate (defined by ranges of rainfall and growing degree days). Within each bin, grid cells of pastureland are ranked from lowest to highest productivity. The global intensification potential is defined as the sum of global production across all bins at a given percentile ranking (e.g. performance at the 90th percentile) divided by the total current global production. The previous yield gap studies focused on crop systems because productivity data on these systems is readily available. Nevertheless, global crop land represents only one-third of total global agricultural land, while pasture systems account for the remaining two-thirds. Thus, it is critical to conduct the same kind of analysis on what is the largest human use of land on the planet—pasture systems. In 2013, Herrero et al announced the completion of a geospatial data set that augmented the animal census data with data and modeling about production systems and overall food productivity (Herrero et al, PNAS 2013). With this data set, it is now possible to apply yield gap analysis to global pasture systems. We used the Herrero et al data set to evaluate yield gaps for meat and milk production from pasture based systems for cattle, sheep and goats. The figure included with this abstract shows the intensification potential for kcal per hectare per year of meat and milk from global cattle, sheep and goats as a function of increasing levels of performance. Performance is measured as the productivity achieved at a given ranked percentile within each bin.We find that if all pasture land were raised to their 90th percentile of

  9. Vision system for diagnostic task | Merad | Global Journal of Pure ...

    Due to environment degraded conditions, direct measurements are not possible. ... Degraded conditions: vibrations, water and chip of metal projections, ... Before tooling, the vision system has to answer: “is it the right piece at the right place?

  10. Modelling the Global Transportation Systems for the Hydrogen Economy

    Krzyzanowski, D.A.; Kypreos, S.

    2004-03-01

    A modelling analysis of the transportation system is described, focused on the market penetration of different transportation technologies (including Learning-by-Doing) until the year 2050. A general outline of the work and first preliminary results are presented. (author)

  11. Qualitative behavior of global solutions to inhomogeneous quasilinear hyperbolic systems

    Hsiao, L.

    1994-01-01

    The emphasis is the influence to the qualitative behavior of solutions caused by the lower order term, which is certain dissipation, in quasilinear hyperbolic systems. Both classical solutions and discontinuous weak solutions are discussed. (author). 12 refs

  12. total electron content derived from global positioning system during ...

    SULUNGU

    POSITIONING SYSTEM DURING SOLAR MAXIMUM OF 2012-2013. OVER THE ..... diffusion of the transported electrons from the equator (Panda et al. 2015). As the sun rises, the ..... Wang M and Christensen AB 2008 Features of annual and ...

  13. Global synchronization for time-delay of WINDMI System

    Wang Junxa; Lu Dianchen; Tian Lixin

    2006-01-01

    Considering a time-delay in the receiver as compared with the transmitter, we addresses a practical issue in chaos synchronization of WINDMI system which is based on the Lyapunov stabilization theory and matrix measure, such that the state of the slave system at time t is asymptotically synchronizing with the master at time t - τ. The Mathematical software is used to prove the effectiveness of this method

  14. Characterizing noise in the global nuclear weapon monitoring system

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-03-01

    Under the auspices of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, a worldwide monitoring system designed to detect the illegal testing of nuclear weaponry has been under construction since 1999. The International Monitoring System is composed of a range of sensors, including detectors for hydroacoustic and seismic signals, and when completed, will include 60 infrasound measurement arrays set to detect low-frequency sound waves produced by an atmospheric nuclear detonation.

  15. Real time global orbit feedback system for NSLS x-ray ring

    Yu, L.H.; Biscardi, R.; Bittner, J.; Fauchet, A.M.; Krinsky, F.S.; Nawrocky, R.J.; Rothman, J.; Singh, O.V.; Yang, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    We report on the design and commissioning of a real time harmonic global orbit feedback system for the NSLS X-ray ring. This system uses 8 pick-up electrode position monitors and 16 trim dipole magnets to eliminate 3 harmonic components of the orbit fluctuations. Because of the larger number of position monitors and trim magnets, the X-ray ring feedback system differs from the previously reported VUV ring system in that the Fourier analysis and harmonic generation networks are comprised of MDAC boards controlled by computer. The implementation of the global feedback system has resulted in a dramatic improvement of orbit stability, by more than a factor of five everywhere. Simultaneous operation of the global and several local bump feedback systems has been achieved. 4 refs., 5 figs

  16. Globally asymptotically stable analysis in a discrete time eco-epidemiological system

    Hu, Zengyun; Teng, Zhidong; Zhang, Tailei; Zhou, Qiming; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamical behaviors of a discrete time eco-epidemiological system are discussed. • Global asymptotical stability of this system is obtained by an iteration scheme which can be expended to general dimensional discrete system. • More complex dynamical behaviors are obtained by numerical simulations. - Abstract: In this study, the dynamical behaviors of a discrete time eco-epidemiological system are discussed. The local stability, bifurcation and chaos are obtained. Moreover, the global asymptotical stability of this system is explored by an iteration scheme. The numerical simulations illustrate the theoretical results and exhibit the complex dynamical behaviors such as flip bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation and chaotic dynamical behaviors. Our main results provide an efficient method to analyze the global asymptotical stability for general three dimensional discrete systems.

  17. Locating food sovereignty: geographical and sectoral distance in the global food system

    M.J. Robbins (Martha Jane)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper seeks to problematize the role of local food systems within the food sovereignty movement and as a counter to the logic of the global industrial food system. It answers the question of how food sovereignty, via its tenet of local food systems, addresses the geographical and

  18. International Maritime Transport Sector Regulation Systems and their Impact on World Shipping and Global Trade

    Andrzej Grzelakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of two nowadays existing global regulatory systems of the world maritime transport sector on international shipping industry and global trade development. The author has focused on the characterization of the autonomous regulatory system represented in this sector by freight market with typical for it mechanism as well as on public regulatory system expressed in form of the existing international regulatory scheme introduced by IMO and other international organizations. Both regulatory mechanisms has been analyzed and viewed in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their influence upon shipping industry and global commodity markets. At the end, the results of functioning of both regulatory subsystems have been assessed with the aim to indicate how they are able to create growth potential for the world maritime transport and trade sector as well as the global economy.

  19. Changes in the Global Energy System: Implications for China's International Strategic Environment

    Zhang Chi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses major reasons for the slump of international oil prices and provides a prediction for the future development of international oil prices, before analyzing the three factors leading to significant changes of the global energy system, namely the eastward shift of the world energy consumption centre, the emergence of the United States as a major oil producer and the dramatic waning of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries’ (OPEC influence. These factors and developments are shaping a new order of the global energy strategic landscape and exerting profound influence on China’s international strategic environment. In the foreseeable future, these changes of the global energy system would bring China more uncertainties regarding the country’s oil imports from the Middle East, more strategic pressure from the United States, while promoting China’s leverage on the global energy system and international relations.

  20. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASoS) engineering and foundations for global design.

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Linebarger, John Michael; Moore, Thomas W.; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-01-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which must be recognized and reckoned with to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Design within CASoS requires the fostering of a new discipline, CASoS Engineering, and the building of capability to support it. Towards this primary objective, we created the Phoenix Pilot as a crucible from which systemization of the new discipline could emerge. Using a wide range of applications, Phoenix has begun building both theoretical foundations and capability for: the integration of Applications to continuously build common understanding and capability; a Framework for defining problems, designing and testing solutions, and actualizing these solutions within the CASoS of interest; and an engineering Environment required for 'the doing' of CASoS Engineering. In a secondary objective, we applied CASoS Engineering principles to begin to build a foundation for design in context of Global CASoS

  1. Systemic risk and the hysteria generated in the global market

    Thalles Alexandre Takada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The negotiating arrangements ordered by an economic order focused to supply the financial market creates an inherent weakness to the system itself. This weakness reflects the decision taking of individuals through the socioeconomic events arising in this market. Simple news reports may trigger a systemic crisis. The present article investigates this proposition, in other words, which economic and legal factors can cause and control the drastic effects on the economy, like the bank run the most visible of these phenomena. Using economic theories related to legal doctrine, it shows up in an interdisciplinary way that society is not a square matrix of linear factors, but a complex system of negotiation exchange governed by the human (irrationality.

  2. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  3. Globally Optimal Segmentation of Permanent-Magnet Systems

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Permanent-magnet systems are widely used for generation of magnetic fields with specific properties. The reciprocity theorem, an energy-equivalence principle in magnetostatics, can be employed to calculate the optimal remanent flux density of the permanent-magnet system, given any objective...... remains unsolved. We show that the problem of optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional permanent-magnet assembly with respect to a linear objective functional can be reduced to the problem of piecewise linear approximation of a plane curve by perimeter maximization. Once the problem has been cast...

  4. Error Analysis System for Spacecraft Navigation Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Truong, S. H.; Hart, R. C.; Hartman, K. R.; Tomcsik, T. L.; Searl, J. E.; Bernstein, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing improved space-navigation filtering algorithms to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) for autonomous real-time onboard orbit determination. In connection with a GPS technology demonstration on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI)/Lewis spacecraft, FDD analysts and programmers have teamed with the GSFC Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch to develop the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) system. The GEODE system consists of a Kalman filter operating as a navigation tool for estimating the position, velocity, and additional states required to accurately navigate the orbiting Lewis spacecraft by using astrodynamic modeling and GPS measurements from the receiver. A parallel effort at the FDD is the development of a GPS Error Analysis System (GEAS) that will be used to analyze and improve navigation filtering algorithms during development phases and during in-flight calibration. For GEAS, the Kalman filter theory is extended to estimate the errors in position, velocity, and other error states of interest. The estimation of errors in physical variables at regular intervals will allow the time, cause, and effect of navigation system weaknesses to be identified. In addition, by modeling a sufficient set of navigation system errors, a system failure that causes an observed error anomaly can be traced and accounted for. The GEAS software is formulated using Object Oriented Design (OOD) techniques implemented in the C++ programming language on a Sun SPARC workstation. The Phase 1 of this effort is the development of a basic system to be used to evaluate navigation algorithms implemented in the GEODE system. This paper presents the GEAS mathematical methodology, systems and operations concepts, and software design and implementation. Results from the use of the basic system to evaluate

  5. A global appreciation of, and move towards, an eco- system ...

    system approach to fisheries (e.g. Sinclair et al. 2002, ... forcing pattern applied to phytoplankton explained 4–12% of the variance ... can be explained based on a combination of fishing, vulnerability settings and .... tion to show what values (or ranges of values, or alter- ... Anchovy and sardine spawner and recruit biomass.

  6. A global reference model of the domain name system

    Koc, Y.; Jamakovic, A.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The domain name system (DNS) is a crucial component of the Internet. At this time, the DNS is facing major changes such as the introduction of DNSSEC and Internationalized Domain Name extensions (IDNs), the adoption of IPv6 and the upcoming extension of new generic top-level domains. These changes

  7. ICAM: the ISABELLE control and monitoring system, global overview

    Dimmler, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    A first draft on the definition of the ISABELLE Control and Monitoring System is presented. Emphasis is given on the design strategies and on the proposed architectural concepts. A triangular network has been selected and defined. Some structural consideration of processor and bus structure hardware are given. (U.S.)

  8. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  9. Critical interactions between the Global Fund-supported HIV programs and the health system in Ghana

    Atun, Rifat; Pothapregada, Sai Kumar; Kwansah, Janet

    2011-01-01

    of the strengths and weaknesses of the relationship between Global Fund-supported activities and the health system and to identify positive synergies and unintended consequences of integration. Ghana has a well-functioning sector-wide approach to financing its health system, with a strong emphasis on integrated......The support of global health initiatives in recipient countries has been vigorously debated. Critics are concerned that disease-specific programs may be creating vertical and parallel service delivery structures that to some extent undermine health systems. This case study of Ghana aimed to explore...... how the Global Fund-supported HIV program interacts with the health system there and to map the extent and nature of integration of the national disease program across 6 key health systems functions. Qualitative interviews of national stakeholders were conducted to understand the perceptions...

  10. FAIR DAQ system: Performances and global DAQ management

    Ordine, A.; Boiano, A.; Zaghi, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present on overview of the features of FAIR (FAst Inter-crate Readout), a novel open-quotes plug-n-playclose quotes trigger and readout oriented bus system. It provides for an effective low-cost homogeneous, highly extendible and scalable, front-end environment. Readout and event-building are performed, at the same time, without the need of CPUs, by means of a transparent hardware level protocol. The measured rate of data transfer and event-building can be as fast as 22ns/longword (1.44 Gbit/s). The measured performances will be discussed. The open-quotes plug-n-playclose quotes feature will be also presented in some detail along with the control system based on a network embedded in the bus

  11. Global transport calculations with an equivalent barotropic system

    Salby, Murry L.; O'Sullivan, Donal; Garcia, Rolando R.; Tribbia, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Transport properties of the two-dimensional equations governing equivalent barotropic motion are investigated on the sphere. This system has ingredients such as forcing, equivalent depth, and thermal dissipation explicitly represented, and takes into account compression effects associated with vertical motion along isentropic surfaces. Horizontal transport properties of this system are investigated under adiabatic and diabatic conditions for different forms of dissipation, and over a range of resolutions. It is shown that forcing represetative of time-mean and amplified conditions at 10 mb leads to the behavior typical of observations at this level. The displacement of the polar night vortex and its distortion into a comma shape are evident, as is irreversible mixing under sufficiently strong forcing amplitude. It is shown that thermal dissipation influences the behavior significantly by inhibiting the amplification of unstable eddies and thereby the horizontal stirring of air.

  12. The ALTA global positioning satellite based timing system

    Brouwer, W; Caron, B; Hewlett, J C; Holm, L; Hamilton, A H; McDonald, W J; Pinfold, J L; Schaapman, J R; Soluk, R A; Wampler, L J

    2002-01-01

    The Alberta Large-area Time-coincidence Array (ALTA) experiment uses a number of scintillation detector systems to form a sparse very large area cosmic air-shower detection array. An important scientific goal of the ALTA collaboration is to search for coincidences in the ALTA array due to large area cosmic ray phenomena. A local cosmic ray event, determined by a coincidence of the triplet of cosmic ray detectors forming a local detector system, is time stamped with a temporal coordinate obtained from a GPS receiver. The readout of the data, the local coincidence and the GPS time stamp are all performed in the local readout crate. This time stamp, along with the local shower direction is used to search for coincidences within the large area array. Using two GPS receivers and duplicate sets of ALTA electronics the timing resolution of the GPS time difference between sites was estimated to be 16 ns.

  13. A global change data base using thematic mapper data: Earth monitoring educational system (EMES)

    D'Antoni, H.L.; Peterson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System integrated with the research interests of NASA Ames Research Center and one or more university schools is proposed. This would be a first step in a new educational system at an international scale. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, the EMES will promote AS, BS, MS and PhDs in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extra-curricular courses for multilevel audiences. These would range as appropriate from ministers to resource managers to students. Both programs will be conducted under a systemic approach, through active learning, coordination and correlation practices. They will be aimed to: (1) train specialists, (2) establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool, and (3) transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. The main goal of the extra-curricular courses would be to provide readily usable knowledge to the decision-making levels of all the participant countries and institutions. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project. This work is consistent with the educational goals of the International Space year in 1992

  14. Global nonexistence results for a class of hyperbolic systems

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2011-12-01

    Our concern in this paper is to prove blow-up results to the non-autonomous nonlinear system of wave equations utt-Δu=a(t,x)| v|p,vtt-Δv=b(t,x)|u|q,t>0, x∈RN in any space dimension. We show that a curve F̃(p,q)=0 depending on the space dimension, on the exponents p,q and on the behavior of the functions a(t,x) and b(t,x) exists, such that all nontrivial solutions to the above system blow-up in a finite time whenever F̃(p,q)>0. Our method of proof uses some estimates developed by Galaktionov and Pohozaev in [11] for a single non-autonomous wave equation enabling us to obtain a system of ordinary differential inequalities from which the desired result is derived. Our result generalizes some important results such as the ones in Del Santo et al. (1996) [12] and Galaktionov and Pohozaev (2003) [11]. The advantage here is that our result applies to a wide variety of problems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conceptualising and creating a global learning health system.

    Friedman, Charles; Rigby, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In any country the health sector is important in terms of human wellbeing and large in terms of economics. The health sector might therefore be expected to be a finely tuned enterprise, utilising corporate knowledge in a constant process of critically reviewing and improving its activities and processes. However, this is seldom the case. Health systems and practice are highly variable and lag behind research discovery. This contrasts strongly with commercial bodies, and particularly service industries, where the concept of the learning organisation is strongly seen as the key to optimisation. A learning organisation accesses for analytic purposes operational data, which though captured and recorded for day-to-day transactions at the customer level, become also the basis of understanding changes in both demand and delivery process. In health care, the concept of the learning organisation is well grounded ethically. Anything which can improve health, including understanding of optimal care delivery processes and how to improve longer term outcomes, should be seized upon to drive service improvement - but currently this occurs haphazardly. The limitations of paper-based systems, priority given to digitalization of financial transactions, concerns about electronic data insecurity, and other factors have inhibited progress towards organisational learning at a national scale. But in recent years, new means of capturing, managing, and exchanging data have created new opportunities, while ever increasing pressures on health systems have produced strengthened incentive. In the United States, the current policy and investment impetus to electronic health records and concomitantly their 'meaningful use' create opportunities to build the foundations for data re-use for corporate learning - and thus for societal gain. In Europe and other settings there are islands of innovation, but not yet a coherent culture or impetus to build foundations for a learning health system. This

  16. Dynamic tracking performance of indoor global positioning system: An experimental and theoretical study

    Gang Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The automation level has been improved rapidly with the introduction of large-scale measurement technologies, such as indoor global positioning system, into the production process among the fields of car, ship, and aerospace due to their excellent measurement characteristics. In fact, the objects are usually in motion during the real measurement process; however, the dynamic measurement characteristics of indoor global positioning system are much limited and still in exploration. In this research, we focused on the dynamic tracking performance of indoor global positioning system and then successfully built a mathematical model based on its measurement principles. We first built single and double station system models with the consideration of measurement objects’ movement. Using MATLAB simulation, we realized the dynamic measurement characteristics of indoor global positioning system. In the real measurement process, the experimental results also support the mathematical model that we built, which proves a great success in dynamic measurement characteristics. We envision that this dynamic tracking performance of indoor global positioning system would shed light on the dynamic measurement of a motion object and therefore make contribution to the automation production.

  17. Warehousing in the Global Supply Chain Advanced Models, Tools and Applications for Storage Systems

    2012-01-01

    With increased globalization and offshore sourcing, global supply chain management is becoming an important issue for many businesses as it involves a company's worldwide interests and suppliers rather than simply a local or national orientation. The storage systems significantly affect the level of quality of products, the customer’s service level, and the global logistic cost. The mission of warehousing systems design, control and optimization is to effectively ship products in the right place, at the right time, and in the right quantity (i.e. in any configuration) without any damages or alterations, and minimizing costs. Warehousing in the Global Supply Chain presents and discusses a set of models, tools and real applications, including a few case studies rarely presented with a sufficient detail by other literature, to illustrate the main challenges in warehousing activities. This includes all warehouse operations (from receiving to shipping), problems and issues (e.g. storage allocation, assignment,...

  18. Circuitry linking the Csr and stringent response global regulatory systems.

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Patterson-Fortin, Laura M; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Vinella, Daniel; Camacho, Martha I; Fields, Joshua A; Thompson, Stuart A; Georgellis, Dimitris; Cashel, Michael; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2011-06-01

    CsrA protein regulates important cellular processes by binding to target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or stability. In Escherichia coli, CsrA binds to sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA and antagonize its activity. Here, mRNAs for relA, spoT and dksA of the stringent response system were found among 721 different transcripts that copurified with CsrA. Many of the transcripts that copurified with CsrA were previously determined to respond to ppGpp and/or DksA. We examined multiple regulatory interactions between the Csr and stringent response systems. Most importantly, DksA and ppGpp robustly activated csrB/C transcription (10-fold), while they modestly activated csrA expression. We propose that CsrA-mediated regulation is relieved during the stringent response. Gel shift assays confirmed high affinity binding of CsrA to relA mRNA leader and weaker interactions with dksA and spoT. Reporter fusions, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that CsrA repressed relA expression, and (p)ppGpp accumulation during stringent response was enhanced in a csrA mutant. CsrA had modest to negligible effects on dksA and spoT expression. Transcription of dksA was negatively autoregulated via a feedback loop that tended to mask CsrA effects. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the stringent response and discuss biological implications of the composite circuitry. © Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Local Geoid Determination Using the Global Positioning System

    1988-09-01

    Positioning System by Ma, Wei-Ming September 1988 Co-Advisor: Kandiah Jeyapalan Co-Advisor: Stevens P. Tucker Approved for public release; distribution is... Jeyapalan and Stevens P. Tucker, my thesis advisors, for their dedicated assistance and guidance during the study. Without their encouragement...method of collocation is [ Jeyapalan , 1977]: x = A*X+S +n +O.S q q P where x the vector of the observation (x = Ah - N0(X,Y,Z) - H) A a given rectangular

  20. Global behavior analysis for stochastic system of 1,3-PD continuous fermentation

    Zhu, Xi; Kliemann, Wolfgang; Li, Chunfa; Feng, Enmin; Xiu, Zhilong

    2017-12-01

    Global behavior for stochastic system of continuous fermentation in glycerol bio-dissimilation to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae is analyzed in this paper. This bioprocess cannot avoid the stochastic perturbation caused by internal and external disturbance which reflect on the growth rate. These negative factors can limit and degrade the achievable performance of controlled systems. Based on multiplicity phenomena, the equilibriums and bifurcations of the deterministic system are analyzed. Then, a stochastic model is presented by a bounded Markov diffusion process. In order to analyze the global behavior, we compute the control sets for the associated control system. The probability distributions of relative supports are also computed. The simulation results indicate that how the disturbed biosystem tend to stationary behavior globally.

  1. Beyond the bench and the bedside: economic and health systems dimensions of global childhood cancer outcomes.

    Denburg, Avram E; Knaul, Felicia M; Atun, Rifat; Frazier, Lindsay A; Barr, Ronald D

    2014-03-01

    Globally, the number of new cases of childhood cancer continues to rise, with a widening gulf in outcomes across countries, despite the availability of effective cure options for many pediatric cancers. Economic forces and health system realities are deeply embedded in the foundation of disparities in global childhood cancer outcomes. A truly global effort to close the childhood cancer divide therefore requires systemic solutions. Analysis of the economic and health system dimensions of childhood cancer outcomes is essential to progress in childhood cancer survival around the globe. The conceptual power of this approach is significant. It provides insight into how and where pediatric oncology entwines with broader political and economic conditions, and highlights the mutual benefit derived from systems-oriented solutions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Performance and Evaluation of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office Observing System Simulation Experiment

    Prive, Nikki; Errico, R. M.; Carvalho, D.

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO) has spent more than a decade developing and implementing a global Observing System Simulation Experiment framework for use in evaluting both new observation types as well as the behavior of data assimilation systems. The NASA/GMAO OSSE has constantly evolved to relect changes in the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimiation system, the Global Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5), and the real world observational network. Software and observational datasets for the GMAO OSSE are publicly available, along with a technical report. Substantial modifications have recently been made to the NASA/GMAO OSSE framework, including the character of synthetic observation errors, new instrument types, and more sophisticated atmospheric wind vectors. These improvements will be described, along with the overall performance of the current OSSE. Lessons learned from investigations into correlated errors and model error will be discussed.

  3. How Can a Global Social Support System Hope to Achieve Fairer Competiveness?

    Goldblatt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ooms et al sets out some good general principles for a global social support system to improve fairer global competitiveness as a result of redistribution. This commentary sets out to summarize some of the conditions that would need to be satisfied for it to level up gradients in inequality through such a social support system, using the National Basketball Association (NBA) example as a point of reference. From this, the minimal conditions are described that would be required for the support system, proposed in the article by Ooms et al, to succeed. PMID:26927594

  4. A crise financeira e o global shadow banking system

    Marcos Antonio Macedo Cintra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A crise financeira iniciada com a elevação da inadimplência e a desvalorização dos imóveis e dos ativos financeiros associados às hipotecas americanas de alto risco (subprime recolocou em debate a arquitetura do sistema financeiro americano e internacional, seus potenciais riscos sistêmicos e seus mecanismos de supervisão e regulação. Uma grande variedade de instituições financeiras frouxamente reguladas e displicentemente supervisionadas passou a constituir a contraparte da transferência de riscos de crédito do sistema bancário e a carregar riscos crescentes. O artigo procura discutir a interação dessas instituições financeiras, incluindo algumas características do principal palco dessa interação - os mercados de balcão - e a utilização de determinadas inovações financeiras que amplificaram a crise. Dada a complexidade e opacidade dessas instituições e mercados, busca ainda explicitar a necessidade de aperfeiçoamentos na sua regulação e supervisão.The financial crisis triggered by increasing default rate, real estate devaluation and financial asset depreciation combined with U.S. subprime mortgages brought about the debate over the framework of the U.S. and international financial systems, their potential systemic risks, and their regulatory and supervisory mechanisms. A great variety of financial institutions which were poorly regulated and badly supervised changed into the counterpart of the credit risk transfer from the banking system and started to hold increasing risks. This paper deals with the interaction of these financial institutions, including a description of some features of the major stage in this process - the so-called over-the-counter (OTC market - and the use of financial innovations which amplified the crisis. It also aims to clarify the need for improvements in terms of regulation and supervision considering the complexity and opacity of these institutions and markets.

  5. IMPELEMENTASI SISTEM PEMANTAUAN OBJEK BERGERAK DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN FREKUENSI RADIO MENGGUNAKAN GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM)

    Budi Triandi

    2010-01-01

    GPS was developed by the United States Department of Defense as a reliable means for accurate navigation. The system provides highly accurate position and velocity information and precise time on a continuous global basis to an unlimited number of properly equipped users. By using combined GPS receiver and microcontroller together with radio system, we can design a monitoring system for our vehicles and display the result on the computer. This system consists of a master module that transmits...

  6. Global geodetic observing system meeting the requirements of a global society on a changing planet in 2020

    Plag, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Geodesy plays a key role in geodynamics, geohazards, the global water cycle, global change, atmosphere and ocean dynamics. This book covers geodesy's contribution to science and society and identifies user needs regarding geodetic observations and products.

  7. Recommendations of the Global Multiple System Atrophy Research Roadmap Meeting.

    Walsh, Ryan R; Krismer, Florian; Galpern, Wendy R; Wenning, Gregor K; Low, Phillip A; Halliday, Glenda; Koroshetz, Walter J; Holton, Janice; Quinn, Niall P; Rascol, Olivier; Shaw, Leslie M; Eidelberg, David; Bower, Pam; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Abler, Victor; Biedenharn, Judy; Bitan, Gal; Brooks, David J; Brundin, Patrik; Fernandez, Hubert; Fortier, Philip; Freeman, Roy; Gasser, Thomas; Hewitt, Art; Höglinger, Günter U; Huentelman, Matt J; Jensen, Poul H; Jeromin, Andreas; Kang, Un Jung; Kaufmann, Horacio; Kellerman, Lawrence; Khurana, Vikram; Klockgether, Thomas; Kim, Woojin Scott; Langer, Carol; LeWitt, Peter; Masliah, Eliezer; Meissner, Wassilios; Melki, Ronald; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Piantadosi, Steven; Poewe, Werner; Robertson, David; Roemer, Cyndi; Schenk, Dale; Schlossmacher, Michael; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Seppi, Klaus; Shih, Lily; Siderowf, Andrew; Stebbins, Glenn T; Stefanova, Nadia; Tsuji, Shoji; Sutton, Sharon; Zhang, Jing

    2018-01-09

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with substantial knowledge gaps despite recent gains in basic and clinical research. In order to make further advances, concerted international collaboration is vital. In 2014, an international meeting involving leaders in the field and MSA advocacy groups was convened in Las Vegas, Nevada, to identify critical research areas where consensus and progress was needed to improve understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Eight topic areas were defined: pathogenesis, preclinical modeling, target identification, endophenotyping, clinical measures, imaging biomarkers, nonimaging biomarkers, treatments/trial designs, and patient advocacy. For each topic area, an expert served as a working group chair and each working group developed priority-ranked research recommendations with associated timelines and pathways to reach the intended goals. In this report, each groups' recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Inflationary α -attractor cosmology: A global dynamical systems perspective

    Alho, Artur; Uggla, Claes

    2017-04-01

    We study flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker α -attractor E- and T-models by introducing a dynamical systems framework that yields regularized unconstrained field equations on two-dimensional compact state spaces. This results in both illustrative figures and a complete description of the entire solution spaces of these models, including asymptotics. In particular, it is shown that observational viability, which requires a sufficient number of e -folds, is associated with a particular solution given by a one-dimensional center manifold of a past asymptotic de Sitter state, where the center manifold structure also explains why nearby solutions are attracted to this "inflationary attractor solution." A center manifold expansion yields a description of the inflationary regime with arbitrary analytic accuracy, where the slow-roll approximation asymptotically describes the tangency condition of the center manifold at the asymptotic de Sitter state.

  9. RAMOS - the radiation monitoring system of the Umweltforschungsinstitut Global 2000

    Exler, M.; Schmittner, W.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation early warning system RAMOS (radiation monitoring system) measures the radioactivity of the areas surrounding nuclear technical facilities (at present, around the Nuclear Power Plants Dukovany and Mochovce). Measurements are taken with Gamma-radiation devices of the type RS 03/X by the firm BITT- Technology. These devices are measuring equipment of the type Proportion-count tube with a detection range of 10 nSv/h to 10 Sv/h. The measuring stations consist of this Gamma measuring equipment, a personal computer with modem, back-up electricity devices and meteorological measuring devices. Six such measuring stations surrounding the facility comprise a complete measuring ring. The values are measured each minute. Considering the normal fluctuation in radiation measurements due to geology and weather conditions and the average background radiation, a certain alarm threshold is defined (on all stations this threshold is under 230 nSv/h). If this threshold is breached, immediately the data is transmitted through telephone lines and is received by the central office. Because of the short reaction time and low threshold, valuable time is gained for an emergency response by government agencies and the population. Official warning of the government agencies occurs after fulfilling the commendation of the Austrian Radiation Protection Commission. In the continued measurements from the end of 1994 to 2000 at NPP Dukovany and continuous measurements from NPP Mochovce from mid-1999 to the end of 2000, there was not a detection of dangerous levels of radiation were released into the atmosphere. After close examination of the measured data, different types of fluctuations could be observed - such as during the day-time period and short-term peaks after rain-fall. Detailed knowledge about trends in these fluctuations, allows an easier continual evaluation of a potential accident. The measured data is given to the public in graphic form every month via the Internet

  10. Conceptual Approaches to the Development of Economic Systems in the Context of Globalization and Regionalization

    D. I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of the national and the global in economic transformations occurring in open economic systems are substantiated. Conceptual approaches to the development of economic systems in the globalization and regionalization context are summed up. It is shown that globalization is a logical consequence of mutual influences and interactions of multiple local transformations in socio-economic systems of various levels, which planetary self-organization generates the new quality of the global economic development. It is concluded that globalization has controversial impact on the transformation capacities of national economic systems that have to operate in the unfavorable condition of the growing instability of the global economic system and rapid integration in the structures with already established economic relations. The heuristic and experimental nature of economic and institutional transformations in these countries is added by splits of national economic systems and disruptions of established production links; the outstripping liberalization of foreign economic relations, creating rather external than internal pressures on national manufacturers and making them less capable to adapt to the competitive environment; the accelerated liberalization of monetary and financial systems, opening up ways to reallocation of capital from the sluggish real sector to the more flexible sector of transactions with currencies and securities; the shrinking regulatory authorities of national governments with respect of trade, competition, tax policies or social welfare; the growing domination of TNC and outflow of productive resources from national economies, important for their self-development, thus making their economic systems structurally primitive; the sharp property differentiation within societies and the increasing shares of population with low incomes.

  11. Critical interactions between the Global Fund-supported HIV programs and the health system in Ghana.

    Atun, Rifat; Pothapregada, Sai Kumar; Kwansah, Janet; Degbotse, D; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2011-08-01

    The support of global health initiatives in recipient countries has been vigorously debated. Critics are concerned that disease-specific programs may be creating vertical and parallel service delivery structures that to some extent undermine health systems. This case study of Ghana aimed to explore how the Global Fund-supported HIV program interacts with the health system there and to map the extent and nature of integration of the national disease program across 6 key health systems functions. Qualitative interviews of national stakeholders were conducted to understand the perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the relationship between Global Fund-supported activities and the health system and to identify positive synergies and unintended consequences of integration. Ghana has a well-functioning sector-wide approach to financing its health system, with a strong emphasis on integrated care delivery. Ghana has benefited from US $175 million of approved Global Fund support to address the HIV epidemic, accounting for almost 85% of the National AIDS Control Program budget. Investments in infrastructure, human resources, and commodities have enabled HIV interventions to increase exponentially. Global Fund-supported activities have been well integrated into key health system functions to strengthen them, especially financing, planning, service delivery, and demand generation. Yet, with governance and monitoring and evaluation functions, parallel structures to national systems have emerged, leading to inefficiencies. This case study demonstrates that interactions and integration are highly varied across different health system functions, and strong government leadership has facilitated the integration of Global Fund-supported activities within national programs.

  12. 77 FR 56254 - 89th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

    2012-09-12

    ... held March 16, 2012. Review Working Group (WG) Progress and Identify Issues for Resolution. GPS/3nd... Standards for Global Positioning System/Wide Area Augmentation System Airborne Equipment Assignment/Review of Future Work. Other Business. Date and Place of Next Meeting. Adjourn Attendance is open to the...

  13. Global output feedback stabilisation of stochastic high-order feedforward nonlinear systems with time-delay

    Zhang, Kemei; Zhao, Cong-Ran; Xie, Xue-Jun

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the problem of output feedback stabilisation for stochastic high-order feedforward nonlinear systems with time-varying delay. By using the homogeneous domination theory and solving several troublesome obstacles in the design and analysis, an output feedback controller is constructed to drive the closed-loop system globally asymptotically stable in probability.

  14. Adding a soil fertility dimension to the global farming systems approach, with cases from Africa

    Smaling, E.M.A.; Dixon, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global farming systems (GFS) approach is extended by adding a soil fertility and nutrient management dimension for Africa's forest-based, maize mixed, cereal¿root crop mixed, and agro-pastoral millet/sorghum farming systems. Use is made of sustainable livelihood concepts, translated into farmer

  15. The Global Positioning System and Its Integration into College Geography Curricula.

    Wikle, Thomas A.; Lambert, Dean P.

    1996-01-01

    Introduces global positioning system (GPS) technology to nonspecialist geographers and recommends a framework for implementing GPS instructional modules in college geography courses. GPS was developed as a worldwide satellite-based system by the U.S. Department of Defense to simplify and improve military and civilian navigation and positioning.…

  16. The Global Positioning System--Direction for the Future [and] GPS Technology and Agriculture.

    Edmondson, Paul R.; Ginsburg, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Edmondson introduces a satellite-based radio navigation, positioning, and timing system that can be integrated into a variety of curriculum areas. Ginsburg describes how the global positioning system brings far-reaching benefits for crop growers and the environment. (Author)

  17. The Effect of Governance on Global Software Development: An Empirical Research in Transactive Memory Systems.

    Manteli, C.; van den Hooff, B.J.; van Vliet, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Context The way global software development (GSD) activities are managed impacts knowledge transactions between team members. The first is captured in governance decisions, and the latter in a transactive memory system (TMS), a shared cognitive system for encoding, storing and retrieving knowledge

  18. Existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solution for competition-predator system with variable delays

    Zhao Hongyong; Ding Nan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, Lotka-Volterra competition-predator system with variable delays is considered. Some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence and global attractivity of periodic solution for this system are obtained by using coincidence degree theory and Lyapunov functional method. An example is also worked out to demonstrate the advantages of our results

  19. The GRIN-Global Information Management System – Public Interface Demonstration and Input Opportunity

    The GRIN-Global (GG) Information Management System, under development for the past three years, provides the world's crop genebanks and plant genetic resource (PGR) users with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use PGR information management system. Developed jointly by the USDA Agricultural Research Ser...

  20. The GRIN-Global Information Management System – A Preview and Opportunity for Public User Input

    The GRIN-Global Information Management System, under development for the past two years, will provide the world's crop genebanks and plant genetic resource (PGR) users with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use PGR information management system. Developed jointly by the USDA Agricultural Research Servi...

  1. Global Earth Observation System of Systems: Characterizing Uncertainties of Space- based Measurements and Earth System Models Informing Decision Tools

    Birk, R. J.; Frederick, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) framework identifies the benefits of systematically and scientifically networking the capacity of organizations and systems into solutions that benefit nine societal benefit areas. The U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), the U.S. contribution to the GEOSS, focuses on near-term, mid-term, and long-term opportunities to establish integrated system solutions based on capacities and capabilities of member agencies and affiliations. Scientists at NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF and other U.S. agencies are evolving the predictive capacity of models of Earth processes based on space-based, airborne and surface-based instruments and their measurements. NASA research activities include advancing the power and accessibility of computational resources (i.e. Project Columbia) to enable robust science data analysis, modeling, and assimilation techniques to rapidly advance. The integration of the resulting observations and predictions into decision support tools require characterization of the accuracies of a range of input measurements includes temperature and humidity profiles, wind speed, ocean height, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric constituents that are measured globally by U.S. deployed spacecraft. These measurements are stored in many data formats on many different information systems with widely varying accessibility and have processes whose documentation ranges from extremely detailed to very minimal. Integrated and interdisciplinary modeling (enabled by the Earth System Model Framework) enable the types of ensemble analysis that are useful for decision processes associated with energy management, public health risk assessments, and optimizing transportation safety and efficiency. Interdisciplinary approaches challenge systems integrators (both scientists and engineers) to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of particular disciplines to develop, verify and validate, and ultimately benchmark the

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth-system processes

    Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel

    1991-01-01

    General Circulation Model (GCM) studies of the atmospheric response to change boundary conditions are discussed. Results are reported on an extensive series of numerical studies based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM) general circulation model. In these studies the authors determined the response to systematic changes in atmospheric CO2 ranging from 100 to 1000 ppm; to changes in the prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) in the Gulf of Mexico, such as occurred during the deglaciation phase of the last ice age; to changes in soil moisture over North America; and to changes in sea ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere. Study results show that the response of surface temperature and other variables is nearly logarithmic, with lower levels of CO2 implying greater sensitivity of the atmospheric state to changes in CO2. It was found that the surface temperature of the Gulf of Mexico exerts considerable control over the storm track and behavior of storm systems over the North Atlantic through its influence on evaporation and the source of latent heat. It was found that reductions in soil moisture can play a significant role in amplifying and maintaining North American drought, particularly when a negative soil moisture anomaly prevails late in the spring.

  3. The ICSU World Data System: a Global System of Data Systems, Year 4

    Minster, J. H.; Mokrane, M.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goals of the ICSU World Data System (ICSU-WDS, created in October 2008), are to ensure the long-term stewardship of quality-assessed data for research and education, and the provision of such data and related data services to the international science community and other stakeholders. New technological options opened by today's management, curation and on-line distribution of multi-disciplinary digital data sets make these goals achievable. The WDS is built as an international federated system of long-term data archives and data related services covering a wide spectrum of sciences. Since our last report, an International Program Office (IPO) was inaugurated, and is hosted by NICT in Tokyo, Japan. In the past two years, 160 organizations have formally requested membership, and 44 of these applications have been fully completed among which 38 are from Regular and Network member organizations dealing directly with data curation and data analysis services. Others include Partner and Associate members. ICSU-WDS fosters and enables interdisciplinary data activities, but recognizes that many disciplines (e.g. seismology, oceanography, astronomy, space sciences, biodiversity, health and social sciences) have already developed domain-specific efficient answers to their data challenges. WDS is evolving into a system of data systems wherein integration of interdisciplinary data depends on implementation of interoperability arrangements. Although the focus of WDS is on the long-term stewardship of scientific data—so that the value of data holdings might actually increase with time—WDS members must share some overarching principles to achieve this goal. This is realized through promotion of close collaboration between members but more importantly through a formal accreditation process based on well-defined certification criteria. These include, for example, the development and adoption of standards and quality control practices, analysis and metadata services

  4. Earth applications of closed ecological systems: relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere.

    Nelson, M; Allen, J; Alling, A; Dempster, W F; Silverstone, S

    2003-01-01

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support in artificial closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and expanding human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. The loss of biodiversity, reliance on non-renewable natural resources, and conversion of once wild ecosystems for human use with attendant desertification/soil erosion, has led to a shift of consciousness and the widespread call for sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioregenerative life support in closed systems, the small volumes and faster cycling times than in the Earth's biosphere make it starkly clear that systems must be designed to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, production of healthy food, and safe environmental methods of maintaining technical systems. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated and supportive of living systems is a harbinger of new perspectives as well as technologies in the global environment. In addition, closed system bioregenerative life support offers opportunities for public education and consciousness changing of how to live with our global biosphere. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heterogeneous world model and collaborative scenarios of transition to globally sustainable nuclear energy systems

    Kuznetsov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO is to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting global energy needs of the 21st century in a sustainable manner. The INPRO task titled “Global scenarios” is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios that lead to a global vision of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21st century. Results of multiple studies show that the criteria for developing sustainable nuclear energy cannot be met without innovations in reactor and nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Combining different reactor types and associated fuel chains creates a multiplicity of nuclear energy system arrangements potentially contributing to global sustainability of nuclear energy. In this, cooperation among countries having different policy regarding fuel cycle back end would be essential to bring sustainability benefits from innovations in technology to all interested users. INPRO has developed heterogeneous global model to capture countries’ different policies regarding the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in regional and global scenarios of nuclear energy evolution and applied in a number of studies performed by participants of the project. This paper will highlight the model and major conclusions obtained in the studies.

  6. Heterogeneous world model and collaborative scenarios of transition to globally sustainable nuclear energy systems - 15483

    Kuznetsov, V.; Fesenko, G.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting global energy needs of the 21. century in a sustainable manner. The INPRO task titled 'Global scenarios' is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios that lead to a global vision of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21. century. Results of multiple studies show that the criteria for developing sustainable nuclear energy cannot be met without innovations in reactor and nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Combining different reactor types and associated fuel chains creates a multiplicity of nuclear energy system arrangements potentially contributing to global sustainability of nuclear energy. In this, cooperation among countries having different policy regarding fuel cycle back end would be essential to bring sustainability benefits from innovations in technology to all interested users. INPRO has developed heterogeneous global model to capture countries' different policies regarding the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in regional and global scenarios of nuclear energy evolution and applied in a number of studies performed by participants of the project. This paper will highlight the model and major conclusions obtained in the studies. (authors)

  7. Financing tuberculosis control: the role of a global financial monitoring system.

    Floyd, Katherine; Pantoja, Andrea; Dye, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    Control of tuberculosis (TB), like health care in general, costs money. To sustain TB control at current levels, and to make further progress so that global targets can be achieved, information about funding needs, sources of funding, funding gaps and expenditures is important at global, regional, national and sub-national levels. Such data can be used for resource mobilization efforts; to document how funding requirements and gaps are changing over time; to assess whether increases in funding can be translated into increased expenditures and whether increases in expenditure are producing improvements in programme performance; and to identify which countries or regions have the greatest needs and funding gaps. In this paper, we discuss a global system for financial monitoring of TB control that was established in WHO in 2002. By early 2007, this system had accounted for actual or planned expenditures of more than US$ 7 billion and was systematically reporting financial data for countries that carry more than 90% of the global burden of TB. We illustrate the value of this system by presenting major findings that have been produced for the period 2002-2007, including results that are relevant to the achievement of global targets for TB control set for 2005 and 2015. We also analyse the strengths and limitations of the system and its relevance to other health-care programmes.

  8. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sharp conditions for global stability of Lotka-Volterra systems with distributed delays

    Faria, Teresa

    We give a criterion for the global attractivity of a positive equilibrium of n-dimensional non-autonomous Lotka-Volterra systems with distributed delays. For a class of autonomous Lotka-Volterra systems, we show that such a criterion is sharp, in the sense that it provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the global asymptotic stability independently of the choice of the delay functions. The global attractivity of positive equilibria is established by imposing a diagonal dominance of the instantaneous negative feedback terms, and relies on auxiliary results showing the boundedness of all positive solutions. The paper improves and generalizes known results in the literature, namely by considering systems with distributed delays rather than discrete delays.

  10. The impact of globalization on the characteristics of European countries’ tax systems

    Luković Stevan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the international literature, a great number of studies have sought to determine the relationship between the characteristics of the national tax systems and globalization. Most of the research was conducted to prove the impact of the tax system on the competitiveness of the national economy, in order to give a clear recommendation for how economic and fiscal policy should create a stimulating economic background and enable greater involvement of the national economy in international flows. However, the process can be viewed from the reverse perspective, in the sense that the process of globalization and international competition can shape the characteristics of national tax systems. This paper aims to determine by empirical evidence the impact of the process of globalization and international competition on the characteristics of taxation in observed European countries.

  11. Observations of geographically correlated orbit errors for TOPEX/Poseidon using the global positioning system

    Christensen, E. J.; Haines, B. J.; Mccoll, K. C.; Nerem, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    We have compared Global Positioning System (GPS)-based dynamic and reduced-dynamic TOPEX/Poseidon orbits over three 10-day repeat cycles of the ground-track. The results suggest that the prelaunch joint gravity model (JGM-1) introduces geographically correlated errors (GCEs) which have a strong meridional dependence. The global distribution and magnitude of these GCEs are consistent with a prelaunch covariance analysis, with estimated and predicted global rms error statistics of 2.3 and 2.4 cm rms, respectively. Repeating the analysis with the post-launch joint gravity model (JGM-2) suggests that a portion of the meridional dependence observed in JGM-1 still remains, with global rms error of 1.2 cm.

  12. Susceptibility of South Korea to Extremes Affecting the Global Food System

    Chon, So Young; Puma, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Food security in South Korea is tightly linked to the global food system. The country's production of major grains declined from 5.8 million metric tons (mmt) in 1998 to 4.8 mmt in 2014, which caused the country's grain self suciency to decline from 31.4% to 24%. This decline is a consequence of several factors including reductions in domestic agricultural land, governmental policies supporting industry over agriculture, and a push towards trade liberalization. South Korea's self suciency is now one of the lowest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, leaving it vulnerable to disruptions in the global food system.

  13. Geometric methods of global attraction in systems of delay differential equations

    El-Morshedy, Hassan A.; Ruiz-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we deduce criteria of global attraction in systems of delay differential equations. Our methodology is new and consists in "dominating" the nonlinear terms of the system by a scalar function and then studying some dynamical properties of that function. One of the crucial benefits of our approach is that we obtain delay-dependent results of global attraction that cover the best delay-independent conditions. We apply our results in a gene regulatory model and the classical Nicholson's blowfly equation with patch structure.

  14. Global optimization for overall HVAC systems - Part I problem formulation and analysis

    Lu Lu; Cai Wenjian; Chai, Y.S.; Xie Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the global optimization technologies for overall heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The objective function of global optimization and constraints are formulated based on mathematical models of the major components. All these models are associated with power consumption components and heat exchangers for transferring cooling load. The characteristics of all the major components are briefly introduced by models, and the interactions between them are analyzed and discussed to show the complications of the problem. According to the characteristics of the operating components, the complicated original optimization problem for overall HVAC systems is transformed and simplified into a compact form ready for optimization

  15. Stepwise optimization and global chaos of nonlinear parameters in exact calculations of few-particle systems

    Frolov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of exact variational calculations of few-particle systems in the exponential basis of the relative coordinates using nonlinear parameters is studied. The techniques of stepwise optimization and global chaos of nonlinear parameters are used to calculate the S and P states of homonuclear muonic molecules with an error of no more than +0.001 eV. The global-chaos technique also has proved to be successful in the case of the nuclear systems 3 H and 3 He

  16. Local and global stability for Lotka-Volterra systems with distributed delays and instantaneous negative feedbacks

    Faria, Teresa; Oliveira, José J.

    This paper addresses the local and global stability of n-dimensional Lotka-Volterra systems with distributed delays and instantaneous negative feedbacks. Necessary and sufficient conditions for local stability independent of the choice of the delay functions are given, by imposing a weak nondelayed diagonal dominance which cancels the delayed competition effect. The global asymptotic stability of positive equilibria is established under conditions slightly stronger than the ones required for the linear stability. For the case of monotone interactions, however, sharper conditions are presented. This paper generalizes known results for discrete delays to systems with distributed delays. Several applications illustrate the results.

  17. Global Dynamical Systems Involving Generalized -Projection Operators and Set-Valued Perturbation in Banach Spaces

    Yun-zhi Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of generalized dynamical systems involving generalized f-projection operators is introduced and studied in Banach spaces. By using the fixed-point theorem due to Nadler, the equilibrium points set of this class of generalized global dynamical systems is proved to be nonempty and closed under some suitable conditions. Moreover, the solutions set of the systems with set-valued perturbation is showed to be continuous with respect to the initial value.

  18. Propagated failure analysis for non-repairable systems considering both global and selective effects

    Wang Chaonan; Xing Liudong; Levitin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for the reliability analysis of non-repairable binary systems subject to competing failure propagation and failure isolation events with both global and selective failure effects. A propagated failure that originates from a system component causes extensive damage to the rest of the system. Global effect happens when the propagated failure causes the entire system to fail; whereas selective effect happens when the propagated failure causes only failure of a subset of system components. In both cases, the failure propagation that originates from some system components (referred to as dependent components) can be isolated because of functional dependence between the dependent components and a component that prevents the failure propagation (trigger components) when the failure of the trigger component happens before the occurrence of the propagated failure. Most existing studies focus on the analysis of propagated failures with global effect. However, in many cases, propagated failures affect only a subset of system components not the entire system. Existing approaches for analyzing propagated failures with selective effect are limited to series-parallel systems. This paper proposes a combinatorial method for the propagated failure analysis considering both global and selective effects as well as the competition with the failure isolation in the time domain. The proposed method is not limited to series-parallel systems and has no limitation on the type of time-to-failure distributions for the system components. The method is verified using the Markov-based method. An example of computer memory systems is analyzed to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.

  19. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM SCHEMES BASED ON BLOCK CODES

    Prasad Janga; Dr. R. L. Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite based positioning system based on radio ranging technique. The GPS will provide very accurate three-dimensional position, velocity and timing information to users anywhere in the world. GPS can also be used in other applications such as vehicle monitoring for traffic management in urban areas, Geographical Information System (GIS), 4G Communications, marine navigation, search and rescue and military applications. As GPS accuracy is limited by ion...

  20. Earth Applications of Closed Ecological Systems: Relevance to the Development of Sustainability in our Global Biosphere

    Dempster, W.; van Thillo, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support and closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer be counted on to be vast enough to safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. With an increasing percentage of the world's natural resources and primary productivity being dictated by, and directed to, humans, our species is starting to appreciate its survival and quality of life depends on regulating its activities, and insuring that crucial biogeochemical cycles continue to function. This shift of consciousness has led to the widespread call for moving towards the sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioreenerative life support, the small volumes and faster cycling times have made it obvious that systems must be created in to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, and where all technical systems can be safely integrated with the maintenance of safe environmental conditions. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated with the living systems that they support should be a harbinger of new perspectives in the global environment. The paper will review some of these environmental technologies which are emerging from bioregenerative life support system research such as high-yield intensive agricultural methods, waste treatment and nutrient recycling, air purification, modeling, sensor and control systems and their potential applications in the global biosphere. In addition, a review of the human experience in closed ecological systems shows that these can offer opportunities for public education and consciousness-changing of how humans regard our global biosphere.

  1. Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    Ollier, G.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of involving citizens in measuring and providing data is becoming a reality through the concept of "Citizen Observatories". This takes advantage of everybody's capacity to use mobile phone/tablet/laptop to monitor the environment and by trying to find cheap solutions to strengthen the in-situ network of observatories needed for a Global Earth Observation System. Further to the Citizen Observatories approach, the development of cheap sensors based on disposable technologies, nanotech and the piggy-back approach could also be applied to several Societal Challenges and contribute to the GEOSS. The involvement of citizens in the domain of Earth Observation implies dealing with many diverse communities that need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomesnow possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to extend the data resources available from a few hundred to over 28 million The vison which is discussed here is that with a more active participation of the Citizens one could imagine a world with instant information flow about the state and future evolution of the environment available, similar to what has been achieved in weather forecasting but covering fields such as climate, agriculture, water etc. and covering larger forecast time spans from months to years. Failure on crops for instance could be forecasted and measures to mitigate potential upcoming problems could be put in place well in advance. Obviously, the societal and economic benefits would be manifold and large

  2. Global attractivity of positive periodic solution to periodic Lotka-Volterra competition systems with pure delay

    Tang, Xianhua; Cao, Daomin; Zou, Xingfu

    We consider a periodic Lotka-Volterra competition system without instantaneous negative feedbacks (i.e., pure-delay systems) x(t)=x(t)[r(t)-∑j=1na(t)x(t-τ(t))], i=1,2,…,n. We establish some 3/2-type criteria for global attractivity of a positive periodic solution of the system, which generalize the well-known Wright's 3/2 criteria for the autonomous delay logistic equation, and thereby, address the open problem proposed by both Kuang [Y. Kuang, Global stability in delayed nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra type systems without saturated equilibria, Differential Integral Equations 9 (1996) 557-567] and Teng [Z. Teng, Nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra systems with delays, J. Differential Equations 179 (2002) 538-561].

  3. Dynamical analysis of a cubic Liénard system with global parameters

    Chen, Hebai; Chen, Xingwu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we investigate the dynamical behaviour of a cubic Liénard system with global parameters. After analysing the qualitative properties of all the equilibria and judging the existences of limit cycles and homoclinic loops for the whole parameter plane, we give the bifurcation diagram and phase portraits. Phase portraits are global if there exist limit cycles and local otherwise. We prove that parameters lie in a connected region, not just on a curve, usually in the parameter plane when the system has one homoclinic loop. Moreover, for global parameters we give a positive answer to conjecture 3.2 of (1998 Nonlinearity 11 1505-19) in the case of exactly two equilibria about the existence of some function whose graph is exactly the surface of double limit cycles. Supported by NSFC 11471228, 11172246 and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  4. Management of business process design in global implementation of enterprise resource planning systems

    Rahimi, Fatemeh

    on process standardization with corporate international management strategy and structural characteristics. Furthermore, business process design can be supported by establishing permanent central governance for BPM and horizontally integrating the BPM function with the IT function at the strategic......Investments in global enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are typically carried out as a part of the globalization process in multinational corporations (MNCs). Global ERP systems support integration and control in MNCs in an important way by establishing a common language across an MNC...... and findings from case studies in nine organizations, the study addresses the three prescriptive research questions through five descriptive studies. First, by deploying alternative theories, this study explores the strategic, institutional, organizational, and relational factors that influence business...

  5. FORMATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS WITH THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE GLOBAL RETAIL CHAINS

    L. Kudyrko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyze the features of formation and functioning of multi-marketing distribution systems involving global retail chains and identify the causes of conflicts between participants in the global supply chain and suggest possible ways to displace them. The article represents the author’s definition of the term “global retail chain”. The role and responsibilities of international retailers in the formation of marketing structures on international markets are discovered. The algorithm of the relationship between the participants in the traditional vertical marketing system with the definition of international components is determined. The conflict causes between the participants within the distribution channel are identified.

  6. Global adaptation in networks of selfish components: emergent associative memory at the system scale.

    Watson, Richard A; Mills, Rob; Buckley, C L

    2011-01-01

    In some circumstances complex adaptive systems composed of numerous self-interested agents can self-organize into structures that enhance global adaptation, efficiency, or function. However, the general conditions for such an outcome are poorly understood and present a fundamental open question for domains as varied as ecology, sociology, economics, organismic biology, and technological infrastructure design. In contrast, sufficient conditions for artificial neural networks to form structures that perform collective computational processes such as associative memory/recall, classification, generalization, and optimization are well understood. Such global functions within a single agent or organism are not wholly surprising, since the mechanisms (e.g., Hebbian learning) that create these neural organizations may be selected for this purpose; but agents in a multi-agent system have no obvious reason to adhere to such a structuring protocol or produce such global behaviors when acting from individual self-interest. However, Hebbian learning is actually a very simple and fully distributed habituation or positive feedback principle. Here we show that when self-interested agents can modify how they are affected by other agents (e.g., when they can influence which other agents they interact with), then, in adapting these inter-agent relationships to maximize their own utility, they will necessarily alter them in a manner homologous with Hebbian learning. Multi-agent systems with adaptable relationships will thereby exhibit the same system-level behaviors as neural networks under Hebbian learning. For example, improved global efficiency in multi-agent systems can be explained by the inherent ability of associative memory to generalize by idealizing stored patterns and/or creating new combinations of subpatterns. Thus distributed multi-agent systems can spontaneously exhibit adaptive global behaviors in the same sense, and by the same mechanism, as with the organizational

  7. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future

  8. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  9. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thornton, Philip K.; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system. PMID:24344273

  10. 77 FR 37430 - BSEE Information Collection Activity: Global Positioning System for MODUs, Extension of a...

    2012-06-21

    ... major weather event, like a hurricane, lessees and operators need to report new GPS information to BSEE...-0012; OMB Control Number 1014-0013] BSEE Information Collection Activity: Global Positioning System for... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), BSEE is inviting comments on a collection of information pertaining...

  11. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    1978-01-01

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited

  12. Branding by Proxy? : How hubs market (or not) higher education systems globally: the example of Qatar

    Cremonini, Leon; Taylor, John; Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2017-01-01

    This chapter proposes a framework to understand if and how hubs contribute to stronger positioning of higher education system in global competition, and uses the case of Qatar to draw conclusions. Increasingly, governments around the world invest in so-called “education hubs”, which host excellent

  13. Global positioning system for general aviation: Joint FAA-NASA Seminar. [conferences

    1978-01-01

    Programs to examine and develop means to utilize the global positioning system (GPS) for civil aviation functions are described. User requirements in this regard are discussed, the development of technologies in the areas of antennas, receivers, and signal processors for the GPS are examined, and modifications to the GPS to fit operational and design criteria are evaluated.

  14. 76 FR 31943 - Global Positioning System Directorate (Gpsd); Notice of Meeting

    2011-06-02

    ...); Notice of Meeting ACTION: Notice of Meeting--Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) for Signals-in... that the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate will be hosting a Public Interface Control... the Was/Is Matrix, current versions of the documents, and the official meeting notice will be posted...

  15. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  16. The Global Positioning System and Education in the 21st Century.

    Wikle, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    Students should have an understanding of basic Global Positioning System (GPS) principles as well as an awareness of how the technology will impact society in the future. Provides a brief overview of the evolution, principles, and applications of GPS together with suggested activities. (Contains 25 references.) (Author/WRM)

  17. Meteorological applications of a surface network of Global Positioning System receivers

    Haan, de S.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents meteorological applications of water vapour observations from a surface network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. GPS signals are delayed by the atmo¬sphere due to atmospheric refraction and bending. Mapped to the zenith, this delay is called Zenith Total Delay

  18. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  19. Comparing supply-side specifications in models of global agriculture and the food system

    Robinson, S.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Willenbockel, D.; Valin, H.; Fujimori, S.; Masui, T.; Sands, R.; Wise, M.; Calvin, K.V.; Mason d'Croz, D.; Tabeau, A.A.; Kavallari, A.; Schmitz, C.; Dietrich, J.P.; Lampe, von M.

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the theoretical and functional specification of production in partial equilibrium (PE) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models of the global agricultural and food system included in the AgMIP model comparison study. The two model families differ in their scope—partial

  20. Modeling the global society-biosphere-climate system : Part 2: Computed scenarios

    Alcamo, J.; Van Den Born, G.J.; Bouwman, A.F.; De Haan, B.J.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Klepper, O.; Krabec, J.; Leemans, R.; Olivier, J.G.J.; Toet, A.M.C.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Van Der Woerd, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents scenarios computed with IMAGE 2.0, an integrated model of the global environment and climate change. Results are presented for selected aspects of the society-biosphere-climate system including primary energy consumption, emissions of various greenhouse gases, atmospheric

  1. Global Warming and the Political Ecology of Health: Emerging Crisis and Systemic Solutions

    Kate Smith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Global Warming and the Political Ecology of Health: Emerging Crisis and Systemic Solutions. Hans Baer and Merrill Singer. 2008. Left Coast Press, Inc., Walnut Creek, CA. Pp. 238. $32.95 (paperback. ISBN 978-1-59874-354-8.

  2. GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION INTERCEPTION BY GRAPEVINES TRAINED TO A VERTICAL TRELLIS SYSTEM

    CLAUDIA GUIMARÃES CAMARGO CAMPOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this paper we assess the utilization of radiant energy in the growing of grapevines (Cabernet Sauvignon trained to a vertical trellis system, and estimate the global solar radiation interception taking into account the physical characteristics of the training system at different phenological stages. The experiment was based on daily measurements of global solar radiation made by an automatic weather station placed at the vineyard of a winery located in the municipality of São Joaquim, in the southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (Villa Francioni winery, 28º 15’ 14” S, 49º 57’ 02” W, 1294m a.s.l.. Growth and phenological development of the shoots were evaluated. The global solar radiation is intercepted by the canopy (trained to a vertical trellis system in different orientations and the accumulated total is slightly greater on the east than on the west face of the canopy, especially after flowering. The daily variability of global solar radiation intercepted by the canopy is greater after flowering. The accumulated solar energy incident on the canopy increases until the onset of ripening. From the results, vineyards trained to a vertical trellis system in the north-south direction provide favorable sunlight exposure to leaves and fruits and are promising in quality and productivity.

  3. Closing global knowledge gaps : Producing generalized knowledge from case studies of social-ecological systems

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Ellis, Erle C.; Allington, Ginger R.H.; de Bremond, Ariane; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Mertz, Ole; Messerli, Peter; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Seppelt, Ralf; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over rapid widespread changes in social-ecological systems and their consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, food security, and human livelihoods are driving demands for globally comprehensive knowledge to support decision-making and policy development. Claims of regional or

  4. Computational Experience with Globally Convergent Descent Methods for Large Sparse Systems of Nonlinear Equations

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Vlček, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3-4 (1998), s. 201-223 ISSN 1055-6788 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/96/0918 Keywords : nonlinear equations * Armijo-type descent methods * Newton-like methods * truncated methods * global convergence * nonsymmetric linear systems * conjugate gradient -type methods * residual smoothing * computational experiments Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  5. Causes and consequences of timing errors associated with global positioning system collar accelerometer activity monitors

    Adam J. Gaylord; Dana M. Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral observations of multiple free-ranging animals over long periods of time and large geographic areas is prohibitively difficult. However, recent improvements in technology, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with motion-sensitive activity monitors, create the potential to remotely monitor animal behavior. Accelerometer-equipped...

  6. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  7. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems.

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C; Thornton, Philip K; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-12-24

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system.

  8. Global Geodetic Observing System: meeting the requirements of a global society on a changing planet in 2020

    Plag, Hans-Peter, 1952; Pearlman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ..., Earth Observation on a global scale is at the heart of GGOS's activities, which contributes to Global Change research through the monitoring, as well as the modeling, of dynamic Earth processes such as, for example, mass and angular momentum exchanges, mass transport and ocean circulation, and changes in sea, land and ice surfaces. To achieve such a...

  9. Hydropower's future, the environment, and global electricity systems

    Sternberg, R. [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, 1 Normal Ave, Montclair, NJ 07043-1624 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Hydropower is a well established electricity system on the global scene. Global electricity needs by far exceed the amount of electricity that hydrosystems can provide to meet global electricity needs. Much of the world's hydropower remains to be brought into production. Improved technology, better calibrated environmental parameters for large projects have become the norm in the past 15 years. How and why does hydropower retain a prominent role in electricity production? How and why does hydropower find social acceptance in diverse social systems? How does hydropower project planning address issues beyond electricity generation? How does the systems approach to hydropower installations further analysis of comparative energy sources powering electricity systems? Attention to the environmental impact of hydropower facilities forms an integral part of systems analysis. Similarly, the technical, political and economic variables call for balanced analysis to identify the viability status of hydro projects. Economic competition among energy systems requires in context assessments as these shape decision making in planning of hydropower systems. Moreover, technological change has to be given a time frame during which the sector advances in productivity and share in expanding electricity generation. The low production costs per kWh assure hydropower at this juncture, 2009, a very viable future. (author)

  10. Research of Compound Control for DC Motor System Based on Global Sliding Mode Disturbance Observer

    He Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of modeling errors, parameter variations, and load moment disturbances in DC motor control system, one global sliding mode disturbance observer (GSMDO is proposed based on the global sliding mode (GSM control theory. The output of GSMDO is used as the disturbance compensation in control system, which can improve the robust performance of DC motor control system. Based on the designed GSMDO in inner loop, one compound controller, composed of a feedback controller and a feedforward controller, is proposed in order to realize the position tracking of DC motor system. The gains of feedback controller are obtained by means of linear quadratic regulator (LQR optimal control theory. Simulation results present that the proposed control scheme possesses better tracking properties and stronger robustness against modeling errors, parameter variations, and friction moment disturbances. Moreover, its structure is simple; therefore it is easy to be implemented in engineering.

  11. Coupling Strength and System Size Induce Firing Activity of Globally Coupled Neural Network

    Wei Duqu; Luo Xiaoshu; Zou Yanli

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how firing activity of globally coupled neural network depends on the coupling strength C and system size N. Network elements are described by space-clamped FitzHugh-Nagumo (SCFHN) neurons with the values of parameters at which no firing activity occurs. It is found that for a given appropriate coupling strength, there is an intermediate range of system size where the firing activity of globally coupled SCFHN neural network is induced and enhanced. On the other hand, for a given intermediate system size level, there exists an optimal value of coupling strength such that the intensity of firing activity reaches its maximum. These phenomena imply that the coupling strength and system size play a vital role in firing activity of neural network

  12. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Clock Product (5 minute resolution, daily files, generated weekly) from NASA CDDIS

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Satellite and Receiver Clock Product (5-minute granularity, daily files, generated...

  13. Global Advances in Health and Medicine Through Systems Biology: An Example From the Netherlands

    van der Heijden, Marianne J.E.; Schroen, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Globally, healthcare systems are facing problems with increasing healthcare costs due to chronic diseases. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, depression, and chronic lung disease are some of the top chronic diseases that put pressure on our healthcare systems and are very difficult to resolve. The chronic diseases mentioned are often lifestyle-related and require a personalized approach. The solutions that we currently have at hand seem to be insufficient in meeting the needs of the pa...

  14. The Role of the Agulhas System in Regional and Global Climate

    de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.; Beal, Lisa; Biastoch, Arne; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-03-01

    The AGU Chapman Conference on the Agulhas system was the first held on the African continent. There was a feeling of excitement among participants about the great diversity of ongoing research related to the Agulhas Current system, including its role in global and regional climate, its possible influence on human origins in southern Africa, its link to the Madagascar phytoplankton bloom, and its influence on South Atlantic hurricane development (Catarina) through warming related to Agulhas leakage over the past decades.

  15. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0175 TITLE: Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions PRINCIPAL...Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0175 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...genetic diversity in the population, in hospitalized children with severe dengue illness and cluster investigation of their neighborhoods, and by using

  16. Global stability and quadratic Hamiltonian structure in Lotka-Volterra and quasi-polynomial systems

    Szederkenyi, Gabor; Hangos, Katalin M

    2004-04-26

    We show that the global stability of quasi-polynomial (QP) and Lotka-Volterra (LV) systems with the well-known logarithmic Lyapunov function is equivalent to the existence of a local generalized dissipative Hamiltonian description of the LV system with a diagonal quadratic form as a Hamiltonian function. The Hamiltonian function can be calculated and the quadratic dissipativity neighborhood of the origin can be estimated by solving linear matrix inequalities.

  17. Global stability and quadratic Hamiltonian structure in Lotka-Volterra and quasi-polynomial systems

    Szederkényi, Gábor; Hangos, Katalin M.

    2004-04-01

    We show that the global stability of quasi-polynomial (QP) and Lotka-Volterra (LV) systems with the well-known logarithmic Lyapunov function is equivalent to the existence of a local generalized dissipative Hamiltonian description of the LV system with a diagonal quadratic form as a Hamiltonian function. The Hamiltonian function can be calculated and the quadratic dissipativity neighborhood of the origin can be estimated by solving linear matrix inequalities.

  18. Global stability and quadratic Hamiltonian structure in Lotka-Volterra and quasi-polynomial systems

    Szederkenyi, Gabor; Hangos, Katalin M.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the global stability of quasi-polynomial (QP) and Lotka-Volterra (LV) systems with the well-known logarithmic Lyapunov function is equivalent to the existence of a local generalized dissipative Hamiltonian description of the LV system with a diagonal quadratic form as a Hamiltonian function. The Hamiltonian function can be calculated and the quadratic dissipativity neighborhood of the origin can be estimated by solving linear matrix inequalities

  19. A web-mapping system for real-time visualization of the global terrain

    Zhang, Liqiang; Yang, Chongjun; Liu, Donglin; Ren, Yingchao; Rui, Xiaoping

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we mainly present a web-based 3D global terrain visualization application that provides more powerful transmission and visualization of global multiresolution data sets across networks. A client/server architecture is put forward. The paper also reports various relevant research work, such as efficient data compression methods to reduce the physical size of these data sets and accelerate network delivery, streaming transmission for progressively downloading data, and real-time multiresolution terrain surface visualization with a high visual quality by M-band wavelet transforms and a hierarchical triangulation technique. Finally, an experiment is performed using different levels of detailed data to verify that the system works appropriately.

  20. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahlers, M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Almela, A.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Nicolas /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.