WorldWideScience

Sample records for global adherence project

  1. An assessment of adherence to basic ecological principles by payments for ecosystem service projects.

    Prager, C M; Varga, A; Olmsted, P; Ingram, J C; Cattau, M; Freund, C; Wynn-Grant, R; Naeem, S

    2016-08-01

    Programs and projects employing payments for ecosystem service (PES) interventions achieve their objectives by linking buyers and sellers of ecosystem services. Although PES projects are popular conservation and development interventions, little is known about their adherence to basic ecological principles. We conducted a quantitative assessment of the degree to which a global set of PES projects adhered to four ecological principles that are basic scientific considerations for any project focused on ecosystem management: collection of baseline data, identification of threats to an ecosystem service, monitoring, and attention to ecosystem dynamics or the formation of an adaptive management plan. We evaluated 118 PES projects in three markets-biodiversity, carbon, and water-compiled using websites of major conservation organizations; ecology, economic, and climate-change databases; and three scholarly databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, and Google Scholar). To assess adherence to ecological principles, we constructed two scientific indices (one additive [ASI] and one multiplicative [MSI]) based on our four ecological criteria and analyzed index scores by relevant project characteristics (e.g., sector, buyer, seller). Carbon-sector projects had higher ASI values (P < 0.05) than water-sector projects and marginally higher ASI scores (P < 0.1) than biodiversity-sector projects, demonstrating their greater adherence to ecological principles. Projects financed by public-private partnerships had significantly higher ASI values than projects financed by governments (P < 0.05) and marginally higher ASI values than those funded by private entities (P < 0.1). We did not detect differences in adherence to ecological principles based on the inclusion of cobenefits, the spatial extent of a project, or the size of a project's budget. These findings suggest, at this critical phase in the rapid growth of PES projects, that fundamental ecological principles should be

  2. A global cleanout project

    Edlow, J.; Gruber, G.

    2004-01-01

    Once upon a time there was a great dream of a atomic age for mankind. The technically advanced nations of the world promised amazing opportunities for all and promoted their materials and equipment often by supplying them throughout the world in the race to gain market share. For a time, the dream was fulfilled, as many countries embraced the new technologies initially for research and later for medical, power and even transport opportunities. In due course, the demand subsided and in some countries has even been reversed with plans to terminate outdated or unneeded facilities. This brings up the issue of nuclear waste disposal. It was not until post 'Sept 11', that the US and other countries and NGOs began to seriously think about the larger implications of terrorist use of 'Dirty Bombs'. This has led to the potential of a wider program aimed at the possible return of a larger amount of 'abandoned' materials. Thus the 'GLOBAL CLEANOUT PROJECT' was borne. Many in the nuclear fuel cycle will have a stake in this and can play a role in an international community to deal with the issue and it has to be started now. (author)

  3. Global Project Management: Graduate Course

    Beranek, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    ..., A. James Clark School of Engineering - Project Management Program. The course slides and suggested readings provide a general exploration of the nuances of doing projects globally as compared to domestically...

  4. Global energy / CO2 projections

    Sinyak, Y.

    1990-09-01

    Section headings are: (1) Social and economic problems of the 21 st century and the role of energy supply systems (2) Energy-environment interactions as a central point of energy research activities (3) New ways of technological progress and its impacts on energy demand and supply (4) Long-term global energy projections (5) Comparative analysis of global long-term energy / CO 2 studies (6) Conclusions. The author shows that, in order to alleviate the negative impacts of energy systems on the climate, it will be necessary to undertake tremendous efforts to improve the energy use efficiency, to drastically change the primary energy mix, and, at the same time, to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions from other sources and increase the CO 2 sink through enhanced reforestation. (Quittner)

  5. Leading global projects for professional and accidental project leaders

    Moran, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    This book is a must-read for anyone responsible for projects and initiatives that span functional and geographical divides. Authors Moran and Youngdahl bring extensive experience and learning from industry practice to present a clear and straightforward treatment of the leadership skills and knowledge required to lead projects that are global in nature. They have written the first book of its kind to address the three essential skills of global project leaders - strategic project management, project leadership, and cross-cultural leadership. The authors argue that global project leadership is an essential skill in our project-based world and that we are all either intentional or accidental project leaders. Intentional project leaders pursue formal project management education and even certification whereas accidental project leaders find themselves leading global projects and initiatives as a result of a special assignment or promotion. Moran and Youndahl have found that the vast majority of global projects ...

  6. Global consequences of a local Casimir force : Adhered cantilever

    Svetovoy, V. B.; Melenev, A. E.; Lokhanin, M. V.; Palasantzas, G.

    2017-01-01

    Although stiction is a cumbersome problem for microsystems, it stimulates investigations of surface adhesion. In fact, the shape of an adhered cantilever carries information of the adhesion energy that locks one end to the substrate. We demonstrate here that the system is also sensitive to the

  7. Use of peers to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a global network meta-analysis.

    Kanters, Steve; Park, Jay Jh; Chan, Keith; Ford, Nathan; Forrest, Jamie; Thorlund, Kristian; Nachega, Jean B; Mills, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether using peers can improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). To construct the World Health Organization's global guidance on adherence interventions, we conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of using peers for achieving adequate adherence and viral suppression. We searched for randomized clinical trials of peer-based interventions to promote adherence to ART in HIV populations. We searched six electronic databases from inception to July 2015 and major conference abstracts within the last three years. We examined the outcomes of adherence and viral suppression among trials done worldwide and those specific to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) using pairwise and network meta-analyses. Twenty-two trials met the inclusion criteria. We found similar results between pairwise and network meta-analyses, and between the global and LMIC settings. Peer supporter+Telephone was superior in improving adherence than standard-of-care in both the global network (odds-ratio [OR]=4.79, 95% credible intervals [CrI]: 1.02, 23.57) and the LMIC settings (OR=4.83, 95% CrI: 1.88, 13.55). Peer support alone, however, did not lead to improvement in ART adherence in both settings. For viral suppression, we found no difference of effects among interventions due to limited trials. Our analysis showed that peer support leads to modest improvement in adherence. These modest effects may be due to the fact that in many settings, particularly in LMICs, programmes already include peer supporters, adherence clubs and family disclosures for treatment support. Rather than introducing new interventions, a focus on improving the quality in the delivery of existing services may be a more practical and effective way to improve adherence to ART.

  8. Alberta's Tomorrow Project: adherence to cancer prevention recommendations pertaining to diet, physical activity and body size.

    Whelan, Heather K; Xu, Jian-Yi; Vaseghi, Sanaz; Lo Siou, Geraldine; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Robson, Paula J

    2017-05-01

    To explore cross-sectional adherence to cancer prevention recommendations by adults enrolled in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada. Questionnaire data were used to construct a composite cancer prevention adherence score for each participant, based on selected personal recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Data were self-reported on health and lifestyle, past-year physical activity and past-year FFQ. The scores accounted for physical activity, dietary supplement use, body size, and intakes of alcohol, fruit, vegetables and red meat. Tobacco exposure was also included. Scores ranged from 0 (least adherent) to 7 (most adherent). Alberta's Tomorrow Project; a research platform based on a prospective cohort. Adult men and women (n 24 988) aged 35-69 years recruited by random digit dialling and enrolled in Alberta's Tomorrow Project between 2001 and 2009. Of the cohort, 14 % achieved adherence scores ≥5 and 60 % had scores ≤3. Overall adherence scores were higher in women (mean (sd): 3·4 (1·1)) than in men (3·0 (1·2)). The extent of overall adherence was also associated with level of education, employment status, annual household income, personal history of chronic disease, family history of chronic disease and age. Reported adherence to selected personal recommendations for cancer prevention was low in this cohort of adults. In the short to medium term, these results suggest that more work is required to identify behaviours to target with cancer prevention strategies at a population level. Future work will explore the associations between adherence scores and cancer risk in this cohort.

  9. Fadama III Beneficiaries' Adherence to Project Guidelines in Ogun ...

    It was recommended that the implementers should keep up their efforts at sensitising beneficiaries on the implementation guidelines of the project, re-work their strategies at addressing procurement and FUEF inadequacies among the beneficiaries and fast-track the delivery of project benefits in the communities. Key words: ...

  10. Teaching supply chain management through global projects with global project teams

    Kopczak, L.R.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    In this article, we describe the Global Project Coordination Course, a course in which project teams composed of three students from each of two overseas universities execute company-sponsored projects dealing with global supply chain management issues. The $75,000 to $100,00 contributed in total by

  11. Key Issues in Global Technological Innovation Projects

    Roberto Sbragia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to identify those issues that were present in global technological innovation projects carried out by Brazilian multinational companies and which performance criterions these undertakings met. We investigated 36 global technological innovation projects from Brazilian multinational enterprises through a web-survey. Findings show that these companies went beyond the traditional iron triangle to evaluate their technological efforts and considered additional performance dimensions such as customer satisfaction, business results, and preparation for the future. Results also show high degree of presence for issues emerging from the industry, moderate degree of presence for issues emerging from both the project and R&D activities, and low degree of presence for issues emerging from the headquarters, the subsidiaries, and the external environment. Further research is needed to find out if and how these issues influenced the performance of the global technological innovation projects studied.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i1.72

  12. Eurasia: The Rivalry of Global Integration Projects

    Olesia Kobenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the Eurasian integration projects as major drivers of world globalization. Eurasian regionalism seems to be gaining attention in the scientific literature. Under the current political circumstance many regions are accelerating integration and many countries are opting for regional associations as a mechanism to help them overcome the global recession. Moreover, the global political leaders , some developed countries - the U.S., China, and the European Union (EU are interested to set up regional economic blocs such as Eurasian Economic Union (The EEU, the China's project 'One Belt One Road', the U.S's projects - The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The goal of this paper is to introduce a number of integration initiatives and to analyze the current strategies of Eurasian regionalism.

  13. Adherence to Follow-up Recommendations Among Individuals in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project.

    Hark, Lisa A; Leiby, Benjamin E; Waisbourd, Michael; Myers, Jonathan S; Fudemberg, Scott J; Mantravadi, Anand V; Dai, Yang; Gilligan, John P; Resende, Arthur F; Katz, L Jay

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate rates of adherence to free follow-up eye exam appointments among participants in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project. Ophthalmologists and testing equipment were brought directly to participants at risk for glaucoma at 43 community sites in Philadelphia. Those diagnosed with glaucoma-related pathology were recommended to return for follow-up to be reexamined on site. Rates of adherence and clinical and demographic risk factors for adherence were evaluated. Five hundred thirty-one participants were diagnosed with glaucoma-related conditions and recommended to attend community-based follow-up exams. Follow-up adherence rate was 61.2% (n=325/531). Significant factors associated with greater eye exam appointment adherence, based on our univariable analysis, included final diagnosis of glaucoma (risk ratio [RR]=1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.57), male sex (RR=1.19; 95% CI, 1.04-1.36), white race (RR=1.26; 95% CI, 1.08-1.48), age (RR=1.17; 95% CI, 1.00-1.37) recommendation for glaucoma medication (RR=1.52; 95% CI, 1.35-1.71), recommendation for laser peripheral iridotomy (RR=1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.35), diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration (RR=1.42; 95% CI, 1.13-1.77) and an increased intraocular pressure (>22 mm Hg in the worse eye) (RR=1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.42). On the basis of our multivariable model, diagnosis, sex, and recommended glaucoma medications were significantly associated with follow-up adherence. This study demonstrates that individuals living in underserved urban communities would take advantage of free eye exams in community sites and return for follow-up eye exams in these same settings. Future studies could investigate interventions to improve eye exam appointment adherence in community-based settings to detect glaucoma-eye conditions.

  14. Globalization And Knowledge Management In Projects

    Bubel Dagmara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is a field of management dealing with the use of knowledge, methods, and tools to effectively coordinate complex and unique projects. In accordance with this definition, project knowledge can be treated as a useful resource of information that allows projects to be implemented in compliance with its objectives: time, costs, and quality of results. Knowledge in the activity of an organization, including in the implementation of projects, has for many years been an area of interest to researchers, who confirmed its key importance for building permanent competitive advantages of companies and enterprises. In project management, this issue takes on a new character, as it is transferred to the field of dynamic, time restricted, temporary, and team-implemented projects. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a survey regarding the use of practices of knowledge management in projects in international organizations and to show that the concept of knowledge management in projects is a tool conducive to spreading the process of globalization.

  15. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and quality of life in the SUN Project.

    Henríquez Sánchez, P; Ruano, C; de Irala, J; Ruiz-Canela, M; Martínez-González, M A; Sánchez-Villegas, A

    2012-03-01

    Mediterranean diet has been related with reduced morbidity and better well-being. The aim of this study was to assess whether the adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with mental and physical health related to quality of life. This analysis included 11 015 participants with 4 years of follow-up in the SUN Project (a multipurpose cohort study based on university graduates from Spain). A validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet at baseline, according to a nine-point score, presented in four categories (low, low-moderate, moderate-high and high). Health-related quality of life (HRQL) was measured after 4 years of follow-up with the Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess adjusted mean scores, the regression coefficients (β) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the SF-36 domains according to categories of adherence to Mediterranean diet. Multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant direct association between adherence to Mediterranean diet and all the physical and most mental health domains (vitality, social functioning and role emotional). Vitality (β=0.50, 95% CI=0.32-0.68) and general health (β=0.45, 95% CI=0.26-0.62) showed the highest coefficients. Mean values for physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health and vitality domains were significantly better with increasing adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Those having improved their initial high diet scores have better scores in physical functioning, general health and vitality. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet seems to be a factor importantly associated with a better HRQL.

  16. Global Climate Change Pilot Course Project

    Schuenemann, K. C.; Wagner, R.

    2011-12-01

    In fall 2011 a pilot course on "Global Climate Change" is being offered, which has been proposed to educate urban, diverse, undergraduate students about climate change at the introductory level. The course has been approved to fulfill two general college requirements, a natural sciences requirement that focuses on the scientific method, as well as a global diversity requirement. This course presents the science behind global climate change from an Earth systems and atmospheric science perspective. These concepts then provide the basis to explore the effect of global warming on regions throughout the world. Climate change has been taught as a sub-topic in other courses in the past solely using scientific concepts, with little success in altering the climate change misconceptions of the students. This pilot course will see if new, innovative projects described below can make more of an impact on the students' views of climate change. Results of the successes or failures of these projects will be reported, as well as results of a pre- and post-course questionnaire on climate change given to students taking the course. Students in the class will pair off and choose a global region or country that they will research, write papers on, and then represent in four class discussions spaced throughout the semester. The first report will include details on the current climate of their region and how the climate shapes that region's society and culture. The second report will discuss how that region is contributing to climate change and/or sequestering greenhouse gases. Thirdly, students will discuss observed and predicted changes in that region's climate and what impact it has had, and could have, on their society. Lastly, students will report on what role their region has played in mitigating climate change, any policies their region may have implemented, and how their region can or cannot adapt to future climate changes. They will also try to get a feel for the region

  17. Adherence of private health system hospitals to dissemination of outcomes according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) model

    Machado Junior, Celso; César, Robson Danúbio da Silva; Souza, Maria Tereza Saraiva de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To verify if there is an analogy between the indicators of the Global Reporting Initiative adopted by hospitals in the private healthcare system. Methods Documentary research supported by reports that are electronically available on the website of the companies surveyed. Results The organizations surveyed had a significant adherence of their economic, social and environmental indicators of the model proposed by the Global Reporting Initiative, showing an analogous fie...

  18. Adherence of private health system hospitals to dissemination of outcomes according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) model

    Machado, Celso; César, Robson Danúbio da Silva; de Souza, Maria Tereza Saraiva

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To verify if there is an analogy between the indicators of the Global Reporting Initiative adopted by hospitals in the private healthcare system. Methods Documentary research supported by reports that are electronically available on the website of the companies surveyed. Results The organizations surveyed had a significant adherence of their economic, social and environmental indicators of the model proposed by the Global Reporting Initiative, showing an analogous field of ...

  19. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Is not Related to Beta-Amyloid Deposition: Data from the Women's Healthy Ageing Project.

    Hill, E; Szoeke, C; Dennerstein, L; Campbell, S; Clifton, P

    2018-01-01

    Research has indicated the neuroprotective potential of the Mediterranean diet. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has shown preventative potential for Alzheimer's disease incidence and prevalence, yet few studies have investigated the impact of Mediterranean diet adherence on the hallmark protein; beta-amyloid. To investigate the association between Mediterranean diet adherence and beta-amyloid deposition in a cohort of healthy older Australian women. This study was a cross-sectional investigation of participants from the longitudinal, epidemiologically sourced Women's Healthy Ageing Project which is a follow-up of the Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project. Assessments were conducted at the Centre for Medical Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. F-18 Florbetaben positron emission tomography scanning was conducted at the Austin Centre for PET in Victoria, Australia. One hundred and eleven Women's Healthy Ageing Project participants were included in the study. Mediterranean diet adherence scores for all participants were calculated from the administration of a validated food frequency questionnaire constructed by the Cancer Council of Victoria. Beta-amyloid deposition was measured using positron emission tomography standardised uptake value ratios. Gamma regression analysis displayed no association between Mediterranean diet adherence and beta-amyloid deposition. This result was consistent across APOE-ε4 +/- cohorts and with the inclusion of covariates such as age, education, body mass index and cognition. This study found no association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and beta-amyloid deposition in a cohort of healthy Australian women.

  20. Adherence of private health system hospitals to dissemination of outcomes according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) model.

    Machado, Celso; César, Robson Danúbio da Silva; Souza, Maria Tereza Saraiva de

    2017-01-01

    To verify if there is an analogy between the indicators of the Global Reporting Initiative adopted by hospitals in the private healthcare system. Documentary research supported by reports that are electronically available on the website of the companies surveyed. The organizations surveyed had a significant adherence of their economic, social and environmental indicators of the model proposed by the Global Reporting Initiative, showing an analogous field of common indicators between them. There is similarity between the indicators adopted by companies, but one of the hospitals analyzed had a greater number of converging indicators to Global Reporting Initiative.

  1. Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project Web Site

    DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Phillips, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project (GLS-IMP) aims to produce the first global maps of impervious cover at the 30m spatial resolution of Landsat. The project uses Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat data as its base but incorporates training data generated from very high resolution commercial satellite data and using a Hierarchical segmentation program called Hseg. The web site contains general project information, a high level description of the science, examples of input and output data, as well as links to other relevant projects.

  2. Checklists for Doing Cooperative Global Issues Projects

    Jacobs, George M.

    2008-01-01

    Projects are not new in education (for example, see Kilpatrick, 1918), but in the last 20 years, they seem to have become more popular in second language education, as projects fit with emphases on communication, tasks, cooperation among students, learner autonomy, curricular integration, alternative assessment, links between the classroom and the…

  3. The IMEA project: an intervention based on microfinance, entrepreneurship, and adherence to treatment for women with HIV/AIDS living in poverty.

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo; Pérez, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    A number of issues affect adherence to treatment and quality of life among women living with HIV/AIDS. In particular, women living in poverty have a higher risk of mortality due to their vulnerable conditions and socioeconomic exclusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that combines microfinance, entrepreneurship and adherence to treatment (IMEA) for women with HIV/AIDS and living in poverty in Cali, Colombia. A pre-post research design without a control was utilized, and 48 women were included in the study. The evaluation showed effectiveness of the program in the majority of the results (knowledge of HIV and treatment, adherence to treatment, self-efficacy, and the formation of a microenterprise) (p < 0.001); the global indicator increased from 28.3% to 85.5% (p < 0.001). The findings of this study demonstrate that the intervention was partially effective; the health outcomes showed beneficial effects. However, at the end of the study and throughout the follow-up phase, only one third of the participants were able to develop and maintain a legal operating business. It is concluded that the IMEA project should be tested in other contexts and that its consequent results should be analyzed; so it could be converted into a large scale public health program.

  4. Implementation of targeted medication adherence interventions within a community chain pharmacy practice: The Pennsylvania Project.

    Bacci, Jennifer L; McGrath, Stephanie Harriman; Pringle, Janice L; Maguire, Michelle A; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2014-01-01

    To identify facilitators and barriers to implementing targeted medication adherence interventions in community chain pharmacies, and describe adaptations of the targeted intervention and organizational structure within each individual pharmacy practice. Qualitative study. Central and western Pennsylvania from February to April 2012. Rite Aid pharmacists staffed at the 118 Pennsylvania Project intervention sites. Qualitative analysis of pharmacists' perceptions of facilitators and barriers experienced, targeted intervention and organizational structure adaptations implemented, and training and preparation prior to implementation. A total of 15 key informant interviews were conducted from February to April 2012. Ten pharmacists from "early adopter" practices and five pharmacists from "traditionalist" practices were interviewed. Five themes emerged regarding the implementation of targeted interventions, including all pharmacists' need to understand the relationship of patient care programs to their corporation's vision; providing individualized, continual support and mentoring to pharmacists; anticipating barriers before implementation of patient care programs; encouraging active patient engagement; and establishing best practices regarding implementation of patient care services. This qualitative analysis revealed that there are a series of key steps that can be taken before the execution of targeted interventions that may promote successful implementation of medication therapy management in community chain pharmacies.

  5. Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project) monitors the world's broadcast, print, and web news from nearly every corner of every country in...

  6. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km)...

  7. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Daily, Version 1.2

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 1.2 Daily product covers the period October 1998 to the present,...

  8. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Pentad, Version 2.2

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 2.2 Pentad product covers the period January 1979 to the present,...

  9. The ugly twins: Failed global sourcing projects and their substitutes

    Schiele, Holger; Horn, Philipp; Horn, Philipp; Werner, Welf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: Analyzing the impact of failed global sourcing projects on the entire commodity group and exploring isomorphism as potential antecedent to the observed phenomenon. The paper is embedded in the global sourcing literature, as well as isomorphism and total

  10. Global mainpower requirements for projected nuclear programmes

    Hammond, S.B.; Lane, J.A.; Rogov, A.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1976-01-01

    The scarcity of trained engineers and technicians may be an important bottleneck to the continued growth of nuclear power, particularly in developing countries, if steps are not taken at an early date to insure against such a limitation. This paper presents a quantitative indication of both regional and global needs for trained manpower in all sectors of the nuclear power industry and compares these with estimates of the corresponding output of engineers. Studies of a few selected countries are also presented to illustrate potential problems on a national scale. (orig./UA) [de

  11. Alignment of adherence and risk for HIV acquisition in a demonstration project of pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda: a prospective analysis of prevention-effective adherence.

    Haberer, Jessica E; Kidoguchi, Lara; Heffron, Renee; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Katabira, Elly; Asiimwe, Stephen; Thomas, Katherine K; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-07-25

    Adherence is essential for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to protect against HIV acquisition, but PrEP use need not be life-long. PrEP is most efficient when its use is aligned with periods of risk - a concept termed prevention-effective adherence. The objective of this paper is to describe prevention-effective adherence and predictors of adherence within an open-label delivery project of integrated PrEP and antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda (the Partners Demonstration Project). We offered PrEP to HIV-uninfected participants until the partner living with HIV had taken ART for ≥6 months (a strategy known as "PrEP as a bridge to ART"). The level of adherence sufficient to protect against HIV was estimated in two ways: ≥4 and ≥6 doses/week (per electronic monitoring). Risk for HIV acquisition was considered high if the couple reported sex with 25 years, older male partners and desire for relationship success. Predictors of not achieving sufficient adherence were no longer being a couple, delayed PrEP initiation, >6 months  of follow-up, ART use >6 months  by the partner living with HIV and problem alcohol use. Over three-quarters of participant-visits by HIV-uninfected partners in serodiscordant couples achieved prevention-effective adherence with PrEP. Greater adherence was observed during months with HIV risk and the strongest predictor of achieving sufficient adherence was sexual activity.

  12. The Global Lives Project: Making New Media Matter in a Global World

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2010-01-01

    Computing has infiltrated the everyday life of people all over the world. It is no longer merely a tool for communication and interaction, but also something-to-think-with, a medium that can give us new dimensions in the way we experience and engage with the world.Critical computing evokes...... in the user new ways of thinking and interacting with a globalized world. The Global Lives Project is a compelling example of this usage of computing technology. The GLP archive, which contains visual documentation of the lives of different people from around the world on a digital platform on the Internet......, enables users to actively engage with global cultures. As a critical computing project, the Global Lives Project hopes to bring a critical awareness of how culture is categorized and transformed by engaging users in a collaborative new media project....

  13. Divergent surface and total soil moisture projections under global warming

    Berg, Alexis; Sheffield, Justin; Milly, Paul C.D.

    2017-01-01

    Land aridity has been projected to increase with global warming. Such projections are mostly based on off-line aridity and drought metrics applied to climate model outputs but also are supported by climate-model projections of decreased surface soil moisture. Here we comprehensively analyze soil moisture projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, including surface, total, and layer-by-layer soil moisture. We identify a robust vertical gradient of projected mean soil moisture changes, with more negative changes near the surface. Some regions of the northern middle to high latitudes exhibit negative annual surface changes but positive total changes. We interpret this behavior in the context of seasonal changes in the surface water budget. This vertical pattern implies that the extensive drying predicted by off-line drought metrics, while consistent with the projected decline in surface soil moisture, will tend to overestimate (negatively) changes in total soil water availability.

  14. Thinking Globally, Interviewing Locally: Using an Intensive Interview Project to Teach Globalization and Social Change

    Anderson, Norma J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I connect globalization and qualitative methodological practice, describing a semester-long intensive interview project about the anti-apartheid movement. I provide a detailed overview of the project as well as considerations for those who might want to adapt it for their own courses. Using students' reflections on the projects…

  15. Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections

    Chiari, Luca, E-mail: chiari@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy); Zecca, Antonio, E-mail: zecca@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO{sub 2} emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO{sub 2} concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: > CO{sub 2} and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. > Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. > Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. > Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

  16. Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections

    Chiari, Luca; Zecca, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO 2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO 2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO 2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: → CO 2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. → Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. → Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. → Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

  17. The efficacy of psycho-educational group program on medication adherence and global functioning of patients with bipolar disorder type I.

    Bahredar, Mohammad Jafar; Asgharnejad Farid, Ali Asghar; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Birashk, Behrooz

    2014-01-01

    Psycho-education is now considered as part of the integrated treatment for bipolar disorder. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of group psycho-education on medication adherence and global functioning of patients with bipolar disorder type I. 45 patients with bipolar disorder type I were allocated one of the three groups of psycho-education plus pharmacotherapy, pharmacotherapy and placebo plus pharmacotherapy. A psycho-educational program was conducted for the psycho-educational group during 9 weekly sessions. Medication adherence and global functioning of all the three groups were evaluated before the intervention, three months and six months after the intervention using Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). ANOVA was performed to examine the data. In the first and second assessments, the mean score of medication adherence and gobal functioning for patients in the psycho-educational group was significantly higher than that in the control and placebo groups (P=0.001). Medication adherence score of the psycho-educational group was increased from 6.27(0.88) to 7.92(1.38). while the mean score of the psycho-educational group increased from 56.6 (3.58) to 64.17 (2.12):, the global functioning reduced from 56.27(3.17) to 54.17(5.08) in the control group and from 56.67 (3.58) to 56 (4.36) in the placebo group. Psycho-educational program plus pharmacotherapy was effective in improvement medication adherence and global functioning of bipolar patients.

  18. Finite-time analysis of global projective synchronization on coloured ...

    A novel finite-time analysis is given to investigate the global projective synchronization on coloured networks. Some less conservative conditions are derived by utilizing finite-time control techniques and Lyapunov stability theorem. In addition, two illustrative numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness of ...

  19. Coordination and Control of Globally Distributed Software Projects

    P.C. van Fenema (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractRecently, software development and implementation projects have globalized at a rapid pace. Companies in North America, Europe, and the Far East are beginning to integrate international Information Technology (IT) resources to support operations across the globe. Offshore IT services

  20. Nation state and the challenge of globalization: Project draft

    Obrenović Zoran G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This project draft discusses the issues facing a nation state in the dynamic processes of globalization. First, the term globalization is tentatively defined as a decentralized process of condensation and homogenization of space and time. Then, the ambivalent structure of the globalization discourse, i.e. its semantic and pragmatic dimensions, are shown. The neo-liberal viewpoint is explored of the erosion and weakening of the nation state within the global capitalist power, both in terms of its (state's traditional functions, and in terms of its internal and external sovereignty. Against the neo-liberal thesis about the decline of the nation state many empirical arguments have been offered. Some of these are presented in this text. The main point of this argumentation consists in a general view that the decline of the nation state is strongly linked with the process of globalization. In view of the critical argumentation included in the paper, it is argued that in the environment of global processes only the societies which have a strong state behind them have a chance to succeed. Politics, not economy, still dominates international relations. Emphasis on state politics opens a new perspective in discussing the process of globalization. Current globalization processes cannot be judged accurately unless geopolitical interests and the changing balance of world power are understood. Finally, the paper points to the ideological nature of the neo-liberal discourse of globalization, questioning another basic assumption of the latter, namely, the idea that the process of globalization is at the same time a process of emancipation. By challenging the positing of a necessary link between globalization and emancipation we formulate a position that allows for a normative critique of current processes.

  1. CooMan - a global collaborative project management system

    Souza, J.M. de; Palma, S.

    1994-01-01

    Project Coordination and Management have long been recognized as an area with growing problems and unsatisfactory solutions. Conciliating flexibility with target achievements is historically the main problem to face. The difficulties have been growing at more than linear ratio with the size and complexity of the Projects being developed in the present days. The HEP communities suffer additional challenges because of the distributed nature of the collaborations, the novelty of each project; and the less authoritarian form of leadership and management of team and individual. This prevents the adoption of more centralized focus on decision. CooMan intends to be a Global Collaborative Project Management System. This paper discusses the basic aspects of the concepts involved, outlining how task coordination, acts of speech, and World-Wide hyper media can be used to support project management activities. A distributed tool to implement such proposition is described, and a first prototype is presented

  2. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo

    1997-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  3. Risk Factors for Non-Adherence to cART in Immigrants with HIV Living in the Netherlands: Results from the ROtterdam ADherence (ROAD Project.

    Sabrina K Been

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, immigrant people living with HIV (PLWH have poorer psychological and treatment outcomes than Dutch PLWH. This cross-sectional field study examined risk factors for non-adherence to combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART among immigrant PLWH. First and second generation immigrant PLWH attending outpatient clinics at two HIV-treatment centers in Rotterdam were selected for this study. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics for all eligible participants were collected from an existing database. Trained interviewers subsequently completed questionnaires together with consenting participants (n = 352 to gather additional data on socio-demographic characteristics, psychosocial variables, and self-reported adherence to cART. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted among 301 participants who had used cART ≥6 months prior to inclusion. Independent risk factors for self-reported non-adherence were (I not having attended formal education or only primary school (OR = 3.25; 95% CI: 1.28-8.26, versus University, (II experiencing low levels of social support (OR = 2.56; 95% CI: 1.37-4.82, and (III reporting low treatment adherence self-efficacy (OR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.59-5.64. Additionally, HIV-RNA >50 copies/ml and internalized HIV-related stigma were marginally associated (P<0.10 with non-adherence (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 0.91-7.06 and OR = 1.82; 95% CI: 0.97-3.43. The findings that low educational attainment, lack of social support, and low treatment adherence self-efficacy are associated with non-adherence point to the need for tailored supportive interventions. Establishing contact with peer immigrant PLWH who serve as role models might be a successful intervention for this specific population.

  4. Global asymptotic stability of density dependent integral population projection models.

    Rebarber, Richard; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Townley, Stuart

    2012-02-01

    Many stage-structured density dependent populations with a continuum of stages can be naturally modeled using nonlinear integral projection models. In this paper, we study a trichotomy of global stability result for a class of density dependent systems which include a Platte thistle model. Specifically, we identify those systems parameters for which zero is globally asymptotically stable, parameters for which there is a positive asymptotically stable equilibrium, and parameters for which there is no asymptotically stable equilibrium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. GRIN-Global: An International Project to Develop a Global Plant Genebank Information Management System

    The mission of the GRIN-Global Project is to create a new, scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information System (GRIN) to provide the world’s crop genebanks with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use plant genetic resource (PGR) information management system. The system will help safeguard PGR ...

  6. Does the projected pathway to global warming targets matter?

    Bärring, Lars; Strandberg, Gustav

    2018-02-01

    Since the ‘Paris agreement’ in 2015 there has been much focus on what a +1.5 °C or +2 °C warmer world would look like. Since the focus lies on policy relevant global warming targets, or specific warming levels (SWLs), rather than a specific point in time, projections are pooled together to form SWL ensembles based on the target temperature rather than emission scenario. This study uses an ensemble of CMIP5 global model projections to analyse how well SWL ensembles represent the stabilized climate of global warming targets. The results show that the SWL ensembles exhibit significant trends that reflect the transient nature of the RCP scenarios. These trends have clear effect on the timing and clustering of monthly cold and hot extremes, even though the effect on the temperature of the extreme months is less visible. In many regions there is a link between choice of RCP scenario used in the SWL ensemble and climate change signal in the highest monthly temperatures. In other regions there is no such clear-cut link. From this we conclude that comprehensive analyses of what prospects the different global warming targets bring about will require stabilization scenarios. Awaiting such targeted scenarios we suggest that prudent use of SWL scenarios, taking their characteristics and limitations into account, may serve as reasonable proxies in many situations.

  7. Global artificial photosynthesis project: a scientific and legal introduction.

    Faunce, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    With the global human population set to exceed 10 billion by 2050, its collective energy consumption to rise from 400 to over 500 EJ/yr and with the natural environment under increasing pressure from these sources as well as from anthropogenic climate change, political solutions such as the creation of an efficient carbon price and trading scheme may arrive too late. In this context, the scientific community is exploring technological remedies. Central to these options is artificial photosynthesis--the creation, particularly through nanotechnology, of devices capable to doing what plants have done for millions of years - transforming sunlight, water and carbon dioxide into food and fuel. This article argues that a Global Artificial Photosynthesis (GAP) project can raise the public profile and encourage the pace, complexity and funding of scientific collaborations in artificial photosynthesis research. The legal structure of a GAP project will be critical to prevent issues such as state sovereignty over energy and food resources and corporate intellectual monopoly privileges unduly inhibiting the important contribution of artificial photosynthesis to global public health and environmental sustainability. The article presents an introduction to the scientific and legal concepts behind a GAP project.

  8. Global Analysis of Climate Change Projection Effects on Atmospheric Rivers

    Espinoza, Vicky; Waliser, Duane E.; Guan, Bin; Lavers, David A.; Ralph, F. Martin

    2018-05-01

    A uniform, global approach is used to quantify how atmospheric rivers (ARs) change between Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 historical simulations and future projections under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 warming scenarios. The projections indicate that while there will be 10% fewer ARs in the future, the ARs will be 25% longer, 25% wider, and exhibit stronger integrated water vapor transports (IVTs) under RCP8.5. These changes result in pronounced increases in the frequency (IVT strength) of AR conditions under RCP8.5: 50% (25%) globally, 50% (20%) in the northern midlatitudes, and 60% (20%) in the southern midlatitudes. The models exhibit systematic low biases across the midlatitudes in replicating historical AR frequency ( 10%), zonal IVT ( 15%), and meridional IVT ( 25%), with sizable intermodel differences. A more detailed examination of six regions strongly impacted by ARs suggests that the western United States, northwestern Europe, and southwestern South America exhibit considerable intermodel differences in projected changes in ARs.

  9. Risk factors for non-adherence to cART in immigrants with HIV living in the Netherlands: Results from the Rotterdam ADherence (ROAD) project

    S.K. Been; D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); P.T. Nieuwkerk (Pythia); Brito, I. (Inês); J. Stutterheim (Janine); A.E.R. Bos (Arjan); M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille); K. Pogány (Katalin); A. Verbon (Annelies)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, immigrant people living with HIV (PLWH) have poorer psychological and treatment outcomes than Dutch PLWH. This cross-sectional field study examined risk factors for non-adherence to combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) among immigrant PLWH. First and second

  10. Risk Factors for Non-Adherence to cART in Immigrants with HIV Living in the Netherlands: Results from the ROtterdam ADherence (ROAD) Project

    Been, Sabrina K.; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Brito, Inês; Stutterheim, Sarah E.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Wolfers, Mireille E. G.; Pogány, Katalin; Verbon, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, immigrant people living with HIV (PLWH) have poorer psychological and treatment outcomes than Dutch PLWH. This cross-sectional field study examined risk factors for non-adherence to combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) among immigrant PLWH. First and second generation

  11. Mediterranean Agricultural Soil Conservation under global Change: The MASCC project.

    Raclot, Damien; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2017-04-01

    The MASCC project (2016-2019, http://mascc-project.org) aims to address mitigation and adaptation strategies to global change by assessing current and future development of Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability to erosion in relation to projected land use, agricultural practices and climate change. It targets to i) assess the similarities/dissimilarities in dominant factors affecting the current Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability by exploring a wide range of Mediterranean contexts; ii) improve the ability to evaluate the impact of extreme events on both the current and projected agricultural soil vulnerability and the sediment delivery at catchment outlet; iii) evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of agricultural production to a combination of potential changes in a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, iv) and provide guidelines on sustainable agricultural conservation strategies adapted to each specific agro-ecosystem and taking into consideration both on- and off-site erosion effects and socio-economics issues. To achieve these objectives, the MASCC project consortium gather researchers from six Mediterranean countries (France, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Spain and Portugal) which monitor mid- to long-term environmental catchments and benefit from mutual knowledge created from previous projects and network. The major assets for MASCC are: i) the availability of an unrivalled database on catchment soil erosion and innovative agricultural practices comprising a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, ii) the capacity to better evaluate the impact of extreme events on soil erosion, iii) the expert knowledge of the LANDSOIL model, a catchment-scale integrated approach of the soil-landscape system that enables to simulate both the sediment fluxes at the catchment outlet and the intra-catchment soil evolving properties and iv) the multi-disciplinarity of the involved researchers with an international reputation in the fields of soil science

  12. Religious affiliation at time of death - Global estimates and projections.

    Skirbekk, Vegard; Todd, Megan; Stonawski, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    Religious affiliation influences societal practices regarding death and dying, including palliative care, religiously acceptable health service procedures, funeral rites and beliefs about an afterlife. We aimed to estimate and project religious affiliation at the time of death globally, as this information has been lacking. We compiled data on demographic information and religious affiliation from more than 2500 surveys, registers and censuses covering 198 nations/territories. We present estimates of religious affiliation at the time of death as of 2010, projections up to and including 2060, taking into account trends in mortality, religious conversion, intergenerational transmission of religion, differential fertility, and gross migration flows, by age and sex. We find that Christianity continues to be the most common religion at death, although its share will fall from 37% to 31% of global deaths between 2010 and 2060. The share of individuals identifying as Muslim at the time of death increases from 21% to 24%. The share of religiously unaffiliated will peak at 17% in 2035 followed by a slight decline thereafter. In specific regions, such as Europe, the unaffiliated share will continue to rises from 14% to 21% throughout the period. Religious affiliation at the time of death is changing globally, with distinct regional patterns. This could affect spatial variation in healthcare and social customs relating to death and dying.

  13. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  14. GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) version 1.1 (NODC Accession 0001644)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a cooperative effort to coordinate global synthesis projects funded through NOAA/DOE and NSF as part of the Joint...

  15. Projections of global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases in 2050

    Gschrey, Barbara; Schwarz, Winfried [Oeko-Recherche Buero fuer Umweltforschung und -beratung GmbH, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are currently covered under the Montreal Protocol, which focuses on ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), and under the Kyoto Protocol, which controls emissions of HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (perfluorocarbons) and SF{sub 6} (sulfur hexafluoride). This study bridges the gap between political regimes and their reporting systems by giving an overview of banks and emissions of all fluorinated gases in 2005, and projections of banks and emissions of fluorinated gases in 2050. The Montreal Protocol and its amendments will eventually result in the full phase out of CFCs and HCFCs. Developed countries have already completed the phase out of CFCs and will reach full phase out of HCFCs by 2020. Developing countries, in contrast, will phase out CFCs by 2010 and HCFCs by 2030. Although climate-friendly technology is available for most applications, the risk occurs that substitutes for ozone-depleting substances rely on HFCs, which cause global warming. This study determines global emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} (Kyoto F-gases) in 2050 in a ''business-as-usual'' scenario. The global population is expected to increase to ca. 8.7 billion people, and high economic growth of 3.5% per year is assumed. Emissions in 2050 are quantified for each sector of application as well as for developed and developing countries based on growth rates of each sector. In 2050, total global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are projected to amount to 4 GT CO{sub 2} eq. which equals ca. 5.9% of the total greenhouse gas emissions at this time. Compared to a relatively small share of F-gas emissions ranging around 1.3% of total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004, this percentage reflects an enormous increase. Relative to projected direct CO{sub 2} emissions alone, the 2050 F-gas emissions will even account for ca. 7.9%. In case of CO{sub 2} mitigation, this share

  16. Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA

    Vadim Volovoj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of security in the Baltic region, namely, that of Poland and the Baltics. The authors rely on the works of Karl Deutsch, Emanuel Adler, on Michael Barnett’s theory of security communities and Barry Buzan’s re­gional security complex theory, address Steven Mann’s controlled chaos theory and the concept of Intermarium. Their starting assumption is that the situation in the Baltic depends largely on the politics of external powers — Russia and the United States, — being a projection of their global geopolitical confrontation. The US strategy thus becomes a major part of the equation. The authors believe that since the end of the second Iraq war the American elite has been divided along ideological lines into adherents of the chaos theory and traditionalists thinking in terms of sharing control with the other centres of global power. The US strategy in the Baltic region does not seek an open military conflict with Russia. On the contrary, the US strives to preserve the current level of confrontation between Russia and the EU, convincing the latter of the reality of the Russian threat. Countries that traditionally support confrontation with Russia, Poland and the Bal­tics, serve as a conduit for Washington strategy in Europe and a cordon sanitaire. This function is implemented through the Intermarium project meant to separate Russia from the EU. The four countries are rather active in this area, striving to attain the status of the US principal partners in the region and Europe in general. To retaliate, Moscow does everything within its power to ‘separate’ Brussels from Washington, yet the US influence is still very strong in Europe.

  17. Insulin adherence behaviours and barriers in the multinational Global Attitudes of Patients and Physicians in Insulin Therapy study.

    Peyrot, M; Barnett, A H; Meneghini, L F; Schumm-Draeger, P-M

    2012-05-01

    To examine patient and physician beliefs regarding insulin therapy and the degree to which patients adhere to their insulin regimens. Internet survey of 1250 physicians (600 specialists, 650 primary care physicians) who treat patients with diabetes and telephone survey of 1530 insulin-treated patients (180 with Type 1 diabetes, 1350 with Type 2 diabetes) in China, France, Japan, Germany, Spain, Turkey, the UK or the USA. One third (33.2%) of patients reported insulin omission/non-adherence at least 1 day in the last month, with an average of 3.3 days. Three quarters (72.5%) of physicians report that their typical patient does not take their insulin as prescribed, with a mean of 4.3 days per month of basal insulin omission/non-adherence and 5.7 days per month of prandial insulin omission/non-adherence. Patients and providers indicated the same five most common reasons for insulin omission/non-adherence: too busy; travelling; skipped meals; stress/emotional problems; public embarrassment. Physicians reported low patient success at initiating insulin in a timely fashion and adjusting insulin doses. Most physicians report that many insulin-treated patients do not have adequate glucose control (87.6%) and that they would treat more aggressively if not for concern about hypoglycaemia (75.5%). Although a majority of patients (and physicians) regard insulin treatment as restrictive, more patients see insulin treatment as having positive than negative impacts on their lives. Glucose control is inadequate among insulin-treated patients, in part attributable to insulin omission/non-adherence and lack of dose adjustment. There is a need for insulin regimens that are less restrictive and burdensome with lower risk of hypoglycaemia. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  18. Barriers and facilitators of interventions for improving antiretroviral therapy adherence: a systematic review of global qualitative evidence.

    Ma, Qingyan; Tso, Lai Sze; Rich, Zachary C; Hall, Brian J; Beanland, Rachel; Li, Haochu; Lackey, Mellanye; Hu, Fengyu; Cai, Weiping; Doherty, Meg; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions can provide a deeper understanding of intervention facilitators and barriers. This systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative evidence of interventions for improving ART adherence and to inform patient-centred policymaking. We searched 19 databases to identify studies presenting primary qualitative data on the experiences, attitudes and acceptability of interventions to improve ART adherence among PLHIV and treatment providers. We used thematic synthesis to synthesize qualitative evidence and the CERQual (Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research) approach to assess the confidence of review findings. Of 2982 references identified, a total of 31 studies from 17 countries were included. Twelve studies were conducted in high-income countries, 13 in middle-income countries and six in low-income countries. Study populations focused on adults living with HIV (21 studies, n =1025), children living with HIV (two studies, n =46), adolescents living with HIV (four studies, n =70) and pregnant women living with HIV (one study, n =79). Twenty-three studies examined PLHIV perspectives and 13 studies examined healthcare provider perspectives. We identified six themes related to types of interventions, including task shifting, education, mobile phone text messaging, directly observed therapy, medical professional outreach and complex interventions. We also identified five cross-cutting themes, including strengthening social relationships, ensuring confidentiality, empowerment of PLHIV, compensation and integrating religious beliefs into interventions. Our qualitative evidence suggests that strengthening PLHIV social relationships, PLHIV empowerment and developing culturally appropriate interventions may facilitate adherence interventions. Our study indicates that potential barriers are inadequate training and compensation for lay health workers and inadvertent disclosure of

  19. The GIOD Project-Globally Interconnected Object Databases

    Bunn, J J; Newman, H B; Wilkinson, R P

    2001-01-01

    The GIOD (Globally Interconnected Object Databases) Project, a joint effort between Caltech and CERN, funded by Hewlett Packard Corporation, has investigated the use of WAN-distributed Object Databases and Mass Storage systems for LHC data. A prototype small- scale LHC data analysis center has been constructed using computing resources at Caltechs Centre for advanced Computing Research (CACR). These resources include a 256 CPU HP Exemplar of ~4600 SPECfp95, a 600 TByte High Performance Storage System (HPSS), and local/wide area links based on OC3 ATM. Using the exemplar, a large number of fully simulated CMS events were produced, and used to populate an object database with a complete schema for raw, reconstructed and analysis objects. The reconstruction software used for this task was based on early codes developed in preparation for the current CMS reconstruction program, ORCA. (6 refs).

  20. Strengthening global health security capacity--Vietnam demonstration project, 2013.

    Tran, Phu Dac; Vu, Long Ngoc; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Phan, Lan Trong; Lowe, Wayne; McConnell, Michelle S; Iademarco, Michael F; Partridge, Jeffrey M; Kile, James C; Do, Trang; Nadol, Patrick J; Bui, Hien; Vu, Diep; Bond, Kyle; Nelson, David B; Anderson, Lauren; Hunt, Kenneth V; Smith, Nicole; Giannone, Paul; Klena, John; Beauvais, Denise; Becknell, Kristi; Tappero, Jordan W; Dowell, Scott F; Rzeszotarski, Peter; Chu, May; Kinkade, Carl

    2014-01-31

    Over the past decade, Vietnam has successfully responded to global health security (GHS) challenges, including domestic elimination of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and rapid public health responses to human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus. However, new threats such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza A(H7N9) present continued challenges, reinforcing the need to improve the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats. In June 2012, Vietnam, along with many other nations, obtained a 2-year extension for meeting core surveillance and response requirements of the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR). During March-September 2013, CDC and the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MoH) collaborated on a GHS demonstration project to improve public health emergency detection and response capacity. The project aimed to demonstrate, in a short period, that enhancements to Vietnam's health system in surveillance and early detection of and response to diseases and outbreaks could contribute to meeting the IHR core capacities, consistent with the Asia Pacific Strategy for Emerging Diseases. Work focused on enhancements to three interrelated priority areas and included achievements in 1) establishing an emergency operations center (EOC) at the General Department of Preventive Medicine with training of personnel for public health emergency management; 2) improving the nationwide laboratory system, including enhanced testing capability for several priority pathogens (i.e., those in Vietnam most likely to contribute to public health emergencies of international concern); and 3) creating an emergency response information systems platform, including a demonstration of real-time reporting capability. Lessons learned included awareness that integrated functions within the health system for GHS require careful planning, stakeholder buy-in, and intradepartmental and interdepartmental coordination and

  1. [Globalization, the Camisea Project and the Matsigenkas health].

    Torres-Slimming, Paola

    2010-09-01

    Globalization has been the consequence of an important opening of the economies, achieved through the reduction in the obstacles to commerce, elimination of the capital controls and exchange restrictions. The impact of the Camisea Project in the Peruvian economy has aroused great interest and controversy with respect to the future social and economic national impact, and especially, in the Matsigenka population, located in the 88 and 56 lots, where gas extraction is being done. The area of Camisea gas exploitation offers the challenge of a complex sanitary problem, not only because of the impacts and risks produced by the hidrocarbon exploitation, but also due to a legacy of economical and sanitary precariousness that has accumulated from other times. At the same time, this area offers the opportunity to rethink the public health system according to the indigenous reality. It is necessary to take action in the social determinants of inequity and poverty in order to reach the positive effects the globalization can have in health, ensuring the interests of developing countries and vulnerable populations.

  2. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  3. SONG-China Project: A Global Automated Observation Network

    Yang, Z. Z.; Lu, X. M.; Tian, J. F.; Zhuang, C. G.; Wang, K.; Deng, L. C.

    2017-09-01

    Driven by advancements in technology and scientific objectives, data acquisition in observational astronomy has been changed greatly in recent years. Fully automated or even autonomous ground-based network of telescopes has now become a tendency for time-domain observational projects. The Stellar Observations Network Group (SONG) is an international collaboration with the participation and contribution of the Chinese astronomy community. The scientific goal of SONG is time-domain astrophysics such as asteroseismology and open cluster research. The SONG project aims to build a global network of 1 m telescopes equipped with high-precision and high-resolution spectrographs, and two-channel lucky-imaging cameras. It is the Chinese initiative to install a 50 cm binocular photometry telescope at each SONG node sharing the network platform and infrastructure. This work is focused on design and implementation in technology and methodology of SONG/50BiN, a typical ground-based network composed of multiple sites and a variety of instruments.

  4. Consistency of climate change projections from multiple global and regional model intercomparison projects

    Fernández, J.; Frías, M. D.; Cabos, W. D.; Cofiño, A. S.; Domínguez, M.; Fita, L.; Gaertner, M. A.; García-Díez, M.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Liguori, G.; Montávez, J. P.; Romera, R.; Sánchez, E.

    2018-03-01

    We present an unprecedented ensemble of 196 future climate projections arising from different global and regional model intercomparison projects (MIPs): CMIP3, CMIP5, ENSEMBLES, ESCENA, EURO- and Med-CORDEX. This multi-MIP ensemble includes all regional climate model (RCM) projections publicly available to date, along with their driving global climate models (GCMs). We illustrate consistent and conflicting messages using continental Spain and the Balearic Islands as target region. The study considers near future (2021-2050) changes and their dependence on several uncertainty sources sampled in the multi-MIP ensemble: GCM, future scenario, internal variability, RCM, and spatial resolution. This initial work focuses on mean seasonal precipitation and temperature changes. The results show that the potential GCM-RCM combinations have been explored very unevenly, with favoured GCMs and large ensembles of a few RCMs that do not respond to any ensemble design. Therefore, the grand-ensemble is weighted towards a few models. The selection of a balanced, credible sub-ensemble is challenged in this study by illustrating several conflicting responses between the RCM and its driving GCM and among different RCMs. Sub-ensembles from different initiatives are dominated by different uncertainty sources, being the driving GCM the main contributor to uncertainty in the grand-ensemble. For this analysis of the near future changes, the emission scenario does not lead to a strong uncertainty. Despite the extra computational effort, for mean seasonal changes, the increase in resolution does not lead to important changes.

  5. Global assimilation of X Project Loon stratospheric balloon observations

    Coy, L.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Pawson, S.; Candido, S.; Carver, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Project Loon has an overall goal of providing worldwide internet coverage using a network of long-duration super-pressure balloons. Beginning in 2013, Loon has launched over 1600 balloons from multiple tropical and middle latitude locations. These GPS tracked balloon trajectories provide lower stratospheric wind information over the oceans and remote land areas where traditional radiosonde soundings are sparse, thus providing unique coverage of lower stratospheric winds. To fully investigate these Loon winds we: 1) compare the Loon winds to winds produced by a global data assimilation system (DAS: NASA GEOS) and 2) assimilate the Loon winds into the same comprehensive DAS. Results show that in middle latitudes the Loon winds and DAS winds agree well and assimilating the Loon winds have only a small impact on short-term forecasting of the Loon winds, however, in the tropics the loon winds and DAS winds often disagree substantially (8 m/s or more in magnitude) and in these cases assimilating the loon winds significantly improves the forecast of the loon winds. By highlighting cases where the Loon and DAS winds differ, these results can lead to improved understanding of stratospheric winds, especially in the tropics.

  6. A global conversation about energy from biomass: the continental conventions of the global sustainable bioenergy project

    Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul; de Brito Cruz, Carlos Henrique; Chimphango, Annie Fabian Abel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Faaij, Andre; Greene, Nathanael; Keller, Martin; Osseweijer, Patricia; Richard, Tom L.; Sheehan, John; Chugh, Archana; van der Wielen, Luuk; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2011-01-01

    The global sustainable bioenergy (GSB) project was formed in 2009 with the goal of providing guidance with respect to the feasibility and desirability of sustainable, bioenergy-intensive futures. Stage 1 of this project held conventions with a largely common format on each of the world's continents, was completed in 2010, and is described in this paper. Attended by over 400 persons, the five continental conventions featured presentations, breakout sessions, and drafting of resolutions that were unanimously passed by attendees. The resolutions highlight the potential of bioenergy to make a large energy supply contribution while honouring other priorities, acknowledge the breadth and complexity of bioenergy applications as well as the need to take a systemic approach, and attest to substantial intra- and inter-continental diversity with respect to needs, opportunities, constraints and current practice relevant to bioenergy. The following interim recommendations based on stage 1 GSB activities are offered: — Realize that it may be more productive, and also more correct, to view the seemingly divergent assessments of bioenergy as answers to two different questions rather than the same question. Viewed in this light, there is considerably more scope for reconciliation than might first be apparent, and it is possible to be informed rather than paralysed by divergent assessments.— Develop established and advanced bioenergy technologies such that each contributes to the other's success. That is, support and deploy in the near-term meritorious, established technologies in ways that enhance rather than impede deployment of advanced technologies, and support and deploy advanced technologies in ways that expand rather than contract opportunities for early adopters and investors.— Be clear in formulating policies what mix of objectives are being targeted, measure the results of these policies against these objectives and beware of unintended consequences

  7. A Tri-Country Marketing Project--Preparing Students for the Realities of a Global Marketplace

    Freeman, Ina; Knight, Peter; Butt, Irfan

    2011-01-01

    With rapidly increasing globalization, business students are required to understand complex global markets and adapt to the rapid changes in the global landscape. This paper discusses a project where students from International Marketing courses in Pakistan, the United States, and France used an interactive platform as a base to jointly explore…

  8. Computer-based intervention in HIV clinical care setting improves antiretroviral adherence: the LifeWindows Project.

    Fisher, Jeffrey D; Amico, K Rivet; Fisher, William A; Cornman, Deborah H; Shuper, Paul A; Trayling, Cynthia; Redding, Caroline; Barta, William; Lemieux, Anthony F; Altice, Frederick L; Dieckhaus, Kevin; Friedland, Gerald

    2011-11-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of LifeWindows, a theory-based, computer-administered antiretroviral (ARV) therapy adherence support intervention, delivered to HIV + patients at routine clinical care visits. 594 HIV + adults receiving HIV care at five clinics were randomized to intervention or control arms. Intervention vs. control impact in the intent-to-treat sample (including participants whose ARVs had been entirely discontinued, who infrequently attended care, or infrequently used LifeWindows) did not reach significance. Intervention impact in the On Protocol sample (328 intervention and control arm participants whose ARVs were not discontinued, who attended care and were exposed to LifeWindows regularly) was significant. On Protocol intervention vs. control participants achieved significantly higher levels of perfect 3-day ACTG-assessed adherence over time, with sensitivity analyses maintaining this effect down to 70% adherence. This study supports the utility of LifeWindows and illustrates that patients on ARVs who persist in care at clinical care sites can benefit from adherence promotion software.

  9. Management of Globally Distributed Component-Based Software Development Projects

    J. Kotlarsky (Julia)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractGlobally Distributed Component-Based Development (GD CBD) is expected to become a promising area, as increasing numbers of companies are setting up software development in a globally distributed environment and at the same time are adopting CBD methodologies. Being an emerging area, the

  10. Learning Global Leadership via Liberation Projects: An Interdisciplinary Application

    Nguyen, Shelbee

    2014-01-01

    Global leadership programs framed within singular cultural contexts do not promote authentic leadership. Unilateral methods may exclude individual multicultural experiences or identities, and further, encourage a one-size fits all approach to leadership. An interdisciplinary global leadership course aims to promote authentic unlearning and…

  11. What is excellence for Project Management knowledge in the context of globalization?

    Kampf, Constance; Longo, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    How can technical writers understand not only excellence in Project Management knowledge, but also the effects of globalization on how project management knowledge is used in project conception and project planning when major stakeholders live in third world countries? This study focuses in parti......How can technical writers understand not only excellence in Project Management knowledge, but also the effects of globalization on how project management knowledge is used in project conception and project planning when major stakeholders live in third world countries? This study focuses...... in particular on project conception for the use of cell phone and web 2.0 technologies with an NGO based in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We found that students were able to use knowledge management and knowledge communication concepts to shape their project titles, goals and objectives, as well...

  12. pbdd's global project and the educational research network of west

    IDRC'S PARTNERSHIP AND BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT DIVISION (PBDD) INITIATES, ... determines broad network strategic orientations and a regional scientific .... dissemination workshop of a transnational project on the integration of.

  13. Poverty Mapping Project: Global Subnational Prevalence of Child Malnutrition

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Prevalence of Child Malnutrition dataset consists of estimates of the percentage of children with weight-for-age z-scores that are more than...

  14. Poverty Mapping Project: Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates consists of estimates of infant mortality rates for the year 2000. The infant mortality rate for a region or country is...

  15.  Project Management as a Global Trend for Organization Work

    Kampf, Constance

    in multination and global companies, understanding the power of visual rhetoric, genre and writing processes in the context of project management documentation can be an advantage for technical communicators.  In addition, project management tools and online documentation spaces are objects which cross...... Project Management as a Global Trend for Organization Work: Implications for Technical Communication Project Management tools and processes offer a visual approach to producing knowledge about a project in order to complete it.  As project management practices are used with increasing frequency......-cultural teams use to function.  This presentation will explore the potential of Project Management to be tightly integrated in Technical Communication curricula through a communications approach to project management.  Questions for discussion include: How tightly is project management integrated into different...

  16. Global Inventory and Analysis of Smart Grid Demonstration Projects

    Mulder, W.; Kumpavat, K.; Faasen, C.; Verheij, F.; Vaessen, P [DNV KEMA Energy and Sustainability, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    As the key enabler of a more sustainable, economical and reliable energy system, the development of smart grids has received a great deal of attention in recent times. In many countries around the world the benefits of such a system have begun to be investigated through a number of demonstration projects. With such a vast array of projects it can be difficult to keep track of changes, and to understand which best practices are currently available with regard to smart grids. This report aims to address these issues through providing a comprehensive outlook on the current status of smart grid projects worldwide.

  17. CHILDREN'S ADHERENCE TO HAART ADHERENCE

    han or equal IQ 2 log" and in 64% of children wirh smaller man 2 log,o decrease in viral load. Secondly, i caregivers are not well prepared for adherence issues before starting HAART, or if regimens are too onerous to follow, treatment is likely to fail. Every effort should be made to see the burden of adherence from the.

  18. The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals

    Ivete Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

  19. Projecting Nigerian Image through the Globalization of Her Dances ...

    The historical methodology is employed. The findings of this paper is that Nigerian dances have not benefited from globalization because, many of our dances and dance patterns have been stolen and repackaged to us as Western Euro-America cultural products. The paper therefore posits that Nigerians should take their ...

  20. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Climate Data Record (CDR), Version 2.3 (Monthly)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) consists of monthly satellite-gauge and associated precipitation error estimates and covers the period January...

  1. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Coastlines

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  2. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Urban Extent Polygons, Revision 01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary output of the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) are a series of grids representing estimated population counts and density for the...

  3. Global optimization of maintenance and surveillance testing based on reliability and probabilistic safety assessment. Research project

    Martorell, S.; Serradell, V.; Munoz, A.; Sanchez, A.

    1997-01-01

    Background, objective, scope, detailed working plan and follow-up and final product of the project ''Global optimization of maintenance and surveillance testing based on reliability and probabilistic safety assessment'' are described

  4. Industry to benefit from India's global projects tie-ups

    2007-01-01

    "Indian Industry should take advantage of the country's involvement in prestigious international projects like ITER and work with top scientific institutions to meet the huge demand for ultra vacuum systems, S. Banerjee of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre said here on Wednesday. (1/2 page)

  5. A Quantitative Study of Global Software Development Teams, Requirements, and Software Projects

    Parker, Linda L.

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between global software development teams, effective software requirements, and stakeholders' perception of successful software development projects within the field of information technology management. It examined the critical relationship between Global Software Development (GSD) teams creating effective…

  6. User profiles of a smartphone application to support drug adherence--experiences from the iNephro project.

    Stefan Becker

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: One of the key problems in the drug therapy of patients with chronic conditions is drug adherence. In 2010 the initiative iNephro was launched (www.inephro.de. A software to support regular and correct drug intake was developed for a smartphone platform (iOS. The study investigated whether and how smartphone users deployed such an application. METHODS: Together with cooperating partners the mobile application "Medikamentenplan" ("Medication Plan" was developed. Users are able to keep and alter a list of their regular medication. A memory function supports regular intake. The application can be downloaded free of charge from the App Store™ by Apple™. After individual consent of users from December 2010 to April 2012 2042338 actions were recorded and analysed from the downloaded applications. Demographic data were collected from 2279 users with a questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall the application was used by 11688 smartphone users. 29% (3406/11688 used it at least once a week for at least four weeks. 27% (3209/11688 used the application for at least 84 days. 68% (1554/2279 of users surveyed were male, the stated age of all users was between 6-87 years (mean 44. 74% of individuals (1697 declared to be suffering from cardiovascular disease, 13% (292 had a previous history of transplantation, 9% (205 were suffering from cancer, 7% (168 reported an impaired renal function and 7% (161 suffered from diabetes mellitus. 69% (1568 of users were on <6 different medications, 9% (201 on 6 - 10 and 1% (26 on more than 10. CONCLUSION: A new smartphone application, which supports drug adherence, was used regularly by chronically ill users with a wide range of diseases over a longer period of time. The majority of users so far were middle-aged and male.

  7. Global Food Security in a Changing Climate: Considerations and Projections

    Walsh, M. K.; Brown, M. E.; Backlund, P. W.; Antle, J. M.; Carr, E. R.; Easterling, W. E.; Funk, C. C.; Murray, A.; Ngugi, M.; Barrett, C. B.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Dancheck, V.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.; Mata, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Grace, K.; Jiang, H.; Bellemare, M.; Attavanich, W.; Ammann, C. M.; Maletta, H.

    2015-12-01

    Global food security is an elusive challenge and important policy focus from the community to the globe. Food is provisioned through food systems that may be simple or labyrinthine, yet each has vulnerabilities to climate change through its effects on food production, transportation, storage, and other integral food system activities. At the same time, the future of food systems is sensitive to socioeconomic trajectories determined by choices made outside of the food system, itself. Constrictions for any reason can lead to decreased food availability, access, utilization, or stability - that is, to diminished food security. Possible changes in trade and other U.S. relationships to the rest of the world under changing conditions to the end of the century are considered through integrated assessment modelling under a range of emissions scenarios. Climate change is likely to diminish continued progress on global food security through production disruptions leading to local availability limitations and price increases, interrupted transport conduits, and diminished food safety, among other causes. In the near term, some high-latitude production export regions may benefit from changes in climate. The types and price of food imports is likely to change, as are export demands, affecting U.S. consumers and producers. Demands placed on foreign assistance programs may increase, as may demand for advanced technologies. Adaptation across the food system has great potential to manage climate change effects on food security, and the complexity of the food system offers multiple potential points of intervention for decision makers at every level. However, effective adaptation is subject to highly localized conditions and socioeconomic factors, and the technical feasibility of an adaptive intervention is not necessarily a guarantee of its application if it is unaffordable or does not provide benefits within a relatively short time frame.

  8. SONG China project - participating in the global network

    Deng, Licai; Xin, Yu; Zhang, Xiaobin; Li, Yan; Jiang, Xiaojun; Wang, Guomin; Wang, Kun; Zhou, Jilin; Yan, Zhengzhou; Luo, Zhiquan

    2013-01-01

    SONG (Stellar Observations Network Goup) is a low-cost ground based international collaboration aimed at two cutting edge problems in contemporary astrophysics in the time-domain: 1) Direct diagnostics of the internal structure of stars and 2) looking for and studying extra solar planets, possibly in the habitable zone. The general plan is to set up a network of 1m telescopes uniformly distributed in geographic latitude (in both hemispheres). China jointed the collaboration (initiated by Danish astronomers) at the very beginning. In addition to SONG's original plan (http://song.phys.au.dk), the Chinese team proposed a parallel photometry subnet work in the northern hemisphere, namely 50BiN (50cm Binocular Network, previously known as mini-SONG), to enable a large field photometric capability for the network, therefore maximising the potential of the network platform. The network will be able to produce nearly continuous time series observations of a number of selected objects with high resolution spectroscopy (SONG) and accurate photometry (50BiN), and to produce ultra-high accuracy photometry in dense field to look for micro-lensing events caused by planetary systems. This project has great synergy with Chinese Astronomical activities in Antarctica (Dome A), and other similar networks (e.g. LCOGT). The plan and current status of the project are overviewed in this poster.

  9. Education projects: an opportunity for student fieldwork in global health academic programs.

    Fyfe, Molly V

    2012-01-01

    Universities, especially in higher-income countries, increasingly offer programs in global health. These programs provide different types of fieldwork projects, at home and abroad, including: epidemiological research, community health, and clinical electives. I illustrate how and why education projects offer distinct learning opportunities for global health program fieldwork. As University of California students, we partnered in Tanzania with students from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science (MUHAS) to assist MUHAS faculty with a curricular project. We attended classes, clinical rounds, and community outreach sessions together, where we observed teaching, materials used, and the learning environment; and interviewed and gathered data from current students, alumni, and health professionals during a nationwide survey. We learned together about education of health professionals and health systems in our respective institutions. On the basis of this experience, I suggest some factors that contribute to the productivity of educational projects as global health fieldwork.

  10. The Earth Microbiome Project and Global Systems Biology

    Gilbert, Jack A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Knight, Rob

    2018-04-10

    Recently, we published the first large-scale analysis of data from the Earth Microbiome Project (1, 2), a truly multidisciplinary research program involving more than 500 scientists and 27,751 samples acquired from 43 countries. These samples represent myriad specimen types and span a wide range of biotic and abiotic factors, geographic locations, and physicochemical properties. The database (https://qiita.ucsd.edu/emp/) is still growing, with over 90,000 amplicon datasets, >500 metagenomic runs, and metabolomics datasets from a similar number of samples. Importantly, the techniques, data and analytical tools are all standardized and publicly accessible, providing a framework to support research at a scale of integration that just 7 years ago seemed impossible.

  11. The GED4GEM project: development of a Global Exposure Database for the Global Earthquake Model initiative

    Gamba, P.; Cavalca, D.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Huyck, C.; Crowley, H.

    2012-01-01

    In order to quantify earthquake risk of any selected region or a country of the world within the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) framework (www.globalquakemodel.org/), a systematic compilation of building inventory and population exposure is indispensable. Through the consortium of leading institutions and by engaging the domain-experts from multiple countries, the GED4GEM project has been working towards the development of a first comprehensive publicly available Global Exposure Database (GED). This geospatial exposure database will eventually facilitate global earthquake risk and loss estimation through GEM’s OpenQuake platform. This paper provides an overview of the GED concepts, aims, datasets, and inference methodology, as well as the current implementation scheme, status and way forward.

  12. Overview of some projects of SNPS for global space communication

    Ivanov, E.; Ghitaykin, V.; Ionkin, V.; Dubinin, A.; Pyshko, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation we focused on three variants of prospective concepts of SNPS. They are intended to solve tasks of global space communication (GSC) as nearest future tasks in space. Modern concepts of the application of power technology in space believe in using an onboard source of energy for maintenance of self-transportation of the vehicle into geostationary orbit (GSO). There are three more prospective systems as follows: gas cooled nuclear reactor with hybrid thermal engine and machine power converter; nuclear reactor cooled by liquid metal and with a thermoelectric power generating system; nuclear reactor with Li cooling and a thermionic and thermoelectric power generator on board. The choice of a concept must fit strong requirements such as: space nuclear power unit is aimed to be used in a powerful mission; space power unit must be able to maintain the dual - mode regime of vehicle operation (self - transportation and long life in geosynchronous orbit [GEO]); nuclear rector of unit must be safety and it must be designed in such a way that it will ensure minimum size of the complete system; the elements of the considered technology can be used for the creation of NPPI and with other sources of heat (for example, radioisotope); the degree of technical and technological readiness of units of the thermal and power circuit of installation is estimated to be high and is defined by a number of technological developments in air, space and nuclear branches; nuclear reactor and heat transfer equipment should work in a normal mode, which can be very reliably confirmed for other high-temperature nuclear systems. Considering these concepts we practically consider one of possible strategy of developing of complex system of nuclear power engineering. It is the strategy of step-by-step development of space engineering with real application of them in commercial, scientific and other powerful missions in the nearest and deep space. As starting point of this activity is

  13. Cultural Issue and its Influence in the Management of Global Project Teams

    Nadia Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between the project manager and team members may be affected by several variables, such as culture, leadership style of the project manager, and the complexity of the developed tasks. Focused in this context, the objective of this paper is to investigate and describe how the culture issue can affect the anagement of global project teams. It is a qualitative, descriptive study conducted in a large multinational company in the automotive sector. The results of this research show that cultural issues can influence both positively and negatively the management of project global teams and the managers of these projects have to deal with several management challenges that require the adoption of certain ways of dealing with culture impacts in managing their teams to minimize potential problems in this context.

  14. Overview of some projects of SNPS for global space communication

    Ivanov, E.; Ghitajkin, V.; Ionkin, V.; Dubinin, A.; Pyshko, A.

    2000-01-01

    Modem concepts of the application of power technology in space believe in using an onboard source of energy for maintenance of self-transportation of the vehicle into working geosynchronous orbit (GEO). This can result in reduction of the cost of all installation and the number of rocket starts. There we present several conceptual projects of nuclear power installations. Power units developed with, IPPE's participation are intended for long term supply of electricity to the vehicle in GEO and to maintain self-transportation of capabilities. Considered units include a tiny, fast neutron nuclear reactor, radiation shield, control system, cooling system (radiator) and power conversion system. Additionally, they must also include a rocket engine to maintain the dual-mode regime. This may be an electric-stationary ion jet (with Xe as working body) and a thermal engine such as hybrid or NRE. There are three more prospective systems as follows: (a) gas cooled nuclear reactor with hybrid thermal engine and machine power converter; (b) nuclear reactor cooled by liquid metal and with a thermoelectric power generating system; (c) nuclear reactor with Li cooling and a thermionic and thermoelectric power generator on board. All considered schemes have two thermal circuits and use thermal pipes in the radiator. Two final concepts are based on a Xe electric jet; these differ from first concept by having a lower working body mass but a longer transportation period from basic orbit into GEO. (authors)

  15. Going Global Activity Guide: A Project To Educate and Involve American Students in Global Hunger Issues.

    White, Gene; Balakshin, Maria

    Global hunger is one of the most urgent health and social problems the world faces at the beginning of the new millennium. In a world that produces enough food to feed every human being on the planet, there are still some 830 million people who do not get enough food on a daily basis. About 24,000 people die each day from the effects of hunger;…

  16. Assessment of global cloud datasets from satellites: Project and database initiated by the GEWEX radiation panel

    Stubenrauch , C.J.; Rossow , W.B.; Kinne , S.; Ackerman , S.; Cesana , G.; Chepfer , H.; Di Girolamo , L.; Getzewich , B.; Guignard , A.; Heidinger , A.; Maddux , B.C.; Menzel , W.P.; Minnis , P.; Pearl , C.; Platnick , S.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Radiation Panel initiated the GEWEX Cloud Assessment in 2005 to compare available, global, long-term cloud data products with the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). The GEWEX Cloud Assessment database included cloud properties retrieved from different satellite sensor measurements, taken at various local times and over various time periods. The relevant passive satellite sensors measured radia...

  17. Projected loss of a salamander diversity hotspot as a consequence of projected global climate change

    Joseph R. Milanovich; William E. Peterman; Nathan P. Nibbelink; John C. Maerz

    2010-01-01

    Background: Significant shifts in climate are considered a threat to plants and animals with significant physiological limitations and limited dispersal abilities. The southern Appalachian Mountains are a global hotspot for plethodontid salamander diversity. Plethodontids are lungless ectotherms, so their ecology is strongly governed by temperature and precipitation....

  18. Global Software and IT A Guide to Distributed Development, Projects, and Outsourcing

    Ebert, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Global software engineering, implying both internal and outsourced development, is a fast-growing scenario within industry; the growth rates in some sectors are more than 20% per year. However, half of all offshoring activities are cancelled within the first 2 years, at tremendous unanticipated cost to the organization.   This book will provide a more balanced framework for planning global development, covering topics such as managing people in distributed sites, managing a project across locations, mitigating the risk of offshoring, processes for global development, practical outsourcin

  19. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  20. Assessment of global and individual reproducibility of projective mapping with consumers

    VIDAL, LETICIA; CADENA, RAFAEL SILVA; CORREA, SILVANA; ÁBALOS, ROSA A.; GÓMEZ, BEATRIZ; GIMÉNEZ, ANA; Varela, Paula; Ares, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of projective mapping with consumers for sensory characterization has markedly increased in the last 5 years. To have confidence in this methodology,it is necessary to ensure that a similar product profile would emerge if the test was repeated. Also, deciding whether the study should be replicated or not is a key issue in test implementation. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate global and individual reproducibility of projective mapping for sensory char...

  1. Path integral for spinning particle in the plane wave field: Global and local projections

    Boudiaf, N.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L.

    2001-01-01

    The Green function related to the problem of a Dirac particle interacting with a plane wave is calculated via the path integral formalism proposed recently by Alexandrou et al. according to the two so-called global and local projections. With the help of the incorporation of two simple identities, it is shown that the contribution to the calculation of the integrals comes essentially from classical solutions projected along the direction of wave propagation. (orig.)

  2. Combined equations for estimating global solar radiation: Projection of radiation field over Japan under global warming conditions by statistical downscaling

    Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.

    2008-01-01

    For this study, we developed a new statistical model to estimate the daily accumulated global solar radiation on the earth's surface and used the model to generate a high-resolution climate change scenario of the radiation field in Japan. The statistical model mainly relies on precipitable water vapor calculated from air temperature and relative humidity on the surface to estimate seasonal changes in global solar radiation. On the other hand, to estimate daily radiation fluctuations, the model uses either a diurnal temperature range or relative humidity. The diurnal temperature range, calculated from the daily maximum and minimum temperatures, and relative humidity is a general output of most climate models, and pertinent observation data are comparatively easy to access. The statistical model performed well when estimating the monthly mean value, daily fluctuation statistics, and regional differences in the radiation field in Japan. To project the change in the radiation field for the years 2081 to 2100, we applied the statistical model to the climate change scenario of a high-resolution Regional Climate Model with a 20-km mesh size (RCM20) developed at the Meteorological Research Institute based on the Special Report for Emission Scenario (SRES)-A2. The projected change shows the following tendency: global solar radiation will increase in the warm season and decrease in the cool season in many areas of Japan, indicating that global warming may cause changes in the radiation field in Japan. The generated climate change scenario for the radiation field is linked to long-term and short-term changes in air temperature and relative humidity obtained from the RCM20 and, consequently, is expected to complement the RCM20 datasets for an impact assessment study in the agricultural sector

  3. Care Management to Promote Treatment Adherence in Patients with Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Risk Factors: A Demonstration Project.

    Bonner, L M; Hanson, A; Robinson, G; Lowy, E; Craft, S

    2018-01-01

    Dementia prevention is highly important. Improved control of vascular risk factors has the potential to decrease dementia risk, but may be difficult. Therefore, we developed and piloted a care management protocol for Veterans at risk for dementia. We enrolled 32 Veterans with diabetes and hypertension, at least one of which was poorly controlled, and cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to a 6-month care management intervention or to usual care. At enrollment, 6-months and 12-months, we assessed cognitive performance, mood, and diabetes and hypertension control. At follow-up, diastolic blood pressure was lower in intervention participants at 6 months (p=.041) and 12 months (p=.022); hemoglobin A1c, global mental status and mood did not differ between groups. Recall of a distractor list (p=.006) and logical memory long-delay recall (p=.036) were better at 6 months in the intervention group (p=.006). Care management may contribute to improved control of dementia risk factors.

  4. Management of Globally Distributed Software Development Projects in Multiple-Vendor Constellations

    Schott, Katharina; Beck, Roman; Gregory, Robert Wayne

    Global information systems development outsourcing is an apparent trend that is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. Thereby, IS-related services are not only increasingly provided from different geographical sites simultaneously but beyond that from multiple service providers based in different countries. The purpose of this paper is to understand how the involvement of multiple service providers affects the management of the globally distributed information systems development projects. As research on this topic is scarce, we applied an exploratory in-depth single-case study design as research approach. The case we analyzed comprises a global software development outsourcing project initiated by a German bank together with several globally distributed vendors. For data collection and data analysis we have adopted techniques suggested by the grounded theory method. Whereas the extant literature points out the increased management overhead associated with multi-sourcing, the analysis of our case suggests that the required effort for managing global outsourcing projects with multiple vendors depends among other things on the maturation level of the cooperation within the vendor portfolio. Furthermore, our data indicate that this interplay maturity is positively impacted through knowledge about the client that has been derived based on already existing client-vendor relationships. The paper concludes by offering theoretical and practical implications.

  5. Exploring the Role of Social Software in Global Software Development Projects

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We present a PhD project that investigates the use of Social Software (SoSo) in Global Software Development (GSD) teams. Since SoSo in unstructured and informal in its own nature, we explore how informal communication, which is challenging in GSD, is supported by SoSo in distributed teams and how...

  6. The WACMOS-ET project - Part 2: Evaluation of global terrestrial evaporation data sets

    Gonzalez Miralles, D.; Jiménez, C.; Jung, M.; Michel, D.; Ershadi, A.; McCabe, M.F.; Hirschi, M.; Martens, B.; Dolman, A.J.; Fisher, J.B.; Mu, Q.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Wood, E.F.; Fernández-Prieto, D.

    2016-01-01

    The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy - EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project aims to advance the development of land evaporation estimates on global and regional scales. Its main objective is the derivation, validation, and intercomparison of a group of existing evaporation retrieval

  7. PISA and Global Educational Governance--A Critique of the Project, Its Uses and Implications

    Sjøberg, Svein

    2015-01-01

    The PISA project has steadily increased its influence on the educational discourse and educational policies in the now 70 participating countries. The educational debate has become global, and the race to improve PISA-rankings has become high priority in many countries. For governments the PISA-test is a high-stake test. Governments are blamed for…

  8. Response to "The Shaky Legal Foundations of the Global Human Rights Education Project"

    Tibbitts, Felisa

    2015-01-01

    This article is a response to "The Shaky Legal Foundations of the Global Human Rights Education Project," an article written by Barend Vlaardingerbroek, in which Vlaardingerbroek characterizes current practices of human rights education (HRE) as having an overriding agenda of activism, one that can draw on an ideologically-driven…

  9. The Shaky Legal Foundations of the Global Human Rights Education Project

    Vlaardingerbroek, Barend

    2015-01-01

    School students should be taught about the law and this includes rights education. The global human rights education (HRE) project focuses on universal human rights and has a strongly utopian orientation, drawing as it does on international declarations and principles of human rights law. International human rights law is, however, at best a…

  10. Kenya public weather processed by the Global Yield Gap Atlas project

    Groot, de Hugo; Adimo, Ochieng; Claessens, Lieven; Wart, Van Justin; Bussel, van Lenny G.J.; Grassini, Patricio; Wolf, Joost; Guilpart, Nicolas; Boogaard, Hendrik; Oort, van Pepijn A.J.; Yang, Haishun S.; Ittersum, van Martin K.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2017-01-01

    The Global Yield Gap Atlas project (GYGA - http://yieldgap.org) has undertaken a yield gap assessment following the protocol recommended by van Ittersum et al. (2013). One part of the activities consists of collecting and processing weather data as an input for crop simulation models in sub-Saharan

  11. Global Warning: Project-Based Science Inspired by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    Colaianne, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Misconceptions about climate change are common, which suggests a need to effectively address the subject in the classroom. This article describes a project-based science activity in which students report on the physical basis, adaptations, and mitigation of this global problem, adapting the framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel…

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Two Globalization Projects on College Students' Cultural Competence and Cultural Intelligence (CQ)

    Lopes-Murphy, Solange A.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural competence and CQ involve awareness of cultural similarities and differences, knowledge of differences in cultural values, and intercultural encounters. To assess college students' cultural competence and cultural intelligence gains, this experimental study evaluated the impact of two globalization projects on these two constructs. The…

  13. Kenya public weather processed by the Global Yield Gap Atlas project (old version)

    Groot, de H.L.E.; Adimo, A.O.; Claessens, L.F.G.; Wart, van J.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Grassini, P.; Wolf, J.; Guilpart, Nicolas; Boogaard, H.L.; Oort, van P.A.J.; Yang, H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Cassman, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Yield Gap Atlas project (GYGA - http://yieldgap.org ) has undertaken a yield gap assessment following the protocol recommended by van Ittersum et. al. (van Ittersum et. al., 2013). One part of the activities consists of collecting and processing weather data as an input for crop

  14. Projected impacts of climate change on regional capacities for global plant species richness.

    Sommer, Jan Henning; Kreft, Holger; Kier, Gerold; Jetz, Walter; Mutke, Jens; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2010-08-07

    Climate change represents a major challenge to the maintenance of global biodiversity. To date, the direction and magnitude of net changes in the global distribution of plant diversity remain elusive. We use the empirical multi-variate relationships between contemporary water-energy dynamics and other non-climatic predictor variables to model the regional capacity for plant species richness (CSR) and its projected future changes. We find that across all analysed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios, relative changes in CSR increase with increased projected temperature rise. Between now and 2100, global average CSR is projected to remain similar to today (+0.3%) under the optimistic B1/+1.8 degrees C scenario, but to decrease significantly (-9.4%) under the 'business as usual' A1FI/+4.0 degrees C scenario. Across all modelled scenarios, the magnitude and direction of CSR change are geographically highly non-uniform. While in most temperate and arctic regions, a CSR increase is expected, the projections indicate a strong decline in most tropical and subtropical regions. Countries least responsible for past and present greenhouse gas emissions are likely to incur disproportionately large future losses in CSR, whereas industrialized countries have projected moderate increases. Independent of direction, we infer that all changes in regional CSR will probably induce on-site species turnover and thereby be a threat to native floras.

  15. Global projections of drought hazard in a warming climate: a prime for disaster risk management

    Carrão, Hugo; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo

    2018-03-01

    Projections of drought hazard ( dH) changes have been mapped from five bias-corrected climate models and analyzed at the global level under three representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The motivation for this study is the observation that drought risk is increasing globally and the effective regulation of prevention and adaptation measures depends on dH magnitude and its distribution for the future. Based on the Weighted Anomaly of Standardized Precipitation index, dH changes have been assessed for mid-(2021-2050) and late-century (2071-2099). With a few exceptions, results show a likely increase in global dH between the historical years (1971-2000) and both future time periods under all RCPs. Notwithstanding this worsening trend, it was found that projections of dH changes for most regions are neither robust nor significant in the near-future. By the end of the century, greater increases are projected for RCPs describing stronger radiative forcing. Under RCP8.5, statistically significant dH changes emerge for global Mediterranean ecosystems and the Amazon region, which are identified as possible hotspots for future water security issues. Taken together, projections of dH changes point towards two dilemmas: (1) in the near-term, stake-holders are left worrying about projected increasing dH over large regions, but lack of actionable model agreement to take effective decisions related to local prevention and adaptation initiatives; (2) in the long-term, models demonstrate remarkable agreement, but stake-holders lack actionable knowledge to manage potential impacts far distant from actual human-dominated environments. We conclude that the major challenge for risk management is not to adapt human populations or their activities to dH changes, but to progress on global initiatives that mitigate their impacts in the whole carbon cycle by late-century.

  16. Recent Trends of the Tropical Hydrological Cycle Inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology Project and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data

    Zhou, Y. P.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Sud, Y. C.; Betts, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Scores of modeling studies have shown that increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere impact the global hydrologic cycle; however, disagreements on regional scales are large, and thus the simulated trends of such impacts, even for regions as large as the tropics, remain uncertain. The present investigation attempts to examine such trends in the observations using satellite data products comprising Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud and radiation. Specifically, evolving trends of the tropical hydrological cycle over the last 20-30 years were identified and analyzed. The results show (1) intensification of tropical precipitation in the rising regions of the Walker and Hadley circulations and weakening over the sinking regions of the associated overturning circulation; (2) poleward shift of the subtropical dry zones (up to 2deg/decade in June-July-August (JJA) in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.3-0.7deg/decade in June-July-August and September-October-November in the Southern Hemisphere) consistent with an overall broadening of the Hadley circulation; and (3) significant poleward migration (0.9-1.7deg/decade) of cloud boundaries of Hadley cell and plausible narrowing of the high cloudiness in the Intertropical Convergence Zone region in some seasons. These results support findings of some of the previous studies that showed strengthening of the tropical hydrological cycle and expansion of the Hadley cell that are potentially related to the recent global warming trends.

  17. Global projections of extreme sea levels in view of climate change

    Vousdoukas, M. I.; Feyen, L.; Voukouvalas, E.; Mentaschi, L.; Verlaan, M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Jackson, L. P.

    2017-12-01

    Global warming is expected to drive increasing extreme sea levels (ESLs) and flood risk along the world's coasts. The present contribution aims to present global ESL projections obtained by combining dynamic simulations of all the major ESL components during the present century, considering the latest CMIP5 projections for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Baseline values are obtained combining global re-analyses of tides, waves, and storm surges, including the effects of tropical cyclones. The global average RSLR is projected around 20 and 24 cm by the 2050s under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively and is projected to reach 46 and 67 cm by the year 2100. The largest increases in MSL are projected along the South Pacific, Australia and West Africa, while the smaller RSLR is projected around East North America, and Europe. Contributions from waves and storm surges show a very weak increasing global trend, which becomes statistically significant only towards the end of the century and under RCP8.5. However, for areas like the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, Alaska, East Bering Sea, as well as the Southern Ocean, climate extremes could increase up to 15%. By the end of this century the 100-year event ESL along the world's coastlines will on average increase by 48 cm for RCP4.5 and 75 cm for RCP8.5. The strongest rise is projected along the Southern Ocean exceeding 1 m under RCP8.5 by the end of the century. Increase exceeding 80 cm is projected for East Asia, West North America, East South America, and the North Indian Ocean. Considering always the business as usual and the year 2100, the lowest increase in ESL100 is projected along the East North America and Europe (below 50 cm). The present findings indicate that, under both RCPs, by the year 2050 the present day 100-year event will occur every 5 years along a large part of the tropics, rendering coastal zones exposed to intermittent flood hazard.

  18. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030.

    Mathers, Colin D; Loncar, Dejan

    2006-11-01

    Global and regional projections of mortality and burden of disease by cause for the years 2000, 2010, and 2030 were published by Murray and Lopez in 1996 as part of the Global Burden of Disease project. These projections, which are based on 1990 data, continue to be widely quoted, although they are substantially outdated; in particular, they substantially underestimated the spread of HIV/AIDS. To address the widespread demand for information on likely future trends in global health, and thereby to support international health policy and priority setting, we have prepared new projections of mortality and burden of disease to 2030 starting from World Health Organization estimates of mortality and burden of disease for 2002. This paper describes the methods, assumptions, input data, and results. Relatively simple models were used to project future health trends under three scenarios-baseline, optimistic, and pessimistic-based largely on projections of economic and social development, and using the historically observed relationships of these with cause-specific mortality rates. Data inputs have been updated to take account of the greater availability of death registration data and the latest available projections for HIV/AIDS, income, human capital, tobacco smoking, body mass index, and other inputs. In all three scenarios there is a dramatic shift in the distribution of deaths from younger to older ages and from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes to noncommunicable disease causes. The risk of death for children younger than 5 y is projected to fall by nearly 50% in the baseline scenario between 2002 and 2030. The proportion of deaths due to noncommunicable disease is projected to rise from 59% in 2002 to 69% in 2030. Global HIV/AIDS deaths are projected to rise from 2.8 million in 2002 to 6.5 million in 2030 under the baseline scenario, which assumes coverage with antiretroviral drugs reaches 80% by 2012. Under the optimistic scenario, which

  19. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030.

    Colin D Mathers

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global and regional projections of mortality and burden of disease by cause for the years 2000, 2010, and 2030 were published by Murray and Lopez in 1996 as part of the Global Burden of Disease project. These projections, which are based on 1990 data, continue to be widely quoted, although they are substantially outdated; in particular, they substantially underestimated the spread of HIV/AIDS. To address the widespread demand for information on likely future trends in global health, and thereby to support international health policy and priority setting, we have prepared new projections of mortality and burden of disease to 2030 starting from World Health Organization estimates of mortality and burden of disease for 2002. This paper describes the methods, assumptions, input data, and results. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Relatively simple models were used to project future health trends under three scenarios-baseline, optimistic, and pessimistic-based largely on projections of economic and social development, and using the historically observed relationships of these with cause-specific mortality rates. Data inputs have been updated to take account of the greater availability of death registration data and the latest available projections for HIV/AIDS, income, human capital, tobacco smoking, body mass index, and other inputs. In all three scenarios there is a dramatic shift in the distribution of deaths from younger to older ages and from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes to noncommunicable disease causes. The risk of death for children younger than 5 y is projected to fall by nearly 50% in the baseline scenario between 2002 and 2030. The proportion of deaths due to noncommunicable disease is projected to rise from 59% in 2002 to 69% in 2030. Global HIV/AIDS deaths are projected to rise from 2.8 million in 2002 to 6.5 million in 2030 under the baseline scenario, which assumes coverage with antiretroviral drugs

  20. Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030

    Mathers, Colin D; Loncar, Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Background Global and regional projections of mortality and burden of disease by cause for the years 2000, 2010, and 2030 were published by Murray and Lopez in 1996 as part of the Global Burden of Disease project. These projections, which are based on 1990 data, continue to be widely quoted, although they are substantially outdated; in particular, they substantially underestimated the spread of HIV/AIDS. To address the widespread demand for information on likely future trends in global health, and thereby to support international health policy and priority setting, we have prepared new projections of mortality and burden of disease to 2030 starting from World Health Organization estimates of mortality and burden of disease for 2002. This paper describes the methods, assumptions, input data, and results. Methods and Findings Relatively simple models were used to project future health trends under three scenarios—baseline, optimistic, and pessimistic—based largely on projections of economic and social development, and using the historically observed relationships of these with cause-specific mortality rates. Data inputs have been updated to take account of the greater availability of death registration data and the latest available projections for HIV/AIDS, income, human capital, tobacco smoking, body mass index, and other inputs. In all three scenarios there is a dramatic shift in the distribution of deaths from younger to older ages and from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes to noncommunicable disease causes. The risk of death for children younger than 5 y is projected to fall by nearly 50% in the baseline scenario between 2002 and 2030. The proportion of deaths due to noncommunicable disease is projected to rise from 59% in 2002 to 69% in 2030. Global HIV/AIDS deaths are projected to rise from 2.8 million in 2002 to 6.5 million in 2030 under the baseline scenario, which assumes coverage with antiretroviral drugs reaches 80% by 2012

  1. A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCES: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D.; Whitlock, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's POWER project, or the Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources project, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale. The products of the project find valuable applications in the solar and wind energy sectors of the renewable energy industries. The primary source data for the POWER project are NASA's World Climate Research Project (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Release 3.0) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (V 4.0.3). Users of the POWER products access the data through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, Version 6.0) website (http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Over 200 parameters are available to the users. The spatial resolution is 1 degree by 1 degree now and will be finer later. The data covers from July 1983 to December 2007, a time-span of 24.5 years, and are provided as 3-hourly, daily and monthly means. As of now, there have been over 18 million web hits and over 4 million data file downloads. The POWER products have been systematically validated against ground-based measurements, and in particular, data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) archive, and also against the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Parameters such as minimum, maximum, daily mean temperature and dew points, relative humidity and surface pressure are validated against the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) data. SSE feeds data directly into Decision Support Systems including RETScreen International clean energy project analysis software that is written in 36 languages and has greater than 260,000 users worldwide.

  2. GMMIP (v1.0) contribution to CMIP6: Global Monsoons Model Inter-comparison Project

    Zhou, Tianjun; Turner, Andrew G.; Kinter, James L.; Wang, Bin; Qian, Yun; Chen, Xiaolong; Wu, Bo; Wang, Bin; Liu, Bo; Zou, Liwei; He, Bian

    2016-10-10

    The Global Monsoons Model Inter-comparison Project (GMMIP) has been endorsed by the panel of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP) as one of the participating model inter-comparison projects (MIPs) in the sixth phase of CMIP (CMIP6). The focus of GMMIP is on monsoon climatology, variability, prediction and projection, which is relevant to four of the “Grand Challenges” proposed by the World Climate Research Programme. At present, 21 international modeling groups are committed to joining GMMIP. This overview paper introduces the motivation behind GMMIP and the scientific questions it intends to answer. Three tiers of experiments, of decreasing priority, are designed to examine (a) model skill in simulating the climatology and interannual-to-multidecadal variability of global monsoons forced by the sea surface temperature during historical climate period; (b) the roles of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in driving variations of the global and regional monsoons; and (c) the effects of large orographic terrain on the establishment of the monsoons. The outputs of the CMIP6 Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima experiments (DECK), “historical” simulation and endorsed MIPs will also be used in the diagnostic analysis of GMMIP to give a comprehensive understanding of the roles played by different external forcings, potential improvements in the simulation of monsoon rainfall at high resolution and reproducibility at decadal timescales. The implementation of GMMIP will improve our understanding of the fundamental physics of changes in the global and regional monsoons over the past 140 years and ultimately benefit monsoons prediction and projection in the current century.

  3. NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales

    Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

  4. Yield risks in global maize markets: Historical evidence and projections in key regions of the world

    Nelson B. Villoria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous worldwide crop failures stemming from a more unstable climate may reduce the scope for international trade to compensate food shortages and stabilize food prices across the various regions of the world. Understanding the effects of changes in crop productivity on global markets requires knowledge about the extent to which crop yields may be systematically related across producing and consuming centers. This short communication contributes to this knowledge by investigating the potential changes in the strength of two key sources of supply risks in global maize markets: yield variance and cross-country yield correlation. We focus on the largest producing and consuming countries of the world. We capitalize on yield projections from the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison project. Exploratory analysis of the skill of the underlying GGCMI models in reproducing key moments of the distribution of observed yields reveals that they overstate observed variances but faithfully reproduce observed patterns of cross-country correlations. We find no evidence of an increase in the degree of cross-country dependency of maize yields. We also find a higher incidence of what would be considered extremely low maize yields by present-time standards stemming from the projected downward trend in yields levels toward mid-century. The weak dependency of maize yields across countries, an the possibility of reducing the higher incidence of extremes through policies aimed to reverse the climate-induced downward trends in yields, suggest that international trade can become a valuable tool to ameliorate the effects of more unstable crop yields. Keywords: Extremely low yields, Maize markets, Food prices, Agricultural yields, Systemic risk in agriculture, Global agriculture, AgMIP, Global gridded crop model intercomparison

  5. A Canonical Response in Rainfall Characteristics to Global Warming: Projections by IPCC CMIP5 Models

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.; Kim, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in rainfall characteristics induced by global warming are examined based on probability distribution function (PDF) analysis, from outputs of 14 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), CMIP (5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) models under various scenarios of increased CO2 emissions. Results show that collectively CMIP5 models project a robust and consistent global and regional rainfall response to CO2 warming. Globally, the models show a 1-3% increase in rainfall per degree rise in temperature, with a canonical response featuring large increase (100-250 %) in frequency of occurrence of very heavy rain, a reduction (5-10%) of moderate rain, and an increase (10-15%) of light rain events. Regionally, even though details vary among models, a majority of the models (>10 out of 14) project a consistent large scale response with more heavy rain events in climatologically wet regions, most pronounced in the Pacific ITCZ and the Asian monsoon. Moderate rain events are found to decrease over extensive regions of the subtropical and extratropical oceans, but increases over the extratropical land regions, and the Southern Oceans. The spatial distribution of light rain resembles that of moderate rain, but mostly with opposite polarity. The majority of the models also show increase in the number of dry events (absence or only trace amount of rain) over subtropical and tropical land regions in both hemispheres. These results suggest that rainfall characteristics are changing and that increased extreme rainfall events and droughts occurrences are connected, as a consequent of a global adjustment of the large scale circulation to global warming.

  6. How Social Software Supports Cooperative Practices in a Globally Distributed Software Project

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    In Global Software Development (GSD), the lack of face- to-face communication is a major challenge and effective computer-mediated practices are necessary. This paper analyzes cooperative practices supported by Social Software (SoSo) in a GSD student project. The empirical results show...... that the role of SoSo is to support informal communication, enabling social talks and metawork, both necessary for establishing and for maintaining effective coordination mechanisms, thus successful cooperation....

  7. Global Dynamical Systems Involving Generalized -Projection Operators and Set-Valued Perturbation in Banach Spaces

    Yun-zhi Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of generalized dynamical systems involving generalized f-projection operators is introduced and studied in Banach spaces. By using the fixed-point theorem due to Nadler, the equilibrium points set of this class of generalized global dynamical systems is proved to be nonempty and closed under some suitable conditions. Moreover, the solutions set of the systems with set-valued perturbation is showed to be continuous with respect to the initial value.

  8. The global campus project: using e-learning to extend access to new polpulations of students.

    Milankovic-Atkinson, Maya; Sadler, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The Global Campus (GC) project started in May 1999 between the School of Computing Science (SCS) of Middlesex University (MU) and the Regional Information Technology and Software Engineering Centre (RITSEC) in Cairo[1]. RITSEC were keen to further develop their collaboration with Middlesex University and it was decided to launch a complete MSc programme in Distance Learning (DL) mode. This was in line with the University strategy to expand its provision overseas to meet the vast demand for Br...

  9. WHE-PAGER Project: A new initiative in estimating global building inventory and its seismic vulnerability

    Porter, K.A.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Wald, D.J.; Greene, M.; Comartin, Craig

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquake’s Response (PAGER) Project and the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute’s World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) are creating a global database of building stocks and their earthquake vulnerability. The WHE already represents a growing, community-developed public database of global housing and its detailed structural characteristics. It currently contains more than 135 reports on particular housing types in 40 countries. The WHE-PAGER effort extends the WHE in several ways: (1) by addressing non-residential construction; (2) by quantifying the prevalence of each building type in both rural and urban areas; (3) by addressing day and night occupancy patterns, (4) by adding quantitative vulnerability estimates from judgment or statistical observation; and (5) by analytically deriving alternative vulnerability estimates using in part laboratory testing.

  10. Biomass burning studies and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project

    Prinn, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The perturbations to local and regional atmospheric chemistry caused by biomass burning also have global significance. The International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project was created by scientists from over twenty countries in response to the growing interest concern about atmospheric chemical changes and their potential impact on mankind. The goal of the IGAC is to develop a fundamental understanding of the natural and anthropogenic processes that determine the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the interactions between atmospheric composition and biospheric and climatic processes. A specific objective is to accurately predict changes over the next century in the composition and chemistry of the global atmosphere. Current activities, leaders and scientists involved are presented in this chapter

  11. How do glacier inventory data aid global glacier assessments and projections?

    Hock, R.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale glacier modeling relies heavily on datasets that are collected by many individuals across the globe, but managed and maintained in a coordinated fashion by international data centers. The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) provides the framework for coordinating and making available a suite of data sets such as the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI), the Glacier Thickness Dataset or the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). These datasets have greatly increased our ability to assess global-scale glacier mass changes. These data have also been vital for projecting the glacier mass changes of all mountain glaciers in the world outside the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet, a total >200,000 glaciers covering an area of more than 700,000 km2. Using forcing from 8 to 15 GCMs and 4 different emission scenarios, global-scale glacier evolution models project multi-model mean net mass losses of all glaciers between 7 cm and 24 cm sea-level equivalent by the end of the 21st century. Projected mass losses vary greatly depending on the choice of the forcing climate and emission scenario. Insufficiently constrained model parameters likely are an important reason for large differences found among these studies even when forced by the same emission scenario, especially on regional scales.

  12. Global protected area expansion is compromised by projected land-use and parochialism.

    Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Toivonen, Tuuli; Di Minin, Enrico; Kukkala, Aija S; Kullberg, Peter; Kuusterä, Johanna; Lehtomäki, Joona; Tenkanen, Henrikki; Verburg, Peter H; Moilanen, Atte

    2014-12-18

    Protected areas are one of the main tools for halting the continuing global biodiversity crisis caused by habitat loss, fragmentation and other anthropogenic pressures. According to the Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity, the protected area network should be expanded to at least 17% of the terrestrial world by 2020 (http://www.cbd.int/sp/targets). To maximize conservation outcomes, it is crucial to identify the best expansion areas. Here we show that there is a very high potential to increase protection of ecoregions and vertebrate species by expanding the protected area network, but also identify considerable risk of ineffective outcomes due to land-use change and uncoordinated actions between countries. We use distribution data for 24,757 terrestrial vertebrates assessed under the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 'red list of threatened species', and terrestrial ecoregions (827), modified by land-use models for the present and 2040, and introduce techniques for global and balanced spatial conservation prioritization. First, we show that with a coordinated global protected area network expansion to 17% of terrestrial land, average protection of species ranges and ecoregions could triple. Second, if projected land-use change by 2040 (ref. 11) takes place, it becomes infeasible to reach the currently possible protection levels, and over 1,000 threatened species would lose more than 50% of their present effective ranges worldwide. Third, we demonstrate a major efficiency gap between national and global conservation priorities. Strong evidence is shown that further biodiversity loss is unavoidable unless international action is quickly taken to balance land-use and biodiversity conservation. The approach used here can serve as a framework for repeatable and quantitative assessment of efficiency, gaps and expansion of the global protected area network globally, regionally and nationally, considering

  13. The Sea Around Us Project: documenting and communicating global fisheries impacts on marine ecosystems.

    Pauly, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    The Sea Around Us Project, initiated by the Pew Charitable Trusts in Philadelphia, PA, and located at the Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, started in mid 1999. Its goal was (and still is) to investigate the impact of fisheries on marine ecosystems and to propose policies to mitigate these impacts. Although conceived as a global activity, the project first emphasized the data-rich North Atlantic as a test bed for developing its approaches, which rely on mapping of catch data and indicators of ecosystem health derived from the analysis of long catch time series data. Initial achievements included mapping the decline, throughout the North Atlantic basin, of high-trophic level fishes from 1900 to the present and the presentation of compelling evidence of change in the functioning of the North Atlantic ecosystems, summarized in a 2003 book. The Central and South Atlantic were the next basins to be tackled, with emphasis on the distant-water fleet off West Africa, culminating in a major conference in Dakar, Senegal, in 2002. The project then emphasized the North Pacific, Antarctica, and marine mammals and the multiplicity of tropical Indo-Pacific fisheries before it turned completely global, with all our major analyses and reports (e.g., on the interactions between marine mammals and fisheries, on fuel consumption by fleets, on the catches of small-scale fisheries, on subsidies to fisheries) being based on global studies. Broadly, the work of the project is aimed at a reappraisal of fisheries, from the benign activity that many interested people still perceive them to be, to a realization that they have become the driver for massive loss of biodiversity in the ocean. Moreover, the emphasis on global estimates (rather than local estimates of dubious generality) has allowed the project to contribute to various global initiatives (e.g., developing the Marine Trophic Index for the Convention on Biological Diversity, quantifying marine

  14. Project GRACE A grid based search tool for the global digital library

    Scholze, Frank; Vigen, Jens; Prazak, Petra; The Seventh International Conference on Electronic Theses and Dissertations

    2004-01-01

    The paper will report on the progress of an ongoing EU project called GRACE - Grid Search and Categorization Engine (http://www.grace-ist.org). The project participants are CERN, Sheffield Hallam University, Stockholm University, Stuttgart University, GL 2006 and Telecom Italia. The project started in 2002 and will finish in 2005, resulting in a Grid based search engine that will search across a variety of content sources including a number of electronic thesis and dissertation repositories. The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is expanding and is clearly an interesting movement for a community advocating open access to ETD. However, the OAI approach alone may not be sufficiently scalable to achieve a truly global ETD Digital Library. Many universities simply offer their collections to the world via their local web services without being part of any federated system for archiving and even those dissertations that are provided with OAI compliant metadata will not necessarily be picked up by a centralized OAI Ser...

  15. Improving intercultural competency in global IT projects through recognition of culture-based behaviors

    Richard Amster

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of global IT projects is highly influenced by culture-based behaviors. Issues between individuals arise when behaviors are (mis-perceived, (mis-interpreted, and (mis-judged by using the perceiver’s expectations, beliefs, and values. Misperception results when the behavior is not anticipated because it would not occur in ones own culture. As a result, behavior should be the starting point for cross-cultural research. But, studies have primarily focused on belief and value systems which are more abstract and less specific than behaviors. This paper presents a study that analyzed cultural behavioral differences between Indian project managers and their counterparts in other countries. The conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews revealed insights into cross-cultural challenges and shed light on the complex ways that culture-based behaviors impact IT projects. The study identified 127 behaviors that significantly affected project success and cross-cultural cooperation between Indian managers and managers from all over the world. These behaviors were grouped into 19 behavior clusters. Understanding these behavior clusters, and correlating these behaviors to values and beliefs, will improve project collaboration, and inform cross-cultural training strategies. In addition, existing cultural dimensions were reduced in scope, additional dimensions were defined for clarity, and new business-related dimensions were identified. Finally, based on the study’s results, the paper suggests four important components that should be added to cross-cultural training programs for international project managers.

  16. External force back-projective composition and globally deformable optimization for 3-D coronary artery reconstruction

    Yang, Jian; Cong, Weijian; Fan, Jingfan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian; Chen, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical value of the 3D reconstruction of a coronary artery is important for the diagnosis and intervention of cardiovascular diseases. This work proposes a method based on a deformable model for reconstructing coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images acquired from different angles. First, an external force back-projective composition model is developed to determine the external force, for which the force distributions in different views are back-projected to the 3D space and composited in the same coordinate system based on the perspective projection principle of x-ray imaging. The elasticity and bending forces are composited as an internal force to maintain the smoothness of the deformable curve. Second, the deformable curve evolves rapidly toward the true vascular centerlines in 3D space and angiographic images under the combination of internal and external forces. Third, densely matched correspondence among vessel centerlines is constructed using a curve alignment method. The bundle adjustment method is then utilized for the global optimization of the projection parameters and the 3D structures. The proposed method is validated on phantom data and routine angiographic images with consideration for space and re-projection image errors. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for the reconstruction of coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images. The proposed method can achieve a mean space error of 0.564 mm and a mean re-projection error of 0.349 mm. (paper)

  17. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable detail on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). With global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector in the range of 128-171 EJ across the four scenarios, global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of non-methane total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM) in the year 2030. At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two

  18. High-resolution global climate modelling: the UPSCALE project, a large-simulation campaign

    M. S. Mizielinski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The UPSCALE (UK on PRACE: weather-resolving Simulations of Climate for globAL Environmental risk project constructed and ran an ensemble of HadGEM3 (Hadley Centre Global Environment Model 3 atmosphere-only global climate simulations over the period 1985–2011, at resolutions of N512 (25 km, N216 (60 km and N96 (130 km as used in current global weather forecasting, seasonal prediction and climate modelling respectively. Alongside these present climate simulations a parallel ensemble looking at extremes of future climate was run, using a time-slice methodology to consider conditions at the end of this century. These simulations were primarily performed using a 144 million core hour, single year grant of computing time from PRACE (the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe in 2012, with additional resources supplied by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC and the Met Office. Almost 400 terabytes of simulation data were generated on the HERMIT supercomputer at the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS, and transferred to the JASMIN super-data cluster provided by the Science and Technology Facilities Council Centre for Data Archival (STFC CEDA for analysis and storage. In this paper we describe the implementation of the project, present the technical challenges in terms of optimisation, data output, transfer and storage that such a project involves and include details of the model configuration and the composition of the UPSCALE data set. This data set is available for scientific analysis to allow assessment of the value of model resolution in both present and potential future climate conditions.

  19. Contributions of projected land use to global radiative forcing ascribed to local sources

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2013-12-01

    With global demand for food expected to dramatically increase and put additional pressures on natural lands, there is a need to understand the environmental impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Previous studies have shown that the magnitude and even the sign of the radiative forcing (RF) of biogeophysical effects from LULCC depends on the latitude and forest ecology of the disturbed region. Here we ascribe the contributions to the global RF by land-use related anthropogenic activities to their local sources, organized on a grid of 1.9 degrees latitude by 2.5 degrees longitude. We use RF estimates for the year 2100, using five future LULCC projections, computed from simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model and Community Atmosphere Models and additional offline analyses. Our definition of the LULCC RF includes changes to terrestrial carbon storage, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, atmospheric chemistry, aerosol emissions, and surface albedo. We ascribe the RF to gridded locations based on LULCC-related emissions of relevant trace gases and aerosols, including emissions from fires. We find that the largest contributions to the global RF in year 2100 from LULCC originate in the tropics for all future scenarios. In fact, LULCC is the largest tropical source of anthropogenic RF. The LULCC RF in the tropics is dominated by emissions of CO2 from deforestation and methane emissions from livestock and soils. Land surface albedo change is rarely the dominant forcing agent in any of the future LULCC projections, at any location. By combining the five future scenarios we find that deforested area at a specific tropical location can be used to predict the contribution to global RF from LULCC at that location (the relationship does not hold as well in the extratropics). This information could support global efforts like REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), that aim to reduce greenhouse gas

  20. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project: Sample Management Plan

    Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pereira, Mario M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steen, Franciska H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This sample management plan provides guidelines for sectioning, preparation, acceptance criteria, analytical path, and end-of-life disposal for the fuel element segments utilized in the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project. The Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project is tasked with analysis of irradiated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel element samples to support the GTRI conversion program. Sample analysis may include optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fuel-surface interface analysis, gas pycnometry (density) measurements, laser flash analysis (LFA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis with mass spectroscopy (TG /DTA-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometry (ICP), alpha spectroscopy, and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS). The project will utilize existing Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) operating, technical, and administrative procedures for sample receipt, processing, and analyses. Test instructions (TIs), which are documents used to provide specific details regarding the implementation of an existing RPL approved technical or operational procedure, will also be used to communicate to staff project specific parameters requested by the Principal Investigator (PI). TIs will be developed, reviewed, and issued in accordance with the latest revision of the RPL-PLN-700, RPL Operations Plan. Additionally, the PI must approve all project test instructions and red-line changes to test instructions.

  1. The global unified parallel file system (GUPFS) project: FY 2002 activities and results

    Butler, Gregory F.; Lee, Rei Chi; Welcome, Michael L.

    2003-04-07

    The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase, five-year project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center to provide a scalable, high performance, high bandwidth, shared file system for all the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make it easier to conduct advanced scientific research using the NERSC systems. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is directly accessed by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. During its first year, FY 2002, the GUPFS project focused on identifying, testing, and evaluating existing and emerging shared/cluster file system, SAN fabric, and storage technologies; identifying NERSC user input/output (I/O) requirements, methods, and mechanisms; and developing appropriate benchmarking methodologies and benchmark codes for a parallel environment. This report presents the activities and progress of the GUPFS project during its first year, the results of the evaluations conducted, and plans for near-term and longer-term investigations.

  2. Changes in precipitation extremes projected by a 20-km mesh global atmospheric model

    Akio Kitoh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution modeling is necessary to project weather and climate extremes and their future changes under global warming. A global high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model with grid size about 20 km is able to reproduce climate fields as well as regional-scale phenomena such as monsoonal rainfall, tropical and extratropical cyclones, and heavy precipitation. This 20-km mesh model is applied to project future changes in weather and climate extremes at the end of the 21st century with four different spatial patterns in sea surface temperature (SST changes: one with the mean SST changes by the 28 models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP-8.5 scenario, and the other three obtained from a cluster analysis, in which tropical SST anomalies derived from the 28 CMIP5 models were grouped. Here we focus on future changes in regional precipitation and its extremes. Various precipitation indices averaged over the Twenty-two regional land domains are calculated. Heavy precipitation indices (maximum 5-day precipitation total and maximum 1-day precipitation total increase in all regional domains, even where mean precipitation decrease (Southern Africa, South Europe/Mediterranean, Central America. South Asia is the domain of the largest extreme precipitation increase. In some domains, different SST patterns result in large precipitation changes, possibly related to changes in large-scale circulations in the tropical Pacific.

  3. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  4. The value of human life in contemporary society. The global biography project.

    Nary, G

    1997-12-01

    The closing address at the 1997 First International Conference on Healthcare Resource Allocation for HIV/AIDS and Other Life-Threatening Illnesses is presented. The address discusses the extrinsic value of life and the three forms of material value: spiritual, economic, and political, placed on life by an outside source. It is argued that if spiritual currency, rather than economic or political currency, drove public policy there would be greater progress in reducing the global rate of HIV and more options for care. Further, lack of identity of those afflicted with HIV reduces them to mere statistics, thus decreasing their economic and political clout. Giving identities to people who are sick not only increases empathy but also increases their survivability. The establishment of the Global Biography Project seeks to reestablish spiritual currency as the international currency that underlies every nation's healthcare policies.

  5. New Regional and Global HFC Projections and Effects of National Regulations and Montreal Protocol Amendment Proposals

    Velders, G. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. New global scenarios of HFC emissions reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050, which corresponds to a projected growth from 2015 to 2050 which is 9% to 29% of that for CO2 over the same time period. New baseline scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. These projections are the first to comprehensively assess production and consumption of individual HFCs in multiple use sectors and geographic regions with emission estimates constrained by atmospheric observations. In 2050, in percent of global HFC emissions, China (~30%), India and the rest of Asia (~25%), Middle East and northern Africa (~10%), and USA (~10%) are the principal source regions; and refrigeration and stationary air conditioning are the major use sectors. National regulations to limit HFC use have been adopted recently in the European Union, Japan and USA, and four proposals have been submitted in 2015 to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries. The new HFC scenarios and effects of national regulations and Montreal Protocol amendment proposals will be presented.

  6. Media Memories in Focus Group Discussions - Methodological Reflections Instancing the Global Media Generations Project

    Theo Hug

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medienereignisse wie auch die Einführung und Verbreitung neuer Medientechnologien und Formate bringen mannigfaltige Wege des „Eintretens von Medien ins Leben“ mit sich. Im Projekt Globale Mediengenerationen (GMG wurden Medienerinnerungen aus der Kindheit im Kontext von Gruppendiskussionen am Beispiel dreier Generationen aus verschiedenen Ländern aller Kontinente untersucht. Dabei wurden medienbezogene Wissensbestände von drei Alterskohorten globaler Generationen analysiert. Der Artikel diskutiert methodologische Aspekte des Projekts und komplexe und selektive Prozesse des Erinnerns vergangener Ereignisse. Er untersucht Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede des GMG-Ansatzes mit dem dokumentarischen Ansatz von Ralf Bohnsack, die beide in der Wissenssoziologie von Karl Mannheim verwurzelt sind. Darüber hinaus wird Medialität als basale methodologische Kategorie in Erwägung gezogen, nicht nur im Hinblick auf die Klärung begrifflicher Grundlagen, sondern auch als inhärente Dimension von Forschungsprozessen. Media events in general and the introduction and divulgence of new media technologies and formats in particular implicate various (new ways of “media entering life.” In the Global Media Generations (GMG research project, articulation of individuals’ memories of childhood experiences with the media was afforded by context of focus groups of three generations in different countries of six continents. In this project media related knowledge segments of different age cohorts have been analyzed and interpreted. The article deals with methodological questions of the project and complex processes of ‘remembering’ past events. It explores commonalities and differences of the GMG approach with Ralf Bohnsack’s documentary approach, both rooted in the sociology of knowledge of Karl Mannheim. Furthermore, mediality is taken into consideration as a basic methodological category, which means that it is perceived not only as subject matter to

  7. The Wunstorf Drilling Project: Coring a Global Stratigraphic Reference Section of the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    Markus Wilmsen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wunstorf drilling project aims at establishing a high resolution stable isotope record for the black shale succession (OAE 2 of the CTBI and developing this into a globally applicable high resolutionbio- and chemostratigraphic reference section. Disciplines involved include micropaleontology (calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera, macropaleontology (ammonites, inoceramids, stable isotopes and cyclostratigraphy mainly based on borehole logging, multisensor core logging, and x-ray flflfluorescence (XRF scanning data. The combination of geochemical, paleontological, and logging data will allow high resolution chemo- and biostratigraphy for the CTBI which may in the future serve as an international standard.

  8. Exploring the role of instant messaging in a global software development project

    Dittrich, Y.; Giuffrida, Rosalba

    2011-01-01

    Communication plays a vital role in software devel- opment projects. Globally distributed teams use a mix of dif- ferent communication channels to get the work done. In this paper, we report on an empirical study of a team distributed across Denmark and India. This paper explores the integration...... documentation. Our analysis provides an indication that IM can play a special role in such socio-technical communication systems: IM acts as a real time glue between different chan- nels. The communication through IM also provides a means to build trust and social relationships with co-workers....

  9. Global Change Data Base Pilot (Diskette) Project for Africa. Dase base documentation version 1.1

    1992-06-01

    The data base for Africa contains vegetation data, climate data, and other thematic data for a recent three and a half year period. The documentation contains separate chapters of material edited about separate data sets of the overall Global Change Data Base, Pilot (diskette) Project for Africa. Descriptions of data formats, authors, and contributors are accompanied by documentation of the development/use of the data. These materials have been suggested and contributed directly by the authors of the individual data sets. To avoid confusion, some information contained in the documentation that is not directly relevant to the data base has been either omitted, crossed out, or blanked out.

  10. ASEAN-India and ASEAN-Korea FTA: Global Trade Analysis Project

    Ana Shohibul Manshur Al Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of the free trade agreement between ASEAN-India (AIFTA and ASEAN-Korea (AKFTA. The Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model was applied in this paper with a Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP database version 8. The GTAP simulations results show that AIFTA provides a greater positive impact than the AKFTA for each region. The greater improvement in terms of welfare, GDP, trade and investment is generated under the AIFTA scheme. Implication of this research is required of any reallocation of resources shared by each country heading on sectors which have a comparative advantage.

  11. Global crop exposure to critical high temperatures in the reproductive period: historical trends and future projections

    Gourdji, Sharon M; Sibley, Adam M; Lobell, David B

    2013-01-01

    Long-term warming trends across the globe have shifted the distribution of temperature variability, such that what was once classified as extreme heat relative to local mean conditions has become more common. This is also true for agricultural regions, where exposure to extreme heat, particularly during key growth phases such as the reproductive period, can severely damage crop production in ways that are not captured by most crop models. Here, we analyze exposure of crops to physiologically critical temperatures in the reproductive stage (T crit ), across the global harvested areas of maize, rice, soybean and wheat. Trends for the 1980–2011 period show a relatively weak correspondence (r = 0.19) between mean growing season temperature and T crit exposure trends, emphasizing the importance of separate analyses for T crit . Increasing T crit exposure in the past few decades is apparent for wheat in Central and South Asia and South America, and for maize in many diverse locations across the globe. Maize had the highest percentage (15%) of global harvested area exposed to at least five reproductive days over T crit in the 2000s, although this value is somewhat sensitive to the exact temperature used for the threshold. While there was relatively little sustained exposure to reproductive days over T crit for the other crops in the past few decades, all show increases with future warming. Using projections from climate models we estimate that by the 2030s, 31, 16, and 11% respectively of maize, rice, and wheat global harvested area will be exposed to at least five reproductive days over T crit in a typical year, with soybean much less affected. Both maize and rice exhibit non-linear increases with time, with total area exposed for rice projected to grow from 8% in the 2000s to 27% by the 2050s, and maize from 15 to 44% over the same period. While faster development should lead to earlier flowering, which would reduce reproductive extreme heat exposure for wheat on a

  12. Multi-Model Projections of River Flood Risk in Europe under Global Warming

    Lorenzo Alfieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the costs of natural disasters under climate change is key information for planning adaptation and mitigation strategies of future climate policies. Impact models for large scale flood risk assessment have made leaps forward in the past few years, thanks to the increased availability of high resolution climate projections and of information on local exposure and vulnerability to river floods. Yet, state-of-the-art flood impact models rely on a number of input data and techniques that can substantially influence their results. This work compares estimates of river flood risk in Europe from three recent case studies, assuming global warming scenarios of 1.5, 2, and 3 degrees Celsius from pre-industrial levels. The assessment is based on comparing ensemble projections of expected damage and population affected at country level. Differences and common points between the three cases are shown, to point out main sources of uncertainty, strengths, and limitations. In addition, the multi-model comparison helps identify regions with the largest agreement on specific changes in flood risk. Results show that global warming is linked to substantial increase in flood risk over most countries in Central and Western Europe at all warming levels. In Eastern Europe, the average change in flood risk is smaller and the multi-model agreement is poorer.

  13. Detailed Urban Heat Island Projections for Cities Worldwide: Dynamical Downscaling CMIP5 Global Climate Models

    Dirk Lauwaet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new dynamical downscaling methodology to analyze the impact of global climate change on the local climate of cities worldwide is presented. The urban boundary layer climate model UrbClim is coupled to 11 global climate models contained in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 archive, conducting 20-year simulations for present (1986–2005 and future (2081–2100 climate conditions, considering the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 climate scenario. The evolution of the urban heat island of eight different cities, located on three continents, is quantified and assessed, with an unprecedented horizontal resolution of a few hundred meters. For all cities, urban and rural air temperatures are found to increase strongly, up to 7 °C. However, the urban heat island intensity in most cases increases only slightly, often even below the range of uncertainty. A potential explanation, focusing on the role of increased incoming longwave radiation, is put forth. Finally, an alternative method for generating urban climate projections is proposed, combining the ensemble temperature change statistics and the results of the present-day urban climate.

  14. Projection of Heat Waves over China under Different Global Warming Targets

    Guo, Xiaojun; Luo, Yong; Huang, Jianbin; Zhao, Zongci

    2015-04-01

    Global warming targets, which are determined in terms of global mean temperature increases relative to pre-industrial temperature levels, have been one of the heated issues recently. And the climate change (especially climate extremes) and its impacts under different targets have been paid extensive concerns. In this study, evaluation and projection of heat waves in China were carried out by five CMIP5 global climate models (GCMs) with a 0.5°×0.5° horizontal resolution which were derived from EU WATCH project. A new daily observed gridded dataset CN05.1 (0.5°×0.5°) was also used to evaluate the GCMs. And four indices (heat waves frequency, longest heat waves duration, heat waves days and high temperature days) were adopted to analyze the heat waves. Compared with the observations, the five GCMs and its Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) have a remarkable capacity of reproducing the spatial and temporal characteristic of heat waves. The time correlation coefficients between MME and the observation results can all reach 0.05 significant levels. Based on the projection data of five GCMs, both the median year of crossing 1.5°C, 2°C, 2.5°, 3°C, 3.5°C, 4°C, 4.5°C and 5°C global warming targets and the corresponding climate change over China were analyzed under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, respectively. The results show that when the global mean surface air temperature rise to different targets with respect to the pre-industrial times (1861-1880), the frequency and intensity of heat waves will increase dramatically. To take the high emission scenario RCP8.5 as an example, under the RCP8.5 scenario, the warming rate over China is stronger than that over the globe, the temperature rise(median year) over China projected by MME are 1.77°C(2025), 2.63°C(2039), 3.39°C(2050), 3.97°C(2060), 4.82°C(2070), 5.47°C(2079) and 6.2°C(2089) under 1.5°C, 2°C, 2.5°C, 3°C, 3.5°C, 4°C and 4.5°C global warming targets, respectively. With the increase of the global

  15. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  16. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  17. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    Ghent, D.; Rayner, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, in the EUSTACE project (2015-2018, https://www.eustaceproject.eu) we have developed an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals is used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. This includes developing new "Big Data" analysis methods as the data volumes involved are considerable. We will present recent progress along this road in the EUSTACE project, i.e.: • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  18. The global sustainability project and the LLNL China energy systems model

    Harris, N; Lamont, A; Stewart, J; Woodrow, C.

    1999-01-01

    The sustainability of our modern way of life is becoming a major concern of both our domestic and international policy. The Rio conference on the environment and the recent Kyoto conference on global climate change are two indications of the importance of solving global environmental problem. Energy is a key component in global sustainability since obtaining and using it has major environmental effects. If our energy systems are to be sustainable in the long run, they must be structured using technologies that have a minimal impact on our environment and resources. At the same time, they must meet practical economic requirements: they must be reasonably economical, they must meet the needs of society and they must be tailored to the resources that are available in a particular region or country. Because economic considerations and government policies both determine the development of the energy system, economic and systems modeling can help us better understand ways that new technologies and policies can be used to obtain a more sustainable system. The Global Sustainability Project has developed both economic modeling software and models to help us better understand these issues and has applied them to the analysis of energy and environmental problems in China. In the past year, the models and data developed by the project have been used to support other projects investigating the interaction of technologies and the environment. The project this year has focused on software development to improve our modeling tools and on the refinement and application of the China Energy System model. The major thrust of the software development has been improvements in the METANet economic software system. We have modified its solution algorithm to improve speed and accuracy of the solutions and to make it compatible with the SuperCode modeling system. It is planned to eventually merge the two systems to take advantage of the faster, more flexible solution algorithms of Super

  19. CMIP5-based global wave climate projections including the entire Arctic Ocean

    Casas-Prat, M.; Wang, X. L.; Swart, N.

    2018-03-01

    This study presents simulations of the global ocean wave climate corresponding to the surface winds and sea ice concentrations as simulated by five CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) climate models for the historical (1979-2005) and RCP8.5 scenario future (2081-2100) periods. To tackle the numerical complexities associated with the inclusion of the North Pole, the WAVEWATCH III (WW3) wave model was used with a customized unstructured Spherical Multi-Cell grid of ∼100 km offshore and ∼50 km along coastlines. The climate model simulated wind and sea ice data, and the corresponding WW3 simulated wave data, were evaluated against reanalysis and hindcast data. The results show that all the five sets of wave simulations projected lower waves in the North Atlantic, corresponding to decreased surface wind speeds there in the warmer climate. The selected CMIP5 models also consistently projected an increase in the surface wind speed in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) mid-high latitudes, which translates in an increase in the WW3 simulated significant wave height (Hs) there. The higher waves are accompanied with increased peak wave period and increased wave age in the East Pacific and Indian Oceans, and a significant counterclockwise rotation in the mean wave direction in the Southern Oceans. The latter is caused by more intense waves from the SH traveling equatorward and developing into swells. Future wave climate in the Arctic Ocean in summer is projected to be predominantly of mixed sea states, with the climatological mean of September maximum Hs ranging mostly 3-4 m. The new waves approaching Arctic coasts will be less fetch-limited as ice retreats since a predominantly southwards mean wave direction is projected in the surrounding seas.

  20. Detailed assessment of global transport-energy models’ structures and projections

    Yeh, Sonia; Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Fulton, Lew; Kyle, Page; McCollum, David L.; Miller, Joshua; Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Teter, Jacob

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on comparing the frameworks and projections from four major global transportation models with considerable transportation technology and behavioral detail. We analyze and compare the modeling frameworks, underlying data, assumptions, intermediate parameters, and projections to identify the sources of divergence or consistency, as well as key knowledge gaps. We find that there are significant differences in the base-year data and key parameters for future projections, especially for developing countries. These include passenger and freight activity, mode shares, vehicle ownership rates, and even energy consumption by mode, particularly for shipping, aviation and trucking. This may be due in part to a lack of previous efforts to do such consistency-checking and “bench-marking.” We find that the four models differ in terms of the relative roles of various mitigation strategies to achieve a 2°C / 450 ppm CO2e target: the economics-based integrated assessment models favor the use of low carbon fuels as the primary mitigation option followed by efficiency improvements, whereas transport-only and expert-based models favor efficiency improvements of vehicles followed by mode shifts. We offer recommendations for future modeling improvements focusing on (1) reducing data gaps; (2) translating the findings from this study into relevant policy implications such as feasibility of current policy goals, additional policy targets needed, regional vs. global reductions, etc.; (3) modeling strata of demographic groups to improve understanding of vehicle ownership levels, travel behavior, and urban vs. rural considerations; and (4) conducting coordinated efforts in aligning input assumptions and historical data, policy analysis, and modeling insights.

  1. Agency problems in hospitals participating in self-management project under global budget system in Taiwan.

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Hsu, Shuofen; Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2010-02-01

    The main purposes of this study are to clarify the agency problems in the hospitals participating in self-management project within the context of Global Budgeting Payment System regulated by Taiwan government, and also to provide some suggestions for hospital administrator and health policy maker in reducing the waste of healthcare resources resulting from agency problems. For the purposes above, this study examines the relationships between two agency problems (ex ante moral hazard and ex post moral hazard) aroused among the hospitals and Bureau of National Health Insurance in Taiwan's health care sector. This study empirically tested the theoretical model at organization level. The findings suggest that the hospital's ex ante moral hazards before participating the self-management project do have some influence on its ex post moral hazards after participating the self-management project. This study concludes that the goal conflict between the agents and the principal certainly exist. The principal tries hard to control the expenditure escalation and keep the financial balance, but the agents have to subsist within limited healthcare resources. Therefore, the agency cost would definitely occur due to the conflicts between both parties. According to the results of the research, some suggestions and related management concepts were proposed at the end of the paper.

  2. A lead for transvaluation of global nuclear energy research and funded projects in Japan

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Kajikawa, Yuya; Fujita, Katsuhide; Iwata, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Chernobyl accident had limited influence on basic research in nuclear energy. • Budget allocation to R and D and number of published papers have recently decreased. • Citation network analysis revealed reactor safety and fusion as current research trend. • Nuclear energy research policy will change after Fukushima disaster. - Abstract: The decision-making process that precedes the introduction of a new energy system should strive for a balance among human security, environmental safeguards, energy security, proliferation risk, economic risks, etc. For nuclear energy, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (Fukushima disaster) has brought forth a strong need for transvaluation of the present technology. Here, we analyzed bibliographic records of publications in nuclear science and technology to illustrate an overview and trends in nuclear energy technology and related fields by using citation network analysis. We also analyzed funding data and keywords assigned for each project by co-occurrence network analysis. This research integrates citation network analysis and bibliometric keyword analysis to compare the global trends in nuclear energy research and characteristics of research conducted at universities and institutes in Japan. We show that the Chernobyl accident had only a limited influence on basic research. The results of papers are dispersed in diverse areas of nuclear energy technology research, and the results of KAKEN projects in Japan are highly influenced by national energy policy with a focus on nuclear fuel cycle for energy security, although KAKEN allows much freedom in the selection of research projects to academic community

  3. Global Health and Social Media: Using Instagram and Twitter in an Open Online Class for Global Service-Learning Projects

    Messner, Marcus; Medina-Messner, Vivian; Guidry, Jeanine

    2016-01-01

    Course description: An undergraduate open online course used Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram to explore global health issues and designed social media campaigns for nonprofit clients. Social media platforms were used as teaching as well as learning platforms to allow students to explore their real life applications in global health contexts.

  4. A New Breed of Database System: Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA)

    Crosweller, H. S.; Sparks, R. S.; Siebert, L.

    2009-12-01

    VOGRIPA originated as part of the Global Risk Identification Programme (GRIP) that is being co-ordinated from the Earth Institute of Columbia University under the auspices of the United Nations and World Bank. GRIP is a five-year programme aiming at improving global knowledge about risk from natural hazards and is part of the international response to the catastrophic 2004 Asian tsunami. VOGRIPA is also a formal IAVCEI project. The objectives of VOGRIPA are to create a global database of volcanic activity, hazards and vulnerability information that can be analysed to identify locations at high risk from volcanism, gaps in knowledge about hazards and risk, and will allow scientists and disaster managers at specific locations to analyse risk within a global context of systematic information. It is this added scope of risk and vulnerability as well as hazard which sets VOGRIPA apart from most previous databases. The University of Bristol is the central coordinating centre for the project, which is an international partnership including the Smithsonian Institution, the Geological Survey of Japan, the Earth Observatory of Singapore (Chris Newhall), the British Geological Survey, the University of Buffalo (SUNY) and Munich Re. The partnership is intended to grow and any individuals or institutions who are able to contribute resources to VOGRIPA objectives are welcome to participate. Work has already begun (funded principally by Munich Re) on populating a database of large magnitude explosive eruptions reaching back to the Quaternary, with extreme-value statistics being used to evaluate the magnitude-frequency relationship of such events, and also an assessment of how the quality of records affect the results. The following 4 years of funding from the European Research Council for VOGRIPA will be used to establish further international collaborations in order to develop different aspects of the database, with the data being accessible online once it is sufficiently

  5. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  6. Uncertainty Assessment of the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-GDDP) Dataset

    Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Michaelis, Andrew; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Thrasher, Bridget L.; Dixon, Keith W.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset is comprised of downscaled climate projections that are derived from 21 General Circulation Model (GCM) runs conducted under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and across two of the four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Each of the climate projections includes daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation for the periods from 1950 through 2100 and the spatial resolution is 0.25 degrees (approximately 25 km x 25 km). The GDDP dataset has received warm welcome from the science community in conducting studies of climate change impacts at local to regional scales, but a comprehensive evaluation of its uncertainties is still missing. In this study, we apply the Perfect Model Experiment framework (Dixon et al. 2016) to quantify the key sources of uncertainties from the observational baseline dataset, the downscaling algorithm, and some intrinsic assumptions (e.g., the stationary assumption) inherent to the statistical downscaling techniques. We developed a set of metrics to evaluate downscaling errors resulted from bias-correction ("quantile-mapping"), spatial disaggregation, as well as the temporal-spatial non-stationarity of climate variability. Our results highlight the spatial disaggregation (or interpolation) errors, which dominate the overall uncertainties of the GDDP dataset, especially over heterogeneous and complex terrains (e.g., mountains and coastal area). In comparison, the temporal errors in the GDDP dataset tend to be more constrained. Our results also indicate that the downscaled daily precipitation also has relatively larger uncertainties than the temperature fields, reflecting the rather stochastic nature of precipitation in space. Therefore, our results provide insights in improving statistical downscaling algorithms and products in the future.

  7. The WACMOS-ET project – Part 2: Evaluation of global terrestrial evaporation data sets

    Miralles, D. G.; Jimé nez, C.; Jung, M.; Michel, D.; Ershadi, Ali; McCabe, Matthew; Hirschi, M.; Martens, B.; Dolman, A. J.; Fisher, J. B.; Mu, Q.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Wood, E. F.; Fernaì ndez-Prieto, D.

    2015-01-01

    The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy – EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project aims to advance the development of land evaporation estimates on global and regional scales. Its main objective is the derivation, validation, and intercomparison of a group of existing evaporation retrieval algorithms driven by a common forcing data set. Three commonly used process-based evaporation methodologies are evaluated: the Penman–Monteith algorithm behind the official Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM), and the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL). The resulting global spatiotemporal variability of evaporation, the closure of regional water budgets, and the discrete estimation of land evaporation components or sources (i.e. transpiration, interception loss, and direct soil evaporation) are investigated using river discharge data, independent global evaporation data sets and results from previous studies. In a companion article (Part 1), Michel et al. (2016) inspect the performance of these three models at local scales using measurements from eddy-covariance towers and include in the assessment the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model. In agreement with Part 1, our results indicate that the Priestley and Taylor products (PT-JPL and GLEAM) perform best overall for most ecosystems and climate regimes. While all three evaporation products adequately represent the expected average geographical patterns and seasonality, there is a tendency in PM-MOD to underestimate the flux in the tropics and subtropics. Overall, results from GLEAM and PT-JPL appear more realistic when compared to surface water balances from 837 globally distributed catchments and to separate evaporation estimates from ERAInterim and the model tree ensemble (MTE). Nonetheless, all products show large dissimilarities during conditions of water stress and drought and

  8. The WACMOS-ET project – Part 2: Evaluation of global terrestrial evaporation data sets

    Miralles, D. G.

    2015-10-19

    The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy – EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project aims to advance the development of land evaporation estimates on global and regional scales. Its main objective is the derivation, validation, and intercomparison of a group of existing evaporation retrieval algorithms driven by a common forcing data set. Three commonly used process-based evaporation methodologies are evaluated: the Penman–Monteith algorithm behind the official Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM), and the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL). The resulting global spatiotemporal variability of evaporation, the closure of regional water budgets, and the discrete estimation of land evaporation components or sources (i.e. transpiration, interception loss, and direct soil evaporation) are investigated using river discharge data, independent global evaporation data sets and results from previous studies. In a companion article (Part 1), Michel et al. (2016) inspect the performance of these three models at local scales using measurements from eddy-covariance towers and include in the assessment the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model. In agreement with Part 1, our results indicate that the Priestley and Taylor products (PT-JPL and GLEAM) perform best overall for most ecosystems and climate regimes. While all three evaporation products adequately represent the expected average geographical patterns and seasonality, there is a tendency in PM-MOD to underestimate the flux in the tropics and subtropics. Overall, results from GLEAM and PT-JPL appear more realistic when compared to surface water balances from 837 globally distributed catchments and to separate evaporation estimates from ERAInterim and the model tree ensemble (MTE). Nonetheless, all products show large dissimilarities during conditions of water stress and drought and

  9. The Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University: Fundamental Research Towards Future Energy Technologies

    Milne, Jennifer L.; Sassoon, Richard E.; Hung, Emilie; Bosshard, Paolo; Benson, Sally M.

    The Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), at Stanford University, invests in research with the potential to lead to energy technologies with lower greenhouse gas emissions than current energy technologies. GCEP is sponsored by four international companies, ExxonMobil, GE, Schlumberger, and Toyota and supports research programs in academic institutions worldwide. Research falls into the broad areas of carbon based energy systems, renewables, electrochemistry, and the electric grid. Within these areas research efforts are underway that are aimed at achieving break-throughs and innovations that greatly improve efficiency, performance, functionality and cost of many potential energy technologies of the future including solar, batteries, fuel cells, biofuels, hydrogen storage and carbon capture and storage. This paper presents a summary of some of GCEP's activities over the past 7 years with current research areas of interest and potential research directions in the near future.

  10. Organized Communities as a Hybrid Form of Data Sharing: Experiences from the Global STEP Project

    Isabell Stamm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With this article, I explore a new way of how social scientists can share primary qualitative data with each other. More specifically, I examine organized research communities, which are small membership groups of scholars. This hybrid form of data sharing is positioned between informal sharing through collaboration and institutionalized sharing through accessing research archives. Using the global "Successful Transgenerational Entrepreneurship Practices" (STEP project as an example, I draw attention to the pragmatic practices of data sharing in such communities. Through ongoing negotiations, organized communities can, at least temporarily, put forward sharing policies and create a culture of data sharing that elevates the re-use of qualitative data while being mindful of the data's intersubjective and processual character.

  11. The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP): an Analysis of the First Year of a Novel Toxicology Education Project.

    Wong, Anselm; Vohra, Rais; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Koutsogiannis, Zeff; Graeme, Kimberlie; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M; Greene, Shaun L

    2015-09-01

    The international boundaries to medical education are becoming less marked as new technologies such as multiuser videoconferencing are developed and become more accessible to help bridge the communication gaps. The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP) is aimed at connecting clinicians in countries with established clinical toxicology services to clinicians in countries without clinical toxicologists around the globe. Centers that manage or consult on toxicology cases were registered through the American College of Medical Toxicology website via Survey Monkey®. Data was analyzed retrospectively from February 2014 to January 2015. Google hangouts® was used as the main conferencing software, but some sites preferred the use of Skype®. Registration data included contact details and toxicology background and qualifications. Thirty sites in 19 different countries in Australasia, Europe, Africa, and America were registered. Twenty-eight (93 %) sites were located in a major urban center, one (3.5 %) site in a major rural center and one (3.5 %) a private practice. Expectations of GETUP included sharing toxicology cases and education (30, 100 % of sites), assistance with toxicology management guidelines (2, 7 %), assistance with providing a toxicology teaching curriculum in languages other than English (2, 7 %), and managing toxicology presentations in resource-poor settings, international collaboration, and toxicovigilance (2 sites, 7 %). Twenty-two conferences were performed during the first 12 months with a mean of 3 cases per conference. GETUP has connected countries and clinical units with and without toxicology services and will provide a platform to improve international collaboration in clinical toxicology.

  12. The Version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979-Present)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Xie, Ping-Ping; Janowiak, John; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David

    2003-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Version 2 Monthly Precipitation Analysis is described. This globally complete, monthly analysis of surface precipitation at 2.5 degrees x 2.5 degrees latitude-longitude resolution is available from January 1979 to the present. It is a merged analysis that incorporates precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit-satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The merging approach utilizes the higher accuracy of the low-orbit microwave observations to calibrate, or adjust, the more frequent geosynchronous infrared observations. The data set is extended back into the premicrowave era (before 1987) by using infrared-only observations calibrated to the microwave-based analysis of the later years. The combined satellite-based product is adjusted by the raingauge analysis. This monthly analysis is the foundation for the GPCP suite of products including those at finer temporal resolution, satellite estimate, and error estimates for each field. The 23-year GPCP climatology is characterized, along with time and space variations of precipitation.

  13. Global warming response options in Brazil's forest sector: comparison of project-level costs and benefits

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A project-level assessment of monetary and carbon costs and benefits for five classes of global warming response options in the forest sector is attempted for typical Brazilian conditions. Options considered are: silvicultural plantations (for pulp, charcoal and sawlogs), sustainable timber management and reduction of deforestation. Comparison of pulpwood and sawlog plantations with the vegetation characteristic of deforested areas indicates of modest carbon benefit. Plantations for charcoal can produce a substantial carbon benefit through fossil fuel substitution, but much of this calculated benefit disappears if discount rates greater than zero are applied to carbon. Sustainable timber management, when compared with existing forest, represents a net carbon loss, accumulation of carbon in wood products being insufficient to compensate for biomass reduction over a 100 year time scale. Reduction of deforestation has great potential as a global warming response option, its per-hectare carbon benefits being approximately four times that of silvicultural plantation establishment for pulp and sawlogs over a 100 year period. The costs of reducing deforestation are difficult to assess, however, due to the importance of government policy changes such as removal of land speculation and land tenure establishment as motives for clearing. Although these changes would not cost money and would have tremendous carbon and other benefits, they have not yet occurred. (Author)

  14. Projected global ground-level ozone impacts on vegetation under different emission and climate scenarios

    P. Sicard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ground-level ozone (O3 on vegetation is largely under-investigated at the global scale despite large areas worldwide that are exposed to high surface O3 levels. To explore future potential impacts of O3 on vegetation, we compared historical and projected surface O3 concentrations simulated by six global atmospheric chemistry transport models on the basis of three representative concentration pathways emission scenarios (i.e. RCP2.6, 4.5, 8.5. To assess changes in the potential surface O3 threat to vegetation at the global scale, we used the AOT40 metric. Results point out a significant exceedance of AOT40 in comparison with the recommendations of UNECE for the protection of vegetation. In fact, many areas of the Northern Hemisphere show that AOT40-based critical levels will be exceeded by a factor of at least 10 under RCP8.5. Changes in surface O3 by 2100 worldwide range from about +4–5 ppb in the RCP8.5 scenario to reductions of about 2–10 ppb in the most optimistic scenario, RCP2.6. The risk of O3 injury for vegetation, through the potential O3 impact on photosynthetic assimilation, decreased by 61 and 47 % under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, respectively, and increased by 70 % under RCP8.5. Key biodiversity areas in southern and northern Asia, central Africa and North America were identified as being at risk from high O3 concentrations.

  15. A possible explanation for the divergent projection of ENSO amplitude change under global warming

    Chen, Lin; Li, Tim; Yu, Yongqiang; Behera, Swadhin K.

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the greatest climate variability on interannual time scale, yet what controls ENSO amplitude changes under global warming (GW) is uncertain. Here we show that the fundamental factor that controls the divergent projections of ENSO amplitude change within 20 coupled general circulation models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 is the change of climatologic mean Pacific subtropical cell (STC), whose strength determines the meridional structure of ENSO perturbations and thus the anomalous thermocline response to the wind forcing. The change of the thermocline response is a key factor regulating the strength of Bjerknes thermocline and zonal advective feedbacks, which ultimately lead to the divergent changes in ENSO amplitude. Furthermore, by forcing an ocean general circulation mode with the change of zonal mean zonal wind stress estimated by a simple theoretical model, a weakening of the STC in future is obtained. Such a change implies that ENSO variability might strengthen under GW, which could have a profound socio-economic consequence.

  16. The International Communication Project: Raising global awareness of communication as a human right.

    Mulcair, Gail; Pietranton, Arlene A; Williams, Cori

    2018-02-01

    Communication as a human right is embedded within Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; however, there is a need to raise global awareness of the communication needs of those with communication disorders. In 2014, the six national speech-language and audiology professional bodies that comprise the Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) launched the International Communication Project (ICP) to help raise awareness of communication disorders around the world. Since its inception, the project has engaged close to 50 organisations from diverse regions, and has undertaken a number of initiatives, including development of the Universal Declaration of Communication Rights. A consultancy report was commissioned to inform ICP efforts to influence international policy bodies. As a result, the current focus of the ICP is to identify opportunities to influence the policies of organisations such as the World Health Organization, the United Nations and World Bank to more explicitly acknowledge and address communication as a human right. This commentary paper describes the work of the ICP to date, with an emphasis on the place of communication disorders in current international policy and potential pathways for advocacy.

  17. Software project management tools in global software development: a systematic mapping study.

    Chadli, Saad Yasser; Idri, Ali; Ros, Joaquín Nicolás; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; de Gea, Juan M Carrillo; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-01-01

    Global software development (GSD) which is a growing trend in the software industry is characterized by a highly distributed environment. Performing software project management (SPM) in such conditions implies the need to overcome new limitations resulting from cultural, temporal and geographic separation. The aim of this research is to discover and classify the various tools mentioned in literature that provide GSD project managers with support and to identify in what way they support group interaction. A systematic mapping study has been performed by means of automatic searches in five sources. We have then synthesized the data extracted and presented the results of this study. A total of 102 tools were identified as being used in SPM activities in GSD. We have classified these tools, according to the software life cycle process on which they focus and how they support the 3C collaboration model (communication, coordination and cooperation). The majority of the tools found are standalone tools (77%). A small number of platforms (8%) also offer a set of interacting tools that cover the software development lifecycle. Results also indicate that SPM areas in GSD are not adequately supported by corresponding tools and deserve more attention from tool builders.

  18. The global unified parallel file system (GUPFS) project: FY 2003 activities and results

    Butler, Gregory F.; Baird William P.; Lee, Rei C.; Tull, Craig E.; Welcome, Michael L.; Whitney Cary L.

    2004-04-30

    The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center whose goal is to provide a scalable, high-performance, high-bandwidth, shared file system for all of the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make the scientific users more productive as they conduct advanced scientific research at NERSC by simplifying the scientists' data management tasks and maximizing storage and data availability. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is accessible by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. In order to successfully deploy a scalable high-performance shared file system with consolidated disk storage, three major emerging technologies must be brought together: (1) shared/cluster file systems software, (2) cost-effective, high-performance storage area network (SAN) fabrics, and (3) high-performance storage devices. Although they are evolving rapidly, these emerging technologies individually are not targeted towards the needs of scientific high-performance computing (HPC). The GUPFS project is in the process of assessing these emerging technologies to determine the best combination of solutions for a center-wide shared file system, to encourage the development of these technologies in directions needed for HPC, particularly at NERSC, and to then put them into service. With the development of an evaluation methodology and benchmark suites, and with the updating of the GUPFS testbed system, the project did a substantial number of investigations and evaluations during FY 2003. The investigations and evaluations involved many vendors and products. From our evaluation of these products, we have found that most vendors and many of the products are more focused on the commercial market. Most vendors

  19. Response of permafrost to projected climate change: Results from global offline model simulations with JSBACH

    Blome, Tanja; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian; Hagemann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. As it is a thermal phenomenon, its characteristics are highly dependent on climatic factors. The impact of the currently observed warming, which is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input, certainly has effects for the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of these effects, however, is scientifically still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, where several feedbacks are interacting between land and atmosphere, sometimes counterbalancing each other. Moreover, until recently, many global circulation models (GCMs) lacked the sufficient representation of permafrost physics in their land surface schemes. In order to assess the response of permafrost to projected climate change for the 21st century, the land surface scheme of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, JSBACH, has recently been equipped with the important physical processes for permafrost studies, and was driven globally with bias corrected climate data, thereby spanning a period from 1850 until 2100. The applied land surface scheme JSBACH now considers the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water for both energy and water cycles, thermal properties depending on soil water and ice contents, and soil moisture movement being influenced by the presence of soil ice. To address the uncertainty range arising through different greenhouse gas concentrations as well as through different climate realisations when using various climate models, combinations of two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and two GCMs were used as driving data. In order to focus only on the climatic impact on permafrost, effects due to feedbacks between climate and permafrost (namely via carbon fluxes between land and atmosphere) are excluded in the experiments

  20. The Challenges and Enhancing Opportunities of Global Project Management: Evidence from Chinese and Dutch Cross-Cultural Project Management

    Zhang, Ying; Marquis, Christopher G; Filippov, Sergey; Haasnoot, Henk-Jan; van der Steen, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of national and organisational culture in day-to-day activities of multinational project teams, specifically focusing on differences between Chinese and Dutch project managers. We rely on fieldwork observation and interviews with representatives from a diverse set of organizations in China and the Netherlands. Analyses focus on the impact of cultural differences on five project management processes – (1) project planning, (2) cost and quality management, (3) r...

  1. Global Radiological Source Sorting, Tracking, and Monitoring Project: Phase I Final Report

    Walker, Randy M.; Hill, David E.; Gorman, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    As a proof of concept tested in an operational context, the Global Radiological Source Sorting, Tracking, and Monitoring (GRadSSTraM) Project successfully demonstrated that radio frequency identification (RFID) and Web 2.0* technologies can be deployed to track controlled shipments between the United States and the European Union. Between November 2009 and May 2010, a total of 19 shipments were successfully shipped from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and tracked to their delivery at England's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) by the United Kingdom Royal Mail. However, the project can only be viewed as a qualified success as notable shortcomings were observed. Although the origin and terminus of all RFID-enabled shipments were recorded and no shipments were lost, not all the waypoints between ORNL and NPL were incorporated into the pilot. Given limited resources, the project team was able to install RFID listeners/actuators at three waypoints between the two endpoints. Although it is likely that all shipments followed the same route between ORNL and NPL, it cannot be determined beyond question that all 19 shipments were routed on identical itineraries past the same three waypoints. The pilot also raises the distinct possibility that unattended RFID tracking alone, without positive confirmation that a tagged item has been properly recorded by an RFID reader, does not meet a rigorous standard for shipping controlled items. Indeed, the proof of concept test strongly suggests that a multifaceted approach to tracking may be called for, including tracking methods that are capable of reading and accepting multiple inputs for individual items (e.g., carrier-provided tracking numbers, Universal Product Codes (UPCs), and RFID tags). For controlled items, another apparent requirement is a confirmation feature, human or otherwise, which can certify that an item's RFID tag, UPC, or tracking number has been recorded.

  2. Furthering patient adherence: A position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion

    van Dulmen, Sandra; Sluijs, Emmy; van Dijk, Liset; de Ridder, Denise; Heerdink, Rob; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future research, practice and theory development in patient adherence. The objective of the present project was to find out to what extent adherence experts consider this agenda relevant and feasible. Metho...

  3. Super Global Projects and Environmentally Friendly Technologies Used in Space Exploration: Realities and Prospects of the Space Age

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The 60th anniversary of the Space Age is an important intermediate finishing point on the way of a man and the whole humanity to space. Along with the outstanding achievements, there are a number of challenges and contradictions in space exploration due to the aggravation of the global crisis on Earth, low efficiency and the backlog of space research in the transition to a new technology based reality and clean technologies. Both the international astronautics and the space exploration area nowadays face difficulties in choosing a new paradigm and a development strategy that is becoming even more complicated due to the current unstable and turbulent situation on Earth. The article reveals the optimistic scenario of further space exploration, as well as the methodological and practical aspects of new projects and technologies. The periodization of the Space Age history has been conducted. It has been also proposed a new classification of the “space” phenomenon due to concretizing the concept of “global” in the form of a three-scale structure encompassing the following levels: 1 planetary global; 2 super global; 3 universally global. The notion of “super global space exploration project” has been introduced. The concept of further space exploration is proposed, which includes four interrelated super global projects:1 Earth Protection System from Asteroid and Comet Threat; 2 Moon Exploration; 3 Mars Exploration; 4 Cosmic Humanity. Since the humanity is embarking on the practical implementation of these super global projects, it is urgent to make a transition towards a new technology based order, as well as up-to-date technologies. A couple of ecological projects and space exploration technologies of the 20th and 21st centuries have been exemplified and analyzed. It has been also worked out the list of new environmentally friendly space technologies and projects. The research makes an emphasis upon a great potential of clean and green

  4. Global assessment of water policy vulnerability under uncertainty in water scarcity projections

    Greve, Peter; Kahil, Taher; Satoh, Yusuke; Burek, Peter; Fischer, Günther; Tramberend, Sylvia; Byers, Edward; Flörke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Langan, Simon; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity is a critical environmental issue worldwide, which has been driven by the significant increase in water extractions during the last century. In the coming decades, climate change is projected to further exacerbate water scarcity conditions in many regions around the world. At present, one important question for policy debate is the identification of water policy interventions that could address the mounting water scarcity problems. Main interventions include investing in water storage infrastructures, water transfer canals, efficient irrigation systems, and desalination plants, among many others. This type of interventions involve long-term planning, long-lived investments and some irreversibility in choices which can shape development of countries for decades. Making decisions on these water infrastructures requires anticipating the long term environmental conditions, needs and constraints under which they will function. This brings large uncertainty in the decision-making process, for instance from demographic or economic projections. But today, climate change is bringing another layer of uncertainty that make decisions even more complex. In this study, we assess in a probabilistic approach the uncertainty in global water scarcity projections following different socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) and climate scenarios (RCPs) within the first half of the 21st century. By utilizing an ensemble of 45 future water scarcity projections based on (i) three state-of-the-art global hydrological models (PCR-GLOBWB, H08, and WaterGAP), (ii) five climate models, and (iii) three water scenarios, we have assessed changes in water scarcity and the associated uncertainty distribution worldwide. The water scenarios used here are developed by IIASA's Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) Initiative. The main objective of this study is to improve the contribution of hydro-climatic information to effective policymaking by identifying spatial and temporal policy

  5. Current Situation of Medication Adherence in Hypertension.

    Vrijens, Bernard; Antoniou, Sotiris; Burnier, Michel; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Volpe, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased awareness, poor adherence to treatments for chronic diseases remains a global problem. Adherence issues are common in patients taking antihypertensive therapy and associated with increased risks of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Whilst there has been a gradual trend toward improved control of hypertension, the number of patients with blood pressure values above goal has remained constant. This has both personal and economic consequences. Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue and consists of three components: initiation, implementation, and persistence. A combination of methods is recommended to measure adherence, with electronic monitoring and drug measurement being the most accurate. Pill burden, resulting from free combinations of blood pressure lowering treatments, makes the daily routine of medication taking complex, which can be a barrier to optimal adherence. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations simplify the habit of medication taking and improve medication adherence. Re-packing of medication is also being utilized as a method of improving adherence. This paper presents the outcomes of discussions by a European group of experts on the current situation of medication adherence in hypertension.

  6. The Detroit Young Adult Asthma Project: Pilot of a Technology-Based Medication Adherence Intervention for African-American Emerging Adults.

    Kolmodin MacDonell, Karen; Naar, Sylvie; Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Lam, Phebe; Secord, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    To conduct a randomized controlled pilot of a multicomponent, technology-based intervention promoting adherence to controller medication in African-American emerging adults with asthma. The intervention consisted of two computer-delivered sessions based on motivational interviewing combined with text messaged reminders between sessions. Participants (N = 49) were 18-29 years old, African-American, with persistent asthma requiring controller medication. Participants had to report poor medication adherence and asthma control. Youth were randomized to receive the intervention or an attention control. Data were collected through computer-delivered self-report questionnaires at baseline, 1, and 3 months. Ecological Momentary Assessment via two-way text messaging was also used to collect "real-time" data on medication use and asthma control. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to the target population, as evidenced by high retention rates and satisfaction scores. Changes in study outcomes from pre- to postintervention favored the intervention, particularly for decrease in asthma symptoms, t (42) = 2.22, p < .05 (Cohen's d = .071). Results suggest that the intervention is feasible and effective. However, findings are preliminary and should be replicated with a larger sample and more sophisticated data analyses. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Projected changes in prevailing winds for transatlantic migratory birds under global warming.

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950-2015) to estimate the geographical location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for 10 transatlantic migratory bird species. We used this information to estimate the location and timing of autumn migration within the transatlantic flyway. We estimated how prevailing winds are projected to change within the transatlantic flyway during this time using daily wind speed anomalies (1996-2005 and 2091-2100) from 29 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models implemented under CMIP5. Autumn transatlantic migrants have the potential to encounter strong westerly crosswinds early in their transatlantic journey at intermediate and especially high migration altitudes, strong headwinds at low and intermediate migration altitudes within the Caribbean that increase in strength as the season progresses, and weak tailwinds at intermediate and high migration altitudes east of the Caribbean. The CMIP5 simulations suggest that, during this century, the likelihood of autumn transatlantic migrants encountering strong westerly crosswinds will diminish. As global warming progresses, the need for species to compensate or drift under the influence of strong westerly crosswinds during the initial phase of their autumn transatlantic journey may be diminished. Existing strategies that promote headwind avoidance and tailwind assistance will likely remain valid. Thus, climate change may reduce time and energy requirements and the chance of mortality or

  8. Pediatric Resident Academic Projects While on Global Health Electives: Ten Years of Experience at the University of Minnesota.

    Pitt, Michael B; Slusher, Tina M; Howard, Cynthia R; Cole, Valerie B; Gladding, Sophia P

    2017-07-01

    Many residency programs require residents to complete an academic project as part of a global health (GH) elective. However, there has been little description of the range of projects residents have pursued during GH electives or the extent to which these projects are consistent with proposed best practices. The authors conducted a document review of 67 written summaries or copies of presentations of academic projects (hereafter, summaries) completed by pediatric and medicine-pediatric residents at the University of Minnesota while on GH electives from 2005 to 2015. Two authors independently coded each summary for the type of project completed; when the project idea was generated; explicit mention of a mentor from the home institution, host institution, or both; whether a needs assessment was conducted; and whether there were plans for sustainability. Most of the 67 projects were categorized into one of three project types: quality/process improvement (28 [42%]), education (18 [27%]), or clinical research (14 [21%]). Most summaries explicitly mentioned a mentor (45 [67%]), reported conducting a needs assessment (38 [57%]), and indicated sustainability plans (45 [67%]). Of the 42 summaries that indicated the timing of idea generation, 30 (71%) indicated the idea was developed after arriving at the host site. Residents undertook a wide range of academic projects during GH electives, most commonly quality/process improvement and education projects. The projects were largely aligned with best practices, with most summaries indicating the resident worked with a mentor, conducted a needs assessment, and made plans for sustainability.

  9. Future Urban Climate Projection in A Tropical Megacity Based on Global and Regional Scenarios

    Darmanto, N. S.; Varquez, A. C. G.; Kanda, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cities in Asian developing countries experience rapid transformation in urban morphology and energy consumption, which correspondingly affects urban climate. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with improved single-layer urban canopy model incorporating realistic distribution of urban parameters and anthropogenic heat emission (AHE) in the tropic Jakarta Greater Area was conducted. Simulation was conducted during the dry months from 2006 to 2015 and agreed well with point and satellite observation. The same technology coupled with pseudo global warming (PGW) method based on representative concentration pathways (RCP) scenario 2.6 and 8.5 was conducted to produce futuristic climate condition in 2050. Projected urban morphology and AHE in 2050s were constructed using regional urban growing model with shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) among its inputs. Compact future urban configuration, based on SSP1, was coupled to RCP2.6. Unrestrained future urban configuration, based on SSP3, was coupled to RCP8.5. Results show that background warming from RCP 2.6 and 8.5 will increase background temperature by 0.55°C and 1.2°C throughout the region, respectively. Future projection of urban sprawl results to an additional 0.3°C and 0.5°C increase on average, with maximum increase of 1.1°C and 1.3°C due to urban effect for RCP2.6/compact and RCP8.5/unrestrained, respectively. Higher moisture content in urban area is indicated in the future due to higher evaporation. Change in urban roughness is likely affect slower wind velocity in urban area and sea breeze front inland penetration the future compare with current condition. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (S-14) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.

  10. Project Solaris, a Global Network of Autonomous Observatories: Design, Commissioning, and First Science Results

    Kozłowski, S. K.; Sybilski, P. W.; Konacki, M.; Pawłaszek, R. K.; Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Litwicki, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present the design and commissioning of Project Solaris, a global network of autonomous observatories. Solaris is a Polish scientific undertaking aimed at the detection and characterization of circumbinary exoplanets and eclipsing binary stars. To accomplish this, a network of four fully autonomous observatories has been deployed in the Southern Hemisphere: Solaris-1 and Solaris-2 in the South African Astronomical Observatory in South Africa; Solaris-3 in Siding Spring Observatory in Australia; and Solaris-4 in Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito in Argentina. The four stations are nearly identical and are equipped with 0.5-m Ritchey-Crétien (f/15) or Cassegrain (f/9, Solaris-3) optics and high-grade 2 K × 2 K CCD cameras with Johnson and Sloan filter sets. We present the design and implementation of low-level security; data logging and notification systems; weather monitoring components; all-sky vision system, surveillance system; and distributed temperature and humidity sensors. We describe dedicated grounding and lighting protection system design and robust fiber data transfer interfaces in electrically demanding conditions. We discuss the outcomes of our design, as well as the resulting software engineering requirements. We describe our system’s engineering approach to achieve the required level of autonomy, the architecture of the custom high-level industry-grade software that has been designed and implemented specifically for the use of the network. We present the actual status of the project and first photometric results; these include data and models of already studied systems for benchmarking purposes (Wasp-4b, Wasp-64b, and Wasp-98b transits, PG 1663-018, an eclipsing binary with a pulsator) as well J024946-3825.6, an interesting low-mass binary system for which a complete model is provided for the first time.

  11. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  12. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  13. Adherence to antidepressants

    Abimbola Farinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While major depression is considered a frequent mental illness there are ongoing reports of high non-adherence to antidepressant medications which places suffers at high risk for relapse, recurrence, or greater impairment,. The World Health Organization (WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a person′s behavior (e.g. taking medications can align with the agreed recommendations of a health care provider. Unfortunately while patient may recognize the importance of adherence to antidepressant medications the majority of patients do not adhere to their prescribed antidepressants. Some of the factors that may contribute to or lead to non-adherence include knowingly or unknowingly missing doses, taking extra doses, delaying administration times, or taking drug holidays. Pharmacists have the unique ability to deter non-adherence through the performance of continuous assessment and monitoring of adherence in this population given these accessibility. Additionally, pharmacists are able to develop therapeutic alliances with patients that can help to increase the likelihood of achieving positive patient outcomes. Antidepressant non-adherence can be viewed as a significant public health concern so it is important for patients to be educated about the importance of adherence, and health care professionals should be aware of factors or patient characteristics that can serve as barriers to non-adherence.

  14. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  15. Probabilistic 21st and 22nd Century Sea-Level Projections at a Global Network of Tide-Gauge Sites

    Kopp, Robert E.; Horton, Radley M.; Little, Christopher M.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Rasmussen, D. J.; Strauss, Benjamin H.; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Sea-level rise due to both climate change and non-climatic factors threatens coastal settlements, infrastructure, and ecosystems. Projections of mean global sea-level (GSL) rise provide insufficient information to plan adaptive responses; local decisions require local projections that accommodate different risk tolerances and time frames and that can be linked to storm surge projections. Here we present a global set of local sea-level (LSL) projections to inform decisions on timescales ranging from the coming decades through the 22nd century. We provide complete probability distributions, informed by a combination of expert community assessment, expert elicitation, and process modeling. Between the years 2000 and 2100, we project a very likely (90% probability) GSL rise of 0.5–1.2?m under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5, 0.4–0.9?m under RCP 4.5, and 0.3–0.8?m under RCP 2.6. Site-to-site differences in LSL projections are due to varying non-climatic background uplift or subsidence, oceanographic effects, and spatially variable responses of the geoid and the lithosphere to shrinking land ice. The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) constitutes a growing share of variance in GSL and LSL projections. In the global average and at many locations, it is the dominant source of variance in late 21st century projections, though at some sites oceanographic processes contribute the largest share throughout the century. LSL rise dramatically reshapes flood risk, greatly increasing the expected number of “1-in-10” and “1-in-100” year events.

  16. Estimating Climatological Bias Errors for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)

    Adler, Robert; Gu, Guojun; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    A procedure is described to estimate bias errors for mean precipitation by using multiple estimates from different algorithms, satellite sources, and merged products. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly product is used as a base precipitation estimate, with other input products included when they are within +/- 50% of the GPCP estimates on a zonal-mean basis (ocean and land separately). The standard deviation s of the included products is then taken to be the estimated systematic, or bias, error. The results allow one to examine monthly climatologies and the annual climatology, producing maps of estimated bias errors, zonal-mean errors, and estimated errors over large areas such as ocean and land for both the tropics and the globe. For ocean areas, where there is the largest question as to absolute magnitude of precipitation, the analysis shows spatial variations in the estimated bias errors, indicating areas where one should have more or less confidence in the mean precipitation estimates. In the tropics, relative bias error estimates (s/m, where m is the mean precipitation) over the eastern Pacific Ocean are as large as 20%, as compared with 10%-15% in the western Pacific part of the ITCZ. An examination of latitudinal differences over ocean clearly shows an increase in estimated bias error at higher latitudes, reaching up to 50%. Over land, the error estimates also locate regions of potential problems in the tropics and larger cold-season errors at high latitudes that are due to snow. An empirical technique to area average the gridded errors (s) is described that allows one to make error estimates for arbitrary areas and for the tropics and the globe (land and ocean separately, and combined). Over the tropics this calculation leads to a relative error estimate for tropical land and ocean combined of 7%, which is considered to be an upper bound because of the lack of sign-of-the-error canceling when integrating over different areas with a

  17. Big Data solution for CTBT monitoring: CEA-IDC joint global cross correlation project

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Bell, Randy; Brachet, Nicolas; Gaillard, Pierre; Kitov, Ivan; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Waveform cross-correlation when applied to historical datasets of seismic records provides dramatic improvements in detection, location, and magnitude estimation of natural and manmade seismic events. With correlation techniques, the amplitude threshold of signal detection can be reduced globally by a factor of 2 to 3 relative to currently standard beamforming and STA/LTA detector. The gain in sensitivity corresponds to a body wave magnitude reduction by 0.3 to 0.4 units and doubles the number of events meeting high quality requirements (e.g. detected by three and more seismic stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This gain is crucial for seismic monitoring under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The International Data Centre (IDC) dataset includes more than 450,000 seismic events, tens of millions of raw detections and continuous seismic data from the primary IMS stations since 2000. This high-quality dataset is a natural candidate for an extensive cross correlation study and the basis of further enhancements in monitoring capabilities. Without this historical dataset recorded by the permanent IMS Seismic Network any improvements would not be feasible. However, due to the mismatch between the volume of data and the performance of the standard Information Technology infrastructure, it becomes impossible to process all the data within tolerable elapsed time. To tackle this problem known as "BigData", the CEA/DASE is part of the French project "DataScale". One objective is to reanalyze 10 years of waveform data from the IMS network with the cross-correlation technique thanks to a dedicated High Performance Computer (HPC) infrastructure operated by the Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie (CCRT) at the CEA of Bruyères-le-Châtel. Within 2 years we are planning to enhance detection and phase association algorithms (also using machine learning and automatic classification) and process about 30 terabytes of data provided by the IDC to

  18. Comparison of TRMM and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Precipitation Analyses

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes recent results of using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) (launched in November 1997) information as the key calibration tool in a merged analysis on a 1 x 1' latitude/longitude monthly scale based on multiple satellite sources and raingauge analyses. The TRMM-based product is compared with the community-based Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) results. The long-term GPCP analysis is compared to the new TRMM-based analysis which uses the most accurate TRMM information to calibrate the estimates from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR observations and merges those estimates together with the TRMM and gauge information to produce accurate rainfall estimates with the increased sampling provided by the combined satellite information. The comparison with TRMM results on a month-to-month basis should clarify the strengths and weaknesses of the long-term GPCP product in the tropics and point to how to improve the monitoring analysis. Preliminary results from the TRMM merged satellite analysis indicates fairly close agreement with the GPCP estimates. The GPCP analysis is done at 2.5 degree latitude/longitude resolution and interpolated to a 1 degree grid for comparison with the TRMM analysis. As expected the same features are evident in both panels, but there are subtle differences in the magnitudes. Focusing on the Pacific Ocean Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) one can see the TRMM-based estimates having higher peak values and lower values in the ITCZ periphery. These attributes also show up in the statistics, where GPCP>TRMM at low values (below 10 mm/d) and TRMM>GPCP at high values (greater than 15 mm/d). The area in the Indian Ocean which shows consistently higher values of TRMM over GPCP needs to be examined carefully to determine if the lack of geosynchronous data has led to a difference in the two analyses. By the time of the meeting over a year of TRMM products will be available for

  19. Projected global health impacts from severe nuclear accidents: Conversion of projected doses to risks on a global scale: Experience from Chernobyl releases

    Catlin, R.J.; Goldman, M.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    Estimates of projected collective dose and average individual dose commitments from Chernobyl releases were made for various regions. Consideration was given to the possible effectiveness of protective actions taken by various countries to reduce projected doses to their populations. Although some preliminary data indicate possible mean reductions of about 25% in total collective doses over the first year, and of about 55% in collective dose to the thyroid, no corrections were made to these dose estimates because of the variable nature of the data. A new combined set of dose-effect models recently published by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission was then applied to estimate the ranges of possible future additional health effects due to the Chernobyl accident. In this method possible health effects are estimated on an individual site basis and the results are then summed. Both absolute and relative risk projection models are used. By use of these methods, ''best'' estimates of possible additional health effects were projected for the Northern Hemisphere as follows: 1) over the next 50 years, up to 28 thousand radiation-induced fatal cancers, compared to an expected 600 million cancer deaths from natural or spontaneous causes; 2) over the next year, up to 700 additional cases of severe mental retardation, compared to a normal expectation of 340 thousand cases; and 3) in the first generation, up to 1.9 thousand radiation-induced genetic disorders, compared to 180 million naturally-occurring cases. The possibility of zero health effects at very low doses and dose rates cannot be excluded. Owing to the very large numbers of naturally-occurring health effects, it is unlikely that any additional health effects will be demonstrable except, perhaps, for the more highly exposed population in the immediate vicinity of Chernobyl. 13 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  20. Financial incentives to improve adherence to antipsychotic maintenance medication in non-adherent patients: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Priebe, Stefan; Bremner, Stephen A; Lauber, Christoph; Henderson, Catherine; Burns, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Poor adherence to long-term antipsychotic injectable (LAI) medication in patients with psychotic disorders is associated with a range of negative outcomes. No psychosocial intervention has been found to be consistently effective in improving adherence. To test whether or not offering financial incentives is effective and cost-effective in improving adherence and to explore patient and clinician experiences with such incentives. A cluster randomised controlled trial with economic and nested qualitative evaluation. The intervention period lasted for 12 months with 24 months' follow-up. The unit of randomisation was mental health teams in the community. Community teams in secondary mental health care. Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective psychosis or bipolar illness, receiving ≤ 75% of their prescribed LAI medication. In total, 73 teams with 141 patients (intervention n = 78 and control n = 63) were included. Participants in the intervention group received £15 for each LAI medication. Patients in the control group received treatment as usual. adherence to LAI medication (the percentage of received out of those prescribed). percentage of patients with at least 95% adherence; clinical global improvement; subjective quality of life; satisfaction with medication; hospitalisation; adverse events; and costs. Qualitative evaluation: semistructured interviews with patients in the intervention group and their clinicians. outcome data were available for 131 patients. Baseline adherence was 69% in the intervention group and 67% in the control group. During the intervention period, adherence was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (85% vs. 71%) [adjusted mean difference 11.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9% to 19.0%; p = 0.003]. Secondary outcome: patients in the intervention group showed statistically significant improvement in adherence of at least 95% (adjusted odds ratio 8.21, 95% CI 2.00 to 33

  1. Impact of online toxicology training on health professionals: the Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP).

    Wong, Anselm; Vohra, Rais; Dawson, Andrew H; Stolbach, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP), supported by the American College of Medical Toxicology, links countries with and without toxicology services via distance education with the aim to improve education. Due to the lack of toxicology services in some countries there is a knowledge gap in the management of poisonings. We describe our experience with the worldwide delivery of an online introductory toxicology curriculum to emergency doctors and other health professionals treating poisoned patients. We delivered a 15-module introductory Internet-based toxicology curriculum to emergency doctors and health professionals, conducted from August to December 2016. This Internet-based curriculum was adapted from one used to teach emergency residents toxicology in the United States. Modules covered themes such as pharmaceutical (n = 8), toxidromes (n = 2) and agrochemicals (n = 5) poisoning. Participants completed pre-test and post-test multiple choice questions (MCQs) before and after completing the online module, respectively, throughout the course. We collected information on participant demographics, education and training, and perception of relevance of the curriculum. Participants gave feedback on the course and how it affected their practice. One hundred and thirty-six health professionals from 33 countries participated in the course: 98 emergency doctors/medical officers, 25 physicians, eight pharmacists/poisons information specialists, two toxicologists, two medical students and one nurse. Median age of participants was 34 years. Median number of years postgraduate was seven. Ninety (65%) had access to either a poisons information centre over the phone or toxicologist and 48 (35%) did not. All participants expected the course to help improve their knowledge. Overall median pre-module MCQ scores were 56% (95%CI: 38, 75%) compared to post-module MCQ scores median 89% (95% CI: 67, 100%) (p education to health professionals treating

  2. Spatial and body-size dependent response of marine pelagic communities to projected global climate change.

    Lefort, Stelly; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Arsouze, Thomas; Gehlen, Marion; Maury, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, oxygen, and food availability directly affect marine life. Climate models project a global warming of the ocean's surface (~+3 °C), a de-oxygenation of the ocean's interior (~-3%) and a decrease in total marine net primary production (~-8%) under the 'business as usual' climate change scenario (RCP8.5). We estimated the effects of these changes on biological communities using a coupled biogeochemical (PISCES)--ecosystems (APECOSM) model forced by the physical outputs of the last generation of the IPSL-CM Earth System Model. The APECOSM model is a size-structured bio-energetic model that simulates the 3D dynamical distributions of three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, mesopelagic, and migratory) under the effects of multiple environmental factors. The PISCES-APECOSM model ran from 1850 to 2100 under historical forcing followed by RCP8.5. Our RCP8.5 simulation highlights significant changes in the spatial distribution, biomass, and maximum body-size of the simulated pelagic communities. Biomass and maximum body-size increase at high latitude over the course of the century, reflecting the capacity of marine organisms to respond to new suitable environment. At low- and midlatitude, biomass and maximum body-size strongly decrease. In those regions, large organisms cannot maintain their high metabolic needs because of limited and declining food availability. This resource reduction enhances the competition and modifies the biomass distribution among and within the three communities: the proportion of small organisms increases in the three communities and the migrant community that initially comprised a higher proportion of small organisms is favored. The greater resilience of small body-size organisms resides in their capacity to fulfill their metabolic needs under reduced energy supply and is further favored by the release of predation pressure due to the decline of large organisms. These results suggest that small body-size organisms might be

  3. Hotspots of uncertainty in land-use and land-cover change projections: a global-scale model comparison.

    Prestele, Reinhard; Alexander, Peter; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Arneth, Almut; Calvin, Katherine; Doelman, Jonathan; Eitelberg, David A; Engström, Kerstin; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Humpenöder, Florian; Jain, Atul K; Krisztin, Tamás; Kyle, Page; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Popp, Alexander; Sands, Ronald D; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Schüngel, Jan; Stehfest, Elke; Tabeau, Andrzej; Van Meijl, Hans; Van Vliet, Jasper; Verburg, Peter H

    2016-12-01

    Model-based global projections of future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change are frequently used in environmental assessments to study the impact of LULC change on environmental services and to provide decision support for policy. These projections are characterized by a high uncertainty in terms of quantity and allocation of projected changes, which can severely impact the results of environmental assessments. In this study, we identify hotspots of uncertainty, based on 43 simulations from 11 global-scale LULC change models representing a wide range of assumptions of future biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. We attribute components of uncertainty to input data, model structure, scenario storyline and a residual term, based on a regression analysis and analysis of variance. From this diverse set of models and scenarios, we find that the uncertainty varies, depending on the region and the LULC type under consideration. Hotspots of uncertainty appear mainly at the edges of globally important biomes (e.g., boreal and tropical forests). Our results indicate that an important source of uncertainty in forest and pasture areas originates from different input data applied in the models. Cropland, in contrast, is more consistent among the starting conditions, while variation in the projections gradually increases over time due to diverse scenario assumptions and different modeling approaches. Comparisons at the grid cell level indicate that disagreement is mainly related to LULC type definitions and the individual model allocation schemes. We conclude that improving the quality and consistency of observational data utilized in the modeling process and improving the allocation mechanisms of LULC change models remain important challenges. Current LULC representation in environmental assessments might miss the uncertainty arising from the diversity of LULC change modeling approaches, and many studies ignore the uncertainty in LULC projections in assessments of LULC

  4. Montes Consolider Project : Spanish Mountains and Global Change: Threats and Opportunities; El proyecto Montes Consolider: los montes espanoles y el cambio global, amenazas y oportunidades

    Doble-Miranda, E.; Bermejo, V.; Retana, J.; Alonso, R.

    2012-11-01

    Global change is a combination of environmental and biotic alterations that threaten many natural ecosystems and the services they provide. The Project MONTES for competitive, multi-disciplinary research, in which 13 national research centers, including CIEMAT, are participating, was launched for the purpose of directing forest management toward adaptation to occurring changes. It is organized into seven work modules that study the effects of atmospheric and climate changes, land use, fire patterns, the risk that invasive species pose to the maintenance of carbon and water flows and biodiversity, plus an eighth module to coordinate cross disciplinary matters. (Author) 12 refs.

  5. Projecting the Global Distribution of the Emerging Amphibian Fungal Pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Based on IPCC Climate Futures.

    Gisselle Yang Xie

    Full Text Available Projected changes in climate conditions are emerging as significant risk factors to numerous species, affecting habitat conditions and community interactions. Projections suggest species range shifts in response to climate change modifying environmental suitability and is supported by observational evidence. Both pathogens and their hosts can shift ranges with climate change. We consider how climate change may influence the distribution of the emerging infectious amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, a pathogen associated with worldwide amphibian population losses. Using an expanded global Bd database and a novel modeling approach, we examined a broad set of climate metrics to model the Bd-climate niche globally and regionally, then project how climate change may influence Bd distributions. Previous research showed that Bd distribution is dependent on climatic variables, in particular temperature. We trained a machine-learning model (random forest with the most comprehensive global compilation of Bd sampling records (~5,000 site-level records, mid-2014 summary, including 13 climatic variables. We projected future Bd environmental suitability under IPCC scenarios. The learning model was trained with combined worldwide data (non-region specific and also separately per region (region-specific. One goal of our study was to estimate of how Bd spatial risks may change under climate change based on the best available data. Our models supported differences in Bd-climate relationships among geographic regions. We projected that Bd ranges will shift into higher latitudes and altitudes due to increased environmental suitability in those regions under predicted climate change. Specifically, our model showed a broad expansion of areas environmentally suitable for establishment of Bd on amphibian hosts in the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Our projections are useful for the development of monitoring designs in these areas

  6. Projected global health impacts from severe nuclear accidents: Conversion of projected doses to risks on a global scale: Experience from Chernobyl releases

    Catlin, R.J.; Goldman, M.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Best estimates of possible additional health effects were projected for the Northern Hemisphere: (1) over the next 50 years, up to 28 thousand radiation-induced fatal cancers, compared to an expected 600 million cancer deaths from natural or spontaneous causes; (2) over the next year, up to 700 additional cases of severe mental retardation, compared to a normal expectation of 340 thousand cases; and (3) in the first generation, up to 1.9 thousand radiation-induced genetic disorders, compared to 180 million naturally-occurring cases. The possibility of zero health effects at very low doses and dose rates cannot be excluded. Due to the very large numbers of naturally-occurring health effects, it is unlikely that any additional health effects will be demonstrable except, perhaps, for the more highly exposed population in the immediate vicinity of Chernobyl. 13 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Projected global health impacts from severe nuclear accidents: Conversion of projected doses to risks on a global scale: Experience from Chernobyl releases

    Catlin, R.J.; Goldman, M.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Best estimates of possible additional health effects were projected for the Northern Hemisphere: (1) over the next 50 years, up to 28 thousand radiation-induced fatal cancers, compared to an expected 600 million cancer deaths FR-om natural or spontaneous causes; (2) over the next year, up to 700 additional cases of severe mental retardation, compared to a normal expectation of 340 thousand cases; and (3) in the first generation, up to 1.9 thousand radiation-induced genetic disorders, compared to 180 million naturally-occurring cases. The possibility of zero health effects at very low doses and dose rates cannot be excluded. Due to the very large numbers of naturally-occurring health effects, it is unlikely that any additional health effects will be demonstrable except, perhaps, for the more highly exposed population in the immediate vicinity of Chernobyl. 13 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Global contract automation for E and P: project overview; Contrato global de automacao para E e P: visao geral do projeto

    Arruda, Luiz Alberto Barbosa; Cintra, Paulo Cesar Vogel; Gaban, Allan Rodrigo Martins [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Corazza, Andre [Altus Sistemas de Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to present a technical overview of Global Contract for Automation (CGA in Portuguese) for the segment of E and P (Exploration and Production) in Oil and Gas. This paper presents the theory of this type of contract showing the first contract of its kind in Brazil, ongoing for Pre-Salt FPSOs. The idea of using this contract as a reference is relate theory to practice. In the study is done an analysis of 'win-win' relationship in when performing pre-detailing and detail engineering, project development and automation directly with the manufacturer of the automation solution. The project herein includes automation and control of eight FPSOs (Float Production Storage and Offloading), to be produced in series. The system contracted in CGA consists of 12 systems and integrated sub-systems related to production process, fire and gas detection and emergency shutdown (shutdown). The eight FPSO have the same design, are replicas of a single project. The CGA has in its scope to interface simultaneously with different contractors: FEED project; hull constructor; construction and assembly of modules; integration of the FPSO and direct contracts with equipment suppliers. It will also be detail in this paper the scope of supply of subsystems equipment, pre-detail and detail engineering services, automation and control systems integration, consistency and testing of automation system and technical assistance for pre operation and operation of the FPSO. (author)

  9. A Global Review of Sustainable Construction Project Financing: Policies, Practices, and Research Efforts

    Ming Shan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing investment in sustainable development over the past decade, a systematic review of sustainable construction project financing is lacking. The objectives of this paper are to conduct a systematic review to examine the policies, practices, and research efforts in the area of sustainable construction project financing, and to explore the potential opportunities for the future research. To achieve these goals, this paper first reviewed the sustainable construction project financing practices implemented by four representative developed economies including the United Kingdom, the United States, Singapore, and Australia. Then, this paper reviewed the efforts and initiatives launched by three international organizations including the United Nations, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and International Finance Corporation. After that, this paper reviewed the research efforts of sustainable construction project financing published in peer-review journals and books. This paper identified four major research themes within this area, which are the review of financial stakeholders and market of sustainable construction, benefits and barriers to sustainable construction project financing, financial vehicles for sustainable construction projects, innovative models and mechanisms for sustainable construction project financing. Additionally, this paper revealed five directions for the future research of sustainable construction project financing, which are the identification of financial issues in sustainable construction projects, the investigation of financial vehicles for sustainable construction projects in terms of their strengths, limitations, and performances, the examination of critical drivers for implementing sustainable construction project financing, the development of a knowledge-based decision support system for implementing sustainable construction financing, and the development of best practices for

  10. The NASA Global Climate Change Education Project: An Integrated Effort to Improve the Teaching and Learning about Climate Change (Invited)

    Chambers, L. H.; Pippin, M. R.; Welch, S.; Spruill, K.; Matthews, M. J.; Person, C.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Global Climate Change Education (GCCE) Project, initiated in 2008, seeks to: - improve the teaching and learning about global climate change in elementary and secondary schools, on college campuses, and through lifelong learning; - increase the number of people, particularly high school and undergraduate students, using NASA Earth observation data, Earth system models, and/or simulations to investigate and analyze global climate change issues; - increase the number of undergraduate students prepared for employment and/or to enter graduate school in technical fields relevant to global climate change. Through an annual solicitation, proposals are requested for projects that address these goals using a variety of approaches. These include using NASA Earth system data, interactive models and/or simulations; providing research experiences for undergraduate or community college students, or for pre- or in-service teachers; or creating long-term teacher professional development experiences. To date, 57 projects have been funded to pursue these goals (22 in 2008, 18 in 2009, and 17 in 2010), each for a 2-3 year period. The vast majority of awards address either teacher professional development, or use of data, models, or simulations; only 7 awards have been made for research experiences. NASA, with assistance from the Virginia Space Grant Consortium, is working to develop these awardees into a synergistic community that works together to maximize its impact. This paper will present examples of collaborations that are evolving within this developing community. It will also introduce the opportunities available in fiscal year 2011, when a change in emphasis is expected for the project as it moves within the NASA Office of Education Minority University Research and Education Program (MUREP).

  11. Psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence among PLWH in China: role of self-efficacy.

    Zhou, Guangyu; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2017-12-01

    Globally, optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is insufficient despite it is critical for maximum clinical benefits and treatment success among people living with HIV (PLWH). Many factors have been evidenced to influence medication adherence, including perceived barriers and self-efficacy. However, limited data are available regarding to psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence in China. Moreover, few studies have examined the mechanism of these two factors underlying HIV medication adherence. The aim of the current study is to examine the mediating role of adherence self-efficacy between perceived barriers and ART adherence among PLWH. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 2095 PLWH in Guangxi China who provided data on ART adherence. Participants reported their medication adherence, self-efficacy, barriers to ART adherence, as well as background characteristics. Results indicated a significant indirect effect from perceived barriers to medication adherence through adherence self-efficacy. Higher perceived psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence were related to lower adherence self-efficacy, which in turn was related to lower ART adherence. Self-efficacy could buffer the negative effects of perceived barriers on ART adherence. Future interventions to promote HIV medication adherence are recommended to focus on eliminating psychological and behavioral barriers, as well as increasing adherence self-efficacy.

  12. Biomass burning studies and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    1991-01-01

    IGAC is an ambitious, decade-long and global research initiative concerned with major research challenges in the field of atmospheric chemistry; its chemists and ecosystem biologists are addressing the problems associated with global biomass burning (BMB). Among IGAC's goals is the achievement of a fundamental understanding of the natural and anthropogenic processes determining changes in atmospheric composition and chemistry, in order to allow century-long predictions. IGAC's studies have been organized into 'foci', encompassing the marine, tropical, polar, boreal, and midlatitude areas, as well as their global composite interactions. Attention is to be given to the effects of BMB on biogeochemical cycles.

  13. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Climate Data Record (CDR), Version 1.3 (Daily)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GPCP Daily analysis is a companion to the GPCP Monthly analysis, and provides globally complete precipitation estimates at a spatial resolution of one degree...

  14. Global Ocean Data Analysis Project, Version 2 (GLODAPv2) (NCEI Accession 0162565)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data product is composed of data from 724 scientific cruises covering the global ocean. It includes data assembled during the previous interior ocean data...

  15. Comparison between project-based learning and discovery learning toward students' metacognitive strategies on global warming concept

    Tumewu, Widya Anjelia; Wulan, Ana Ratna; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to know comparing the effectiveness of learning using Project-based learning (PjBL) and Discovery Learning (DL) toward students metacognitive strategies on global warming concept. A quasi-experimental research design with a The Matching-Only Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design was used in this study. The subjects were students of two classes 7th grade of one of junior high school in Bandung City, West Java of 2015/2016 academic year. The study was conducted on two experimental class, that were project-based learning treatment on the experimental class I and discovery learning treatment was done on the experimental class II. The data was collected through questionnaire to know students metacognitive strategies. The statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in students metacognitive strategies between project-based learning and discovery learning.

  16. HIV Medication Adherence

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: January 17, 2018 Key ...

  17. GlobePort Faces Global Business Challenges--Assessing the Organizational Side of Information Systems Projects

    Ghosh, Biswadip

    2011-01-01

    Published studies have reported that Information System (IS) projects succeed or fail based on how effectively the organizational issues were understood and addressed in the specification, development and implementation stages of the project. This is particularly true in the design and delivery of Inter-Organizational Systems (IOS) that can affect…

  18. The European Project Semester at ISEP: The Challenge of Educating Global Engineers

    Malheiro, Benedita; Silva, Manuel; Ribeiro, Maria Cristina; Guedes, Pedro; Ferreira, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Current engineering education challenges require approaches that promote scientific, technical, design and complementary skills while fostering autonomy, innovation and responsibility. The European Project Semester (EPS) at Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (ISEP) (EPS@ISEP) is a one semester project-based learning programme (30 European…

  19. National Writing Project's Multimodal Literacies and Teacher Collaboration: Enhanced Student Learning on Global Social Issues

    Iyengar, Kalpana; Hood, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Iyengar and Hood, both teacher consultants with the San Antonio Writing Project (SAWP), and instructors of an undergraduate society and social issues class, collaborated to enhance their undergraduate students' writing experiences using the National Writing Project model (Lieberman & Wood, 2003). Iyengar and Hood used strategies such as…

  20. Globalization and Europeanization. A Projection on a European Model of Public Administration

    Ani Matei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The specialized studies and literature present moreover and insistently the connection between globalization and Europeanization, more precisely between globalization and a European model of integration, whose features aim to set up a global-type European society. The development of the European model of integration starts with economic elements, it reveals nowadays the Economic and Monetary Union and in perspective it will be structured within a sui generis system of transnational governance. The values of the European model of integration become fundamental values of a social process, with powerful economic and political determinations, aiming the multi-causal interference between individual, community and European construction. This process, remarked increasingly in the specialized literature, being assigned with the name of Europeanization, has got original, functional features in the spectrum of significations of the globalization paradigm. As essential global-type formula, within Europeanization, we shall find models with economic, political or social finality, integrating also a model of administration among the latter ones. When we say administration, we refer to its up dated and adequate contents to the new European developments. This assertion derives from a less economic modality to conceptualize the relationship between globalization and Europeanization, presenting Europeanization more as a political adaptation to globalization and even a political expression of globalization. In this context, the development of a system for European governance on several levels (local, regional, national, intergovernmental and supranational suggests its evolution towards globalization. In fact, the literature specific for Europeanization asserts the fact that the European model has also features with integrative nature related to the supranational and trans-governmental dimensions, as well as features with normative nature in view of harmonization

  1. Projection of heat waves over China for eight different global warming targets using 12 CMIP5 models

    Guo, Xiaojun; Huang, Jianbin; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Zongci; Xu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Simulation and projection of the characteristics of heat waves over China were investigated using 12 CMIP5 global climate models and the CN05.1 observational gridded dataset. Four heat wave indices (heat wave frequency, longest heat wave duration, heat wave days, and high temperature days) were adopted in the analysis. Evaluations of the 12 CMIP5 models and their ensemble indicated that the multi-model ensemble could capture the spatiotemporal characteristics of heat wave variation over China. The inter-decadal variations of heat waves during 1961-2005 can be well simulated by multi-model ensemble. Based on model projections, the features of heat waves over China for eight different global warming targets (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 °C) were explored. The results showed that the frequency and intensity of heat waves would increase more dramatically as the global mean temperature rise attained higher warming targets. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the four China-averaged heat wave indices would increase from about 1.0 times/year, 2.5, 5.4, and 13.8 days/year to about 3.2 times/year, 14.0, 32.0, and 31.9 days/year for 1.5 and 5.0 °C warming targets, respectively. Those regions that suffer severe heat waves in the base climate would experience the heat waves with greater frequency and severity following global temperature rise. It is also noteworthy that the areas in which a greater number of severe heat waves occur displayed considerable expansion. Moreover, the model uncertainties exhibit a gradual enhancement with projected time extending from 2006 to 2099.

  2. Reliability ensemble averaging of 21st century projections of terrestrial net primary productivity reduces global and regional uncertainties

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Bloom, A. Anthony; Falloon, Pete; Ito, Akihiko; Smallman, T. Luke; Williams, Mathew

    2018-02-01

    Multi-model averaging techniques provide opportunities to extract additional information from large ensembles of simulations. In particular, present-day model skill can be used to evaluate their potential performance in future climate simulations. Multi-model averaging methods have been used extensively in climate and hydrological sciences, but they have not been used to constrain projected plant productivity responses to climate change, which is a major uncertainty in Earth system modelling. Here, we use three global observationally orientated estimates of current net primary productivity (NPP) to perform a reliability ensemble averaging (REA) method using 30 global simulations of the 21st century change in NPP based on the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) business as usual emissions scenario. We find that the three REA methods support an increase in global NPP by the end of the 21st century (2095-2099) compared to 2001-2005, which is 2-3 % stronger than the ensemble ISIMIP mean value of 24.2 Pg C y-1. Using REA also leads to a 45-68 % reduction in the global uncertainty of 21st century NPP projection, which strengthens confidence in the resilience of the CO2 fertilization effect to climate change. This reduction in uncertainty is especially clear for boreal ecosystems although it may be an artefact due to the lack of representation of nutrient limitations on NPP in most models. Conversely, the large uncertainty that remains on the sign of the response of NPP in semi-arid regions points to the need for better observations and model development in these regions.

  3. Beliefs about medications predict adherence to antidepressants in older adults.

    Fawzi, Waleed; Abdel Mohsen, Mohamed Yousry; Hashem, Abdel Hamid; Moussa, Suaad; Coker, Elizabeth; Wilson, Kenneth C M

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to treatment is a complex and poorly understood phenomenon. This study investigates the relationship between older depressed patients' adherence to antidepressants and their beliefs about and knowledge of the medication. Assessment was undertaken of 108 outpatients over the age of 55 years diagnosed with depressive disorder and treated for at least four weeks with antidepressants. Adherence was assessed using two self-report measures: the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and a Global Adherence Measure (GAM). Potential predictors of adherence investigated included sociodemographic, medication and illness variables. In addition, 33 carers were interviewed regarding general medication beliefs. 56% of patients reported 80% or higher adherence on the GAM. Sociodemographic variables were not associated with adherence on the MARS. Specific beliefs about medicines, such as "my health depends on antidepressants" (necessity) and being less worried about becoming dependant on antidepressants (concern) were highly correlated with adherence. General beliefs about medicines causing harm or being overprescribed, experiencing medication side-effects and severity of depression also correlated with poor adherence. Linear regression with the MARS as the dependent variable explained 44.3% of the variance and showed adherence to be higher in subjects with healthy specific beliefs who received more information about antidepressants and worse with depression severity and autonomic side-effects. Our findings strongly support a role for specific beliefs about medicines in adherence. Challenging patients' beliefs, providing information about treatment and discussing side-effects could improve adherence. Poor response to treatment and medication side-effects can indicate poor adherence and should be considered before switching medications.

  4. Measuring the speed of light using Jupiter's moons: a global citizen science project for International Year of Light 2015

    Hendry, Martin A.; Hammond, Giles; Simmons, Mike

    2015-08-01

    2015 represents both the centenary of General Relativity and International Year of Light - the latter marking the 150th anniversary of James Clerk Maxwell's ground-breaking paper on "A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field". These landmark dates provide an exciting opportunity to set up a global citizen science project that re-enacts the seminal 1675 experiment of Ole Romer: to measure the speed of light by observing the time eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter. This project - which has been set up by astronomers at the University of Glasgow, UK in partnership with Astronomers without Borders - is an ideal platform for engaging the amateur astronomy community, schools and the wider public across the globe. It requires only simple observations, with a small spotting scope or telescope, and can be carried out straightforwardly in both cities and dark-sky locations. It highlights a fascinating chapter in astronomical history, as well as the ongoing importance of accurate astrometry, orbital motion, the concept of longitude and knowing one's position on the Earth. In the context of the GR centenary, it also links strongly to the science behind GPS satellites and a range of important topics in the high school curriculum - from the electromagnetic spectrum to the more general principles of the scientific method.In this presentation we present an overview of our global citizen science project for IYL2015: its scope and motivation, the total number and global distribution of its participants to date and how astronomers around the world can get involved. We also describe the intended legacy of the project: a extensive database of observations that can provide future astronomy educators with an accessible and historically important context in which to explore key principles for analysing large astronomical datasets.

  5. Projected Increase in Lightning Strikes in the United States Due to Global Warming

    Romps, D. M.; Seeley, J.; Vollaro, D.; Molinari, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lightning plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and in the initiation of wildfires, but the impact of global warming on lightning rates is poorly constrained. The lightning flash rate is proposed here to be proportional to the convective available potential energy (CAPE) times the precipitation rate. Using observations, the product of CAPE and precipitation is found to explain the majority of variance in the time series of total cloud-to-ground lightning flashes over the contiguous United States (CONUS) on timescales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. The observations reveal that storms convert the CAPE of water mass to discharged lightning energy with an efficiency of about 1%. This proxy can be applied to global climate models, which provide predictions for the increase in lightning due to global warming. Results from 11 GCMs will be shown.

  6. Distributed team cohesion – not an oxymoron. The impact of information and communications technologies on teamness in globally distributed IT projects

    Olga Stawnicza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally distributed IT projects are common practice in today’s globalized world. Typically, project team members’ work on interdependent tasks, with a common goal to be achieved as one team. However, being split between multiple locations impedes communication among team members and hampers the development of trust. Information and communications media enable communication between geographically distributed project team members and help to create and maintain trust within project units. Communication and trust are particularly significant for fostering a feeling of oneness among project team members. Oneness, also referred to as “teamness”, is repeatedly mentioned as one of the challenges facing global project teams. However, prior literature on teamness is very scarce and its importance is underrepresented. This research contributes to the field in two ways. First, the theoretical study based on a systematic literature review examines available evidence of teamness in globally distributed projects. Secondly, an empirical study based on interviews conducted with global project managers fills the current gap in literature on the link between use of ICT and establishing a sense of team unity. This paper draws practitioners’ attention to the importance of striving for teamness in spite of the geographical distance that exists between project team members.

  7. DENGUE FEVER EPIDEMIC POTENTIAL AS PROJECTED BY GENERAL CIRCULATION MODELS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE. (R824995)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. The Impact of Variable Phytoplankton Stoichiometry on Projections of Primary Production, Food Quality, and Carbon Uptake in the Global Ocean

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Ciais, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    Ocean biogeochemical models are integral components of Earth system models used to project the evolution of the ocean carbon sink, as well as potential changes in the physical and chemical environment of marine ecosystems. In such models the stoichiometry of phytoplankton C:N:P is typically fixed at the Redfield ratio. The observed stoichiometry of phytoplankton, however, has been shown to considerably vary from Redfield values due to plasticity in the expression of phytoplankton cell structures with different elemental compositions. The intrinsic structure of fixed C:N:P models therefore has the potential to bias projections of the marine response to climate change. We assess the importance of variable stoichiometry on 21st century projections of net primary production, food quality, and ocean carbon uptake using the recently developed Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies Quota (PISCES-QUOTA) ocean biogeochemistry model. The model simulates variable phytoplankton C:N:P stoichiometry and was run under historical and business-as-usual scenario forcing from 1850 to 2100. PISCES-QUOTA projects similar 21st century global net primary production decline (7.7%) to current generation fixed stoichiometry models. Global phytoplankton N and P content or food quality is projected to decline by 1.2% and 6.4% over the 21st century, respectively. The largest reductions in food quality are in the oligotrophic subtropical gyres and Arctic Ocean where declines by the end of the century can exceed 20%. Using the change in the carbon export efficiency in PISCES-QUOTA, we estimate that fixed stoichiometry models may be underestimating 21st century cumulative ocean carbon uptake by 0.5-3.5% (2.0-15.1 PgC).

  9. Energy demand futures by global models : Projections of a complex system

    Edelenbosch, O.Y.

    2018-01-01

    The energy demand sectors industry, transport and buildings are together directly responsible for around 51 % of the global energy-related CO2 emissions and indirectly drive the emissions in the energy supply sectors. The demand sectors are characterized by many subsectors, technologies,

  10. Global protected area expansion is compromised by projected land-use and parochialism

    Pouzols, F.M.; Toivonen, T.; Di Minin, E.; Kukkala, A.; Kullberg, P.; Kuustera, J.; Lehtomaki, J.; Tenkanen, H.; Verburg, P.H.; Moilanan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are one of the main tools for halting the continuing global biodiversity crisis caused by habitat loss, fragmentation and other anthropogenic pressures. According to the Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity, the protected area network should

  11. Projected Destination Images on African Websites: Upgrading Branding Opportunities in the Global Tourism Value Chain

    J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); F.M. Go (Frank); R. Govers (Robert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores whether websites that offer a global audience virtual access to watering holes in game parks afford African nations opportunities to diminish their international isolation as tourism destinations. The present analysis examines a sample of almost 450 tourism websites

  12. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    Linda J Beaumont

    Full Text Available The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5. The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  13. Robust Hadley Circulation Changes and Increasing Global Dryness Due to CO2 Warming from CMIP-5 Model Projections

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate changes in the Hadley Circulation (HC) and their connections to increased global dryness under CO2 warming from CMIP-5 model projections. We find a strengthening of the ascending branch of the HC manifested in a deep-tropics squeeze (DTS), i.e., a deepening and narrowing of the convective zone, increased high clouds, and a rise of the level of maximum meridional mass outflow in the upper troposphere (200-100 hectopascals) of the deep tropics. The DTS induces atmospheric moisture divergence, reduces tropospheric relative humidity in the tropics and subtropics, in conjunction with a widening of the subsiding branches of the HC, resulting in increased frequency of dry events in preferred geographic locations worldwide. Among water cycle parameters examined, global dryness has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. Our results provide scientific bases for inferring that the observed tend of prolonged droughts in recent decades is likely attributable to greenhouse warming.

  14. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  15. Worsening of Heat Stress Due To Global Warming in South Korea Based on Multi-RCM Ensemble Projections

    Im, Eun-Soon; Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2017-11-01

    This study assesses the future changes in summer (June-July-August; JJA) heat stress over South Korea under global warming. To better resolve the region-specific changes in terms of geographical patterns and severity of heat stress in the Korean peninsula, four regional climate models (RCMs) are used for dynamical downscaling of Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2—Atmosphere and Ocean global projections forced by two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Dynamically downscaled simulations (horizontal resolution of 12.5 km and output interval of 3 h) facilitate in-depth analysis of diurnal variation and extremes over South Korea, as well as focusing on the particular location, Daegu, that is characterized by high vulnerability to rising temperature. Both maximum temperature and heat stress indices such as wet bulb globe temperature and apparent temperature, which include the effect of humidity, are examined in order to comprehensively interpret the behaviors of heat stress in response to anthropogenic climate change. Ensemble projections reveal robust patterns of temperature and resultant humidity increases that are roughly constrained by the approximate 7%/K increase in the moisture holding capacity. The changes in temperature and humidity are directly transmitted to the heat stress indices, showing a significant increase. The heat stress is exacerbated in a differentiated way, with more intensification in diurnal variation at nighttime and in regional variation at low-elevation basins. Both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios project the statistical likelihood of a notable increase of extreme heat stress indices, much stronger and more extended heat waves, and the emergence of a long period of consecutive tropical nights.

  16. Global nuclear renaissance - today's issues, challenges and differences relative to the first wave of nuclear plant projects

    Gardner, William N.

    2010-01-01

    The development and negotiation of an Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract is a multi-disciplined and time consuming process. Relative to the first wave on new nuclear build projects of the 1950's - 1970's, today's EPC contracts are more complex for a variety of reasons including more demanding regulatory and environmental requirements, global supply chain versus localization issues and different world wide economic considerations. This paper discusses the impacts of some of these challenges on developing an EPC contract in today's Nuclear Renaissance. (authors)

  17. In modelling effects of global warming, invalid assumptions lead to unrealistic projections.

    Lefevre, Sjannie; McKenzie, David J; Nilsson, Göran E

    2018-02-01

    In their recent Opinion, Pauly and Cheung () provide new projections of future maximum fish weight (W ∞ ). Based on criticism by Lefevre et al. (2017) they changed the scaling exponent for anabolism, d G . Here we find that changing both d G and the scaling exponent for catabolism, b, leads to the projection that fish may even become 98% smaller with a 1°C increase in temperature. This unrealistic outcome indicates that the current W ∞ is unlikely to be explained by the Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory (GOLT) and, therefore, GOLT cannot be used as a mechanistic basis for model projections about fish size in a warmer world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  19. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects.

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37% of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90%) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  20. Projection of wave conditions in response to climate change: A community approach to global and regional wave downscaling

    Erikson, Li H.; Hemer, M.; Lionello, Piero; Mendez, Fernando J.; Mori, Nobuhito; Semedo, Alvaro; Wang, Xiaolan; Wolf, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Future changes in wind-wave climate have broad implications for coastal geomorphology and management. General circulation models (GCM) are now routinely used for assessing climatological parameters, but generally do not provide parameterizations of ocean wind-waves. To fill this information gap, a growing number of studies use GCM outputs to independently downscale wave conditions to global and regional levels. To consolidate these efforts and provide a robust picture of projected changes, we present strategies from the community-derived multi-model ensemble of wave climate projections (COWCLIP) and an overview of regional contributions. Results and strategies from one contributing regional study concerning changes along the eastern North Pacific coast are presented.

  1. Climate change. Projected increase in lightning strikes in the United States due to global warming.

    Romps, David M; Seeley, Jacob T; Vollaro, David; Molinari, John

    2014-11-14

    Lightning plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and in the initiation of wildfires, but the impact of global warming on lightning rates is poorly constrained. Here we propose that the lightning flash rate is proportional to the convective available potential energy (CAPE) times the precipitation rate. Using observations, the product of CAPE and precipitation explains 77% of the variance in the time series of total cloud-to-ground lightning flashes over the contiguous United States (CONUS). Storms convert CAPE times precipitated water mass to discharged lightning energy with an efficiency of 1%. When this proxy is applied to 11 climate models, CONUS lightning strikes are predicted to increase 12 ± 5% per degree Celsius of global warming and about 50% over this century. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. NASA Global Hawk Project Update and Future Plans: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    Naftel, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Science objectives include: First demonstration of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) for NASA and NOAA Earth science research and applications; Validation of instruments on-board the Aura satellite; Exploration of trace gases, aerosols, and dynamics of remote upper Troposphere/lower Stratosphere regions; Sample polar vortex fragments and atmospheric rivers; Risk reduction for future missions that will study hurricanes and atmospheric rivers.

  3. An Assessment of Experiential Learning of Global Poverty Issues through International Service Projects

    Le, Quan V.; Raven, Peter V.

    2015-01-01

    Service learning has been used to supplement a standard business curriculum, but not typically in an international business context. We report the results of two short-term study abroad programs in which we incorporated service learning projects, one in Cambodia and the other in Vietnam. Our objective is to assess how we organized and delivered…

  4. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-01-01

    to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics...

  5. The Geopolitics of Power Projection in US Foreign Policy: From Colonization to Globalization

    Houweling, H.; Amineh, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    This Chapter studies continuity and innovation in the geopolitics of America in projecting power beyond legally recognized borders. Exporting cultural symbols expressing what America has on offer plays as crucial a role in the opening of societies beyond borders as commodity exports and the

  6. Projections of suitable habitat for rare species under global warming scenarios

    F. Thomas Ledig; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Flores-Lopez Celestino

    2010-01-01

    Premise of the study: Modeling the contemporary and future climate niche for rare plants is a major hurdle in conservation, yet such projections are necessary to prevent extinctions that may result from climate change. Methods: We used recently developed spline climatic models and modifi ed Random Forests...

  7. The Impact of Sustainability on Global Trade: A Cross-Curricular Project

    Weber, Curt M.; Roy, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges in higher education is leading students in the application of information from one course to learning material in subsequent coursework. The authors have devised a joint project for courses in Logistics and Administrative Law to assist students in correlation of material in courses of two business majors, with emphasis on…

  8. How can eHealth enhance adherence to cancer therapy and supportive care?

    Bateman Emma H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available eHealth is currently a hot topic, but is certainly not a new one. The use of communications technology to relay health-related information or provide medical services has been around since the advent of this technology. It has been primarily over the last decade that eHealth has seen a global expansion, due to the far-reaching capabilities of the Internet and the widespread use of wireless technology. This paper will outline what eHealth is, what adherence is, and how eHealth can help with adherence, in cancer and supportive care particularly. It will discuss the current state of the art, and project into the future.

  9. High pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and early adherence among men who have sex with men and transgender women at risk for HIV Infection: the PrEP Brasil demonstration project.

    Hoagland, Brenda; Moreira, Ronaldo I; De Boni, Raquel B; Kallas, Esper G; Madruga, José Valdez; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Goulart, Silvia; Torres, Thiago S; Marins, Luana M S; Anderson, Peter L; Luz, Paula M; Costa Leite, Iuri da; Liu, Albert Y; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2017-04-06

    The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well established. Little is known about the feasibility of PrEP implementation in middle-income settings with concentrated epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). PrEP Brasil is a prospective, multicentre, open-label demonstration project assessing PrEP delivery in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. HIV-uninfected MSM and TGW in 3 referral centres in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo were evaluated for eligibility and offered 48 weeks of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir for PrEP. Concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spot samples (DBS) at week 4 after enrolment (early adherence) were measured. Predictors of drug levels were assessed using ordinal logistic regression models considering the DBS drug level as a 3 level variable (<350 fmol/punch, ≥350-699 fmol/punch and ≥700 fmol/punch). 1,270 individuals were assessed for participation; n = 738 were potentially eligible and n = 450 were offered PrEP (PrEP uptake was 60.9%). Eligible but not enrolled individuals were younger, had lower HIV risk perception and had lower PrEP awareness. At week 4, 424 participants (of the 450 enrolled) had DBS TFV-DP concentrations, 94.1% in the protective range (≥350 fmol/punch, consistent with ≥2 pills per week), and 78% were in the highly protective range (≥700 fmol/punch, ≥4 pills per week). Participants with ≥12 years of schooling had 1.9 times the odds (95%CI 1.10-3.29) of a higher versus lower drug level than participants with <12 years of schooling. Condomless receptive anal intercourse in the prior 3 months was also associated with higher drug levels (adjusted OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.08-2.94). The high uptake and early adherence indicate that PrEP for high-risk MSM and TGW can be successfully delivered in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. Interventions to

  10. Climate change signal and uncertainty in CMIP5-based projections of global ocean surface wave heights

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Feng, Yang; Swail, Val R.

    2015-05-01

    This study uses the analysis of variance approaches to quantify the climate change signal and uncertainty in multimodel ensembles of statistical simulations of significant wave height (Hs), which are based on the CMIP5 historical, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenario simulations of sea level pressure. Here the signal of climate change refers to the temporal variations caused by the prescribed forcing. "Significant" means "significantly different from zero at 5% level." In a four-model ensemble of Hs simulations, the common signal—the signal that is simulated in all the four models—is found to strengthen over time. For the historical followed by RCP8.5 scenario, the common signal in annual mean Hs is found to be significant in 16.6% and 82.2% of the area by year 2005 and 2099, respectively. The global average of the variance proportion of the common signal increases from 0.75% in year 2005 to 12.0% by year 2099. The signal is strongest in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP), featuring significant increases in both the annual mean and maximum of Hs in this region. The climate model uncertainty (i.e., intermodel variability) is significant nearly globally; its magnitude is comparable to or greater than that of the common signal in most areas, except in the ETP where the signal is much larger. In a 20-model ensemble of Hs simulations for the period 2006-2099, the model uncertainty is found to be significant globally; it is about 10 times as large as the variability between the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The copyright line for this article was changed on 10 JUNE 2015 after original online publication.

  11. Project of CO{sub 2} fixation and utilization using catalytic hydrogenation reaction for coping with the global environment issues

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Discussions were given on a carbon dioxide fixing and utilizing project utilizing hydrogenating reaction by means of a catalytic method. In the discussions, development was made on such foundation technologies as CO2 separation by using Cardo type CO2 membrane, a technology to synthesize methanol through hydrogen addition by means of the catalytic method, and an electrolytic technology of membrane-electrode mixed type, as well as a methanol synthesis bench test of 50 kg/d scale. In order to develop this result into specific applications, demonstration tests are required that use methanol synthesizing pilot plants of 4 t/d and 80 t/d capacities. In addition, for the electric power to produce a huge amount of hydrogen, development is necessary on a solar energy utilizing technology of large scale and low cost. Furthermore, from the economic and social viewpoints, the achievements of this project are regarded to depend on understanding of the necessity of a policy of putting a large number of methanol fuel cell automobiles into use, and dealing with the global warming problem. Energy required to change CO2 into useful chemical substance requires five times as much energy as has been produced, hence prevention of the global warming through this channel is difficult. (NEDO)

  12. The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally gridded forcing data

    McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-26

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international efforts guiding the development of long-term and globally distributed flux estimates, continued product assessments are required to inform upon the selection of suitable model structures and also to establish the appropriateness of these multi-model simulations for global application. In support of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges (GEWEX) LandFlux project, four commonly used evaporation models are evaluated against data from tower-based eddy-covariance observations, distributed across a range of biomes and climate zones. The selected schemes include the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) approach, the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model, the Penman–Monteith-based Mu model (PM-Mu) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). Here we seek to examine the fidelity of global evaporation simulations by examining the multi-model response to varying sources of forcing data. To do this, we perform parallel and collocated model simulations using tower-based data together with a global-scale grid-based forcing product. Through quantifying the multi-model response to high-quality tower data, a better understanding of the subsequent model response to the coarse-scale globally gridded data that underlies the LandFlux product can be obtained, while also providing a relative evaluation and assessment of model performance.

    Using surface flux observations from 45 globally distributed eddy-covariance stations as independent metrics of performance, the tower-based analysis indicated that PT-JPL provided the highest overall statistical performance (0.72; 61 W m−2; 0.65), followed

  13. The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally gridded forcing data

    McCabe, Matthew; Ershadi, Ali; Jimenez, C.; Miralles, Diego G.; Michel, D.; Wood, E. F.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international efforts guiding the development of long-term and globally distributed flux estimates, continued product assessments are required to inform upon the selection of suitable model structures and also to establish the appropriateness of these multi-model simulations for global application. In support of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges (GEWEX) LandFlux project, four commonly used evaporation models are evaluated against data from tower-based eddy-covariance observations, distributed across a range of biomes and climate zones. The selected schemes include the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) approach, the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model, the Penman–Monteith-based Mu model (PM-Mu) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). Here we seek to examine the fidelity of global evaporation simulations by examining the multi-model response to varying sources of forcing data. To do this, we perform parallel and collocated model simulations using tower-based data together with a global-scale grid-based forcing product. Through quantifying the multi-model response to high-quality tower data, a better understanding of the subsequent model response to the coarse-scale globally gridded data that underlies the LandFlux product can be obtained, while also providing a relative evaluation and assessment of model performance.

    Using surface flux observations from 45 globally distributed eddy-covariance stations as independent metrics of performance, the tower-based analysis indicated that PT-JPL provided the highest overall statistical performance (0.72; 61 W m−2; 0.65), followed

  14. The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally gridded forcing data

    McCabe, M. F.; Ershadi, A.; Jimenez, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Michel, D.; Wood, E. F.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international efforts guiding the development of long-term and globally distributed flux estimates, continued product assessments are required to inform upon the selection of suitable model structures and also to establish the appropriateness of these multi-model simulations for global application. In support of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges (GEWEX) LandFlux project, four commonly used evaporation models are evaluated against data from tower-based eddy-covariance observations, distributed across a range of biomes and climate zones. The selected schemes include the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) approach, the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model, the Penman-Monteith-based Mu model (PM-Mu) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). Here we seek to examine the fidelity of global evaporation simulations by examining the multi-model response to varying sources of forcing data. To do this, we perform parallel and collocated model simulations using tower-based data together with a global-scale grid-based forcing product. Through quantifying the multi-model response to high-quality tower data, a better understanding of the subsequent model response to the coarse-scale globally gridded data that underlies the LandFlux product can be obtained, while also providing a relative evaluation and assessment of model performance. Using surface flux observations from 45 globally distributed eddy-covariance stations as independent metrics of performance, the tower-based analysis indicated that PT-JPL provided the highest overall statistical performance (0.72; 61 W m-2; 0.65), followed closely by GLEAM (0.68; 64 W m-2

  15. Robust breathing signal extraction from cone beam CT projections based on adaptive and global optimization techniques

    Chao, Ming; Yuan, Yading; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Lo, Yeh-Chi; Wei, Jie; Li, Tianfang

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of extracting respiratory signals from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections within the framework of the Amsterdam Shroud (AS) technique. Acquired prior to the radiotherapy treatment, CBCT projections were preprocessed for contrast enhancement by converting the original intensity images to attenuation images with which the AS image was created. An adaptive robust z-normalization filtering was applied to further augment the weak oscillating structures locally. From the enhanced AS image, the respiratory signal was extracted using a two-step optimization approach to effectively reveal the large-scale regularity of the breathing signals. CBCT projection images from five patients acquired with the Varian Onboard Imager on the Clinac iX System Linear Accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) were employed to assess the proposed technique. Stable breathing signals can be reliably extracted using the proposed algorithm. Reference waveforms obtained using an air bellows belt (Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH) were exported and compared to those with the AS based signals. The average errors for the enrolled patients between the estimated breath per minute (bpm) and the reference waveform bpm can be as low as  −0.07 with the standard deviation 1.58. The new algorithm outperformed the original AS technique for all patients by 8.5% to 30%. The impact of gantry rotation on the breathing signal was assessed with data acquired with a Quasar phantom (Modus Medical Devices Inc., London, Canada) and found to be minimal on the signal frequency. The new technique developed in this work will provide a practical solution to rendering markerless breathing signal using the CBCT projections for thoracic and abdominal patients. (paper)

  16. Partial support for the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Core Project Office

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2001-05-04

    IGAC provides an international framework for the planning, coordination, and execution of atmospheric--biospheric research with emphasis on projects which require resources beyond the capabilities of any single nation. The development of chemical emission inventories by IGAC scientists, the development and intercomparison under IGAC leadership of existing chemical transport models, the analysis of data gathered during IGAC-sponsored field campaigns, etc., has provided new scientific information essential to the development of the discipline.

  17. Adherence to antidepressant treatment

    Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a common disorder with painful symptoms and, frequently, social impairment and decreased quality of life. The disorder has a tendency to be long lasting, often with frequent recurrence of symptoms. The risk of relapse and the severity of the symptoms may be reduced by correct...... of dependence of antidepressant medicine, have a great influence on adherence to treatment....

  18. adherence to antiretroviral regimens

    to macro- and microeconomic costs.' What soon became evident, however, was the vital importance of patient adherence with prescribed medication in order to garner the benefits that were so rapidly becoming available. As a result, much attention has recently been paid to this aspect of management. Both clinicians and ...

  19. Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel

    Stubenrauch, C. J.; Rossow, W. B.; Kinne, S.; Ackerman, S.; Cesana, G.; Chepfer, H.; Getzewich, B.; Di Girolamo, L.; Guignard, A.; Heidinger, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the whole globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years in length. However, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provided the first coordinated intercomparison of publically available, standard global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multiangle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. A monthly, gridded database, in common format, facilitates further assessments, climate studies and the evaluation of climate models.

  20. Examining the Efficacy of Project-Based Learning on Cultivating the 21st Century Skills among High School Students in a Global Context

    Lin, Chi-Syan; Ma, Jung-Tsan; Kuo, Karen Yi-Chwen; Chou, Chien-Tzu Candace

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study is to explore the opportunities and challenges associated with Project-Based Learning strategy in a global context on the aspects of both fostering learning community of practices and nurturing the 21st century skills. For collecting empirical data, the study implements and administers an online international project-based…

  1. Patient non-adherence: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Dalvi, Vidya; Mekoth, Nandakumar

    2017-04-18

    Purpose While interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) has been used in health psychology research, it has so far not been applied to seek deeper insights into the patients' experiences about treatment. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by using IPA to understand patient non-adherence. Design/methodology/approach In total, 18 patients with chronic conditions seeking healthcare services in Goa and Karnataka, India, were selected by using the snowball sampling method. In-depth interviews were conducted face to face. A semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to collect the data. IPA was used to explore the themes to predict patient non-adherence. Findings The study results indicate that economic factors, health system related factors, social factors and psychological factors impact patient non-adherence. Patient non-adherence includes medication non-adherence and lifestyle modification non-adherence. Research limitations/implications Being cross sectional in design, the results may not be as appropriate as the results derived from a longitudinal study given that non-adherence occurs over time. Practical implications Patient non-adherence is a global health issue. Multidisciplinary approach to enhance patient adherence to treatment should form part of public healthcare policy. Social implications Exploring the factors influencing patient non-adherence will help the health-care industry stakeholders to reduce healthcare cost and improve patient's quality of life. Originality/value Although there is extensive quantitative research on the prevalence of non-adherence, qualitative research is limited. This paper addresses this gap by using IPA to understand patient non-adherence and its factors and dimensions.

  2. The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally-gridded forcing data

    McCabe, M. F.; Ershadi, A.; Jimenez, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Michel, D.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-08-01

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international efforts guiding the development of long-term and globally distributed flux estimates, continued product assessments are required to inform upon the selection of suitable model structures and also to establish the appropriateness of these multi-model simulations for global application. In support of the objectives of the GEWEX LandFlux project, four commonly used evaporation models are evaluated against data from tower-based eddy-covariance observations, distributed across a range of biomes and climate zones. The selected schemes include the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) approach, the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model, the Penman-Monteith based Mu model (PM-Mu) and the Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM). Here we seek to examine the fidelity of global evaporation simulations by examining the multi-model response to varying sources of forcing data. To do this, we perform parallel and collocated model simulations using tower-based data together with a global-scale grid-based forcing product. Through quantifying the multi-model response to high-quality tower data, a better understanding of the subsequent model response to coarse-scale globally gridded data that underlies the LandFlux product can be obtained, while also providing a relative evaluation and assessment of model performance. Using surface flux observations from forty-five globally distributed eddy-covariance stations as independent metrics of performance, the tower-based analysis indicated that PT-JPL provided the highest overally statistical performance (0.72; 61 W m-2; 0.65), followed closely by GLEAM (0.68; 64 W m-2; 0.62), with values in

  3. The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally-gridded forcing data

    McCabe, Matthew

    2015-08-24

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international efforts guiding the development of long-term and globally distributed flux estimates, continued product assessments are required to inform upon the selection of suitable model structures and also to establish the appropriateness of these multi-model simulations for global application. In support of the objectives of the GEWEX LandFlux project, four commonly used evaporation models are evaluated against data from tower-based eddy-covariance observations, distributed across a range of biomes and climate zones. The selected schemes include the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) approach, the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model, the Penman-Monteith based Mu model (PM-Mu) and the Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM). Here we seek to examine the fidelity of global evaporation simulations by examining the multi-model response to varying sources of forcing data. To do this, we perform parallel and collocated model simulations using tower-based data together with a global-scale grid-based forcing product. Through quantifying the multi-model response to high-quality tower data, a better understanding of the subsequent model response to coarse-scale globally gridded data that underlies the LandFlux product can be obtained, while also providing a relative evaluation and assessment of model performance.

    Using surface flux observations from forty-five globally distributed eddy-covariance stations as independent metrics of performance, the tower-based analysis indicated that PT-JPL provided the highest overally statistical performance (0.72; 61 W m−2; 0.65), followed closely by GLEAM (0.68; 64 W m

  4. Creative Climate: A global ten-year communications, research and learning project about environmental change

    Brandon, M. A.; Smith, J.

    2010-12-01

    The next ten years have been described by influential science and policy figures as ‘the most important in human history’. Many believe that the actions taken will decide whether we catastrophically change the atmosphere and eradicate our fellow species or find an alternative, less-damaging development path. But communications and public engagement initiatives have tended to focus on near term impacts or debates - whether they emphasise hazards, or trumpet ‘solutions’. There are signs of diminishing returns on communications and public engagement efforts, and serious obstacles to engaging around 40% of publics in e.g. the US and the UK. The Creative Climate web project takes a new approach, inviting people to see humanity’s intellectual and practical journey with these issues as an inspiring, dynamic and unfolding story. We are inviting people to join us in building a huge living archive of experiences and ideas that respond to these issues. The website will collect thoughts and stories from doorstep to workplace, from lab to garden; from international conference to community meeting - from all over the world. The body of diaries lie at the core of the project, but these are supplemented by the offer of free online learning resources and broadcast-quality audio and video materials. The project is experimental in terms of its scope, its approach to environmental communications and debate and in its use of media. It works with formal partners, including the BBC, yet also makes the most of the opportunities for user generated content to create a rich multimedia resource that can support research, learning and engagement. The design of the project is informed by environmental social science and communications research, and by an awareness of the unfolding potential of Internet based communications to support social change. It is also intended that the Creative Climate platform will develop so as to serve researchers by offering an open resource of qualitative

  5. Teaching Climate Change Using System Models: An Understanding Global Change Project Pilot Study

    Bean, J. R.; Stuhlsatz, M.; Bracey, Z. B.; Marshall, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Teaching and learning about historical and anthropogenic climate change in the classroom requires integrating instructional resources that address physical, chemical, and biological processes. The Understanding Global Change (UGC) framework and system models developed at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) provide visualizations of the relationships and feedbacks between Earth system processes, and the consequences of anthropogenic activities on global climate. This schema provides a mechanism for developing pedagogic narratives that are known to support comprehension and retention of information and relationships. We designed a nine-day instructional unit for middle and high school students that includes a sequence of hands-on, inquiry-based, data rich activities combined with conceptual modeling exercises intended to foster students' development of systems thinking and their understanding of human influences on Earth system processes. The pilot unit, Sea Level Rise in the San Francisco Bay Area, addresses the human causes and consequences of sea level rise and related Earth system processes (i.e., the water cycle and greenhouse effect). Most of the content is not Bay Area specific, and could be used to explore sea level rise in any coastal region. Students completed pre and post assessments, which included questions about the connectedness of components of the Earth system and probed their attitudes towards participating in environmental stewardship activities. Students sequentially drew models representing the content explored in the activities and wrote short descriptions of their system diagrams that were collected by teachers for analysis. We also randomly assigned classes to engage in a very short additional intervention that asked students to think about the role that humans play in the Earth system and to draw themselves into the models. The study will determine if these students have higher stewardship scores and more frequently

  6. Projected Changes on the Global Surface Wave Drift Climate towards the END of the Twenty-First Century

    Carrasco, Ana; Semedo, Alvaro; Behrens, Arno; Weisse, Ralf; Breivik, Øyvind; Saetra, Øyvind; Håkon Christensen, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The global wave-induced current (the Stokes Drift - SD) is an important feature of the ocean surface, with mean values close to 10 cm/s along the extra-tropical storm tracks in both hemispheres. Besides the horizontal displacement of large volumes of water the SD also plays an important role in the ocean mix-layer turbulence structure, particularly in stormy or high wind speed areas. The role of the wave-induced currents in the ocean mix-layer and in the sea surface temperature (SST) is currently a hot topic of air-sea interaction research, from forecast to climate ranges. The SD is mostly driven by wind sea waves and highly sensitive to changes in the overlaying wind speed and direction. The impact of climate change in the global wave-induced current climate will be presented. The wave model WAM has been forced by the global climate model (GCM) ECHAM5 wind speed (at 10 m height) and ice, for present-day and potential future climate conditions towards the end of the end of the twenty-first century, represented by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) CMIP3 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 3) A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (usually referred to as a ''medium-high emissions'' scenario). Several wave parameters were stored as output in the WAM model simulations, including the wave spectra. The 6 hourly and 0.5°×0.5°, temporal and space resolution, wave spectra were used to compute the SD global climate of two 32-yr periods, representative of the end of the twentieth (1959-1990) and twenty-first (1969-2100) centuries. Comparisons of the present climate run with the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-40 reanalysis are used to assess the capability of the WAM-ECHAM5 runs to produce realistic SD results. This study is part of the WRCP-JCOMM COWCLIP (Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate Project) effort.

  7. GIS-project: geodynamic globe for global monitoring of geological processes

    Ryakhovsky, V.; Rundquist, D.; Gatinsky, Yu.; Chesalova, E.

    2003-04-01

    A multilayer geodynamic globe at the scale 1:10,000,000 was created at the end of the nineties in the GIS Center of the Vernadsky Museum. A special soft-and-hardware complex was elaborated for its visualization with a set of multitarget object directed databases. The globe includes separate thematic covers represented by digital sets of spatial geological, geochemical, and geophysical information (maps, schemes, profiles, stratigraphic columns, arranged databases etc.). At present the largest databases included in the globe program are connected with petrochemical and isotopic data on magmatic rocks of the World Ocean and with the large and supperlarge mineral deposits. Software by the Environmental Scientific Research Institute (ESRI), USA as well as ArcScan vectrorizator were used for covers digitizing and database adaptation (ARC/INFO 7.0, 8.0). All layers of the geoinformational project were obtained by scanning of separate objects and their transfer to the real geographic co-ordinates of an equiintermediate conic projection. Then the covers were projected on plane degree-system geographic co-ordinates. Some attributive databases were formed for each thematic layer, and in the last stage all covers were combined into the single information system. Separate digital covers represent mathematical descriptions of geological objects and relations between them, such as Earth's altimetry, active fault systems, seismicity etc. Some grounds of the cartographic generalization were taken into consideration in time of covers compilation with projection and co-ordinate systems precisely answered a given scale. The globe allows us to carry out in the interactive regime the formation of coordinated with each other object-oriented databases and thematic covers directly connected with them. They can be spread for all the Earth and the near-Earth space, and for the most well known parts of divergent and convergent boundaries of the lithosphere plates. Such covers and time series

  8. Global Calibration of Multi-Cameras Based on Refractive Projection and Ray Tracing

    Mingchi Feng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-camera systems are widely applied in the three dimensional (3D computer vision, especially when multiple cameras are distributed on both sides of the measured object. The calibration methods of multi-camera systems are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement and the key is to find an appropriate calibration target. In this paper, a high-precision camera calibration method for multi-camera systems based on transparent glass checkerboards and ray tracing is described, and is used to calibrate multiple cameras distributed on both sides of the glass checkerboard. Firstly, the intrinsic parameters of each camera are obtained by Zhang’s calibration method. Then, multiple cameras capture several images from the front and back of the glass checkerboard with different orientations, and all images contain distinct grid corners. As the cameras on one side are not affected by the refraction of glass checkerboard, extrinsic parameters can be directly calculated. However, the cameras on the other side are influenced by the refraction of glass checkerboard, and the direct use of projection model will produce a calibration error. A multi-camera calibration method using refractive projection model and ray tracing is developed to eliminate this error. Furthermore, both synthetic and real data are employed to validate the proposed approach. The experimental results of refractive calibration show that the error of the 3D reconstruction is smaller than 0.2 mm, the relative errors of both rotation and translation are less than 0.014%, and the mean and standard deviation of reprojection error of the four-camera system are 0.00007 and 0.4543 pixels, respectively. The proposed method is flexible, highly accurate, and simple to carry out.

  9. Outline for a Global Environmental Strategic Planning Exercise (GESPE-project)

    De Vries, H.J.M.; Fiddaman, T.; Janssen, R.

    1993-05-01

    There are good prospects to have an operational policy exercise before summer 1994, for which there will be ample interest among policy-oriented and educationally oriented people and institutions. In Chapter 1 the history of the project is described. In Chapter 2 some insights and methods are discussed, which are valuable in designing a policy exercise, among them the notion of bounded rationality, the four political cultures as distinguished by Schwarz and Thompson, and the framework of the policy life-cycle. Briefly, some lessons to be learnt from other international environmental problems are indicated. Next, attention is paid to Mintzberg's decision theory as a way to structure the negotiation processes about greenhouse gas emissions. Some related approaches from game theory and negotiations analysis are discussed, as well as some previous projects with regard to climate change policy formulation. In Chapter 3 Mintzberg's theory is applied. A set-up along the steps of design and selection is given to frame the design of the policy exercise. Decision support tools for evaluation of strategies and negotiations, for information handling and the simulation models are discussed. The set of simulation models consists of national models of each participant nation - the 'model world', which are linked through a simple climate change model and through trade relations and resource depletion phenomena. Next, the choice of actors is dealt with: the national governments, and the interfaces between the computer and the actors/participants. Finally, the hard- and software to be used and the potential users are briefly discussed. Chapter 4 is a description of the World 4.0 model, which is an extension of the World3 model by Meadows and others. At present it is only implemented at the aggregate world level and consists of some twelve submodels. Each submodel is briefly discussed with the emphasis on the energy and minerals model and its response

  10. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project: Methodology of a 34-Country Population-Based Study

    Solomon, Anthony W.; Pavluck, Alexandre L.; Courtright, Paul; Aboe, Agatha; Adamu, Liknaw; Alemayehu, Wondu; Alemu, Menbere; Alexander, Neal D. E.; Kello, Amir Bedri; Bero, Berhanu; Brooker, Simon J.; Chu, Brian K.; Dejene, Michael; Emerson, Paul M.; Flueckiger, Rebecca M.; Gadisa, Solomon; Gass, Katherine; Gebre, Teshome; Habtamu, Zelalem; Harvey, Erik; Haslam, Dominic; King, Jonathan D.; Mesurier, Richard Le; Lewallen, Susan; Lietman, Thomas M.; MacArthur, Chad; Mariotti, Silvio P.; Massey, Anna; Mathieu, Els; Mekasha, Addis; Millar, Tom; Mpyet, Caleb; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ogden, Stephanie; Pearce, Joseph; Sarah, Virginia; Sisay, Alemayehu; Smith, Jennifer L.; Taylor, Hugh R.; Thomson, Jo; West, Sheila K.; Willis, Rebecca; Bush, Simon; Haddad, Danny; Foster, Allen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To complete the baseline trachoma map worldwide by conducting population-based surveys in an estimated 1238 suspected endemic districts of 34 countries. Methods: A series of national and sub-national projects owned, managed and staffed by ministries of health, conduct house-to-house cluster random sample surveys in evaluation units, which generally correspond to “health district” size: populations of 100,000–250,000 people. In each evaluation unit, we invite all residents aged 1 year and older from h households in each of c clusters to be examined for clinical signs of trachoma, where h is the number of households that can be seen by 1 team in 1 day, and the product h × c is calculated to facilitate recruitment of 1019 children aged 1–9 years. In addition to individual-level demographic and clinical data, household-level water, sanitation and hygiene data are entered into the purpose-built LINKS application on Android smartphones, transmitted to the Cloud, and cleaned, analyzed and ministry-of-health-approved via a secure web-based portal. The main outcome measures are the evaluation unit-level prevalence of follicular trachoma in children aged 1–9 years, prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in adults aged 15 + years, percentage of households using safe methods for disposal of human feces, and percentage of households with proximate access to water for personal hygiene purposes. Results: In the first year of fieldwork, 347 field teams commenced work in 21 projects in 7 countries. Conclusion: With an approach that is innovative in design and scale, we aim to complete baseline mapping of trachoma throughout the world in 2015. PMID:26158580

  11. Temperature and humidity based projections of a rapid rise in global heat stress exposure during the 21st century

    Coffel, Ethan D.; Horton, Radley M.; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2018-01-01

    As a result of global increases in both temperature and specific humidity, heat stress is projected to intensify throughout the 21st century. Some of the regions most susceptible to dangerous heat and humidity combinations are also among the most densely populated. Consequently, there is the potential for widespread exposure to wet bulb temperatures that approach and in some cases exceed postulated theoretical limits of human tolerance by mid- to late-century. We project that by 2080 the relative frequency of present-day extreme wet bulb temperature events could rise by a factor of 100-250 (approximately double the frequency change projected for temperature alone) in the tropics and parts of the mid-latitudes, areas which are projected to contain approximately half the world’s population. In addition, population exposure to wet bulb temperatures that exceed recent deadly heat waves may increase by a factor of five to ten, with 150-750 million person-days of exposure to wet bulb temperatures above those seen in today’s most severe heat waves by 2070-2080. Under RCP 8.5, exposure to wet bulb temperatures above 35 °C—the theoretical limit for human tolerance—could exceed a million person-days per year by 2080. Limiting emissions to follow RCP 4.5 entirely eliminates exposure to that extreme threshold. Some of the most affected regions, especially Northeast India and coastal West Africa, currently have scarce cooling infrastructure, relatively low adaptive capacity, and rapidly growing populations. In the coming decades heat stress may prove to be one of the most widely experienced and directly dangerous aspects of climate change, posing a severe threat to human health, energy infrastructure, and outdoor activities ranging from agricultural production to military training.

  12. Current status and future projections of LNG demand and supplies: A global prospective

    Kumar, Satish; Kwon, Hyouk-Tae; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Hyun Cho, Jae; Lim, Wonsub; Moon, Il

    2011-01-01

    An unceasing growth of gas consumption in domestic households, industry, and power plants has gradually turned natural gas into a major source of energy. Main drivers in this development are the technical and economic advantages of natural gas. It is a clean, versatile, and easily controllable fuel. On this basis, natural gas is often considered the form of energy that will be the 'bridging fuel' to a sustainable energy system, sometime after 2050. Unlike other main sources of energy, such as oil and coal, gas is not traded on an actual world market. This paper provides an overview on demand and supplies of natural gas (LNG) in the past as a function of gas prices, gas technology (gas sweetening, liquefaction, shipping and re-gasification), and gas market and how they have changed recently. It also discusses the likely developments in global LNG demand for the period to the year 2030. - Highlights: → This study provides an overview on demand and supplies of LNG in the past and future. → Outlook for LNG demand in Asia pacific region is very robust. → In past decade the shale gas production in USA has increased fivefold. → The future of European gas supply depends largely on the geopolitical environments. → Within the gas sector LNG is playing an ever increasing role in gas transportation.

  13. UN genocide commemoration, transnational scenes of mourning and the global project of learning from atrocity.

    Skillington, Tracey

    2013-09-01

    This paper offers a critical analytic reconstruction of some of the main symbolic properties of annual UN Holocaust and Rwandan genocide commemorations since 2005. Applying a discourse-historical approach (Wodak and Meyer 2010), it retraces how themes of guilt, responsibility, evil and redemption are woven together across annual commemorative performances in the hope of stabilizing shared patterns of cultural translation of the significance of these atrocities to globally dispersed communities. UN commemorative discourse characteristically links memories of Holocaust and Rwandan trauma in a 'chain of communication' with those of other episodes of brutality (e.g., Cambodia, Bosnia and Darfur) chiefly to convey the continuity of human barbarity across time and endorse certain presuppositions regarding the fate of a fallen humanity in this more 'post-secular' age. As scenes of mourning, UN commemorations unite participating international delegations in their expressions of grief for the victims of 'preventable tragedies' in the past but also, it must be said, their uncertainty regarding new horrors likely to occur in the future. The duty to remember is reiterated continuously as both a mark of respect to those who have already perished and as a warning of atrocities yet to unfold. This paper explores how the historical constancy of violence is interpreted by the UN through a detailed critical analysis of its recently inaugurated 'remembrance through education' programme aimed at a transnational collective learning from atrocity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  14. Physically-based global downscaling climate change projections for a full century

    Ghan, S J; Shippert, T

    2005-01-01

    A global atmosphere/land model with an embedded subgrid orography scheme is used to simulate the period 1977-2100 using ocean surface conditions and radiative constituent concentrations for a climate change scenario. Climate variables simulated for multiple elevation classes are mapping according to a high-resolution elevation dataset in ten regions with complex terrain. Analysis of changes in the simulated climate leads to the following conclusions. Changes in precipitation vary widely, with precipitation increasing more with increasing altitude in some region, decreasing more with altitude in others, and changing little in still others. In some regions the sign of the precipitation change depends on surface elevation. Changes in surface air temperature are rather uniform, with at most a two-fold difference between the largest and smallest changes within a region; in most cases the warming increases with altitude. Changes in snow water are highly dependent on altitude. Absolute changes usually increase with altitude, while relative changes decrease. In places where snow accumulates, an artificial upper bound on snow water limits the sensitivity of snow water to climate change considerably. The simulated impact of climate change on regional mean snow water varies widely, with little impact in regions in which the upper bound on snow water is the dominant snow water sink, moderate impact in regions with a mixture of seasonal and permanent snow, and profound impacts on regions with little permanent snow

  15. A comparative analysis of projected impacts of climate change on river runoff from global and catchment-scale hydrological models

    Gosling, S. N.; Taylor, R. G.; Arnell, N. W.; Todd, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis of projected impacts of climate change on river runoff from two types of distributed hydrological model, a global hydrological model (GHM) and catchment-scale hydrological models (CHM). Analyses are conducted for six catchments that are global in coverage and feature strong contrasts in spatial scale as well as climatic and developmental conditions. These include the Liard (Canada), Mekong (SE Asia), Okavango (SW Africa), Rio Grande (Brazil), Xiangxi (China) and Harper's Brook (UK). A single GHM (Mac-PDM.09) is applied to all catchments whilst different CHMs are applied for each catchment. The CHMs include SLURP v. 12.2 (Liard), SLURP v. 12.7 (Mekong), Pitman (Okavango), MGB-IPH (Rio Grande), AV-SWAT-X 2005 (Xiangxi) and Cat-PDM (Harper's Brook). The CHMs typically simulate water resource impacts based on a more explicit representation of catchment water resources than that available from the GHM and the CHMs include river routing, whereas the GHM does not. Simulations of mean annual runoff, mean monthly runoff and high (Q5) and low (Q95) monthly runoff under baseline (1961-1990) and climate change scenarios are presented. We compare the simulated runoff response of each hydrological model to (1) prescribed increases in global-mean air temperature of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 °C relative to baseline from the UKMO HadCM3 Global Climate Model (GCM) to explore response to different amounts of climate forcing, and (2) a prescribed increase in global-mean air temperature of 2.0 °C relative to baseline for seven GCMs to explore response to climate model structural uncertainty. We find that the differences in projected changes of mean annual runoff between the two types of hydrological model can be substantial for a given GCM (e.g. an absolute GHM-CHM difference in mean annual runoff percentage change for UKMO HadCM3 2 °C warming of up to 25%), and they are generally larger for indicators of high and low monthly runoff. However

  16. A comparative analysis of projected impacts of climate change on river runoff from global and catchment-scale hydrological models

    S. N. Gosling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative analysis of projected impacts of climate change on river runoff from two types of distributed hydrological model, a global hydrological model (GHM and catchment-scale hydrological models (CHM. Analyses are conducted for six catchments that are global in coverage and feature strong contrasts in spatial scale as well as climatic and developmental conditions. These include the Liard (Canada, Mekong (SE Asia, Okavango (SW Africa, Rio Grande (Brazil, Xiangxi (China and Harper's Brook (UK. A single GHM (Mac-PDM.09 is applied to all catchments whilst different CHMs are applied for each catchment. The CHMs include SLURP v. 12.2 (Liard, SLURP v. 12.7 (Mekong, Pitman (Okavango, MGB-IPH (Rio Grande, AV-SWAT-X 2005 (Xiangxi and Cat-PDM (Harper's Brook. The CHMs typically simulate water resource impacts based on a more explicit representation of catchment water resources than that available from the GHM and the CHMs include river routing, whereas the GHM does not. Simulations of mean annual runoff, mean monthly runoff and high (Q5 and low (Q95 monthly runoff under baseline (1961–1990 and climate change scenarios are presented. We compare the simulated runoff response of each hydrological model to (1 prescribed increases in global-mean air temperature of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 °C relative to baseline from the UKMO HadCM3 Global Climate Model (GCM to explore response to different amounts of climate forcing, and (2 a prescribed increase in global-mean air temperature of 2.0 °C relative to baseline for seven GCMs to explore response to climate model structural uncertainty.

    We find that the differences in projected changes of mean annual runoff between the two types of hydrological model can be substantial for a given GCM (e.g. an absolute GHM-CHM difference in mean annual runoff percentage change for UKMO HadCM3 2 °C warming of up to 25%, and they are generally larger for indicators of high and low monthly runoff

  17. The WACMOS-ET project – Part 2: Evaluation of global terrestrial evaporation data sets

    Miralles, D. G.; Jimé nez, C.; Jung, M.; Michel, D.; Ershadi, Ali; McCabe, Matthew; Hirschi, M.; Martens, B.; Dolman, A. J.; Fisher, J. B.; Mu, Q.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Wood, E. F.; Ferná ndez-Prieto, D.

    2016-01-01

    The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy – EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project aims to advance the development of land evaporation estimates on global and regional scales. Its main objective is the derivation, validation, and intercomparison of a group of existing evaporation retrieval algorithms driven by a common forcing data set. Three commonly used process-based evaporation methodologies are evaluated: the Penman–Monteith algorithm behind the official Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM), and the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL). The resulting global spatiotemporal variability of evaporation, the closure of regional water budgets, and the discrete estimation of land evaporation components or sources (i.e. transpiration, interception loss, and direct soil evaporation) are investigated using river discharge data, independent global evaporation data sets and results from previous studies. In a companion article (Part 1), Michel et al. (2016) inspect the performance of these three models at local scales using measurements from eddy-covariance towers and include in the assessment the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model. In agreement with Part 1, our results indicate that the Priestley and Taylor products (PT-JPL and GLEAM) perform best overall for most ecosystems and climate regimes. While all three evaporation products adequately represent the expected average geographical patterns and seasonality, there is a tendency in PM-MOD to underestimate the flux in the tropics and subtropics. Overall, results from GLEAM and PT-JPL appear more realistic when compared to surface water balances from 837 globally distributed catchments and to separate evaporation estimates from ERA-Interim and the model tree ensemble (MTE). Nonetheless, all products show large dissimilarities during conditions of water stress and

  18. The WACMOS-ET project – Part 2: Evaluation of global terrestrial evaporation data sets

    Miralles, D. G.

    2016-02-23

    The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy – EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project aims to advance the development of land evaporation estimates on global and regional scales. Its main objective is the derivation, validation, and intercomparison of a group of existing evaporation retrieval algorithms driven by a common forcing data set. Three commonly used process-based evaporation methodologies are evaluated: the Penman–Monteith algorithm behind the official Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM), and the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL). The resulting global spatiotemporal variability of evaporation, the closure of regional water budgets, and the discrete estimation of land evaporation components or sources (i.e. transpiration, interception loss, and direct soil evaporation) are investigated using river discharge data, independent global evaporation data sets and results from previous studies. In a companion article (Part 1), Michel et al. (2016) inspect the performance of these three models at local scales using measurements from eddy-covariance towers and include in the assessment the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model. In agreement with Part 1, our results indicate that the Priestley and Taylor products (PT-JPL and GLEAM) perform best overall for most ecosystems and climate regimes. While all three evaporation products adequately represent the expected average geographical patterns and seasonality, there is a tendency in PM-MOD to underestimate the flux in the tropics and subtropics. Overall, results from GLEAM and PT-JPL appear more realistic when compared to surface water balances from 837 globally distributed catchments and to separate evaporation estimates from ERA-Interim and the model tree ensemble (MTE). Nonetheless, all products show large dissimilarities during conditions of water stress and

  19. The association between poor sleep quality and global cortical atrophy is related to age. Results from the Atahualpa Project

    Oscar H. Del Brutto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Community-dwellers aged ≥60 years enrolled in the Atahualpa Project underwent brain MRI and were interviewed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Of 290 participants, 94 (32% had poor sleep quality and 143 (49% had global cortical atrophy (GCA. In a logistic regression model (adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factor, severe edentulism, symptoms of depression, the MoCA score, and neuroimaging signatures of cerebrovascular damage, poor sleep quality was associated with GCA (p=0.004. A multivariate probability model showed that the probability of moderate-to-severe GCA significantly increased in individuals with poor sleep quality aged ≥67 years. This study provides evidence for an association between poor sleep quality and GCA in older adults and the important interaction of age in this association.

  20. Attribution of projected changes in summertime US ozone and PM2.5 concentrations to global changes

    A. Guenther

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact that changes in future climate, anthropogenic US emissions, background tropospheric composition, and land-use have on summertime regional US ozone and PM2.5 concentrations is examined through a matrix of downscaled regional air quality simulations, where each set of simulations was conducted for five months of July climatology, using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ model. Projected regional scale changes in meteorology due to climate change under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC A2 scenario are derived through the downscaling of Parallel Climate Model (PCM output with the MM5 meteorological model. Future chemical boundary conditions are obtained through downscaling of MOZART-2 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2.4 global chemical model simulations based on the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES A2 emissions scenario. Projected changes in US anthropogenic emissions are estimated using the EPA Economic Growth Analysis System (EGAS, and changes in land-use are projected using data from the Community Land Model (CLM and the Spatially Explicit Regional Growth Model (SERGOM. For July conditions, changes in chemical boundary conditions are found to have the largest impact (+5 ppbv on average daily maximum 8-h (DM8H ozone. Changes in US anthropogenic emissions are projected to increase average DM8H ozone by +3 ppbv. Land-use changes are projected to have a significant influence on regional air quality due to the impact these changes have on biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. When climate changes and land-use changes are considered simultaneously, the average DM8H ozone decreases due to a reduction in biogenic VOC emissions (−2.6 ppbv. Changes in average 24-h (A24-h PM2.5 concentrations are dominated by projected changes in anthropogenic emissions (+3 μg m−3, while changes in chemical boundary conditions have a negligible effect. On average, climate change reduces A24-h PM2

  1. Ocean acidification over the next three centuries using a simple global climate carbon-cycle model: projections and sensitivities

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Patel, Pralit; Mundra, Anupriya

    2016-08-01

    Continued oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is projected to significantly alter the chemistry of the upper oceans over the next three centuries, with potentially serious consequences for marine ecosystems. Relatively few models have the capability to make projections of ocean acidification, limiting our ability to assess the impacts and probabilities of ocean changes. In this study we examine the ability of Hector v1.1, a reduced-form global model, to project changes in the upper ocean carbonate system over the next three centuries, and quantify the model's sensitivity to parametric inputs. Hector is run under prescribed emission pathways from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and compared to both observations and a suite of Coupled Model Intercomparison (CMIP5) model outputs. Current observations confirm that ocean acidification is already taking place, and CMIP5 models project significant changes occurring to 2300. Hector is consistent with the observational record within both the high- (> 55°) and low-latitude oceans (< 55°). The model projects low-latitude surface ocean pH to decrease from preindustrial levels of 8.17 to 7.77 in 2100, and to 7.50 in 2300; aragonite saturation levels (ΩAr) decrease from 4.1 units to 2.2 in 2100 and 1.4 in 2300 under RCP 8.5. These magnitudes and trends of ocean acidification within Hector are largely consistent with the CMIP5 model outputs, although we identify some small biases within Hector's carbonate system. Of the parameters tested, changes in [H+] are most sensitive to parameters that directly affect atmospheric CO2 concentrations – Q10 (terrestrial respiration temperature response) as well as changes in ocean circulation, while changes in ΩAr saturation levels are sensitive to changes in ocean salinity and Q10. We conclude that Hector is a robust tool well suited for rapid ocean acidification

  2. Glomed-Land: a research project to study the effect of global change in contrasted mediterranean landscapes and future scenarios

    Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.; Hueso-González, Paloma; León-Gross, Teodoro; Molina, Julián; Remond, Ricardo; Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2017-04-01

    The Global Change is referred to the occurrence of great environmental changes associated to climatic fluctuations and human activity as wel (Vitousek et al., 1997; Steffen et al., 2004; Dearing et al., 2006). García-Ruiz et al. (2015) indicated that the relief varies very slowly in time while the changes in vegetation, overland flow generation and erosion occurred very rapidly and conditioned by their interactions and the climate variability as well. The GLOMED-LAND Project has its bases and scientific justification on the combination of the experience of the members of the research team, from one side, in the analysis of the dynamics and eco-geomorphological and climatic processes in Mediterranean environments of southern Spain, in the context of current Global change, and from another, in the study, development and application of new tools for simulation and modelling of future scenarios, and finally, in the analysis of the impact that society exercises the broadcast media related to the problem derived from the awareness and adaptation to Global change. Climate change (CC), directly affects the elements that compose the landscape. Both in the analysis of future climate scenarios raised by the IPCC (2013), such as the regionalisation carried out by AEMET, the Mediterranean region and, especially, the South of Spain, - with its defined longitudinal pluviometric gradient - configured as one of the areas of greatest uncertainty, reflected in a higher concentration of temporal rainfall, and even a reduction in the rainfall. Faced with this situation, the CC can modify the current landscape setting, with all the environmental impacts that this would entail for the terrestrial ecosystems and the systemic services rendered to the society. The combination of different work scales allows the analysis of the dynamics of the landscape and the consequence of its modifications on, hydro-geomorphological processes, closely related to degradation processes that can affect the

  3. A Framework for Effective Assessment of Model-based Projections of Biodiversity to Inform the Next Generation of Global Conservation Targets

    Myers, B.; Beard, T. D.; Weiskopf, S. R.; Jackson, S. T.; Tittensor, D.; Harfoot, M.; Senay, G. B.; Casey, K.; Lenton, T. M.; Leidner, A. K.; Ruane, A. C.; Ferrier, S.; Serbin, S.; Matsuda, H.; Shiklomanov, A. N.; Rosa, I.

    2017-12-01

    Biodiversity and ecosystems services underpin political targets for the conservation of biodiversity; however, previous incarnations of these biodiversity-related targets have not relied on integrated model based projections of possible outcomes based on climate and land use change. Although a few global biodiversity models are available, most biodiversity models lie along a continuum of geography and components of biodiversity. Model-based projections of the future of global biodiversity are critical to support policymakers in the development of informed global conservation targets, but the scientific community lacks a clear strategy for integrating diverse data streams in developing, and evaluating the performance of, such biodiversity models. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a framework for ongoing testing and refinement of model-based projections of biodiversity trends and change, by linking a broad variety of biodiversity models with data streams generated by advances in remote sensing, coupled with new and emerging in-situ observation technologies to inform development of essential biodiversity variables, future global biodiversity targets, and indicators. Our two main objectives are to (1) develop a framework for model testing and refining projections of a broad range of biodiversity models, focusing on global models, through the integration of diverse data streams and (2) identify the realistic outputs that can be developed and determine coupled approaches using remote sensing and new and emerging in-situ observations (e.g., metagenomics) to better inform the next generation of global biodiversity targets.

  4. Quantifying the effect of autonomous adaptation to global river flood projections: application to future flood risk assessments

    Kinoshita, Youhei; Tanoue, Masahiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hirabayashi, Yukiko

    2018-01-01

    This study represents the first attempt to quantify the effects of autonomous adaptation on the projection of global flood hazards and to assess future flood risk by including this effect. A vulnerability scenario, which varies according to the autonomous adaptation effect for conventional disaster mitigation efforts, was developed based on historical vulnerability values derived from flood damage records and a river inundation simulation. Coupled with general circulation model outputs and future socioeconomic scenarios, potential future flood fatalities and economic loss were estimated. By including the effect of autonomous adaptation, our multimodel ensemble estimates projected a 2.0% decrease in potential flood fatalities and an 821% increase in potential economic losses by 2100 under the highest emission scenario together with a large population increase. Vulnerability changes reduced potential flood consequences by 64%-72% in terms of potential fatalities and 28%-42% in terms of potential economic losses by 2100. Although socioeconomic changes made the greatest contribution to the potential increased consequences of future floods, about a half of the increase of potential economic losses was mitigated by autonomous adaptation. There is a clear and positive relationship between the global temperature increase from the pre-industrial level and the estimated mean potential flood economic loss, while there is a negative relationship with potential fatalities due to the autonomous adaptation effect. A bootstrapping analysis suggests a significant increase in potential flood fatalities (+5.7%) without any adaptation if the temperature increases by 1.5 °C-2.0 °C, whereas the increase in potential economic loss (+0.9%) was not significant. Our method enables the effects of autonomous adaptation and additional adaptation efforts on climate-induced hazards to be distinguished, which would be essential for the accurate estimation of the cost of adaptation to

  5. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  6. Improving the effectiveness of communication about climate science: Insights from the "Global Warming's Six Americas" audience segmentation research project

    Maibach, E.; Roser-Renouf, C.

    2011-12-01

    That the climate science community has not been entirely effective in sharing what it knows about climate change with the broader public - and with policy makers and organizations that should be considering climate change when making decisions - is obvious. Our research shows that a large majority of the American public trusts scientists (76%) and science-based agencies (e.g., 76% trust NOAA) as sources of information about climate change. Yet, despite the widespread agreement in the climate science community that the climate is changing as a result of human activity, only 64% of the public understand that the world's average temperature has been increasing (and only about half of them are sure), less than half (47%) understand that the warming is caused mostly by human activity, and only 39% understand that most scientists think global warming is happening (in fact, only 13% understand that the large majority of climate scientists think global warming is happening). Less obvious is what the climate science community should do to become more effective in sharing what it knows. In this paper, we will use evidence from our "Global Warming's Six Americas" audience segmentation research project to suggest ways that individual climate scientists -- and perhaps more importantly, ways in which climate science agencies and professional societies -- can enhance the effectiveness of their communication efforts. We will conclude by challenging members of the climate science community to identify and convey "simple, clear messages, repeated often, by a variety of trusted sources" - an approach to communication repeatedly shown to be effective by the public health community.

  7. Exploring Patterns of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition with Students and the Public Through the Global Decomposition Project (GDP)

    Wood, J. H.; Natali, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Decomposition Project (GDP) is a program designed to introduce and educate students and the general public about soil organic matter and decomposition through a standardized protocol for collecting, reporting, and sharing data. This easy-to-use hands-on activity focuses on questions such as "How do environmental conditions control decomposition of organic matter in soil?" and "Why do some areas accumulate organic matter and others do not?" Soil organic matter is important to local ecosystems because it affects soil structure, regulates soil moisture and temperature, and provides energy and nutrients to soil organisms. It is also important globally because it stores a large amount of carbon, and when microbes "eat", or decompose organic matter they release greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, which affects the earth's climate. The protocol describes a commonly used method to measure decomposition using a paper made of cellulose, a component of plant cell walls. Participants can receive pre-made cellulose decomposition bags, or make decomposition bags using instructions in the protocol and easily obtained materials (e.g., window screen and lignin-free paper). Individual results will be shared with all participants and the broader public through an online database. We will present decomposition bag results from a research site in Alaskan tundra, as well as from a middle-school-student led experiment in California. The GDP demonstrates how scientific methods can be extended to educate broader audiences, while at the same time, data collected by students and the public can provide new insight into global patterns of soil decomposition. The GDP provides a pathway for scientists and educators to interact and reach meaningful education and research goals.

  8. Can a digital medicine system improve adherence to antipsychotic treatment?

    Papola, D; Gastaldon, C; Ostuzzi, G

    2018-06-01

    A substantial proportion of people with mental health conditions do not adhere to prescribed pharmacological treatments. Poor adherence is probably one of the most critical elements contributing to relapse in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders. In order to tackle this global issue, in November 2017 the Food and Drug Administration approved a tablet formulation of the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole embedded with a novel digital adherence-assessment device. In this commentary, we critically appraised the potential beneficial and harmful consequences of this new digital formulation of aripiprazole, and we highlighted expected implications for clinical practice.

  9. Patient adherence with COPD therapy

    C. S. Rand

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there are very few published studies on adherence to treatment regimens in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the evidence that exists suggests that, as with asthma therapy, adherence is poor. Patient beliefs about COPD, as well as their motivation and expectations about the likelihood of success of medical interventions, can influence adherence rates. Other critical factors include the patient's understanding of their illness and therapy, and the complexity of the prescribed treatment regimen. Incorrect inhaler technique is also a common failing. When prescribing in primary or specialist care, healthcare professionals should address adherence as a vital part of the patient consultation. Improved patient education may also increase adherence rates.

  10. MUsical Tools for ENhancing the Awareness of Global Emergencies (The MUTENAGE Project)

    Lanza, T.; Menghini, A.; Pontani, S.; Sapia, V.

    2017-12-01

    What if the sound extrapolated from the Earth, using a codified methodology, would raise emotions in accordance with the environmental critical issues of a particular site? Antonio Menghini (geophysicist expert of the TEM Method) and Stefano Pontani (a musician) have codified a procedure that transforms geophysical data (transient electromagnetic) into musical notes. Now it is possible to compose musical tracks describing faithfully the risk and geological issues related to different environmental scenarios: 1) Pollution of aquifers; 2) Seawater intrusion along the coastlines; 3) Seismic risk; 4) Drought; 5) Permafrost melting For each of these environmental emergencies, the TEM method (Time Domain Electromagnetics) shows an excellent diagnostic feature, so that the technical-scientific community widely employs it since many year. In fact, the variations of the recorded signal (voltage) reflect the modifications induced on the Earth system. Associating well defined musical "footprints" to these geophysical variations, through the sonification process, we have an extraordinary didactic-popular tool, able to make the impact of climatic-environmental changes easily understandable to the common people and to students of every age and grade. We will present some examples, one being the musical effect of seawater intrusion, that is well marked by the progressive increase of the pitches, when approaching the coastline. Other interesting examples come from the sonification of the TEM data acquired on seismic area especially highlighting the effect of seismic wave amplification associated to earthquakes. Besides being a new source of inspiration for musicians, the MUTENAGE Project is intended for delivering didactic tools, for scientific museums and schools, and a series of EM concerts, that will be located in different countries, for each of the above mentioned environmental issues.

  11. Project CLIMPEAT - Influence of global warming and drought on the carbon sequestration and biodiversity of Sphagnum peatlands

    Lamentowicz, M.; Buttler, A.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Chojnicki, B.; Słowińska, S.; Słowiński, M.

    2012-04-01

    Northern peatlands represent a globally significant pool of carbon and are subject to the highest rates of climate warming, and most of these peatlands are in continental settings. However, it is unclear if how fast peatlands respond to past and present changes in temperature and surface moisture in continental vs. oceanic climate settings. The CLIMPEAT project brings together scientists from Poland and Switzerland. Our goal is to assess the past and present vulnerability to climate change of Sphagnum peatland plant and microbial communities, peat organic matter transformations and carbon sequestration using a combination of field and mesocosm experiments simulating warming and water table changes and palaeoecological studies. Warming will be achieved using ITEX-type "Open-Top Chambers". The field studies are conducted in Poland, at the limit between oceanic and continental climates, and are part of a network of projects also including field experiments in the French Jura (sub-oceanic) and in Siberia (continental). We will calibrate the response of key biological (plants, testate amoebae) and geochemical (isotopic composition of organic compounds, organic matter changes) proxies to warming and water table changes and use these proxies to reconstruct climate changes during the last 1000 years.

  12. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old from public schools participate in science clubs outside of their regular school schedule. A comparison study was performed between different groups, in order to assess GLOBE's applicability as a learning science atmosphere and the motivation and interest it generates in students toward science. Internationally applied scales were used as tools for measuring such indicators, adapted to the Costa Rican context. The results provide evidence statistically significant that the students perceive the GLOBE atmosphere as an enriched environment for science learning in comparison with the traditional science class. Moreover, students feel more confident, motivated and interested in science than their peers who do not participate in the project. However, the results were not statistically significant in this last respect.

  13. The GULLS project: a comparison of vulnerabilities across selected ocean hotspots and implications for adaptation to global change.

    Cochrane, K.; Hobday, A. J.; Aswani, S.; Byfield, V.; Dutra, L.; Gasalla, M.; Haward, M.; Paytan, A.; Pecl, G.; Plaganyi-Lloyd, E.; Popova, K.; Salim, S. S.; Savage, C.; Sauer, W.; van Putten, I. E.; Visser, N.; Team, T G

    2016-12-01

    The GULLS project, `Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities' has been underway since October 2014. The project has been investigating six regional `hotspots': marine areas experiencing rapid warming. These are south-east Australia, Brazil, India, Solomon Islands, South Africa, and the Mozambique Channel and Madagascar. Rapid warming could be expected to have social, cultural and economic impacts that could affect these countries in different ways and may already be doing so. GULLS has focused on contributing to assessing and reducing the vulnerability of coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources and to facilitate adaptation to climate change and variability through an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach. It includes participants from Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The research programme has been divided into six inter-linked components: ocean models, biological and ecological sensitivity analyses, system models, social vulnerability, policy mapping, and communication and education. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each of these components and describe the benefits that have resulted from the collaborative and transdisciplinary approach of GULLS. Following the standard vulnerability elements of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, the vulnerabilities of coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources in the five hotspots will be compared using a set of indicators derived and populated from results of the research programme. The implications of similarities and differences between the hotspots for adaptation planning and options will be described.

  14. Bacterial adherence to anodized titanium alloy

    Peremarch, C Perez-Jorge; Tanoira, R Perez; Arenas, M A; Matykina, E; Conde, A; De Damborenea, J J; Gomez Barrena, E; Esteban, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp adhesion to modified surfaces of anodized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Surface modification involved generation of fluoride-containing titanium oxide nanotube films. Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23- meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form a 100 nm-thick porous film of 20 nm pore diameter and 230 nm-thick nanotube films of 100 nm in diameter. The amount of fluorine in the oxide films was of 6% and of 4%, respectively. Collection strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. The experiments were performed in triplicates. As a result, lower adherence was detected for collection strains in modified materials than in unmodified controls. Differences between clinical strains were detected for both species (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test), although global data showed similar results to that of collection strains (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Adherence of bacteria to modified surfaces was decreased for both species. The results also reflect a difference in the adherence between S. aureus and S. epidermidis to the modified material. As a conclusion, not only we were able to confirm the decrease of adherence in the modified surface, but also the need to test multiple clinical strains to obtain more realistic microbiological results due to intraspecies differences.

  15. Implementing the global plan to stop TB, 2011-2015 - optimizing allocations and the global fund's contribution: A scenario projections study

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline); P. Glaziou (Philippe); C. Fitzpatrick (Christopher); K. Floyd (Katherine); M. Hosseini (Mehran); M.C. Raviglione (Mario); R. Atun (Rifat); B. Williams (Brian)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments

  16. Correlates of Pediatric CPAP Adherence

    Hawkins, Stephen M.M.; Jensen, Emily L.; Simon, Stacey L.; Friedman, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common pediatric condition characterized by recurrent partial or complete cessation of airflow during sleep, typically due to inadequate upper airway patency. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a therapeutic option that reduces morbidity. Despite efforts to promote use, CPAP adherence is poor in both pediatric and adult populations. We sought to determine whether demographics, insurance status, OSA severity, therapeutic pressure, or comorbid conditions were associated with pediatric CPAP adherence. Methods: A retrospective review of adherence download data was performed on all pediatric patients with initiation or adjustment of CPAP treatment over a one-year period with documented in-laboratory CPAP titration. Patients were grouped as CPAP adherent or non-adherent, where adherence was defined as > 70% nightly use and average usage ≥ 4 hours per night. Differences between the groups were analyzed by χ2 test. Results: Overall, nearly half of participants were CPAP adherent (49%, 69/140). Of the demographic data collected (age, ethnicity, sex, insurance status), only female sex was associated with better adherence (60.9% vs 39.5% of males adherent; odds ratio [OR] = 2.41, 95%CI = 1.20–4.85; p = 0.01). Severity of OSA (diagnostic apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and degree of hypoxemia), therapeutic pressure, and residual AHI did not impact CPAP adherence (p > 0.05). Patients with developmental delay (DD) were more likely to be adherent with CPAP than those without a DD diagnosis (OR = 2.55, 95%CI = 1.27–5.13; p = 0.007). Female patients with trisomy 21 tended to be more adherent, but this did not reach significance or account for the overall increased adherence associated with female sex. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that adherence to CPAP therapy is poor but suggests that female sex and developmental delay are associated with better adherence. These findings support efforts to understand the

  17. Operational research within a Global Fund supported tuberculosis project in India: why, how and its contribution towards change in policy and practice

    Sagili, Karuna D; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Chadha, Sarabjit S; Wilson, Nevin C; Kumar, Ajay M V; Oeltmann, John E; Chadha, Vineet K; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Ghosh, Smita; Q Lo, Terrence; Volkmann, Tyson; Willis, Matthew; Shringarpure, Kalpita; Reddy, Ravichandra Chinnappa; Kumar, Prahlad; Nair, Sreenivas A; Rao, Raghuram; Yassin, Mohammed; Mwangala, Perry; Zachariah, Rony; Tonsing, Jamhoih; Harries, Anthony D; Khaparde, Sunil

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. Objectives: To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice. Methods: From September 2010 to September 2016, three key OR-related activities were implemented. First, practical output-oriented modular training courses were conducted (n = 3) to build research capacity of personnel involved in the TB programme, co-facilitated by The Union, in collaboration with the national TB programme, WHO country office and CDC, Atlanta. Second, two large-scale Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) surveys were conducted at baseline and mid-project to assess the changes pertaining to TB knowledge, attitudes and practices among the general population, TB patients and health care providers over the project period. Third, studies were conducted to describe the project’s core activities and outcomes. Results: In the training courses, 44 participant teams were supported to develop research protocols on topics of national priority, resulting in 28 peer-reviewed scientific publications. The KAP surveys and description of project activities resulted in 14 peer-reviewed publications. Of the published papers at least 12 have influenced change in policy or practice. Conclusions: OR within a Global Fund supported TB project has resulted in building OR capacity, facilitating research in areas of national priority and

  18. Projection of U.S. forest sector carbon sequestration under U.S. and global timber market and wood energy consumption scenarios, 2010-2060

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a modeling framework to examine change over time in U.S. forest sector carbon inventory (in U.S. timberland tree biomass and harvested wood products) for alternative projections of U.S. and global timber markets, including wood energy consumption, based on established IPCC/RPA scenarios. Results indicated that the U.S. forest sector’s projected...

  19. Marine N2O Emissions From Nitrification and Denitrification Constrained by Modern Observations and Projected in Multimillennial Global Warming Simulations

    Battaglia, G.; Joos, F.

    2018-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) and ozone destructing agent; yet global estimates of N2O emissions are uncertain. Marine N2O stems from nitrification and denitrification processes which depend on organic matter cycling and dissolved oxygen (O2). We introduce N2O as an obligate intermediate product of denitrification and as an O2-dependent by-product from nitrification in the Bern3D ocean model. A large model ensemble is used to probabilistically constrain modern and to project marine N2O production for a low (Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP)2.6) and high GHG (RCP8.5) scenario extended to A.D. 10,000. Water column N2O and surface ocean partial pressure N2O data serve as constraints in this Bayesian framework. The constrained median for modern N2O production is 4.5 (±1σ range: 3.0 to 6.1) Tg N yr-1, where 4.5% stems from denitrification. Modeled denitrification is 65.1 (40.9 to 91.6) Tg N yr-1, well within current estimates. For high GHG forcing, N2O production decreases by 7.7% over this century due to decreasing organic matter export and remineralization. Thereafter, production increases slowly by 21% due to widespread deoxygenation and high remineralization. Deoxygenation peaks in two millennia, and the global O2 inventory is reduced by a factor of 2 compared to today. Net denitrification is responsible for 7.8% of the long-term increase in N2O production. On millennial timescales, marine N2O emissions constitute a small, positive feedback to climate change. Our simulations reveal tight coupling between the marine carbon cycle, O2, N2O, and climate.

  20. Global mortality estimates for the 2009 Influenza Pandemic from the GLaMOR project: a modeling study.

    Simonsen, Lone; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Lustig, Roger; Taylor, Robert J; Fleming, Douglas M; Kroneman, Madelon; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Mounts, Anthony W; Paget, W John

    2013-11-01

    Assessing the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09) is essential for optimizing public health responses to future pandemics. The World Health Organization reported 18,631 laboratory-confirmed pandemic deaths, but the total pandemic mortality burden was substantially higher. We estimated the 2009 pandemic mortality burden through statistical modeling of mortality data from multiple countries. We obtained weekly virology and underlying cause-of-death mortality time series for 2005-2009 for 20 countries covering ∼35% of the world population. We applied a multivariate linear regression model to estimate pandemic respiratory mortality in each collaborating country. We then used these results plus ten country indicators in a multiple imputation model to project the mortality burden in all world countries. Between 123,000 and 203,000 pandemic respiratory deaths were estimated globally for the last 9 mo of 2009. The majority (62%-85%) were attributed to persons under 65 y of age. We observed a striking regional heterogeneity, with almost 20-fold higher mortality in some countries in the Americas than in Europe. The model attributed 148,000-249,000 respiratory deaths to influenza in an average pre-pandemic season, with only 19% in persons representation of low-income countries among single-country estimates and an inability to study subsequent pandemic waves (2010-2012). We estimate that 2009 global pandemic respiratory mortality was ∼10-fold higher than the World Health Organization's laboratory-confirmed mortality count. Although the pandemic mortality estimate was similar in magnitude to that of seasonal influenza, a marked shift toward mortality among persons Europe. A collaborative network to collect and analyze mortality and hospitalization surveillance data is needed to rapidly establish the severity of future pandemics. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  1. Towards an Ontology for the Global Geodynamics Project: Automated Extraction of Resource Descriptions from an XML-Based Data Model

    Lumb, L. I.; Aldridge, K. D.

    2005-12-01

    Using the Earth Science Markup Language (ESML), an XML-based data model for the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) was recently introduced [Lumb & Aldridge, Proc. HPCS 2005, Kotsireas & Stacey, eds., IEEE, 2005, 216-222]. This data model possesses several key attributes -i.e., it: makes use of XML schema; supports semi-structured ASCII format files; includes Earth Science affinities; and is on track for compliance with emerging Grid computing standards (e.g., the Global Grid Forum's Data Format Description Language, DFDL). Favorable attributes notwithstanding, metadata (i.e., data about data) was identified [Lumb & Aldridge, 2005] as a key challenge for progress in enabling the GGP for Grid computing. Even in projects of small-to-medium scale like the GGP, the manual introduction of metadata has the potential to be the rate-determining metric for progress. Fortunately, an automated approach for metadata introduction has recently emerged. Based on Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages (GRDDL, http://www.w3.org/2004/01/rdxh/spec), this bottom-up approach allows for the extraction of Resource Description Format (RDF) representations from the XML-based data model (i.e., the ESML representation of GGP data) subject to rules of transformation articulated via eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). In addition to introducing relationships into the GGP data model, and thereby addressing the metadata requirement, the syntax and semantics of RDF comprise a requisite for a GGP ontology - i.e., ``the common words and concepts (the meaning) used to describe and represent an area of knowledge'' [Daconta et al., The Semantic Web, Wiley, 2003]. After briefly reviewing the XML-based model for the GGP, attention focuses on the automated extraction of an RDF representation via GRDDL with XSLT-delineated templates. This bottom-up approach, in tandem with a top-down approach based on the Protege integrated development environment for ontologies (http

  2. Standards and Specifications for Ground Processing of Space Vehicles: From an Aviation-Based Shuttle Project to Global Application

    Ingalls, John; Cipolletti, John

    2011-01-01

    and methods are incongruent. Some processing products are still done on paper, some electronic, and many being converted in between. Business systems then are not fully compatible, and paper as well as electronic conversions are time-consuming and costly. NASA and its Shuttle contractors setup rules and systems to handle what has produced over 130 RLV launches, but they have had many challenges. Attempts have been made to apply aviation industry specifications to make the Shuttle more efficient with its ground processing. One efficiency project example was to make a Shuttle Maintenance Manual (SMM) based on the commercial ATA (Air Transport Association of America) Spec 100 for technical publications. This industry standard, along with others, has been a foundation for efficient global MRO of commercial airlines for years. A modified version was also made for some military aircraft. The SMM project found many similarities in Spec 100 which apply to the Shuttle, and room for expansion for space systems/structures not in aircraft. The SMM project team met with the ATA and representatives from NASA's X-33 and X-34 programs to discuss collaboration on a national space standard based on Spec 100. A pilot project was enabled for a subset of Shuttle systems. Full implementation was not yet achieved, X-33 and X-34 were cancelled, and the Shuttles were then designated for retirement. Nonetheless, we can learn from this project how to expand this concept to all space vehicle products. Since then, ATA has joined with ASD (AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe) and AIA (Aerospace Industries Association) to form a much-enhanced and expanded international specification: Sl000D, International Specification for Technical Publications. It includes air, land, and sea vehicles, missiles, support equipment, ordnance, and communications. It is used by a growing number of countries for commercial and government products. Its modular design is supported by a Common Source

  3. Projectables

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  4. Adherence as a language game.

    Kolberg, Espen Skarstein

    2017-04-01

    Non-adherence, i.e. medication intake behavior not corresponding with agreed recommendations, is associated with increased morbidity and death, and it has been estimated that as many as 50% of patients in developed countries are not taking their medications as prescribed. But even as efforts in improving medication adherence over the years have increased, results are inconsistent, with only a minority of clinical trials showing any improvement in both adherence and clinical outcome. Since patient education is central to promoting good medication adherence, and language is integral to education, perhaps an exploration of the meaning and use of language, using the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, is in order.

  5. Ace Project as a Project Management Tool

    Cline, Melinda; Guynes, Carl S.; Simard, Karine

    2010-01-01

    The primary challenge of project management is to achieve the project goals and objectives while adhering to project constraints--usually scope, quality, time and budget. The secondary challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of resources necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. Project management software provides an active…

  6. Projected changes over western Canada using convection-permitting regional climate model and the pseudo-global warming method

    Li, Y.; Kurkute, S.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Results from the General Circulation Models (GCMs) suggest more frequent and more severe extreme rain events in a climate warmer than the present. However, current GCMs cannot accurately simulate extreme rainfall events of short duration due to their coarse model resolutions and parameterizations. This limitation makes it difficult to provide the detailed quantitative information for the development of regional adaptation and mitigation strategies. Dynamical downscaling using nested Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to capture key regional and local climate processes with an affordable computational cost. Recent studies have demonstrated that the downscaling of GCM results with weather-permitting mesoscale models, such as the pseudo-global warming (PGW) technique, could be a viable and economical approach of obtaining valuable climate change information on regional scales. We have conducted a regional climate 4-km Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) simulation with one domain covering the whole western Canada, for a historic run (2000-2015) and a 15-year future run to 2100 and beyond with the PGW forcing. The 4-km resolution allows direct use of microphysics and resolves the convection explicitly, thus providing very convincing spatial detail. With this high-resolution simulation, we are able to study the convective mechanisms, specifically the control of convections over the Prairies, the projected changes of rainfall regimes, and the shift of the convective mechanisms in a warming climate, which has never been examined before numerically at such large scale with such high resolution.

  7. Microbiological and ecological responses to global environmental changes in polar regions (MERGE): An IPY core coordinating project

    Naganuma, Takeshi; Wilmotte, Annick

    2009-11-01

    An integrated program, “Microbiological and ecological responses to global environmental changes in polar regions” (MERGE), was proposed in the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 and endorsed by the IPY committee as a coordinating proposal. MERGE hosts original proposals to the IPY and facilitates their funding. MERGE selected three key questions to produce scientific achievements. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in terrestrial, lacustrine, and supraglacial habitats were targeted according to diversity and biogeography; food webs and ecosystem evolution; and linkages between biological, chemical, and physical processes in the supraglacial biome. MERGE hosted 13 original and seven additional proposals, with two full proposals. It respected the priorities and achievements of the individual proposals and aimed to unify their significant results. Ideas and projects followed a bottom-up rather than a top-down approach. We intend to inform the MERGE community of the initial results and encourage ongoing collaboration. Scientists from non-polar regions have also participated and are encouraged to remain involved in MERGE. MERGE is formed by scientists from Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Spain, UK, Uruguay, USA, and Vietnam, and associates from Chile, Denmark, Netherlands, and Norway.

  8. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project: Phase I Activities by a Global Community of Science. Chapter 1

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Jones, James W.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Antle, John M.; Ruane, Alexander C.; Mutter, Carolyn Z.

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) was founded in 2010. Its mission is to improve substantially the characterization of world food security as affected by climate variability and change, and to enhance adaptation capacity in both developing and developed countries. The objectives of AgMIP are to: Incorporate state-of-the-art climate, crop/livestock, and agricultural economic model improvements into coordinated multi-model regional and global assessments of future climate impacts and adaptation and other key aspects of the food system. Utilize multiple models, scenarios, locations, crops/livestock, and participants to explore uncertainty and the impact of data and methodological choices. Collaborate with regional experts in agronomy, animal sciences, economics, and climate to build a strong basis for model applications, addressing key climate related questions and sustainable intensification farming systems. Improve scientific and adaptive capacity in modeling for major agricultural regions in the developing and developed world, with a focus on vulnerable regions. Improve agricultural data and enhance data-sharing based on their intercomparison and evaluation using best scientific practices. Develop modeling frameworks to identify and evaluate promising adaptation technologies and policies and to prioritize strategies.

  9. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  10. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model.

    Betts, Richard A; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-05-13

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  11. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J.; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  12. Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model

    Betts, Richard A.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Bradshaw, Catherine; Caesar, John; Feyen, Luc; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gohar, Laila; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Lewis, Kirsty; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Richardson, Katy J.; Tsanis, Ioannis; Wyser, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx. 60 km grid length in mid-latitudes), a higher resolution than the CMIP5 models. We used a set of impacts-relevant indices and a global land surface model to examine the projected changes in weather extremes and their implications for freshwater availability and vulnerability to food insecurity. Uncertainties in regional climate responses are assessed, examining ranges of outcomes in impacts to inform risk assessments. Despite some degree of inconsistency between components of the study due to the need to correct for systematic biases in some aspects, the outcomes from different ensemble members could be compared for several different indicators. The projections for weather extremes indices and biophysical impacts quantities support expectations that the magnitude of change is generally larger for 2°C global warming than 1.5°C. Hot extremes become even hotter, with increases being more intense than seen in CMIP5 projections. Precipitation-related extremes show more geographical variation with some increases and some decreases in both heavy precipitation and drought. There are substantial regional uncertainties in hydrological impacts at local scales due to different climate models producing different outcomes. Nevertheless, hydrological impacts generally point towards wetter conditions on average, with increased mean river flows, longer heavy rainfall events, particularly in South and East Asia with the most extreme

  13. Antihypertensive Medications Adherence Among Nigerian ...

    Hospital, Ogbomosho, 2Goshen Heart Clinic, Osogbo, 3Department of Economics, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria ... significant impact of antihypertensive medication adherence.[13]. The level of information provided to patients may also impact ..... Muntner P. New medication adherence scale versus pharmacy.

  14. Global mortality estimates for the 2009 Influenza Pandemic from the GLaMOR project: a modeling study.

    Lone Simonsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09 is essential for optimizing public health responses to future pandemics. The World Health Organization reported 18,631 laboratory-confirmed pandemic deaths, but the total pandemic mortality burden was substantially higher. We estimated the 2009 pandemic mortality burden through statistical modeling of mortality data from multiple countries.We obtained weekly virology and underlying cause-of-death mortality time series for 2005-2009 for 20 countries covering ∼35% of the world population. We applied a multivariate linear regression model to estimate pandemic respiratory mortality in each collaborating country. We then used these results plus ten country indicators in a multiple imputation model to project the mortality burden in all world countries. Between 123,000 and 203,000 pandemic respiratory deaths were estimated globally for the last 9 mo of 2009. The majority (62%-85% were attributed to persons under 65 y of age. We observed a striking regional heterogeneity, with almost 20-fold higher mortality in some countries in the Americas than in Europe. The model attributed 148,000-249,000 respiratory deaths to influenza in an average pre-pandemic season, with only 19% in persons <65 y. Limitations include lack of representation of low-income countries among single-country estimates and an inability to study subsequent pandemic waves (2010-2012.We estimate that 2009 global pandemic respiratory mortality was ∼10-fold higher than the World Health Organization's laboratory-confirmed mortality count. Although the pandemic mortality estimate was similar in magnitude to that of seasonal influenza, a marked shift toward mortality among persons <65 y of age occurred, so that many more life-years were lost. The burden varied greatly among countries, corroborating early reports of far greater pandemic severity in the Americas than in Australia, New Zealand, and Europe. A

  15. From a declaration of values to the creation of value in global health: a report from Harvard University's Global Health Delivery Project.

    Kim, J Y; Rhatigan, J; Jain, S H; Weintraub, R; Porter, M E

    2010-01-01

    To make best use of the new dollars available for the treatment of disease in resource-poor settings, global health practice requires a strategic approach that emphasises value for patients. Practitioners and global health academics should seek to identify and elaborate the set of factors that drives value for patients through the detailed study of actual care delivery organisations in multiple settings. Several frameworks can facilitate this study, including the care delivery value chain. We report on our efforts to catalyse the study of health care delivery in resource-limited settings in the hope that this inquiry will lead to insights that can improve the health of the neediest worldwide.

  16. Implementing the global plan to stop TB, 2011-2015--optimizing allocations and the Global Fund's contribution: a scenario projections study.

    Eline L Korenromp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments under various scenarios of allocations across interventions and regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Global Plan assumptions on expected cases and mortality, we estimate treatment costs and mortality impact for diagnosis and treatment for drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB, including antiretroviral treatment (ART during DOTS for HIV-co-infected patients, for four country groups, overall and for the Global Fund investments. In 2015, China and India account for 24% of funding need, Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA for 33%, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA for 20%, and other low- and middle-income countries for 24%. Scale-up of MDR-TB treatment, especially in EECA, drives an increasing global TB funding need--an essential investment to contain the mortality burden associated with MDR-TB and future disease costs. Funding needs rise fastest in SSA, reflecting increasing coverage need of improved TB/HIV management, which saves most lives per dollar spent in the short term. The Global Fund is expected to finance 8-12% of Global Plan implementation costs annually. Lives saved through Global Fund TB support within the available funding envelope could increase 37% if allocations shifted from current regional demand patterns to a prioritized scale-up of improved TB/HIV treatment and secondly DOTS, both mainly in Africa--with EECA region, which has disproportionately high per-patient costs, funded from alternative resources. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings, alongside country funding gaps, domestic funding and implementation capacity and equity considerations, should inform strategies and policies for international donors, national governments and

  17. Global Mortality Estimates for the 2009 Influenza Pandemic from the GLaMOR Project: A Modeling Study

    Simonsen, Lone; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Lustig, Roger; Taylor, Robert J.; Fleming, Douglas M.; Kroneman, Madelon; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Mounts, Anthony W.; Paget, W. John

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09) is essential for optimizing public health responses to future pandemics. The World Health Organization reported 18,631 laboratory-confirmed pandemic deaths, but the total pandemic mortality burden was substantially higher. We estimated the 2009 pandemic mortality burden through statistical modeling of mortality data from multiple countries. Methods and Findings We obtained weekly virology and underlying cause-of-death mortality time series for 2005–2009 for 20 countries covering ∼35% of the world population. We applied a multivariate linear regression model to estimate pandemic respiratory mortality in each collaborating country. We then used these results plus ten country indicators in a multiple imputation model to project the mortality burden in all world countries. Between 123,000 and 203,000 pandemic respiratory deaths were estimated globally for the last 9 mo of 2009. The majority (62%–85%) were attributed to persons under 65 y of age. We observed a striking regional heterogeneity, with almost 20-fold higher mortality in some countries in the Americas than in Europe. The model attributed 148,000–249,000 respiratory deaths to influenza in an average pre-pandemic season, with only 19% in persons mortality was ∼10-fold higher than the World Health Organization's laboratory-confirmed mortality count. Although the pandemic mortality estimate was similar in magnitude to that of seasonal influenza, a marked shift toward mortality among persons mortality and hospitalization surveillance data is needed to rapidly establish the severity of future pandemics. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24302890

  18. External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) of the WHO Global Salmonella Surveillance and Laboratory Support Project (Global Salm-Surv) Results from 2001

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Evans, M.C.

    An international collaborative study on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv to conduct Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial suscept...... of the quality control range specified by NCCLS guidelines....

  19. Adhered Supported Carbon Nanotubes

    Johnson, Dale F.; Craft, Benjamin J.; Jaffe, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (NTs) in excess of 200 μm long are grown by catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbon vapors. The nanotubes grow continuously without the typical extinction due to catalyst encapsulation. A woven metal mesh supports the nanotubes creating a metal supported nanotube (MSNT) structure. The 140 μm wide mesh openings are completely filled by 70 nm diameter multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs). The MWNTs are straight, uniform and highly crystalline. Their wall thickness is about 10 nm (30 graphite layers). The adherent NTs are not removed from the support in a Scotch tape pull test. A 12.5 cm 2 capacitor made from two MSNT structures immersed in 1 M KCl has a capacitance of 0.35 F and an equivalent series resistance of 0.18 Ω. Water flows through the MSNT at a flow velocity of 1 cm/min with a pressure drop of 15 inches of water. With the support removed, the MWNTs naturally form a carbon nanocomposite (CNC) paper with a specific area of 80 m 2 /gm, a bulk density of 0.21 g/cm 3 , an open pore fraction of 0.81, and a resistivity of 0.16 Ω-cm

  20. Factors influencing adherence to guidelines in general practice

    Stewart, RE; Vroegop, S; van der Werf, GT; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Kamps, G.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and assess the effects of general practitioner and patient characteristics on global adherence to pharmacotherapeutic guidelines. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in the northern Netherlands, a two-level multilevel model was applied to patients (n = 269,067) in 190

  1. An App Supporting Psoriasis Patients Improves Adherence to Topical Treatment

    Svendsen, M T; Andersen, F; Pottegård, A

    2018-01-01

    Physician's Global Assessment (LS-PGA), and quality of life was measured by Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scales at all visits. RESULTS: Intention to treat analyses using regression was performed. PRIMARY OUTCOME: more patients in the intervention group were adherent to Cal/BD cutaneous foam...

  2. A high-level dynamic analysis approach for studying global process plant availability and production time in the early stages of mining projects

    Dennis Travagini Cremonese

    Full Text Available Abstract In the early stage of front-end studies of a Mining Project, the global availability (i.e. number of hours a plant is available for production and production (number of hours a plant is actually operated with material time of the process plant are normally assumed based on the experience of the study team. Understanding and defining the availability hours at the early stages of the project are important for the future stages of the project, as drastic changes in work hours will impact the economics of the project at that stage. An innovative high-level dynamic modeling approach has been developed to assist in the rapid evaluation of assumptions made by the study team. This model incorporates systems or equipment that are commonly used in mining projects from mine to product stockyard discharge after the processing plant. It includes subsystems that will simulate all the component handling, and major process plant systems required for a mining project. The output data provided by this high-level dynamic simulation approach will enhance the confidence level of engineering carried out during the early stage of the project. This study discusses the capabilities of the approach, and a test case compared with standard techniques used in mining project front-end studies.

  3. Clustering based on adherence data.

    Kiwuwa-Muyingo, Sylvia; Oja, Hannu; Walker, Sarah A; Ilmonen, Pauliina; Levin, Jonathan; Todd, Jim

    2011-03-08

    Adherence to a medical treatment means the extent to which a patient follows the instructions or recommendations by health professionals. There are direct and indirect ways to measure adherence which have been used for clinical management and research. Typically adherence measures are monitored over a long follow-up or treatment period, and some measurements may be missing due to death or other reasons. A natural question then is how to describe adherence behavior over the whole period in a simple way. In the literature, measurements over a period are usually combined just by using averages like percentages of compliant days or percentages of doses taken. In the paper we adapt an approach where patient adherence measures are seen as a stochastic process. Repeated measures are then analyzed as a Markov chain with finite number of states rather than as independent and identically distributed observations, and the transition probabilities between the states are assumed to fully describe the behavior of a patient. The patients can then be clustered or classified using their estimated transition probabilities. These natural clusters can be used to describe the adherence of the patients, to find predictors for adherence, and to predict the future events. The new approach is illustrated and shown to be useful with a simple analysis of a data set from the DART (Development of AntiRetroviral Therapy in Africa) trial in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

  4. Assessing the impacts of 1.5 °C global warming – simulation protocol of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP2b

    K. Frieler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, France, December 2015, the Conference of the Parties (COP to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC invited the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC to provide a special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways. In Nairobi, Kenya, April 2016, the IPCC panel accepted the invitation. Here we describe the response devised within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP to provide tailored, cross-sectorally consistent impact projections to broaden the scientific basis for the report. The simulation protocol is designed to allow for (1 separation of the impacts of historical warming starting from pre-industrial conditions from impacts of other drivers such as historical land-use changes (based on pre-industrial and historical impact model simulations; (2 quantification of the impacts of additional warming up to 1.5 °C, including a potential overshoot and long-term impacts up to 2299, and comparison to higher levels of global mean temperature change (based on the low-emissions Representative Concentration Pathway RCP2.6 and a no-mitigation pathway RCP6.0 with socio-economic conditions fixed at 2005 levels; and (3 assessment of the climate effects based on the same climate scenarios while accounting for simultaneous changes in socio-economic conditions following the middle-of-the-road Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP2, Fricko et al., 2016 and in particular differential bioenergy requirements associated with the transformation of the energy system to comply with RCP2.6 compared to RCP6.0. With the aim of providing the scientific basis for an aggregation of impacts across sectors and analysis of cross-sectoral interactions that may dampen or amplify sectoral impacts, the protocol is designed to facilitate consistent impact projections from a range of impact models across

  5. Assessing the impacts of 1.5 °C global warming - simulation protocol of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP2b)

    Frieler, Katja; Lange, Stefan; Piontek, Franziska; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Schewe, Jacob; Warszawski, Lila; Zhao, Fang; Chini, Louise; Denvil, Sebastien; Emanuel, Kerry; Geiger, Tobias; Halladay, Kate; Hurtt, George; Mengel, Matthias; Murakami, Daisuke; Ostberg, Sebastian; Popp, Alexander; Riva, Riccardo; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Suzuki, Tatsuo; Volkholz, Jan; Burke, Eleanor; Ciais, Philippe; Ebi, Kristie; Eddy, Tyler D.; Elliott, Joshua; Galbraith, Eric; Gosling, Simon N.; Hattermann, Fred; Hickler, Thomas; Hinkel, Jochen; Hof, Christian; Huber, Veronika; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Krysanova, Valentina; Marcé, Rafael; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Pierson, Don; Tittensor, Derek P.; Vautard, Robert; van Vliet, Michelle; Biber, Matthias F.; Betts, Richard A.; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Deryng, Delphine; Frolking, Steve; Jones, Chris D.; Lotze, Heike K.; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Thonicke, Kirsten; Tian, Hanqin; Yamagata, Yoshiki

    2017-11-01

    In Paris, France, December 2015, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) invited the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide a special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways. In Nairobi, Kenya, April 2016, the IPCC panel accepted the invitation. Here we describe the response devised within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) to provide tailored, cross-sectorally consistent impact projections to broaden the scientific basis for the report. The simulation protocol is designed to allow for (1) separation of the impacts of historical warming starting from pre-industrial conditions from impacts of other drivers such as historical land-use changes (based on pre-industrial and historical impact model simulations); (2) quantification of the impacts of additional warming up to 1.5 °C, including a potential overshoot and long-term impacts up to 2299, and comparison to higher levels of global mean temperature change (based on the low-emissions Representative Concentration Pathway RCP2.6 and a no-mitigation pathway RCP6.0) with socio-economic conditions fixed at 2005 levels; and (3) assessment of the climate effects based on the same climate scenarios while accounting for simultaneous changes in socio-economic conditions following the middle-of-the-road Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP2, Fricko et al., 2016) and in particular differential bioenergy requirements associated with the transformation of the energy system to comply with RCP2.6 compared to RCP6.0. With the aim of providing the scientific basis for an aggregation of impacts across sectors and analysis of cross-sectoral interactions that may dampen or amplify sectoral impacts, the protocol is designed to facilitate consistent impact projections from a range of impact models across different sectors (global

  6. Projected Changes in the Asian-Australian Monsoon Region in 1.5°C and 2.0°C Global-Warming Scenarios

    Chevuturi, Amulya; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Turner, Andrew G.; Hannah, Shaun

    2018-03-01

    In light of the Paris Agreement, it is essential to identify regional impacts of half a degree additional global warming to inform climate adaptation and mitigation strategies. We investigate the effects of 1.5°C and 2.0°C global warming above preindustrial conditions, relative to present day (2006-2015), over the Asian-Australian monsoon region (AAMR) using five models from the Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts (HAPPI) project. There is considerable intermodel variability in projected changes to mean climate and extreme events in 2.0°C and 1.5°C scenarios. There is high confidence in projected increases to mean and extreme surface temperatures over AAMR, as well as more-frequent persistent daily temperature extremes over East Asia, Australia, and northern India with an additional 0.5°C warming, which are likely to occur. Mean and extreme monsoon precipitation amplify over AAMR, except over Australia at 1.5°C where there is uncertainty in the sign of the change. Persistent daily extreme precipitation events are likely to become more frequent over parts of East Asia and India with an additional 0.5°C warming. There is lower confidence in projections of precipitation change than in projections of surface temperature change. These results highlight the benefits of limiting the global-mean temperature change to 1.5°C above preindustrial, as the severity of the above effects increases with an extra 0.5°C warming.

  7. Furthering patient adherence: a position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion.

    van Dulmen, Sandra; Sluijs, Emmy; van Dijk, Liset; de Ridder, Denise; Heerdink, Rob; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-02-27

    As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future research, practice and theory development in patient adherence. The objective of the present project was to find out to what extent adherence experts consider this agenda relevant and feasible. The thirty-five corresponding authors of the review studies included in the meta-review were invited to join the International Expert Forum on Patient Adherence and to participate in a four-week web-based focus group discussion. The discussion was triggered by the points on the preliminary agenda presented as propositions to which forum members could react. Two researchers analysed the transcripts and selected relevant phrases. Twenty adherence experts participated. Various ideas and viewpoints were raised. After the closure of the web-site, the expert forum was asked to authorize the synthesis of the discussion, to list the propositions in order of priority and to answer a few questions on the use of the web-based focus group as a tool to obtain expert opinions. Their ranking showed that the development of simple interventions is the most promising step to take in fostering patient adherence, preferably within a multidisciplinary setting of medical, pharmaceutical, social and technical science and, not in the least, by incorporating patients' perspectives. For enhancing adherence, the development of simple interventions originating from a multidisciplinary perspective including patients' input, appears most promising. Disclosing patients' perspectives requires open communication about patients' expectations, needs and experiences in taking medication and about what might help them to become and remain adherent.

  8. Furthering patient adherence: A position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion

    Heerdink Rob

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future research, practice and theory development in patient adherence. The objective of the present project was to find out to what extent adherence experts consider this agenda relevant and feasible. Methods The thirty-five corresponding authors of the review studies included in the meta-review were invited to join the International Expert Forum on Patient Adherence and to participate in a four-week web-based focus group discussion. The discussion was triggered by the points on the preliminary agenda presented as propositions to which forum members could react. Two researchers analysed the transcripts and selected relevant phrases. Results Twenty adherence experts participated. Various ideas and viewpoints were raised. After the closure of the web-site, the expert forum was asked to authorize the synthesis of the discussion, to list the propositions in order of priority and to answer a few questions on the use of the web-based focus group as a tool to obtain expert opinions. Their ranking showed that the development of simple interventions is the most promising step to take in fostering patient adherence, preferably within a multidisciplinary setting of medical, pharmaceutical, social and technical science and, not in the least, by incorporating patients' perspectives. Conclusion For enhancing adherence, the development of simple interventions originating from a multidisciplinary perspective including patients' input, appears most promising. Disclosing patients' perspectives requires open communication about patients' expectations, needs and experiences in taking medication and about what might help them to become and remain adherent.

  9. International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). 2011 Progress Report. Enhancing Global Nuclear Energy Sustainability

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    When INPRO was established in 2000, some key characteristics and main objectives for the project were determined and remain basically unchanged to this day: to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to satisfying energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner and to bring together technology holders, technology users and other stakeholders to consider jointly the national and international actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. I wish to use the occasion of this INPRO Progress Report to review some of the key highlights of the past year and share with you my views and vision of INPRO's future. The ''Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami'' and the resulting accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred on 11 March 2011. In response to this accident and at the request of its Member States, the IAEA drafted an Action Plan which defines a programme of work o strengthen the global nuclear safety framework. The activities proposed in the Action Plan are meant to be implemented in the near term, to assess the safety of operating nuclear power plants n the light of lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The assessment covers both technical elements, specifically the design of nuclear power plants with regard to site specific extreme natural hazards, and institutional elements, such as the effectiveness of regulatory bodies, operating organizations and the international legal framework in regard to the implementation of IAEA Safety tandards and Conventions. The lessons learned in the medium and long terms will also be reflected n a periodic update of the design requirements for nuclear power plants, international safety tandards, regulations issued by national supervisory authorities, operational procedures, emergency planning and safety assessment methodologies. INPRO has a long term perspective and provides an assessment of the whole nuclear system. Ensuring

  10. International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). 2011 Progress Report. Enhancing Global Nuclear Energy Sustainability

    2012-05-01

    When INPRO was established in 2000, some key characteristics and main objectives for the project were determined and remain basically unchanged to this day: to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to satisfying energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner and to bring together technology holders, technology users and other stakeholders to consider jointly the national and international actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. I wish to use the occasion of this INPRO Progress Report to review some of the key highlights of the past year and share with you my views and vision of INPRO's future. The ''Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami'' and the resulting accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred on 11 March 2011. In response to this accident and at the request of its Member States, the IAEA drafted an Action Plan which defines a programme of work o strengthen the global nuclear safety framework. The activities proposed in the Action Plan are meant to be implemented in the near term, to assess the safety of operating nuclear power plants n the light of lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The assessment covers both technical elements, specifically the design of nuclear power plants with regard to site specific extreme natural hazards, and institutional elements, such as the effectiveness of regulatory bodies, operating organizations and the international legal framework in regard to the implementation of IAEA Safety tandards and Conventions. The lessons learned in the medium and long terms will also be reflected n a periodic update of the design requirements for nuclear power plants, international safety tandards, regulations issued by national supervisory authorities, operational procedures, emergency planning and safety assessment methodologies. INPRO has a long term perspective and provides an assessment of the whole nuclear system. Ensuring

  11. Predicting Malawian Women's Intention to Adhere to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    McKinney, Ogbochi; Modeste, Naomi N; Lee, Jerry W; Gleason, Peter C

    2015-07-16

    With the increase in scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), knowledge of the need for adherence to ART is pivotal for successful treatment outcomes. A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2013. We administered theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and adherence questionnaires to 358 women aged 18-49 years, from a rural and urban ART-clinics in southern Malawi. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to predict intentions to adhere to ART. Regression models show that attitude (β=0.47), subjective norm (β=0.31) and perceived behavioural control (β=0.12) explain 55% of the variance in intentions to adhere to ART. The relationship between both food insecurity and perceived side effects with intentions to adhere to ART is mediated by attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Household (r=0.20) and individual (r=0.21) food insecurity were positively and significantly correlated with perceived behavioural control. Household food insecurity had a negative correlation with perceived side effects (r=-0.11). Perceived side effects were positively correlated with attitude (r=0.25). There was no statistically significant relationship between intentions to adhere to ART in the future and one month self-report of past month adherence. These interactions suggest that attitude predicted adherence only when food insecurity is high or perception of side effects is strong. This study shows that modification might be needed when using TPB constructs in resource constraint environments. Significance for public healthThe knowledge of the rates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) could be used to evaluate planning and project, which could lead to better outcomes predicted by treatment efficacy data. In addition, knowledge of adherence behaviour could help the development of interventions focusing on collaboration between healthcare providers and Malawian government to provide food support for patients on ART. The

  12. Validation of Long-Term Global Aerosol Climatology Project Optical Thickness Retrievals Using AERONET and MODIS Data

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive set of monthly mean aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data from coastal and island AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) stations is used to evaluate Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP) retrievals for the period 1995-2009 during which contemporaneous GACP and AERONET data were available. To put the GACP performance in broader perspective, we also compare AERONET and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua level-2 data for 2003-2009 using the same methodology. We find that a large mismatch in geographic coverage exists between the satellite and ground-based datasets, with very limited AERONET coverage of open-ocean areas. This is especially true of GACP because of the smaller number of AERONET stations at the early stages of the network development. Monthly mean AOTs from the two over-the-ocean satellite datasets are well-correlated with the ground-based values, the correlation coefficients being 0.81-0.85 for GACP and 0.74-0.79 for MODIS. Regression analyses demonstrate that the GACP mean AOTs are approximately 17%-27% lower than the AERONET values on average, while the MODIS mean AOTs are 5%-25% higher. The regression coefficients are highly dependent on the weighting assumptions (e.g., on the measure of aerosol variability) as well as on the set of AERONET stations used for comparison. Comparison of over-the-land and over-the-ocean MODIS monthly mean AOTs in the vicinity of coastal AERONET stations reveals a significant bias. This may indicate that aerosol amounts in coastal locations can differ significantly from those in adjacent open-ocean areas. Furthermore, the color of coastal waters and peculiarities of coastline meteorological conditions may introduce biases in the GACP AOT retrievals. We conclude that the GACP and MODIS over-the-ocean retrieval algorithms show similar ranges of discrepancy when compared to available coastal and island AERONET stations. The factors mentioned above may limit the performance of the

  13. Exercise after Stroke: Patient Adherence and Beliefs after Discharge from Rehabilitation.

    Miller, Kristine K; Porter, Rebecca E; DeBaun-Sprague, Erin; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Schmid, Arlene A

    2017-03-01

    Most people complete post-stroke rehabilitation within the first 6 months after stroke even though benefits from exercise are believed to persist well beyond 6 months. Physical and Occupational therapists provide home exercise programs (HEP) to instruct patients on exercises to continue after discharge from rehabilitation. Unfortunately, there is little known about HEP adherence rates in adults with stroke. The objectives of this project were to (1) determine the adherence rate with post-rehabilitation HEP and reasons for non-adherence, (2) assess for interactions between HEP adherence and self-report of depression and fatigue, and (3) determine patient beliefs about the benefit of exercise during stroke recovery. This was a cross-sectional, survey study. A survey was developed and distributed during stroke support group meetings to determine adherence rates with post rehabilitation HEP, reasons for non-adherence, and patient beliefs about the benefit of exercise. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported receiving a HEP and 65.3% of those reported being adherent with at least part of the HEP. Several reasons for non-adherence were identified, including 'doing different exercises than the ones given by the physical therapist', as the most frequently given reason. Study participants identified positive roles of exercise in their recovery from stroke. Patient adherence with HEP after discharge from rehabilitation is less than ideal. Reasons for non-adherence are varied. Rehabilitation therapists need to be able to identify and help patients manage barriers to HEP adherence to promote management of residual deficits.

  14. Improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy

    Nischal K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has transformed HIV infection into a treatable, chronic condition. However, the need to continue treatment for decades rather than years, calls for a long-term perspective of ART. Adherence to the regimen is essential for successful treatment and sustained viral control. Studies have indicated that at least 95% adherence to ART regimens is optimal. It has been demonstrated that a 10% higher level of adherence results in a 21% reduction in disease progression. The various factors affecting success of ART are social aspects like motivation to begin therapy, ability to adhere to therapy, lifestyle pattern, financial support, family support, pros and cons of starting therapy and pharmacological aspects like tolerability of the regimen, availability of the drugs. Also, the regimen′s pill burden, dosing frequency, food requirements, convenience, toxicity and drug interaction profile compared with other regimens are to be considered before starting ART. The lack of trust between clinician and patient, active drug and alcohol use, active mental illness (e.g. depression, lack of patient education and inability of patients to identify their medications, lack of reliable access to primary medical care or medication are considered to be predictors of inadequate adherence. Interventions at various levels, viz. patient level, medication level, healthcare level and community level, boost adherence and overall outcome of ART.

  15. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  16. Significance of supplier selection criteria evolvment in IT outsourcing to emerging economies: lessons from a global IT outsourcing project

    Hyvonen, H.; Helminen, M.; Watanabe, C.

    2015-01-01

    In line with the increasing significance of the acceleration of information technology (IT) advancement and also of harnessing the vigor of emerging economies, IT outsourcing to emerging economies has become global concerns. This enables global companies to enjoy a critical competitive edge by choosing the best option in outsourcing strategy and supplier selection. Consequently, supplier selection criteria have become critical issues for both suppliers and customers. This paper a...

  17. Assessing the impacts of 1.5°C of global warming - The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) approach

    Frieler, Katja; Warszawski, Lila; Zhao, Fang

    2017-04-01

    In Paris, France, December 2015 the Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) invited the IPCC to provide a "special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways". In Nairobi, Kenya, April 2016 the IPCC panel accepted the invitation. Here we describe the model simulations planned within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) to address the request by providing tailored cross-sectoral consistent impacts projections. The protocol is designed to allow for 1) a separation of the impacts of the historical warming starting from pre-industrial conditions from other human drivers such as historical land use changes (based on pre-industrial and historical impact model simulations), 2) a quantification of the effects of an additional warming to 1.5°C including a potential overshoot and long term effects up to 2300 in comparison to a no-mitigation scenario (based on the low emissions Representative Concentration Pathway RCP2.6 and a no-mitigation scenario RCP6.0) keeping socio-economic conditions fixed at year 2005 levels, and 3) an assessment of the climate effects based on the same climate scenarios but accounting for parallel changes in socio-economic conditions following the middle of the road Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP2) and differential bio-energy requirements associated with the transformation of the energy system to reach RCP2.6 compared to RCP6.0. To provide the scientific basis for an aggregation of impacts across sectors and an analysis of cross-sectoral interactions potentially damping or amplifying sectoral impacts the protocol is designed to provide consistent impacts projections across a range of impact models from different sectors (global and regional hydrological models, global gridded crop models, global vegetation models, regional forestry models, global and regional marine

  18. General, crystallized and fluid intelligence are not associated with functional global network efficiency: A replication study with the human connectome project 1200 data set.

    Kruschwitz, J D; Waller, L; Daedelow, L S; Walter, H; Veer, I M

    2018-05-01

    One hallmark example of a link between global topological network properties of complex functional brain connectivity and cognitive performance is the finding that general intelligence may depend on the efficiency of the brain's intrinsic functional network architecture. However, although this association has been featured prominently over the course of the last decade, the empirical basis for this broad association of general intelligence and global functional network efficiency is quite limited. In the current study, we set out to replicate the previously reported association between general intelligence and global functional network efficiency using the large sample size and high quality data of the Human Connectome Project, and extended the original study by testing for separate association of crystallized and fluid intelligence with global efficiency, characteristic path length, and global clustering coefficient. We were unable to provide evidence for the proposed association between general intelligence and functional brain network efficiency, as was demonstrated by van den Heuvel et al. (2009), or for any other association with the global network measures employed. More specifically, across multiple network definition schemes, ranging from voxel-level networks to networks of only 100 nodes, no robust associations and only very weak non-significant effects with a maximal R 2 of 0.01 could be observed. Notably, the strongest (non-significant) effects were observed in voxel-level networks. We discuss the possibility that the low power of previous studies and publication bias may have led to false positive results fostering the widely accepted notion of general intelligence being associated to functional global network efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Challenges of Globalization: Morocco and Tunisia. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Morocco and Tunisia).

    2002

    This publication contains a collection of curriculum projects developed by educators who were participants in the 2001 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Morocco and Tunisia. The 13 curriculum projects in the publication are entitled: "Women in Morocco, Artists and Artisans" (Virginia da Costa); "Cultures of…

  20. OC5 Project Phase II: Validation of Global Loads of the DeepCwind Floating Semisubmersible Wind Turbine

    Robertson, Amy N.; Wendt, Fabian; Jonkman, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from Phase II of the Offshore Code Comparison, Collaboration, Continued, with Correlation project. The project is run under the International Energy Agency Wind Research Task 30, and is focused on validating the tools used for modeling offshore wind systems thro...

  1. Geography, Economic Education and Global Education: European and Austrian Aspects of the "Fifobi--Developing Business Competencies in School" Project

    Schwarz, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The EU-funded research project "Fifobi--Fit for Business--developing business competencies in school" (2009-2012) focused on the implementation of economic education in seven European countries. The purpose of the project and this paper is to investigate the current programmes that exist within the final two years of compulsory…

  2. Episodic medication adherence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV: a within-participants approach.

    Hawkins, Amy; Evangeli, Michael; Sturgeon, Kate; Le Prevost, Marthe; Judd, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Due to the success of antiretroviral (ART) medications, young people living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are now surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding factors influencing ART non-adherence in this group is important in developing effective adherence interventions. Most studies of ART adherence in HIV-positive populations assess differences in adherence levels and adherence predictors between participants, over a period of time (global adherence). Many individuals living with HIV, however, including PHIV+ young people, take medication inconsistently. To investigate this pattern of adherence, a within-participants design, focussing on specific episodes of adherence and non-adherence, is suitable (episodic adherence). A within-participants design was used with 29 PHIV+ young people (17 female, median age 17 years, range 14-22 years), enrolled in the UK Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study. Participants were eligible if they could identify one dose of medication taken and one dose they had missed in the previous two months. For each of the two episodes (one adherent, one non-adherent), behavioural factors (whom they were with, location, routine, day, reminders) and psychological factors at the time of the episode (information about medication, adherence motivation, perceived behavioural skills to adhere to medication - derived from the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model - and affect) were assessed in a questionnaire. Non-adherence was significantly associated with weekend days (Friday to Sunday versus Monday to Thursday, p = .001), lack of routine (p = .004), and being out of the home (p = .003), but not with whom the young person was with or whether they were reminded to take medication. Non-adherence was associated with lower levels of behavioural skills (p ART, or ART motivation. The use of situationally specific strategies to enhance adherence in young people who take their

  3. Downscaling global land cover projections from an integrated assessment model for use in regional analyses: results and evaluation for the US from 2005 to 2095

    West, Tristram O; Le Page, Yannick; Wolf, Julie; Thomson, Allison M; Huang, Maoyi

    2014-01-01

    Projections of land cover change generated from integrated assessment models (IAM) and other economic-based models can be applied for analyses of environmental impacts at sub-regional and landscape scales. For those IAM and economic models that project land cover change at the continental or regional scale, these projections must be downscaled and spatially distributed prior to use in climate or ecosystem models. Downscaling efforts to date have been conducted at the national extent with relatively high spatial resolution (30 m) and at the global extent with relatively coarse spatial resolution (0.5°). We revised existing methods to downscale global land cover change projections for the US to 0.05° resolution using MODIS land cover data as the initial proxy for land class distribution. Land cover change realizations generated here represent a reference scenario and two emissions mitigation pathways (MPs) generated by the global change assessment model (GCAM). Future gridded land cover realizations are constructed for each MODIS plant functional type (PFT) from 2005 to 2095, commensurate with the community land model PFT land classes, and archived for public use. The GCAM land cover realizations provide spatially explicit estimates of potential shifts in croplands, grasslands, shrublands, and forest lands. Downscaling of the MPs indicate a net replacement of grassland by cropland in the western US and by forest in the eastern US. An evaluation of the downscaling method indicates that it is able to reproduce recent changes in cropland and grassland distributions in respective areas in the US, suggesting it could provide relevant insights into the potential impacts of socio-economic and environmental drivers on future changes in land cover. (letters)

  4. Adherence policy, education and practice – an international perspective

    Schneider MP

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonadherence to chronic therapy has become a large burden on the healthcare system of many countries. Community pharmacists are well positioned to address nonadherence as part of their overall patient care activities, and contribute to patients’ quality use of medicines. Between 2008 and 2010, a series of narrative, peer-reviewed articles were published in Pharmacy Practice which focused on community pharmacists’ activities in medication adherence, specifically in the areas of the education they receive, their practice, the research conducted and national or local policies. This editorial aims to summarise the key findings presented in the series, and highlight the pertinent issues and gaps in the literature. There is a need to implement global and long-term objectives focussing on enhancing the quality of education and competencies of community pharmacists and the research conducted in medication adherence, to develop guidelines for pharmacists and enhance the uptake of adherence promoting services in routine care.  

  5. Adherence policy, education and practice - an international perspective.

    Marie-Schneider, Paule; Aslani, Parisa

    2010-10-01

    Nonadherence to chronic therapy has become a large burden on the healthcare system of many countries. Community pharmacists are well positioned to address nonadherence as part of their overall patient care activities, and contribute to patients' quality use of medicines. Between 2008 and 2010, a series of narrative, peer-reviewed articles were published in Pharmacy Practice which focused on community pharmacists' activities in medication adherence, specifically in the areas of the education they receive, their practice, the research conducted and national or local policies. This editorial aims to summarise the key findings presented in the series, and highlight the pertinent issues and gaps in the literature. There is a need to implement global and long-term objectives focussing on enhancing the quality of education and competencies of community pharmacists and the research conducted in medication adherence, to develop guidelines for pharmacists and enhance the uptake of adherence promoting services in routine care.

  6. Medication Adherence Survey: A First Year Pharmacy Immersion Students’ Perspective

    Claudia F Ortiz Lopez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available First year pharmacy Immersion students from University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy used a three question survey during their rotation at Moses H. Cone Hospital that analyzed patients’ medication adherence. Data collection revealed common trends that have been shown in the literature and areas for improvement. This method of evaluation was used by Phase I Immersion students to gain perspective on the problems we continue to have with medication adherence. Conflict of Interest We do not have any potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.   Type: Student Project

  7. Individual Neurons Confined to Distinct Antennal-Lobe Tracts in the Heliothine Moth: Morphological Characteristics and Global Projection Patterns

    Ian, Elena; Zhao, Xin C.; Lande, Andreas; Berg, Bente G.

    2016-01-01

    To explore fundamental principles characterizing chemosensory information processing, we have identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the heliothine moth, including several neuron types not previously described. Generally, odor information is conveyed from the primary olfactory center of the moth brain, the antennal lobe, to higher brain centers via projection neuron axons passing along several parallel pathways, of which the medial, mediolateral, and lateral antennal-lobe tract are considered the classical ones. Recent data have revealed the projections of the individual tracts more in detail demonstrating three main target regions in the protocerebrum; the calyces are innervated mainly by the medial tract, the superior intermediate protocerebrum by the lateral tract exclusively, and the lateral horn by all tracts. In the present study, we have identified, via iontophoretic intracellular staining combined with confocal microscopy, individual projection neurons confined to the tracts mentioned above, plus two additional ones. Further, using the visualization software AMIRA, we reconstructed the stained neurons and registered the models into a standard brain atlas, which allowed us to compare the termination areas of individual projection neurons both across and within distinct tracts. The data demonstrate a morphological diversity of the projection neurons within distinct tracts. Comparison of the output areas of the neurons confined to the three main tracts in the lateral horn showed overlapping terminal regions for the medial and mediolateral tracts; the lateral tract neurons, on the contrary, targeted mostly other output areas in the protocerebrum. PMID:27822181

  8. Toward a pro-active scientific advice on global volcanic activity within the multi-hazard framework of the EU Aristotle project

    Barsotti, Sara; Duncan, Melanie; Loughlin, Susan; Gísladóttir, Bryndis; Roberts, Matthew; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Scollo, Simona; Salerno, Giuseppe; Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos

    2017-04-01

    The demand for timely analysis and advice on global volcanic activity from scientists is growing. At the same time, decision-makers require more than an understanding of hazards; they need to know what impacts to expect from ongoing and future events. ARISTOTLE (All Risk Integrated System TOwards Trans-boundary hoListic Early-warning) is a two-year EC funded pilot project designed to do just that. The Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) works to support and coordinate response to disasters both inside and outside Europe using resources from the countries participating in the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism. Led by INGV and ZAMG, the ARISTOTLE consortium comprises 15 institutions across Europe and aims to deliver multi-hazard advice on natural events, including their potential interactions and impact, both inside and outside of Europe to the ERCC. Where possible, the ERCC would like a pro-active provision of scientific advice by the scientific group. Iceland Met Office leads the volcanic hazards work, with BGS, INGV and NOA comprising the volcano observatory team. At this stage, the volcanology component of the project comprises mainly volcanic ash and gas dispersal and potential impact on population and ground-based critical infrastructures. We approach it by relying upon available and official volcano monitoring institutions' reporting of activity, existing assessments and global databases of past events, modelling tools, remote-sensing observational systems and official VAAC advisories. We also make use of global assessments of volcanic hazards, country profiles, exposure and proxy indicators of threat to livelihoods, infrastructure and economic assets (e.g. Global Volcano Model outputs). Volcanic ash fall remains the only hazard modelled at the global scale. Volcanic risk assessments remain in their infancy, owing to challenges related to the multitude of hazards, data availability and model representation. We therefore face a number of

  9. Project to promote the technical development of global environmental industries. International research exchange project; Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Exchanges with researchers/research institutes in overseas countries have an important meaning in promoting the research and development toward the creation of new research fields where the solution to the environmental problem is aimed at and toward the construction of new technological systems. Therefore, under the cooperation of Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), and RITE related researchers and societies, given were invitation and dispatch of researchers to international conferences and symposia involved in the global environment related technology, and exchanges with major overseas research institutes/universities. At the same time, based on the short-term invitation and dispatch so far given, a system was established for medium- and long-term dispatch/invitation of researchers who are thought to hold an important position in the future research activities. From the results obtained, domestic and foreign exchanges relating to the latest research could be promoted. In addition, researches in the basic domain related to the global environmental technology were advanced in a variety of fields overseas. The numbers of invitation and dispatch given in fiscal 1995 were 12 and 13, respectively, the results of which were included in this paper. 121 refs., 74 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Future changes in the East Asian rain band projected by global atmospheric models with 20-km and 60-km grid size

    Kusunoki, Shoji; Mizuta, Ryo [Meteorological Research Institute, Climate Research Department, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Matsueda, Mio [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Global warming projection experiments were conducted using a 20-km mesh global atmospheric model, focusing on the change in the rain band of East Asian summer monsoon. To assess the uncertainty of climate change projections, we performed ensemble simulations with the 60-km resolution model combining four different SSTs and three atmospheric initial conditions. In the present-day climate simulations, the 20-km model reproduces the rain band of East Asian summer monsoon better than lower resolution models in terms of geographical distribution and seasonal march. In the future climate simulation by the 20-km model, precipitation increases over the Yangtze River valley in May through July, Korean peninsula in May, and Japan in July. The termination of rainy season over Japan tends to be delayed until August. Ensemble simulations by the 60-km model show that precipitation in the future climate for July increases over the Yangtze River valley, the East China Sea and Japan. These changes in precipitation are partly consistent with those projected by the 20-km model. Simulations by the 20-km and 60-km models consistently show that in the future climate the termination of rainy season over Japan tends to be delayed until August. The changes in the vertically integrated water vapor flux show the intensification of clockwise moisture transport over the western Pacific subtropical high. Most precipitation changes over the East Asia can be interpreted as the moisture convergence resulting from change in the horizontal transport of water vapor. (orig.)

  11. Report on an international joint research project for global environment technology in fiscal 1998; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo gijutsu kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo hokokusho

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to serve for measures against global problems taken by Japan, joint research was carried out with overseas research organizations. The research project selected ten themes considering urgency, internationality and economic proliferation effect in areas to serve for solution of global environment problems. These themes include removal or emission control of greenhouse effect gases, measures against atmospheric environment problems such as acid rains and ozone layer destruction, prevention of ocean contamination, development and effective utilization of energies and resources. When the feedback of these themes to the NEDO projects is considered, the research achievements in relation with development of the acid rain monitoring system in particular support indirectly development of carbon dioxide fixation technologies. The research achievements in developing an environmentally friendly biomass energy manufacturing process and environmental effect evaluation thereon contribute as an effective process to carbon dioxide reduction using biomass as raw materials. The achievements in research of nonlinear interfacial properties and mixed phase turbulence of low-purity carbon dioxide bubbles contribute to a project related to storage of carbon dioxide in oceans. (NEDO)

  12. Evaluation of conducting a screening assessment of nutritional status of hospitalized patients. Presentation of main goals and objectives of the global health project "NutritionDay".

    Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Ostrowska, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) commenced in 2004 a global health project named "NutritionDay" aiming to promote awareness of proper nutritional status of hospitalized patients and to draw attention to the need for early detection of malnutrition among patients. Under the Polish law--pursunat to the regulation of the Minister of Health dated September 15, 2011 (amendment as of 27.12.2013)--a nutritional status of each patient should be assessed at the time of a hospital admission. of this study was to analyze the fulfilment of the mandatory questionnaire assessment of nutritional status at selected wards of one of Warsaw's clinical hospitals. The study included an analysis of medical records of patients hospitalized within 6 months (n = 26375). The correct fulfilment of screening questionnaire assessing nutritional status (NRS 2002 survey) and the information about patients' body weight as well as the results assessment of nutritional status were subject to the analysis. NRS 2002 questionnaire was present in only 67,14% medical records of patients, however 49.24% of them were unfilled. The obtained results confirming low degree of NRS 2002 questionnaires' fulfilment in one of the Warsaw clinical hospitals draws attention to the need for education of hospital personnel in the field of significance of screening of nutritional assessment and its regulations. The "NutritionDay" project is an interesting form to attract attention of the aforementioned problem and its global extent additionally encourage medical units to participate in the project.

  13. The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally-gridded forcing data

    McCabe, M.F.; Ershadi, A.; Jiménez, C.; Gonzalez Miralles, D.; Michel, D.; Wood, E.F.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With

  14. Projections of future floods and hydrological droughts in Europe under a +2°C global warming

    Roudier, Philippe; Andersson, Jafet C.M.; Donnelly, Chantal; Feyen, Luc; Greuell, Wouter; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-01-01

    We present an assessment of the impacts of a +2°C global warming on extreme floods and hydrological droughts (1 in 10 and 1 in 100 year events) in Europe using eleven bias-corrected climate model simulations from CORDEX Europe and three hydrological models. The results show quite contrasted results

  15. Analysis of the Main Access Municipal Project Free and Free Internet in Public Squares: Digital Inclusion in the Present Corporate Information Globalized

    Anderson Nogueira Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as its theme the role of municipalities in the current global information society. So it has the general objective analysis on the free access to the internet in public places as a means of digital inclusion, with such spaces known as digital o hotspots squares. In this case we will present concepts, definitions and brief historical development of the objects of study of this research, namely, globalization, the information society and digital inclusion. We emphasize that this research will analyze recent data on internet access in Brazil, and will check the key municipal projects freely and free internet access in public squares. For this research we use the hypothetical-deductive method by the methodology of analysis of books, scientific papers and official data by renamed institutions to present a scientifically valid conclusion.

  16. Adherence with Preventive Medication in Childhood Asthma

    Scott Burgess

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal adherence with preventive medication is common and often unrecognised as a cause of poor asthma control. A number of risk factors for nonadherence have emerged from well-conducted studies. Unfortunately, patient report a physician's estimation of adherence and knowledge of these risk factors may not assist in determining whether non-adherence is a significant factor. Electronic monitoring devices are likely to be more frequently used to remind patients to take medication, as a strategy to motivate patients to maintain adherence, and a tool to evaluate adherence in subjects with poor disease control. The aim of this paper is to review non-adherence with preventive medication in childhood asthma, its impact on asthma control, methods of evaluating non-adherence, risk factors for suboptimal adherence, and strategies to enhance adherence.

  17. Projected Temperature-Related Years of Life Lost From Stroke Due To Global Warming in a Temperate Climate City, Asia: Disease Burden Caused by Future Climate Change.

    Li, Guoxing; Guo, Qun; Liu, Yang; Li, Yixue; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2018-04-01

    Global warming has attracted worldwide attention. Numerous studies have indicated that stroke is associated with temperature; however, few studies are available on the projections of the burden of stroke attributable to future climate change. We aimed to investigate the future trends of stroke years of life lost (YLL) associated with global warming. We collected death records to examine YLL in Tianjin, China, from 2006 to 2011. We fitted a standard time-series Poisson regression model after controlling for trends, day of the week, relative humidity, and air pollution. We estimated temperature-YLL associations with a distributed lag nonlinear model. These models were then applied to the local climate projections to estimate temperature-related YLL in the 2050s and 2070s. We projected temperature-related YLL from stroke in Tianjin under 19 global-scale climate models and 3 different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The results showed a slight decrease in YLL with percent decreases of 0.85%, 0.97%, and 1.02% in the 2050s and 0.94%, 1.02%, and 0.91% in the 2070s for the 3 scenarios, respectively. The increases in heat-related annual YLL and the decreases in cold-related YLL under the high emission scenario were the strongest. The monthly analysis showed that the most significant increase occurred in the summer months, particularly in August, with percent changes >150% in the 2050s and up to 300% in the 2070s. Future changes in climate are likely to lead to an increase in heat-related YLL, and this increase will not be offset by adaptation under both medium emission and high emission scenarios. Health protections from hot weather will become increasingly necessary, and measures to reduce cold effects will also remain important. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Present and Future Projections of Habitat Suitability of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, a Vector of Viral Pathogens, from Global Climate Simulations.

    Proestos, Y.; Christophides, G.; Erguler, K.; Tanarhte, M.; Waldock, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can influence the transmission of vector borne diseases (VBDs) through altering the habitat suitability of insect vectors. Here we present global climate model simulations and evaluate the associated uncertainties in view of the main meteorological factors that may affect the distribution of the Asian Tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), which can transmit pathogens that cause Chikungunya, Dengue fever, yellow fever and various encephalitides. Using a general circulation model (GCM) at 50 km horizontal resolution to simulate mosquito survival variables including temperature, precipitation and relative humidity, we present both global and regional projections of the habitat suitability up to the middle of the 21st century. The model resolution of 50 km allows evaluation against previous projections for Europe and provides a basis for comparative analyses with other regions. Model uncertainties and performance are addressed in light of the recent CMIP5 ensemble climate model simulations for the RCP8.5 concentration pathway and using meteorological re-analysis data (ERA-Interim/ECMWF) for the recent past. Uncertainty ranges associated with the thresholds of meteorological variables that may affect the distribution of Ae. albopictus are diagnosed using fuzzy-logic methodology, notably to assess the influence of selected meteorological criteria and combinations of criteria that influence mosquito habitat suitability. From the climate projections for 2050, and adopting a habitat suitability index larger than 70%, we estimate that about 2.4 billion individuals in a land area of nearly 20 million square kilometres will potentially be exposed to Ae. albopictus. The synthesis of fuzzy-logic based on mosquito biology and climate change analysis provides new insights into the regional and global spreading of VBDs to support disease control and policy making.

  19. The Effect of Tariff Reduction in Agricultural Sector on Macroeconomic Variables: Using Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP

    H. Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Economic effects of membership in the WTO in recent years, has been one of the most important issues for Iranian economy. If Iran joins the WTO, in this process, tariff reduction in agricultural sector will be one of the policies which has to be employed. Therefore, investigating economic effects of tariff reduction or even its elimination in this sector will be necessary in running effective policies to minimize the probabilistic losses of accession. Tariffs on agricultural products in Iran are determined merely on the basis of annual country economy, and have no long term strategy. Government is just obliged to impose effective tariffs on agricultural products imports, in order to protect local productions. On the other hand, according to the census of population and housing, the share of agricultural sector in employment has reduced during the past decade. Moreover, Iran central bank information indicated the reduction in the share of agricultural sector in GDP for the past decade. Declining the share of agriculture in production and employment, considering the high number of university graduates in the field of agriculture along with rising unemployment rate of this group, motivated this study to investigate the effect of tariff reduction in this sector on macroeconomic variables. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed the welfare effects of import tariffs reduction in agricultural sector from Iran most important commercial partners and vice versa, using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP, based on computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Moreover, the effects of tariffs reduction, is investigated on output, price level and transfer of production factors between different economic sectors. In order to simulate the above model, we used GTAP version 8 which covers 57 commodities and 113 regions with economic information of these regions. This model uses Social Accounting Matrix of countries as data information. Our

  20. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MELLON in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1976-09-21 to 1976-09-27 (NODC Accession 7601816)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MELLON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  1. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship RAINIER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1979-09-11 to 1979-09-14 (NODC Accession 8000279)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship RAINIER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the National Ocean...

  2. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the R/V TRIDENT in the Caribbean Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project for 1971-01-28 (NODC Accession 7600706)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the R/V TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the University of...

  3. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MIDGETT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1977-07-15 to 1977-08-11 (NODC Accession 7700647)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MIDGETT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  4. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC DUANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1975-08-23 to 1975-09-12 (NODC Accession 7500855)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC DUANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  5. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1975-09-27 to 1975-11-01 (NODC Accession 7601750)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval...

  6. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1975-11-12 to 1975-11-27 (NODC Accession 7601890)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval...

  7. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1974-09-04 to 1974-10-12 (NODC Accession 7400812)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval...

  8. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1976-09-13 to 1976-09-14 (NODC Accession 7601901)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval...

  9. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MELLON in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1975-12-09 to 1975-12-15 (NODC Accession 7600031)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MELLON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  10. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the R/V TRIDENT in the East Coast - US/Canada in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project for 1969-07-10 (NODC Accession 7600701)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the R/V TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the University of...

  11. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1978-08-11 to 1978-10-15 (NODC Accession 7900030)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  12. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MELLON in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1978-06-02 to 1978-08-10 (NODC Accession 7800664)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MELLON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  13. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC INGHAM in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1974-04-14 to 1974-05-14 (NODC Accession 7400400)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC INGHAM in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by US Coast Guard from...

  14. FOREIGN JUDGMENTS PROJECT OF HAGUE CONFERENCE: FOR A GLOBAL REGIME OF INTERNATIONAL CIRCULATION OF JUDGMENTS ON CIVIL AND COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS

    Nadia de Araujo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hague Conference on Private International Law is promoting the adoption of rules designed to circumvent usual obstacles to the international circulation of judgments. The Judgments Project initiated in the nineties aims at mitigating uncertainties and risks associated with the international commerce by setting forth a simple and safe system according to which foreign judgments may circulate from country to country. The purpose of this article is to preserve the historical moment of the negotiations taking place at the Hague, as well as to pinpoint some technical issues raised in the course of the project that may be of general interest to those involved in the subject of international jurisdiction.

  15. Evaluation of Adherence to Nutritional Intervention Through Trajectory Analysis.

    Sevilla-Villanueva, B; Gibert, K; Sanchez-Marre, M; Fito, M; Covas, M I

    2017-05-01

    Classical pre-post intervention studies are often analyzed using traditional statistics. Nevertheless, the nutritional interventions have small effects on the metabolism and traditional statistics are not enough to detect these subtle nutrient effects. Generally, this kind of studies assumes that the participants are adhered to the assigned dietary intervention and directly analyzes its effects over the target parameters. Thus, the evaluation of adherence is generally omitted. Although, sometimes, participants do not effectively adhere to the assigned dietary guidelines. For this reason, the trajectory map is proposed as a visual tool where dietary patterns of individuals can be followed during the intervention and can also be related with nutritional prescriptions. The trajectory analysis is also proposed allowing both analysis: 1) adherence to the intervention and 2) intervention effects. The analysis is made by projecting the differences of the target parameters over the resulting trajectories between states of different time-stamps which might be considered either individually or by groups. The proposal has been applied over a real nutritional study showing that some individuals adhere better than others and some individuals of the control group modify their habits during the intervention. In addition, the intervention effects are different depending on the type of individuals, even some subgroups have opposite response to the same intervention.

  16. Multi-model ensemble projections of European river floods and high flows at 1.5, 2, and 3 degree global warming

    Thober, S.; Kumar, R.; Wanders, N.; Marx, A.; Pan, M.; Rakovec, O.; Samaniego, L. E.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Zink, M.

    2017-12-01

    Severe river floods often result in huge economic losses and fatalities. Since 1980, almost 1500 such events have been reported in Europe. This study investigates climate change impacts on European floods under 1.5, 2, and 3 K global warming. The impacts are assessed employing a multi-model ensemble containing three hydrologic models (HMs: mHM, Noah-MP, PCR-GLOBWB) forced by five CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6, 6.0, and 8.5). This multi-model ensemble is unprecedented with respect to the combination of its size (45 realisations) and its spatial resolution, which is 5 km over entire Europe. Climate change impacts are quantified for high flows and flood events, represented by 10% exceedance probability and annual maxima of daily streamflow, respectively. The multi-model ensemble points to the Mediterranean region as a hotspot of changes with significant decrements in high flows from -11% at 1.5 K up to -30% at 3 K global warming mainly resulting from reduced precipitation. Small changes (< ±10%) are observed for river basins in Central Europe and the British Isles under different levels of warming. Projected higher annual precipitation increases high flows in Scandinavia, but reduced snow water equivalent decreases flood events in this region. The contribution by the GCMs to the overall uncertainties of the ensemble is in general higher than that by the HMs. The latter, however, have a substantial share of the overall uncertainty and exceed GCM uncertainty in the Mediterranean and Scandinavia. Adaptation measures for limiting the impacts of global warming could be similar under 1.5 K and 2 K global warming, but has to account for significantly higher changes under 3 K global warming.

  17. Antidiabetic medication adherence and associated factors among ...

    Godfrey Mutashambara Rwegerera

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... tive of the study was to determine current antidiabetic medication adherence in ...... A systematic review of adherence with medications for diabetes. .... Pascal IGU, Ofoedu JN, Uchenna NP, Nkwa AA, Uchamma GUE.

  18. Health diplomacy the adaptation of global health interventions to local needs in sub-Saharan Africa and Thailand: Evaluating findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043

    Kevany Sebastian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study-based global health interventions, especially those that are conducted on an international or multi-site basis, frequently require site-specific adaptations in order to (1 respond to socio-cultural differences in risk determinants, (2 to make interventions more relevant to target population needs, and (3 in recognition of ‘global health diplomacy' issues. We report on the adaptations development, approval and implementation process from the Project Accept voluntary counseling and testing, community mobilization and post-test support services intervention. Methods We reviewed all relevant documentation collected during the study intervention period (e.g. monthly progress reports; bi-annual steering committee presentations and conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with project directors and between 12 and 23 field staff at each study site in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Thailand and Tanzania during 2009. Respondents were asked to describe (1 the adaptations development and approval process and (2 the most successful site-specific adaptations from the perspective of facilitating intervention implementation. Results Across sites, proposed adaptations were identified by field staff and submitted to project directors for review on a formally planned basis. The cross-site intervention sub-committee then ensured fidelity to the study protocol before approval. Successfully-implemented adaptations included: intervention delivery adaptations (e.g. development of tailored counseling messages for immigrant labour groups in South Africa political, environmental and infrastructural adaptations (e.g. use of local community centers as VCT venues in Zimbabwe; religious adaptations (e.g. dividing clients by gender in Muslim areas of Tanzania; economic adaptations (e.g. co-provision of income generating skills classes in Zimbabwe; epidemiological adaptations (e.g. provision of ‘youth-friendly’ services in South Africa, Zimbabwe

  19. Uranium supply/demand projections to 2030 in the OECD/NEA-IAEA ''Red Book''. Nuclear growth projections, global uranium exploration, uranium resources, uranium production and production capacity

    Vance, Robert

    2009-01-01

    World demand for electricity is expected to continue to grow rapidly over the next several decades to meet the needs of an increasing population and economic growth. The recognition by many governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, base load electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, combined with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supplies, has increased the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity. Since the mid-1960s, with the co-operation of their member countries and states, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have jointly prepared periodic updates (currently every 2 years) on world uranium resources, production and demand. These updates have been published by the OECD/NEA in what is commonly known as the ''Red Book''. The 2007 edition replaces the 2005 edition and reflects information current as of 1 st January 2007. Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand presents, in addition to updated resource figures, the results of a recent review of world uranium market fundamentals and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry. It contains official data provided by 40 countries (and one Country Report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat) on uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements to 2030 as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues are also presented. (orig.)

  20. Development of TRU transmuters for optimization of the global fuel cycle. Final Report for the NERI Project

    Lee, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This final report summarizes the research activities during the entire performance period of the NERI grant, including the extra 9 months granted under a no-cost time extension. Building up on the 14 quarterly reports submitted through October 2008, we present here an overview of the research accomplishments under the five tasks originally proposed in July 2004, together with citations for publications resulting from the project. The AFCI-NERI project provided excellent support for two undergraduate and 10 graduates students at the University of Michigan during a period of three years and nine months. Significant developments were achieved in three areas: (1) Efficient deterministic fuel cycle optimization algorithms both for PWR and SFR configurations, (2) Efficient search algorithm for PWR equilibrium cycles, and (3) Simplified Excel-based script for dynamic fuel cycle analysis of diverse cycles. The project resulted in a total of 8 conference papers and three journal papers, including two that will be submitted shortly. Three pending publications are attached to the report

  1. Variations and Trends in Global and Regional Precipitation Based on the 22-year GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project) and Three-year TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Data Sets

    Adler, R.; Curtis, S.; Huffman, G.; Bolvin, D.; Nelkin, E.

    2001-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the analysis of global precipitation over the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM precipitation observations. The 20+ year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to study global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM(Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) tropical data set. The GPCP data set shows no significant trend in global precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. The global trend analysis must be interpreted carefully, however, because the inhomogeneity of the data set makes detecting a small signal very difficult, especially over this relatively short period. The relation of global (and tropical) total precipitation and ENSO events is quantified with no significant signal when land and ocean are combined. Identifying regional trends in precipitation may be more practical. From 1979 to 2000 the tropics have pattern of regional rainfall trends that has an ENSO-like pattern with features of both the El Nino and La Nina. This feature is related to a possible trend in the frequency of ENSO events (either El Nino or La Nina) over the past 20 years. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. A number of the features are shown to extend into high latitudes. Positive anomalies extend in the Southern Hemisphere (S.H.) from the Pacific southeastward across Chile and Argentina into the south Atlantic Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere (N.H.) the counterpart feature extends across the southern U.S. and Atlantic Ocean into Europe

  2. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI – integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    D. Simpson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI. EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.

  3. Risk factors for antipsychotic medication non-adherence behaviors and attitudes in adult-onset psychosis.

    Hui, Christy Lai Ming; Poon, Venessa Wing Yan; Ko, Wai Tung; Miao, Ho Yee; Chang, Wing Chung; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chan, Sherry Kit Wa; Lin, Jingxia; Chen, Eric Yu Hai

    2016-07-01

    Research on antipsychotic medication non-adherence in first-episode psychosis patients tends to examine non-adherence behaviors and attitudes together. Nonetheless, attitudes do not always directly translate into behaviors. We examined the baseline predictors for antipsychotics non-adherence behaviors and attitudes separately in a first-episode psychosis cohort. We also included cognitive impairments as one of the predictor variables as this domain is rarely explored in adherence studies. Participants were 313 adult-onset psychosis patients recruited from the Jockey Club Early Psychosis project in Hong Kong. Demographic, premorbid, clinical, and cognitive characteristics were first assessed at baseline. Six months later, participants completed a 14-item Medication Compliance Questionnaire, which was a modified and Cantonese-translated version of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale that includes items pertaining to both adherence behaviors and attitudes. Rates of poor adherence behaviors and negative adherence attitudes were 17.6% and 27.8%, respectively. Determinants of poor adherence behavior included more severe positive symptoms, hospitalization at onset of illness, and poorer engagement in extended social network. As for negative adherence attitude, determinants included more severe general psychopathology, poorer insight, more psychic medication side-effects, and poorer performance on backward digit span test and WAIS-R information test. The risk factors for non-adherence behaviors and attitudes are different and they should all be taken into careful consideration while formulating appropriate intervention programs to tackle the adherence problem in adult onset psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Patient Medication Knowledge Governing Adherence to Asthma ...

    Samuel Olaleye

    disturbing levels of patients adherence with management recommendations. Asthma education strategies need to be modified to engage ... and quick procedure. ... Participants' medication adherence and skills at using .... In this study 17 of the 67 patients studied .... adherence: changing behaviour to promote better self-.

  5. Preliminary investigation of adherence to antiretroviral therapy ...

    Treatment of HIV with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in declining morbidity and mortality rates from HIV-associated diseases, but concerns regarding access and adherence are growing. To determine the adherence level and the reasons for non-adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among ...

  6. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1997-01-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  7. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1997-07-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  8. Harnessing opportunities for good governance of health impacts of mining projects in Mongolia: results of a global partnership.

    Pfeiffer, Michaela; Vanya, Delgermaa; Davison, Colleen; Lkhagvasuren, Oyunaa; Johnston, Lesley; Janes, Craig R

    2017-06-27

    The Sustainable Development Goals call for the effective governance of shared natural resources in ways that support inclusive growth, safeguard the integrity of the natural and physical environment, and promote health and well-being for all. For large-scale resource extraction projects -- e.g. in the mining sector -- environmental regulations and in particular environmental impact assessments (EIA) provide an important but insufficiently developed avenue to ensure that wider sustainable development issues, such as health, have been considered prior to the permitting of projects. In recognition of the opportunity provided in EIA to influence the extent to which health issues would be addressed in the design and delivery of mining projects, an international and intersectoral partnership, with the support of WHO and public funds from Canadian sources, engaged over a period of six years in a series of capacity development activities and knowledge translation/dissemination events aimed at influencing policy change in the extractives sector so as to include consideration of human health impacts. Early efforts significantly increased awareness of the need to include health considerations in EIAs. Coupling effective knowledge translation about health in EIA with the development of networks that fostered good intersectoral partnerships, this awareness supported the development and implementation of key pieces of legislation. These results show that intersectoral collaboration is essential, and must be supported by an effective conceptual understanding about which methods and models of impact assessment, particularly for health, lend themselves to integration within EIA. The results of our partnership demonstrate that when specific conditions are met, integrating health into the EIA system represents a promising avenue to ensure that mining activities contribute to wider sustainable development goals and objectives.

  9. Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

  10. An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series

    McClain, Charles R.; Feldman, Gene C.; Hooker, Stanford B.

    2004-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project Office was formally initiated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in 1990. Seven years later, the sensor was launched by Orbital Sciences Corporation under a data-buy contract to provide 5 years of science quality data for global ocean biogeochemistry research. To date, the SeaWiFS program has greatly exceeded the mission goals established over a decade ago in terms of data quality, data accessibility and usability, ocean community infrastructure development, cost efficiency, and community service. The SeaWiFS Project Office and its collaborators in the scientific community have made substantial contributions in the areas of satellite calibration, product validation, near-real time data access, field data collection, protocol development, in situ instrumentation technology, operational data system development, and desktop level-0 to level-3 processing software. One important aspect of the SeaWiFS program is the high level of science community cooperation and participation. This article summarizes the key activities and approaches the SeaWiFS Project Office pursued to define, achieve, and maintain the mission objectives. These achievements have enabled the user community to publish a large and growing volume of research such as those contributed to this special volume of Deep-Sea Research. Finally, some examples of major geophysical events (oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial) captured by SeaWiFS are presented to demonstrate the versatility of the sensor.

  11. Description of the global petroleum supply and demand outlook updated for the 1993 edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand, December 1992

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1992-12-01

    Strategic planning of the research and development program carried out by Gas Research Institute (GRI) is supported by an annual GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand. Because petroleum products compete in a wide variety of energy uses, oil prices serve as a market clearing force for the entire energy system. A significant portion of the U.S. petroleum supply is imported, and the price of crude oil to U.S. refiners is determined by the international oil trade. Any projection of the U.S. energy situation, therefore, requires the evaluation of the global oil market and the impact of oil price changes on the supply/demand balances of market participants. The 1992 edition of the projection completed in August 1991 assumed that in the aftermath of the war in the Middle East the fundamentals of oil trade would reassert their influence. This did indeed occur and with astonishing speed. In the face of this outlook, GRI has revised its 1993 oil price track downward

  12. Novel Natural Products for Healthy Ageing from the Mediterranean Diet and Food Plants of Other Global Sources-The MediHealth Project.

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Halabalaki, Maria; Schwaiger, Stefan; Adamopoulos, Nicolas; Allouche, Noureddine; Fiebich, Bernd L; Hermans, Nina; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Kesternich, Victor; Pieters, Luc; Schönbichler, Stefan; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Tran, Hung; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Viljoen, Alvaro; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Wolfrum, Christian; Xynos, Nikos; Stuppner, Hermann

    2018-05-06

    There is a rapid increase in the percentage of elderly people in Europe. Consequently, the prevalence of age-related diseases will also significantly increase. Therefore, the main goal of MediHealth, an international research project, is to introduce a novel approach for the discovery of active agents of food plants from the Mediterranean diet and other global sources that promote healthy ageing. To achieve this goal, a series of plants from the Mediterranean diet and food plants from other origins are carefully selected and subjected to in silico, cell-based, in vivo (fly and mouse models), and metabolism analyses. Advanced analytical techniques complement the bio-evaluation process for the efficient isolation and identification of the bioactive plant constituents. Furthermore, pharmacological profiling of bioactive natural products, as well as the identification and synthesis of their metabolites, is carried out. Finally, optimization studies are performed in order to proceed to the development of innovative nutraceuticals, dietary supplements or herbal medicinal products. The project is based on an exchange of researchers between nine universities and four companies from European and non-European countries, exploiting the existing complementary multidisciplinary expertise. Herein, the unique and novel approach of this interdisciplinary project is presented.

  13. Adherence and health care costs

    Iuga AO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aurel O Iuga,1,2 Maura J McGuire3,4 1Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, 4Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Medication nonadherence is an important public health consideration, affecting health outcomes and overall health care costs. This review considers the most recent developments in adherence research with a focus on the impact of medication adherence on health care costs in the US health system. We describe the magnitude of the nonadherence problem and related costs, with an extensive discussion of the mechanisms underlying the impact of nonadherence on costs. Specifically, we summarize the impact of nonadherence on health care costs in several chronic diseases, such as diabetes and asthma. A brief analysis of existing research study designs, along with suggestions for future research focus, is provided. Finally, given the ongoing changes in the US health care system, we also address some of the most relevant and current trends in health care, including pharmacist-led medication therapy management and electronic (e-prescribing. Keywords: patient, medication, adherence, compliance, nonadherence, noncompliance, cost

  14. Perspectives Regarding Adherence to Prescribed Treatment in Highly Adherent HIV-Infected Gay Men.

    Brion, John M; Menke, Edna M

    2008-01-01

    Focus group methodology was used to describe the medication adherence experience of 24 HIV-infected gay men who reported being adherent to their medication regimens. A conceptualization of medication adherence as an evolving process consisted of challenges to adherence (learning the diagnosis, starting the medications, struggling with the medications, dealing with side effects, coping with stigma) as well as those factors supportive of adherence (believing in medications, finding motivating factors, using reminders, depending on others, owning the disease). Themes associated with challenges to adherence focused on diagnosis and the physical and emotional adjustments individuals made to incorporate antiretroviral medications into their daily lives and move toward medication adherence. The factors supportive of adherence were related to the ongoing behaviors identified with establishing and maintaining adherence behaviors. What can be taken from the study is that adherence is a complex and dynamic process rather than a static behavior.

  15. Projections of East Asian summer monsoon change at global warming of 1.5 and 2 °C

    Liu, Jiawei; Xu, Haiming; Deng, Jiechun

    2018-04-01

    Much research is needed regarding the two long-term warming targets of the 2015 Paris Agreement, i.e., 1.5 and 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, especially from a regional perspective. The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity change and associated precipitation change under both warming targets are explored in this study. The multimodel ensemble mean projections by 19 CMIP5 models show small increases in EASM intensity and general increases in summer precipitation at 1.5 and 2 °C warming, but with large multimodel standard deviations. Thus, a novel multimodel ensemble pattern regression (EPR) method is applied to give more reliable projections based on the concept of emergent constraints, which is effective at tightening the range of multimodel diversity and harmonize the changes of different variables over the EASM region. Future changes projected by using the EPR method suggest decreased precipitation over the Meiyu belt and increased precipitation over the high latitudes of East Asia and Central China, together with a considerable weakening of EASM intensity. Furthermore, reduced precipitation appears over 30-40° N of East Asia in June and over the Meiyu belt in July, with enhanced precipitation at their north and south sides. These changes in early summer are attributed to a southeastward retreat of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) and a southward shift of the East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ), which weaken the moisture transport via southerly wind at low levels and alter vertical motions over the EASM region. In August, precipitation would increase over the high latitudes of East Asia with more moisture from the wetter area over the ocean in the east and decrease over Japan with westward extension of WNPSH. These monthly precipitation changes would finally contribute to a tripolar pattern of EASM precipitation change at 1.5 and 2 °C warming. Corrected EASM intensity exhibits a slight difference between 1.5 and 2 °C, but a

  16. Immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant patients.

    Lalić, Jelena; Veličković-Radovanović, Radmila; Mitić, Branka; Paunović, Goran; Cvetković, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    To assess the degree of immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant patients (KTPs) and to determine if there is a difference in the rate of adherence to tacrolimus (Tac), cyclosporine (CsA) and sirolimus (Sir). From a total of 63 KTPs treated at the Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Centre Niš, Serbia, 60 participated in the study by responding to questionnaires. They were divided into the adherence group (n = 43) and the nonadherence group (n = 17) according to their degree of adherence which was measured using a validated survey form, the simplified medication adherence questionnaire. The KTP adherence to the different immunosuppressive regimens (Tac, CsA and Sir) was compared. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test. Adherence was observed in 43 (71.7%) patients, and only 17 (28.3%) did not follow the prescribed therapy. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower in the nonadherence group (38.52 ± 18.22 ml/min) than in the adherence group (52.43 ± 16.91 ml/min, p adherers and the nonadherers (6.30 ± 2.06 vs. 5.0 ± 1.52 ng/ml, p adherence. Nonadherence was associated with worse graft function and a lower Tac level. Knowledge about the degree of adherence could help the early identification of nonadherent patients and the development of strategies to improve this. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. A Conceptual Model for Projecting Coccolithophorid Growth, Calcification and Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation Rates in Response to Global Ocean Change

    Natasha A. Gafar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, light and carbonate chemistry all influence the growth, calcification and photosynthetic rates of coccolithophores to a similar degree. There have been multiple attempts to project the responses of coccolithophores to changes in carbonate chemistry, but the interaction with light and temperature remains elusive. Here we devise a simple conceptual model to derive a fit equation for coccolithophorid growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates in response to simultaneous changes in carbonate chemistry, temperature and light conditions. The fit equation is able to account for up to 88% of the variability in measured metabolic rates. Equation projections indicate that temperature, light and carbonate chemistry all have different modulating effects on both optimal growth conditions and the sensitivity of responses to extreme environmental conditions. Calculations suggest that a single extreme environmental condition (CO2, temperature, light will reduce maximum rates regardless of how optimal the other environmental conditions may be. Thus, while the response of coccolithophores to ocean change depends on multiple variables, the one which is least optimal will have the most impact on overall rates. Finally, responses to ocean change are usually reported in terms of cellular rates. However, changes in cellular rates can be a poor predictor for assessing changes in production at the community level. We therefore introduce a new metric, the calcium carbonate production potential (CCPP, which combines the independent effects of changes in growth rate and cellular calcium carbonate content to assess how environmental changes will impact coccolith production. Direct comparison of CO2 impacts on cellular CaCO3 production rates and CCPP shows that while the former is still at 45% of its pre-industrial capacity at 1,000 μatm, the latter is reduced to 10%.

  18. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  19. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie–woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model

    King, David A; Bachelet, Dominique M; Symstad, Amy J

    2013-01-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine–prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions

  20. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie-woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model.

    King, David A; Bachelet, Dominique M; Symstad, Amy J

    2013-12-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine-prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions and

  1. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie-woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model

    King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominique M.; Symstad, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine–prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions

  2. Global Programs

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.

    2009-05-01

    IYA2009 is a global collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are global activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing global projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.

  3. Spread of endemic disease and global change in an educational project: proposition of relationships developed in a twin partnership

    Michela Viale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sudden event of the spread of dengue fever (or break-bone fever that appeared for the first time in Cape Verde in 2009 revealed that inappropriate management of waste can be considered a major cause of the spread of this disease. Dengue fever is a tropical infectious disease that is caused by the dengue virus. Its vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, found an optimal environment for its life cycle in the context of Cape Verde, with the persistence of water in abandoned waste objects. The connection between the topics of Earth sciences and the spread of this disease is not obvious, but it was explored and illustrated in a school partnership. Activities with pupils and students provided an opportunity to investigate how some global phenomena, like climate change (with an increase in local rainfall and higher temperatures, are related to local events, such as the spread of dengue fever. Preventive strategies are conditioned by the geomorphology of the territory and by the complex relationships that connect the geosphere and the biosphere. For this reason, it is important to be aware of the risk of breaking these delicate balances, and hence activating unexpected consequences. The roles played by both partners linked knowledge about the natural dynamics of our planet with the development of appropriate behavior, thus contributing to the formation of responsible citizenship, to preserve and protect the environment. The partnership encouraged students to develop sustainable management strategies against dengue fever, and consequently against waste, actively involving them at school, at home, and in their community. In this study, we present a case study of the role of a school partnership in a complex problem, such as the spread of dengue fever and environmental pollution.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 66: Emerging Trends in the Globalization of Knowledge: The Role of the Technical Report in Aerospace Research and Development

    Pinelli,Thomas E.; Golich, Vicki L.

    1997-01-01

    Economists, management theorists, business strategists, and governments alike recognize knowledge as the single most important resource in today's global economy. Because of its relationship to technological progress and economic growth, many governments have taken a keen interest in knowledge; specifically its production, transfer, and use. This paper focuses on the technical report as a product for disseminating the results of aerospace research and development (R&D) and its use and importance to aerospace engineers and scientists. The emergence of knowledge as an intellectual asset, its relationship to innovation, and its importance in a global economy provides the context for the paper. The relationships between government and knowledge and government and innovation are used to place knowledge within the context of publicly-funded R&D. Data, including the reader preferences of NASA technical reports, are derived from the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, a ten-year study of knowledge diffusion in the U.S. aerospace industry.

  5. Projecting pest population dynamics under global warming: the combined effect of inter- and intra-annual variations.

    Zidon, Royi; Tsueda, Hirotsugu; Morin, Efrat; Morin, Shai

    2016-06-01

    The typical short generation length of insects makes their population dynamics highly sensitive not only to mean annual temperatures but also to their intra-annual variations. To consider the combined effect of both thermal factors under global warming, we propose a modeling framework that links general circulation models (GCMs) with a stochastic weather generator and population dynamics models to predict species population responses to inter- and intra-annual temperature changes. This framework was utilized to explore future changes in populations of Bemisia tabaci, an invasive insect pest-species that affects multiple agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region. We considered three locations representing different pest status and climatic conditions: Montpellier (France), Seville (Spain), and Beit-Jamal (Israel). We produced ensembles of local daily temperature realizations representing current and future (mid-21st century) climatic conditions under two emission scenarios for the three locations. Our simulations predicted a significant increase in the average number of annual generations and in population size, and a significant lengthening of the growing season in all three locations. A negative effect was found only in Seville for the summer season, where future temperatures lead to a reduction in population size. High variability in population size was observed between years with similar annual mean temperatures, suggesting a strong effect of intra-annual temperature variation. Critical periods were from late spring to late summer in Montpellier and from late winter to early summer in Seville and Beit-Jamal. Although our analysis suggested that earlier seasonal activity does not necessarily lead to increased populations load unless an additional generation is produced, it is highly likely that the insect will become a significant pest of open-fields at Mediterranean latitudes above 40° during the next 50 years. Our simulations also implied that current

  6. Virtual projects

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects....... The overall implications for research and practice are to acknowledge virtual project management as very different to traditional project management and to address this difference.......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  7. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to contact lenses

    Miller, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examined the interactions of P. aeruginosa with hydrogel contact lenses and other substrata, and characterize adherence to lenses under various physiological and physicochemical conditions. Isolates adhered to polystyrene, glass, and hydrogel lenses. With certain lens types, radiolabeled cells showed decreased adherence with increasing water content of the lenses, however, this correlation with not found for all lenses. Adherence to rigid gas permeable lenses was markedly greater than adherence to hydrogels. Best adherence occurred near pH 7 and at a sodium chloride concentration of 50 mM. Passive adhesion of heat-killed cells to hydrogels was lower than the adherence obtained of viable cells. Adherence to hydrogels was enhanced by mucin, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgA, bovine serum albumin, and a mixture of these macromolecules. Adherence to coated and uncoated lenses was greater with a daily-wear hydrogel when compared with an extended-wear hydrogel of similar polymer composition. Greater adherence was attributed to a higher concentration of adsorbed macromolecules on the 45% water-content lens in comparison to the 55% water-content lens

  8. Climate change-induced vegetation shifts lead to more ecological droughts despite projected rainfall increases in many global temperate drylands.

    Tietjen, Britta; Schlaepfer, Daniel R; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K; Hall, Sonia A; Duniway, Michael C; Hochstrasser, Tamara; Jia, Gensuo; Munson, Seth M; Pyke, David A; Wilson, Scott D

    2017-07-01

    Drylands occur worldwide and are particularly vulnerable to climate change because dryland ecosystems depend directly on soil water availability that may become increasingly limited as temperatures rise. Climate change will both directly impact soil water availability and change plant biomass, with resulting indirect feedbacks on soil moisture. Thus, the net impact of direct and indirect climate change effects on soil moisture requires better understanding. We used the ecohydrological simulation model SOILWAT at sites from temperate dryland ecosystems around the globe to disentangle the contributions of direct climate change effects and of additional indirect, climate change-induced changes in vegetation on soil water availability. We simulated current and future climate conditions projected by 16 GCMs under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 for the end of the century. We determined shifts in water availability due to climate change alone and due to combined changes of climate and the growth form and biomass of vegetation. Vegetation change will mostly exacerbate low soil water availability in regions already expected to suffer from negative direct impacts of climate change (with the two RCP scenarios giving us qualitatively similar effects). By contrast, in regions that will likely experience increased water availability due to climate change alone, vegetation changes will counteract these increases due to increased water losses by interception. In only a small minority of locations, climate change-induced vegetation changes may lead to a net increase in water availability. These results suggest that changes in vegetation in response to climate change may exacerbate drought conditions and may dampen the effects of increased precipitation, that is, leading to more ecological droughts despite higher precipitation in some regions. Our results underscore the value of considering indirect effects of climate change on vegetation when assessing future soil moisture conditions in water

  9. Climate change-induced vegetation shifts lead to more ecological droughts despite projected rainfall increases in many global temperate drylands

    Tietjen, Britta; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.; Laurenroth, William K.; Hall, Sonia A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Hochstrasser, Tamara; Jia, Gensuo; Munson, Seth M.; Pyke, David A.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Drylands occur world-wide and are particularly vulnerable to climate change since dryland ecosystems depend directly on soil water availability that may become increasingly limited as temperatures rise. Climate change will both directly impact soil water availability, and also change plant biomass, with resulting indirect feedbacks on soil moisture. Thus, the net impact of direct and indirect climate change effects on soil moisture requires better understanding.We used the ecohydrological simulation model SOILWAT at sites from temperate dryland ecosystems around the globe to disentangle the contributions of direct climate change effects and of additional indirect, climate change-induced changes in vegetation on soil water availability. We simulated current and future climate conditions projected by 16 GCMs under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 for the end of the century. We determined shifts in water availability due to climate change alone and due to combined changes of climate and the growth form and biomass of vegetation.Vegetation change will mostly exacerbate low soil water availability in regions already expected to suffer from negative direct impacts of climate change (with the two RCP scenarios giving us qualitatively similar effects). By contrast, in regions that will likely experience increased water availability due to climate change alone, vegetation changes will counteract these increases due to increased water losses by interception. In only a small minority of locations, climate change induced vegetation changes may lead to a net increase in water availability. These results suggest that changes in vegetation in response to climate change may exacerbate drought conditions and may dampen the effects of increased precipitation, i.e. leading to more ecological droughts despite higher precipitation in some regions. Our results underscore the value of considering indirect effects of climate change on vegetation when assessing future soil moisture conditions in water

  10. Description of the global petroleum supply and demand outlook. Updated for the 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1991-11-01

    The global oil trade is still in surplus production with downward pressure on prices just as in early 1990. The current oil price situation includes three major new factors which need to be taken into account: the outlook for the restoration of production capacity lost from the war; the impact of events in the Soviet Union and former Eastern block; and, the effect changed financial circumstances of the major Middle Eastern producers will have on pricing in the future. The net effect appears to be adequate or excess production capability for the next several years, volatile prices in the near term, with general downward pressures resulting in relative lower average prices. In the longer term there will be an increasing demand requirement for aggressive investment in new capacity resulting in relatively steep escalation in prices. The oil price track used for this projection is essentially the same as in the last two GRI Baseline Projections. The U.S. refiners acquisition cost (RAC) of crude oil is expected to increase at an overall real average rate of 2.3 percent, reaching $36.84 per barrel in 1991 dollars and $83.30 in nominal dollars in the year 2010

  11. Indirect downscaling of global circulation model data based on atmospheric circulation and temperature for projections of future precipitation in hourly resolution

    Beck, F.; Bárdossy, A.

    2013-07-01

    Many hydraulic applications like the design of urban sewage systems require projections of future precipitation in high temporal resolution. We developed a method to predict the regional distribution of hourly precipitation sums based on daily mean sea level pressure and temperature data from a Global Circulation Model. It is an indirect downscaling method avoiding uncertain precipitation data from the model. It is based on a fuzzy-logic classification of atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs) that is further subdivided by means of the average daily temperature. The observed empirical distributions at 30 rain gauges to each CP-temperature class are assumed as constant and used for projections of the hourly precipitation sums in the future. The method was applied to the CP-temperature sequence derived from the 20th century run and the scenario A1B run of ECHAM5. According to ECHAM5, the summers in southwest Germany will become progressively drier. Nevertheless, the frequency of the highest hourly precipitation sums will increase. According to the predictions, estival water stress and the risk of extreme hourly precipitation will both increase simultaneously during the next decades.

  12. The projected effect on insects, vertebrates, and plants of limiting global warming to 1.5°C rather than 2°C.

    Warren, R; Price, J; Graham, E; Forstenhaeusler, N; VanDerWal, J

    2018-05-18

    In the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the United Nations is pursuing efforts to limit global warming to 1.5°C, whereas earlier aspirations focused on a 2°C limit. With current pledges, corresponding to ~3.2°C warming, climatically determined geographic range losses of >50% are projected in ~49% of insects, 44% of plants, and 26% of vertebrates. At 2°C, this falls to 18% of insects, 16% of plants, and 8% of vertebrates and at 1.5°C, to 6% of insects, 8% of plants, and 4% of vertebrates. When warming is limited to 1.5°C as compared with 2°C, numbers of species projected to lose >50% of their range are reduced by ~66% in insects and by ~50% in plants and vertebrates. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Energy Budget of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The annual energy budget of the Arctic Ocean is characterized by a net heat loss at the air-sea interface that is balanced by oceanic heat transport into the Arctic. The energy loss at the air-sea interface is due to the combined effects of radiative, sensible, and latent heat fluxes. The inflow of heat by the ocean can be divided into two components: the transport of water masses of different temperatures between the Arctic and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the export of sea ice, primarily through Fram Strait. Two 150-year simulations (1950-2099) of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. One is a control simulation for the present climate with constant 1950 atmospheric composition, and the other is a transient experiment with observed GHGs from 1950 to 1990 and 0.5% annual compounded increases of CO2 after 1990. For the present climate the model agrees well with observations of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, atmospheric advective energy transport into the Arctic, and surface air temperature. It also simulates the seasonal cycle and summer increase of cloud cover and the seasonal cycle of sea-ice cover. In addition, the changes in high-latitude surface air temperature and sea-ice cover in the GHG experiment are consistent with observed changes during the last 40 and 20 years, respectively. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that even though the net annual incident solar radiation at the surface decreases by 4.6 W(per square meters) (because of greater cloud cover and increased cloud optical depth), the absorbed solar radiation increases by 2.8 W(per square meters) (because of less sea ice). Increased cloud cover and warmer air also cause increased downward thermal radiation at the surface so that the net radiation into the ocean increases by 5.0 Wm-2. The annual increase in radiation into the ocean, however, is

  14. Age, Stigma, Adherence and Clinical Indicators in HIV-Infected Women

    McCoy, Katryna; Higgins, Melinda; Zuñiga, Julie Ann; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2015-01-01

    Stigma has become a gendered phenomenon that affects increasing numbers of HIV-infected women worldwide. This study examined the role of age as a possible moderator of the relationship between stigma and antiretroviral therapy adherence, CD4% and viral load among 120 HIV-infected women. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the Keeping Healthy and Active with Risk Reduction and Medication Adherence (KHARMA) Project, an National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded randomized control...

  15. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  16. Risk factors for non-adherence to antidepressant treatment in patients with mood disorders.

    De las Cuevas, Carlos; Peñate, Wenceslao; Sanz, Emilio J

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to antidepressant therapy by patients with depressive disorders is essential not only to achieve a positive patient outcome but also to prevent a relapse. The aim of this study was to identify potential modelling factors influencing adherence to antidepressant treatment by patients with mood disorders in the community mental health care setting A total of 160 consecutive psychiatric outpatients attending two Community Mental Health Centres on Tenerife Island between September 2011 and May 2012 were asked to participate in the study; of these, 145 accepted. The Morisky self-report scale was used to assess adherence. The potential predictors examined included socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables. The Clinical Global Impression-Severity and -Improvement scales and the Beck Depression Inventory were used for clinical assessment. Drug treatment side-effects were assessed using the "Self-report Antidepressant Side-Effect Checklist." All participants were also asked to complete the "Drug Attitude Inventory" (DAI), "Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire" (BMQ), and "Leeds Attitude towards concordance Scale". Discriminant analyses were performed to predict non-adherence. There was no clear correlation between adherence and the socio-demographic variables examined, but adherence was related to a positive attitude of the patients towards his/her treatment (DAI) and low scores in the BMQ-Harm and -Concern subscales. Non-adherence was also related to an increasing severity of depression and to the presence and severity of side-effects. Among our study cohort, the profiles of adherent patients to antidepressant treatment were more closely associated with each patient's attitudes and beliefs than to objective socio-demographic variables. The severity of depression played a relevant role in adherence, but whether this role is direct or an interaction with several concurrent factors is not yet clear. Side-effects were also closely related to adherence, as

  17. Predictors of Vitamin Adherence After Bariatric Surgery.

    Sunil, Supreet; Santiago, Vincent A; Gougeon, Lorraine; Warwick, Katie; Okrainec, Allan; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin supplementation in bariatric aftercare is essential to prevent nutrient deficiencies; however, rates of vitamin adherence have been as low as 30 % 6 months post-surgery. Preliminary literature suggests non-adherence to prescribed treatments can be linked to demographic and psychological factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between these factors to vitamin adherence in post-bariatric surgery patients. A total of 92 bariatric patients were assessed 6 months post-surgery. Patients were administered a questionnaire collecting demographic information, psychological scores, and self-reported adherence. Nutrient deficiencies were analyzed through serum vitamin levels measured 3 and 6 months after surgery. Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests were used for analysis. Non-adherence was associated with male sex and full-time employment (p = 0.027, p = 0.015). There were no differences with respect to living situation, education level, or relationship type. Non-adherent patients did not have significantly higher scores for generalized anxiety, depressive symptoms, or avoidant behaviors. However, non-adherent patients displayed greater attachment anxiety than their adherent counterparts (p = 0.0186). Non-adherence was also associated with lower vitamin B12 levels 6 months post-surgery (p = 0.001). Male gender and full-time work have previously been shown to be associated with non-adherence. This is the first study to demonstrate that attachment anxiety is associated with poor multivitamin adherence in the post-surgical bariatric population. This result is concordant with recent literature that has demonstrated attachment anxiety is associated with poor adherence to dietary recommendations in bariatric patients 6 months postoperatively. Presurgical screening for attachment anxiety could facilitate early interventions to promote better bariatric aftercare in this group.

  18. Going global

    Meade, W.; Poirier, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the global market for independent power projects and the increased competition and strategic alliances that are occurring to take advantage of the increasing demand. The topics of the article include the amount of involvement of US companies in the global market, the forces driving the market toward independent power, markets in the United Kingdom, North America, Turkey, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, the former Eastern European countries, Asia and the Pacific nations, and niche markets

  19. Medication adherence among adult patients on hemodialysis

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication adherence was assessed in 89 patients on hemodialysis (HD at the King Abdul Aziz Medical City using an Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MASS-8. The results of the study revealed that 31.46% and 40.45% of the participants showed low and medium adherence, respectively, while 28.09% showed high medication adherence. Accordingly, 71.91% of the patients visiting the dialysis unit were considered medication non-adherent. While being of older age (P = 0.012, being married (P = 0.012 increased the level of adherence, being of medium level of education (P = 0.024 decreased adherence levels. On the other hand, gender, presence of a care-giver, number of members in the household and employment status seems to have no effect on the level of medication adherence. These results call upon the practitioners in HD units to develop intervention programs that can increase the level of medication adherence.

  20. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation.

    Williams, Allison Fiona; Manias, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Crawford, Kimberley

    2014-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease, the relative shortage of kidney donors and the economic- and health-related costs of kidney transplant rejection make the prevention of adverse outcomes following transplantation a healthcare imperative. Although strict adherence to immunosuppressant medicine regimens is key to preventing kidney rejection, evidence suggests that adherence is sub-optimal. Strategies need to be developed to help recipients of kidney transplants adhere to their prescribed medicines. This review has found that a number of factors contribute to poor adherence, for example, attitudes towards medicine taking and forgetfulness. Few investigations have been conducted, however, on strategies to enhance medicine adherence in kidney transplant recipients. Strategies that may improve adherence include pharmacist-led interventions (incorporating counselling, medicine reviews and nephrologist liaison) and nurse-led interventions (involving collaboratively working with recipients to understand their routines and offering solutions to improve adherence). Strategies that have shown to have limited effectiveness include supplying medicines free of charge and providing feedback on a participant's medicine adherence without any educational or behavioural interventions. Transplantation is the preferred treatment option for people with end-stage kidney disease. Medicine non-adherence in kidney transplantation increases the risk of rejection, kidney loss and costly treatments. Interventions are needed to help the transplant recipient take all their medicines as prescribed to improve general well-being, medicine safety and reduce healthcare costs. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  1. Identification of barriers to medication adherence in a Latino population.

    Compton, Sheryl; Haack, Sally; Phillips, Charles R

    2010-12-01

    Barriers to medication adherence may present differently in diverse patient populations. Because of changing U.S. demographics, health care providers will be required to identify alternative strategies for managing increasingly diverse patient populations. This pilot project identified barriers that may hinder medication adherence in a Latino population. The results of the survey may identify trends in barriers allowing for the development of interventions aimed at improving medication adherence. The study used a convenience sample of Spanish-labeled prescriptions that had not been picked up from a community pharmacy after a 2-week period to identify study subjects. Patients were contacted by phone and surveyed regarding reasons for not picking up their prescription medication. The 24-item survey instrument consisted of demographic and medication-related questions, reasons for, and associated barriers with failure to pick up medications. The most common classes of medications patients failed to pick up were chronic medications. More than 90% of the patients thought that the medication in question was helpful to them, and nearly 80% thought that the medicine was still needed. Patients cited communication issues (ie, content matter, such as when the prescription was ready), logistics, and limited hours of pharmacy operation as the primary barriers in picking up their medications, whereas nearly 40% failed to identify any barriers. Barriers identified by patients that could be improved included confusion regarding when their prescription was ready and limited hours of pharmacy operation. Most of the patients were comfortable using the American health care system. The barriers to medication adherence identified did not appear to be the result of cultural influences. This could be because the community pharmacy had bilingual staff and interpreters available for patient education and prescription processing. Alternative methods are needed to further identify reasons for

  2. A quantitative systematic review of the efficacy of mobile phone interventions to improve medication adherence.

    Park, Linda G; Howie-Esquivel, Jill; Dracup, Kathleen

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the characteristics and efficacy of mobile phone interventions to improve medication adherence. Secondary aims are to explore participants' acceptability and satisfaction with mobile phone interventions and to evaluate the selected studies in terms of study rigour, impact, cost and resource feasibility, generalizability and implications for nursing practice and research. Medication non-adherence is a major global challenge. Mobile phones are the most commonly used form of technology worldwide and have the potential to promote medication adherence. Guidelines from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination were followed for this systematic review. A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Google Chrome and Cochrane) and bibliographies from related articles was performed from January 2002-January 2013 to identify the included studies. A quantitative systematic review without meta-analysis was conducted and the selected studies were critically evaluated to extract and summarize pertinent characteristics and outcomes. The literature search produced 29 quantitative research studies related to mobile phones and medication adherence. The studies were conducted for prevention purposes as well as management of acute and chronic illnesses. All of the studies used text messaging. Eighteen studies found significant improvement in medication adherence. While the majority of investigators found improvement in medication adherence, long-term studies characterized by rigorous research methodologies, appropriate statistical and economic analyses and the test of theory-based interventions are needed to determine the efficacy of mobile phones to influence medication adherence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Notification: Audit of EPA's Adherence to Policies, Procedures and Oversight Controls Pertaining to the Administrator’s Travel

    Project #OA-FY17-0382, August 28, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA’s adherence to policies, procedures and oversight controls pertaining to the Administrator’s travel to Oklahoma.

  4. Fatores determinantes para a continuidade da participação de idosos em programas de atividade física: a experiência dos participantes do projeto "Sem Fronteiras" Adherence factors to physical activity programs for older adults: the experience of the participants of the "Without Borders" project

    Doralice Lange de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute os resultados de uma pesquisa qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi o de investigar os fatores que determinam a participação continuada de idosos no projeto "Sem Fronteiras: Atividades Corporais para Adultos Maduros e Idosos", desenvolvido na Universidade Federal do Paraná. Participaram do estudo 10 idosos que estavam regularmente frequentando o projeto há pelo menos dois anos. Os dados foram coletados através de uma entrevista semi-estruturada. O guia de entrevista teve como linha condutora as seguintes questões: O que o (a motivou a dar início à participação no projeto "Sem Fronteiras"? O que o (a motiva a continuar participando do projeto? Quais as principais dificuldades que o senhor (a senhora encontra para permanecer no mesmo? O que o (a motiva a superar estas dificuldades? A análise das entrevistas teve como foco os principais temas que emergiram da fala dos participantes. Primeiramente foram analisados os dados de cada entrevista individualmente. A seguir, os dados foram cruzados buscando-se por temas comuns e divergentes entre as falas dos entrevistados. A principal conclusão da pesquisa foi que os idosos permanecem no programa não somente por perceberem benefícios à sua saúde física, mental e emocional, mas também pelas oportunidades que este lhe oferece em termos de desenvolvimento pessoal, socialização, e troca de informações, experiências, suporte e afeto. As barreiras mais importantes encontradas pelos mesmos para dar continuidade à sua participação no projeto relacionam-se com problemas de saúde e compromissos familiares.This paper discusses the results of a qualitative research project that had as a goal to investigate adherence factors to a physical activity program for older adults in Brazil named "Sem Fronteiras: Atividades Corporais Para Adultos Maduros e Idosos", which translated into English means "Without Borders: Physical Activities for Mature and Older Adults". The participants

  5. High-resolution multimodel projections of soil moisture drought in Europe under 1.5, 2 and 3 degree global warming

    Samaniego, L. E.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.; Pan, M.; Wanders, N.; Marx, A.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Thober, S.

    2017-12-01

    Droughts are creeping hydro-meteorological events that may bring societies and natural systems to their limits by inducing significant environmental changes and large socio-economic losses. Little is know about the effects of varios degrees of warming (i.e., 1.5 , 2 and 3 K) and their respective uncertainties on extreme characteristics such as drought duration and area under drought in general, and in Europe in particular. In this study we investigate the evolution of droughts characteristics under three levels of warming using an unprecedented high-resolution multi-model hydrologic ensemble over the Pan-EU domain at a scale of 5x5 km2 from 1950 until 2100. This multi-model ensemble comprises four hydrologic models (HMs: mHM, Noah-MP, PCR-GLOBWB, VIC) which are forced by five CMIP-5 Global Climate Models (GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) under three RCP scenarios 2.6, 6.0, and 8.5. This results in a 60-member ensemble. The contribution GCM/HM uncertainties were analyzed based on a sequential sampling algorithm proposed by Samaniego et al. 2016. This study is carried out within the EDgE project funded by the Copernicus Climate Change Service (edge.climate.copernicus.eu) and the HOKLIM project funded by the German Ministry of Education (BMBF)(www.ufz.de/hoklim). The changes under three levels of warming indicate significant increase (more than 10%) of the number of droughts and area under drought with respect to 30-year climatological means obtained with E-OBS observations. Furthermore, we found that: 1) the number of drought events exhibit significant regional changes. Largest changes are observed in the Mediterrinian where frequency of droughts increases from 25% under 1.5 K to 33% under 2 K, and to more than 50% under 3 K warming. Minor changes are seen in Central-Europe and the British Isles. 2) The GCMs/HMs uncertainties have marked regional differences too, with GCM uncertainty appear to be larger everywhere. The uncertainty of

  6. Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Bourne, Rupert R A; Flaxman, Seth R; Braithwaite, Tasanee; Cicinelli, Maria V; Das, Aditi; Jonas, Jost B; Keeffe, Jill; Kempen, John H; Leasher, Janet; Limburg, Hans; Naidoo, Kovin; Pesudovs, Konrad; Resnikoff, Serge; Silvester, Alex; Stevens, Gretchen A; Tahhan, Nina; Wong, Tien Y; Taylor, Hugh R

    2017-09-01

    Global and regional prevalence estimates for blindness and vision impairment are important for the development of public health policies. We aimed to provide global estimates, trends, and projections of global blindness and vision impairment. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based datasets relevant to global vision impairment and blindness that were published between 1980 and 2015. We fitted hierarchical models to estimate the prevalence (by age, country, and sex), in 2015, of mild visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 to 6/18 inclusive), moderate to severe visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 to 3/60 inclusive), blindness (presenting visual acuity worse than 3/60), and functional presbyopia (defined as presenting near vision worse than N6 or N8 at 40 cm when best-corrected distance visual acuity was better than 6/12). Globally, of the 7·33 billion people alive in 2015, an estimated 36·0 million (80% uncertainty interval [UI] 12·9-65·4) were blind (crude prevalence 0·48%; 80% UI 0·17-0·87; 56% female), 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5-359·1) people had moderate to severe visual impairment (2·95%, 80% UI 1·34-4·89; 55% female), and 188·5 million (80% UI 64·5-350·2) had mild visual impairment (2·57%, 80% UI 0·88-4·77; 54% female). Functional presbyopia affected an estimated 1094·7 million (80% UI 581·1-1686·5) people aged 35 years and older, with 666·7 million (80% UI 364·9-997·6) being aged 50 years or older. The estimated number of blind people increased by 17·6%, from 30·6 million (80% UI 9·9-57·3) in 1990 to 36·0 million (80% UI 12·9-65·4) in 2015. This change was attributable to three factors, namely an increase because of population growth (38·4%), population ageing after accounting for population growth (34·6%), and reduction in age-specific prevalence (-36·7%). The number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment also increased, from 159·9 million

  7. Projected future vegetation changes for the northwest United States and southwest Canada at a fine spatial resolution using a dynamic global vegetation model.

    Shafer, Sarah; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Gray, Elizabeth M.; Pelltier, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topographically complex area of the northwest United States and southwest Canada (38.0–58.0°N latitude by 136.6–103.0°W longitude). LPJ is a process-based vegetation model that mechanistically simulates the effect of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on vegetation. It was developed and has been mostly applied at spatial resolutions of 10-minutes or coarser. In this study, we used LPJ at a 30-second (~1-km) spatial resolution to simulate potential vegetation changes for 2070–2099. LPJ was run using downscaled future climate simulations from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), GISS-ER, MIROC3.2(medres), UKMO-HadCM3) produced using the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Under projected future climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the simulated vegetation changes result in the contraction of alpine, shrub-steppe, and xeric shrub vegetation across the study area and the expansion of woodland and forest vegetation. Large areas of maritime cool forest and cold forest are simulated to persist under projected future conditions. The fine spatial-scale vegetation simulations resolve patterns of vegetation change that are not visible at coarser resolutions and these fine-scale patterns are particularly important for understanding potential future vegetation changes in topographically complex areas.

  8. Dietary and fluid adherence among haemodialysis patients ...

    comparison with major infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis ... dietary and fluid adherence is of crucial importance to the quality of life and survival of ... behaviours such as medication adherence among psychiatric ... or nursing sister and introduced to one of the study personnel who .... Children per household. 61.

  9. Self-replenishing low-adherence coatings

    Dikic, T.; Ming, W.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; With, de G.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Zwaag, van der S.

    2007-01-01

    Low-adherence coatings are widely used today since their water/oil repellency makes them easily cleanable (a well-known example is PTFE). The low surface tension is provided by fluorine- or silicon-containing species that are present at the film surface. Low adherence coatings have already been

  10. Medication adherence in inflammatory bowel disease

    Webber Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory condition with intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. Medications are the cornerstone of treatment of IBD. However, patients often adhere to medication poorly. Adherence to medications is defined as the process by which patients take their medications as prescribed. Treatment non-adherence is a common problem among chronic diseases, averaging 50% in developed countries and is even poorer in developing countries. In this review, we will examine the adherence data in IBD which vary greatly depending on the study population, route of administration, and methods of adherence measurement used. We will also discuss the adverse clinical outcomes related to non-adherence to medical treatment including increased disease activity, flares, loss of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy, and so forth. There are many methods to measure medication adherence namely direct and indirect methods, each with their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we will explore different intervention strategies to improve adherence to medications.

  11. Factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...

  12. Social Support, Treatment Adherence and Outcome among ...

    2017-06-02

    Jun 2, 2017 ... Access to family support did not positively influence medication adherence, while access to financial support marginally impacted on outcome among hypertensive and T2D patients. However, un- wavering tendency for therapy affordability significantly influenced adherence and outcome, thus, the need for ...

  13. Cost of medication adherence and persistence in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a literature review

    Kennedy-Martin T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tessa Kennedy-Martin,1 Kristina S Boye,2 Xiaomei Peng2 1Kennedy-Martin Health Outcomes Ltd, Brighton, UK; 2Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Purpose: To explore published evidence on health care costs associated with adherence or persistence to antidiabetes medications in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Methods: Primary research studies published between January 2006 and December 2015 on compliance, adherence, or persistence and treatment in patients with T2DM that document a link with health care costs were identified through literature searches in bibliographic databases and 2015 abstract books for relevant DM congresses. Results were assessed for relevance by two reviewers. The review was part of a larger overview evaluating the impact of adherence and persistence on a range of clinical and economic outcomes; only findings from the cost element are reported herein.Results: A total of 4,662 de-duplicated abstracts were identified and 110 studies included in the wider review. Of these, 19 reported an association between adherence (n=13, persistence (n=5, or adherence and persistence (n=1, and health care costs. All studies were retrospective, with sample sizes ranging from 301 to 740,195. Medication possession ratio was the most commonly employed adherence measure (n=11. The majority of adherence studies (n=9 reported that medication adherence was associated with lower total health care costs. Pharmacy costs were often increased in adherent patients but this was offset by beneficial effects on other costs. Findings were more variable in persistence studies; three reported that higher pharmacy costs in persistent patients were not sufficiently offset by savings in other areas to result in a reduction in total health care costs.Conclusions: Few studies have evaluated the relationship between adherence, persistence, and health care costs in T2DM. However, it has been consistently shown that medication

  14. Using tools and technology to promote education and adherence to oral agents for cancer.

    Burhenn, Peggy S; Smudde, Josephine

    2015-06-01

    The use of oral agents for cancer (OACs) is increasing, and oncology nurses are in an ideal position to educate patients about them and suggest methods to improve adherence. Once an OAC is ordered, the administration is the responsibility of the patient. Oncology nurses can use tools and technology to assist with education, which may promote adherence, and suggest reminder tools that can be used. Many electronic tools have been developed, such as smartphone applications, text messaging, electronic alarms, and glowing pill bottles. The researchers reviewed electronic devices, as well as traditional methods such as calendars and pillboxes, that can assist patients in remembering to take the medication they are administering at home. A literature search was compiled and websites were searched for patient education tools, reminder tools (electronic and manual), and smartphone applications. The project was part of the Oncology Nursing Society Putting Evidence Into Practice effort on oral adherence. Education alone is insufficient to promote adherence to oral medication regimens. Multicomponent interventions have demonstrated improved adherence, and tools and technology directed at improving adherence to oral agents can be used. The researchers found multiple reminder aids to assist patients in adhering to an oral regimen. They are highlighted in this article.

  15. Asthma and Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroids

    Bårnes, Camilla Boslev; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of maintenance asthma therapy. However, in spite of this, adherence to ICS remains low. The aim of this systematic literature review was to provide an overview of the current knowledge of adherence to ICS, effects of poor adherence, and means...... was found to be between 22 and 63%, with improvement up to and after an exacerbation. Poor adherence was associated with youth, being African-American, having mild asthma, ... prescribed fixed-combination therapy (ICS and long-acting β2 agonists). Good adherence was associated with higher FEV1, a lower percentage of eosinophils in sputum, reduction in hospitalizations, less use of oral corticosteroids, and lower mortality rate. Overall, 24% of exacerbations and 60% of asthma...

  16. Variations in infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation programmes across Europe and factors influencing adherence

    Suma Uday

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional rickets is a growing global public health concern despite existing prevention programmes and health policies. We aimed to compare infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation policies, implementation strategies and practices across Europe and explore factors influencing adherence. Methods: European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Bone and Growth Plate Working Group members and other specialists completed a questionnaire on country-specific vitamin D supplementation policy and child health care programmes, socioeconomic factors, policy implementation strategies and adherence. Factors influencing adherence were assessed using Kendall’s tau-b correlation coefficient. Results: Responses were received from 29 of 30 European countries (97%. Ninety-six per cent had national policies for infant vitamin D supplementation. Supplements are commenced on day 1–5 in 48% (14/29 of countries, day 6–21 in 48% (14/29; only the UK (1/29 starts supplements at 6 months. Duration of supplementation varied widely (6 months to lifelong in at-risk populations. Good (≥80% of infants, moderate (50–79% and low adherence (<50% to supplements was reported by 59% (17/29, 31% (9/29 and 10% (3/29 of countries, respectively. UK reported lowest adherence (5–20%. Factors significantly associated with good adherence were universal supplementation independent of feeding mode (P = 0.007, providing information at neonatal unit (NNU discharge (P = 0.02, financial family support (P = 0.005; monitoring adherence at surveillance visits (P = 0.001 and the total number of factors adopted (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Good adherence to supplementation is a multi-task operation that works best when parents are informed at birth, all babies are supplemented, and adherence monitoring is incorporated into child health surveillance visits. Implementation strategies matter for delivering efficient prevention policies.

  17. Interventions combining motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour to promote medication adherence: a literature review.

    Spoelstra, Sandra L; Schueller, Monica; Hilton, Melissa; Ridenour, Kimberly

    2015-05-01

    This article presents an integrative review of the evidence for combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural interventions that promote medication adherence. We undertook this review to establish a scientific foundation for development of interventions to promote medication adherence and to guide clinical practice. The World Health Organization has designated medication adherence as a global problem. Motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour interventions have been found to individually promote medication adherence. However, there is a gap in the literature on the effect of combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural approaches to promote medication adherence. Integrative review. COCHRANE, PubMed and CINAHL were searched to access relevant studies between 2004-2014. Inclusion criteria were interventions combining motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy with medication adherence as the outcome. Articles were assessed for measures of adherence and methodological rigour. Analysis was performed using an integrative review process. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. A randomised controlled trial reported pretreatment missed doses of 5·58 and post-treatment of 0·92 and trended towards significance. Four cohort studies had effect sizes of 0·19-0·35 (p motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural interventions, five out of six were effective at improving medication adherence. Future studies with large rigorous randomised trials are needed. This review provides clinicians with the state of the science in relation to combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy interventions that promote medication adherence. A summary of intervention components and talking points are provided to aid nurses in informing decision-making and translating evidence into practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The effect of updated pledges and business-as-usual projections, and new agreed rules on expected global greenhouse gas emissions in 2020

    Hof, Andries F.; Elzen, Michel G.J. den; Roelfsema, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This study compares 2020 emission levels from pledges to those consistent with 2 °C. • For a likely chance of 2 °C, we find an emission gap of 8.7–12.6 GtCO 2 equiv. by 2020. • The pledges could achieve 24–54% of the mitigation effort consistent with 2 °C. • The effect of accounting rules is lower than in the UNEP (2012) emission gap report. • An emission gap does not imply that the 2 °C target is definitely out of reach. -- Abstract: The Copenhagen Accord of 2009 refers to a 2 °C target and encouraged countries to submit emission reduction proposals and actions (pledges) for the year 2020, which many did. Several studies determined the effect of these pledges on the global emission level in 2020, and analysed the gap between this emission level and the level consistent with least-cost emission pathways for achieving the 2 °C target. These studies were summarised in the UNEP emission gap reports. Since the UNFCCC climate negotiations in Cancún, 2010, business-as-usual emission projections have been updated and some countries submitted new pledges or clarified existing pledges. Furthermore, new accounting rules for land use and the use of surplus units were agreed in Durban (2011) and Doha (2012). This paper shows that together, these developments have led to an increase in the emission level resulting from the pledges of about 4 GtCO 2 equiv. compared to our assessment before Cancún, mainly due to increased business-as-usual projections. According to our projections, the pledges lead to an emission level of 52.7–56.5 GtCO 2 equiv. by 2020, which implies an emission gap of 8.7–12.6 GtCO 2 equiv. for a likely chance (greater than 66% likelihood) and from 6.7 to 10.6 GtCO 2 equiv. for a medium chance (50–66% likelihood) of achieving 2 °C. This does not imply that achieving 2 °C is out of reach with the current pledges, but it will require higher reduction rates beyond 2020 and will depend more heavily on future technological

  19. Migration, Displacement, and Movements in the Global Space: Ming-Yuen S. Ma’s Multi-Media Project Xin Lu: A Travelogue in Four Parts

    Xiaojing Zhou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In her recent work, Sau-ling Cynthia Wong draws critical attention to the implications of the formation of an Asian American “diaporic community” in cyberspace, where race still operates as an organizing principle of power relations. Although cyberspace is not confined by national borders, Wong examines how subversion of and intervention in race- and sex-based hierarchies in cyberspace can articulate Asian American identities in relation to diasporas and the nation-state. This essay explores the politics of artistic invention in diasporas as embedded in the disruption, dislocation, and fragmentation in Ming-Yuen S. Ma’s multi-media project, Xin Lu: A Travelogue in Four Parts—a series of four experimental videos about Chinese diasporas. It argues that by moving outside the nation-space into the experiential and virtual “global space” of diasporas, Ma’s work addresses Wong’s concerns and enacts a viable “virtual mediation” that situates Chinese diasporas in the historical contexts of British colonialism and American racial exploitation and exclusion. This movement also entails confronting other forms of oppression, including sexism and heterosexism in both the East and West. While giving voice and visibility to the struggles of racial and sexual minorities across national borders, Ma demonstrates the possibilities of a historicized critical approach to diasporas, one which underlies Wong’s insistence in critiquing gendered and racialized power structures both within and outside the nation-state.

  20. Strategies for the long-term climate policy. The results of the Cool project. Final report of the second phase of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP II) 1995-2001. Part 2

    Berk M; Hisschemoller M; Mol T; Hordijk L; Kok M; Metz B; NOP

    2002-01-01

    This report, Climate Change, a Permanent Concern, presents the results of research that was conducted in over 90 projects during the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-II, 1995-2001). The report is intended for policymakers, members of

  1. Report on achievement for fiscal 1998. Global environment industry technology development promotion project (the advanced technology survey and research project); 1998 nendo seika hokoiusho. Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo (sentan gijutsu chosa kenkyu jigyo)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to structure innovative technologies to solve effectively the global environment problems, it is important to incorporate infra-structural technologies that have been achieved by universities and other research institutions. The fiscal 1998 project has commissioned 25 researches found superior from among research plans that have been invited during fiscal 1997. This paper enumerates the main themes including those under continued research. The research themes include: fixation of phosphor by using photo-energy, utilization of nitrogen fixing bacteria in rice plant roots for the purpose of carbon dioxide reduction, new functional solid ultra-strong acids for clean chemical processes, fixation of warming gases by using ultra critical fluid catalytic reactions, photo-catalysts having microporous structure, whose energy structure is controlled, waste water purification by using stimulation sensitive polymers, a practical and small high-speed environment purification system by means of a simple technology to cultivate high concentration bacteria of microorganisms, fundamental analysis of response to specific wavelength light in photosynthesized microorganisms, bio-remediation utilizing symbiotic systems of plants and bacteria, high efficiency catalysts purposed for total decomposition of water, and separation of carbon dioxide in deep sea bottoms by controlling hydrate crystal growth. (NEDO)

  2. What puts heart failure patients at risk for poor medication adherence?

    Knafl GJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available George J Knafl,1 Barbara Riegel2,31School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Leonard Davis Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: Medication nonadherence is a major cause of hospitalization in patients with heart failure (HF, which contributes enormously to health care costs. We previously found, using the World Health Organization adherence dimensions, that condition and patient level factors predicted nonadherence in HF. In this study, we assessed a wider variety of condition and patient factors and interactions to improve our ability to identify those at risk for hospitalization. Materials and methods: Medication adherence was measured electronically over the course of 6 months, using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS. A total of 242 HF patients completed the study, and usable MEMS data were available for 218 (90.1%. Participants were primarily white (68.3%, male (64.2%, and retired (44.5%. Education ranged from 8–29 years (mean, 14.0 years; standard deviation, 2.9 years. Ages ranged from 30–89 years (mean, 62.8 years; standard deviation, 11.6 years. Analyses used adaptive methods based on heuristic searches controlled by cross-validation scores. First, individual patient adherence patterns over time were used to categorize patients in poor versus better adherence types. Then, risk factors for poor adherence were identified. Finally, an effective model for predicting poor adherence was identified based on identified risk factors and possible pairwise interactions between them. Results: A total of 63 (28.9% patients had poor adherence. Three interaction risk factors for poor adherence were identified: a higher number of comorbid conditions with a higher total number of daily medicines, older age with poorer global sleep quality, and fewer months since diagnosis of HF with poorer

  3. Adherence to diet, physical activity and body weight recommendations and breast cancer incidence in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Nomura, Sarah J O; Dash, Chiranjeev; Rosenberg, Lynn; Yu, Jeffrey; Palmer, Julie R; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2016-12-15

    Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations has been associated with lower incidence of breast cancer in previous studies, but evidence in African American women is limited. This project evaluated the association between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations and breast cancer incidence among African American women. The Black Women's Health Study (analytic cohort = 49,103) is an ongoing prospective cohort study of African American women, ages 21-69 years at baseline (1995). Adherence scores for seven WCRF/AICR recommendations (adherent = 1, partial adherence = 0.5, non-adherence = 0) were calculated using questionnaire data and summed for overall (maximum = 7) and diet only (maximum = 5) scores. Associations between baseline and time-varying adherence scores and breast cancer incidence (N = 1,827 incident cases through 2011) were evaluated using proportional hazards regression. In this cohort, 8.5% adhered >4 recommendations. Adherence at baseline was not associated with breast cancer incidence. Higher overall time-varying adherence (per 0.5 point increase) was associated with lower breast cancer incidence (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84-0.96). Adherence to physical activity, sugar beverage and red and processed meat recommendations were also associated with reduced risk. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was low and may be associated with lower breast cancer incidence in African American women. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Effects of adherence to antiretroviral therapy on body mass index ...

    S.A. Olowookere

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ure, development of drug resistance and subsequent virological and immunological .... adherence during counseling sessions, although 95% adher- ence is sufficient .... evaluation and adherence measurement by self report.

  5. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. ... The adherence to asthma treatment was rated using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. A ..... in an outpatient setting.

  6. Non-adherence in patients on peritoneal dialysis: a systematic review.

    Konstadina Griva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been increasingly recognized that non-adherence is an important factor that determines the outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD therapy. There is therefore a need to establish the levels of non-adherence to different aspects of the PD regimen (dialysis procedures, medications, and dietary/fluid restrictions. METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases using PRISMA guidelines in May 2013. Publications on non-adherence in PD were selected by two reviewers independently according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant data on patient characteristics, measures, rates and factors associated with non-adherence were extracted. The quality of studies was also evaluated independently by two reviewers according to a revised version of the Effective Public Health Practice Project assessment tool. RESULTS: The search retrieved 204 studies, of which a total of 25 studies met inclusion criteria. Reported rates of non-adherence varied across studies: 2.6-53% for dialysis exchanges, 3.9-85% for medication, and 14.4-67% for diet/fluid restrictions. Methodological differences in measurement and definition of non-adherence underlie the observed variation. Factors associated with non-adherence that showed a degree of consistency were mostly socio-demographical, such as age, employment status, ethnicity, sex, and time period on PD treatment. CONCLUSION: Non-adherence to different dimensions of the dialysis regimen appears to be prevalent in PD patients. There is a need for further, high-quality research to explore these factors in more detail, with the aim of informing intervention designs to facilitate adherence in this patient population.

  7. Non-adherence in patients on peritoneal dialysis: a systematic review.

    Griva, Konstadina; Lai, Alden Yuanhong; Lim, Haikel Asyraf; Yu, Zhenli; Foo, Marjorie Wai Yin; Newman, Stanton P

    2014-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that non-adherence is an important factor that determines the outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy. There is therefore a need to establish the levels of non-adherence to different aspects of the PD regimen (dialysis procedures, medications, and dietary/fluid restrictions). A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases using PRISMA guidelines in May 2013. Publications on non-adherence in PD were selected by two reviewers independently according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant data on patient characteristics, measures, rates and factors associated with non-adherence were extracted. The quality of studies was also evaluated independently by two reviewers according to a revised version of the Effective Public Health Practice Project assessment tool. The search retrieved 204 studies, of which a total of 25 studies met inclusion criteria. Reported rates of non-adherence varied across studies: 2.6-53% for dialysis exchanges, 3.9-85% for medication, and 14.4-67% for diet/fluid restrictions. Methodological differences in measurement and definition of non-adherence underlie the observed variation. Factors associated with non-adherence that showed a degree of consistency were mostly socio-demographical, such as age, employment status, ethnicity, sex, and time period on PD treatment. Non-adherence to different dimensions of the dialysis regimen appears to be prevalent in PD patients. There is a need for further, high-quality research to explore these factors in more detail, with the aim of informing intervention designs to facilitate adherence in this patient population.

  8. Non-Adherence in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis: A Systematic Review

    Griva, Konstadina; Lai, Alden Yuanhong; Lim, Haikel Asyraf; Yu, Zhenli; Foo, Marjorie Wai Yin; Newman, Stanton P.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been increasingly recognized that non-adherence is an important factor that determines the outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy. There is therefore a need to establish the levels of non-adherence to different aspects of the PD regimen (dialysis procedures, medications, and dietary/fluid restrictions). Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases using PRISMA guidelines in May 2013. Publications on non-adherence in PD were selected by two reviewers independently according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant data on patient characteristics, measures, rates and factors associated with non-adherence were extracted. The quality of studies was also evaluated independently by two reviewers according to a revised version of the Effective Public Health Practice Project assessment tool. Results The search retrieved 204 studies, of which a total of 25 studies met inclusion criteria. Reported rates of non-adherence varied across studies: 2.6–53% for dialysis exchanges, 3.9–85% for medication, and 14.4–67% for diet/fluid restrictions. Methodological differences in measurement and definition of non-adherence underlie the observed variation. Factors associated with non-adherence that showed a degree of consistency were mostly socio-demographical, such as age, employment status, ethnicity, sex, and time period on PD treatment. Conclusion Non-adherence to different dimensions of the dialysis regimen appears to be prevalent in PD patients. There is a need for further, high-quality research to explore these factors in more detail, with the aim of informing intervention designs to facilitate adherence in this patient population. PMID:24586478

  9. External Confirmation of Adherence to Standards: As Applicable to Academic Programmes as to Business and Industry

    Hughey, Aaron W.; Burke, Monica G.

    2010-01-01

    The development of, and adherence to, performance standards is imperative for success in today's competitive global market. This is as true for academic programmes in higher education as it is for the manufacturing and service sectors. Just like their counterparts in business and industry, it is important that graduate career preparation…

  10. Adherence to dietary guidelines and cardiovascular disease risk in the EPIC-NL cohort

    Struijk, E.A.; May, A.M.; Wezenbeek, N.L.W.J.; Fransen, H.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geelen, A.; Boer, J.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Beulens, J.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Global and national dietary guidelines have been created to lower chronic disease risk. The aim of this study was to assess whether greater adherence to the WHO guidelines (Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI)); the Dutch guidelines for a healthy diet (Dutch Healthy Diet-index (DHD-index)); and

  11. Facilitators and barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence among adolescents in Ghana

    Ankrah, D.; Koster, E.S.; Teeuwisse, A.K.; Arhinful, D.K.; Agyepong, I.A.; Lartey, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known to be challenging among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, notwithstanding the life-saving importance of this therapy. Of the global total number of adolescents living with HIV in 2013, 83% reside in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adherence and Depression (CBT-AD) in HIV-Infected Injection Drug Users: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Safren, Steven A.; O'Cleirigh, Conall M.; Bullis, Jacqueline R.; Otto, Michael W.; Stein, Michael D.; Pollack, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Depression and substance use, the most common comorbidities with HIV, are both associated with poor treatment adherence. Injection drug users comprise a substantial portion of individuals with HIV in the United States and globally. The present study tested cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in patients…

  13. Globalización, el Proyecto Camisea y la salud de los Matsiguengas Globalization, the Camisea Project and the Matsigenkas health

    Paola Torres-Slimming

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La globalización ha sido consecuencia de una importante apertura de las economías, conseguida mediante la reducción de los obstáculos al comercio, y la eliminación de los controles de capital y de las restricciones cambiarias. El impacto del Proyecto Camisea en la economía peruana ha despertado gran interés y polémica con respecto al futuro impacto social y económico nacional y, especialmente, en la población Matsiguenga que se encuentra ubicada en los Lotes 88 y 56 donde se realiza la extracción de gas. La zona de explotación de gas de Camisea, ofrece el desafío de un problema sanitario complejo no solo por los impactos y riesgos producto de la explotación de hidrocarburos; sino también por una herencia de precariedad económica y sanitaria que se ha acumulado de otras épocas. Al mismo tiempo, esta zona ofrece la oportunidad para replantear el sistema de salud pública en función de la realidad indígena. Para que la globalización tenga efectos positivos sobre la salud es necesario tomar acción en los determinantes sociales de inequidad y pobreza; asegurando los intereses de los países en desarrollo y de las poblaciones vulnerables.Globalization has been the consequence of an important opening of the economies, achieved through the reduction in the obstacles to commerce, elimination of the capital controls and exchange restrictions. The impact of the Camisea Project in the Peruvian economy has aroused great interest and controversy with respect to the future social and economic national impact, and especially, in the Matsigenka population, located in the 88 and 56 lots, where gas extraction is being done. The area of Camisea gas exploitation offers the challenge of a complex sanitary problem, not only because of the impacts and risks produced by the hidrocarbon exploitation, but also due to a legacy of economical and sanitary precariousness that has accumulated from other times. At the same time, this area offers the

  14. Monitoring Isotopes in Rivers: Creation of the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR). Results of a Coordinated Research Project 2002-2006

    2012-03-01

    River runoff plays a key role in human development in all societies through the provision of water for agriculture, industry and domestic use. Although the monitoring of water availability and our understanding of the main hydrological processes at the catchment scale are relatively good, many important aspects, especially those related to the interaction of runoff and groundwater, remain poorly understood. Additionally, the impact of human activities - such as the construction of large reservoirs and diversions, and the redirection of rivers to supply drinking water or water for irrigation or hydropower - are highly relevant and, together with the predicted impact of climate change, are likely to heavily impact local water cycles. The effects of such changes include: limited availability of water; changes in flood or drought frequency; changes in water quality, sediment load and groundwater recharge; and biodiversity loss in riparian environments. Additionally, political disputes may result as water resources become affected in terms of availability and/or quality. In most instances, stable isotopes and other water tracers provide a deeper insight into hydrological processes, especially in aspects related to water pathways, interconnections, transport of water and pollutants, and the transit time of water. To explore the contribution of these techniques in more detail, the IAEA has launched a monitoring programme, the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR), aimed at regular analysis of the isotope composition of runoff in large rivers. This isotope monitoring network complements an earlier precipitation network, the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). To prepare for GNIR, the IAEA launched a coordinated research project (CRP) called Design Criteria for a Network to Monitor Isotope Compositions of Runoff in Large Rivers. The main aim of the CRP was to develop a scientific rationale and a protocol for the operation of such a network, as well as

  15. Communication strategies to improve HIV treatment adherence.

    Rochon, Donna; Ross, Michael W; Looney, Carol; Nepal, Vishnu P; Price, Andrea J; Giordano, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has increased the survival of HIV-positive patients, traditional approaches to improving medication adherence have failed consistently. Acknowledging the role of communication in health behavior, we conducted a qualitative study to learn about patients' HIV treatment adherence experiences and to identify which communication strategies might influence adherence. Findings indicate that five constructs--cultural beliefs/language, stigma, cues to action, self-efficacy, and mood state--are potentially modifiable by improved communication. Results will be used to create a direct marketing campaign targeted to HIV-infected patients. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  16. Factors affecting treatment adherence to atomoxetine in ADHD: a systematic review

    Treuer T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tamás Treuer,1 Luis Méndez,2 William Montgomery,3 Shenghu Wu4 1Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary; 2Eli Lilly de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly Asia, Inc, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature related to research about the factors affecting treatment adherence and discontinuation of atomoxetine in pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Medline was systematically searched using the following prespecified terms: “ADHD”, “Adherence”, “Compliance”, “Discontinuation”, and “Atomoxetine”. We identified 31 articles that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings from this review indicate that persistence and adherence to atomoxetine treatment were generally high. Factors found to influence adherence and nonadherence to atomoxetine treatment in ADHD in this review include age, sex, the definition of response used, length of treatment, initial dose of treatment, comorbid conditions, and reimbursement. Tolerability was cited as an important reason for treatment discontinuation. More research is needed to understand those factors that can help to identify patients at risk for poor adherence and interventions that could improve treatment adherence early in the stage of this illness to secure a better long-term prognosis. Keywords: atomoxetine, treatment discontinuation, adherence, compliance, ADHD medication, relapse

  17. Non-adherence to standard treatment guidelines in a rural paediatric hospital in Sierra Leone.

    De Bruycker, M; Van den Bergh, R; Dahmane, A; Khogali, M; Schiavetti, B; Nzomukunda, Y; Alders, P; Allaouna, M; Cloquet, C; Enarson, D A; Satyarayanan, S; Magbity, E; Zachariah, R

    2013-06-21

    A rural paediatric hospital in Bo, Sierra Leone. To assess the level of adherence to standard treatment guidelines among clinicians prescribing treatment for children admitted with a diagnosis of malaria and/or lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), and determine the association between (non) adherence and hospital outcomes, given that non-rational use of medicines is a serious global problem. Secondary analysis of routine programme data. Data were collected for 865 children admitted with an entry diagnosis of malaria and 690 children with LRTI during the period January to April 2011; some patients were classified in both categories. Non-adherence to guidelines comprised use of non-standard drug regimens, dosage variations, non-standard frequency of administration and treatment duration. Cumulative non-adherence to guidelines for LRTI cases was 86%. For malaria, this involved 12% of patients. Potentially harmful non-adherence was significantly associated with an unfavourable hospital outcome, both for malaria and for LRTI cases. Overall non-adherence to standard treatment guidelines by clinicians in a routine hospital setting is very high and influences hospital outcomes. This study advocates for the implementation of routine measures to monitor and improve rational drug use and the quality of clinical care in such hospitals.

  18. Child and Adolescent Adherence With Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety: Predictors and Associations With Outcomes.

    Lee, Phyllis; Zehgeer, Asima; Ginsburg, Golda S; McCracken, James; Keeton, Courtney; Kendall, Philip C; Birmaher, Boris; Sakolsky, Dara; Walkup, John; Peris, Tara; Albano, Anne Marie; Compton, Scott

    2017-04-27

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is effective, but nonadherence with treatment may reduce the benefits of CBT. This study examined (a) four baseline domains (i.e., demographic, youth clinical characteristics, therapy related, family/parent factors) as predictors of youth adherence with treatment and (b) the associations between youth adherence and treatment outcomes. Data were from 279 youth (7-17 years of age, 51.6% female; 79.6% White, 9% African American), with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia, who participated in CBT in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study. Adherence was defined in three ways (session attendance, therapist-rated compliance, and homework completion). Multiple regressions revealed several significant predictors of youth adherence with CBT, but predictors varied according to the definition of adherence. The most robust predictors of greater adherence were living with both parents and fewer youth comorbid externalizing disorders. With respect to outcomes, therapist ratings of higher youth compliance with CBT predicted several indices of favorable outcome: lower anxiety severity, higher global functioning, and treatment responder status after 12 weeks of CBT. Number of sessions attended and homework completion did not predict treatment outcomes. Findings provide information about risks for youth nonadherence, which can inform treatment and highlight the importance of youth compliance with participating in therapy activities, rather than just attending sessions or completing homework assignments.

  19. Accomplishments of the MUSICA project to provide accurate, long-term, global and high-resolution observations of tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs - a review

    Schneider, Matthias; Wiegele, Andreas; Barthlott, Sabine; González, Yenny; Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; García, Omaira E.; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Takele Kenea, Samuel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Andrey, Javier

    2016-07-01

    In the lower/middle troposphere, {H2O,δD} pairs are good proxies for moisture pathways; however, their observation, in particular when using remote sensing techniques, is challenging. The project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) addresses this challenge by integrating the remote sensing with in situ measurement techniques. The aim is to retrieve calibrated tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs from the middle infrared spectra measured from ground by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and the thermal nadir spectra measured by IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) aboard the MetOp satellites. In this paper, we present the final MUSICA products, and discuss the characteristics and potential of the NDACC/FTIR and MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} data pairs. First, we briefly resume the particularities of an {H2O,δD} pair retrieval. Second, we show that the remote sensing data of the final product version are absolutely calibrated with respect to H2O and δD in situ profile references measured in the subtropics, between 0 and 7 km. Third, we reveal that the {H2O,δD} pair distributions obtained from the different remote sensors are consistent and allow distinct lower/middle tropospheric moisture pathways to be identified in agreement with multi-year in situ references. Fourth, we document the possibilities of the NDACC/FTIR instruments for climatological studies (due to long-term monitoring) and of the MetOp/IASI sensors for observing diurnal signals on a quasi-global scale and with high horizontal resolution. Fifth, we discuss the risk of misinterpreting {H2O,δD} pair distributions due to incomplete processing of the remote sensing products.

  20. Trachoma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Results of 46 Baseline Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

    Kilangalanga, Janvier; Ndjemba, Jean Marie; Uvon, Pitchouna A; Kibangala, Felix M; Mwandulo, Jean-Lebone Safari B; Mavula, Nicaise; Ndombe, Martin; Kazadi, Junior; Limbaka, Henry; Cohn, Daniel; Tougoue, Jean-Jacques; Kabore, Achille; Rotondo, Lisa; Willis, Rebecca; Bio, Amadou Alfa; Kadri, Boubacar; Bakhtiari, Ana; Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Solomon, Anthony W

    2017-08-29

    Trachoma was suspected to be endemic in parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We aimed to estimate prevalences of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trichiasis, and water and sanitation (WASH) indicators in suspected-endemic Health Zones. A population-based prevalence survey was undertaken in each of 46 Health Zones across nine provinces of DRC, using Global Trachoma Mapping Project methods. A two-stage cluster random sampling design was used in each Health Zone, whereby 25 villages (clusters) and 30 households per cluster were sampled. Consenting eligible participants (children aged 1-9 years and adults aged ≥15 years) were examined for trachoma by GTMP-certified graders; households were assessed for access to WASH. A total of 32,758 households were surveyed, and 141,853 participants (98.2% of those enumerated) were examined for trachoma. Health Zone-level TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds ranged from 1.9-41.6%. Among people aged ≥15 years, trichiasis prevalences ranged from 0.02-5.1% (95% CI 3.3-6.8). TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds was ≥5% in 30 Health Zones, while trichiasis prevalence was ≥0.2% in 37 Health Zones. Trachoma is a public health problem in 39 of 46 Health Zones surveyed. To meet elimination targets, 37 Health Zones require expanded trichiasis surgery services while 30 health zones require antibiotics, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement interventions. Survey data suggest that trachoma is widespread: further surveys are warranted.

  1. The Ongoing Addition of Infrasound Sensors and the Flexette Wind-Noise Reducing System to Global Seismic Network Stations Operated by Project IDA

    Ebeling, C. W.; Coon, C.

    2017-12-01

    Infrasound sensors are now being installed at Global Seismic Network (GSN) stations meeting certain infrastructure criteria. Manufactured by Hyperion Technology Group, Inc., these instruments (model IFS-3312) have a nominal sensitivity of 140 mV/Pa (at 1 Hz), a full-scale range of ±100 Pa, and a dynamic range of 120 dB. Low power consumption (750 mW at 12 VDC) and small size (153 mm x 178 mm) ease incorporation into the mix of existing GSN instrumentation. The accompanying flexible rosette ("Flexette") acoustic wind-noise reducing system, designed by Project IDA (International Deployment of Accelerometers-IDA), optimally includes 24 inlets, 4 secondary manifolds, and a single primary manifold. Each secondary manifold is connected to 6 inlets and to the primary manifold by 10-ft air hoses, thus eliminating stresses and the greater potential for leaks associated with the use of pipe. While the main design goal was to maximize the reduction of acoustic wind-noise over the widest range of wind speeds possible, consideration of additional criteria resulted in a Flexette base design easily tailored to meet individual station constraints and restrictions, made up of inexpensive (total cost Marshall Islands), in August 2017. During the next 6 months infrasound capability will be extended to IDA GSN stations BORG (Borganes, Iceland), EFI (Mount Kent, East Falkland Islands), and SACV (Santiago Island, Cape Verde).As with other data from GSN stations, real-time infrasound data are freely available from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology-Data Management Center (IRIS-DMC).

  2. Association Between Adherence to Statins, Illness Perception, Treatment Satisfaction, and Quality of Life among Lebanese patients.

    Haddad, Christine; Hallit, Souheil; Salhab, Mohammad; Hajj, Aline; Sarkis, Antoine; Nasser Ayoub, Eliane; Jabbour, Hicham; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate treatment adherence to statin and health-related quality of life (QOL) in Lebanese patients with dyslipidemia. Secondary objectives were to examine associations between treatment adherence, QOL, treatment satisfaction, and illness perception. This cross-sectional study, conducted in 20 community pharmacies from all districts of Lebanon between August 2016 and April 2017, enrolled 247 adult patients taking any statin. The mean age of the participants was 52.63 ± 11.92 years (57.5% males); the mean duration of treatment with a statin was 59.72 months. A significant association was found between adherence and marital status ( P salary, the marital status, the educational level, smoking cigarettes or waterpipes, and drinking alcohol were all associated with the Illness Perception Questionnaire scores ( P < 0.0001 for all variables). Secondary level of education (β = 13.43), smoking more than 3 waterpipes per week (β = 14.06), global satisfaction score (β = 0.32), convenience score (β = 0.29), and effectiveness score (β = 0.27) would significantly increase the adherence score. Smoking more than 15 cigarettes per day (β = -11.15) and a divorced status (β = -14.81) would however significantly decrease the adherence score. Significant associations were found between the illness perception score, the QOL domains, and the satisfaction domains ( P < .05 for all variables). This study showed that global satisfaction with treatment, convenience, and effectiveness are important factors that increase treatment adherence. Patient adherence results in patient satisfaction and improved QOL and is an important criterion for achieving desired therapeutic outcomes.

  3. Introducing the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2013-01-01

    . Methods: Key concepts related to self-care and adherence were defined, discussed, and implemented as part of the ASEF framework. ASEF was applied to seven self-care case studies, and the perceived usefulness and feasibility of ASEF was evaluated in a questionnaire study by the case study participants...... resulting in reduced data quality and suboptimal treatment. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to introduce the Adherence Strategy Engineering Framework (ASEF) as a method for developing novel technology-based adherence strategies to assess and improve patient adherence levels in the unsupervised setting....... Finally, we reviewed the individual case studies usage of ASEF. Results: A range of central self-care concepts were defined and the ASEF methodological framework was introduced. ASEF was successfully used in seven case studies with a total of 25 participants. Of these, 16 provided answers...

  4. Determinants of Patient's Adherence to Hypertension Medications ...

    Medications: Application of Health Belief Model .... Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios expressing the ... costs.[15]. Adherence to medication is always a matter of concern, especially in chronic diseases and identification of the ...

  5. Factors Influencing Adherence to Routine Iron Supplementation

    Fineprint

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... adherence among pregnant women in three selected health centers in Akinyele. Local Government Area, Ibadan ... socioeconomic status, and illiteracy. [12]. .... 80.74% in India [24 ] Although the reason for this disparity is not ...

  6. Predicting Malawian Women’s Intention to Adhere to Antiretroviral Therapy

    McKinney, Ogbochi; Modeste, Naomi N.; Lee, Jerry W.; Gleason, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background With the increase in scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), knowledge of the need for adherence to ART is pivotal for successful treatment outcomes. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2013. We administered theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and adherence questionnaires to 358 women aged 18-49 years, from a rural and urban ART-clinics in southern Malawi. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to predict intentions to adhere to ART. Results Regression models show that attitude (β=0.47), subjective norm (β=0.31) and perceived behavioural control (β=0.12) explain 55% of the variance in intentions to adhere to ART. The relationship between both food insecurity and perceived side effects with intentions to adhere to ART is mediated by attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Household (r=0.20) and individual (r=0.21) food insecurity were positively and significantly correlated with perceived behavioural control. Household food insecurity had a negative correlation with perceived side effects (r=-0.11). Perceived side effects were positively correlated with attitude (r=0.25). There was no statistically significant relationship between intentions to adhere to ART in the future and one month self-report of past month adherence. These interactions suggest that attitude predicted adherence only when food insecurity is high or perception of side effects is strong. Conclusions This study shows that modification might be needed when using TPB constructs in resource constraint environments. Significance for public health The knowledge of the rates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) could be used to evaluate planning and project, which could lead to better outcomes predicted by treatment efficacy data. In addition, knowledge of adherence behaviour could help the development of interventions focusing on collaboration between healthcare providers and Malawian government to

  7. Microbial adherence to cosmetic contact lenses.

    Chan, Ka Yin; Cho, Pauline; Boost, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether cosmetic contact lenses (CCL) with surface pigments affect microbial adherence. Fifteen brands of CCL were purchased from optical, non-optical retail outlets, and via the Internet. A standardized rub-off test was performed on each CCL (five lenses per brand) to confirm the location of the pigments. The rub-off test comprised gentle rubbing on the surfaces of each CCL with wetted cotton buds for a maximum of 20 rubs per surface. A new set of CCL (five lenses per brand) were incubated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa overnight. Viable counts of adhered bacteria were determined by the number of colony-forming units (CFU) on agar media on each lens. The adherence of P. aeruginosa as well as Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens to three brands of CCL (A-C) (five lenses per brand) were also compared to their adherences on their clear counterparts. Only two of the 15 brands of CCL tested (brands B and C) had pigments that did not detach with the rub-off test. The remaining 13 brands of CCL all failed the rub-off test and these lenses showed higher P. aeruginosa adherence (8.7 × 10(5)-1.9 × 10(6) CFU/lens). Brands B and C lenses showed at least six times less bacterial adhesion than the other 13 brands. Compared to their clear counterparts, bacterial adherence to brands B and C lenses did not differ significantly, whereas brand A lenses showed significantly higher adherence. Surface pigments on CCL resulted in significantly higher bacterial adherence. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral anticancer agent medication adherence by outpatients.

    Kimura, Michio; Usami, Eiseki; Iwai, Mina; Nakao, Toshiya; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Mori, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Teramachi, Hitomi

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, medication adherence and factors affecting adherence were examined in patients taking oral anticancer agents. In June 2013, 172 outpatients who had been prescribed oral anticancer agents by Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Gifu, Japan) completed a questionnaire survey, with answers rated on a five-point Likert scale. The factors that affect medication adherence were evaluated using a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis. For patients with good and insufficient adherence to medication, the median ages were 66 years (range, 21-85 years) and 73 years (range, 30-90 years), respectively (P=0.0004), while the median dosing time was 131 days (range, 3-3,585 days) and 219 days (24-3,465 days), respectively (P=0.0447). In 36.0% (62 out of 172) of the cases, there was insufficient medication adherence; 64.5% of those cases (40 out of 62) showed good medication compliance (4-5 point rating score). However, these patients did not fully understand the effects or side-effects of the drugs, giving a score of three points or less. The percentage of patients with good medication compliance was 87.2% (150 out of 172). Through the CS analysis, three items, the interest in the drug, the desire to consult about the drug and the condition of the patient, were extracted as items for improvement. Overall, the medication compliance of the patients taking the oral anticancer agents was good, but the medication adherence was insufficient. To improve medication adherence, a better understanding of the effectiveness and necessity of drugs and their side-effects is required. In addition, the interest of patients in their medication should be encouraged and intervention should be tailored to the condition of the patient. These steps should lead to improved medication adherence.

  9. Examination of the Link Between Medication Adherence and Use of Mail-Order Pharmacies in Chronic Disease States.

    Fernandez, Elena V; McDaniel, Jennifer A; Carroll, Norman V

    2016-11-01

    selecting mail-order pharmacies) depends on how well the statistical controls adjusted for the substantial differences between the mail and retail samples. While the research strongly indicates that consumers who use mail-order pharmacies are more likely to be adherent, more research is needed before it can be conclusively determined that use of mail-order pharmacies causes higher adherence. No outside funding supported this study. Fernandez was partially funded by a Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy PharmD/PhD Summer Fellowship for work on this project. The authors declare no other potential conflicts of interest. Study concept and design were contributed by Carroll and Fernandez. Fernandez took the lead in data collection, along with Carroll and McDaniel, and data interpretation was performed by Carroll and Fernandez. The manuscript was written and revised by Carroll and Fernandez, with assistance from McDaniel.

  10. Bacterial adherence to polymethylmethacrylate posterior chamber IOLs

    Tyagi Shalini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bacterial adherence to intraocular lenses (IOLs has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common organism isolated. We studied the in-vitro adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA IOLs and the effect of duration of exposure to adherence. Methods: Two groups of 10 IOLs each were incubated in Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension for 2 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. Adhesion of bacterial cells was determined by counting the number of viable bacteria attached to IOLs. Results: The mean bacterial adherence with 2 minutes incubation was 12,889 ± 7,150 bacteria / IOL and with 20 minutes incubation was 84,226 ± 35,024 bacteria/IOL (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Our results show that Staphylococcus epidermidis adheres to PMMA IOLs in vitro and the degree of adherence is less for shorter duration of exposure. We conclude that viable bacteria irreversibly adherent to IOLs may play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Shorter duration of operative manipulation and exposure to contaminating sources may decrease the chances of postoperative endophthalmitis.

  11. Microbicide clinical trial adherence: insights for introduction.

    Woodsong, Cynthia; MacQueen, Kathleen; Amico, K Rivet; Friedland, Barbara; Gafos, Mitzy; Mansoor, Leila; Tolley, Elizabether; McCormack, Sheena

    2013-04-08

    After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1) Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2) Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3) Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4) Partner influence on use, (5) Retention and continuation and (6) Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.

  12. Knowledge and Adherence to Medications among Palestinian Geriatrics Living with Chronic Diseases in the West Bank and East Jerusalem

    Najjar, Anas; Amro, Yazan; Kitaneh, Islam; Abu-Sharar, Salam; Sawalha, Maryam; Jamous, Abrar; Qiq, Muhannad; Makharzeh, Enas; Subb Laban, Bayan; Amro, Wafa; Amro, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate patient knowledge about medications is essential for appropriate drug taking behavior and patient adherence. This study aims to assess and quantify the level of knowledge and adherence to medications among Palestinian geriatrics living with chronic diseases and to investigate possible associated socio-demographic characteristics. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study during June 2013 and January 2014 among Palestinian geriatrics ≥60 years old living with chronic disease in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. A stratified random sample was selected and a questionnaire-assisted interview was applied for data collection. T-test was applied for bivariate analyzing and one-way ANOVA test was applied for multivariate analyses. Results A total of 1192 Palestinian geriatrics were studied. The average age was 70.3 (SD=8.58) years and ranged from 60-110 years. The sample comprised 659 (55.3%) females and 533 (44.7%) males. The global knowledge and global adherence scores were (67.57%) and (89.29%), respectively. Adequate levels of knowledge were 71.4%, and of adherence 75%, which were recorded for 705 (59.1%) and 1088 (91.3%) participants, respectively. Significant higher levels of global knowledge and global adherence were recorded for males, and for participants who hold a Bachelor’s degree, those who live on their own, and did physical activity for more than 40 hours/week (p-value <0.05). Furthermore, workers, participants with a higher monthly income, and non-smokers have a higher knowledge level with (p-value <0.05). We found positive correlation between participants’ global adherence and global knowledge (r=0.487 and p-value <0.001). Negative correlation was found between participants’ global knowledge and adherence with age (r= -0.236, p-value <0.001 and r= -0.211 and p-value <0.001, respectively. Negative correlation between global knowledge and the number of drugs taken (r= -0.130, p-value <0.001) was predicted

  13. 7 CFR 1484.34 - Must Cooperators adhere to specific standards of ethical conduct?

    2010-01-01

    ... Cooperators adhere to specific standards of ethical conduct? (a) A Cooperator shall conduct its business in... funds to promote private self interests or conduct private business, except as members of sales teams... advertising. Deceptive or misleading promotions may result in cancellation or termination of a project...

  14. Follow-up study of the WHO-Global Campaign Against Epilepsy Demonstration Project in rural China after four years of its terminati

    YANG Hong-chao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To follow up the outcome of 2455 patients with epilepsy (the cohort treated by phenobarbital (PB during the WHO-Global Campaign Against Epilepsy Demonstration Project (GCAE/DP in rural China after 4 years of its termination, to provide practical evidence for community control of epilepsy in rural China. Methods In 2008, the trained local township physicians, using a well-designed questionnaire, by door-to-door interview, followed up the cohort residents in 8 counties of 6 provinces where the GCAE/DP was conducted and completed for 4 years. Results One thousand seven hundred and eighty of the 2455 patients were visited in the follow-up study. Nine hundred and thirty-nine (52.75% were still taking PB, the effectiveness rates (seizure free and seizure frequency reduced > 50% among them at 12, 24, 36, 48 months after the GCAE/DP were 66.77% (627/939, 68.37% (642/939, 71.35% (670/939, 73.06% (686/939, respectively. In 841 patients (47.25% who stopped taking PB, 244 cases (29.01% were seizure free, 320 (38.05% still had seizures but discontinued the treatment, 277 (32.94% were treated by other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. Chi-square test was used to compare the therapeutic effectiveness in 939 patients continuing taking PB and 841 patients abandoning PB. Patients continuing taking PB had a better outcome than patients abandoning PB (χ2 = 12.423, P = 0.002. The main reasons of PB withdrawal were seizure free (29.01%, taking other AEDs (32.94%, no free drug or no money (11.06%, effect was not good or PB was not available (6.42% . Two hundred and six patients died between 2002 and 2008. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR for the cohort was 19.10. The three leading causes of death were: accidents (n = 59, 28.64% , cerebrovascular diseases (n = 30, 14.56% and status epilepticus (n = 28, 13.59%. Conclusion The GCAE/DP was successful and with long term good results, so it is worthy for further promotion. The mortality rate was very high in the

  15. Determinants of adherence to methylphenidate and the impact of poor adherence on maternal and family measures.

    Gau, Susan S F; Shen, Hsin-Yi; Chou, Miao-Churn; Tang, Ching-Shu; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Churn-Shiouh

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between adherence to immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and maternal psychological distress, parenting style, parent- child relationship, and perceived family support. The sample consisted of 307 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (271 boys and 36 girls), 6-17 years of age, who had been treated with IR MPH for the past 6 months. The measures included the Chinese Health Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, Family APGAR, and Home Behaviors of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents. Reasons for poor adherence (n = 79; 25.7%) included forgetting medication (72.7%), the medication having no effect (20.0%), and refusing medication (12.7%). Increased age and three-times-daily administration were the major predictors for poor adherence to IR MPH. Poor adherence was associated with increased degree of maternal psychological distress, indifferent parenting, maternal overprotection/control, poor family support, decreased interaction with parents, and increased problems at home. Findings indicate that multiple daily dosing of MPH increases the likelihood of poor adherence, particularly in adolescents, and that poor adherence is associated with impaired maternal/family process. Once-daily administration of MPH is necessary to improve adherence and to decrease the possible exacerbation of tense parent-child relationships caused by poor drug adherence.

  16. Medication Adherence Apps: Review and Content Analysis.

    Ahmed, Imran; Ahmad, Niall Safir; Ali, Shahnaz; Ali, Shair; George, Anju; Saleem Danish, Hiba; Uppal, Encarl; Soo, James; Mobasheri, Mohammad H; King, Dominic; Cox, Benita; Darzi, Ara

    2018-03-16

    Medication adherence is an expensive and damaging problem for patients and health care providers. Patients adhere to only 50% of drugs prescribed for chronic diseases in developed nations. Digital health has paved the way for innovative smartphone solutions to tackle this challenge. However, despite numerous apps available claiming to improve adherence, a thorough review of adherence apps has not been carried out to date. The aims of this study were to (1) review medication adherence apps available in app repositories in terms of their evidence base, medical professional involvement in development, and strategies used to facilitate behavior change and improve adherence and (2) provide a system of classification for these apps. In April 2015, relevant medication adherence apps were identified by searching the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store using a combination of relevant search terms. Data extracted included app store source, app price, documentation of health care professional (HCP) involvement during app development, and evidence base for each respective app. Free apps were downloaded to explore the strategies used to promote medication adherence. Testing involved a standardized medication regimen of three reminders over a 4-hour period. Nonadherence features designed to enhance user experience were also documented. The app repository search identified a total of 5881 apps. Of these, 805 fulfilled the inclusion criteria initially and were tested. Furthermore, 681 apps were further analyzed for data extraction. Of these, 420 apps were free for testing, 58 were inaccessible and 203 required payment. Of the 420 free apps, 57 apps were developed with HCP involvement and an evidence base was identified in only 4 apps. Of the paid apps, 9 apps had HCP involvement, 1 app had a documented evidence base, and 1 app had both. In addition, 18 inaccessible apps were produced with HCP involvement, whereas 2 apps had a documented evidence base. The 420 free apps were

  17. [Family adherence in serious mental disorder].

    Martín Padilla, Ernesto; Obando Posada, Diana; Sarmiento Medina, Pedro

    2017-10-09

    Identify attitudes and behaviors that evidence and characterize family adherence to treatment in patients with severe mental disorder. Qualitative descriptive, from an interpretative social approach. Chia, Colombia, with professionals in the psychiatric and geriatric settings. Twelve professionals in psychiatry, nursing and psychology, with experience in care of patients with serious mental disorder and their families. Intentional sampling. Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out. The analysis strategy was made from the procedures of constant comparison and open coding of the grounded theory. As validation strategies, triangulation was done between researchers and methods, as interviews and results survey. Two categories of family adherence were defined: family and treatment (treatment cooperation, knowledge about the disease and attention to the disease evolution), and family attitudes towards the patient (patient's care, patient's promotion of autonomy, and affective attachment with the patient). A third category showed aspects that diminished family adherence, such as lack or distortion of information regarding mental disorder, or family and patient endurance attitudes. Participants agree about the relevance of the construct named «family adherence», which describes the behaviors and attitudes of the family regarding the treatment of patients with severe mental disorder. Family adherence can be seen as active participation behavior, but also as a process of strengthening relationships, which can reduce the burden and suffering on family members, caregivers and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The Electric Vehicle Project for High School Students in Nagoya City Science Museum : As the First Step of Global Engineering Education to Create Value from Knowledge

    馬渕, 浩一; Mabuchi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an account of "The Electric Vehicle Project", a science museum activity in cooperation with Nagoya Institute of Technology and major manufacturing companies. The project is intended to encourage Japanese high school students' interest in science and technology, based on Nagoya, Japan and Asia, the center of the manufacturing industries. The project contains three programs: 1) Students make practical lead acid batteries. 2) Students drive an electric vehicle of their own desig...

  19. Sport and globalization

    Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...... dissemination around the world. In spite of resistance by the adherents of gymnastics or traditional movement cultures, sport with its focus on competition and records became popular all over the world. Both Great Britain and the United States induced their political and cultural hegemony via the soft power...... of modern sport which caused reactions, e.g. resistances or adaptations of indigenous, colonized, and other affected populations....

  20. Expanding educational access and opportunities: The globalization and foreign direct investment of multinational corporations and their influence on STEM, project-based learning and the national science and technology fair in schools in Costa Rica

    Valdez, Joaquin G.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the influence of globalization and the foreign direct investment (FDI) of multinational corporations (MNCs) on the curriculum in schools in Costa Rica. The study focused primarily on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Project-Based Learning (PBL), 21st century skills, and the national science and technology fair. The high influx of MNCs such as Intel has changed the global and educational culture of the country increasing the number of knowledge-based workers in Costa Rica. As a result, policy changes have been instituted in education to mirror the demands of sustaining the country's global economy. This study was supported by the creation of three research questions that would attempt to answer 1) the extent that teachers implementing STEM curriculum trace their practices back to policy, globalization, and multinational corporations as well as the extent to which the economic growth of Costa Rica and STEM education are related, 2) how mandating the national science and technology fair has influenced 21st century skills through project-based learning and the use of technology by teachers and its impact on curriculum and instruction, and 3) how has the national science and technology fair policy changed the value of STEM education for students, teachers, and educational leaders. To further understand the outcome of this study, four theoretical frameworks were applied that included, Spring's theory of world educational culture, Friedman's world flatteners, Wagner's 21st century skills and partnerships for 21st century skills, and Slough and Milam's STEM project-based learning theoretical framework. Each framework was applied to support the changes to the educational system; survival skills necessary to compete in the global job market; application of 21st century skills in the classroom and in the science projects students created. A research team comprised of 14 doctoral students, led by Dr

  1. Energy globalization

    Tierno Andres

    1997-01-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  2. Impact of mHealth chronic disease management on treatment adherence and patient outcomes: a systematic review.

    Hamine, Saee; Gerth-Guyette, Emily; Faulx, Dunia; Green, Beverly B; Ginsburg, Amy Sarah

    2015-02-24

    Adherence to chronic disease management is critical to achieving improved health outcomes, quality of life, and cost-effective health care. As the burden of chronic diseases continues to grow globally, so does the impact of non-adherence. Mobile technologies are increasingly being used in health care and public health practice (mHealth) for patient communication, monitoring, and education, and to facilitate adherence to chronic diseases management. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effectiveness of mHealth in supporting the adherence of patients to chronic diseases management ("mAdherence"), and the usability, feasibility, and acceptability of mAdherence tools and platforms in chronic disease management among patients and health care providers. We searched PubMed, Embase, and EBSCO databases for studies that assessed the role of mAdherence in chronic disease management of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung diseases from 1980 through May 2014. Outcomes of interest included effect of mHealth on patient adherence to chronic diseases management, disease-specific clinical outcomes after intervention, and the usability, feasibility, and acceptability of mAdherence tools and platforms in chronic disease management among target end-users. In all, 107 articles met all inclusion criteria. Short message service was the most commonly used mAdherence tool in 40.2% (43/107) of studies. Usability, feasibility, and acceptability or patient preferences for mAdherence interventions were assessed in 57.9% (62/107) of studies and found to be generally high. A total of 27 studies employed randomized controlled trial (RCT) methods to assess impact on adherence behaviors, and significant improvements were observed in 15 of those studies (56%). Of the 41 RCTs that measured effects on disease-specific clinical outcomes, significant improvements between groups were reported in 16 studies (39%). There is potential for mHealth tools to

  3. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  4. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Quéré, Le Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M.S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid T.; Werf, van der Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  5. U.S. Naval Academy Officials Did Not Adhere to Contracting and Gift Policies

    2011-11-07

    Report No. DODIG-2012-017 November 7, 2011 U.S. Naval Academy Officials Did Not Adhere to Contracting and Gift Policies...Contracting and Gift Policies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...HERITAGE AND HISTORY COMMAND SUBJECT: U.S. Naval Academy Officials Did Not Adhere to Contracting and Gift Policies (Report No. DODIG-2012-017) We are

  6. Patient Adherence to Biologic Agents in Psoriasis

    Hsu, Der Yi; Gniadecki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low adherence to therapies in psoriasis decreases treatment outcomes and increases the total health care costs. In spite of the wide use of biologic agents, patients' adherence to these drugs has not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure adherence...... to the biologic drugs in a population of patients treated for psoriasis vulgaris using the medication possession ratio (MPR) index and to survey patients' attitudes to the treatment. METHODS: This is a single-center study on 247 patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with adalimumab (n = 113), etanercept (n...... = 39), and ustekinumab (n = 95). MPR calculation was calculated monthly based on the hospital records documenting the dispensing of biologics to the patients. Clinical data [Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), presence of psoriatic arthritis, concomitant...

  7. Improving medication adherence in patients with hypertension

    Hedegaard, Ulla; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Pottegård, Anton

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: and Purpose: In patients with hypertension, medication adherence is often suboptimal, thereby increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke. In a randomized trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted pharmacist intervention in a hospital setting to improve...... medication adherence in hypertensive patients. Motivational interviewing was a key element of the intervention. METHODS: Patients (N=532) were recruited from 3 hospital outpatient clinics and randomized to usual care or a 6-month pharmacist intervention comprising collaborative care, medication review...... for persistence, blood pressure or hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: A multifaceted pharmacist intervention in a hospital setting led to a sustained improvement in medication adherence for patients with hypertension. The intervention had no significant impact on blood pressure and secondary clinical outcomes....

  8. Patient adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Munro, Salla A; Lewin, Simon A; Smith, Helen J; Engel, Mark E; Fretheim, Atle; Volmink, Jimmy

    2007-07-24

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major contributor to the global burden of disease and has received considerable attention in recent years, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where it is closely associated with HIV/AIDS. Poor adherence to treatment is common despite various interventions aimed at improving treatment completion. Lack of a comprehensive and holistic understanding of barriers to and facilitators of, treatment adherence is currently a major obstacle to finding effective solutions. The aim of this systematic review of qualitative studies was to understand the factors considered important by patients, caregivers and health care providers in contributing to TB medication adherence. We searched 19 electronic databases (1966-February 2005) for qualitative studies on patients', caregivers', or health care providers' perceptions of adherence to preventive or curative TB treatment with the free text terms "Tuberculosis AND (adherence OR compliance OR concordance)". We supplemented our search with citation searches and by consulting experts. For included studies, study quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist and data were extracted independently onto a standard form. We then followed Noblit and Hare's method of meta-ethnography to synthesize the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis. We screened 7,814 citations and selected 44 articles that met the prespecified inclusion criteria. The synthesis offers an overview of qualitative evidence derived from these multiple international studies. We identified eight major themes across the studies: organisation of treatment and care; interpretations of illness and wellness; the financial burden of treatment; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about treatment; law and immigration; personal characteristics and adherence behaviour; side effects; and family, community, and household support. Our interpretation of the themes across all studies produced a line

  9. Patient adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Salla A Munro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a major contributor to the global burden of disease and has received considerable attention in recent years, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where it is closely associated with HIV/AIDS. Poor adherence to treatment is common despite various interventions aimed at improving treatment completion. Lack of a comprehensive and holistic understanding of barriers to and facilitators of, treatment adherence is currently a major obstacle to finding effective solutions. The aim of this systematic review of qualitative studies was to understand the factors considered important by patients, caregivers and health care providers in contributing to TB medication adherence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched 19 electronic databases (1966-February 2005 for qualitative studies on patients', caregivers', or health care providers' perceptions of adherence to preventive or curative TB treatment with the free text terms "Tuberculosis AND (adherence OR compliance OR concordance". We supplemented our search with citation searches and by consulting experts. For included studies, study quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist and data were extracted independently onto a standard form. We then followed Noblit and Hare's method of meta-ethnography to synthesize the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis. We screened 7,814 citations and selected 44 articles that met the prespecified inclusion criteria. The synthesis offers an overview of qualitative evidence derived from these multiple international studies. We identified eight major themes across the studies: organisation of treatment and care; interpretations of illness and wellness; the financial burden of treatment; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about treatment; law and immigration; personal characteristics and adherence behaviour; side effects; and family, community, and household support. Our interpretation of the

  10. Strategy of global European atmosphere protection, Polish contribution within European project of Eureka; Strategia globalnej ochrony atmosfery nad Europa, wklad Polski poprzez udzial w europejskim programie Eureki

    Pasiuk-Bronikowska, W.; Bronikowski, T.; Ujejczyk, M. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Chemii Fizycznej

    1996-12-31

    Related to general topics of the project EUROTRAC (set up within initiative of the European Research Coordination Agency EUREKA), main objectives of the subproject HALIPP bound with chemistry leading to `acid rains` are discussed. Exemplary results of the kinetic-mechanistic study of sulfur pollutants transformations in troposphere are shown as the Polish contribution to this project. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs.

  11. Measurement complexity of adherence to medication

    Galato D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dayani Galato, Fabiana Schuelter-Trevisol, Anna Paula PiovezanMaster Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina (Unisul Tubarão, Santa Catarina, BrazilAdherence to pharmacologic therapy is a major challenge for the rational use of medicines, particularly when it comes to antiretroviral drugs that require adherence to at least 95% of prescribed doses.1 Studies in this area are always important and contribute to medication adherence understanding, even though there is no reference test for measuring this. Recently, an article was published in this journal that proposes the determination of lamivudine plasma concentration to validate patient self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment.2 In that study, serum levels obtained after 3 hours of ingestion of the last dose of the drug were compared with patient reports that were classified into different levels of adherence, based on their recall of missed doses in the previous 7 days.It was hypothesized by the authors that the use of a biological marker for drug adherence was extremely important, given the relevance of the topic. However, we would like to draw attention to some points that may determine the success of the use of similar methods for this purpose. The formation of groups with similar anthropometric characteristics is relevant since the dose of lamivudine may have to be changed, depending, for example, on sex, weight, and age.3 Even information considered important by the authors of that study was not provided. There is a need for greater clarity on the eligibility criteria, especially with regard to the clinical stage of the disease, CD4 counts and viral load, associated diseases, and comorbidity, as well as the evaluation of kidney function and other medications used that can affect lamivudine pharmacokinetics.3View original paper by Minzi and colleagues

  12. Medication Adherence Among Elderly Patients with High Blood Pressure in Gweru, Zimbabwe.

    Wariva, Elizabeth; January, James; Maradzika, Julita

    2014-02-04

    High blood pressure is a global health concern which is mainly managed by taking anti-hypertensive medications. Although medication is available to control high blood pressure, adhering to treatment is a major problem among hypertensive patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors to medication adherence among hypertensive patients in Gweru urban aged 40-70 years. A descriptive cross sectional study was used with a sample size of 110 conveniently sampled hypertensive patients. We used an interviewer administered questionnaire designed using phase 4 of the PRECEDE model. The modal age was 70 years and mean age was 58 years (SD=10.29). There were 61.8% females and 38.2% males. Variables associated with medication adherence were: age (P=0.0059), marital status (P=0.015), average monthly income (P=0.0002), support group (P=0.027) and knowledge (P=0.0058). Providing information to patients with high blood pressure and having a good patient-provider relationship improves medication adherence. There is need to focus on the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors of medication adherence since demographic and socio-economic factors may be more difficult to change.

  13. Medication adherence and its associated factors among diabetic patients at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Ali, Muhammed; Alemu, Tigestu; Sada, Oumer

    2017-12-04

    Diabetes is a global problem with devastating human, social and economic impact. Anti-diabetic medications play a major role in the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. However, inadequate adherence compromises safety and treatment effectiveness, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to anti-diabetic medications and associated factors among patient with diabetes mellitus receiving care at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Among the total of 146 diabetic patients (mean age 46.5 ± 14.7), the level of adherence to anti diabetic medication was 54.8% (80) whilst 45.2% (66) of the participants were non adherent. Multiple logistic regression showed that knowledge of medication (AOR = 4.905, 95% CI 1.64-14.62, medication availability (AOR = 0.175, 95% CI 0.031-0.987) and education level (AOR = 13.65, 95% CI 1.45-128.456) were reasons for non-adherence.

  14. Improving Adherence to Treatment and Reducing Economic Costs of Hypertension: The Role of Olmesartan-Based Treatment.

    Costa, Francesco Vittorio

    2017-09-01

    Poor adherence to antihypertensive treatment is the single most important factor of unsatisfactory blood pressure (BP) control. This review focuses on therapy-related factors affecting adherence and suggests how to improve it with a wise choice of treatment schedule. Complex drug treatment schemes, poor tolerability and drug substitutions are frequent causes of poor adherence which, in turn, causes insufficient BP control, greater incidence of cardiovascular events and, finally, higher global health costs. The effects of prescribing generic drugs and of drug substitutions on adherence is also discussed. In terms of adherence, generic drugs do not seem to be better than branded drugs, unless patients have to bear very high "out of pocket" expenses to buy original drugs, suggesting no advantages in switching drug with the mere goal of reducing the cost of therapy. An important role in improving adherence (and thus cardiovascular events and health expenditure) is also played by the availability of fixed-dose combinations; among antihypertensive drugs, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are those associated with higher levels of adherence and persistence. Among ARBs, olmesartan stands out for a wide choice of effective fixed-dose combinations.

  15. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  16. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Notification: Audit of EPA’s Adherence to Policies, Procedures and Oversight Controls Pertaining to the Administrator’s Travel (2nd notification)