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Sample records for glioma cell death

  1. BH3 Mimetics Reactivate Autophagic Cell Death in Anoxia-Resistant Malignant Glioma Cells

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    Holger Hetschko

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we investigated the specific roles of Bcl-2 family members in anoxia tolerance of malignant glioma. Flow cytometry analysis of cell death in 17 glioma cell lines revealed drastic differences in their sensitivity to oxygen withdrawal (<0.1% O2. Cell death correlated with mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome C release, and translocation of green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged light chain 3 to autophagosomes but occurred in the absence of caspase activation or phosphatidylserine exposure. In both sensitive and tolerant glioma cell lines, anoxia caused a significant up-regulation of BH3-only genes previously implicated in mediating anoxic cell death in other cell types (BNIP3, NIX, PUMA, and Noxa. In contrast, we detected a strong correlation between anoxia resistance and high expression levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 that function to neutralize the proapoptotic activity of BH3-only proteins. Importantly, inhibition of both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL with the small-molecule BH3 mimetics HA14-1 and BH3I-2′ and by RNA interference reactivated anoxia-induced autophagic cell death in previously resistant glioma cells. Our data suggest that endogenous BH3-only protein induction may not be able to compensate for the high expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in anoxia-resistant astrocytomas. They also support the conjecture that BH3 mimetics may represent an exciting new approach for the treatment of malignant glioma.

  2. 17-AAG sensitized malignant glioma cells to death-receptor mediated apoptosis.

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    Siegelin, Markus David; Habel, Antje; Gaiser, Timo

    2009-02-01

    17-AAG is a selective HSP90-inhibitor that exhibited therapeutic activity in cancer. In this study three glioblastoma cell lines (U87, LN229 and U251) were treated with 17-AAG, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or the combination of both. Treatment with subtoxic doses of 17-AAG in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces rapid apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant glioma cells, suggesting that this combined treatment may offer an attractive strategy for treating gliomas. 17-AAG treatment down-regulated survivin through proteasomal degradation. In addition, over-expression of survivin attenuated cytotoxicity induced by the combination of 17-AAG and TRAIL. In summary, survivin is a key regulator of TRAIL-17-AAG mediated cell death in malignant glioma.

  3. SIRT3-SOD2-ROS pathway is involved in linalool-induced glioma cell apoptotic death.

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    Cheng, Yanhao; Dai, Chao; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Glioma is the most prevalent type of adult primary brain tumor and chemotherapy of glioma was limited by drug-resistance. Linalool is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol possessing various pharmacological activities. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of linalool on glioma cell growth. The effect of linalool on cell viability in U87-MG cells was investigated and the results showed that linalool significantly reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, exposure of the cells to linalool resulted in a concentration-dependent increase of TUNEL-stained cells, indicating the occurrence of apoptotic cell death. Linalool decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate, increased the expression of Bax and Bak, reduced the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, and increased the activities of caspase 3 and caspase 9, leading to increase of apoptosis. Linalool resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease of SOD activity but had no significant effect on mRNA and protein expression of SOD2. Moreover, linalool resulted in a significant increase of the expression of acetylated SOD2. The mRNA and protein expression of SIRT3 was significantly inhibited by linalool. Immunoblot analysis showed that there was an evident protein/protein interaction between SOD2 and SIRT3 under normal condition. Linalool treatment significantly decreased the interaction between SOD2 and SIRT3. Overexpression of SIRT3 significantly inhibited linalool-induced increase of mitochondrial ROS production and apoptotic cell death, and decrease of cell viability. In summary, the data demonstrated that linalool exhibited inhibitory effect on glioma cells through regulation of SIRT3-SOD2-ROS signaling.

  4. Delayed cell death associated with mitotic catastrophe in γ-irradiated stem-like glioma cells

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    Firat, Elke; Gaedicke, Simone; Tsurumi, Chizuko; Esser, Norbert; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Stem-like tumor cells are regarded as highly resistant to ionizing radiation (IR). Previous studies have focused on apoptosis early after irradiation, and the apoptosis resistance observed has been attributed to reduced DNA damage or enhanced DNA repair compared to non-stem tumor cells. Here, early and late radioresponse of patient-derived stem-like glioma cells (SLGCs) and differentiated cells directly derived from them were examined for cell death mode and the influence of stem cell-specific growth factors. Primary SLGCs were propagated in serum-free medium with the stem-cell mitogens epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Differentiation was induced by serum-containing medium without EGF and FGF. Radiation sensitivity was evaluated by assessing proliferation, clonogenic survival, apoptosis, and mitotic catastrophe. DNA damage-associated γH2AX as well as p53 and p21 expression were determined by Western blots. SLGCs failed to apoptose in the first 4 days after irradiation even at high single doses up to 10 Gy, but we observed substantial cell death later than 4 days postirradiation in 3 of 6 SLGC lines treated with 5 or 10 Gy. This delayed cell death was observed in 3 of the 4 SLGC lines with nonfunctional p53, was associated with mitotic catastrophe and occurred via apoptosis. The early apoptosis resistance of the SLGCs was associated with lower γH2AX compared to differentiated cells, but we found that the stem-cell culture cytokines EGF plus FGF-2 strongly reduce γH2AX levels. Nonetheless, in two p53-deficient SLGC lines examined γIR-induced apoptosis even correlated with EGF/FGF-induced proliferation and mitotic catastrophe. In a line containing CD133-positive and -negative stem-like cells, the CD133-positive cells proliferated faster and underwent more γIR-induced mitotic catastrophe. Our results suggest the importance of delayed apoptosis, associated mitotic catastrophe, and cellular proliferation for γIR-induced death of

  5. Silibinin induces apoptosis via calpain-dependent AIF nuclear translocation in U87MG human glioma cell death

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    Kim Yong K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silibinin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid, has been reported to induce cell death in various cancer cell types. However, the molecular mechanism is not clearly defined. Our previous study showed that silibinin induces glioma cell death and its effect was effectively prevented by calpain inhibitor. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the role of calpain in the silibinin-induced glioma cell death. Methods U87MG cells were grown on well tissue culture plates and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ROS generation and △ψm were estimated using the fluorescence dyes. PKC activation and Bax expression were measured by Western blot analysis. AIF nuclear translocation was determined by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Results Silibinin induced activation of calpain, which was blocked by EGTA and the calpain inhibitor Z-Leu-Leu-CHO. Silibinin caused ROS generation and its effect was inhibited by calpain inhibitor, the general PKC inhibitor GF 109203X, the specific PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin, and catalase. Silibinin-induce cell death was blocked by calpain inhibitor and PKC inhibitors. Silibinin-induced PKCδ activation and disruption of △ψm were prevented by the calpain inhibitor. Silibinin induced AIF nuclear translocation and its effect was prevented by calpain inhibitor. Transfection of vector expressing microRNA of AIF prevented the silibinin-induced cell death. Conclusions Silibinin induces apoptotic cell death through a calpain-dependent mechanism involving PKC, ROS, and AIF nuclear translocation in U87MG human glioma cells.

  6. Glioma cell death induced by irradiation or alkylating agent chemotherapy is independent of the intrinsic ceramide pathway.

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    Dorothee Gramatzki

    Full Text Available Resistance to genotoxic therapy is a characteristic feature of glioma cells. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to ceramide and glucosylceramide synthase (GCS catalyzes ceramide metabolism. Increased ceramide levels have been suggested to enhance chemotherapy-induced death of cancer cells.Microarray and clinical data for ASM and GCS in astrocytomas WHO grade II-IV were acquired from the Rembrandt database. Moreover, the glioblastoma database of the Cancer Genome Atlas network (TCGA was used for survival data of glioblastoma patients. For in vitro studies, increases in ceramide levels were achieved either by ASM overexpression or by the GCS inhibitor DL-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP in human glioma cell lines. Combinations of alkylating chemotherapy or irradiation and ASM overexpression, PPMP or exogenous ceramide were applied in parental cells. The anti-glioma effects were investigated by assessing proliferation, metabolic activity, viability and clonogenicity. Finally, viability and clonogenicity were assessed in temozolomide (TMZ-resistant cells upon treatment with PPMP, exogenous ceramide, alkylating chemotherapy, irradiation or their combinations.Interrogations from the Rembrandt and TCGA database showed a better survival of glioblastoma patients with low expression of ASM or GCS. ASM overexpression or PPMP treatment alone led to ceramide accumulation but did not enhance the anti-glioma activity of alkylating chemotherapy or irradiation. PPMP or exogenous ceramide induced acute cytotoxicity in glioblastoma cells. Combined treatments with chemotherapy or irradiation led to additive, but not synergistic effects. Finally, no synergy was found when TMZ-resistant cells were treated with exogenous ceramide or PPMP alone or in combination with TMZ or irradiation.Modulation of intrinsic glioma cell ceramide levels by ASM overexpression or GCS inhibition does not enhance the anti-glioma activity of

  7. Cell death is induced by ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, independently of PPARγ in human glioma cells

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    Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Kim, Hye Ryung; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Jin Mo; Ryu, Somi; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Soo Hyun; Son, Meong Hi; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Sung, Ki Woong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Greater than 30 μM ciglitazone induces cell death in glioma cells. ► Cell death by ciglitazone is independent of PPARγ in glioma cells. ► CGZ induces cell death by the loss of MMP via decreased Akt. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) regulates multiple signaling pathways, and its agonists induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. However, their role in cell death is unclear. In this study, the relationship between ciglitazone (CGZ) and PPARγ in CGZ-induced cell death was examined. At concentrations of greater than 30 μM, CGZ, a synthetic PPARγ agonist, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis in T98G cells. Treatment of T98G cells with less than 30 μM CGZ effectively induced cell death after pretreatment with 30 μM of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, although GW9662 alone did not induce cell death. This cell death was also observed when cells were co-treated with CGZ and GW9662, but was not observed when cells were treated with CGZ prior to GW9662. In cells in which PPARγ was down-regulated cells by siRNA, lower concentrations of CGZ (<30 μM) were sufficient to induce cell death, although higher concentrations of CGZ (⩾30 μM) were required to induce cell death in control T98G cells, indicating that CGZ effectively induces cell death in T98G cells independently of PPARγ. Treatment with GW9662 followed by CGZ resulted in a down-regulation of Akt activity and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in Bid cleavage. These data suggest that CGZ is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death independently of PPARγ in glioma cells, by down-regulating Akt activity and inducing MMP collapse.

  8. Cannabinoid action induces autophagy-mediated cell death through stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cells.

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    Salazar, María; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Salanueva, Iñigo J; Hernández-Tiedra, Sonia; Lorente, Mar; Egia, Ainara; Vázquez, Patricia; Blázquez, Cristina; Torres, Sofía; García, Stephane; Nowak, Jonathan; Fimia, Gian María; Piacentini, Mauro; Cecconi, Francesco; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; González-Feria, Luis; Iovanna, Juan L; Guzmán, Manuel; Boya, Patricia; Velasco, Guillermo

    2009-05-01

    Autophagy can promote cell survival or cell death, but the molecular basis underlying its dual role in cancer remains obscure. Here we demonstrate that delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active component of marijuana, induces human glioma cell death through stimulation of autophagy. Our data indicate that THC induced ceramide accumulation and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) phosphorylation and thereby activated an ER stress response that promoted autophagy via tribbles homolog 3-dependent (TRB3-dependent) inhibition of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) axis. We also showed that autophagy is upstream of apoptosis in cannabinoid-induced human and mouse cancer cell death and that activation of this pathway was necessary for the antitumor action of cannabinoids in vivo. These findings describe a mechanism by which THC can promote the autophagic death of human and mouse cancer cells and provide evidence that cannabinoid administration may be an effective therapeutic strategy for targeting human cancers.

  9. Cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma treatment of C6 glioma cells: effects of reactive oxygen species in the medium produced by the plasma on cell death

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    Wang, Yuyang; Cheng, Cheng; Gao, Peng; Li, Shaopeng; Shen, Jie; Lan, Yan; Yu, Yongqiang; Chu, Paul K.

    2017-02-01

    An atmospheric-pressure air plasma is employed to treat C6 glioma cells in vitro. To elucidate on the mechanism causing cell death and role of reactive species (RS) in the medium produced by the plasma, the concentration of the long-lived RS such as hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and ozone in the plasma-treated liquid (phosphate-buffered saline solution) is measured. When vitamin C is added to the medium as a ROS quencher, the viability of C6 glioma cells after the plasma treatment is different from that without vitamin C. The results demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2, and O3 constitute the main factors for inactivation of C6 glioma cells and the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) may only play an auxiliary role in cell death.

  10. Glutamate/glutamine metabolism coupling between astrocytes and glioma cells: neuroprotection and inhibition of glioma growth.

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    Yao, Pei-Sen; Kang, De-Zhi; Lin, Ru-Ying; Ye, Bing; Wang, Wei; Ye, Zu-Cheng

    2014-07-18

    Glioma glutamate release has been shown to promote the growth of glioma cells and induce neuronal injuries from epilepsy to neuronal death. However, potential counteractions from normal astrocytes against glioma glutamate release have not been fully evaluated. In this study, we investigated the glutamate/glutamine cycling between glioma cells and astrocytes and their impact on neuronal function. Co-cultures of glioma cells with astrocytes (CGA) in direct contact were established under different mix ratio of astrocyte/glioma. Culture medium conditioned in these CGAs were sampled for HPLC measurement, for neuronal ratiometric calcium imaging, and for neuronal survival assay. We found: (1) High levels of glutaminase expression in glioma cells, but not in astrocytes, glutaminase enables glioma cells to release large amount of glutamate in the presence of glutamine. (2) Glutamate levels in CGAs were directly determined by the astrocyte/glioma ratios, indicating a balance between glioma glutamate release and astrocyte glutamate uptake. (3) Culture media from CGAs of higher glioma/astrocyte ratios induced stronger neuronal Ca(2+) response and more severe neuronal death. (4) Co-culturing with astrocytes significantly reduced the growth rate of glioma cells. These results indicate that normal astrocytes in the brain play pivotal roles in glioma growth inhibition and in reducing neuronal injuries from glioma glutamate release. However, as tumor growth, the protective role of astrocytes gradually succumb to glioma cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of reactive oxygen intermediates-dependent programmed cell death in human malignant ex vivo glioma cells and inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor production by taurolidine.

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    Rodak, Roksana; Kubota, Hisashi; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Eugster, Hans-Pietro; Könü, Dilek; Möhler, Hanns; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Frei, Karl

    2005-06-01

    Taurolidine, a derivative of the amino acid taurin, was recently found to display a potent antineoplastic effect both in vitro and in vivo. The authors therefore initiated studies to assess the potential antineoplastic activity of taurolidine in human glioma cell lines and in ex vivo malignant cell cultures. They also studied the mechanisms that induce cell death and the impact of taurolidine on tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Cytotoxicity and clonogenic assays were performed using crystal violet staining. In the cytotoxicity assay 100% of glioma cell lines (eight of eight) and 74% of ex vivo glioma cultures (14 of 19) demonstrated sensitivity to taurolidine, with a mean median effective concentration (EC50) of 51 +/- 28 microg/ml and 56 +/- 23 microg/ml, respectively. Colony formation was inhibited by taurolidine, with a mean EC50 of 7 +/- 3 microg/ml for the cell lines and a mean EC50 of 3.5 +/- 1.7 microg/ml for the ex vivo glioma cultures. On observing this high activity of taurolidine in both assays, the authors decided to evaluate its cell death mechanisms. Fragmentation of DNA, externalization of phosphatidylserine, activation of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential followed by a release of apoptosis-inducing factor, and typical apoptotic features were found after taurolidine treatment. Cell death was preceded by the generation of reactive O2 intermediates, which was abrogated by N-acetylcysteine but not by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone. Moreover, taurolidine also induced suppression of VEGF production on the protein and messenger RNA level, as shown by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Given all these findings, taurolidine may be a promising new agent in the treatment of malignant gliomas; it displays a combination of antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities, inducing tumor cell

  12. Altered expression of long non-coding RNAs during genotoxic stress-induced cell death in human glioma cells.

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    Liu, Qian; Sun, Shanquan; Yu, Wei; Jiang, Jin; Zhuo, Fei; Qiu, Guoping; Xu, Shiye; Jiang, Xuli

    2015-04-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a recently discovered class of non-coding genes, are transcribed throughout the genome. Emerging evidence suggests that lncRNAs may be involved in modulating various aspects of tumor biology, including regulating gene activity in response to external stimuli or DNA damage. No data are available regarding the expression of lncRNAs during genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis and/or necrosis in human glioma cells. In this study, we detected a change in the expression of specific candidate lncRNAs (neat1, GAS5, TUG1, BC200, Malat1, MEG3, MIR155HG, PAR5, and ST7OT1) during DNA damage-induced apoptosis in human glioma cell lines (U251 and U87) using doxorubicin (DOX) and resveratrol (RES). We also detected the expression pattern of these lncRNAs in human glioma cell lines under necrosis induced using an increased dose of DOX. Our results reveal that the lncRNA expression patterns are distinct between genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human glioma cells. The sets of lncRNA expressed during genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis were DNA-damaging agent-specific. Generally, MEG3 and ST7OT1 are up-regulated in both cell lines under apoptosis induced using both agents. The induction of GAS5 is only clearly detected during DOX-induced apoptosis, whereas the up-regulation of neat1 and MIR155HG is only found during RES-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. However, TUG1, BC200 and MIR155HG are down regulated when necrosis is induced using a high dose of DOX in both cell lines. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the distinct regulation of lncRNAs may possibly involve in the process of cellular defense against genotoxic agents.

  13. Cell death is induced by ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, independently of PPARγ in human glioma cells.

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    Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Kim, Hye Ryung; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Jin Mo; Ryu, Somi; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Soo Hyun; Son, Meong Hi; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Sung, Ki Woong

    2012-01-06

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) regulates multiple signaling pathways, and its agonists induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. However, their role in cell death is unclear. In this study, the relationship between ciglitazone (CGZ) and PPARγ in CGZ-induced cell death was examined. At concentrations of greater than 30 μM, CGZ, a synthetic PPARγ agonist, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis in T98G cells. Treatment of T98G cells with less than 30 μM CGZ effectively induced cell death after pretreatment with 30 μM of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, although GW9662 alone did not induce cell death. This cell death was also observed when cells were co-treated with CGZ and GW9662, but was not observed when cells were treated with CGZ prior to GW9662. In cells in which PPARγ was down-regulated cells by siRNA, lower concentrations of CGZ (death, although higher concentrations of CGZ (≥30 μM) were required to induce cell death in control T98G cells, indicating that CGZ effectively induces cell death in T98G cells independently of PPARγ. Treatment with GW9662 followed by CGZ resulted in a down-regulation of Akt activity and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in Bid cleavage. These data suggest that CGZ is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death independently of PPARγ in glioma cells, by down-regulating Akt activity and inducing MMP collapse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Silencing of Hsp27 and Hsp72 in glioma cells as a tool for programmed cell death induction upon temozolomide and quercetin treatment

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    Jakubowicz-Gil, Joanna, E-mail: jjgil@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Comparative Anatomy and Anthropology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin (Poland); Langner, Ewa [Department of Medical Biology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Bądziul, Dorota [Department of Comparative Anatomy and Anthropology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin (Poland); Wertel, Iwona [1st Department of Gynaecology, University School of Medicine, Staszica 16, 20-081 Lublin (Poland); Rzeski, Wojciech [Department of Medical Biology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Department of Immunology and Virology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin (Poland)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether silencing of Hsp27 or Hsp72 expression in glioblastoma multiforme T98G and anaplastic astrocytoma MOGGCCM cells increases their sensitivity to programmed cell death induction upon temozolomide and/or quercetin treatment. Transfection with specific siRNA was performed for the Hsp gene silencing. As revealed by microscopic observation and flow cytometry, the inhibition of Hsp expression was correlated with severe apoptosis induction upon the drug treatment studied. No signs of autophagy were detected. This was correlated with a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased level of cytochrome c in the cytoplasm, and activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9. All these results suggest that the apoptotic signal was mediated by an internal pathway. Additionally, in a large percentage of cells treated with temozolomide, with or without quercetin, granules within the ER system were found, which was accompanied by an increased level of caspase 12 expression. This might be correlated with ER stress. Quercetin and temozolomide also changed the shape of nuclei from circular to “croissant like” in both transfected cell lines. Our results indicate that blocking of Hsp27 and Hsp72 expression makes T98G cells and MOGGCCM cells extremely vulnerable to apoptosis induction upon temozolomide and quercetin treatment and that programmed cell death is initiated by an internal signal. - Highlights: • Hsps gene silencing induced severe apoptosis upon temozolomide–quercetin treatment • Apoptosis in transfected glioma cells was initiated by internal signal • Programmed cell death was preceded by ER stress • Temozolomide–quercetin treatment changed nuclei shape in transfected glioma cells.

  15. Shikonin kills glioma cells through necroptosis mediated by RIP-1.

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    Chuanjiang Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Shikonin was reported to induce necroptosis in leukemia cells, but apoptosis in glioma cell lines. Thus, it is needed to clarify whether shikonin could cause necroptosis in glioma cells and investigate its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Shikonin and rat C6 glioma cell line and Human U87 glioma cell line were used in this study. The cellular viability was assayed by MTT. Flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC and PI double staining was used to analyze cellular death modes. Morphological alterations in C6 glioma cells treated with shikoinin were evaluated by electronic transmission microscopy and fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33342 and PI double staining. The level of reactive oxygen species was assessed by using redox-sensitive dye DCFH-DA. The expressional level of necroptosis associated protein RIP-1 was analyzed by western blotting. RESULTS: Shikonin induced cell death in C6 and U87 glioma cells in a dose and time dependent manner. The cell death in C6 and U87 glioma cells could be inhibited by necroptosis inhibitor necrotatin-1, not by pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Shikonin treated C6 glioma cells presented electron-lucent cytoplasm, loss of plasma membrane integrity and intact nuclear membrane in morphology. The increased ROS level caused by shikonin was attenuated by necrostatin-1 and blocking ROS by anti-oxidant NAC rescued shikonin-induced cell death in both C6 and U87 glioma cells. Moreover, the expressional level of RIP-1 was up-regulated by shikonin in a dose and time dependent manner as well, but NAC suppressed RIP-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the cell death caused by shikonin in C6 and U87 glioma cells was mainly via necroptosis. Moreover, not only RIP-1 pathway, but also oxidative stress participated in the activation of shikonin induced necroptosis.

  16. Alkaloids of fascaplysin are effective conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, inhibiting the proliferation of C6 glioma cells and causing their death in vitro.

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    Bryukhovetskiy, Igor; Lyakhova, Irina; Mischenko, Polina; Milkina, Elena; Zaitsev, Sergei; Khotimchenko, Yuri; Bryukhovetskiy, Andrey; Polevshchikov, Alexander; Kudryavtsev, Igor; Khotimchenko, Maxim; Zhidkov, Maxim

    2017-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an invasive malignant glial brain tumor with a poor prognosis for patients. The primary reasons that lead to the development of treatment resistance are associated with tumor cells infiltrating the brain parenchyma and the specific properties of tumor stem cells. A crucial research area in medical science is the search for effective agents that are able to act on these targets. Fascaplysin alkaloids possess potent antitumor activity. Modern methods for the targeted delivery of drugs reveal extensive possibilities in terms of the clinical use of these compounds. The aim of the present study was to establish effective concentrations of fascaplysin that inhibit the growth and kill the cells of glial tumors, as well as to perform a comparative analysis of fascaplysin's effectiveness in relation to other chemotherapy drugs. C6 glioma cells were utilized as an optimal model of glioblastoma. It was established that fascaplysin at 0.5 µM has a strong cytotoxic effect, which is subsequently replaced by tumor cell death via apoptosis as the length of drug exposure time is increased. Fascaplysin kills glioma cells at a dose higher than 0.5 µM. The efficiency of fascaplysin was observed to significantly exceed that of temozolomide. Therefore, a significant feature of fascaplysin is its ability to inhibit the growth of and kill multipotent tumor cells.

  17. The Inhibition of microRNA-128 on IGF-1-Activating mTOR Signaling Involves in Temozolomide-Induced Glioma Cell Apoptotic Death.

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    Peng-Hsu Chen

    Full Text Available Temozolomide (TMZ, an alkylating agent of the imidazotetrazine series, is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug used in the clinical therapy of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and high-grade primary glioma in adults. Micro (miRNAs, which are small noncoding RNAs, post-transcriptionally regulate gene expressions and are involved in gliomagenesis. However, no studies have reported relationships between TMZ and miRNA gene regulation. We investigated TMZ-mediated miRNA profiles and its molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of glioma cell death. By performing miRNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses, we observed that expression of 248 miRNAs was altered, including five significantly upregulated and 17 significantly downregulated miRNAs, in TMZ-treated U87MG cells. miR-128 expression levels were lower in different glioma cells and strongly associated with poor survival. TMZ treatment significantly upregulated miR-128 expression. TMZ significantly enhanced miR-128-1 promoter activity and transcriptionally regulated miR-128 levels through c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2/c-Jun pathways. The overexpression and knockdown of miR-128 expression significantly affected TMZ-mediated cell viability and apoptosis-related protein expression. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-128 alone enhanced apoptotic death of glioma cells through caspase-3/9 activation, poly(ADP ribose polymerase degradation, reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, and non-protective autophagy formation. Finally, we identified that key members in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling including mTOR, rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR, insulin-like growth factor 1, and PIK3R1, but not PDK1, were direct target genes of miR-128. TMZ inhibited mTOR signaling through miR-128 regulation. These results indicate that miR-128-inhibited mTOR signaling is involved in TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity. Our findings may provide a better understanding

  18. Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase promotes the growth of human glioma cells by activating Notch-Akt signaling

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    Shen, Shang-Hang; Yu, Ning; Liu, Xi-Yao; Tan, Guo-Wei; Wang, Zhan-Xiang, E-mail: md_wzx7189@163.com

    2016-03-18

    Glioma as an aggressive type tumor is rapidly growing and has become one of the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. γ-Glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT) has been shown as a diagnostic marker in various cancers. To reveal whether there is a correlation between GGCT and human glioma, GGCT expression in human glioma tissues and cell lines was first determined. We found that GGCT expression was up-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. Further, we demonstrate that GGCT knockdown inhibits glioma cell T98G and U251 proliferation and colony formation, whereas GGCT overexpression leads to oppose effects. GGCT overexpression promotes the expression of Notch receptors and activates Akt signaling in glioma cells, and Notch-Akt signaling is activated in glioma tissues with high expression of GGCT. Finally, we show that inhibition of Notch-Akt signaling with Notch inhibitor MK-0752 blocks the effects of GGCT on glioma proliferation and colony formation. In conclusion, GGCT plays a critical role in glioma cell proliferation and may be a potential cancer therapeutic target. - Highlights: • GGCT expression is up-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. • GGCT promotes glioma cell growth and colony formation. • GGCT promotes the activation of Notch-Akt signaling in glioma cells and tissues. • Notch inhibition blocks the role of GGCT in human glioma cells.

  19. EZH2 Protects Glioma Stem Cells from Radiation-Induced Cell Death in a MELK/FOXM1-Dependent Manner

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    Kim, Sung-Hak; Joshi, Kaushal; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM)-derived tumorigenic stem-like cells (GSCs) may play a key role in therapy resistance. Previously, we reported that the mitotic kinase MELK binds and phosphorylates the oncogenic transcription factor FOXM1 in GSCs. Here, we demonstrate that the catalytic subunit of Polycomb repr...

  20. EZH2 Protects Glioma Stem Cells from Radiation-Induced Cell Death in a MELK/FOXM1-Dependent Manner

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    Sung-Hak Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM-derived tumorigenic stem-like cells (GSCs may play a key role in therapy resistance. Previously, we reported that the mitotic kinase MELK binds and phosphorylates the oncogenic transcription factor FOXM1 in GSCs. Here, we demonstrate that the catalytic subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 2, EZH2, is targeted by the MELK-FOXM1 complex, which in turn promotes resistance to radiation in GSCs. Clinically, EZH2 and MELK are coexpressed in GBM and significantly induced in postirradiation recurrent tumors whose expression is inversely correlated with patient prognosis. Through a gain-and loss-of-function study, we show that MELK or FOXM1 contributes to GSC radioresistance by regulation of EZH2. We further demonstrate that the MELK-EZH2 axis is evolutionarily conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans. Collectively, these data suggest that the MELK-FOXM1-EZH2 signaling axis is essential for GSC radioresistance and therefore raise the possibility that MELK-FOXM1-driven EZH2 signaling can serve as a therapeutic target in irradiation-resistant GBM tumors.

  1. Ketamine suppresses the proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hidetomo; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Seya, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2017-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine, on the growth of gliomas. To analyze the effects of ketamine treatment, rat C6 glioma cells arising from astrocytes, and RNB cells representing non-malignant astrocytes, were examined. In ketamine-treated C6 cells, the gene expression changes associated with cell proliferation following ketamine treatment were evaluated using a cDNA microarray. A cell proliferation assay was performed to analyze the dose-dependent proliferation of C6 glioma and RNB cells following culture (72 h) with ketamine treatment (0-100 µM). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed following cell incubation with/without ketamine, to confirm if the ketamine-induced cell death of C6 glioma and RNB cells were due to apoptosis. In addition, cell proliferation and TUNEL assays were performed following cell incubations with a selective NMDAR antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-AP5). Analysis of the cDNA microarray indicated that the growth of C6 glioma cells were suppressed by the effects of ketamine. Furthermore, results of the proliferation assay confirmed that ketamine treatment inhibited C6 cell proliferation, most notably at a dose of 30 µM (n=7, 66.4%; Pcells, with a significant effect on the rate of death observed at all tested concentrations (3, 10, 30 and 100 µM). Results of the aforementioned proliferation and TUNEL assay experiments were reproduced when ketamine was replaced with a selective NMDAR antagonist, D-AP5. However, the NMDARantagonist-induced effects were not observed in RNB cell cultures. Although it would be premature to apply the results from the present study to human cases, these results indicated that ketamine is an anesthetic candidate providing potential benefit for glioma resection.

  2. Eckol suppresses maintenance of stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Kyung-Hwan; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Lim, Eun-Jung; An, Sungkwan; Park, Myung-Jin; Hyun, Jin-Won; Suh, Yongjoon; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Su-Jae

    2011-01-01

    A subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell properties is responsible for tumor maintenance and progression, and may contribute to resistance to anticancer treatments. Thus, compounds that target cancer stem-like cells could be usefully applied to destroy cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of Eckol, a phlorotannin compound, on stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells. To determine whether Eckol targets glioma stem-like cells, we examined whether Eckol treatment could change the expression levels of glioma stem-like cell markers and self-renewal-related proteins as well as the sphere forming ability, and the sensitivity to anticancer treatments. Alterations in the malignant properties of sphere-derived cells by Eckol were also investigated by soft-agar colony forming assay, by xenograft assay in nude mice, and by cell invasion assay. Treatment of sphere-forming glioma cells with Eckol effectively decreased the sphere formation as well as the CD133 + cell population. Eckol treatment suppressed expression of the glioma stem-like cell markers and the self-renewal-related proteins without cell death. Moreover, treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol significantly attenuated anchorage-independent growth on soft agar and tumor formation in xenograft mice. Importantly, Eckol treatment effectively reduced the resistance of glioma stem-like cells to ionizing radiation and temozolomide. Treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol markedly blocked both phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and Ras-Raf-1-Erk signaling pathways. These results indicate that the natural phlorotannin Eckol suppresses stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells, and thereby makes glioma stem-like cells more sensitive to anticancer treatments, providing novel therapeutic strategies targeting specifically cancer stem-like cells.

  3. Activation of glioma cells generates immune tolerant NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bo; Wu, Wei; Wei, Xiaowei; Li, Yang; Ren, Gang; Fan, Wenhai

    2014-12-12

    Therapeutic outcomes of glioma are currently not encouraging. Tumor tolerance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of glioma. It is reported that micro RNAs (miR) are associated with tumor development. This study aims to investigate the role of miR-92a in the development of tolerant natural killer T (NKT) cells. In this study, U87 cells (a human glioma cell line) and primary glioma cells were prepared. The assessment of miR-92a was performed by real time RT-PCR. The expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-6 in NKT cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. Results showed that abundant IL-6(+) IL-10(+) NKT cells were detected in glioma tissue. Cultures of glioma cells and NKT cells induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in NKT cells. Glioma cells expressed miR-92a; the latter played a critical role in the induction of IL-6 and IL-10 expression in NKT cells. The expression of the antitumor molecules, including perforin, Fas ligand, and interferon-γ, was significantly attenuated compared with control NKT cells. The IL-6(+) IL-10(+) NKT cells showed less capability in the induction of apoptosis in glioma cells, but showed the immune suppressor functions on CD8(+) T cell activities. We conclude that glioma-derived miR-92a induces IL-6(+) IL-10(+) NKT cells; this fraction of NKT cells can suppress cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-07-26

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways.

  5. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller-Klieser Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. Methods To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. Results The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2, 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1 and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1 were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. Conclusion In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic

  6. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways

  7. Selective uptake of boronophenylalanine by glioma stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Zhou, Youxin; Xie, Xueshun; Chen, Guilin; Li, Bin; Wei, Yongxin; Chen, Jinming; Huang, Qiang; Du, Ziwei

    2012-01-01

    The success of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the amount of boron in cells and the tumor/blood and tumor/(normal tissue) boron concentration ratios. For the first time, measurements of boron uptake in both stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells were performed along with measurements of boron biodistribution in suitable animal models. In glioma stem/progenitor cells, the selective accumulation of boronophenylalanine (BPA) was lower, and retention of boron after BPA removal was longer than in differentiated glioma cells in vitro. However, boron biodistribution was not statistically significantly different in mice with xenografts. - Highlights: ► Uptake of BPA was analyzed in stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells. ► Selective accumulation of BPA was lower in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Retention of boron after BPA removal was longer in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Boron biodistribution was not statistically different in mice with xenografts.

  8. Growth inhibition and chemosensitization of exogenous nitric oxide released from NONOates in glioma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyerbrock, Astrid; Baumer, Brunhilde; Papazoglou, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) from NO donors has cytotoxic, chemosensitizing, and radiosensitizing effects, and increases vascular permeability and blood flow in tumors. Yet little is known about whether these cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects can be observed in glioma cells at doses that alter tumor physiological characteristics in vivo and whether these effects are tumor selective. The effect of NO released from proline NONOate, diethylamine NONOate, spermine NONOate, and sodium nitrite on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and chemosensitivity to carboplatin of cultured glioma cells was studied in C6, U87 glioma cells, human glioblastoma cells, and human astrocytes and fibroblasts. Although proline NONOate failed to induce cell death, the other NO donors induced growth arrest when present in high concentrations (10(-2) M) in all cell lines. Chemosensitization was observed after concomitant incubation with spermine NONOate and carboplatin in C6 and human glioblastoma cells. There is strong evidence that cell death occurs primarily by necrosis and to a lesser degree by apoptosis. The NO doses, which altered tumor physiology in vivo, were not cytotoxic, indicating that NO alters vascular permeability and cell viability in vivo by different mechanisms. The authors found that NO-generating agents at high concentrations are potent growth inhibitors and might also be useful as chemosensitizers in glioma cells. These data corroborate the theory that the use of NOgenerating agents may play a role in the multimodal treatment of malignant gliomas but that the NO release must be targeted more specifically to tumor cells to improve selectivity and efficacy.

  9. Cord blood stem cell-mediated induction of apoptosis in glioma downregulates X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramesh Dasari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein is one of the most important members of the apoptosis inhibitor family. XIAP is upregulated in various malignancies, including human glioblastoma. It promotes invasion, metastasis, growth and survival of malignant cells. We hypothesized that downregulation of XIAP by human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCBSC in glioma cells would cause them to undergo apoptotic death.We observed the effect of hUCBSC on two malignant glioma cell lines (SNB19 and U251 and two glioma xenograft cell lines (4910 and 5310. In co-cultures of glioma cells with hUCBSC, proliferation of glioma cells was significantly inhibited. This is associated with increased cytotoxicity of glioma cells, which led to glioma cell death. Stem cells induced apoptosis in glioma cells, which was evaluated by TUNEL assay, FACS analyses and immunoblotting. The induction of apoptosis is associated with inhibition of XIAP in co-cultures of hUCBSC. Similar results were obtained by the treatment of glioma cells with shRNA to downregulate XIAP (siXIAP. Downregulation of XIAP resulted in activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 to trigger apoptosis in glioma cells. Apoptosis is characterized by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and upregulation of mitochondrial apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad. Cell death of glioma cells was marked by downregulation of Akt and phospho-Akt molecules. We observed similar results under in vivo conditions in U251- and 5310-injected nude mice brains, which were treated with hUCBSC. Under in vivo conditions, Smac/DIABLO was found to be colocalized in the nucleus, showing that hUCBSC induced apoptosis is mediated by inhibition of XIAP and activation of Smac/DIABLO.Our results indicate that downregulation of XIAP by hUCBSC treatment induces apoptosis, which led to the death of the glioma cells and xenograft cells. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of XIAP and hUCBSC to treat malignant

  10. Silencing Nrf2 impairs glioma cell proliferation via AMPK-activated mTOR inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Yue [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Handong, E-mail: njhdwang@hotmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Qiang [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Ding, Hui [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Southern Medical University (Guangzhou), 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Wu, Heming [Department of Neurosurgery, Nanjing Jingdu Hospital, No. 34, Biao 34, Yanggongjing Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Pan, Hao [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2016-01-15

    Gliomas are the leading cause of death among adults with primary brain malignancies. Treatment for malignant gliomas remains limited, and targeted therapies have been incompletely explored. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription regulator for antioxidant and detoxification enzymes, is abundantly expressed in cancer cells. In this study, the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in cancer cell proliferation was investigated in multiple glioma cell lines. We first evaluated the expression patterns of Nrf2 in four glioma cell lines and found all four cell lines expressed Nrf2, but the highest level was observed in U251 cells. We further evaluated the biological functions of Nrf2 in U251 glioma cell proliferation by specific inhibition of Nrf2 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). We found that Nrf2 depletion inhibited glioma cell proliferation. Nrf2 depletion also decreased colony formation in U251 cells stably expressing Nrf2 shRNA compared to scrambled control shRNA. Moreover, suppression of Nrf2 expression could lead to ATP depletion (with concomitant rise in AMP/ATP ratio) and consequently to AMPK-activated mTOR inhibition. Finally, activation of adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) by treated with phenformin, an AMPK agonist, can mimic the inhibitory effect of Nrf2 knockdown in U251 cells. In conclusion, our findings will shed light to the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in regulating glioma proliferation via ATP-depletion-induced AMPK activation and consequent mTOR inhibition, a novel insight into our understanding the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in glioma pathoetiology. To our knowledge, this is also the first report to provide a rationale for the implication of cross-linking between Nrf2 and mTOR signaling.

  11. Gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, M; Weller, M

    2016-01-01

    Key Features •Synthesizes widely dispersed information on the management of gliomas into one comprehensive resource •Chapters written by international authors who are preeminent researchers in the field •Fully explores the therapeutic options for patient care, from chemotherapy to radiotherapy to personalized approaches Description Researchers’ knowledge of gliomas continues to advance rapidly at both the basic and translational levels, and Gliomas provides a thorough overview ...

  12. Identification of molecular pathways facilitating glioma cell invasion in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Nevo

    Full Text Available Gliomas are mostly incurable secondary to their diffuse infiltrative nature. Thus, specific therapeutic targeting of invasive glioma cells is an attractive concept. As cells exit the tumor mass and infiltrate brain parenchyma, they closely interact with a changing micro-environmental landscape that sustains tumor cell invasion. In this study, we used a unique microarray profiling approach on a human glioma stem cell (GSC xenograft model to explore gene expression changes in situ in Invading Glioma Cells (IGCs compared to tumor core, as well as changes in host cells residing within the infiltrated microenvironment relative to the unaffected cortex. IGCs were found to have reduced expression of genes within the extracellular matrix compartment, and genes involved in cell adhesion, cell polarity and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT processes. The infiltrated microenvironment showed activation of wound repair and tissue remodeling networks. We confirmed by protein analysis the downregulation of EMT and polarity related genes such as CD44 and PARD3 in IGCs, and EFNB3, a tissue-remodeling agent enriched at the infiltrated microenvironment. OLIG2, a proliferation regulator and glioma progenitor cell marker upregulated in IGCs was found to function in enhancing migration and stemness of GSCs. Overall, our results unveiled a more comprehensive picture of the complex and dynamic cell autonomous and tumor-host interactive pathways of glioma invasion than has been previously demonstrated. This suggests targeting of multiple pathways at the junction of invading tumor and microenvironment as a viable option for glioma therapy.

  13. Molecular and Genetic Determinants of Glioma Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Masui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A diffusely invasive nature is a major obstacle in treating a malignant brain tumor, “diffuse glioma”, which prevents neurooncologists from surgically removing the tumor cells even in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. Recently updated classification of diffuse gliomas based on distinct genetic and epigenetic features has culminated in a multilayered diagnostic approach to combine histologic phenotypes and molecular genotypes in an integrated diagnosis. However, it is still a work in progress to decipher how the genetic aberrations contribute to the aggressive nature of gliomas including their highly invasive capacity. Here we depict a set of recent discoveries involving molecular genetic determinants of the infiltrating nature of glioma cells, especially focusing on genetic mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase pathways and metabolic reprogramming downstream of common cancer mutations. The specific biology of glioma cell invasion provides an opportunity to explore the genotype-phenotype correlation in cancer and develop novel glioma-specific therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease.

  14. Radiation effects on human glia and glioma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.

    1983-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of human glia and glioma cells has been studied in vitro, and a new cloning method has been developed to overcome the difficulties due to the very low cloning efficiency of these cells. The cells were confined to small palladium areas surrounded by agarose, which increased the cell density, but kept the clones separated. Using this method, the glia cells were found to be very sensitive to gamma irradiation (D 0 =1.0-1.5 Gy and n=1) in comparision with the glioma cells (D 0 =1.5-2.5 Gy and n=3.5). The induction and repair of DNA strand breaks were studied with two DNA unwinding techniques. No differences between the two cell-lines were detected when induction and fast repair were studied with the single-labelling method, while the glioma cells showed less unrepaired DNA strand breaks than the glia cells after 1, 2 and 3 hours, when the double-labelling method was used. Detachment, attachment and growth kinetics were studied using the palladium-agarose cloning method. All of the glioma cell-lines studied, detached and attached themselves at rates higher than the normal diploid glia cell-lines. All of the cell-lines contained clones with different properties. Some clones were rapidly growing, others maintained a nearly constant number of cells or even decreased. The effects of chronic hypoxia were tested in a few experiments. Low oxygen tension in the culture medium reduced the rate of growth and the DNA synthesis of the glioma cells. The present study indicates that cultured human glioma cells are less radiosensitive than cultured glia cells. The palladium-agarose technique, enable studying growth kinetics detachment, attachment and radiosensitivity in a quantitative manner for cells with low cloning efficiency. (author)

  15. Programmed cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  16. MicroRNA-195 inhibits the proliferation of human glioma cells by directly targeting cyclin D1 and cyclin E1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hui

    Full Text Available Glioma proliferation is a multistep process during which a sequence of genetic and epigenetic alterations randomly occur to affect the genes controlling cell proliferation, cell death and genetic stability. microRNAs are emerging as important epigenetic modulators of multiple target genes, leading to abnormal cellular signaling involving cellular proliferation in cancers.In the present study, we found that expression of miR-195 was markedly downregulated in glioma cell lines and human primary glioma tissues, compared to normal human astrocytes and matched non-tumor associated tissues. Upregulation of miR-195 dramatically reduced the proliferation of glioma cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ectopic expression of miR-195 significantly decreased the percentage of S phase cells and increased the percentage of G1/G0 phase cells. Overexpression of miR-195 dramatically reduced the anchorage-independent growth ability of glioma cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-195 downregulated the levels of phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in glioma cells. Conversely, inhibition of miR-195 promoted cell proliferation, increased the percentage of S phase cells, reduced the percentage of G1/G0 phase cells, enhanced anchorage-independent growth ability, upregulated the phosphorylation of pRb and PCNA in glioma cells. Moreover, we show that miR-195 inhibited glioma cell proliferation by downregulating expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1, via directly targeting the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 mRNA. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-195 plays an important role to inhibit the proliferation of glioma cells, and present a novel mechanism for direct miRNA-mediated suppression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 in glioma.

  17. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Rie [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Nakano, Ichiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1824 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Seimiya, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hseimiya@jfcr.or.jp [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation in vivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. - Highlights: • Non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs) lose telomerase and eventually become senescent. • Senescent NSGCs secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, such as VEGFs, IL-6, and IL-8. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the growth of brain microvascular endothelial cells. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the tumorigenic potential of glioma stem cells in vivo.

  18. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Rie; Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro; Nakano, Ichiro; Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation in vivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. - Highlights: • Non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs) lose telomerase and eventually become senescent. • Senescent NSGCs secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, such as VEGFs, IL-6, and IL-8. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the growth of brain microvascular endothelial cells. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the tumorigenic potential of glioma stem cells in vivo.

  19. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  20. Treatment Resistance Mechanisms of Malignant Glioma Tumor Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, Philip G.R.; Shen, Michael J.; Park, John K.

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly lethal because of their resistance to conventional treatments. Recent evidence suggests that a minor subpopulation of cells with stem cell properties reside within these tumors. These tumor stem cells are more resistant to radiation and chemotherapies than their counterpart differentiated tumor cells and may underlie the persistence and recurrence of tumors following treatment. The various mechanisms by which tumor stem cells avoid or repair the damaging effects of cancer therapies are discussed

  1. Pediatric glioma stem cells: biologic strategies for oncolytic HSV virotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K Friedman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available While glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common adult malignant brain tumor, GBMs in childhood represent less than 10% of pediatric malignant brain tumors and are phenotypically and molecularly distinct from adult GBMs. Similar to adult patients, outcomes for children with high-grade gliomas (HGGs remain poor. Furthermore, the significant morbidity and mortality yielded by pediatric GBM is compounded by neurotoxicity for the developing brain caused by current therapies. Poor outcomes have been attributed to a subpopulation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant cells, termed ‘glioma stem cells’ (GSCs, ‘glioma progenitor cells’, or ‘glioma-initiating cells', which have the ability to initiate and maintain the tumor and to repopulate the recurring tumor after conventional therapy. Future innovative therapies for pediatric HGGs must be able to eradicate these therapy-resistant GSCs. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses, genetically engineered to be safe for normal cells and to express diverse foreign anti-tumor therapeutic genes, have been demonstrated in preclinical studies to infect and kill GSCs and tumor cells equally while sparing normal brain cells. In this review, we discuss the unique aspects of pediatric GSCs, including markers to identify them, the microenvironment they reside in, signaling pathways that regulate them, mechanisms of cellular resistance, and approaches to target GSCs, with a focus on the promising therapeutic, genetically engineered oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV.

  2. Fenofibrate dose not protect glioma cells from irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Jae Lim; Kim, Won Dong; Park, Woo Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Fenofibrate(FF) is a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and used clinically as a hypolipidemic drug. FF has been reported to have a radioprotective effect of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus 1) and inhibit radiation-induced microglial pro-inflammatory response 2). However, if FF also protect tumor cells, it can not be used clinically during radiotherapy. Thus, we're interested in whether FF has an radioprotective effect of brain tumor cells or not Although the radiosensitive G0/G1 phase cells were increased, radiosensitization by FF was not observed in three human glioma cells. This may be due to counterbalance of radiosensitizing and radioprotecting proteins increased by FF. Taken together, FF neither radiosensitize nor radioprotect glioma cells, so it can be used to protect normal neural cells from radiation damage

  3. Autophagy contributes to gefitinib-induced glioma cell growth inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Cheng-Yi [Department of Surgery, Fong-Yuan Hospital, Taichung 420, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 406, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Yu-Hsiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ou, Yen-Chuan; Li, Jian-Ri [Division of Urology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Cheng [Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Financial and Computational Mathematics, Providence University, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Pan, Pin-Ho [Department of Pediatrics, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung 435, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Ying [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsuan-Yi [Department of Surgery, Fong-Yuan Hospital, Taichung 420, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Jung, E-mail: cjchen@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Nursing, HungKuang University, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-10

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including gefitinib, have been evaluated in patients with malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma are incompletely understood. In the present study, the cytostatic potential of gefitinib was demonstrated by the inhibition of glioma cell growth, long-term clonogenic survival, and xenograft tumor growth. The cytostatic consequences were accompanied by autophagy, as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine staining of acidic vesicle formation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), degradation of p62, punctate pattern of GFP-LC3, and conversion of GFP-LC3 to cleaved-GFP. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenosine and chloroquine and genetic silencing of LC3 or Beclin 1 attenuated gefitinib-induced growth inhibition. Gefitinib-induced autophagy was not accompanied by the disruption of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Instead, the activation of liver kinase-B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling correlated well with the induction of autophagy and growth inhibition caused by gefitinib. Silencing of AMPK suppressed gefitinib-induced autophagy and growth inhibition. The crucial role of AMPK activation in inducing glioma autophagy and growth inhibition was further supported by the actions of AMP mimetic AICAR. Gefitinib was shown to be capable of reducing the proliferation of glioma cells, presumably by autophagic mechanisms involving AMPK activation. - Highlights: • Gefitinib causes cytotoxic and cytostatic effect on glioma. • Gefitinib induces autophagy. • Gefitinib causes cytostatic effect through autophagy. • Gefitinib induces autophagy involving AMPK.

  4. Astrocytes protect glioma cells from chemotherapy and upregulate survival genes via gap junctional communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingtang; Liu, Zhao; Ling, Feng; Xu, Geng

    2016-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor. Using current standard treatment regimens, the prognosis of patients with gliomas remains poor, which is predominantly due to the resistance of glioma cells to chemotherapy. The organ microenvironment has been implicated in the pathogenesis and survival of tumor cells. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that astrocytes (the housekeeping cells of the brain microenvironment) may protect glioma cells from chemotherapy and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Immunofluorescent and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that glioma cells were surrounded and infiltrated by activated astrocytes. In vitro co-culture of glioma cells with astrocytes significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects on glioma cells caused by various chemotherapeutic agents, as demonstrated by fluorescein isothiocyanate-propidium iodide flow cytometry. Transwell experiments indicated that this protective effect was dependent on physical contact and the gap junctional communication (GJC) between astrocytes and glioma cells. Microarray expression profiling further revealed that astrocytes upregulated the expression levels of various critical survival genes in the glioma cells via GJC. The results of the present study indicated that the organ microenvironment may affect the biological behavior of tumor cells and suggest a novel mechanism of resistance in glioma cells, which may be of therapeutic relevance clinically.

  5. Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functioning well. There are three types of normal glial cells that can produce tumors. An astrocyte will produce ... which it originates. Description Three types of normal glial cells can produce tumors—astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells. ...

  6. Efficacy of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG in human glioma cell lines and tumorigenic glioma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Claire Marie-Elisabeth; Weatherbee, Jessica Leigh; Kesari, Santosh; Winters, Susan Elizabeth; Barnes, Jessica; Dellagatta, Jamie; Ramakrishna, Naren Raj; Stiles, Charles Dean; Kung, Andrew Li-Jen; Kieran, Mark W; Wen, Patrick Yung Chih

    2009-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) arises from genetic and signaling abnormalities in components of signal transduction pathways involved in proliferation, survival, and the cell cycle axis. Studies to date with single-agent targeted molecular therapy have revealed only modest effects in attenuating the growth of these tumors, suggesting that targeting multiple aberrant pathways may be more beneficial. Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that is involved in the conformational maturation of a defined group of client proteins, many of which are deregulated in GBM. 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is a well-characterized HSP90 inhibitor that should be able to target many of the aberrant signal transduction pathways in GBM. We assessed the ability of 17-AAG to inhibit the growth of glioma cell lines and glioma stem cells both in vitro and in vivo and assessed its ability to synergize with radiation and/or temozolomide, the standard therapies for GBM. Our results reveal that 17-AAG is able to inhibit the growth of both human glioma cell lines and glioma stem cells in vitro and is able to target the appropriate proteins within these cells. In addition, 17-AAG can inhibit the growth of intracranial tumors and can synergize with radiation both in tissue culture and in intracranial tumors. This compound was not found to synergize with temozolomide in any of our models of gliomas. Our results suggest that HSP90 inhibitors like 17-AAG may have therapeutic potential in GBM, either as a single agent or in combination with radiation.

  7. LuIII parvovirus selectively and efficiently targets, replicates in, and kills human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglino, Justin C; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2012-07-01

    Because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. To identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI). MVMi, MVMc, MVM-G17, tumor virus X (TVX), canine parvovirus (CPV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), rat parvovirus 1A (RPV1A), and H-3 were relatively ineffective. The four viruses with the greatest oncolytic activity, LuIII, H-1, MVMp, and MVM-G52, were tested for the ability, at a low MOI, to progressively infect the culture over time, causing cell death at a rate higher than that of cell proliferation. LuIII alone was effective in all five human glioblastomas tested. H-1 progressively infected only two of five; MVMp and MVM-G52 were ineffective in all five. To investigate the underlying mechanism of LuIII's phenotype, we used recombinant parvoviruses with the LuIII capsid replacing the MVMp capsid or with molecular alteration of the P4 promoter. The LuIII capsid enhanced efficient replication and oncolysis in MO59J gliomas cells; other gliomas tested required the entire LuIII genome to exhibit enhanced infection. LuIII selectively infected glioma cells over normal glial cells in vitro. In mouse models, human glioblastoma xenografts were selectively infected by LuIII when administered intratumorally; LuIII reduced tumor growth by 75%. LuIII also had the capacity to selectively infect subcutaneous or intracranial gliomas after intravenous inoculation. Intravenous or intracranial LuIII caused no adverse effects. Intracranial LuIII caused no infection of mature mouse neurons or glia in vivo but showed a modest infection of developing neurons.

  8. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPP-IV, EC 3.4.14.5] takes part in the metabolism of biologically active peptides participating in the regulation of growth and transformation of glial cells. However, the knowledge on the DPP-IV expression in human glial and glioma cells is still very limited. In this study, using histochemical and biochemical techniques, the DPP-IV activity was demonstrated in two commercially available human glioma cell lines of different transformation degree, as represented by U373 astrocytoma (Grade III and U87 glioblastoma multiforme (Grade IV lines. Higher total activity of the enzyme, as well as its preferential localisation in the plasma membrane, was observed in U87 cells. Compared to U373 population, U87 cells were morphologically more pleiomorphic, they were cycling at lower rate and expressing less Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein. The data revealed positive correlation between the degree of transformation of cells and activity of DPP-IV. Great difference in expression of this enzyme, together with the phenotypic differences of cells, makes these lines a suitable standard model for further 57 studies of function of this enzyme in human glioma cells.

  9. Sensitivity to cisplatin in primary cell lines derived from human glioma correlates with levels of EGR-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponti Donatella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less than 30% of malignant gliomas respond to adjuvant chemotherapy. Here, we have asked whether variations in the constitutive expression of early-growth response factor 1 (EGR-1 predicted acute cytotoxicity and clonogenic cell death in vitro, induced by six different chemotherapics. Materials and methods Cytotoxicity assays were performed on cells derived from fresh tumor explants of 18 human cases of malignant glioma. In addition to EGR-1, tumor cultures were investigated for genetic alterations and the expression of cancer regulating factors, related to the p53 pathway. Results We found that sensitivity to cisplatin correlates significantly with levels of EGR-1 expression in tumors with wild-type p53/INK4a/p16 status. Conclusion Increased knowledge of the mechanisms regulating EGR-1 expression in wild-type p53/INK4a/p16 cases of glioma may help in the design of new chemotherapeutic strategies for these tumors.

  10. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedo, A.; Malík, Radek; Drbal, K.; Lisá, Věra; Vlašicová, K.; Mareš, Vladislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2000), s. 57-63 ISSN 1121-760X Grant - others:GA UK(XC) 58/1999/C; GA UK(XC) 206019-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : dipeptidyl peptidase IV * glioma cell lines * cell proliferation and differentiation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.039, year: 2000

  11. Programmed cell death: Superman meets Dr Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Pascal; Silke, John

    2003-12-01

    This year's Cold Spring Harbor meeting on programmed cell death (September 17-21, 2003), organised by Craig Thompson and Junying Yuan, was proof that the 'golden age' of research in this field is far from over. There was a flurry of fascinating insights into the regulation of diverse apoptotic pathways and unexpected non-apoptotic roles for some of the key apoptotic regulators and effectors. In addition to their role in cell death, components of the apoptotic molecular machinery are now known to also function in a variety of essential cellular processes, such as regulating glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation.

  12. Investigation of adhesion and mechanical properties of human glioma cells by single cell force spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Laura; Bourkoula, Eugenia; Migliorini, Elisa; Palma, Anita; Pucer, Anja; Skrap, Miran; Scoles, Giacinto; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Cesselli, Daniela; Lazzarino, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Active cell migration and invasion is a peculiar feature of glioma that makes this tumor able to rapidly infiltrate into the surrounding brain tissue. In our recent work, we identified a novel class of glioma-associated-stem cells (defined as GASC for high-grade glioma--HG--and Gasc for low-grade glioma--LG) that, although not tumorigenic, act supporting the biological aggressiveness of glioma-initiating stem cells (defined as GSC for HG and Gsc for LG) favoring also their motility. Migrating cancer cells undergo considerable molecular and cellular changes by remodeling their cytoskeleton and cell interactions with surrounding environment. To get a better understanding about the role of the glioma-associated-stem cells in tumor progression, cell deformability and interactions between glioma-initiating stem cells and glioma-associated-stem cells were investigated. Adhesion of HG/LG-cancer cells on HG/LG-glioma-associated stem cells was studied by time-lapse microscopy, while cell deformability and cell-cell adhesion strengths were quantified by indentation measurements by atomic force microscopy and single cell force spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that for both HG and LG glioma, cancer-initiating-stem cells are softer than glioma-associated-stem cells, in agreement with their neoplastic features. The adhesion strength of GSC on GASC appears to be significantly lower than that observed for Gsc on Gasc. Whereas, GSC spread and firmly adhere on Gasc with an adhesion strength increased as compared to that obtained on GASC. These findings highlight that the grade of glioma-associated-stem cells plays an important role in modulating cancer cell adhesion, which could affect glioma cell migration, invasion and thus cancer aggressiveness. Moreover this work provides evidence about the importance of investigating cell adhesion and elasticity for new developments in disease diagnostics and therapeutics.

  13. Anesthetic pentobarbital inhibits proliferation and migration of malignant glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Li, Yan; Huang, Yijun; Qiu, Pengxin; Shu, Minfeng; Zhu, Wenbo; Ou, Yanqiu; Yan, Guangmei

    2009-09-08

    Malignant gliomas are common and aggressive brain tumors in adults. The rapid proliferation and diffuse brain migration are main obstacles to successful treatment. Here we show that pentobarbital, a central depressant introduced clinically a century ago, is capable of suppressing proliferation and migration of C6 malignant glioma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Pentobarbital also leads to a G1 phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by suppressed G1 cell cycle regulatory proteins Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, CDK2 and phosphorylated Rb. In addition, noticeable morphological changes and interrupted alpha-tubulin microtubule assembly are induced by pentobarbital exposure. Intracellular signal pathways involved in the effect of pentobarbital is concerned with inactivation of ERK, c-Jun and Akt. Together, these findings suggest anti-proliferation and anti-migration effects of pentobarbital on malignant gliomas, most likely by arresting cell cycle and interfering microtubule. ERK, c-Jun MAPK and PI3K/Akt are possible signaling pathways involved.

  14. Upregulation of B23 promotes tumor cell proliferation and predicts poor prognosis in glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianguo [Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 1055 Sanxiang Road, Suzhou, 215004, Jiangsu Province (China); Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Jie; Yang, Liu; Yan, Yaohua; Shi, Wei; Shi, Jinlong; Huang, Qingfeng; Chen, Jian [Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Lan, Qing, E-mail: lanqingsj@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 1055 Sanxiang Road, Suzhou, 215004, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-10-09

    B23 (also known as Nucleophosmin, NPM, numatrin or NO38) is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein belonging to the nucleoplasmin family of chaperones. In this study we intended to investigate the clinical significance of B23 expression in human glioma and its biological function in glioma cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that B23 was overexpressed in glioma tissues and glioma cell lines. In addition, the expression level of B23 was positively correlated with glioma pathological grade and Ki-67 expression. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that a higher B23 expression in patients with glioma was associated with a poorer prognosis. In vitro, after the release of glioma cell lines from serum starvation, the expression of B23 was upregulated, as well as PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) and cyclin A. In addition, knockdown of B23 by small interfering RNA transfection diminished the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and arrested cell growth at G1 phase. Taken together, our results implied that B23 could be a candidate prognostic biomarker as well as a potential therapeutical target of glioma. - Highlights: • B23 expression increased as the malignant degree of glioma increased, which was consistent with Ki-67 expression. • High expression of B23 could be a strong determinant of poor prognosis in glioma. • B23 may be involved in the proliferation of glioma in a cell-cycle-dependent pathway. • Knockdown of B23 expression by siRNA could affect the progression of glioma. • B23 may be a potential prognosis biomarker and a possible therapeutic target for glioma.

  15. Histamine-stimulated expression of insulin-like growth factors in human glioma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Ven, L. T.; Van Buul-Offers, S. C.; Gloudemans, T.; Roholl, P. J.; Sussenbach, J. S.; Den Otter, W.

    1997-01-01

    Glioma tumour growth is associated with the expression of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGFs) and of both type I and type II IGF receptors. It has also been shown that IGFs can stimulate proliferation of cultured glioma cells. We previously reported that histamine too can stimulate the growth of glioma cells in vitro. In this report, we study whether the histamine-induced growth of G47 glioma cells is mediated by the IGFs. We found that histamine stimulates the expression of both IGF-...

  16. Forkhead Box A2 (FOXA2) Inhibits Invasion and Tumorigenesis in Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bingqian; Liang, Huimin; Gao, Ming; Li, Zhenjiang; Xu, Chenyang; Fan, Shaokang; Chang, Na

    2017-05-24

    The forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) is the key transcriptional factor that plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, until now the expression pattern and role of FOXA2 in glioma have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of FOXA2 in glioma and investigate its role in glioma cells. Our data showed that FOXA2 was significantly downregulated in human glioma cell lines. Forced expression of FOXA2 suppressed the ability of glioma cells to proliferate, migrate, and invade and influenced the expression level of EMT-associated proteins. In addition, forced expression of FOXA2 attenuated tumor growth of glioma in a nude mouse xenograft model. Mechanistically, we disclosed that forced expression of FOXA2 greatly downregulated the expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc in glioma cells. Taken together, these results show that FOXA2 may play an important role in proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in glioma cells. Thus, FOXA2 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma.

  17. Glioma cell fate decisions mediated by Dll1-Jag1-Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaofei; Wang, Ruiqi

    2017-09-21

    The Notch family of proteins plays a vital role in determining cell fates, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been shown that Notch1 and its ligands, Dll1 and Jag1, are overexpressed in many glioma cell lines and primary human gliomas. The roles of Notch1 in some cancers have been firmly established, and recent data implicate that it plays important roles in glioma cell fate decisions. This paper focuses on devising a specific theoretical framework that incorporates Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway to explore their functional roles of these proteins in glioma cells in the tumorigenesis and progression of human gliomas, and to study how glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells. Based on the bifurcation analysis of the model, we show that how the glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition mediated by the Fringe protein, providing insight into the design and control principles of the Notch signaling system and the gliomas. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells based on intertwined dynamics with cis-inhibition and trans-activation involving the proteins Notch1, Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe. The results show that how the glioma cell fate transitions are performed by the Notch1 signaling. Transition from grade III ∼ IV with significantly high Notch1 to grade I ∼ II with high Notch1, and then to normal cells by repressing the Fringe levels or decreasing the strength of enhancement induced by Fringe.

  18. The Role of Fascin in the Migration and Invasiveness of Malignant Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hyun Hwang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain tumor, and its ability to invade the surrounding brain parenchyma is a leading cause of tumor recurrence and treatment failure. Whereas the molecular mechanisms of glioma invasion are incompletely understood, there is growing evidence that cytoskeletal-matrix interactions contribute to this process. Fascin, an actin-bundling protein, induces parallel actin bundles in cell protrusions and increases cell motility in multiple human malignancies. The role of fascin in glioma invasion remains unclear. We demonstrate that fascin is expressed in a panel of human malignant glioma cell lines, and downregulation of fascin expression in glioma cell lines by small interfering RNA (siRNA is associated with decreased cellular attachment to extracellular matrix (ECM and reduced migration. Using immunofluorescence analysis, we show that fascin depletion results in a reduced number of filopodia as well as altered glioma cell shape. In vitro invasiveness of U251, U87, and SNB19 glioma cells was inhibited by fascin siRNA treatment by 52.2%, 40.3%, and 23.8% respectively. Finally, we show a decreased invasiveness of U251-GFP cells by fascin knockdown in an ex vivo rat brain slice model system. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for fascin in glioma cell morphology, motility, and invasiveness.

  19. MiR-661 inhibits glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting hTERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen, E-mail: lizhen7111@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110004 (China); Liu, Yun-hui; Diao, Hong-yu [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110004 (China); Ma, Jun [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110001 (China); Yao, Yi-long [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110004 (China)

    2015-12-25

    In this study, we analyzed the functional role of miR-661 in glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We found that overexpression of miR-661 obviously suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells. MiRNA target prediction algorithms implied that hTERT is a candidate target gene for miR-661. A fluorescent reporter assay confirmed that miR-661 could lead to hTERT gene silencing by recognizing and specifically binding to the predicted site of the hTERT mRNA 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) specifically. Furthermore, hTERT knockdown significantly decreased the growth and viability of glioma cells. These results indicate that miR-661 can inhibit glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting hTERT. - Highlights: • MiR-661 was downregulated in glioma tissues and functional as a tumor suppressor. • MiR-661 modulates cell proliferation, invasion and migration of glioma cells. • MiR-661 directly target hTERT in glioma cells. • MiR-661 inhibits glioma cell tumorgenesis by targeting hTERT.

  20. MiR-661 inhibits glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting hTERT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhen; Liu, Yun-hui; Diao, Hong-yu; Ma, Jun; Yao, Yi-long

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the functional role of miR-661 in glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We found that overexpression of miR-661 obviously suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells. MiRNA target prediction algorithms implied that hTERT is a candidate target gene for miR-661. A fluorescent reporter assay confirmed that miR-661 could lead to hTERT gene silencing by recognizing and specifically binding to the predicted site of the hTERT mRNA 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) specifically. Furthermore, hTERT knockdown significantly decreased the growth and viability of glioma cells. These results indicate that miR-661 can inhibit glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting hTERT. - Highlights: • MiR-661 was downregulated in glioma tissues and functional as a tumor suppressor. • MiR-661 modulates cell proliferation, invasion and migration of glioma cells. • MiR-661 directly target hTERT in glioma cells. • MiR-661 inhibits glioma cell tumorgenesis by targeting hTERT.

  1. The ubiquitin-proteasome system in glioma cell cycle control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlachostergios Panagiotis J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major determinant of cell fate is regulation of cell cycle. Tight regulation of this process is lost during the course of development and progression of various tumors. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS constitutes a universal protein degradation pathway, essential for the consistent recycling of a plethora of proteins with distinct structural and functional roles within the cell, including cell cycle regulation. High grade tumors, such as glioblastomas have an inherent potential of escaping cell cycle control mechanisms and are often refractory to conventional treatment. Here, we review the association of UPS with several UPS-targeted proteins and pathways involved in regulation of the cell cycle in malignant gliomas, and discuss the potential role of UPS inhibitors in reinstitution of cell cycle control.

  2. Impact of thermal effects induced by ultrasound on viability of rat C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, T; Secomski, W; Bilmin, K; Nowicki, A; Grieb, P

    2014-07-01

    In order to have consistent and repeatable effects of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) on various cancer cells or tissue lesions we should be able to control a delivered ultrasound energy and thermal effects induced. The objective of this study was to investigate viability of rat C6 glioma cells in vitro depending on the intensity of ultrasound in the region of cells and to determine the exposure time inducing temperature rise above 43 °C, which is known to be toxic for cells. For measurements a planar piezoelectric transducer with a diameter of 20 mm and a resonance frequency of 1.06 MHz was used. The transducer generated tone bursts with 94 μs duration, 0.4 duty-cycle and initial intensity ISATA (spatial averaged, temporal averaged) varied from 0.33 W/cm(2) to 8 W/cm(2) (average acoustic power varied from 1 W to 24 W). The rat C6 glioma cells were cultured on a bottom of wells in 12-well plates, incubated for 24h and then exposed to ultrasound with measured acoustic properties, inducing or causing no thermal effects leading to cell death. Cell viability rate was determined by MTT assay (a standard colorimetric assay for assessing cell viability) as the ratio of the optical densities of the group treated by ultrasound to the control group. Structural cellular changes and apoptosis estimation were observed under a microscope. Quantitative analysis of the obtained results allowed to determine the maximal exposure time that does not lead to the thermal effects above 43 °C in the region of cells for each initial intensity of the tone bursts used as well as the threshold intensity causing cell death after 3 min exposure to ultrasound due to thermal effects. The averaged threshold intensity was found to be about 5.7 W/cm(2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of microenviroment hypoxia on glioma cells radiosensitivity through cancer stem cell pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Liumei; Feng Libo; Lu Xueguan; Chen Liesong; Guo Xinwei; Tian Ye

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of microenviroment hypoxia on glioma cells radiosensitivity through cancer stem pathway, and to explore the related mechanism. Methods: Glioma cell lines SHG44 and U251 were cultured in normoxia (20% O 2 ) or continuous hypoxia (1% O 2 ) for 12 and 24 h. The fraction of glioma cells with positive expression of CD133 was assayed by flow cytometry. The radiosensitivity of glioma cells was determined by clonogenic cell assay. Western blotting was used to investigate the expressions of HIF-1 α and its downstream gene Notch 1. Results: The fraction of glioma cells with positive expression of CD133 was higher after hypoxic culture for 12 and 24 h than that of the corresponding cells cultured in normoxia. Compared to the cells cultured in normoxia, SF 2 (survival fraction at 2 Gy) were enhanced significantly in SHG44 and U251 cells cultured in hypoxia for 12 and 24 h. The OER (oxygen-enhancement ratio) of SHG44 cells in hypoxia for 12 and 24 h was 1.54 and 1.38, respectively. The OER of U251 cells was 1.44 and 1.23, respectively. The radiosensitivity of these two cell line was decreased in hypoxia. The protein expressions of HIF-1 α and Notch 1 genes were elevated more significantly for cells cultured in hypoxia for 12 and 24 h than for those in normoxia. Conclusions: Microenviroment hypoxia could increase the radioresistance of glioma cells through enrichment of cancer stem cells, and HIF-1 α-Notch 1 signal pathway may play an important role in this process. (authors)

  4. Genetically Engineered Multilineage-Differentiating Stress-Enduring Cells as Cellular Vehicles against Malignant Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yamasaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant glioma, the most common malignant brain tumor in adults, is difficult to treat due to its aggressive invasive nature. Enzyme/prodrug suicide gene therapy based on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk/ganciclovir (GCV system is an efficient strategy for treating malignant gliomas. In the present study, we evaluated treatment with multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse cells, which are endogenous non-tumorigenic pluripotent-like stem cells that are easily collectable from the bone marrow as SSEA-3+ cells, as carriers of the HSVtk gene. Human Muse cells showed potent migratory activity toward glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. HSVtk gene-transduced Muse cells (Muse-tk cells at a cell number of only 1/32 that of U87 human glioma cells completely eradicated U87 gliomas in nude mouse brains, showing a robust in vivo bystander effect. Pre-existing intracranial U87 gliomas in nude mouse brains injected intratumorally with Muse-tk cells followed by intraperitoneal GCV administration were significantly reduced in size within 2 weeks, and 4 of 10 treated mice survived over 200 days. These findings suggest that intratumoral Muse-tk cell injection followed by systemic GCV administration is safe and effective and that allogeneic Muse-tk cell-medicated suicide gene therapy for malignant glioma is clinically feasible.

  5. Transfection of glioma cells with the neural-cell adhesion molecule NCAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, K; Pedersen, P H; Bjerkvig, R

    1994-01-01

    The tumor growth and the invasive capacity of a rat glioma cell line (BT4Cn) were studied after transfection with the human transmembrane 140-kDa isoform of the neural-cell adhesion molecule, NCAM. After s.c. injection, the NCAM-transfected cells showed a slower growth rate than the parent cell...

  6. The role of stem cells in glioma progression and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Obrez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of tumour origin and stochastic nature of carcinogenesis are being challenged today by hierarchical models that predict the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which are postulated as unique cell population capable of infinite self renewal, multilineage differentiation and having a higher resistance to conventional cancer therapy thus facilitating malignant growth and therapy resistance. Accordingly, successful treatment of adult brain tumour–glioma and its most malignant stage–glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, would require the elimination of CSCs to avoid tumour relapse. Yet, with available therapy (i.e. surgery in GBMs this cannot be achieved, due to infiltrative growth of a subpopluation of GBM cells with highly expressed migratory genes (migratome into the normal brain tissue.Besides CSCs – a proven prerequisite for tumour development and progression, tumour bulk mass also comprises haematopoietic stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. The role of these other types of stem cell was shown to largely depend on the tumour microenvironment, where their contradictory anti-tumour action was evidenced. Yet, the exact mechanisms and MSC’s role in cell-mediated modulation of tumour behaviour via paracrine and direct interactions with GBM (stem cells still remain unknown. Nevertheless these stem cells, particularly MSCs, may represent novel therapeutic vectors for enhanced target-site delivery of chemotherapeutics, which are urgently needed to improve efficiency of current glioma treatment. So far, cell therapy using MSCs appears promising, due to MSC’s selective tumour tropism and their immuno-modulatory potential regarding treatment of GBM, which will be discussed in this review.

  7. Increasing the efficacy of antitumor glioma vaccines by photodynamic therapy and local injection of allogeneic glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Peng, Qian; Madsen, Steen J.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Immunotherapy of brain tumors involves the stimulation of an antitumor immune response. This type of therapy can be targeted specifically to tumor cells thus sparing surrounding normal brain. Due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier, the brain is relatively isolated from the systemic circulation and, as such, the initiation of significant immune responses is more limited than other types of cancers. The purpose of this study was to show that the efficacy of tumor primed antigen presenting macrophage vaccines could be increased by: (1) PDT of the priming tumor cells, and (2) injection of allogeneic glioma cells directly into brain tumors. Experiments were conducted in an in vivo brain tumor model using Fisher rats and BT4C (allogeneic) and F98 (syngeneic) glioma cells. Preliminary results showed that vaccination alone had significantly less inhibitory effect on F98 tumor growth compared to the combination of vaccination and allogeneic cell (BT4C) injection.

  8. Morphological characterization of a human glioma cell l ine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Camila Ml; Schenka, André; Vassallo, José; Tamashiro, Wirla Msc; Gonçalves, Estela M; Genari, Selma C; Verinaud, Liana

    2005-05-10

    A human malignant continuous cell line, named NG97, was recently established in our laboratory. This cell line has been serially subcultured over 100 times in standard culture media presenting no sign of cell senescence. The NG97 cell line has a doubling time of about 24 h. Immunocytochemical analysis of glial markers demonstrated that cells are positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100 protein, and negative for vimentin. Under phase-contrast microscope, cultures of NG97 showed cells with variable morphological features, such as small rounded cells, fusiform cells (fibroblastic-like cells), and dendritic-like cells. However, at confluence just small rounded and fusiform cells can be observed. At scanning electron microscopy (SEM) small rounded cells showed heterogeneous microextentions, including blebs and filopodia. Dendritic-like cells were flat and presented extensive prolongations, making several contacts with small rounded cells, while fusiform cells presented their surfaces dominated by microvilli.We believe that the knowledge about NG97 cell line may be useful for a deeper understanding of biological and immunological characteristics of gliomas.

  9. Resveratrol Represses Pokemon Expression in Human Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yutao; Cui, Jiajun; Xue, Feng; Overstreet, Anne-Marie; Zhan, Yiping; Shan, Dapeng; Li, Hui; Li, Hui; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Mengmeng; Yu, Chunjiang; Xu, Zhi-Qing David

    2016-03-01

    POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon), an important proto-oncoprotein, is a transcriptional repressor that regulates the expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenolic compound, has many beneficial biological effects on health. In this study, we investigated the role of Pokemon in RSV-induced biological effects and the effect of RSV on the expression of Pokemon in glioma cells. We found that overexpression of Pokemon decreased RSV-induced cell apoptosis, senescence, and anti-proliferative effects. Moreover, we showed that RSV could efficiently decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter and the expression of Pokemon. Meanwhile, RSV also inhibited Sp1 DNA binding activity to the Pokemon promoter; whereas, it did not influence the expression and nuclear translocation of Sp1. In addition, we found that RSV could increase the recruitment of HDAC1, but decreased p300 to the Pokemon promoter. Taken together, all these results extended our understanding on the anti-cancer mechanism of RSV in glioma cells.

  10. Reversing chemoresistance of malignant glioma stem cells using gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orza, Anamaria; Soriţău, Olga; Tomuleasa, Ciprian; Olenic, Liliana; Florea, Adrian; Pana, Ovidiu; Bratu, Ioan; Pall, Emoke; Florian, Stefan; Casciano, Dan; Biris, Alexandru S

    2013-01-01

    The low rate of survival for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma may be attributed to the existence of a subpopulation of cancer stem cells. These stem cells have certain properties that enable them to resist chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation. Herein, we show that temozolomide-loaded gold nanostructures are efficient in reducing chemoresistance and destroy 82.7% of cancer stem cells compared with a 42% destruction rate using temozolomide alone. Measurements of in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis indicate that combination with gold facilitated the ability of temozolomide, an alkylating drug, to alter the resistance of these cancer stem cells, suggesting a new chemotherapy strategy for patients diagnosed with inoperable recurrent malignant glioma. PMID:23467447

  11. The effect of antitumor glycosides on glioma cells and tissues as studied by proton HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel García-Álvarez

    Full Text Available The effect of the treatment with glycolipid derivatives on the metabolic profile of intact glioma cells and tumor tissues, investigated using proton high resolution magic angle spinning ((1H HR-MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, is reported here. Two compounds were used, a glycoside and its thioglycoside analogue, both showing anti-proliferative activity on glioma C6 cell cultures; however, only the thioglycoside exhibited antitumor activity in vivo. At the drug concentrations showing anti-proliferative activity in cell culture (20 and 40 µM, significant increases in choline containing metabolites were observed in the (1H NMR spectra of the same intact cells. In vivo experiments in nude mice bearing tumors derived from implanted C6 glioma cells, showed that reduction of tumor volume was associated with significant changes in the metabolic profile of the same intact tumor tissues; and were similar to those observed in cell culture. Specifically, the activity of the compounds is mainly associated with an increase in choline and phosphocholine, in both the cell cultures and tumoral tissues. Taurine, a metabolite that has been considered a biomarker of apoptosis, correlated with the reduction of tumor volume. Thus, the results indicate that the mode of action of the glycoside involves, at least in part, alteration of phospholipid metabolism, resulting in cell death.

  12. Transmigration of neural stem cells across the blood brain barrier induced by glioma cells.

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    Mónica Díaz-Coránguez

    Full Text Available Transit of human neural stem cells, ReNcell CX, through the blood brain barrier (BBB was evaluated in an in vitro model of BBB and in nude mice. The BBB model was based on rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMECs cultured on Millicell inserts bathed from the basolateral side with conditioned media (CM from astrocytes or glioma C6 cells. Glioma C6 CM induced a significant transendothelial migration of ReNcells CX in comparison to astrocyte CM. The presence in glioma C6 CM of high amounts of HGF, VEGF, zonulin and PGE2, together with the low abundance of EGF, promoted ReNcells CX transmigration. In contrast cytokines IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-12p70, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, as well as metalloproteinases -2 and -9 were present in equal amounts in glioma C6 and astrocyte CMs. ReNcells expressed the tight junction proteins occludin and claudins 1, 3 and 4, and the cell adhesion molecule CRTAM, while RBMECs expressed occludin, claudins 1 and 5 and CRTAM. Competing CRTAM mediated adhesion with soluble CRTAM, inhibited ReNcells CX transmigration, and at the sites of transmigration, the expression of occludin and claudin-5 diminished in RBMECs. In nude mice we found that ReNcells CX injected into systemic circulation passed the BBB and reached intracranial gliomas, which overexpressed HGF, VEGF and zonulin/prehaptoglobin 2.

  13. Transmigration of neural stem cells across the blood brain barrier induced by glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Coránguez, Mónica; Segovia, José; López-Ornelas, Adolfo; Puerta-Guardo, Henry; Ludert, Juan; Chávez, Bibiana; Meraz-Cruz, Noemi; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2013-01-01

    Transit of human neural stem cells, ReNcell CX, through the blood brain barrier (BBB) was evaluated in an in vitro model of BBB and in nude mice. The BBB model was based on rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMECs) cultured on Millicell inserts bathed from the basolateral side with conditioned media (CM) from astrocytes or glioma C6 cells. Glioma C6 CM induced a significant transendothelial migration of ReNcells CX in comparison to astrocyte CM. The presence in glioma C6 CM of high amounts of HGF, VEGF, zonulin and PGE2, together with the low abundance of EGF, promoted ReNcells CX transmigration. In contrast cytokines IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-12p70, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, as well as metalloproteinases -2 and -9 were present in equal amounts in glioma C6 and astrocyte CMs. ReNcells expressed the tight junction proteins occludin and claudins 1, 3 and 4, and the cell adhesion molecule CRTAM, while RBMECs expressed occludin, claudins 1 and 5 and CRTAM. Competing CRTAM mediated adhesion with soluble CRTAM, inhibited ReNcells CX transmigration, and at the sites of transmigration, the expression of occludin and claudin-5 diminished in RBMECs. In nude mice we found that ReNcells CX injected into systemic circulation passed the BBB and reached intracranial gliomas, which overexpressed HGF, VEGF and zonulin/prehaptoglobin 2.

  14. PAF promotes stemness and radioresistance of glioma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Derrick Sek Tong; Hu, Baoli; Ho, Yan Wing; Sauvé, Charles-Etienne Gabriel; Bristow, Christopher A; Wang, Qianghu; Multani, Asha S; Chen, Peiwen; Nezi, Luigi; Jiang, Shan; Gorman, Claire Elizabeth; Monasterio, Marta Moreno; Koul, Dimpy; Marchesini, Matteo; Colla, Simona; Jin, Eun-Jung; Sulman, Erik P; Spring, Denise J; Yung, Wai-Kwan Alfred; Verhaak, Roel G W; Chin, Lynda; Wang, Y Alan; DePinho, Ronald A

    2017-10-24

    An integrated genomic and functional analysis to elucidate DNA damage signaling factors promoting self-renewal of glioma stem cells (GSCs) identified proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-associated factor ( PAF ) up-regulation in glioblastoma. PAF is preferentially overexpressed in GSCs. Its depletion impairs maintenance of self-renewal without promoting differentiation and reduces tumor-initiating cell frequency. Combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses revealed that PAF supports GSC maintenance, in part, by influencing DNA replication and pyrimidine metabolism pathways. PAF interacts with PCNA and regulates PCNA-associated DNA translesion synthesis (TLS); consequently, PAF depletion in combination with radiation generated fewer tumorspheres compared with radiation alone. Correspondingly, pharmacological impairment of DNA replication and TLS phenocopied the effect of PAF depletion in compromising GSC self-renewal and radioresistance, providing preclinical proof of principle that combined TLS inhibition and radiation therapy may be a viable therapeutic option in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Published under the PNAS license.

  15. KDM2B overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and regulates glioma cell growth

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    Wang Y

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yiwei Wang,1 Jin Zang,1 Dongyong Zhang,2 Zhenxiang Sun,1 Bo Qiu,2 Xiaojie Wang1 1Department of Human Anatomy, Shenyang Medical College, Huanggu District, Shenyang City, 2Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Heping District, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, ChinaBackground: Gliomas are one of the most lethal cancers in the human central nervous system. Despite clinical treatment advancements, the prognosis of patients with glioma remains poor. KDM2B is a histone lysine demethylase, which has been observed in multiple tumors. But the concrete role of KDM2B in gliomas remains to be further illustrated.Methods: The KDM2B expression in gliomas was detected with immunohistochemistry and Western blot assay. Furthermore, knockdown of KDM2B in U87 and U251 glioma cell lines, the proliferation capacity was evaluated by cell viability assay, colon formation assay and flow cytometry in vitro. Western blot assay was used to analyze the p21, EZH2 and cyclinD1 changes followed by knockdown of KDM2B.Results: KDM2B was upregulated in tissues of glioma patients, and the expression was correlated to cancer progression. Downregulation of KDM2B in U87 and U251 glioma cell lines inhibited cell proliferation and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. In addition, silencing KDM2B promoted the upregulation of p21 while reduced the expression of EZH2 and cyclinD1.Conclusion: Taken together, our results revealed that KDM2B might influence gliomas growth and act as a novel therapeutic target for glioma patients.Keywords: EZH2, glioma, KDM2B, P21

  16. CD44 Interacts with HIF-2α to Modulate the Hypoxic Phenotype of Perinecrotic and Perivascular Glioma Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Elinn; Grassi, Elisa S.; Pantazopoulou, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors enhance glioma stemness, and glioma stem cells have an amplified hypoxic response despite residing within a perivascular niche. Still, little is known about differential HIF regulation in stem versus bulk glioma cells. We show that the intracellular domain of stem cell...... marker CD44 (CD44ICD) is released at hypoxia, binds HIF-2α (but not HIF-1α), enhances HIF target gene activation, and is required for hypoxia-induced stemness in glioma. In a glioma mouse model, CD44 was restricted to hypoxic and perivascular tumor regions, and in human glioma, a hypoxia signature...... correlated with CD44. The CD44ICD was sufficient to induce hypoxic signaling at perivascular oxygen tensions, and blocking CD44 cleavage decreased HIF-2α stabilization in CD44-expressing cells. Our data indicate that the stem cell marker CD44 modulates the hypoxic response of glioma cells and that the pseudo-hypoxic...

  17. Metabolic reprogramming in mutant IDH1 glioma cells.

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    Jose L Izquierdo-Garcia

    Full Text Available Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH 1 have been reported in over 70% of low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. IDH1 is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate while mutant IDH1 catalyzes the conversion of α-ketoglutarate into 2-hydroxyglutarate. These mutations are associated with the accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate within the tumor and are believed to be one of the earliest events in the development of low-grade gliomas. The goal of this work was to determine whether the IDH1 mutation leads to additional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS-detectable changes in the cellular metabolome.Two genetically engineered cell models were investigated, a U87-based model and an E6/E7/hTERT immortalized normal human astrocyte (NHA-based model. For both models, wild-type IDH1 cells were generated by transduction with a lentiviral vector coding for the wild-type IDH1 gene while mutant IDH1 cells were generated by transduction with a lentiviral vector coding for the R132H IDH1 mutant gene. Metabolites were extracted from the cells using the dual-phase extraction method and analyzed by 1H-MRS. Principal Component Analysis was used to analyze the MRS data.Principal Component Analysis clearly discriminated between wild-type and mutant IDH1 cells. Analysis of the loading plots revealed significant metabolic changes associated with the IDH1 mutation. Specifically, a significant drop in the concentration of glutamate, lactate and phosphocholine as well as the expected elevation in 2-hydroxyglutarate were observed in mutant IDH1 cells when compared to their wild-type counterparts.The IDH1 mutation leads to several, potentially translatable MRS-detectable metabolic changes beyond the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate.

  18. Regulation of DNA repair mechanism in human glioma xenograft cells both in vitro and in vivo in nude mice.

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    Shivani Ponnala

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM is the most lethal form of brain tumor. Efficient DNA repair and anti-apoptotic mechanisms are making glioma treatment difficult. Proteases such as MMP9, cathepsin B and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR are over expressed in gliomas and contribute to enhanced cancer cell proliferation. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ repair mechanism plays a major role in double strand break (DSB repair in mammalian cells.Here we show that silencing MMP9 in combination with uPAR/cathepsin B effects NHEJ repair machinery. Expression of DNA PKcs and Ku70/80 at both mRNA and protein levels in MMP9-uPAR (pMU and MMP9-cathepsin B (pMC shRNA-treated glioma xenograft cells were reduced. FACS analysis showed an increase in apoptotic peak and proliferation assays revealed a significant reduction in the cell population in pMU- and pMC-treated cells compared to untreated cells. We hypothesized that reduced NHEJ repair led to DSBs accumulation in pMU- and pMC-treated cells, thereby initiating cell death. This hypothesis was confirmed by reduced Ku70/Ku80 protein binding to DSB, increased comet tail length and elevated γH2AX expression in treated cells compared to control. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that EGFR-mediated lowered DNA PK activity in treated cells compared to controls. Treatment with pMU and pMC shRNA reduced the expression of DNA PKcs and ATM, and elevated γH2AX levels in xenograft implanted nude mice. Glioma cells exposed to hypoxia and irradiation showed DSB accumulation and apoptosis after pMU and pMC treatments compared to respective controls.Our results suggest that pMU and pMC shRNA reduce glioma proliferation by DSB accumulation and increase apoptosis under normoxia, hypoxia and in combination with irradiation. Considering the radio- and chemo-resistant cancers favored by hypoxia, our study provides important therapeutic potential of MMP9, uPAR and cathepsin B shRNA in the treatment of glioma from

  19. Estradiol Receptors Regulate Differential Connexin 43 Expression in F98 and C6 Glioma Cell Lines.

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    Zahra Moinfar

    Full Text Available Glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumour with male preponderance and poor prognosis. Glioma cells express variable amounts of connexin 43 (Cx43 and estrogen receptors (ERs. Both, Cx43 and ERs, play important roles in cell proliferation and migration. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 17-ß estradiol (E2 on Cx43 expression in two glioma cell lines with variable native expression of Cx43.F98 and C6 rat glioma cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of 10 nM or 100 nM E2, and the E2-antagonist, Fulvestrant. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. ERα, ERβ and Cx43 protein expressions were analysed by western blotting and Cx43 mRNA expression was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To quantify cell migration, an exclusive zone migration assay was used. Functional coupling of cells via gap junctions was examined using whole-cell patch-clamp technique.E2 reduced Cx43 expression in C6 cells, but increased Cx43 expression in F98 cultures. These effects were mediated via ERs. Moreover, E2 promoted C6 cell migration, but it did not affect F98 cell migration. The expression level of ERα was found to be high in C6, but low in F98 cells. ERβ was exclusively expressed in C6 cells. In addition, E2 treatment induced a significant decrease of ERβ in C6 cultures, while it decreased ERα expression in F98 glioma cells.These findings show that E2 differentially modulates Cx43 expression in F98 and C6 glioma cells, likely due to the differential expression of ERs in each of these cell lines. Our findings point to the molecular mechanisms that might contribute to the gender-specific differences in the malignancy of glioma and could have implications for therapeutic strategies against glioma.

  20. Tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor is associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioma and influences the chemosensitivity of glioma cell line to cisplatin in vitro

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    Guo You-feng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of tumor-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF with the clinicopathological features of gliomas and investigated the effect of HGF inhibition on the biological behavior of tumor cells in vitro in order to determine whether HGF is a valuable prognostic predictor for glioma patients. Methods Seventy-six cases of glioma were collected. The tumor-derived HGF expression, cell proliferation index (PI and intratumoral microvessels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between immunostaining and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically. U87MG glioma cells were transfected with short interference (si-RNA for HGF, and the cell viability, migratory ability and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were evaluated in vitro. Results Both high HGF expression in tumor cells (59.2%, 45/76 and high PI were significantly associated with high-grade glioma and increased microvessels in tumors (P P = 0.004 and high-expression of HGF (P = 0.008 emerged as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of glioma patients. The tumor-derived HGF mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in vitro after transfection of HGF siRNA. HGF siRNA inhibited the cell growth and reduced cell migratory ability. Moreover, HGF siRNA transfection enhanced the chemosensitivity of U87MG glioma cells to cisplatin. Conclusion This study indicated that there was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs. Increased expression of HGF may be a valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of glioma patients.

  1. MicroRNA-184 promotes proliferation ability of glioma cells by regulating FOXO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qing-Ke; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yun-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of microRNA (miR-184) on regulating the genesis, development and proliferation of glioma cells. Lipidosome was used to transfect miR-184 mimic and inhibitor to glioma cell line, and the cell proliferation ability changes were determined by MTT and plate cloning experiment after the transfection. WB test was used to measure the levels of cyclinD1, p27 and FOXO3. Meanwhile, QPCR was used to detect miR-184 expression in glioma cell line, glioma tissues and adjacent tissues. Luciferase experiment was used to test 3'UTR gene targeting regulation of miR-184 and FOXO3. QPCR results showed a significant lower miR-184 expression level in glioma cell line and glioma tissues than that in juxtacancerous tissue. MTT and plate cloning experiments have shown that after over-expressing of miR-184, the cell proliferation capacity of glioma U87 and T98G was significantly increased, which was significantly inhibited after the inhibition of miR-184. WB results showed a lower expression level of p27 in U87 and T98G cells, and a higher expression level of cyclinD1 after over-expressing of miR-184 was observed. However, a lower expression level of cyclinD1 and a higher expression level of p27 after the inhibition of miR-184. The luciferase activity was inhibited after the over-expressing of miR-184. MiR-184 can affect the proliferation abilities of glioma cells and regulate the cell cycle related protein. It plays an important role in the occurrence and development of gliomas. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Recruited cells can become transformed and overtake PDGF-induced murine gliomas in vivo during tumor progression.

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    Elena I Fomchenko

    Full Text Available Gliomas are thought to form by clonal expansion from a single cell-of-origin, and progression-associated mutations to occur in its progeny cells. Glioma progression is associated with elevated growth factor signaling and loss of function of tumor suppressors Ink4a, Arf and Pten. Yet, gliomas are cellularly heterogeneous; they recruit and trap normal cells during infiltration.We performed lineage tracing in a retrovirally mediated, molecularly and histologically accurate mouse model of hPDGFb-driven gliomagenesis. We were able to distinguish cells in the tumor that were derived from the cell-of-origin from those that were not. Phenotypic, tumorigenic and expression analyses were performed on both populations of these cells. Here we show that during progression of hPDGFb-induced murine gliomas, tumor suppressor loss can expand the recruited cell population not derived from the cell-of-origin within glioma microenvironment to dominate regions of the tumor, with essentially no contribution from the progeny of glioma cell-of-origin. Moreover, the recruited cells can give rise to gliomas upon transplantation and passaging, acquire polysomal expression profiles and genetic aberrations typically present in glioma cells rather than normal progenitors, aid progeny cells in glioma initiation upon transplantation, and become independent of PDGFR signaling.These results indicate that non-cell-of-origin derived cells within glioma environment in the mouse can be corrupted to become bona fide tumor, and deviate from the generally established view of gliomagenesis.

  3. Intraoperative neuropathology of glioma recurrence: cell detection and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Fazly S.; Gokozan, Hamza N.; Goksel, Behiye; Otero, Jose J.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative neuropathology of glioma recurrence represents significant visual challenges to pathologists as they carry significant clinical implications. For example, rendering a diagnosis of recurrent glioma can help the surgeon decide to perform more aggressive resection if surgically appropriate. In addition, the success of recent clinical trials for intraoperative administration of therapies, such as inoculation with oncolytic viruses, may suggest that refinement of the intraoperative diagnosis during neurosurgery is an emerging need for pathologists. Typically, these diagnoses require rapid/STAT processing lasting only 20-30 minutes after receipt from neurosurgery. In this relatively short time frame, only dyes, such as hematoxylin and eosin (H and E), can be implemented. The visual challenge lies in the fact that these patients have undergone chemotherapy and radiation, both of which induce cytological atypia in astrocytes, and pathologists are unable to implement helpful biomarkers in their diagnoses. Therefore, there is a need to help pathologists differentiate between astrocytes that are cytologically atypical due to treatment versus infiltrating, recurrent, neoplastic astrocytes. This study focuses on classification of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic astrocytes with the long term goal of providing a better neuropathological computer-aided consultation via classification of cells into reactive gliosis versus recurrent glioma. We present a method to detect cells in H and E stained digitized slides of intraoperative cytologic preparations. The method uses a combination of the `value' component of the HSV color space and `b*' component of the CIE L*a*b* color space to create an enhanced image that suppresses the background while revealing cells on an image. A composite image is formed based on the morphological closing of the hue-luminance combined image. Geometrical and textural features extracted from Discrete Wavelet Frames and combined to classify

  4. Assessment of Tumor Cells in a Mouse Model of Diffuse Infiltrative Glioma by Raman Spectroscopy

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    Kuniaki Tanahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioma of infiltrative nature is challenging for surgeons to achieve tumor-specific and maximal resection. Raman spectroscopy provides structural information on the targeted materials as vibrational shifts. We utilized Raman spectroscopy to distinguish invasive tumors from normal tissues. Spectra obtained from replication-competent avian sarcoma-(RCAS- based infiltrative glioma cells and glioma tissues (resembling low-grade human glioma were compared with those obtained from normal mouse astrocytes and normal tissues. In cell analysis, the spectra at 950–1000, 1030, 1050–1100, 1120–1130, 1120–1200, 1200–1300, 1300–1350, and 1450 cm−1 were significantly higher in infiltrative glioma cells than in normal astrocytes. In brain tissue analysis, the spectra at 1030, 1050–1100, and 1200–1300 cm−1 were significantly higher in infiltrative glioma tissues than in normal brain tissues. These spectra reflect the structures of proteins, lipids, and DNA content. The sensitivity and specificity to predict glioma cells by distinguishing normal cells were 98.3% and 75.0%, respectively. Principal component analysis elucidated the significance of spectral difference between tumor tissues and normal tissues. It is possible to distinguish invasive tumors from normal tissues by using Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Effects of irradiation and cisplatin on human glioma spheroids: inhibition of cell proliferation and cell migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehlauer, Fabian; Muench, Martina; Rades, Dirk; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Leenstra, Sieger; van der Valk, Paul; Slotman, Ben; Smid, Ernst J.; Sminia, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of cell migration and proliferation of human glioma cell line spheroids (CLS) and evaluation of morphology, apoptosis, and immunohistochemical expression of MIB-1, p53, and p21 of organotypic muticellular spheroids (OMS) following cisplatin (CDDP) and irradiation (RT). Spheroids of the

  6. Isolation and characterization of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells from malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ke-Tai; Juerchott, Kathrin; Fu, Peng; Selbig, Joachim; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Schichor, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly-vascularised tumours. Neoangiogenesis is a crucial factor in the malignant behaviour of tumour and prognosis of patients. Several mechanisms are suspected to lead to neoangiogenesis, one of them is the recruitment of multipotent progenitor cells towards the tumour. Factors such as Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) were described to recruit bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to the glioma stroma and vasculature. Little is known about isolating EPCs from normal or malignant tissues. In this study, we addressed the topic of characterization of tumour-isolated EPCs and re-defined the clonal relationship between EPCs and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in gliomas. We first checked public gene expression data of glioma for putative marker expression, pointing towards a prevalence of EPCs and HSCs in glioma. Immunohistochemical staining of glioma tissue confirmed the higher expression of these progenitor markers in glioma tissue. EPCs and HSCs were consequently isolated and characterized at the phenotypic and functional levels. We applied a new isolation method, for the first time, to specimen from patients with high grade glioma including seven grade IV glioblastoma, five-grade III astrocytoma, and three grade III oligoastrocytoma. In all samples, we were able to isolate the tumour-derived EPCs, which were positive for characteristic markers: CD31, CD34 and VEGFR2. The EPCs formed capillary networks in vitro and had the ability to take up acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Glioma-derived HSCs were positive for CD34 and CD45, but they were unable to form a capillary network in vitro. These findings on tumour-derived EPCs/HSCs were in concordance with the results, derived from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. In our study, we established a new method for EPC/HSC isolation from human gliomas, defined the contribution of EPCs and HSCs to the tumour tissue, and highlighted the intense in vivo tumour host

  7. Glioma Cells in the Tumor Periphery Have a Stem Cell Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Munthe

    Full Text Available Gliomas are highly infiltrative tumors incurable with surgery. Although surgery removes the bulk tumor, tumor cells in the periphery are left behind resulting in tumor relapses. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenotype of tumor cells in the periphery focusing on tumor stemness, proliferation and chemo-resistance. This was investigated in situ in patient glioma tissue as well as in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts. We identified 26 gliomas having the R132 mutation in Isocitrate DeHydrogenase 1 (mIDH1. A double immunofluorescence approach identifying mIDH1 positive tumor cells and a panel of markers was used. The panel comprised of six stem cell-related markers (CD133, Musashi-1, Bmi-1, Sox-2, Nestin and Glut-3, a proliferation marker (Ki-67 as well as a chemo-resistance marker (MGMT. Computer-based automated classifiers were designed to measure the mIDH1 positive nucleus area-fraction of the chosen markers. Moreover, orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts from five different patient-derived spheroid cultures were obtained and the tumor cells identified by human specific immunohistochemical markers. The results showed that tumor cells in the periphery of patient gliomas expressed stem cell markers, however for most markers at a significantly lower level than in the tumor core. The Ki-67 level was slightly reduced in the periphery, whereas the MGMT level was similar. In orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts all markers showed similar levels in the core and periphery. In conclusion tumor cells in the periphery of patient gliomas have a stem cell phenotype, although it is less pronounced than in the tumor core. Novel therapies aiming at preventing recurrence should therefore take tumor stemness into account. Migrating cells in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts preserve expression and stem cell markers. The orthotopic model therefore has a promising translational potential.

  8. The tropism of neurally differentiated bone marrow stromal cells towards C6 glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qianfa; Liu, Weiping; Zhong, Jun; Yi, Xicai; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yuanyang; Yang, Yang; Han, Rui; Fei, Zhou

    2011-10-24

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have significant tropism towards glioma which makes them play an important role in carrying genes/drugs to inhibit the growth of glioma as cell vehicles. But BMSCs may differentiate into neural cells under entocranial environment and few researches support the idea that neurally differentiated bone marrow stromal cells (N-D-BMSCs) still hold the capacity of migrating to the tumor sites. The aim of our study was to investigate the tropism of N-D-BMSCs towards C6 glioma. In vitro migration assay was employed by transwell co-culture system and Student's t-test analysis indicated that N-D-BMSCs had the significant tropism towards C6 glioma-conditioned medium (GCM) (Ptropism of N-D-BMSCs towards C6 glioma sites presented time variation (P-value=2.9E-20). Moreover, multiple comparisons for the time variables with the Student's t-test and the results suggested that the migration capacity of N-D-BMSCs towards C6 glioma sites reach the peak on the 7th day after transplantation. These results demonstrate that N-D-BMSCs as well as BMSCs have significant tropism towards C6 glioma. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated From Human Gliomas Increase Proliferation and Maintain Stemness of Glioma Stem Cells Through the IL-6/gp130/STAT3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Anwar; Gumin, Joy; Gao, Feng; Figueroa, Javier; Shinojima, Naoki; Takezaki, Tatsuya; Priebe, Waldemar; Villarreal, Diana; Kang, Seok-Gu; Joyce, Celine; Sulman, Erik; Wang, Qianghu; Marini, Frank C; Andreeff, Michael; Colman, Howard; Lang, Frederick F

    2015-08-01

    Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been implicated as stromal components of several cancers, their ultimate contribution to tumorigenesis and their potential to drive cancer stem cells, particularly in the unique microenvironment of human brain tumors, remain largely undefined. Consequently, using established criteria, we isolated glioma-associated-human MSCs (GA-hMSCs) from fresh human glioma surgical specimens for the first time. We show that these GA-hMSCs are nontumorigenic stromal cells that are phenotypically similar to prototypical bone marrow-MSCs. Low-passage genomic sequencing analyses comparing GA-hMSCs with matched tumor-initiating glioma stem cells (GSCs) suggest that most GA-hMSCs (60%) are normal cells recruited to the tumor (group 1 GA-hMSCs), although, rarely (10%), GA-hMSCs may differentiate directly from GSCs (group 2 GA-hMSCs) or display genetic patterns intermediate between these groups (group 3 GA-hMSCs). Importantly, GA-hMSCs increase proliferation and self-renewal of GSCs in vitro and enhance GSC tumorigenicity and mesenchymal features in vivo, confirming their functional significance within the GSC niche. These effects are mediated by GA-hMSC-secreted interleukin-6, which activates STAT3 in GSCs. Our results establish GA-hMSCs as a potentially new stromal component of gliomas that drives the aggressiveness of GSCs, and point to GA-hMSCs as a novel therapeutic target within gliomas. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  10. CXCR7 is induced by hypoxia and mediates glioma cell migration towards SDF-1α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esencay, Mine; Sarfraz, Yasmeen; Zagzag, David

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas, the most common and malignant brain tumors of the central nervous system, exhibit high invasive capacity, which hinders effective therapy. Therefore, intense efforts aimed at improved therapeutics are ongoing to delineate the molecular mechanisms governing glioma cell migration and invasion. In order to perform the studies, we employed optimal cell culture methods and hypoxic conditions, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of protein expression, Western Blot analysis, migration assays and immunoprecipitation. We determined statistical significance by unpaired t-test. In this report, we show that U87MG, LN229 and LN308 glioma cells express CXCR7 and that exposure to hypoxia upregulates CXCR7 protein expression in these cell lines. CXCR7-expressing U87MG, LN229 and LN308 glioma cells migrated towards stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1α/CXCL12 in hypoxic conditions in the Boyden chamber assays. While shRNA-mediated knockdown of CXCR7 expression did not affect the migration of any of the three cell lines in normoxic conditions, we observed a reduction in the migration of LN229 and LN308, but not U87MG, glioma cells towards SDF-1α in hypoxic conditions. In addition, knockdown of CXCR7 expression in LN229 and LN308 glioma cells decreased levels of SDF-1α-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. Inhibiting CXCR4 in LN229 and LN308 glioma cells that were knocked down for CXCR7 did not further reduce migration towards SDF-1α in hypoxic conditions and did not affect the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Akt. Analysis of immunoprecipitated CXCR4 from LN229 and LN308 glioma cells revealed co-precipitated CXCR7. Taken together, our findings indicate that both CXCR4 and CXCR7 mediate glioma cell migration towards SDF-1α in hypoxic conditions and support the development of therapeutic agents targeting these receptors

  11. Presence of pluripotent CD133+ cells correlates with malignancy of gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Niklas; Damianoff, Karin; Hegermann, Jemima; Grau, Stefan; Krebs, Bjarne; Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Goldbrunner, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Presence of CD133(+) cancer stem cells has been demonstrated within glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most malignant phenotype of gliomas (WHO grade IV). Since GBM frequently develops from low grade gliomas (WHO grade II) we assessed a possible qualitative or quantitative correlation of CD133(+) cells and glioma grade to get new insights in gliomagenesis. The amount of CD133(+) cells within the bulk tumor mass, analyzed by immunostaining and Western blotting, showed a clear quantitative correlation with glioma grade (WHO degrees II, III and IV). Most of CD133(+) cells were arranged in clusters frequently associated to tumor vessels. Protein analysis revealed high cellular coexpression of CD133 with Musashi-I but not CD34 indicating a neural, i.e. local origin of these cells. In vitro, no differences in stem cell properties concerning self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation have been found for CD133(+) cells isolated from gliomas of different grades. These findings indicate a solely quantitative correlation of glioma grade with the presence of neural CD133(+) cells within tumors supporting the concept of a CD133(+) stem cell dependent gliomagenesis. Copyright 2008. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Effects of glucocorticoids on glioma cells in culture. Minireview on cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshney, R I

    1984-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that glucocorticoids have a cytostatic effect on glioma cells at high cell densities but enhance cell survival and proliferation at low cell densities. The cytostatic effect is not cytotoxic and may be mediated via a membrane modification altering cell-cell interaction. Cell interaction is also implicated in differentiation in glial cells and the inducing effect of glucocorticoids may be mediated in part by their effect on cell interaction. Induction of differentiation by glucocorticoids is accompanied by a reduction in malignancy-associated properties and the possibility has emerged that glucocorticoids may be an essential component in attempts to modify the malignant behaviour of glioma cells.

  13. Low Expression of CAPON in Glioma Contributes to Cell Proliferation via the Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangfeng Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available CAPON is an adapter protein for nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1. CAPON has two isoforms in the human brain: CAPON-L (long form of CAPON and CAPON-S (short form of CAPON. Recent studies have indicated the involvement of CAPON in tumorigenesis beyond its classical role in NOS1 activity regulation. In this study, we found that the protein levels of CAPON-S, but not than CAPON-L, were significantly decreased in glioma tissues. Therefore, we established lentivirus-mediated stable cell lines with CAPON-S overexpression or down-regulation, and investigated the role of CAPON-S in the proliferation of glioma cells by using CCK8, EdU, and flow cytometry assays. Overexpression of CAPON-S reduced the cell variability and the percentage of EdU-positive cells, and arrested the cells in the G1 phase in glioma cells. Silencing of CAPON by short-hairpin RNA showed the opposite effects. Furthermore, an intracellular signaling array revealed that overexpression of CAPON-S resulted in a remarkable reduction in the phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein in glioma cells, which was further confirmed by Western blot. These findings suggest that CAPON may function as a tumor suppressor in human brain glioma and that the inactivation of the Akt signaling pathway caused by CAPON-S overexpression may provide insight into the underlying mechanism of CAPON in glioma cell proliferation.

  14. Regulation of Glioma Cell Migration by Seri ne-Phosphorylated P3111

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    Wendy S. McDonough

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available P311, an 8-kDa polypeptide, was previously shown to be highly expressed in invasive glioma cells. Here, we report the functional characteristics of P311 with regard to influencing glioma cell migration. P311 is constitutively serine-phosphorylated; decreased phosphorylation is observed in migration-activated glioma cells. The primary amino acid sequence of P311 indicates a putative serine phosphorylation site (S59 near the PEST domain. Site-directed mutagenesis of S59A retarded P311 degradation, induced glioma cell motility. In contrast, S59D mutation resulted in the rapid degradation of P311, reduced glioma cell migration. Coimmunoprecipitation coupled with matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis identified Filamin A as a binding partner of P311, immunofluorescence studies showed that both proteins colocalized at the cell periphery. Moreover, P311-induced cell migration was abrogated by inhibition of β1 integrin function using TACβ1A, a dominant-negative inhibitor of β1 integrin signaling, suggesting that P311 acts downstream of β1 signaling. Finally, overexpression of P311 or P311 S59A mutant protein activates Raci GTPase; small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of Raci suppresses P311-induced motility. Collectively, these results suggest a role for levels of P311 in regulating glioma motility, invasion through the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton at the cell periphery.

  15. Temozolomide increases MHC-I expression via NF-κB signaling in glioma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyong; Qiu, Bo; Wang, Yunjie; Guan, Yanlei; Zhang, Luyang; Wu, Anhua

    2017-06-01

    Gliomas are the most common and primary tumors of the central nervous system in adults. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the main drug used to treat glioma; however, prognosis remains poor for most patients. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are thought to enable glioma initiation and evasion from immune surveillance; their immunogenicity can be determined by expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I. The present study investigated the effect of TMZ on MHC-I expression in GSCs. Glioma spheres were cultured in serum-free medium containing epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and B27; MHC-I expression was detected by immunocytochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, and flow cytometry. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression in glioma stem cells was detected by Western blot. TMZ enhanced MHC-I expression in GSCs, and NF-κB was activated. TMZ treatment increased MHC-I expression via modulation of NF-κB signaling in GSCs. In addition to being a chemotherapeutic agent, TMZ may also serve as an immunomodulatory agent in the treatment of glioma patients. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  16. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

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    Hong Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3 plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p<0.05. The apoptosis related protein is detected and the results revealed that saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated.

  17. Selective control of human glioma cell proliferation by specific cell interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, C M; Freshney, R I; Hart, E; Graham, D I

    1985-01-01

    Cells cultured from anaplastic astrocytoma (Kernohan and Sayre, grades III and IV) will proliferate on confluent monolayers of normal glia, while cells cultured from normal brain will not. The growth of a cell line containing a high proportion of well-differentiated glioma cells (G-CCM) was partially inhibited, though not as much as normal glia, while the growth of a cell line made up of less differentiated cells (G-UVW) was enhanced by the normal glia. Although non-glial confluent monolayers also inhibited the growth of normal glia, this was less specific, as one normal glial line (N-DUT) grew on fibroblasts and intestinal epithelium, although it was unable to do so on normal glia. It is suggested that this may be a useful method for examining reduced density limitation of growth, discriminating between normal and malignant glia, and for separating glioma cells from contaminating normal cells.

  18. Migrating glioma cells express stem cell markers and give rise to new tumors upon xenografting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Sune; Sørensen, Mia D; Thomassen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor with an overall survival of only 14.6 months. Although these tumors are treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, recurrence is inevitable. A critical population of tumor cells in terms of therapy, the so-called cancer stem...... cells (CSCs), has been identified in gliomas and many other cancers. These tumor cells have a stem cell-like phenotype and are suggested to be responsible for tumor growth, chemo- and radio-resistance as well as recurrence. However, functional evidence for migrating glioma cells having a stem cell......-like phenotype is currently lacking. In the present study, the aim was to characterize the phenotype of migrating tumor cells using a novel migration assay based on serum-free stem cell medium and patient-derived spheroid cultures. The results showed pronounced migration of five different GBM spheroid cultures...

  19. Migration capacity of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells towards glioma in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cungang; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Qingjun; Zhou, Jingru

    2013-01-01

    High-grade glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. The poor prognosis of glioma, combined with a resistance to currently available treatments, necessitates the ment of more effective tumor-selective therapies. Stem cell-based therapies are emerging as novel cell-based delivery vehicle for therapeutic agents. In the present study, we successfully isolated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells by explant culture. The human umbilical cord senchymal stem cells were adherent to plastic surfaces, expressed specific surface phenotypes of mesenchymal stem cells as demonstrated by flow cytometry, and possessed multi-differentiation potentials in permissive induction media in vitro. Furthermore, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated excellent glioma-specific targeting capacity in established rat glioma models after intratumoral injection or contralateral ventricular administration in vivo. The excellent glioma-specific targeting ability and extensive intratumoral distribution of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells indicate that they may serve as a novel cellular vehicle for delivering therapeutic molecules in glioma therapy. PMID:25206518

  20. Autologous glioma cell vaccine admixed with interleukin-4 gene transfected fibroblasts in the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas

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    Torres-Trejo Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis for malignant gliomas remains dismal. We addressed the safety, feasibility and preliminary clinical activity of the vaccinations using autologous glioma cells and interleukin (IL-4 gene transfected fibroblasts. Methods In University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI protocol 95-033, adult participants with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM or anaplastic astrocytoma (AA received gross total resection (GTR of the recurrent tumors, followed by two vaccinations with autologous fibroblasts retrovirally transfected with TFG-IL4-Neo-TK vector admixed with irradiated autologous glioma cells. In UPCI 99-111, adult participants with newly diagnosed GBM or AA, following GTR and radiation therapy, received two intradermal vaccinations with the TFG-IL4-Neo-TK-transfected fibroblasts admixed with type-1 dendritic cells (DC loaded with autologous tumor lysate. The participants were evaluated for occurrence of adverse events, immune response, and clinical response by radiological imaging. Results and Discussion In UPCI 95-033, only 2 of 6 participants received the vaccinations. Four other participants were withdrawn from the trial because of tumor progression prior to production of the cellular vaccine. However, both participants who received two vaccinations demonstrated encouraging immunological and clinical responses. Biopsies from the local vaccine sites from one participant displayed IL-4 dose-dependent infiltration of CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells. Interferon (IFN-γ Enzyme-Linked Immuno-SPOT (ELISPOT assay in another human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A2+ participant demonstrated systemic T-cell responses against an HLA-A2-restricted glioma-associated antigen (GAA epitope EphA2883–891. Moreover, both participants demonstrated clinical and radiological improvement with no evidence of allergic encephalitis, although both participants eventually succumbed with the tumor recurrence. In 99-111, 5 of 6 enrolled participants

  1. Effect of Aspirin and Indomethacin on Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis in C6 Glioma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Shiuh-Lin; Lee, Kung-Shing; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lieu, Ann-Shung; Cheng, Chi-Yun; Loh, Joon-Khim; Hwang, Yan-Fen; Su, Yu-Feng; Howng, Shen-Long

    2004-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays an important role in immunosuppression and tumor growth. PGE2 inhibitors such as aspirin and indomethacin suppress experimental tumor growth. Little is known of the relationship between PGE2 synthesis in brain tumors and the dose of aspirin or indomethacin. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different doses of aspirin and indomethacin on PGE2 synthesis in C6 glioma cells. C6 glioma cells were incubated with different concentrations (2, 4, ...

  2. Sirt2 suppresses glioma cell growth through targeting NF-κB–miR-21 axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ya’nan; Dai, Dongwei [Department of Neurosurgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Lu, Qiong; Fei, Mingyu [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Li, Mengmeng [Department of Rheumatology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Wu, Xi, E-mail: xiwuchh@sina.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •Sirt2 expression is down-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. •Sirt2 regresses glioma cell growth and colony formation via inducing apoptosis. •miR-21 is essential for the functions of Sirt2 in glioma cells. •Sirt2 deacetylates p65 to decrease miR-21 expression. -- Abstract: Sirtuins are NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylases that regulate numerous cellular processes including aging, DNA repair, cell cycle, metabolism, and survival under stress conditions. The roles of sirtuin family members are widely studied in carcinogenesis. However, their roles in glioma remain unclear. Here we report that Sir2 was under expressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines. We found that Sirt2 overexpression decreased cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. In addition, Sirt2 overexpression induced cellular apoptosis via up-regulating cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, and down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Sirt2 knockdown obtained opposing results. We showed that Sirt2 overexpression inhibited miR-21 expression, and Sirt2 was not sufficient to reduce cell proliferation and colony formation as well as to induce apoptosis when miR-21 was knocked down in glioma cells. Mechanically, we demonstrated that Sirt2 deacetylated p65 at K310 and blocked p65 binding to the promoter region of miR-21, thus regressing the transcription of miR-21. In summary, Sirt2 is critical in human glioma via NF-κB–miR-21 pathway and Sirt2 activator may serve as candidate drug for glioma therapy.

  3. Alterations in gene expression profiles correlated with cisplatin cytotoxicity in the glioma U343 cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Oliveira Carminati; Stephano Spano Mello; Ana Lucia Fachin; Cristina Moraes Junta; Paula Sandrin-Garcia; Carlos Gilberto Carlotti; Eduardo Antonio Donadi; Geraldo Aleixo Silva Passos; Elza Tiemi Sakamoto-Hojo

    2010-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common tumors in the central nervous system, the average survival time of patients with glioblastoma multiforme being about 1 year from diagnosis, in spite of harsh therapy. Aiming to study the transcriptional profiles displayed by glioma cells undergoing cisplatin treatment, gene expression analysis was performed by the cDNA microarray method. Cell survival and apoptosis induction following treatment were also evaluated. Drug concentrations of 12.5 to 300 μM caused ...

  4. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3C silencing inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jinmin; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Yaowu; Liang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Zongmao; Jiao, Baohua

    2015-06-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 3, subunit c (eIF3c), an oncogene overexpressed in human cancers, plays an important role in cell tumorigenesis and proliferation. However, studies assessing its function in gliomas are scarce. The present study evaluated for the first time, the role of eIF3c in gliomas. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to assess eIF3c expression in 95 human glioma samples and normal brain tissues. Then, the eIF3c mRNA levels were detected in tumor and normal brain specimens by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, eIF3c mRNA levels were assessed in four glioma cell lines (U87, U251, A172 and U373) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The RNA interference (RNAi) technology was employed to knock down the eIF3c gene in the U251 cells. Western blot analysis, BrdU assay and flow cytometry were used to measure eIF3c protein levels, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and cell cycle, respectively. The eIF3c protein was overexpressed in the human glioma specimens. In agreement, the eIF3c mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the human glioma tissues compared with the normal brain samples (Pcell lines. Silencing the eIF3c gene in the U251 cells by RNAi significantly suppressed cell proliferation (Pcell number (Pcells were significantly increased (P<0.01) after eIF3c knockdown. These findings suggest that eIF3c is overexpressed in human gliomas and essential for their proliferation and survival. Therefore, inhibiting eIF3c expression may constitute an effective therapy for human glioma.

  5. FasL and FADD delivery by a glioma-specific and cell cycle-dependent HSV-1 amplicon virus enhanced apoptosis in primary human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Paula Y

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant cancer of the brain and is notoriously difficult to treat due to the highly proliferative and infiltrative nature of the cells. Herein, we explored the combination treatment of pre-established human glioma xenograft using multiple therapeutic genes whereby the gene expression is regulated by both cell-type and cell cycle-dependent transcriptional regulatory mechanism conferred by recombinant HSV-1 amplicon vectors. Results We demonstrated for the first time that Ki67-positive proliferating primary human glioma cells cultured from biopsy samples were effectively induced into cell death by the dual-specific function of the pG8-FasL amplicon vectors. These vectors were relatively stable and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity in vivo. Intracranial implantation of pre-transduced glioma cells resulted in better survival outcome when compared with viral vectors inoculated one week post-implantation of tumor cells, indicating that therapeutic efficacy is dependent on the viral spread and mode of viral vectors administration. We further showed that pG8-FasL amplicon vectors are functional in the presence of commonly used treatment regimens for human brain cancer. In fact, the combined therapies of pG8-FasL and pG8-FADD in the presence of temozolomide significantly improved the survival of mice bearing intracranial high-grade gliomas. Conclusion Taken together, our results showed that the glioma-specific and cell cycle-dependent HSV-1 amplicon vector is potentially useful as an adjuvant therapy to complement the current gene therapy strategy for gliomas.

  6. Radiosensitization effect of zidovudine on human malignant glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Fuxiang; Liao Zhengkai; Dai Jing; Xiong Jie; Xie CongHua; Luo Zhiguo; Liu Shiquan; Zhou Yunfeng

    2007-01-01

    Telomeres are shortened with each cell division and play an important role in maintaining chromosomal integrity and function. Telomerase, responsible for telomere synthesis, is activated in 90% of human tumor cells but seldom in normal somatic cells. Zidovudine (AZT) is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In this study, we have investigated the effects of γ-radiation in combination with AZT on telomerase activity (TA), telomere length, DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and the changes in radiosensitivity of human malignant glioma cell line U251. The results showed that the TA was suppressed by AZT but enhanced by irradiation, resulting in a deceleration of restored rate of shortened telomere, decreased repair rate of DNA strand breaks, and increased radiosensitivity of U251 cells. Our results suggested that telomerase activity and telomere length may serve as markers for estimating the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy and reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as AZT, may be used clinically as a new radiosensitizer in cancer radiotherapy

  7. Disruption of NF-κB signaling by fluoxetine attenuates MGMT expression in glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tao Song,1 Hui Li,2 Zhiliang Tian,3 Chaojiu Xu,4 Jingfang Liu,1 Yong Guo1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 2Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Medical School of Jishou University, 3Department of Neurosurgery, 4Department of Oncology, The Hospital of Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture, Jishou, People’s Republic of China Background: Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ in glioma is modulated by the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT. This study aimed to examine the effects of fluoxetine (FLT on MGMT expression in glioma cells and to investigate its underlying mechanisms.Materials and methods: Expression of MGMT, GluR1, or IκB kinase β (IKKβ was attenuated using short hairpin RNA-mediated gene knockdown. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol -2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay was used to evaluate the growth inhibition induced by FLT or TMZ. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL was conducted to detect apoptotic cells. Western blotting was conducted to analyze the protein expression of MGMT, IKKβ, and NF-κB/p65 following FLT treatment. The murine subcutaneous xenograft model was used to evaluate the combinational effect of TMZ and FLT.Results: FLT markedly reduced MGMT expression in glioma cells, which was independent of GluR1 receptor function. Further, FLT disrupted NF-κB/p65 signaling in glioma cells and consequently attenuated NF-κB/p65 activity in regulating MGMT expression. Importantly, FLT sensitized MGMT-expressing glioma cells to TMZ, as FLT enhanced TMZ’s ability to impair the in vitro tumorigenic potential and to induce apoptosis in glioma cells. Knockdown of MGMT or IKKβ expression abolished the synergistic effect of FLT with TMZ in glioma cells, which suggested that FLT might sensitize glioma cells to TMZ through down-regulation of MGMT expression. Consistently, TMZ combined with FLT markedly attenuated NF

  8. Anti-invasive and antiangiogenic effects of MMI-166 on malignant glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabayashi, Hiromichi; Yawata, Toshio; Shimizu, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    The constitutive overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is frequently observed in malignant tumours. In particular, MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been reported to be closely associated with invasion and angiogenesis in malignant gliomas. Our study aimed to evaluate the antitumour effects of MMI-166 (Nalpha-[4-(2-Phenyl-2H- tetrazole-5-yl) phenyl sulfonyl]-D-tryptophan), a third generation MMP inhibitor, on three human glioma cell lines (T98G, U87MG, and ONS12) in vitro and in vivo. The effects of MMI-166 on the gelatinolytic activity was analysed by gelatine zymography. The anti-invasive effect of MMI-166 was analysed by an in vitro invasion assay. An in vitro angiogenesis assay was also performed. In vitro growth inhibition of glioma cells by MMI-166 was determined by the MTT assay. The effect of MMI-166 on an orthotropic implantation model using athymic mice was also evaluated. Gelatine zymography revealed that MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were suppressed by MMI-166. The invasion of glioma cells was suppressed by MMI-166. The angiogenesis assay showed that MMI-166 had a suppressive effect on glioma cell-induced angiogenesis. However, MMI-166 did not suppress glioma cell proliferation in the MTT assay. In vivo, MMI-166 suppressed tumour growth in athymic mice implanted orthotropically with T98G cells and showed an inhibitory effect on tumour-induced angiogenesis and tumour growth. This is the first report of the effect of a third generation MMP inhibitor on malignant glioma cells. These results suggest that MMI-166 may have potentially suppressive effects on the invasion and angiogenesis of malignant gliomas

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 circumscribes high invasive glioma cells and predicts poor prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen-Lin; Liu, Sha; Cui, Wei; Shi, Yu; Liu, Qin; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Yu, Shi-Cang; Zhang, Xia; Cui, You-Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most aggressive brain tumor with high invasiveness and poor prognosis. More reliable, sensitive and practical biomarkers to reveal glioma high invasiveness remain to be explored for the guidance of therapy. We herein evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in the glioma specimens from 237 patients, and found that ADLH1A1 was frequently overexpressed in the high-grade glioma (WHO grade III-IV) as compared to the low-grade glioma (WHO grade I-II) patients. The tumor cells with ALDH1A1 expression were more abundant in the region between tumor and the borderline of adjacent tissue as compared to the central part of the tumor. ALDH1A1 overexpression was associated with poor differentiation and dismal prognosis. Notably, the overall and disease-free survivals of the patients who had ALDH1A1+ tumor cells sparsely located in the adjacent tissue were much worse. Furthermore, ALDH1A1 expression was correlated with the “classical-like” (CL) subtype as we examined GBM specimens from 72 patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that ALDH1A1 was an independent marker for glioma patients’ outcome. Mechanistically, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ALDH1A1+ cells isolated from either a glioblastoma cell line U251 or primary glioblastoma cells displayed significant invasiveness, clonogenicity, and proliferation as compared to ALDH1A1- cells, due to increased levels of mRNA and protein for matrix metalloproteinase 2, 7 and 9 (MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9). These results indicate that ALDH1A1+ cells contribute to the progression of glioma including invasion, proliferation and poor prognosis, and suggest that targeting ALDH1A1 may have important implications for the treatment of highly invasive glioma. PMID:26101711

  10. IDH mutant gliomas escape natural killer cell immune surveillance by downregulation of NKG2D ligand expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Rao, Aparana; Sette, Paola; Deibert, Christopher; Pomerantz, Alexander; Kim, Wi Jin; Kohanbash, Gary; Chang, Yigang; Park, Yongseok; Engh, Johnathan; Choi, Jaehyuk; Chan, Timothy; Okada, Hideho; Lotze, Michael; Grandi, Paola; Amankulor, Nduka

    2016-10-01

    Diffuse gliomas are poorly immunogenic, fatal brain tumors. The basis for insufficient antitumor immunity in diffuse gliomas is unknown. Gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH1 and IDH2) promote diffuse glioma formation through epigenetic reprogramming of a number of genes, including immune-related genes. Here, we identify epigenetic dysregulation of natural killer (NK) cell ligand genes as significant contributors to immune escape in glioma. We analyzed the database of The Cancer Genome Atlas for immune gene expression patterns in IDH mutant or wild-type gliomas and identified differentially expressed immune genes. NKG2D ligand expression levels and NK cell-mediated lysis were measured in IDH mutant and wild-type patient-derived glioma stem cells and genetically engineered astrocytes. Finally, we assessed the impact of hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'deoxycytodine (decitabine) as a potential NK cell sensitizing agent in IDH mutant cells. IDH mutant glioma stemlike cell lines exhibited significantly lower expression of NKG2D ligands compared with IDH wild-type cells. Consistent with these findings, IDH mutant glioma cells and astrocytes are resistant to NK cell-mediated lysis. Decitabine increases NKG2D ligand expression and restores NK-mediated lysis of IDH mutant cells in an NKG2D-dependent manner. IDH mutant glioma cells acquire resistance to NK cells through epigenetic silencing of NKG2D ligands ULBP1 and ULBP3. Decitabine-mediated hypomethylation restores ULBP1 and ULBP3 expression in IDH mutant glioma cells and may provide a clinically useful method to sensitize IDH mutant gliomas to NK cell-mediated immune surveillance in patients with IDH mutated diffuse gliomas. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Melatonin inhibits proliferation and invasion via repression of miRNA-155 in glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junyi; Lu, Zhongsheng; Ji, Chenghong; Chen, Yuchao; Liu, Yuzhao; Lei, Zhe; Wang, Longqiang; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Li, Xiangdong

    2017-09-01

    Melatonin, an indolamine mostly synthesized in the pineal gland, exerts the anti-cancer effect by various mechanisms in glioma cells. Our previous study showed that miR-155 promoted glioma cell proliferation and invasion. However, the question of whether melatonin may inhibit glioma by regulating miRNAs has not yet been addressed. In this study, we found that melatonin (100μM, 1μM and 1nM) significantly inhibited the expression of miR-155 in human glioma cell lines U87, U373 and U251. Especially, the lowest expression of miR-155 was detected in 1μM melatonin-treated glioma cells. Melatonin (1μM) inhibits cell proliferation of U87 by promoting cell apoptosis. Nevertheless, melatonin had no effect on cell cycle distribution of U87 cells. Moreover, U87 cells treated with 1μM melatonin presented significantly lower migration and invasion ability when compared with control cells. Importantly, melatonin inhibited c-MYB expression, and c-MYB knockdown reduced miR-155 expression and migration and invasion in U87 cells. Taken together, for the first time, our findings show that melatonin inhibits miR-155 expression and thereby represses glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and suggest that melatonin may downregulate the expression of miR-155 via repression of c-MYB. This will provide a theoretical basis for revealing the anti-glioma mechanisms of melatonin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Glioma Revisited: From Neurogenesis and Cancer Stem Cells to the Epigenetic Regulation of the Niche

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    Felipe de Almeida Sassi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most incident brain tumor in adults. This malignancy has very low survival rates, even when combining radio- and chemotherapy. Among the gliomas, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common and aggressive type, and patients frequently relapse or become refractory to conventional therapies. The fact that such an aggressive tumor can arise in such a carefully orchestrated organ, where cellular proliferation is barely needed to maintain its function, is a question that has intrigued scientists until very recently, when the discovery of the existence of proliferative cells in the brain overcame such challenges. Even so, the precise origin of gliomas still remains elusive. Thanks to new advents in molecular biology, researchers have been able to depict the first steps of glioma formation and to accumulate knowledge about how neural stem cells and its progenitors become gliomas. Indeed, GBM are composed of a very heterogeneous population of cells, which exhibit a plethora of tumorigenic properties, supporting the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs in these tumors. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of how gliomas initiate and progress, taking into account the role of epigenetic modulation in the crosstalk of cancer cells with their environment.

  13. TRIM8 downregulation in glioma affects cell proliferation and it is associated with patients survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micale, Lucia; Fusco, Carmela; Fontana, Andrea; Barbano, Raffaela; Augello, Bartolomeo; De Nittis, Pasquelena; Copetti, Massimiliano; Pellico, Maria Teresa; Mandriani, Barbara; Cocciadiferro, Dario; Parrella, Paola; Fazio, Vito Michele; Dimitri, Lucia Maria Cecilia; D’Angelo, Vincenzo; Novielli, Chiara; Larizza, Lidia; Daga, Antonio; Merla, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Human gliomas are a heterogeneous group of primary malignant brain tumors whose molecular pathogenesis is not yet solved. In this regard, a major research effort has been directed at identifying novel specific glioma-associated genes. Here, we investigated the effect of TRIM8 gene in glioma. TRIM8 transcriptional level was profiled in our own glioma cases collection by qPCR and confirmed in the independent TCGA glioma cohort. The association between TRIM8 expression and Overall Survival and Progression-free Survival in TCGA cohort was determined by using uni-multivariable Cox regression analysis. The effect of TRIM8 on patient glioma cell proliferation was evaluated by performing MTT and clonogenic assays. The mechanisms causing the reduction of TRIM8 expression were explored by using qPCR and in vitro assays. We showed that TRIM8 expression correlates with unfavorable clinical outcome in glioma patients. We found that a restored TRIM8 expression induced a significant reduction of clonogenic potential in U87MG and patient’s glioblastoma cells. Finally we provide experimental evidences showing that miR-17 directly targets the 3′ UTR of TRIM8 and post-transcriptionally represses the expression of TRIM8. Our study provides evidences that TRIM8 may participate in the carcinogenesis and progression of glioma and that the transcriptional repression of TRIM8 might have potential value for predicting poor prognosis in glioma patients. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1449-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  14. MicroRNA-184 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion, and specifically targets TNFAIP2 in Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhe; Wang, Hang Zhou; Li, Xuetao; Wu, Zhiwu; Han, Yong; Li, Yanyan; Chen, Guilin; Xie, Xueshun; Huang, Yulun; Du, Ziwei; Zhou, Youxin

    2015-03-26

    miRNA-184 is an oncogene in human hepatocellular carcinoma but acts as a tumor suppressor in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Studies have shown that miR-184 was down-regulated in glioma and TNFα-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2) was closely related to tumorigenesis. This study aimed to determine the functions of miR-184 in glioma and the mechanisms of miRNA-184-TNFAIP2 mediated glioma progression. Real-time reverse-transcription PCR detected expression of miR-184 and TNFAIP2. U87 and U251 cells were transfected with miR-184 mimic, inhibitor, or negative control miRNA, and their invasion abilities were assayed. Cellular proliferation was measured by the cell counting kit-8 assay. miR-184 effects on glioma cell apoptosis and cell cycle were assessed by flow cytometer. Biological information software have predicted that miR-184 could target TNFα-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2), Which was further validated by Western blot and qRT-PCR in glioma cells. In vivo, U87 cells transduced with either lentiviral over-expressed miR-184 or control lentivirus were injected into nude mice subcutaneously and intracranial respectively. Expression of miR-184 was significantly lower in glioma tissues and cell-lines compared to normal brain tissues. Protein and mRNA expression of TNFAIP2 were inversely correlated with miR-184 in glioma. In vitro, proliferation and invasion abilities were also decreased in U87 and U251 cells after transfection with miR-184 mimic. In vivo, the xenografted tumor size in the miR-184 overexpressing group were smaller than the miR-NC group. Concordantly, U87 and U251 cells transfected with miR-184 mimic had a higher apoptosis rate, triggering an accumulation of cells at the G0/G1 phase and decreased cells in S-phase. miR-184 could regulate TNFAIP2 expression and affected its translation in glioma. miR-184 could also inhibit glioma progression and might serve as a novel therapeutic target in glioma.

  15. A novel zebrafish xenotransplantation model for study of glioma stem cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Yang

    Full Text Available Invasion and metastasis of solid tumors are the major causes of death in cancer patients. Cancer stem cells (CSCs constitute a small fraction of tumor cell population, but play a critical role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The xenograft of tumor cells in immunodeficient mice is one of commonly used in vivo models to study the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. However, this model is time-consuming and labor intensive. Zebrafish (Danio rerio and their transparent embryos are emerging as a promising xenograft tumor model system for studies of tumor invasion. In this study, we established a tumor invasion model by using zebrafish embryo xenografted with human glioblastoma cell line U87 and its derived cancer stem cells (CSCs. We found that CSCs-enriched from U87 cells spreaded via the vessels within zebrafish embryos and such cells displayed an extremely high level of invasiveness which was associated with the up-regulated MMP-9 by CSCs. The invasion of glioma CSCs (GSCs in zebrafish embryos was markedly inhibited by an MMP-9 inhibitor. Thus, our zebrafish embryo model is considered a cost-effective approach tostudies of the mechanisms underlying the invasion of CSCs and suitable for high-throughput screening of novel anti-tumor invasion/metastasis agents.

  16. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Angel L. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Mena, Salvador [Green Molecular SL, Pol. Ind. La Coma-Parc Cientific, 46190 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Estrela, Jose M., E-mail: jose.m.estrela@uv.es [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-03-11

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy.

  17. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Angel L.; Mena, Salvador; Estrela, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy

  18. Demethoxycurcumin Retards Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Brain Malignant Glioma GBM 8401 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzuu-Yuan Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Demethoxycurcumin (DMC; a curcumin-related demethoxy compound has been recently shown to display antioxidant and antitumor activities. It has also produced a potent chemopreventive action against cancer. In the present study, the antiproliferation (using the MTT assay, DMC was found to have cytotoxic activities against GBM 8401 cell with IC50 values at 22.71 μM and induced apoptosis effects of DMC have been investigated in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells. We have studied the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and NF-κB transcriptional factor activity. By these approaches, our results indicated that DMC has produced an inhibition of cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells. Both effects were observed to increase in proportion with the dosage of DMC treatment, and the apoptosis was induced by DMC in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways.

  19. Arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human glioma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Maimaitili, Aisha; Shu, Zunhua; Cheng, Xiaojiang; Kaheerman, Kadeer; Sikandeer, Alifu; Li, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticancer potential of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, in malignant gliomas. The U87MG and T98G human glioma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of arctigenin for 48 h and the effects of arctigenin on the aggressive phenotypes of glioma cells were assessed. The results demonstrated that arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of U87MG and T98G cells, as determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphen...

  20. Inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation of glioma cells with Datura stramonium agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, T; Yamazaki, K; Yamori, T; Endo, T

    2002-10-07

    We found that a lectin, Datura stramonium agglutinin, induced irreversible differentiation in C6 glioma cells. The differentiated cells had long processes, a low rate of proliferation and a high content of glial fibrillary acidic protein. When the medium was replaced with Datura stramonium agglutinin-free medium after 1 h, cell proliferation continued to be inhibited. Experiments with several other lectins indicated that both recognition of linear N-acetyllactosamine repeats and recognition of multiantennary units of cell-surface glycans were required for the inhibition of C6 proliferation. Proliferation of four human glial tumour cells was also inhibited by Datura stramonium agglutinin. Further, these differentiated human glial tumour cells had long processes and a high content of glial fibrillary acidic protein similar to differentiated C6 glioma cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that Datura stramonium agglutinin may be useful as a new therapy for treating glioma without side effects. Copyright 2002 Cancer Research UK

  1. Varicella zoster virus infection of malignant glioma cell cultures: a new candidate for oncolytic virotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, Henning; Haase, Rudolf; Restle, Florian; Schichor, Christian; Albrecht, Valerie; Vizoso Pinto, Maria G; Tonn, Joerg C; Baiker, Armin; Thon, Niklas

    2012-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive tumor with a median survival of 14 months despite all standard therapies. Focusing on alternative treatment strategies, we evaluated the oncolytic potential of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in malignant glioma cell cultures. Replication of wildtype and mutant VZV was comparatively analyzed in glioma cell lines (U87, U251 and U373) and in primary malignant glioma cells (n=10) in vitro by infectious foci assay, immunofluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis. Additionally, the tumor-targeting potential of VZV-infected human mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated. VZV replicated efficiently in all the glioma cells studied here followed by rapid oncolysis in vitro. The attenuated vaccine VZV mutant rOKA/ORF63rev[T171] exhibited most efficient replication. Human mesenchymal stem cells were found suitable for targeting VZV to sites of tumor growth. VZV exhibits an intrinsic oncolytic potential in malignant glioma cell cultures and might be a novel candidate for virotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme.

  2. Cytolytic effects of autologous lymphokine-activated killer cells on organotypic multicellular spheroids of gliomas in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaijk, P.; Troost, D.; Dast, P. K.; van den Berg, F.; Leenstra, S.; Bosch, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge about lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell infiltration and LAK cell cytotoxicity is essential to improve the effectiveness of LAK cell therapy against gliomas. In the present study, organotypic multicellular spheroids (OMS) of glioma tissue were used as a culture model to study the

  3. Identification of proteins involved in neural progenitor cell targeting of gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staflin, Karin; Zuchner, Thole; Honeth, Gabriella; Darabi, Anna; Lundberg, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma are highly aggressive tumors with an average survival time of 12 months with currently available treatment. We have previously shown that specific embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPC) have the potential to target glioma growth in the CNS of rats. The neural progenitor cell treatment can cure approximately 40% of the animals with malignant gliomas with no trace of a tumor burden 6 months after finishing the experiment. Furthermore, the NPCs have been shown to respond to signals from the tumor environment resulting in specific migration towards the tumor. Based on these results we wanted to investigate what factors could influence the growth and progression of gliomas in our rodent model. Using microarrays we screened for candidate genes involved in the functional mechanism of tumor inhibition by comparing glioma cell lines to neural progenitor cells with or without anti-tumor activity. The expression of candidate genes was confirmed at RNA level by quantitative RT-PCR and at the protein level by Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Moreover, we have developed in vitro assays to mimic the antitumor effect seen in vivo. We identified several targets involved in glioma growth and migration, specifically CXCL1, CD81, TPT1, Gas6 and AXL proteins. We further showed that follistatin secretion from the NPC has the potential to decrease tumor proliferation. In vitro co-cultures of NPC and tumor cells resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth. The addition of antibodies against proteins selected by gene and protein expression analysis either increased or decreased the proliferation rate of the glioma cell lines in vitro. These results suggest that these identified factors might be useful starting points for performing future experiments directed towards a potential therapy against malignant gliomas

  4. Identification of proteins involved in neural progenitor cell targeting of gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honeth Gabriella

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma are highly aggressive tumors with an average survival time of 12 months with currently available treatment. We have previously shown that specific embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPC have the potential to target glioma growth in the CNS of rats. The neural progenitor cell treatment can cure approximately 40% of the animals with malignant gliomas with no trace of a tumor burden 6 months after finishing the experiment. Furthermore, the NPCs have been shown to respond to signals from the tumor environment resulting in specific migration towards the tumor. Based on these results we wanted to investigate what factors could influence the growth and progression of gliomas in our rodent model. Methods Using microarrays we screened for candidate genes involved in the functional mechanism of tumor inhibition by comparing glioma cell lines to neural progenitor cells with or without anti-tumor activity. The expression of candidate genes was confirmed at RNA level by quantitative RT-PCR and at the protein level by Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Moreover, we have developed in vitro assays to mimic the antitumor effect seen in vivo. Results We identified several targets involved in glioma growth and migration, specifically CXCL1, CD81, TPT1, Gas6 and AXL proteins. We further showed that follistatin secretion from the NPC has the potential to decrease tumor proliferation. In vitro co-cultures of NPC and tumor cells resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth. The addition of antibodies against proteins selected by gene and protein expression analysis either increased or decreased the proliferation rate of the glioma cell lines in vitro. Conclusion These results suggest that these identified factors might be useful starting points for performing future experiments directed towards a potential therapy against malignant gliomas.

  5. Induction of cell cycle arrest at G1 and S phases and cAMP-dependent differentiation in C6 glioma by low concentration of cycloheximide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Samuel S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation therapy has been shown effective in treatment of several types of cancer cells and may prove to be effective in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor. Although extensively used as a reagent to inhibit protein synthesis in mammalian cells, whether cycloheximide treatment leads to glioma cell differentiation has not been reported. Methods C6 glioma cell was treated with or without cycloheximide at low concentrations (0.5-1 μg/ml for 1, 2 and 3 days. Cell proliferation rate was assessed by direct cell counting and colony formation assays. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 staining and FACS analysis. Changes in several cell cycle regulators such as Cyclins D1 and E, PCNA and Ki67, and several apoptosis-related regulators such as p53, p-JNK, p-AKT, and PARP were determined by Western blot analysis. C6 glioma differentiation was determined by morphological characterization, immunostaining and Western blot analysis on upregulation of GFAP and o p-STAT3 expression, and upregulation of intracellular cAMP. Results Treatment of C6 cell with low concentration of cycloheximide inhibited cell proliferation and depleted cells at both G2 and M phases, suggesting blockade at G1 and S phases. While no cell death was observed, cells underwent profound morphological transformation that indicated cell differentiation. Western blotting and immunostaining analyses further indicated that changes in expression of several cell cycle regulators and the differentiation marker GFAP were accompanied with cycloheximide-induced cell cycle arrest and cell differentiation. Increase in intracellular cAMP, a known promoter for C6 cell differentiation, was found to be elevated and required for cycloheximide-promoted C6 cell differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest that partial inhibition of protein synthesis in C6 glioma by low concentration of cycloheximide induces cell cycle

  6. Induction of cell cycle arrest at G1 and S phases and cAMP-dependent differentiation in C6 glioma by low concentration of cycloheximide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xijun; Yang, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Samuel S; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Liu, David X

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation therapy has been shown effective in treatment of several types of cancer cells and may prove to be effective in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor. Although extensively used as a reagent to inhibit protein synthesis in mammalian cells, whether cycloheximide treatment leads to glioma cell differentiation has not been reported. C6 glioma cell was treated with or without cycloheximide at low concentrations (0.5-1 μg/ml) for 1, 2 and 3 days. Cell proliferation rate was assessed by direct cell counting and colony formation assays. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 staining and FACS analysis. Changes in several cell cycle regulators such as Cyclins D1 and E, PCNA and Ki67, and several apoptosis-related regulators such as p53, p-JNK, p-AKT, and PARP were determined by Western blot analysis. C6 glioma differentiation was determined by morphological characterization, immunostaining and Western blot analysis on upregulation of GFAP and o p-STAT3 expression, and upregulation of intracellular cAMP. Treatment of C6 cell with low concentration of cycloheximide inhibited cell proliferation and depleted cells at both G2 and M phases, suggesting blockade at G1 and S phases. While no cell death was observed, cells underwent profound morphological transformation that indicated cell differentiation. Western blotting and immunostaining analyses further indicated that changes in expression of several cell cycle regulators and the differentiation marker GFAP were accompanied with cycloheximide-induced cell cycle arrest and cell differentiation. Increase in intracellular cAMP, a known promoter for C6 cell differentiation, was found to be elevated and required for cycloheximide-promoted C6 cell differentiation. Our results suggest that partial inhibition of protein synthesis in C6 glioma by low concentration of cycloheximide induces cell cycle arrest at G1 and M phases and cAMP-dependent cell differentiation

  7. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit C is overexpressed and promotes cell proliferation in human glioma U-87 MG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jinmin; Liang, Chaohui; Jiao, Baohua

    2015-06-01

    Disrupted protein translation is prevalent in tumours. Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) were found to play an important role in various tumours. However, the involvement of eIFs in glioma remains to be elucidated. The present study explored the expression and the role of eIF 3, subunit C (eIF3c) in human glioma. The expression of eIF3c in glioma tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The impact of eIF3c inhibition on U-87 MG was explored in vitro and in vivo by lentivirus-mediated siRNA targeting eIF3c. The results revealed that overexpression of eIF3c was present in glioma tissues. Knockdown of eIF3c significantly impaired cell proliferation and colony formation, further induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the U-87 MG cell line. Furthermore, tumoursphere formation in the U-87 MG glioma xenograft model was blocked by eIF3c knockdown. The involvement of eIF3c in the tumorigenesis of glioma was confirmed, suggesting eIF3c may be a promising therapy target in human glioma.

  8. Establishment and characterization of multicellular spheroids from a human glioma cell line; Implications for tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya MB

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multicellular spheroids, an appropriate in vitro system for simulating 3-D tumor micro-milieu can be used for evaluating and predicting tumor response to therapeutic agents including metabolic inhibitors. However, detailed understanding of the nature, distribution and sensitivity/responses of cellular sub-populations to potential therapeutic agents/strategies is required for using this unique model with optimal precision. Spheroid characteristics may also vary considerably with the origin and type of cell line used, and thorough characterization of viable and dissociated glioma cell spheroids is not yet completely known. In order to evaluate in vivo responses of gliomas to various therapeutic strategies, especially the metabolic inhibitors capable of penetrating the blood brain barrier, we have characterized continuously growing spheroids of a human glioma cell line (BMG-1 with respect to organization, growth, viability, cell survival, cell death, metabolic and mitochondrial status, oxidative stress and radiation response using microscopy, flow cytometry and enzymatic assays. Spheroids were fed daily with fresh medium in order to maintain nutrient supply to outer cellular layers while hypoxia/necrosis developed in the innermost cells of enlarging spheroids. Results Volume of spheroids, fed daily with fresh medium, increased exponentially during 7–28 days of growth through three population doublings. Proportion of G1-phase cells was higher (~60% than exponentially growing monolayer cells (~48%. A significant fraction of S-phase cells turned metabolically inactive (disengaged in DNA synthesis with increasing age of the spheroids, unlike in quiescent monolayer cultures, where the fraction of S-phase cells was less than 5%. With increasing spheroid size, increasing sub-populations of cells became non-viable and entered apoptosis or necrosis revealed by Annexin-V-FITC/PI staining. PI positive (necrotic cells were not confined to

  9. T cells enhance stem-like properties and conditional malignancy in gliomas.

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    Dwain K Irvin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Small populations of highly tumorigenic stem-like cells (cancer stem cells; CSCs can exist within, and uniquely regenerate cancers including malignant brain tumors (gliomas. Many aspects of glioma CSCs (GSCs, however, have been characterized in non-physiological settings.We found gene expression similarity superiorly defined glioma "stemness", and revealed that GSC similarity increased with lower tumor grade. Using this method, we examined stemness in human grade IV gliomas (GBM before and after dendritic cell (DC vaccine therapy. This was followed by gene expression, phenotypic and functional analysis of murine GL26 tumors recovered from nude, wild-type, or DC-vaccinated host brains.GSC similarity was specifically increased in post-vaccine GBMs, and correlated best to vaccine-altered gene expression and endogenous anti-tumor T cell activity. GL26 analysis confirmed immune alterations, specific acquisition of stem cell markers, specifically enhanced sensitivity to anti-stem drug (cyclopamine, and enhanced tumorigenicity in wild-type hosts, in tumors in proportion to anti-tumor T cell activity. Nevertheless, vaccine-exposed GL26 cells were no more tumorigenic than parental GL26 in T cell-deficient hosts, though they otherwise appeared similar to GSCs enriched by chemotherapy. Finally, vaccine-exposed GBM and GL26 exhibited relatively homogeneous expression of genes expressed in progenitor cells and/or differentiation.T cell activity represents an inducible physiological process capable of proportionally enriching GSCs in human and mouse gliomas. Stem-like gliomas enriched by strong T cell activity, however, may differ from other GSCs in that their stem-like properties may be disassociated from increased tumor malignancy and heterogeneity under specific host immune conditions.

  10. Involvement of P2X7 Receptor in Proliferation and Migration of Human Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Ji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of P2X7 receptors (P2X7R results in the proliferation and migration of some types of tumor. Here, we asked whether and how the activated P2X7R contribute to proliferation and migration of human glioma cells. Results showed that the number of P2X7R positive cells was increasing with grade of tumor. In U87 and U251 human glioma cell lines, both expressed P2X7R and the expression was enhanced by 3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl ATP (BzATP, the agonist of P2X7R, and siRNA. Our results also showed that 10 μM BzATP was sufficient to induce the proliferation of glioma cell significantly, while the cell proliferation reached the peak with 100 μM BzATP. Also, the migration of U87 and U251 cells was significantly increased upon BzATP treatment. However, the number of apoptotic cells of U87 and U251 was not significantly changed by BzATP. In addition, the expression of ERK, p-ERK, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA protein was increased in BzATP-treated U87 and U251 glioma cells. PD98059, an inhibitor of the MEK/ERK pathway, blocked the increased proliferation and migration of glioma cells activated by BzATP. These results suggest that ERK pathway is involved in the proliferation and migration of glioma cells induced by P2X7R activation.

  11. Involvement of P2X7 Receptor in Proliferation and Migration of Human Glioma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhenhua; Xie, Yuting; Guan, Yu; Zhang, Yujian; Cho, Kin-Sang

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) results in the proliferation and migration of some types of tumor. Here, we asked whether and how the activated P2X7R contribute to proliferation and migration of human glioma cells. Results showed that the number of P2X7R positive cells was increasing with grade of tumor. In U87 and U251 human glioma cell lines, both expressed P2X7R and the expression was enhanced by 3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) ATP (BzATP), the agonist of P2X7R, and siRNA. Our results also showed that 10 μM BzATP was sufficient to induce the proliferation of glioma cell significantly, while the cell proliferation reached the peak with 100 μM BzATP. Also, the migration of U87 and U251 cells was significantly increased upon BzATP treatment. However, the number of apoptotic cells of U87 and U251 was not significantly changed by BzATP. In addition, the expression of ERK, p-ERK, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein was increased in BzATP-treated U87 and U251 glioma cells. PD98059, an inhibitor of the MEK/ERK pathway, blocked the increased proliferation and migration of glioma cells activated by BzATP. These results suggest that ERK pathway is involved in the proliferation and migration of glioma cells induced by P2X7R activation. PMID:29546069

  12. MicroRNA-128 inhibits proliferation and invasion of glioma cells by targeting COX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihai; Wu, Zhangyi

    2018-03-07

    MicroRNAs (miRNA), a class of small noncoding RNAs, regulates message RNA (mRNA) by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) resulting in suppression of gene expression. In this study, we identified the expression and function of miR-128, which was found to be downregulated in glioma tissues and glioma cells by real time PCR. Overexpression of miR-128 mimics into LN229 and U251 cells could inhibit proliferation and invasion of glioma cells. However, the inhibitory effects of miR-128 mimics on the invasion and proliferation of glioma cells were reversed by overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Our data showed that COX-2 was a candidate target of miR-128. Luciferase activity of 3'-UTR of COX-2 was reduced in the presence of miR-128. Additionally, miR-128 obviously decreased COX-2 mRNA stability determined by real time PCR. Contrarily, we found that miR-128 inhibitor significantly increased the COX-2 mRNA expression, and elevated the protein expression of MMP9 and ki67, and promoted the proliferation of glioma cells. Furthermore, luciferase activity of the 3'-UTR was upregulated by miR-128 inhibitor. All of these results supported that miR-128 was a direct regulator of COX-2. Further studies proved that COX-2 was elevated in glioma tissues and its expression was negatively correlated with the levels of miR-128. These findings may establish miR-128 as a new potential target for the treatment of patients with gliomas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Vacquinol-1 inducible cell death in glioblastoma multiforme is counter regulated by TRPM7 activity induced by exogenous ATP

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Philip; Mostafa, Haouraa; Soboh, Ayman; Schneider, Julian M.; Pala, Andrej; Baron, Ann-Kathrin; Moepps, Barbara; Wirtz, C. Rainer; Georgieff, Michael; Schneider, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most malignant brain tumors in humans and have a very poor prognosis. New therapeutic options are urgently needed. A novel drug, Vacquinol-1 (Vac), a quinolone derivative, displays promising properties by inducing rapid cell death in GBM but not in non-transformed tissues. Features of this type of cell death are compatible with a process termed methuosis. Here we tested Vac on a highly malignant glioma cell line observed by long-term video microscopy. Human dental-...

  14. Effects of liposome-adriamycin (L-ADM) and thermotherapy on glioma cells: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng-hua SHI; Jian-ning ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Objective  To observe the effects of liposome-adriamycin (L-ADM) and thermotherapy on proliferation and apoptosis of SWO-38 glioma cells. Methods  The SWO-38 glioma cells were cultivated in vitro. The effects of thermotherapy (43℃), ADM chemotherapy, L-ADM chemotherapy, thermotherapy + ADM chemotherapy, and thermotherapy + L-ADM chemotherapy on the cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed. The working concentration of ADM and L-ADM, and the cell proliferation rate were determined by MTT...

  15. Sox2 is translationally activated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in human glioma-initiating cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Yuqing; Zhou, Fengbiao; Chen, Hong; Cui, Chunhong; Liu, Dan; Li, Qiuping; Yang, Zhiyuan; Wu, Guoqiang; Sun, Shuhui; Gu, Jianxin; Wei, Yuanyan; Jiang, Jianhai

    2010-01-01

    Sox2, a master transcription factor, contributes to the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells and plays significant roles in sustaining the self-renewal of neural stem cells and glioma-initiating cells. Understanding the functional differences of Sox2 between glioma-initiating cells and normal neural stem cells would contribute to therapeutic approach for treatment of brain tumors. Here, we first demonstrated that Sox2 could contribute to the self-renewal and proliferation of glioma-initiating cells. The following experiments showed that Sox2 was activated at translational level in a subset of human glioma-initiating cells compared with the normal neural stem cells. Further investigation revealed there was a positive correlation between Sox2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in glioma tissues. Down-regulation of eIF4E decreased Sox2 protein level without altering its mRNA level in glioma-initiating cells, indicating that Sox2 was activated by eIF4E at translational level. Furthermore, eIF4E was presumed to regulate the expression of Sox2 by its 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequence. Our results suggest that the eIF4E-Sox2 axis is a novel mechanism of unregulated self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells, providing a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

  16. Dying glioma cells establish a proangiogenic microenvironment through a caspase 3 dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao; Yu, Yang; He, Sijia; Cheng, Jin; Gong, Yanping; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Yang, Xuguang; Xu, Bing; Liu, Xinjian; Li, Chuan-Yuan; Tian, Ling; Huang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Vascular recovery or re-angiogenesis after radiotherapy plays a significant role in tumor recurrence, whereas molecular mechanisms of this process remain elusive. In this work, we found that dying glioma cells promoted post-irradiation angiogenesis through a caspase 3 dependent mechanism. Evidence in vitro and in vivo indicated that caspase 3 inhibition undermined proangiogenic effects of dying glioma cells. Proteolytic inactivation of caspase 3 in glioma cells reduced tumorigenicity. Importantly, we identified that NF-κB/COX-2/PGE2 axis acted as downstream signaling of caspase 3, mediating proangiogenic response after irradiation. Additionally, VEGF-A, regulated by caspase 3 possibly through phosphorylated eIF4E, was recognized as another downstream factor participating in the proangiogenic response. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that caspase 3 in dying glioma cells supported the proangiogenic response after irradiation by governing NF-κB/COX-2/PGE2 axis and p-eIF4E/VEGF-A signaling. While inducing caspase 3 activation has been a generally-adopted notion in cancer therapeutics, our study counterintuitively illustrated that caspase 3 activation in dying glioma cells unfavorably supported post-irradiation angiogenesis, suggesting that radiotherapy combined with caspase 3 inhibitors may be more effective strategies due to restricted post-irradiation angiogenesis. PMID:27826040

  17. Berberine enhances inhibition of glioma tumor cell migration and invasiveness mediated by arsenic trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tseng-Hsi; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Chou, Fen-Pi; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ) exhibits promising anticarcinogenic activity in acute promyelocytic leukemic patients and induces apoptosis in various tumor cells in vitro. Here, we investigated the effect of the natural alkaloid berberine on As 2 O 3 -mediated inhibition of cancer cell migration using rat and human glioma cell lines. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the viability of rat C6 and human U-87 glioma cells after treatment with As 2 O 3 or berberine, and after co-treatment with As 2 O 3 and berberine. The wound scratch and Boyden chamber assays were applied to determine the effect of As 2 O 3 and berberine on the migration capacity and invasiveness of glioma cancer cells. Zymography and Western blot analyses provided information on the effect of As 2 O 3 and berberine on the intracellular translocation and activation of protein kinase C (PKC), and some PKC-related downstream factors. Most assays were performed three times, independently, and data were analyzed using ANOVA. The cell viability studies demonstrated that berberine enhances As 2 O 3 -mediated inhibition of glioma cell growth after 24 h incubation. Untreated control cells formed a confluent layer, the formation of which was inhibited upon incubation with 5 μM As 2 O 3 . The latter effect was even more pronounced in the presence of 10 μM berberine. The As 2 O 3 -mediated reduction in motility and invasion of glioma cells was enhanced upon co-treatment with berberine. Furthermore, it has been reported that PKC isoforms influence the morphology of the actin cytoskeleton, as well as the activation of metalloproteases MT1-MMP and MMP-2, reported to be involved in cancer cell migration. Treatment of glioma cells with As 2 O 3 and berberine significantly decreased the activation of PKC α and ε and led to actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. The levels of two downstream transcription factors, myc and jun, and MT1-MMP and MMP-2 were also

  18. Annexin A2 and zinc finger transcription factor Snail expression in glioma tissue and the regulating effect of corresponding siRNA on glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Hai Deng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the Annexin A2 and zinc finger transcription factor Snail expression in glioma tissue and the regulating effect of corresponding siRNA on glioma cells. Methods: Glioma and peri-tumor tissue were collected to determine AnnexinA2 and Snail expression; glioma cell lines U373-MG were cultured and transfected with AnnexinA2, Snail and NC siRNA, and then the cell viability, number of migrating and invading cells as well as the expression levels of proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes were detected. Results: AnnexinA2 and Snail mRNA levels in glioma tissues were significantly higher than those in peri-tumor tissues; cell viability as well as Ras, Raf, MEK and ERK mRNA levels of AnnexinA2-siRNA group was significantly lower than those of NC-siRNA group, and the migrating cell number and invading cell number as well as E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin and α-SMA mRNA levels were not significantly different from those of NC-siRNA group; migrating cell number and invading cell number as well as N-cadherin, Vimentin and α-SMA mRNA levels of Snail-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of NC-siRNA group, E-cadherin mRNA level was significantly higher than that of NC-siRNA group, and the cell viability as well as Ras, Raf, MEK and ERK mRNA levels were not significantly different from those of NC-siRNA group. Conclusions: AnnexinA2 and Snail expression levels significantly increase in glioma tissues, highly expressed AnnexinA2 can promote cell proliferation and highly expressed Snail can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  19. Transcriptome and coexpression network analysis of the human glioma cell line Hs683 exposed to candoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y X; Ma, Y; Cheng, Y

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary tumours of the central nervous system. Snake venom, such as candoxin (CDX) isolated from Bungarus candidus, inhibits glioma cell proliferation. This study explored the gene regulation profile of CDX-treated human glioma Hs683 cells. Using microarray technology and bioinformatics analyses the underlying molecular mechanism of action of CDX was evaluated by constructing gene regulation and protein-protein interaction co expression networks. CDX treatment induced a large number of related genes at the transcriptional level. The MYC gene (v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue [avian]) had a key role in the response of Hs683 cells to CDX treatment. Activation of MYC upregulated NDRG1 (N-myc downstream regulated 1), WNT10B (wingless-type mouse mammary tumour virus integration site family, member 10B), CASP9 (caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase) and CDKN2A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A), and downregulated ID3 (inhibitor of DNA binding 3, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein) and SLC1A4 (solute carrier family 1 [glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter], member 4). In addition, a subnetwork was constructed among SPP1 (secreted phosphoprotein 1), SDC1 (syndecan 1) and CD44 based on protein-protein interactions, and these genes were predicted to be involved in glioma cell invasion. These findings might provide novel therapeutic targets for glioma chemotherapy.

  20. RAD18 mediates resistance to ionizing radiation in human glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Chen; Wang, Hongwei; Cheng, Hongbin; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Zhi; Yue, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • RAD18 is an important mediator of the IR-induced resistance in glioma cell lines. • RAD18 overexpression confers resistance to IR-mediated apoptosis. • The elevated expression of RAD18 is associated with recurrent GBM who underwent IR therapy. - Abstract: Radioresistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). RAD18 a central regulator of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), has been shown to play an important role in regulating genomic stability and DNA damage response. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between RAD18 and resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and examined the expression levels of RAD18 in primary and recurrent GBM specimens. Our results showed that RAD18 is an important mediator of the IR-induced resistance in GBM. The expression level of RAD18 in glioma cells correlates with their resistance to IR. Ectopic expression of RAD18 in RAD18-low A172 glioma cells confers significant resistance to IR treatment. Conversely, depletion of endogenous RAD18 in RAD18-high glioma cells sensitized these cells to IR treatment. Moreover, RAD18 overexpression confers resistance to IR-mediated apoptosis in RAD18-low A172 glioma cells, whereas cells deficient in RAD18 exhibit increased apoptosis induced by IR. Furthermore, knockdown of RAD18 in RAD18-high glioma cells disrupts HR-mediated repair, resulting in increased accumulation of DSB. In addition, clinical data indicated that RAD18 was significantly higher in recurrent GBM samples that were exposed to IR compared with the corresponding primary GBM samples. Collectively, our findings reveal that RAD18 may serve as a key mediator of the IR response and may function as a potential target for circumventing IR resistance in human GBM

  1. Arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitili, Aisha; Shu, Zunhua; Cheng, Xiaojiang; Kaheerman, Kadeer; Sikandeer, Alifu; Li, Weimin

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticancer potential of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, in malignant gliomas. The U87MG and T98G human glioma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of arctigenin for 48 h and the effects of arctigenin on the aggressive phenotypes of glioma cells were assessed. The results demonstrated that arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of U87MG and T98G cells, as determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Arctigenin exposure also induced a 60-75% reduction in colony formation compared with vehicle-treated control cells. However, arctigenin was not observed to affect the invasiveness of glioma cells. Arctigenin significantly increased the proportion of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase and reduced the number of cells in the S phase, as compared with the control group (Parctigenin increased the expression levels of p21, retinoblastoma and p53 proteins, and significantly decreased the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 proteins. Additionally, arctigenin was able to induce apoptosis in glioma cells, coupled with increased expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 and the pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein. Furthermore, arctigenin-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed by the pretreatment of cells with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor. In conclusion, the results suggest that arctigenin is able to inhibit cell proliferation and may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 phase in glioma cells. These results warrant further investigation of the anticancer effects of arctigenin in animal models of gliomas.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells and glioma cells form a structural as well as a functional syncytium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schichor, Christian; Albrecht, Valerie; Korte, Benjamin; Buchner, Alexander; Riesenberg, Rainer; Mysliwietz, Josef; Paron, Igor; Motaln, Helena; Turnšek, Tamara Lah; Jürchott, Kathrin; Selbig, Joachim; Tonn, Joerg-Christian

    2012-03-01

    The interaction of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and tumor cells has been investigated in various contexts. HMSCs are considered as cellular treatment vectors based on their capacity to migrate towards a malignant lesion. However, concerns about unpredictable behavior of transplanted hMSCs are accumulating. In malignant gliomas, the recruitment mechanism is driven by glioma-secreted factors which lead to accumulation of both, tissue specific stem cells as well as bone marrow derived hMSCs within the tumor. The aim of the present work was to study specific cellular interactions between hMSCs and glioma cells in vitro. We show, that glioma cells as well as hMSCs differentially express connexins, and that they interact via gap-junctional coupling. Besides this so-called functional syncytium formation, we also provide evidence of cell fusion events (structural syncytium). These complex cellular interactions led to an enhanced migration and altered proliferation of both, tumor and mesenchymal stem cell types in vitro. The presented work shows that glioma cells display signs of functional as well as structural syncytium formation with hMSCs in vitro. The described cellular phenomena provide new insight into the complexity of interaction patterns between tumor cells and host cells. Based on these findings, further studies are warranted to define the impact of a functional or structural syncytium formation on malignant tumors and cell based therapies in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Programmed cell death in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomicheva, A S; Tuzhikov, A I; Beloshistov, R E; Trusova, S V; Galiullina, R A; Mochalova, L V; Chichkova, N V; Vartapetian, A B

    2012-12-01

    The modern concepts of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants are reviewed as compared to PCD (apoptosis) in animals. Special attention is focused on considering the potential mechanisms of implementation of this fundamental biological process and its participants. In particular, the proteolytic enzymes involved in PCD in animals (caspases) and plants (phytaspases) are compared. Emphasis is put on elucidation of both common features and substantial differences of PCD implementation in plants and animals.

  4. The prognostic value of clinical factors and cancer stem cell-related markers in gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlrot, Rikke Hedegaard

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Gliomas are the most frequent brain tumours among adults, and it is estimated that gliomas constitute half of the about 1500 new brain tumours diagnosed in Denmark every year. Existing treatment strategies include neurosurgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Therapy selection is based...... on experiences from clinical trials, with the risk that the results obtained are restricted to highly selected patients only. Moreover, these studies provided only little knowledge of the clinical behaviour of the tumours. For some time, it has been believed that somatic stem cells are responsible for self......-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation during development of different (normal) tissues. The same characteristics were identified in cancer cells, and recently a major part of the glioma research has focused on the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, suggesting that only CSCs posses the ability of initiating new...

  5. MiR-221/222 target the DNA methyltransferase MGMT in glioma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Quintavalle

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is one of the most deadly types of cancer. To date, the best clinical approach for treatment is based on administration of temozolomide (TMZ in combination with radiotherapy. Much evidence suggests that the intracellular level of the alkylating enzyme O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT impacts response to TMZ in GBM patients. MGMT expression is regulated by the methylation of its promoter. However, evidence indicates that this is not the only regulatory mechanism present. Here, we describe a hitherto unknown microRNA-mediated mechanism of MGMT expression regulation. We show that miR-221 and miR-222 are upregulated in GMB patients and that these paralogues target MGMT mRNA, inducing greater TMZ-mediated cell death. However, miR-221/miR-222 also increase DNA damage and, thus, chromosomal rearrangements. Indeed, miR-221 overexpression in glioma cells led to an increase in markers of DNA damage, an effect rescued by re-expression of MGMT. Thus, chronic miR-221/222-mediated MGMT downregulation may render cells unable to repair genetic damage. This, associated also to miR-221/222 oncogenic potential, may poor GBM prognosis.

  6. MiR-221/222 target the DNA methyltransferase MGMT in glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalle, Cristina; Mangani, Davide; Roscigno, Giuseppina; Romano, Giulia; Diaz-Lagares, Angel; Iaboni, Margherita; Donnarumma, Elvira; Fiore, Danilo; De Marinis, Pasqualino; Soini, Ylermi; Esteller, Manel; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most deadly types of cancer. To date, the best clinical approach for treatment is based on administration of temozolomide (TMZ) in combination with radiotherapy. Much evidence suggests that the intracellular level of the alkylating enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) impacts response to TMZ in GBM patients. MGMT expression is regulated by the methylation of its promoter. However, evidence indicates that this is not the only regulatory mechanism present. Here, we describe a hitherto unknown microRNA-mediated mechanism of MGMT expression regulation. We show that miR-221 and miR-222 are upregulated in GMB patients and that these paralogues target MGMT mRNA, inducing greater TMZ-mediated cell death. However, miR-221/miR-222 also increase DNA damage and, thus, chromosomal rearrangements. Indeed, miR-221 overexpression in glioma cells led to an increase in markers of DNA damage, an effect rescued by re-expression of MGMT. Thus, chronic miR-221/222-mediated MGMT downregulation may render cells unable to repair genetic damage. This, associated also to miR-221/222 oncogenic potential, may poor GBM prognosis.

  7. MicroRNAs let-7b/i suppress human glioma cell invasion and migration by targeting IKBKE directly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yuan; Hao, Shaobo [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Ye, Minhua [Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330006 (China); Zhang, Anling [Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Nan, Yang [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Wang, Guangxiu; Jia, Zhifan [Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Yu, Kai; Guo, Lianmei [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Pu, Peiyu [Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Huang, Qiang, E-mail: huangqiang209@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Zhong, Yue, E-mail: zhongyue2457@sina.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China)

    2015-03-06

    We demonstrated that IKBKE is overexpressed in human gliomas and that the downregulation of IKBKE markedly inhibits the proliferative and invasive abilities of glioma cells, which is consistent with the results reported by several different research groups. Therefore, IKBKE represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. In the present study, we verified that the microRNAs let-7b and let-7i target IKBKE through luciferase assays and found that let-7b/i mimics can knock down IKBKE and upregulate E-cadherin through western blot analysis. Moreover, the expression levels of let-7b/i were significantly lower in glioma cell lines than that in normal brain tissues, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells, as determined through wound healing and Transwell assays. The above-mentioned data suggest that let-7b/i inhibit the invasive ability of glioma cells by directly downregulating IKBKE and indirectly upregulating E-cadherin. - Highlights: • Let-7b and let-7i are downregulated in glioma cell lines. • IKBKE is a target gene of let-7b/i. • Let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells. • Let-7b/i upregulate E-cadherin by downregulating IKBKE.

  8. MicroRNAs let-7b/i suppress human glioma cell invasion and migration by targeting IKBKE directly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Yuan; Hao, Shaobo; Ye, Minhua; Zhang, Anling; Nan, Yang; Wang, Guangxiu; Jia, Zhifan; Yu, Kai; Guo, Lianmei; Pu, Peiyu; Huang, Qiang; Zhong, Yue

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that IKBKE is overexpressed in human gliomas and that the downregulation of IKBKE markedly inhibits the proliferative and invasive abilities of glioma cells, which is consistent with the results reported by several different research groups. Therefore, IKBKE represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. In the present study, we verified that the microRNAs let-7b and let-7i target IKBKE through luciferase assays and found that let-7b/i mimics can knock down IKBKE and upregulate E-cadherin through western blot analysis. Moreover, the expression levels of let-7b/i were significantly lower in glioma cell lines than that in normal brain tissues, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells, as determined through wound healing and Transwell assays. The above-mentioned data suggest that let-7b/i inhibit the invasive ability of glioma cells by directly downregulating IKBKE and indirectly upregulating E-cadherin. - Highlights: • Let-7b and let-7i are downregulated in glioma cell lines. • IKBKE is a target gene of let-7b/i. • Let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells. • Let-7b/i upregulate E-cadherin by downregulating IKBKE

  9. TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression through Smad and ERK1/2 pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Su-zhi [Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou 317000, Zhejiang (China); Lin, Yan; Cao, Xiao-pan [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Jia-ming, E-mail: wzljm@126.com [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression in glioma cells. •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression via activating Smad and ERK1/2 pathways. •TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression. -- Abstract: While there were certain studies focusing on the mechanism of TGF-β promoting the growth of glioma cells, the present work revealed another novel mechanism that TGF-β may promote glioma cell growth via enhancing Nodal expression. Our results showed that Nodal expression was significantly upregulated in glioma cells when TGF-β was added, whereas the TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was evidently inhibited by transfection Smad2 or Smad3 siRNAs, and the suppression was especially significant when the Smad3 was downregulated. Another, the attenuation of TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was observed with blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway also. Further detection of the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of glioma cells indicated that Nodal overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells and inhibited their apoptosis, resembling the effect of TGF-β addition. Downregulation of Nodal expression via transfection Nodal-specific siRNA in the presence of TGF-β weakened the promoting effect of the latter on glioma cells growth, and transfecting Nodal siRNA alone in the absence of exogenous TGF-β more profoundly inhibited the growth of glioma cells. These results demonstrated that while both TGF-β and Nodal promoted glioma cells growth, the former might exert such effect by enhancing Nodal expression, which may form a new target for glioma therapy.

  10. Migratory, invasive and metastatic capacity of NCAM transfected rat glioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, K; Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, was transfected into the rat glioma cell line BT4Cn. Transfectants with a homogeneously high expression of NCAM-B showed a decreased capacity for penetration of an artificial basement membrane when compared...

  11. Glucocorticoids and the cell surface of human glioma cells: relationship to cytostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, A E; Freshney, R I; Akturk, F; Hunt, G

    1988-12-01

    The glucocorticoid hormones methyl prednisolone and dexamethasone were shown to be cytostatic, but not cytotoxic, at high cell densities for early passage and continuous cell lines from human glioma at 0.25 microM and above, in the presence or absence of serum. In the absence of serum both steroids at 2.5 nM increased the saturation density close to the level reached in serum. Examination of the iodinated glycoproteins of the cell surface by gel electrophoresis did not reveal any consistent change. However, gel exclusion chromatography of protease digests of the cell surface and of material released into the medium showed an increase in incorporation of 3H-glucosamine in pronase digests after treatment with methyl prednisolone. Ion exchange chromatography showed that sulphated glycosaminoglycans, particularly heparan sulphate, increased and hyaluronic acid decreased in response to steroids, and there was increased retention of GAGs on the cell surface relative to the released fraction. It was concluded that glucocorticoid hormones modify the cell surface of human glioma cells and that this may contribute to enhanced cell intraction and lead to increased density limitation of cell proliferation.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells show little tropism for the resting and differentiated cancer stem cell-like glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenlin; Jiang, Zhongmin; Huang, Jianyong; Huang, Shuqiang; Li, Yanxia; Sheng, Feng; Yu, Simiao; Yu, Shizhu; Liu, Xiaozhi

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsic resistance of glioma cells to radiation and chemotherapy is currently hypothesized to be partially attributed to the existence of cancer stem cells. Emerging studies suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may serve as a potential carrier for delivery of therapeutic genes to disseminated glioma cells. However, the tropism character of mesenchymal stem cells for cancer stem cell-like glioma cells has rarely been described. In this study, we obtained homologous bone marrow-derived (BM-) and adipose tissue-derived (AT-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), fibroblast, and cancer stem cell-like glioma cells (CSGCs) from tumor-bearing mice, and compared the tropism character of BM- and AT-MSCs for CSGCs with various form of existence. To characterize the cell proliferation and differentiation, the spheroids of CSGCs were cultured on the surface of the substrate with different stiffness, combined with or withdrew basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in medium. Our results showed that the CSGCs during the process of cell proliferation, but not in resting and differentiated status, display strong tropism characteristics on both BM- and AT-MSCs, as well as the expression of their cell chemokine factors which mediate cell migration. If the conclusion is further confirmed, it may expose a fatal flaw of MSCs as tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic agents in the treatment of the CSGCs, even other cancer stem cells, because there always exist a part of cancer stem cells that are in resting status. Overall, our findings provide novel insight into the complex issue of the MSCs as drug delivery in the treatment of brain tumors, especially in tumor stem cells.

  13. Human pontine glioma cells can induce murine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caretti, Viola; Sewing, A. Charlotte P.; Lagerweij, Tonny; Schellen, Pepijn; Bugiani, Marianna; Jansen, Marc H. A.; van Vuurden, Dannis G.; Navis, Anna C.; Horsman, Ilona; Vandertop, W. Peter; Noske, David P.; Wesseling, Pieter; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Nazarian, Javad; Vogel, Hannes; Hulleman, Esther; Monje, Michelle; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), with a median survival of only 9 months, is the leading cause of pediatric brain cancer mortality. Dearth of tumor tissue for research has limited progress in this disease until recently. New experimental models for DIPG research are now emerging. To develop

  14. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedo, A.; Mali, R.; Drbal, Karel; Lisa, V.; Vlasicova, K.; Mareš, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2001), s. 57-63 ISSN 1121-760X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Keywords : protease * glioma * dipeptidyl peptidase IV Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2001

  15. A multiscale model for glioma spread including cell-tissue interactions and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engwer, Christian; Knappitsch, Markus; Surulescu, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Glioma is a broad class of brain and spinal cord tumors arising from glia cells, which are the main brain cells that can develop into neoplasms. They are highly invasive and lead to irregular tumor margins which are not precisely identifiable by medical imaging, thus rendering a precise enough resection very difficult. The understanding of glioma spread patterns is hence essential for both radiological therapy as well as surgical treatment. In this paper we propose a multiscale model for glioma growth including interactions of the cells with the underlying tissue network, along with proliferative effects. Our current accounting for two subpopulations of cells to accomodate proliferation according to the go-or-grow dichtomoty is an extension of the setting in [16]. As in that paper, we assume that cancer cells use neuronal fiber tracts as invasive pathways. Hence, the individual structure of brain tissue seems to be decisive for the tumor spread. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is able to provide such information, thus opening the way for patient specific modeling of glioma invasion. Starting from a multiscale model involving subcellular (microscopic) and individual (mesoscale) cell dynamics, we perform a parabolic scaling to obtain an approximating reaction-diffusion-transport equation on the macroscale of the tumor cell population. Numerical simulations based on DTI data are carried out in order to assess the performance of our modeling approach.

  16. Inhibition of IRE1 modifies effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of TNFα-related genes in U87 glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kryvdiuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme-1, the major signaling pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress, significantly decreases glioma cell proliferation and tumor growth. We have studied the expression of TNFα-related genes and effect of glucose deprivation on these gene expressions in U87 glioma cells overexpressing dominant-negative IRE1 defective in both kinase and endonuclease (dn-IRE1 activity of IRE1 with hopes of elucidating its contribution to IRE1 mediated glioma growth. We have demonstrated that glucose deprivation condition leads to down-regulation of the expression of TNFRSF11B, TNFRSF1A, TNFRSF10D/TRAILR4, and LITAF genes and up-regulation of TNFRSF10B/TRAILR2/DR5 gene at the mRNA level in control glioma cells. At the same time, the expression of TNFRSF21/DR6, TNFAIP1, TNFAIP3, TRADD, and CD70/TNFSF7 genes in control glioma cells is resistant to glucose deprivation condition. The inhibition of IRE1 modifies the effect of glucose deprivation on LITAF, TNFRSF21, TNFRSF11B, and TRADD gene expressions and induces sensitivity to glucose deprivation condition the expression of TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF1A, and CD70 genes. We have also demonstrated that the expression of all studied genes is affected in glioma cells by inhibition of IRE1, except TNFRSF1A gene, as compared to control glioma cells. Moreover, the changes in the expression of TNFRSF1A, TNFRSF10D/TRAILR4, and LITAF genes induced by glucose deprivation condition have opposite orientation to that induced by inhibition of IRE1. The present study demonstrates that fine-tuning of the expression of TNFα-induced proteins and TNF receptor superfamily genes, which related to cell death and proliferation, is regulated by IRE1, an effector of endoplasmic reticulum stress, as well as depends on glucose deprivation in gene specific manner. Thus, the inhibition of kinase and endoribonuclease activity of IRE1 correlates with deregulation of TNFα-induced protein genes and TNF receptor

  17. Imaging Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Experimental Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Klose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7 belongs to the superfamily of transforming growth factor β-like cytokines, which can act either as tumor suppressors or as tumor promoters depending on cell type and differentiation. Our investigations focused on analyzing the effects of BMP-7 during glioma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. BMP-7 treatment decreased the proliferation of Gli36ΔEGFR-LITG glioma cells up to 50%through a cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase but not by induction of apoptosis. This effect was mediated by the modulation of the expression and phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, and downstream retinoblastoma protein. Furthermore, in vivo optical imaging of luciferase activity of Gli36ΔEGFR-LITG cells implanted intracranially into nude mice in the presence or absence of BMP-7 treatment corroborated the antiproliferative effects of this cytokine. This report clearly underlines the tumor-suppressive role of BMP-7 in glioma-derived cells. Taken together, our results indicate that manipulating the BMP/transforming growth factor β signaling cascade may serve as a new strategy for imaging-guided molecular-targeted therapy of malignant gliomas.

  18. mir-300 promotes self-renewal and inhibits the differentiation of glioma stem-like cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Daming

    2014-01-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have been critically implicated in several human cancers. miRNAs are thought to participate in various biological processes, including proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and even the regulation of the stemness properties of cancer stem cells. In this study, we explore the potential role of miR-300 in glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs). We isolated GSLCs from glioma biopsy specimens and identified the stemness properties of the cells through neurosphere formation assays, multilineage differentiation ability analysis, and immunofluorescence analysis of glioma stem cell markers. We found that miR-300 is commonly upregulated in glioma tissues, and the expression of miR-300 was higher in GSLCs. The results of functional experiments demonstrated that miR-300 can enhance the self-renewal of GSLCs and reduce differentiation toward both astrocyte and neural fates. In addition, LZTS2 is a direct target of miR-300. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the critical role of miR-300 in GSLCs and its functions in LZTS2 inhibition and describe a new approach for the molecular regulation of tumor stem cells. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

  19. Polycation-mediated integrated cell death processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Andersen, Helene; Wu, Linping

    2014-01-01

    standard. PEIs are highly efficient transfectants, but depending on their architecture and size they induce cytotoxicity through different modes of cell death pathways. Here, we briefly review dynamic and integrated cell death processes and pathways, and discuss considerations in cell death assay design...

  20. Radiosensitization and relative mechanisms of vanillin derivative BVAN08 on human glioma U-251 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shubin; Zhang Bo; Sun Weijian; Wang Yu; Liu Xiaodan; Xu Qinzhi; Zhou Pingkun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide more convincing evidences and experimental data for exploring vanillin derivative BVAN08, 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde, as a new anticancer drug, and to investigate the effect on the growth, radiosensitization of human glioma cell line U-251 and the relative mechanism. Methods: The effect of BVAN08 on cell proliferation of U-251 and radiosensitivity to 60 Co γ-rays (irradiation dose rate 2.3 Gy/min) were analyzed with MTT and colony-forming ability assay. Change in cellular morphology was observed by using light microscope. Change in cell cycle and apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. The autophagy was observed by using TEM (irradiation dose rate is transmission electron microscope). DNA-PKcs protein level was detected through Western blot analysis. Results: BVAN08 exhibited a dose- and time-dependent inhibition on the proliferation of U-251 cells during the concentration range of 10-100 mol/L (t=1.83-3.07, P 50 at 48 h and 72 h after administration with BVAN08 were 55.3 and 52.7 mol/L, respectively. Obvious G 2 /M arrest was induced in U-251 cells after 4 h administration with BVAN08, and reached peck at 12 h. The G 2 /M population reached 63.3% in U-251 cells after 12 h administration of 60 μmol/L BVAN08 and kept increasing with the time, while both apoptosis and autophagic cell death were induced. The most effective radiosensitization time for BVAN08 treatment was 12 h before irradiation. The enhancement ratio of radiosensitivity was 3.14 for 20 μmol/L of BVAN08 12 h before 2 Gy irradiation. Conclusions: BVAN08 can induce apoptosis as radiosensitizing effect might be associated with the induction of G 2 /M arrest and inhibition of DNA-PKcs expression. BVAN08 seemed to be a promising radiosensitizing anticancer drug. (authors)

  1. Stochastic modelling of slow-progressing tumors: Analysis and applications to the cell interplay and control of low grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Clara Rojas; Fernández Calvo, Gabriel; Ramis-Conde, Ignacio; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan

    2017-08-01

    Tumor-normal cell interplay defines the course of a neoplastic malignancy. The outcome of this dual relation is the ultimate prevailing of one of the cells and the death or retreat of the other. In this paper we study the mathematical principles that underlay one important scenario: that of slow-progressing cancers. For this, we develop, within a stochastic framework, a mathematical model to account for tumor-normal cell interaction in such a clinically relevant situation and derive a number of deterministic approximations from the stochastic model. We consider in detail the existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the deterministic model and study the stability analysis. We then focus our model to the specific case of low grade gliomas, where we introduce an optimal control problem for different objective functionals under the administration of chemotherapy. We derive the conditions for which singular and bang-bang control exist and calculate the optimal control and states.

  2. Protective effect of taurine on triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP)-induced cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yachen; Piao, Fengyuan; Liu, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    Triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP) an organophosphorus ester can cause neurotoxicity via oxidative stress pathway. Taurine is an antioxidant. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of taurine on TOCP-induced cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cell. The C6 glioma cells were pretreated with 0, 1, 3, and 9 mM of taurine for 30 min prior to 1 mM TOCP treatment. After 48 h, cell survival was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The content of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also analyzed by kits. Our results showed that survival of the glioma cells decreased in the group treated with TOCP alone and increased significantly in the groups pretreated with taurine in a concentration-dependent manner. TOCP induced decrease in the activity of GPx and the content of GSH. However, taurine prevented these decreases. Our results suggested that taurine has protective effect on TOCP-induced toxicity to glioma cells via elevating antioxidant capacity.

  3. Picosecond fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope for imaging of living glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qiyin; Wang, Jingjing; Sun, Yinghua; Vernier, Thomas; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Jo, Javier; Thu, Mya M.; Gundersen, Martin A.; Marcu, Laura

    2005-03-01

    In this communication, we report the imaging of living glioma cells using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) technique. The growing interests in developing novel techniques for diagnosis and minimally invasive therapy of brain tumor have led to microscopic studies of subcellular structures and intracellular processes in glioma cells. Fluorescence microscopy has been used with a number of exogenous molecular probes specific for certain intracellular structures such as mitochondria, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), and calcium concentration. When probes with overlapping emission spectra being used, separate samples are required to image each probe individually under conventional fluorescence microscopy. We have developed a wide-field FLIM microscope that uses fluorescence lifetime as an additional contrast for resolving multiple markers in the same essay. The FLIM microscope consists of a violet diode laser and a nitrogen-pumped dye laser to provide tunable sub-nanosecond excitation from UV to NIR. The detection system is based on a time-gated ICCD camera with minimum 80 ps gate width. The performance of the system was evaluated using fluorescence dyes with reported lifetime values. Living rat glioma C6 cells were stained with JC-1 and Rhodamine 123. FLIM images were acquired and their lifetimes in living cells were found in good agreements with values measured in solutions by a time-domain fluorescence spectrometer. These results indicate that imaging of glioma cells using FLIM can resolve multiple spectrally-overlapping probes and provide quantitative functional information about the intracellular environment.

  4. Eupalmerin acetate, a novel anticancer agent from Caribbean gorgonian octocorals, induces apoptosis in malignant glioma cells via the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamaru, Arifumi; Iwado, Eiji; Kondo, Seiji; Newman, Robert A; Vera, Burnilda; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Kondo, Yasuko

    2007-01-01

    The marine ecosystem is a vast but largely untapped resource for potential naturally based medicines. We tested 15 compounds derived from organisms found in the Caribbean Sea (14 gorgonian octocoral-derived compounds and one sponge-derived compound) for their anticancer effects on human malignant glioma U87-MG and U373-MG cells. Eupalmerin acetate (EPA) was chosen as the lead compound based on its longer-term stability and greater cytotoxicity than those of the other compounds we tested in these cell types. EPA induced G(2)-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway; it translocated Bax from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria and dissipated the mitochondrial transmembrane potential in both cell types. EPA was found to increase phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) by >50% in both U87-MG and U373-MG cells. A specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, inhibited EPA-induced apoptosis, confirming the involvement of the JNK pathway in EPA-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, 7 days of daily intratumoral injections of EPA significantly suppressed the growth of s.c. malignant glioma xenografts (P < 0.01, on day 19). These results indicate that EPA is therapeutically effective against malignant glioma cells in vitro and in vivo and that it, or a similar marine-based compound, may hold promise as a clinical anticancer agent.

  5. A computational model incorporating neural stem cell dynamics reproduces glioma incidence across the lifespan in the human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Bauer

    Full Text Available Glioma is the most common form of primary brain tumor. Demographically, the risk of occurrence increases until old age. Here we present a novel computational model to reproduce the probability of glioma incidence across the lifespan. Previous mathematical models explaining glioma incidence are framed in a rather abstract way, and do not directly relate to empirical findings. To decrease this gap between theory and experimental observations, we incorporate recent data on cellular and molecular factors underlying gliomagenesis. Since evidence implicates the adult neural stem cell as the likely cell-of-origin of glioma, we have incorporated empirically-determined estimates of neural stem cell number, cell division rate, mutation rate and oncogenic potential into our model. We demonstrate that our model yields results which match actual demographic data in the human population. In particular, this model accounts for the observed peak incidence of glioma at approximately 80 years of age, without the need to assert differential susceptibility throughout the population. Overall, our model supports the hypothesis that glioma is caused by randomly-occurring oncogenic mutations within the neural stem cell population. Based on this model, we assess the influence of the (experimentally indicated decrease in the number of neural stem cells and increase of cell division rate during aging. Our model provides multiple testable predictions, and suggests that different temporal sequences of oncogenic mutations can lead to tumorigenesis. Finally, we conclude that four or five oncogenic mutations are sufficient for the formation of glioma.

  6. Cell death in the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Murray; Bennett, Martin; Littlewood, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    Cell death is important for both development and tissue homeostasis in the adult. As such, it is tightly controlled and deregulation is associated with diverse pathologies; for example, regulated cell death is involved in vessel remodelling during development or following injury, but deregulated death is implicated in pathologies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm formation, ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathies and infarction. We describe the mechanisms of cell death and its role in the normal physiology and various pathologies of the cardiovascular system. PMID:16547202

  7. Analysis of changes in energy and redox states in HepG2 hepatoma and C6 glioma cells upon exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.S.; Yu, L.C.; Gupta, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    M. Results of the present study also showed that there were differences between the two cells in response to the same level of Cd exposure. The C6 glioma cells were more sensitive to Cd-induced injuries. Although there was a decrease in total amount of high energy phosphate as cell viability decreased, the surviving cells were not devoid of high energy phosphates. The relative abundance of ATP amongst the adenosine nucleotide pool and the increase in ECP could be interpreted as a way the cells signal the conservation of energy utilization in response to the damaged mitochondrial function. This move for energy conservation might be the cause of eventual cell death through the process of apoptosis

  8. Transient increase in neuronal chloride concentration by neuroactive amino acids released from glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBertollini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal chloride concentration ([Cl-]i is known to be dynamically modulated and alterations in Cl- homeostasis may occur in the brain at physiological and pathological conditions, being also likely involved in glioma-related seizures. However, the mechanism leading to changes in neuronal [Cl-]i during glioma invasion are still unclear. To characterize the potential effect of glioma released soluble factors on neuronal [Cl-]i, we used genetically encoded CFP/YFP-based ratiometric Cl-Sensor transiently expressed in cultured hippocampal neurons. Exposition of neurons to glioma conditioned medium (GCM caused rapid and transient elevation of [Cl-]i, resulting in the increase of fluorescence ratio, which was strongly reduced by blockers of ionotropic glutamate receptors APV and NBQX. Furthermore, in HEK cells expressing GluR1-AMPA receptors, GCM activated ionic current with efficacy similar to those caused by glutamate, supporting the notion that GCM contains glutamate or glutamatergic agonists, which cause neuronal depolarization, activation of NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors leading to elevation of [Cl-]i. Chromatographic analysis of the GCM showed that it contained several aminoacids, including glutamate, whose release from glioma cells did not occur via the most common glial mechanisms of transport, or in response to hypoosmotic stress. GCM also contained glycine, whose action contrasted the glutamate effect. Indeed, strychnine application significantly increased GCM-induced depolarization and [Cl-]i rise. GCM-evoked [Cl-]i elevation was not inhibited by antagonists of Cl- transporters and significantly reduced in the presence of anion channels blocker NPPB, suggesting that Cl-selective channels are a major route for GCM-induced Cl- influx. Altogether, these data show that glioma released aminoacids may dynamically alter Cl- equilibrium in surrounding neurons, deeply interfering with their inhibitory balance, likely leading to physiological and

  9. Nicotine enhances proliferation, migration, and radioresistance of human malignant glioma cells through EGFR activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.A.; Jameson, M.J.; Broaddus, W.C.; Lin, P.S.; Chung, T.D.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that continued tobacco use during radiation therapy contributes to maintenance of neoplastic growth despite treatment with radiation. Nicotine is a cigarette component that is an established risk factor for many diseases, neoplastic and otherwise. The hypothesis of this work is that nicotine promotes the proliferation, migration, and radioresistance of human malignant glioma cells. The effect of nicotine on cellular proliferation, migration, signaling, and radiation sensitivity were evaluated for malignant glioma U87 and GBM12 cells by use of the AlamarBlue, scratch healing, and clonogenic survival assays. Signal transduction was assessed by immunoblotting for activated EGFR, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), and AKT. At concentrations comparable with those found in chronic smokers, nicotine induced malignant glioma cell migration, growth, colony formation, and radioresistance. Nicotine increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyr992 , AKT ser473 , and ERK. These molecular effects were reduced by pharmacological inhibitors of EGFR, PI3K, and MEK. It was therefore concluded that nicotine stimulates the malignant behavior of glioma cells in vitro by activation of the EGFR and downstream AKT and ERK pathways. (author)

  10. Culture methods of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma cells determine response to targeted therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, Michaël H.; Sewing, A. Charlotte P.; Waranecki, Piotr; Metselaar, Dennis S.; Wedekind, Laurine E.; Koster, Jan; van Vuurden, Dannis G.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Hulleman, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive type of brainstem cancer occurring mainly in children, for which there currently is no effective therapy. Current efforts to develop novel therapeutics for this tumor make use of primary cultures of DIPG cells, maintained either as adherent

  11. What is the clinical value of cancer stem cell markers in gliomas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlrot, Rikke Hedegaard; Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2013-01-01

    Recent data indicate that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for resistance of glioblastomas to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, thereby contributing to the poor survival of these patients. In order to identify novel prognostic markers in gliomas, several CSC markers have been investigated...

  12. Glutamate as chemotactic fuel for diffuse glioma cells: are they glutamate suckers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, Sanne A. M.; Navis, Anna C.; Verrijp, Kiek; Niclou, Simone P.; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Wesseling, Pieter; Tops, Bastiaan; Molenaar, Remco; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Leenders, William P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse gliomas comprise a group of primary brain tumors that originate from glial (precursor) cells and present as a variety of malignancy grades which have in common that they grow by diffuse infiltration. This phenotype complicates treatment enormously as it precludes curative surgery and

  13. What is the clinical value of cancer stem cell markers in gliomas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlrot, Rikke Hedegaard; Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2013-01-01

    Recent data indicate that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for resistance of glioblastomas to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, thereby contributing to the poor survival of these patients. In order to identify novel prognostic markers in gliomas, several CSC markers have been investigated. T...

  14. Escin reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on glioma and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, Gülşen Akalin; Işcan, Arzu; Kutlu, Mehtap

    2015-10-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut) seed extract has a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is escin. It is known that several medicinal herbs with anti-inflammatory properties have been found to have a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of escin in the C6 glioma and A549 cell lines were analyzed by MTT. Apoptotic effects of escin on both cell lines were evaluated by Annexin V binding capacity with flow cytometric analysis. Structural and ultrastructural changes were also evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that escin has potent antiproliferative effects against C6 glioma and A549 cells. These effects are both dose and time dependent. Taken together, escin possesses cell cycle arrest on G0/G1 phase and selective apoptotic activity on A549 cells as indicated by increased Annexin V-binding capacity, bax protein expression, caspase-3 activity and morphological changes obtained from micrographs by transmission electron microscopy.

  15. Programmed Cell Death in Neurospora crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pedro Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death has been studied for decades in mammalian cells, but simpler organisms, including prokaryotes, plants, and fungi, also undergo regulated forms of cell death. We highlight the usefulness of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa as a model organism for the study of programmed cell death. In N. crassa, cell death can be triggered genetically due to hyphal fusion between individuals with different allelic specificities at het loci, in a process called “heterokaryon incompatibility.” Chemical induction of cell death can also be achieved upon exposure to death-inducing agents like staurosporine, phytosphingosine, or hydrogen peroxide. A summary of the recent advances made by our and other groups on the discovery of the mechanisms and mediators underlying the process of cell death in N. crassa is presented.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Aaronson, Stuart A; Abrams, John M; Adam, Dieter; Agostinis, Patrizia; Alnemri, Emad S; Altucci, Lucia; Amelio, Ivano; Andrews, David W; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Antonov, Alexey V; Arama, Eli; Baehrecke, Eric H; Barlev, Nickolai A; Bazan, Nicolas G; Bernassola, Francesca; Bertrand, Mathieu J M; Bianchi, Katiuscia; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V; Blomgren, Klas; Borner, Christoph; Boya, Patricia; Brenner, Catherine; Campanella, Michelangelo; Candi, Eleonora; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Cecconi, Francesco; Chan, Francis K-M; Chandel, Navdeep S; Cheng, Emily H; Chipuk, Jerry E; Cidlowski, John A; Ciechanover, Aaron; Cohen, Gerald M; Conrad, Marcus; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R; Czabotar, Peter E; D'Angiolella, Vincenzo; Dawson, Ted M; Dawson, Valina L; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; De Maria, Ruggero; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Deshmukh, Mohanish; Di Daniele, Nicola; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Dixit, Vishva M; Dixon, Scott J; Duckett, Colin S; Dynlacht, Brian D; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Elrod, John W; Fimia, Gian Maria; Fulda, Simone; García-Sáez, Ana J; Garg, Abhishek D; Garrido, Carmen; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Golstein, Pierre; Gottlieb, Eyal; Green, Douglas R; Greene, Lloyd A; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Gross, Atan; Hajnoczky, Gyorgy; Hardwick, J Marie; Harris, Isaac S; Hengartner, Michael O; Hetz, Claudio; Ichijo, Hidenori; Jäättelä, Marja; Joseph, Bertrand; Jost, Philipp J; Juin, Philippe P; Kaiser, William J; Karin, Michael; Kaufmann, Thomas; Kepp, Oliver; Kimchi, Adi; Kitsis, Richard N; Klionsky, Daniel J; Knight, Richard A; Kumar, Sharad; Lee, Sam W; Lemasters, John J; Levine, Beth; Linkermann, Andreas; Lipton, Stuart A; Lockshin, Richard A; López-Otín, Carlos; Lowe, Scott W; Luedde, Tom; Lugli, Enrico; MacFarlane, Marion; Madeo, Frank; Malewicz, Michal; Malorni, Walter; Manic, Gwenola; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Martin, Seamus J; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Medema, Jan Paul; Mehlen, Patrick; Meier, Pascal; Melino, Sonia; Miao, Edward A; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Moll, Ute M; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina; Nagata, Shigekazu; Nuñez, Gabriel; Oberst, Andrew; Oren, Moshe; Overholtzer, Michael; Pagano, Michele; Panaretakis, Theocharis; Pasparakis, Manolis; Penninger, Josef M; Pereira, David M; Pervaiz, Shazib; Peter, Marcus E; Piacentini, Mauro; Pinton, Paolo; Prehn, Jochen H M; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Rehm, Markus; Rizzuto, Rosario; Rodrigues, Cecilia M P; Rubinsztein, David C; Rudel, Thomas; Ryan, Kevin M; Sayan, Emre; Scorrano, Luca; Shao, Feng; Shi, Yufang; Silke, John; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Sistigu, Antonella; Stockwell, Brent R; Strasser, Andreas; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Tait, Stephen W G; Tang, Daolin; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Thorburn, Andrew; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Turk, Boris; Vanden Berghe, Tom; Vandenabeele, Peter; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Villunger, Andreas; Virgin, Herbert W; Vousden, Karen H; Vucic, Domagoj; Wagner, Erwin F; Walczak, Henning; Wallach, David; Wang, Ying; Wells, James A; Wood, Will; Yuan, Junying; Zakeri, Zahra; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Zitvogel, Laurence; Melino, Gerry; Kroemer, Guido

    2018-03-01

    Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, immunogenic cell death, cellular senescence, and mitotic catastrophe, we discuss the utility of neologisms that refer to highly specialized instances of these processes. The mission of the NCCD is to provide a widely accepted nomenclature on cell death in support of the continued development of the field.

  17. Metabolic regulation of glioma stem-like cells in the tumor micro-environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tom M; Yu, John S

    2017-11-01

    Cancer metabolism has emerged as one of the most interesting old ideas being revisited from a new perspective. In the early 20th century Otto Warburg declared metabolism the prime cause in a disease of many secondary causes, and this statement seems more prescient in view of modern expositions into the true nature of tumor evolution. As the complexity of tumor heterogeneity becomes more clear from a genetic perspective, it is important to consider the inevitably heterogeneous metabolic components of the tumor and the tumor microenvironment. High grade gliomas remain one of the most difficult to treat solid tumors, due in part to the highly vascularized nature of the tumor and the maintenance of more resistant stem-like subpopulations within the tumor. Maintenance of glioma stem cells (GSCs) requires specific alterations within the cells and the greater tumor microenvironment with regards to signaling and metabolism. Specific niches within gliomas help foster the survival of stem-like sub-populations of cells with high tumorigenicity and high metabolic plasticity. Understanding these maintenance pathways and the metabolic dependencies within the niche may highlight potential avenues of addressing tumor resistance and recurrence in glioma patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PP2A Inhibitor PME-1 Drives Kinase Inhibitor Resistance in Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Denisova, Oxana V; Qiao, Xi; Jumppanen, Mikael; Peuhu, Emilia; Ahmed, Shafiq U; Raheem, Olayinka; Haapasalo, Hannu; Eriksson, John; Chalmers, Anthony J; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Westermarck, Jukka

    2016-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme lacks effective therapy options. Although deregulated kinase pathways are drivers of malignant progression in glioblastoma multiforme, glioma cells exhibit intrinsic resistance toward many kinase inhibitors, and the molecular basis of this resistance remains poorly understood. Here, we show that overexpression of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor protein PME-1 drives resistance of glioma cells to various multikinase inhibitors. The PME-1-elicited resistance was dependent on specific PP2A complexes and was mediated by a decrease in cytoplasmic HDAC4 activity. Importantly, both PME-1 and HDAC4 associated with human glioma progression, supporting clinical relevance of the identified mechanism. Synthetic lethality induced by both PME-1 and HDAC4 inhibition was dependent on the coexpression of proapoptotic protein BAD. Thus, PME-1-mediated PP2A inhibition is a novel mechanistic explanation for multikinase inhibitor resistance in glioma cells. Clinically, these results may inform patient stratification strategies for future clinical trials with selected kinase inhibitors in glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer Res; 76(23); 7001-11. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Cyclic hexapeptide-conjugated nanoparticles enhance curcumin delivery to glioma tumor cells and tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Xuemei Zhang,1–3 Xuejuan Li,1,4 Hongchen Hua,1 Aiping Wang,1 Wanhui Liu,1–3 Youxin Li,1–3 Fenghua Fu,1–3 Yanan Shi,5 Kaoxiang Sun1 1School of Pharmacy, Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Long-acting and Targeting Drug Delivery System, Yantai, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Luye Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 4National Engineering and Technology Research Center of Chirality Pharmaceutical, Lunan Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 5School of Pharmacy, Binzhou Medical University, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Glioma has one of the highest mortality rates among primary brain tumors. The clinical treatment for glioma is very difficult due to its infiltration and specific growth locations. To achieve improved drug delivery to a brain tumor, we report the preparation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-NPs. The cyclic hexapeptide c(RGDf(N-meVK-C (cHP has increased affinity for cells that overexpress integrins and was designed to target Cur-NPs to tumors. Functional polyethyleneglycol-modified poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PEG-PLGA conjugated to cHP was synthesized, and targeted Cur-NPs were prepared using a self-assembly nanoprecipitation process. The physicochemical properties and the in vitro cytotoxicity, accuracy, and penetration capabilities of Cur-NPs targeting cells with high levels of integrin expression were investigated. The in vivo targeting and penetration capabilities of the NPs were also evaluated against glioma in rats using in vivo imaging equipment. The results showed that the in vitro cytotoxicity of the targeted cHP-modified curcumin nanoparticles (cHP/Cur-NPs was higher than that of either free curcumin or non-targeted Cur-NPs due to the superior ability of the cHP/Cur-NPs to target tumor cells

  20. The Arabidopsis peptide kiss of death is an inducer of programmed cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Blanvillain, Robert; Young, Bennett; Cai, Yao-min; Hecht, Valérie; Varoquaux, Fabrice; Delorme, Valérie; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Delseny, Michel; Gallois, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies a novel regulator of cell death in plants and shows that the 25-amino-acid peptide kiss of death regulates programmed cell death at an early step in the cell death-signalling cascade.

  1. Cell death and neuronal differentiation of glioblastoma stem-like cells induced by neurogenic transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichet, Pierre-Olivier; Bieche, Ivan; Teigell, Marisa; Serguera, Ché; Rothhut, Bernard; Rigau, Valérie; Scamps, Frédérique; Ripoll, Chantal; Vacher, Sophie; Taviaux, Sylvie; Chevassus, Hugues; Duffau, Hugues; Mallet, Jacques; Susini, Aurélie; Joubert, Dominique; Bauchet, Luc; Hugnot, Jean-Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) are devastating brain tumors containing a fraction of multipotent stem-like cells which are highly tumorigenic. These cells are resistant to treatments and are likely to be responsible for tumor recurrence. One approach to eliminate GBM stem-like cells would be to force their terminal differentiation. During development, neurons formation is controlled by neurogenic transcription factors such as Ngn1/2 and NeuroD1. We found that in comparison with oligodendrogenic genes, the expression of these neurogenic genes is low or absent in GBM tumors and derived cultures. We thus explored the effect of overexpressing these neurogenic genes in three CD133(+) Sox2(+) GBM stem-like cell cultures and the U87 glioma line. Introduction of Ngn2 in CD133(+) cultures induced massive cell death, proliferation arrest and a drastic reduction of neurosphere formation. Similar effects were observed with NeuroD1. Importantly, Ngn2 effects were accompanied by the downregulation of Olig2, Myc, Shh and upregulation of Dcx and NeuroD1 expression. The few surviving cells adopted a typical neuronal morphology and some of them generated action potentials. These cells appeared to be produced at the expense of GFAP(+) cells which were radically reduced after differentiation with Ngn2. In vivo, Ngn2-expressing cells were unable to form orthotopic tumors. In the U87 glioma line, Ngn2 could not induce neuronal differentiation although proliferation in vitro and tumoral growth in vivo were strongly reduced. By inducing cell death, cell cycle arrest or differentiation, this work supports further exploration of neurogenic proteins to oppose GBM stem-like and non-stem-like cell growth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. PERK silence inhibits glioma cell growth under low glucose stress by blockage of p-AKT and subsequent HK2's mitochondria translocation

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Xu

    2015-03-12

    Glioma relies on glycolysis to obtain energy and sustain its survival under low glucose microenvironment in vivo. The mechanisms on glioma cell glycolysis regulation are still unclear. Signaling mediated by Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) - like ER kinase (PERK) is one of the important pathways of unfolded protein response (UPR) which is comprehensively activated in cancer cells upon the hypoxic and low glucose stress. Here we show that PERK is significantly activated in human glioma tissues. PERK silencing results in decreased glioma cell viability and ATP/lactate production upon low glucose stress, which is mediated by partially blocked AKT activation and subsequent inhibition of Hexokinase II (HK2)\\'s mitochondria translocation. More importantly, PERK silenced glioma cells show decreased tumor formation capacity. Our results reveal that PERK activation is involved in glioma glycolysis regulation and may be a potential molecular target for glioma treatment.

  3. Detection of cell death in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Kimberly; Peterson, Jeanne S; Pritchett, Tracy L

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila is a powerful model system for the identification of cell death genes and understanding the role of cell death in development. In this chapter, we describe three methods typically used for the detection of cell death in Drosophila. The TUNEL and acridine orange methods are used to detect dead or dying cells in a variety of tissues. We focus on methods for the embryo and the ovary, but these techniques can be used on other tissues as well. The third method is the detection of genetic interactions by expressing cell death genes in the Drosophila eye.

  4. [Methuosis: a novel type of cell death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongbing; Liu, Jinkun; Fan, Qin; Li, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Cell death is a major physiological or pathological phenomenon in life activities. The classic forms of cell death include apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Recently, a novel type of cell death has been observed and termed as methuosis, in which excessive stimuli can induce cytoplasmic uptake and accumulation of small bubbles that gradually merge into giant vacuoles, eventually leading to decreased cellular metabolic activity, cell membrane rupture and cell death. In this article, we describe the nomenclature, morphological characteristics and underlying mechanisms of methuosis, compare methuosis with autophagy, oncosis and paraptosis, and review the related researches.

  5. Irradiation enhances the tumor tropism and therapeutic potential of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-secreting human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in glioma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Muk; Oh, Ji Hyeon; Park, Soon A; Ryu, Chung Heon; Lim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Dal-Soo; Chang, Jong Wook; Oh, Wonil; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2010-12-01

    Irradiation is a standard therapy for gliomas and many other cancers. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is one of the most promising candidates for cancer gene therapy. Here, we show that tumor irradiation enhances the tumor tropism of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) and the therapeutic effect of TRAIL delivered by UCB-MSCs. The sequential treatment with irradiation followed by TRAIL-secreting UCB-MSCs (MSC-TRAIL) synergistically enhanced apoptosis in either TRAIL-sensitive or TRAIL-resistant glioma cells by upregulating the death receptor 5 and by inducing caspase activation. Migration assays showed greater MSC migration toward irradiated glioma cells and the tumor site in glioma-bearing mice compared with unirradiated tumors. Irradiated glioma cells had increased expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), which leads to the upregulation of the IL-8 receptor on MSCs. This upregulation, which is involved in the migratory capacity of UCB-MSCs, was confirmed by siRNA inhibition and an antibody-neutralizing assay. In vivo survival experiments in orthotopic xenografted mice showed that MSC-based TRAIL gene delivery to irradiated tumors had greater therapeutic efficacy than a single treatment. These results suggest that clinically relevant tumor irradiation increases the therapeutic efficacy of MSC-TRAIL by increasing tropism of MSCs and TRAIL-induced apoptosis, which may be a more useful strategy for cancer gene therapy.

  6. Programmed Cell Death During Caenorhabditis elegans Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Barbara; Wu, Yi-Chun; Xue, Ding

    2016-08-01

    Programmed cell death is an integral component of Caenorhabditis elegans development. Genetic and reverse genetic studies in C. elegans have led to the identification of many genes and conserved cell death pathways that are important for the specification of which cells should live or die, the activation of the suicide program, and the dismantling and removal of dying cells. Molecular, cell biological, and biochemical studies have revealed the underlying mechanisms that control these three phases of programmed cell death. In particular, the interplay of transcriptional regulatory cascades and networks involving multiple transcriptional regulators is crucial in activating the expression of the key death-inducing gene egl-1 and, in some cases, the ced-3 gene in cells destined to die. A protein interaction cascade involving EGL-1, CED-9, CED-4, and CED-3 results in the activation of the key cell death protease CED-3, which is tightly controlled by multiple positive and negative regulators. The activation of the CED-3 caspase then initiates the cell disassembly process by cleaving and activating or inactivating crucial CED-3 substrates; leading to activation of multiple cell death execution events, including nuclear DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial elimination, phosphatidylserine externalization, inactivation of survival signals, and clearance of apoptotic cells. Further studies of programmed cell death in C. elegans will continue to advance our understanding of how programmed cell death is regulated, activated, and executed in general. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Migratory, invasive and metastatic capacity of NCAM transfected rat glioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, K; Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, was transfected into the rat glioma cell line BT4Cn. Transfectants with a homogeneously high expression of NCAM-B showed a decreased capacity for penetration of an artificial basement membrane when compared...... to cells transfected with expression-vector alone or untransfected cells. However, when injected subcutaneously into nude mice, both NCAM expressing cells and control cells produced invasive tumors. Nude mice injected with NCAM positive cells developed tumors with slower growth rates as compared to those...

  8. DNA fingerprinting of glioma cell lines and considerations on similarity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bady, Pierre; Diserens, Annie-Claire; Castella, Vincent; Kalt, Stefanie; Heinimann, Karl; Hamou, Marie-France; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hegi, Monika E

    2012-06-01

    Glioma cell lines are an important tool for research in basic and translational neuro-oncology. Documentation of their genetic identity has become a requirement for scientific journals and grant applications to exclude cross-contamination and misidentification that lead to misinterpretation of results. Here, we report the standard 16 marker short tandem repeat (STR) DNA fingerprints for a panel of 39 widely used glioma cell lines as reference. Comparison of the fingerprints among themselves and with the large DSMZ database comprising 9 marker STRs for 2278 cell lines uncovered 3 misidentified cell lines and confirmed previously known cross-contaminations. Furthermore, 2 glioma cell lines exhibited identity scores of 0.8, which is proposed as the cutoff for detecting cross-contamination. Additional characteristics, comprising lack of a B-raf mutation in one line and a similarity score of 1 with the original tumor tissue in the other, excluded a cross-contamination. Subsequent simulation procedures suggested that, when using DNA fingerprints comprising only 9 STR markers, the commonly used similarity score of 0.8 is not sufficiently stringent to unambiguously differentiate the origin. DNA fingerprints are confounded by frequent genetic alterations in cancer cell lines, particularly loss of heterozygosity, that reduce the informativeness of STR markers and, thereby, the overall power for distinction. The similarity score depends on the number of markers measured; thus, more markers or additional cell line characteristics, such as information on specific mutations, may be necessary to clarify the origin.

  9. The potentials of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells in targeted therapy of experimental glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Cun-gang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. With current standard therapy which includes extensive microsurgical resection along with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ, the median survival of glioblastoma patients is only 14.60 months nowadays. Recent studies demonstrated that human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs possessed the glioma-trophic migratory capacity. The engineered hAT-MSCs expressing herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-tk, yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CDy:: UPRT, and rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE could exert inhibitory effects on glioma when combined with prodrugs, such as ganciclovir (GCV, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC and irinotecan (CPT-11, respectively. hAT-MSCs carrying the oncolytic virus or expressing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL also could inhibit the growth of glioma. This paper summarizes the recent progress in this field to pave the way for hAT-MSCs based targeted therapy of glioma in future.

  10. Drugs targeting the mitochondrial pore act as citotoxic and cytostatic agents in temozolomide-resistant glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benvenuti Lucia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade gliomas are one of the most difficult cancers to treat and despite surgery, radiotherapy and temozolomide-based chemotherapy, the prognosis of glioma patients is poor. Resistance to temozolomide is the major barrier to effective therapy. Alternative therapeutic approaches have been shown to be ineffective for the treatment of genetically unselected glioma patients. Thus, novel therapies are needed. Mitochondria-directed chemotherapy is an emerging tool to combat cancer, and inner mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT represents a target for the development of cytotoxic drugs. A number of agents are able to induce MPT and some of them target MPT-pore (MPTP components that are selectively up-regulated in cancer, making these agents putative cancer cell-specific drugs. Objective The aim of this paper is to report a comprehensive analysis of the effects produced by selected MPT-inducing drugs (Betulinic Acid, Lonidamine, CD437 in a temozolomide-resistant glioblastoma cell line (ADF cells. Methods EGFRvIII expression has been assayed by RT-PCR. EGFR amplification and PTEN deletion have been assayed by differential-PCR. Drugs effect on cell viability has been tested by crystal violet assay. MPT has been tested by JC1 staining. Drug cytostatic effect has been tested by mitotic index analysis. Drug cytotoxic effect has been tested by calcein AM staining. Apoptosis has been assayed by Hoechst incorporation and Annexine V binding assay. Authophagy has been tested by acridine orange staining. Results We performed a molecular and genetic characterization of ADF cells and demonstrated that this line does not express the EGFRvIII and does not show EGFR amplification. ADF cells do not show PTEN mutation but differential PCR data indicate a hemizygous deletion of PTEN gene. We analyzed the response of ADF cells to Betulinic Acid, Lonidamine, and CD437. Our data demonstrate that MPT-inducing agents produce concentration

  11. Interleukin-13 conjugated quantum dots for identification of glioma initiating cells and their extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhankumar, A B; Mrowczynski, Oliver D; Patel, Suhag R; Weston, Cody L; Zacharia, Brad E; Glantz, Michael J; Siedlecki, Christopher A; Xu, Li-Chong; Connor, James R

    2017-08-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) based quantum dots modified with polyethylene glycol and chemically linked to interleukin-13 (IL13) were prepared with the aim of identifying the high affinity receptor (IL13Rα2) which is expressed in glioma stem cells and exosomes secreted by these cancer stem cells. IL13 conjugated quantum dots (IL13QD) were thoroughly characterized for their physicochemical properties including particle size and surface morphology. Furthermore, the specific binding of the IL13QD to glioma cells and to glioma stem cells (GSC) was verified using a competitive binding study. The exosomes were isolated from the GSC conditioned medium and the expression of IL13Rα2 in the GSC and exosomes was verified. The binding property of IL13QD to the tumor associated exosomes was initially confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The force of attraction between the quantum dots and U251 glioma cells and the exosomes was investigated by atomic force microscopy, which indicated a higher force of binding interaction between the IL13QD and IL13Rα2 expressing glioma cells and exosomes secreted by glioma stem cells. Flow cytometry of the IL13QD and exosomes from the culture media and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with glioma tumors indicated a distinctly populated complex pattern different from that of non-targeted quantum dots and bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated quantum dots confirming specific binding potential of the IL13QD to the tumor associated exosomes. The results of this study demonstrate that IL13QD can serve as an ex vivo marker for glioma stem cells and exosomes that can inform diagnosis and prognosis of patients harboring malignant disease. Functionalized quantum dots are flexible semiconductor nanomaterials which have an immense application in biomedical research. In particular, when they are functionalized with biomolecules like proteins or antibodies, they have the specialized ability to detect the expression of receptors and antigens in

  12. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 acts as a miR-26a sponge in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; An, Gang; Zhang, Meng; Ma, Qingfang

    2016-09-02

    Long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) acts as an important regulator in cancer pathogenesis; however, its functional mechanism in glioma development remains unclear. This study aims to explore the potential function of TUG1 in glioma by sponging miR-26a. The expression of TUG1, miR-26a, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in 20 paired glioma tissues was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and subjected to correlation analysis. Bioinformatics analysis was performed by using DIANA Tools. Abnormal TUG1 expression was conducted in two glioma cells to analyze its regulation on miR-26a and PTEN using real-time PCR, western blot, and luciferase reporter assay. TUG1 expression was confirmed to be upregulated in glioma tissues, and showed an inverse correlation with downregulated miR-26a. TUG1 could negatively regulate the expression of miR-26a in glioma cells. The bioinformatics prediction revealed putative miR-26a binding sites within TUG1 transcripts. Further experiments demonstrated the positive regulation of TUG1 on the miR-26a target, PTEN, wherein TUG1 could inhibit the negative regulation of miR-26a on PTEN by binding its 3'UTR. Additionally, the expression of PTEN was also upregulated in glioma tissues, showing a positive or negative correlation with TUG1 or miR-26a, respectively. TUG1 could serve as a miR-26a sponge in human glioma cells, contributing to the upregulation of PTEN. This study revealed a new TUG1/miR-26a/PTEN regulatory mechanism and provided a further understanding of the tumor-suppressive role of TUG1 in glioma development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Potent tumor tropism of induced pluripotent stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells in the mouse intracerebral glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazoe, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Amano, Shinji; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Although neural and mesenchymal stem cells have been well-known to have a strong glioma tropism, this activity in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has not yet been fully studied. In the present study, we tested tumor tropic activity of mouse iPSCs and neural stem cells derived from the iPSC (iPS-NSCs) using in vitro Matrigel invasion chamber assay and in vivo mouse intracranial tumor model. Both iPSC and iPS-NSC had a similar potent in vitro tropism for glioma conditioned media. The migrated iPSCs to the gliomas kept expressing Nanog-GFP gene, suggesting no neuronal or glial differentiation. iPSCs or iPS-NSCs labeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine were intracranially implanted in the contralateral hemisphere to the GL261 glioma cell implantation in the allogeneic C57BL/6 mouse. Active migration of both stem cells was observed 7 days after implantation. Again, the iPSCs located in the tumor area expressed Nanog-GFP gene, suggesting that the migrated cells were still iPSCs. These findings demonstrated that both iPSCs and iPS-NSCs had potent glioma tropism and could be candidates as vehicles in stem cell-based glioma therapy.

  14. MicroRNA-93 promotes the malignant phenotypes of human glioma cells and induces their chemoresistance to temozolomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, can induce mRNA degradation or repress translation by binding to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR of its target mRNA. Recently, some specific miRNAs, e.g. miR-93, have been found to be involved in pathological processes by targeting some oncogenes or tumor suppressors in glioma. However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-93 in the biological behaviors and chemoresistance of glioma cells remains unclear. In the present study, in situ hybridization and real-time RT-PCR data indicated that miR-93 was significantly upregulated in glioma patients (n=43 compared with normal brain tissues (n=8. Moreover, the upregulated miR-93 level was significantly associated with the advanced malignancy. We also found that upregulation of miR-93 promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells, and that miR-93 was involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression by mediating the protein levels of P21, P27, P53 and Cyclin D1. P21 was further identified as a direct target of miR-93. Knockdown of P21 attenuated the suppressive effects of miR-93 inhibition on cell cycle progression and colony formation. In addition, inhibition of miR-93 enhanced the chemosensitization of glioma cells to temozolomide (TMZ. Based on these above data, our study demonstrates that miR-93, upregulated in glioma, promotes the proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion of human glioma cells and suppresses their chemosensitivity to TMZ. Therefore, miR-93 may become a promising diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for glioma.

  15. LncRNA TUG1 acts as a tumor suppressor in human glioma by promoting cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Meng; An, Gang; Ma, Qingfang

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have revealed multiple functional roles of long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 in different types of malignant tumors, except for human glioma. Here, it was designed to study the potential function of taurine upregulated gene 1 in glioma pathogenesis focusing on its regulation on cell apoptosis. The expression of taurine upregulated gene 1 in glioma tissues was detected by quantitative RT-PCR and compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. Further correlation analysis was conducted to show the relationship between taurine upregulated gene 1 expression and different clinicopathologic parameters. Functional studies were performed to investigate the influence of taurine upregulated gene 1 on apoptosis and cell proliferation by using Annexin V/PI staining and cell counting kit-8 assays, respectively. And, caspase activation and Bcl-2 expression were analyzed to explore taurine upregulated gene 1-induced mechanism. taurine upregulated gene 1 expression was significantly inhibited in glioma and showed significant correlation with WHO Grade, tumor size and overall survival. Further experiments revealed that the dysregulation of taurine upregulated gene 1 affected the apoptosis and cell proliferation of glioma cells. Moreover, taurine upregulated gene 1 could induce the activation of caspase-3 and-9, with inhibited expression of Bcl-2, implying the mechanism in taurine upregulated gene 1-induced apoptosis. taurine upregulated gene 1 promoted cell apoptosis of glioma cells by activating caspase-3 and -9-mediated intrinsic pathways and inhibiting Bcl-2-mediated anti-apoptotic pathways, acting as a tumor suppressor in human glioma. This study provided new insights for the function of taurine upregulated gene 1 in cancer biology, and suggested a potent application of taurine upregulated gene 1 overexpression for glioma therapy. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  16. Resveratrol induces cellular senescence with attenuated mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B in glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Michael S.; Barnett, Tamara L. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Xu, C. Wilson, E-mail: wxu@nvcancer.org [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Resveratrol induces cellular senescence in glioma cell. {yields} Resveratrol inhibits mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120. {yields} Depletion of RNF20, phenocopies the inhibitory effects of resveratrol. {yields} Mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 is a novel target of resveratrol. {yields} RNF20 inhibits cellular senescence in proliferating glioma cells. -- Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol naturally occurring in grapes and other plants, has cancer chemo-preventive effects and therapeutic potential. Although resveratrol modulates multiple pathways in tumor cells, how resveratrol or its affected pathways converge on chromatin to mediate its effects is not known. Using glioma cells as a model, we showed here that resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular hypertrophy by transforming spindle-shaped cells to enlarged, irregular and flatten-shaped ones. We further showed that resveratrol-induced hypertrophic cells expressed senescence-associated-{beta}-galactosidase, suggesting that resveratrol-induced cellular senescence in glioma cells. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited clonogenic efficiencies in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we found that acute treatment of resveratrol inhibited mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 (uH2B) in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, brain tumor cells as well as primary human cells. Chronic treatment with low doses of resveratrol also inhibited uH2B in the resveratrol-induced senescent glioma cells. Moreover, we showed that depletion of RNF20, a ubiquitin ligase of histone H2B, inhibited uH2B and induced cellular senescence in glioma cells in vitro, thereby recapitulated the effects of resveratrol. Taken together, our results suggest that uH2B is a novel direct or indirect chromatin target of resveratrol and RNF20 plays an important role in inhibiting cellular

  17. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs as gene carrier system for rat model of human glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadimpalli Ravi S Varma

    Full Text Available Due to their unique property to migrate to pathological lesions, stem cells are used as a delivery vehicle for therapeutic genes to tumors, especially for glioma. It is critically important to track the movement, localization, engraftment efficiency and functional capability or expression of transgenes of selected cell populations following transplantation. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether 1 intravenously administered, genetically transformed cord blood derived EPCs can carry human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS to the sites of tumors in rat orthotopic model of human glioma and express transgene products, and 2 whether accumulation of these administered EPCs can be tracked by different in vivo imaging modalities.Collected EPCs were cultured and transduced to carry hNIS. Cellular viability, differential capacity and Tc-99m uptake were determined. Five to ten million EPCs were intravenously administered and Tc-99-SPECT images were acquired on day 8, to determine the accumulation of EPCs and expression of transgenes (increase activity of Tc-99m in the tumors. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine endothelial cell markers and hNIS positive cells in the tumors. Transduced EPCs were also magnetically labeled and accumulation of cells was confirmed by MRI and histochemistry. SPECT analysis showed increased activity of Tc-99m in the tumors that received transduced EPCs, indicative of the expression of transgene (hNIS. Activity of Tc-99m in the tumors was also dependent on the number of administered transduced EPCs. MRI showed the accumulation of magnetically labeled EPCs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed iron and hNIS positive and, human CD31 and vWF positive cells in the tumors.EPC was able to carry and express hNIS in glioma following IV administration. SPECT detected migration of EPCs and expression of the hNIS gene. EPCs can be used as gene carrier/delivery system for glioma therapy as well as imaging probes.

  18. Cisplatin and low dose rate irradiation in cisplatin resistant and sensitive human glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, David E.; Cheng, E. Ng; Raaphorst, G. Peter

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Human glioma cell lines resistant (U373MG CP ) and sensitive (U373MG) to cisplatin were used to evaluate the effect of cisplatin as a sensitizer to low dose rate irradiation (LDRI). Methods and Materials: A cisplatin resistant glioma cell line U373MG CP was developed by chronic exposure of parental U373MG cells to cisplatin. Plateau phase cells were treated with cisplatin, high dose rate (HDR) irradiation (1.12 Gy/min), LDRI (0.0088 Gy/min), or cisplatin concurrent with LDRI. Cell survival was determined by the colony forming assay. Results: Both cell lines showed increased resistance to radiation at LDR compared with HDR, with Dose Modifying Factors (DMF at 10% survival level) of 1.7 for U373MG and 2.5 for U373MG CP . The increased LDR sparing effect in the cisplatin resistant U373MG CP cells indicates increased repair proficiency. The resistant cell line showed a fourfold increase in resistance to cisplatin cytotoxicity at the 10% survival level compared with the parental U373MG cells. Cisplatin enhanced the response of both cell lines to LDRI. The DMFs were 1.2, 1.2, and 1.7, respectively, for the sensitive U373MG cell line given 1 μg/ml, and the resistant cell line given 3 or 6 μg/ml cisplatin treatments concurrent with LDRI. Conclusions: These data show that cisplatin can be an effective sensitizer to LDRI in both cisplatin resistant and sensitive glioma cell lines. However, in the resistant cell line, higher concentrations of cisplatin were necessary to achieve the same level of sensitization as in the sensitive cell line

  19. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Doorn, W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about...... the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death......, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during...

  20. New advances of microRNAs in glioma stem cells, with special emphasis on aberrant methylation of microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Bian, Er-Bao; Li, Jia; Li, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Malignant brain tumors are thought to be originate from a small population of cells that display stem cell properties, including the capacity of self-renewal, multipotent differentiation, initiation of tumor tissues. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in gliomas in which they are named as glioma stem cells (GSCs). GSCs, sharing some characteristics with normal neural stem cells (NSCs), contribute to the cellular origin for primary gliomas and the recurrence of malignant gliomas after current conventional therapy. Recently, increasing evidences have showed that miRNAs play a central role in GSCs. In this review we focus on the role of GSCs in gliomas and in the abnomal expression of miRNAs in GSCs. Furthermore, we also discuss epigenetic dysregulation of tumor-suppressor miRNAs by promoter DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of GSCs biology. Recent advances in understanding dysregulated expression of miRNAs and methylation of tumor-suppressor miRNAs in GSCs and their possible use as new therapeutic targets of gliomas. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Precursor N-cadherin mediates glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-promoted human malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ye; Liu, Liyun; Zhu, Shuang; Zhang, Baole; Qin, Yuxia; Yao, Ruiqin; Zhou, Hao; Gao, Dian Shuai

    2017-04-11

    As the most prevalent primary brain tumor, gliomas are highly metastatic, invasive and are characteristic of high levels of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). GDNF is an important factor for invasive glioma cell growth; however, the underlying mechanism involved is unclear. In this study, we affirm a significantly higher expression of the precursor of N-cadherin (proN-cadherin) in most gliomas compared with normal brain tissues. Our findings reveal that GDNF interacts with the extracellular domain of proN-cadherin, which suggests that proN-cadherin mediates GDNF-induced glioma cell migration and invasion. We hypothesize that proN-cadherin might cause homotypic adhesion loss within neighboring cells and at the same time promote heterotypic adhesion within the extracellular matrix (ECM) through a certain mechanism. This study also demonstrates that the interaction between GDNF and proN-cadherin activates specific intracellular signaling pathways; furthermore, GDNF promoted the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the ECM via proN-cadherin. To reach the future goal of developing novel therapies of glioma, this study, reveals a unique mechanism of glioma cell migration and invasion.

  2. Radiosensitivity and TP 53, EGFR amplification and LOH10 analysis of primary glioma cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, B.; Harder, A.H.; Slotman, B.J.; Sminia, P.; Hulsebos, T.J.M.; Leenstra, S.; Peter Vandertop, W.; Hartmann, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Determination of in-vitro radiosensitivity and genetic alterations of cell cultures derived from human glioma biopsy tissue and established glioma cell lines. Material and Methods: Fresh brain tumor specimens of six patients were processed to early passage cell cultures. In addition the cell lines D 384 and Gli 6 were used. Cell cultures were irradiated with doses from 2 to 10 Gy. Following irradiation, cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay and survival curves were generated. The surviving fractions after 2 Gy (SF2) and 4 Gy (SF4) were used as radiosensitivity parameters. Genetic analysis included determination of the mutational and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) status of TP 53 (exons 5-8), the LOH 10- and epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) amplification status. Results: The SF2 and SF4 values ranged from 0.54 to 0.88 (mean: 0.70) and from 0.13 to 0.52 (mean: 0.32), respectively. Genetic alterations were found in the Gli 6 cell line and in two primary cell cultures. The genetic profile of Gli 6 showed LOH but no TP 53 mutation, complete LOH 10 and no EGFR amplification. The VU 15 cell culture showed TP 53 mutation but no LOH 10 or EGFR amplification, while VU 24 showed incomplete LOH 10, EGFR amplification and no TP 53 mutation. In the other four cell cultures and D 384 cell line no genetic alterations were diagnosed. Histopathological classification of glioblastoma multiforme and/or genetic alterations resulted in lower radiosensitivity. Conclusion: In this small series of early passage glioma cell cultures low radiosensitivity and alterations in cell regulatory genes were seen. Further testing of biological behavior in larger series of patient-derived material is ongoing. (orig.)

  3. Hyperthermia studies using inductive and ultrasound methods on E. coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Prieto, A.; López-Callejas, R.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; Santos-Cuevas, C. L.; Celis-Almazán, J.; Olea-Mejía, O.; Gómez-Morales, J. L.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; García-Santibañez, F.

    2017-11-01

    The survival of Escherichia coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells were studied under different temperatures using direct heating in water, ultrasound, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. The survival of these microorganisms depended on whether the heating mode was continuous or discontinuous, surviving more in the former than in the discontinuous heating mode. Whereas Escherichia coli bacteria did not survive at temperatures ≥50∘C, the mouse glioma cells did not survive at temperatures ≥48∘C. The survival of both these microorganisms was independent of the presence or absence of the magnetic nanoparticles of magnetite, suggesting that these, having mean particle sizes of 9.5, 8.5 and 5, did not show any apparent cytotoxicity effect. Present results also showed that the inductive heating system which used a radiofrequency of 13.56 MHz, providing a maximum magnetic field strength of 160 A/m, the electric rather than magnetic heating predominated.

  4. Hyperthermia studies using inductive and ultrasound methods on E. coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral–Prieto, A., E-mail: agustin.cabral@inin.gob.mx; López-Callejas, R., E-mail: regulo.lopez@inin.gob.mx; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G., E-mail: benjamin.rodriguez@inin.gob.mx; Santos-Cuevas, C. L., E-mail: clara.cuevas@inin.gob.mx [Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Celis-Almazán, J., E-mail: jony-jac-5@hotmail.com; Olea-Mejía, O., E-mail: oleaoscar@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable (Mexico); Gómez-Morales, J. L. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Campus El Cerrillo, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico); Peña-Eguiluz, R., E-mail: rosendo.eguiluz@inin.gob.mx; Valencia-Alvarado, R., E-mail: raul.valencia@inin.gob.mx; Mercado-Cabrera, A., E-mail: antonio.mercado@inin.gob.mx; Muñoz-Castro, A. E., E-mail: arturo.munoz@inin.gob.mx [Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); García-Santibañez, F., E-mail: fegasa2@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Campus El Cerrillo, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico)

    2017-11-15

    The survival of Escherichia coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells were studied under different temperatures using direct heating in water, ultrasound, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. The survival of these microorganisms depended on whether the heating mode was continuous or discontinuous, surviving more in the former than in the discontinuous heating mode. Whereas Escherichia coli bacteria did not survive at temperatures ≥50{sup ∘}C, the mouse glioma cells did not survive at temperatures ≥48{sup ∘}C. The survival of both these microorganisms was independent of the presence or absence of the magnetic nanoparticles of magnetite, suggesting that these, having mean particle sizes of 9.5, 8.5 and 5, did not show any apparent cytotoxicity effect. Present results also showed that the inductive heating system which used a radiofrequency of 13.56 MHz, providing a maximum magnetic field strength of 160 A/m, the electric rather than magnetic heating predominated.

  5. Protein synthesis persists during necrotic cell death.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saelens, X.; Festjens, N.; Parthoens, E.; Overberghe, I. van; Kalai, M.; Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Vandenabeele, P.

    2005-01-01

    Cell death is an intrinsic part of metazoan development and mammalian immune regulation. Whereas the molecular events orchestrating apoptosis have been characterized extensively, little is known about the biochemistry of necrotic cell death. Here, we show that, in contrast to apoptosis, the

  6. Molecular Imaging of Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Jacobs

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common types of brain tumors. Although sophisticated regimens of conventional therapies are being carried out to treat patients with gliomas, the disease invariably leads to death over months or years. Before new and potentially more effective treatment strategies, such as gene- and cell-based therapies, can be effectively implemented in the clinical application, certain prerequisites have to be established. First of all, the exact localization, extent, and metabolic activity of the glioma must be determined to identify the biologically active target tissue for a biological treatment regimen; this is usually performed by imaging the expression of up-regulated endogenous genes coding for glucose or amino acid transporters and cellular hexokinase and thymidine kinase genes, respectively. Second, neuronal function and functional changes within the surrounding brain tissue have to be assessed in order to save this tissue from therapy-induced damage. Third, pathognomonic genetic changes leading to disease have to be explored on the molecular level to serve as specific targets for patient-tailored therapies. Last, a concerted noninvasive analysis of both endogenous and exogenous gene expression in animal models as well as the clinical setting is desirable to effectively translate new treatment strategies from experimental into clinical application. All of these issues can be addressed by multimodal radionuclide and magnetic resonance imaging techniques and fall into the exciting and fast growing field of molecular and functional imaging. Noninvasive imaging of endogenous gene expression by means of positron emission tomography (PET may reveal insight into the molecular basis of pathogenesis and metabolic activity of the glioma and the extent of treatment response. When exogenous genes are introduced to serve for a therapeutic function, PET imaging may reveal the assessment of the “location,” “magnitude,” and

  7. AS1411-Induced Growth Inhibition of Glioma Cells by Up-Regulation of p53 and Down-Regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1 via Nucleolin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Cheng

    Full Text Available AS1411 binds nucleolin (NCL and is the first oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer to reach phase I and II clinical trials for the treatment of several cancers. However, the mechanisms by which AS1411 targets and kills glioma cells and tissues remain unclear. Here we report that AS1411 induces cell apoptosis and cycle arrest, and inhibits cell viability by up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1 in human glioma cells. NCL was overexpressed in both nucleus and cytoplasm in human glioma U87, U251 and SHG44 cells compared to normal human astrocytes (NHA. AS1411 bound NCL and inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells but not NHA, which was accompanied with up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Akt1. Moreover, AS1411 treatment resulted in the G2/M cell cycle arrest in glioma cells, which was however abolished by overexpression of NCL. Further, AS1411 induced cell apoptosis, which was prevented by silencing of p53 and overexpression of Bcl-2. In addition, AS1411 inhibited the migration and invasion of glioma cells in an Akt1-dependent manner. Importantly, AS1411 inhibited the growth of glioma xenograft and prolonged the survival time of glioma tumor-bearing mice. These results revealed a promising treatment of glioma by oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer.

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Zhen, Haining; Jiang, Xinbiao; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Xin; Guo, Geng; Mao, Xinggang; Zhang, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE) of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR) and γ-rays were obtained from [ 60 Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU) in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines) were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [ 60 Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [ 60 Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [ 60 Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine)-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM). The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [ 60 Co] γ-rays (P < 0.01). Nuclear condensation was determined using both a fluorescence technique and electron microscopy in all cell lines treated with BPA-BNCT. Furthermore, the cellular apoptotic rates in Group D and Group E treated with

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum involvement in yeast cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicanor Austriaco, O.

    2012-01-01

    Yeast cells undergo programed cell death (PCD) with characteristic markers associated with apoptosis in mammalian cells including chromatin breakage, nuclear fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and metacaspase activation. Though significant research has focused on mitochondrial involvement in this phenomenon, more recent work with both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe has also implicated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast PCD. This minireview provides an overview of ER stress-associated cell death (ER-SAD) in yeast. It begins with a description of ER structure and function in yeast before moving to a discussion of ER-SAD in both mammalian and yeast cells. Three examples of yeast cell death associated with the ER will be highlighted here including inositol starvation, lipid toxicity, and the inhibition of N-glycosylation. It closes by suggesting ways to further examine the involvement of the ER in yeast cell death.

  10. Fluid Shear Stress Regulates the Invasive Potential of Glioma Cells via Modulation of Migratory Activity and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Henry; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Tarbell, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Glioma cells are exposed to elevated interstitial fluid flow during the onset of angiogenesis, at the tumor periphery while invading normal parenchyma, within white matter tracts, and during vascular normalization therapy. Glioma cell lines that have been exposed to fluid flow forces in vivo have much lower invasive potentials than in vitro cell motility assays without flow would indicate. Methodology/Principal Findings A 3D Modified Boyden chamber (Darcy flow through collagen/cell suspension) model was designed to mimic the fluid dynamic microenvironment to study the effects of fluid shear stress on the migratory activity of glioma cells. Novel methods for gel compaction and isolation of chemotactic migration from flow stimulation were utilized for three glioma cell lines: U87, CNS-1, and U251. All physiologic levels of fluid shear stress suppressed the migratory activity of U87 and CNS-1 cell lines. U251 motility remained unaltered within the 3D interstitial flow model. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition experiments and assays demonstrated that the glioma cells depended on MMP activity to invade, and suppression in motility correlated with downregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels. This was confirmed by RT-PCR and with the aid of MMP-1 and MMP-2 shRNA constructs. Conclusions/Significance Fluid shear stress in the tumor microenvironment may explain reduced glioma invasion through modulation of cell motility and MMP levels. The flow-induced migration trends were consistent with reported invasive potentials of implanted gliomas. The models developed for this study imply that flow-modulated motility involves mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress affecting MMP activation and expression. These models should be useful for the continued study of interstitial flow effects on processes that affect tumor progression. PMID:21637818

  11. Fluid shear stress regulates the invasive potential of glioma cells via modulation of migratory activity and matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Qazi

    Full Text Available Glioma cells are exposed to elevated interstitial fluid flow during the onset of angiogenesis, at the tumor periphery while invading normal parenchyma, within white matter tracts, and during vascular normalization therapy. Glioma cell lines that have been exposed to fluid flow forces in vivo have much lower invasive potentials than in vitro cell motility assays without flow would indicate.A 3D Modified Boyden chamber (Darcy flow through collagen/cell suspension model was designed to mimic the fluid dynamic microenvironment to study the effects of fluid shear stress on the migratory activity of glioma cells. Novel methods for gel compaction and isolation of chemotactic migration from flow stimulation were utilized for three glioma cell lines: U87, CNS-1, and U251. All physiologic levels of fluid shear stress suppressed the migratory activity of U87 and CNS-1 cell lines. U251 motility remained unaltered within the 3D interstitial flow model. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP inhibition experiments and assays demonstrated that the glioma cells depended on MMP activity to invade, and suppression in motility correlated with downregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels. This was confirmed by RT-PCR and with the aid of MMP-1 and MMP-2 shRNA constructs.Fluid shear stress in the tumor microenvironment may explain reduced glioma invasion through modulation of cell motility and MMP levels. The flow-induced migration trends were consistent with reported invasive potentials of implanted gliomas. The models developed for this study imply that flow-modulated motility involves mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress affecting MMP activation and expression. These models should be useful for the continued study of interstitial flow effects on processes that affect tumor progression.

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Xinggang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. Methods The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR and γ-rays were obtained from [60Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU in China. Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [60Co] γ-rays at the FMMU with different protocols: Group A included control nonirradiated cells; Group B included cells treated with 4 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group C included cells treated with 8 Gy of [60Co] γ-rays; Group D included cells treated with 4 Gy BPA (p-borono-phenylalanine-BNCT; Group E included cells treated with 8 Gy BPA-BNCT; Group F included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group D; Group G included cells irradiated in the reactor for the same treatment period as used for Group E; Group H included cells irradiated with 4 Gy in the reactor; and Group I included cells irradiated with 8 Gy in the reactor. Cell survival was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT cytotoxicity assay. The morphology of cells was detected by Hoechst33342 staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer (FCM. The level of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was measured by western blot analysis. Results Proliferation of U87, U251, and SHG44 cells was much more strongly inhibited by BPA-BNCT than by irradiation with [60Co] γ-rays (P 60Co] γ-rays (P P Conclusions Compared with ��-ray and reactor neutron irradiation, a higher RBE can be achieved upon treatment of glioma cells with BNCT. Glioma cell apoptosis induced by

  13. Effect of Aspirin and Indomethacin on Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis in C6 Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuh-Lin Hwang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 plays an important role in immunosuppression and tumor growth. PGE2 inhibitors such as aspirin and indomethacin suppress experimental tumor growth. Little is known of the relationship between PGE2 synthesis in brain tumors and the dose of aspirin or indomethacin. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different doses of aspirin and indomethacin on PGE2 synthesis in C6 glioma cells. C6 glioma cells were incubated with different concentrations (2, 4, and 8 μM of aspirin and indomethacin for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours. Intracellular PGE2 concentration was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Each concentration of aspirin and indomethacin effectively inhibited PGE2 synthesis. Concentrations of 2, 4, and 8 μM of aspirin significantly inhibited PGE2 production at 6, 4, and 1 hours, respectively, and the inhibition persisted for more than 24 hours (p 0.05. Indomethacin 8 μM was effective at 1 hour and the inhibition persisted beyond 24 hours (p < 0.05. Our study demonstrates that aspirin and indomethacin inhibit PGE2 synthesis in C6 glioma cells and that low-dose aspirin is as effective as high-dose aspirin. This study may encourage future clinical use of low-dose aspirin in the prevention or treatment of brain tumors.

  14. Revisit the Candidacy of Brain Cell Types as the Cell(s) of Origin for Human High-Grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fangjie; Liu, Chong

    2018-01-01

    High-grade glioma, particularly, glioblastoma, is the most aggressive cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Due to its heterogeneous nature, glioblastoma almost inevitably relapses after surgical resection and radio-/chemotherapy, and is thus highly lethal and associated with a dismal prognosis. Identifying the cell of origin has been considered an important aspect in understanding tumor heterogeneity, thereby holding great promise in designing novel therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma. Taking advantage of genetic lineage-tracing techniques, performed mainly on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), multiple cell types in the CNS have been suggested as potential cells of origin for glioblastoma, among which adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are the major candidates. However, it remains highly debated whether these cell types are equally capable of transforming in patients, given that in the human brain, some cell types divide so slowly, therefore may never have a chance to transform. With the recent advances in studying adult NSCs and OPCs, particularly from the perspective of comparative biology, we now realize that notable differences exist among mammalian species. These differences have critical impacts on shaping our understanding of the cell of origin of glioma in humans. In this perspective, we update the current progress in this field and clarify some misconceptions with inputs from important findings about the biology of adult NSCs and OPCs. We propose to re-evaluate the cellular origin candidacy of these cells, with an emphasis on comparative studies between animal models and humans.

  15. Metabolic impact of anti-angiogenic agents on U87 glioma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mesti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioma cells not only secrete high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF but also express VEGF receptors (VEGFR, supporting the existence of an autocrine loop. The direct impact on glioma cells metabolism of drugs targeting the VEGF pathway, such as Bevacizumab (Bev or VEGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI, is poorly known. MATERIAL AND METHODS: U87 cells were treated with Bev or SU1498, a selective VEGFR2 TKI. VEGFR expression was checked with FACS flow cytometry and Quantitative Real-Time PCR. VEGF secretion into the medium was assessed with an ELISA kit. Metabolomic studies on cells were performed using High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Spectroscopy (HR-MAS. RESULTS: U87 cells secreted VEGF and expressed low level of VEGFR2, but no detectable VEGFR1. Exposure to SU1498, but not Bev, significantly impacted cell proliferation and apoptosis. Metabolomic studies with HR MAS showed that Bev had no significant effect on cell metabolism, while SU1498 induced a marked increase in lipids and a decrease in glycerophosphocholine. Accordingly, accumulation of lipid droplets was seen in the cytoplasm of SU1498-treated U87 cells. CONCLUSION: Although both drugs target the VEGF pathway, only SU1498 showed a clear impact on cell proliferation, cell morphology and metabolism. Bevacizumab is thus less likely to modify glioma cells phenotype due to a direct therapeutic pressure on the VEGF autocrine loop. In patients treated with VEGFR TKI, monitoring lipids with magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS might be a valuable marker to assess drug cytotoxicity.

  16. Increased radiosensitivity of p16 gene-deleted human glioma cells after transfection with wild-type p16 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakoshi, Junji; Kitagawa, Kaori; Yamagishi, Nobuyuki; Ohtsu, Shuji; Takebe, Hikaru; Day, R.S. III.

    1997-01-01

    The A1235 and T98 cell lines derived from human gliomas have homozygous deletions in their p16 genes and are radiosensitive and radioresistant, respectively, with respect to other established glioma cell lines. These differences in radiosensitivity may be due to variations to some extent among cell lines, rather than genetically defined resistance or sensitivity. We examined the effect on radiation sensitivity of introducing a wild-type p16 gene into both p16-deficient glioma cell lines. The plasmid pOPMTS containing human wild-type p16 cDNA and a neomycin resistance gene, or the control plasmid pOPRSV1, were transfected into these cells. Clones from both cell lines, which expressed wild-type p16 mRNA constitutively after transfection with pOPMTS, were more radiosensitive than the parental cells and clones obtained after transfection with the negative control plasmid. (author)

  17. Ex vivo malignant glioma cells are sensitive to Fas (CD95/APO-1) ligand-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, K; Ambar, B; Adachi, N; Yonekawa, Y; Fontana, A

    1998-07-01

    Fas (also known as CD95/APO-1) is a cell surface receptor and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily which mediates apoptosis in sensitive cells upon oligomerization by specific antibodies or by its ligand (FasL). Recently, human glioma cell lines were found to be susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis triggered by alpha-Fas antibodies. However, whether the Fas system can also be targeted in ex vivo high grade gliomas is at present unknown. In the present investigation, alpha-Fas antibodies and FasL were tested in short-term monolayer cultures or in colony forming assays established from freshly resected tumors of patients with anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III) and glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade IV). Anti-Fas antibodies induced only moderate apoptosis in four of the 19 tested glioma cell cultures. This contrasts FasL which induced apoptosis in all of the 19 tumor cell cultures analyzed. Mean cytotoxicity of glioma cell cultures treated for 48 h with alpha-Fas antibodies or FasL was 9.6% and 44.3%, respectively. Irrespective of whether alpha-Fas antibodies or FasL were used, pretreatment with recombinant hu (rhu) IFN-gamma and rhuTNF-alpha for 48 h did not sensitize glioma cells to Fas-mediated cytotoxicity. The long-term effect by FasL on tumor colony formation was more striking. FasL treatment resulted in more than 90% inhibition of clonal tumor cell growth of all the eight high grade gliomas analyzed. These results suggest that Fas targeting by FasL but not by alpha-Fas antibodies may provide a promising approach for locoregional glioma treatment.

  18. Aspirin inhibits the SHH/GLI1 signaling pathway and sensitizes malignant glioma cells to temozolomide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jianguang; Sun, Bo; Li, Ziwei; Lin, Lin; Meng, Xiangqi; Han, Bo; Wang, Ruijia; Wu, Pengfei; Li, Jianlong; Cai, Jinquan; Jiang, Chuanlu

    2017-04-01

    Aberrant activation of sonic hedgehog (SHH)/glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) pathway plays an important role in the tumorigenicity of malignant glioma cells and resistance to temozolomide (TMZ). Here we investigated the aspirin's antineoplastic molecular route by targeting SHH/GLI1 pathway and examined the feasibility of aspirin combined with TMZ therapy. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that the activity of the SHH/GLI1 pathway was strongly inhibited by aspirin. Aspirin acted as the glioma growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptosis roles by inhibiting the SHH/GLI1 pathway and reprogramming the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The immunofluorescence assay showed aspirin could prevent the nuclear translocation of GLI1 to inhibit its transcriptional regulation. The stable lentiviral overexpression of GLI1 reversed the DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) caused by the GANT61 and TMZ. Furthermore, aspirin combined with TMZ enhanced chemosensitivity and GLI1-induced chemoprotection was partly blocked by aspirin in vitro and in vivo . Collectively, aspirin has a therapeutic potential for SHH/GLI1 targeted therapy against glioma cells. Acquired activation of GLI1 protects glioma cells against TMZ therapy. Impairment of DNA DSBs repair activity might be involved in the route of aspirin-induced chemosensitivity. Combined aspirin with TMZ may be a promising strategy against malignant glioma.

  19. Nestin and CD133: valuable stem cell-specific markers for determining clinical outcome of glioma patients

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    Yang Zhuanyi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Gliomas represent the most frequent neoplasm of the central nervous system. Unfortunately, surgical cure of it is practically impossible and their clinical course is primarily determined by the biological behaviors of the tumor cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the stem cell markers Nestin and CD133 expression with the grading of gliomas, and to evaluate their prognostic value. Methods The tissue samples consisted of 56 low- (WHO grade II, 69 high- (WHO grade III, IV grade gliomas, and 10 normal brain tissues. The expression levels of Nestin and CD133 proteins were detected using SABC immunohistochemical analysis. Then, the correlation of the two markers' expression with gliomas' grading of patients and their prognostic value were determined. Results Immunohistochemical analysis with anti-Nestin and anti-CD133 antibodies revealed dense and spotty staining in the tumor cells and their expression levels became significantly higher as the glioma grade advanced (p p p p Conclusion These results collectively suggest that Nestin and CD133 expression may be an important feature of human gliomas. A combined detection of Nestin/CD133 co-expression may benefit us in the prediction of aggressive nature of this tumor.

  20. CD4+ and Perivascular Foxp3+ T Cells in Glioma Correlate with Angiogenesis and Tumor Progression

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    Luyan Mu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAngiogenesis and immune cell infiltration are key features of gliomas and their manipulation of the microenvironment, but their prognostic significance remains indeterminate. We evaluate the interconnection between tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL and tumor blood-vasculatures in the context of glioma progression.MethodsPaired tumor tissues of 44 patients from three tumor-recurrent groups: diffuse astrocytomas (DA recurred as DA, DA recurred as glioblastomas (GBM, and GBM recurred as GBM were evaluated by genetic analysis, immunohistochemistry for tumor blood vessel density, TIL subsets, and clinical outcomes. These cells were geographically divided into perivascular and intratumoral TILs. Associations were examined between these TILs, CD34+ tumor blood vessels, and clinical outcomes. To determine key changes in TIL subsets, microarray data of 15-paired tumors from patients who failed antiangiogenic therapy- bevacizumab, and 16-paired tumors from chemo-naïve recurrent GBM were also evaluated and compared.ResultsUpon recurrence in primary gliomas, similar kinetic changes were found between tumor blood vessels and each TIL subset in all groups, but only CD4+ including Foxp3+ TILs, positively correlated with the density of tumor blood vessels. CD4 was the predominant T cell population based on the expression of gene-transcripts in primary GBMs, and increased activated CD4+ T cells were revealed in Bevacizumab-resistant recurrent tumors (not in chemo-naïve recurrent tumors. Among these TILs, 2/3 of them were found in the perivascular niche; Foxp3+ T cells in these niches not only correlated with the tumor vessels but were also an independent predictor of shortened recurrence-free survival (RFS (HR = 4.199, 95% CI 1.522–11.584, p = 0.006.ConclusionThe minimal intratumoral T cell infiltration and low detection of CD8 transcripts expression in primary GBMs can potentially limit antitumor response. CD4+ and perivascular Foxp3

  1. Protective effects of Pharmacopuncture Solutions made by Carthmi Flos, Cnidii Rhizoma and Astragali Radix on C6 glioma cells

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    Hyung Woo Kim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was carried out to investigate protective effects of Pharmacopuncture Solutions (PSs made by Carthmi Flos (CF, Cnidii Rhizoma (CR and Astragali Radix (AR on C6 glioma cells Methods : We investigated the effects of PSs on proliferation rates and types of C6 cells, and also investigated the effects on LDH release. In addition, protective effects of PSs on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide and SOD-like activities were also investigated. Results : PSs made by CF, CR and AR did not show cytotoxicity in various concentrations. CF-PS and AR-PS elevated levels of proliferation rates significantly. Treatment with CF-PS lowered level of LDH release in C6 cells. In addition, CF-PS and CR-PS showed protective effects on cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide respectively. Finally, CF-PS group showed high level of SOD-like activity compared to that in CR-PS group. Conclusion : These results suggest that CF-PS can accelerate proliferation of neuroglial cells, and has protective action against oxidative stress, which was involved in anti-oxidative effects such as SODlike activities. In addition, CR has protective effects against oxidative stress, and AR can accelerate proliferation of neuroglial cells.

  2. Induction of apoptotic cell death by putrescine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takao, Koichi; Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Hegardt, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    that overexpression of a metabolically stable ODC in CHO cells induced a massive cell death unless the cells were grown in the presence of the ODC inhibitor alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). Cells overexpressing wild-type (unstable) ODC, on the other hand, were not dependent on the presence of DFMO...

  3. Ibuprofen and Diclofenac Restrict Migration and Proliferation of Human Glioma Cells by Distinct Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidgens, Verena; Seliger, Corinna; Jachnik, Birgit; Welz, Tobias; Leukel, Petra; Vollmann-Zwerenz, Arabel; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Kreutz, Marina; Grauer, Oliver M.; Hau, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with anti-tumorigenic effects in different tumor entities. For glioma, research has generally focused on diclofenac; however data on other NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, is limited. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the cellular, molecular, and metabolic effects of ibuprofen and diclofenac on human glioblastoma cells. Methods Glioma cell lines were treated with ibuprofen or diclofenac to investigate functional effects on proliferation and cell motility. Cell cycle, extracellular lactate levels, lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) expression and activity, as well as inhibition of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT-3) signaling pathway, were determined. Specific effects of diclofenac and ibuprofen on STAT-3 were investigated by comparing their effects with those of the specific STAT-3 inhibitor STATTIC. Results Ibuprofen treatment led to a stronger inhibition of cell growth and migration than treatment with diclofenac. Proliferation was affected by cell cycle arrest at different checkpoints by both agents. In addition, diclofenac, but not ibuprofen, decreased lactate levels in all concentrations used. Both decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation; however, diclofenac led to decreased c-myc expression and subsequent reduction in LDH-A activity, whereas treatment with ibuprofen in higher doses induced c-myc expression and less LDH-A alteration. Conclusions This study indicates that both ibuprofen and diclofenac strongly inhibit glioma cells, but the subsequent metabolic responses of both agents are distinct. We postulate that ibuprofen may inhibit tumor cells also by COX- and lactate-independent mechanisms after long-term treatment in physiological dosages, whereas diclofenac mainly acts by inhibition of STAT-3 signaling and downstream modulation of glycolysis. PMID:26485029

  4. Decreased MiR-17 in glioma cells increased cell viability and migration by increasing the expression of Cyclin D1, p-Akt and Akt.

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    Guangwei Sun

    Full Text Available The activating mutations of micro RNA (miR-17 have been revealed in tumors such as human non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and T cell leukemia. However, it is unclear about the role of miR-17 in glioma cells. The current study aimed to investigate effects of miR-17 mimics or inhibitor on the viability and migration of rat glioma C6 cells, and explore possible mechanisms.The expression of miR-17 in rat glioma C6 cells and normal brain tissue was detected by quantitative PCR. Protein expression of Cyclin D1 in rat glioma C6 cells and normal brain tissue was measured by Western Blot. Glioma C6 cells were transfected with MiR-17 mimics or inhibitor. Cells that were not transfected (Lipofectamine only and cells that were transfected with nonsense RNA negative control served as control. MTT assay was utilized to detect cell viability, and cell wound scratch assay was utilized to examine the migration index. In addition, protein expression of Cyclin D1, p-Akt and Akt in MiR-17 mimics or inhibitor-transfected glioma C6 cells was detected by Western Blot. This study had been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.The expression of miR-17 was significantly lower, whereas the expression of Cyclin D1 was significantly higher in glioma C6 cells compared to normal brain tissue. MiR-17 mimics decreased the viability and migration of glioma C6 cells markedly at 48 h. In addition, MiR-17 inhibitor increased the viability and migration of glioma C6 cells at 24 and 48 h. The protein expression of Cyclin D1, p-Akt and Akt in glioma C6 cells decreased after transfection with miR-17 mimics for 72 h, and increased after transfection with miR-17 inhibitor for 72 h.The reduced miR-17 levels in glioma cells increased cell viability and migration, which correlates with increased expression of Cyclin D1, p

  5. Establishment of 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells

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    Zong-yu XIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells.  Methods Rat 9L gliosarcoma stem-like cells were cultured in serum-free suspension. The expression of CD133 and nestin were tested by immunohistochemistry. A total of 48 inbredline male F344 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, and 9L tumor sphere cells and 9L monolayer cells were respectively implanted into the right caudate nucleus of F344 rats in 2 groups. Survival time was observed and determined using the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Fourteen days after implantation or when the rats were dying, their brains were perfused and sectioned for HE staining, and CD133 and nestin were detected by immunohistochemistry.  Results Rat 9L tumor spheres were formed with suspension culture in serum-free medium. The gliomas formed in both groups were invasive without obvious capsule. More new vessels, bleeding and necrosis could be detected in 9L tumor spheres group. The tumor cells in both groups were positive for CD133 and nestin. There was no significant difference in the expression of CD133 and nestin between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. According to the expression of nestin, the tumors formed by 9L tumor sphere cells were more invasive. The median survival time of the rats bearing 9L tumor sphere cells was 15 d (95%CI: 15.219-15.781, and the median survival time of the rats bearing 9L monolayer cells was 21 d (95%CI: 20.395-21.605. There was significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 12.800, P = 0.000.  Conclusions 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells is successfully established, which provides a glioma model for the future research. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.012

  6. Modulating glioma-mediated myeloid-derived suppressor cell development with sulforaphane.

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    Ravi Kumar

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most common primary tumor of the brain and has few long-term survivors. The local and systemic immunosuppressive environment created by glioblastoma allows it to evade immunosurveillance. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are a critical component of this immunosuppression. Understanding mechanisms of MDSC formation and function are key to developing effective immunotherapies. In this study, we developed a novel model to reliably generate human MDSCs from healthy-donor CD14+ monocytes by culture in human glioma-conditioned media. Monocytic MDSC frequency was assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The resulting MDSCs robustly inhibited T cell proliferation. A cytokine array identified multiple components of the GCM potentially contributing to MDSC generation, including Monocyte Chemoattractive Protein-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF. Of these, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor is a particularly attractive therapeutic target as sulforaphane, a naturally occurring MIF inhibitor derived from broccoli sprouts, has excellent oral bioavailability. Sulforaphane inhibits the transformation of normal monocytes to MDSCs by glioma-conditioned media in vitro at pharmacologically relevant concentrations that are non-toxic to normal leukocytes. This is associated with a corresponding increase in mature dendritic cells. Interestingly, sulforaphane treatment had similar pro-inflammatory effects on normal monocytes in fresh media but specifically increased immature dendritic cells. Thus, we have used a simple in vitro model system to identify a novel contributor to glioblastoma immunosuppression for which a natural inhibitor exists that increases mature dendritic cell development at the expense of myeloid-derived suppressor cells when normal monocytes are exposed to glioma conditioned media.

  7. Extracellular Matrix Glycoprotein-Derived Synthetic Peptides Differentially Modulate Glioma and Sarcoma Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brösicke, Nicole; Sallouh, Muhammad; Prior, Lisa-Marie; Job, Albert; Weberskirch, Ralf; Faissner, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulate proliferation, migration, and differentiation in numerous cell lineages. ECM functions are initiated by small peptide sequences embedded in large constituents that are recognized by specific cellular receptors. In this study, we have investigated the biological effects of peptides derived from collagen type IV and tenascin-C compared to the well-known RGD peptide originally discovered in fibronectin. The influence of glycoproteins and corresponding peptides on the migration of the glioma cell lines U-251-MG and U-373-MG and the sarcoma line S-117 was studied. When the cell lines were tested in a modified Boyden chamber assay on filters coated with the ECM glycoproteins, glioma cells showed a strong migration response on tenascin-C and the basal lamina constituent collagen IV, in contrast to S-117 cells. In order to identify relevant stimulatory motifs, peptides derived from fibronectin (6NHX-GRGDSF), tenascin-C (TN-C, VSWRAPTA), and collagen type IV (MNYYSNS) were compared, either applied in solution in combination with ECM glycoprotein substrates, in solution in the presence of untreated membranes, or coated on the filters of the Boyden chambers. Using this strategy, we could identify the novel tenascin-C-derived peptide motif VSWRAPTA as a migration stimulus for glioma cells. Furthermore, while kin peptides generally blocked the effects of the respective homologous ECM proteins, unexpected effects were observed in heterologous situations. There, in several cases, addition of soluble peptides strongly boosted the response to the coated ECM proteins. We propose that peptides may synergize or antagonize each other by stimulating different signaling pathways.

  8. Survival of irradiated glia and glioma cells studied with a new cloning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.; Carlsson, J.; Larsson, B.; Ponten, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method allowing cloning of monolayer cultured cells with a low plating efficiency was developed. Cells were grown in several small palladium squares to obtain a high cell density. These squares were surrounded by non-adhesive agarose to prevent large distance migration and thereby mixing of the clones. By using easily-cloned hamster cells for comparison it was found that the survival curves were similar to the curves obtained with conventional cloning. The new method was used to compare the radiosensitivity of cultured human glia and glioma cells which both have a low plating efficiency ( 0 -values (1.5 to 2.5 Gy) and large shoulders (extrapolation numbers around 5) indicating that they were rather resistant and had a high capacity for accumulation of sublethal damage. The survival curves for glia cells had lower D 0 -values (1.3 to 1.5 Gy) and no shoulders at all, indicating that they were more sensitive than the glioma cells. (author)

  9. Anti-Cancer Effect of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 Inhibition in Human Glioma U87 Cells: Involvement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway

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    Chi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system, and emerging evidence suggests a role of mGluRs in the biology of cancer. Previous studies showed that mGluR1 was a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer and melanoma, but its role in human glioma has not been determined. Methods: In the present study, we investigated the effects of mGluR1 inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA or selective antagonists Riluzole and BAY36-7620. The anti-cancer effects of mGluR1 inhibition were measured by cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, TUNEL staining, cell cycle assay, cell invasion and migration assays in vitro, and also examined in a U87 xenograft model in vivo. Results: Inhibition of mGluR1 significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a dose-dependent fashion in U87 cells. These effects were accompanied with the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In addition, the results of Matrigel invasion and cell tracking assays showed that inhibition of mGluR1 apparently attenuated cell invasion and migration in U87 cells. All these anti-cancer effects were ablated by the mGluR1 agonist L-quisqualic acid. The results of western blot analysis showed that mGluR1 inhibition overtly decreased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR and P70S6K, indicating the mitigated activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Moreover, the anti-tumor activity of mGluR1 inhibition in vivo was also demonstrated in a U87 xenograft glioma model in athymic nude mice. Conclusion: The remarkable efficiency of mGluR1 inhibition to induce cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients.

  10. Radiosensitization by overexpression of the nonphosphorylation form of IκB-α in human glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Naoko; Yagi, Kasumi; Ding, Gui-Rong; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2002-01-01

    To assess the role of NF-κB in cellular radiosensitivity, we constructed mutated IκB expression plasmids for SY-IκB (with mutations at residues of 32, 36 and 42) expression in human malignant glioma cells (radiosensitive MO54 and radioresistant T98 cells), giving respective cell types referred to as MO54-SY4 and T98-SY14. Both of the clones expressing SY-IκB became radiosensitive, compared with the parental MO54 and T98 cells. A treatment with herbimycin A or genistein did not change the radiosensitivity of cells expressing SY-IκB, but made both the MO54 and T98 parental cells more sensitive to ionizing radiation. A treatment with TNF-α induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in cells expressing SY-IκB, but not in MO54 and T98 cells. The survival after X-ray exposure of the parental MO54 cells was slightly increased by a TNF-α treatment, but that of the parental T98 cells did not change. The change in sensitivity to ultra-violet (UV) radiation and adriamycin in MO54-SY4 cells was very similar to that for X-ray sensitivity, but no change was observed in T98-SY14 cells. Significant sublethal damage repair was observed in T98 cells, whereas MO54 cells showed little repair activity. The expression of p53 was enhanced in the parental MO54 cells, while the p53 levels in the MO54-SY4, and in the parent and clonal T98 cells, did not change. Our data suggest that the serine and tyrosine phosphorylation of IκB-α may play a role in determining the radiosensitivity of malignant glioma cells. (author)

  11. Irradiation With Carbon Ion Beams Induces Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Cellular Senescence in a Human Glioma-Derived Cell Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Wada, Seiichi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shinagawa, Masahiko; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Mori, Takahisa; Saha, Manujendra N.; Hoque, Ariful S.; Islam, Salequl; Kogure, Kimitaka; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined biological responses of human glioma cells to irradiation with carbon ion beams (C-ions). Methods and Materials: A human glioma-derived cell line, NP-2, was irradiated with C-ions. Apoptotic cell nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33342. Induction of autophagy was examined either by staining cells with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or by Western blotting to detect conversion of microtuble-associated protein light chain 3 (MAP-LC3) (LC3-I) to the membrane-bound form (LC3-II). Cellular senescence markers including induction of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) were examined. The mean telomere length of irradiated cells was determined by Southern blot hybridization. Expression of tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1 in the irradiated cells was analyzed by Western blotting. Results: When NP-2 cells were irradiated with C-ions at 6 Gy, the major population of the cells died of apoptosis and autophagy. The residual fraction of attached cells ( WAF1/CIP1 was induced in NP-2 cells after irradiation. Furthermore, we found that irradiation with C-ions induced cellular senescence in a human glioma cell line lacking functional p53. Conclusions: Irradiation with C-ions induced apoptosis, autophagy, and cellular senescence in human glioma cells.

  12. Sema3C Promotes the Survival and Tumorigenicity of Glioma Stem Cells through Rac1 Activation

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    Jianghong Man

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Different cancer cell compartments often communicate through soluble factors to facilitate tumor growth. Glioma stem cells (GSCs are a subset of tumor cells that resist standard therapy to contribute to disease progression. How GSCs employ a distinct secretory program to communicate with and nurture each other over the nonstem tumor cell (NSTC population is not well defined. Here, we show that GSCs preferentially secrete Sema3C and coordinately express PlexinA2/D1 receptors to activate Rac1/nuclear factor (NF-κB signaling in an autocrine/paracrine loop to promote their own survival. Importantly, Sema3C is not expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs or NSTCs. Disruption of Sema3C induced apoptosis of GSCs, but not NPCs or NSTCs, and suppressed tumor growth in orthotopic models of glioblastoma. Introduction of activated Rac1 rescued the Sema3C knockdown phenotype in vivo. Our study supports the targeting of Sema3C to break this GSC-specific autocrine/paracrine loop in order to improve glioblastoma treatment, potentially with a high therapeutic index. : Glioma stem cells (GSCs have a high capacity for self-renewal, invasion, and survival. How they communicate with each other to survive and maintain their identity is not clear. Man et al. now show that GSCs have co-opted a neurodevelopmental program to activate Rac1 to promote defining features of GSCs.

  13. Implications of Rho GTPase signaling in glioma cell invasion and tumor progression

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    Shannon Patricia Fortin Ensign

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GB is the most malignant of primary adult brain tumors, characterized by a highly locally-invasive cell population, as well as abundant proliferative cells, neoangiogenesis, and necrosis. Clinical intervention with chemotherapy or radiation may either promote or establish an environment for manifestation of invasive behavior. Understanding the molecular drivers of invasion in the context of glioma progression may be insightful in directing new treatments for patients with GB. Here, we review current knowledge on Rho family GTPases, their aberrant regulation in GB, and their effect on GB cell invasion and tumor progression. Rho GTPases are modulators of cell migration through effects on actin cytoskeleton rearrangement; in non-neoplastic tissue, expression and activation of Rho GTPases are normally under tight regulation. In GB, Rho GTPases are deregulated, often via hyperactivity or overexpression of their activators, Rho GEFs. Downstream effectors of Rho GTPases have been shown to promote invasiveness and, importantly, glioma cell survival. The study of aberrant Rho GTPase signaling in GB is thus an important investigation of cell invasion as well as treatment resistance and disease progression.

  14. The microRNA-302b-inhibited insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 signaling pathway induces glioma cell apoptosis by targeting nuclear factor IA.

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    Chin-Cheng Lee

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally control the expression of genes involved in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM development. Although miR-302b functions as a tumor suppressor, its role in GBM is still unclear. Therefore, this study comprehensively explored the roles of miR-302b-mediated gene networks in GBM cell death. We found that miR-302b levels were significantly higher in primary astrocytes than in GBM cell lines. miR-302b overexpression dose dependently reduced U87-MG cell viability and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP ribose polymerase degradation. A transcriptome microarray revealed 150 downregulated genes and 380 upregulated genes in miR-302b-overexpressing cells. Nuclear factor IA (NFIA, higher levels of which were significantly related to poor survival, was identified as a direct target gene of miR-302b and was involved in miR-302b-induced glioma cell death. Higher NFIA levels were observed in GBM cell lines and human tumor sections compared with astrocytes and non-tumor tissues, respectively. NFIA knockdown significantly enhanced apoptosis. We found high levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2, another miR-302b-downregulated gene, in patients with poor survival. We verified that NFIA binds to the IGFBP2 promoter and transcriptionally enhances IGFBP2 expression levels. We identified that NFIA-mediated IGFBP2 signaling pathways are involved in miR-302b-induced glioma cell death. The identification of a regulatory loop whereby miR-302b inhibits NFIA, leading to a decrease in expression of IGFBP-2, may provide novel directions for developing therapies to target glioblastoma tumorigenesis.

  15. Shikonin induces glioma cell necroptosis in vitro by ROS overproduction and promoting RIP1/RIP3 necrosome formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Gong, Xu; Wang, Zong-Qi; Ding, Ye; Wang, Chen; Luo, Tian-Fei; Piao, Mei-Hua; Meng, Fan-Kai; Chi, Guang-Fan; Luo, Yi-Nan; Ge, Peng-Fei

    2017-11-01

    Necroptosis is a type of programmed necrosis regulated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3. Necroptosis is found to be accompanied by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the role of ROS in regulation of necroptosis remains elusive. In this study, we investigated how shikonin, a necroptosis inducer for cancer cells, regulated the signaling leading to necroptosis in glinoma cells in vitro. Treatment with shikonin (2-10 μmol/L) dose-dependently triggered necrosis and induced overproduction of intracellular ROS in rat C6 and human SHG-44, U87 and U251 glioma cell lines. Moreover, shikonin treatment dose-dependently upregulated the levels of RIP1 and RIP3 and reinforced their interaction in the glioma cells. Pretreatment with the specific RIP1 inhibitor Nec-1 (100 μmol/L) or the specific RIP3 inhibitor GSK-872 (5 μmol/L) not only prevented shikonin-induced glioma cell necrosis but also significantly mitigated the levels of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide. Mitigation of ROS with MnTBAP (40 μmol/L), which was a cleaner of mitochondrial superoxide, attenuated shikonin-induced glioma cell necrosis, whereas increasing ROS levels with rotenone, which improved the mitochondrial generation of superoxide, significantly augmented shikonin-caused glioma cell necrosis. Furthermore, pretreatment with MnTBAP prevented the shikonin-induced upregulation of RIP1 and RIP3 expression and their interaction while pretreatment with rotenone reinforced these effects. These findings suggest that ROS is not only an executioner of shikonin-induced glioma cell necrosis but also a regulator of RIP1 and RIP3 expression and necrosome assembly.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Aaronson, Stuart A.; Abrams, John M.; Adam, Dieter; Agostinis, Patrizia; Alnemri, Emad S.; Altucci, Lucia; Amelio, Ivano; Andrews, David W.; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Antonov, Alexey V.; Arama, Eli; Baehrecke, Eric H.; Barlev, Nickolai A.; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Bernassola, Francesca; Bertrand, Mathieu J. M.; Bianchi, Katiuscia; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.; Blomgren, Klas; Borner, Christoph; Boya, Patricia; Brenner, Catherine; Campanella, Michelangelo; Candi, Eleonora; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Cecconi, Francesco; Chan, Francis K.-M.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Cheng, Emily H.; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Cidlowski, John A.; Ciechanover, Aaron; Cohen, Gerald M.; Conrad, Marcus; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R.; Czabotar, Peter E.; D'Angiolella, Vincenzo; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; de Laurenzi, Vincenzo; de Maria, Ruggero; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Deshmukh, Mohanish; Di Daniele, Nicola; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Dixit, Vishva M.; Dixon, Scott J.; Duckett, Colin S.; Dynlacht, Brian D.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.; Elrod, John W.; Fimia, Gian Maria; Fulda, Simone; García-Sáez, Ana J.; Garg, Abhishek D.; Garrido, Carmen; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Golstein, Pierre; Gottlieb, Eyal; Green, Douglas R.; Greene, Lloyd A.; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Gross, Atan; Hajnoczky, Gyorgy; Hardwick, J. Marie; Harris, Isaac S.; Hengartner, Michael O.; Hetz, Claudio; Ichijo, Hidenori; Jäättelä, Marja; Joseph, Bertrand; Jost, Philipp J.; Juin, Philippe P.; Kaiser, William J.; Karin, Michael; Kaufmann, Thomas; Kepp, Oliver; Kimchi, Adi; Kitsis, Richard N.; Klionsky, Daniel J.; Knight, Richard A.; Kumar, Sharad; Lee, Sam W.; Lemasters, John J.; Levine, Beth; Linkermann, Andreas; Lipton, Stuart A.; Lockshin, Richard A.; López-Otín, Carlos; Lowe, Scott W.; Luedde, Tom; Lugli, Enrico; MacFarlane, Marion; Madeo, Frank; Malewicz, Michal; Malorni, Walter; Manic, Gwenola; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Martin, Seamus J.; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Medema, Jan Paul; Mehlen, Patrick; Meier, Pascal; Melino, Sonia; Miao, Edward A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Moll, Ute M.; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina; Nagata, Shigekazu; Nuñez, Gabriel; Oberst, Andrew; Oren, Moshe; Overholtzer, Michael; Pagano, Michele; Panaretakis, Theocharis; Pasparakis, Manolis; Penninger, Josef M.; Pereira, David M.; Pervaiz, Shazib; Peter, Marcus E.; Piacentini, Mauro; Pinton, Paolo; Prehn, Jochen H. M.; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Rehm, Markus; Rizzuto, Rosario; Rodrigues, Cecilia M. P.; Rubinsztein, David C.; Rudel, Thomas; Ryan, Kevin M.; Sayan, Emre; Scorrano, Luca; Shao, Feng; Shi, Yufang; Silke, John; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Sistigu, Antonella; Stockwell, Brent R.; Strasser, Andreas; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Tait, Stephen W. G.; Tang, Daolin; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Thorburn, Andrew; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Turk, Boris; Vanden Berghe, Tom; Vandenabeele, Peter; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Villunger, Andreas; Virgin, Herbert W.; Vousden, Karen H.; Vucic, Domagoj; Wagner, Erwin F.; Walczak, Henning; Wallach, David; Wang, Ying; Wells, James A.; Wood, Will; Yuan, Junying; Zakeri, Zahra; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Zitvogel, Laurence; Melino, Gerry; Kroemer, Guido

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell

  17. CYTOKINESIS-BLOCK MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY IN HUMAN GLIOMA CELLS EXPOSED TO RADIATION

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    Jerzy Slowinski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological tests are efficient in reflecting the biological influences of several types of generally harmful exposures. The micronucleus assay is widely used in genotoxicity studies or studies on genomic damage in general. We present methodological aspects of cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay performed in human gliomas irradiated in vitro. Eight human glioblastoma cell lines obtained from DSMZ (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Germany were gamma-irradiated (60Co over a dose range of 0-10 Gy. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was performed to quantitate cytogenetic damage. The cells were fixed directly on dishes, stained with fluorochrome DAPI and evaluated under fluorescent and phase contrast microscope. The micronucleus frequency was expressed as a micronuclei (MN per binucleated cell (BNC ratio, calculated after scoring at least 100 BNC per dish. The frequency of spontaneous MN ranged from 0.17 to 0.613 (mean: 0.29 ± 0.14. After irradiation increase of MN frequency in the range of 0.312 - 2.241 (mean: 0.98 ± 0.68 was found at 10 Gy. Gliomas are extremely heterogenous in regard to cytogenetic effects of irradiation, as shown in this study by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. This test is easily performed on irradiated glioma cell lines and can assist in determining their radiosensitivity. However, in order to obtain reliable and reproducible results, precise criteria for MN scoring must be strictly followed. Simultaneous use of fluorescent and phase contrast equipment improves imaging of morphological details and can further optimize MN scoring.

  18. Epidermal cell death in frogs with chytridiomycosis

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    Laura A. Brannelly

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Amphibians are declining at an alarming rate, and one of the major causes of decline is the infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Parasitic fungal sporangia occur within epidermal cells causing epidermal disruption, but these changes have not been well characterised. Apoptosis (planned cell death can be a damaging response to the host but may alternatively be a mechanism of pathogen removal for some intracellular infections. Methods In this study we experimentally infected two endangered amphibian species Pseudophryne corroboree and Litoria verreauxii alpina with the causal agent of chytridiomycosis. We quantified cell death in the epidermis through two assays: terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL and caspase 3/7. Results Cell death was positively associated with infection load and morbidity of clinically infected animals. In infected amphibians, TUNEL positive cells were concentrated in epidermal layers, correlating to the localisation of infection within the skin. Caspase activity was stable and low in early infection, where pathogen loads were light but increasing. In animals that recovered from infection, caspase activity gradually returned to normal as the infection cleared. Whereas, in amphibians that did not recover, caspase activity increased dramatically when infection loads peaked. Discussion Increased cell death may be a pathology of the fungal parasite, likely contributing to loss of skin homeostatic functions, but it is also possible that apoptosis suppression may be used initially by the pathogen to help establish infection. Further research should explore the specific mechanisms of cell death and more specifically apoptosis regulation during fungal infection.

  19. Response-predictive gene expression profiling of glioma progenitor cells in vitro.

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    Sylvia Moeckel

    Full Text Available High-grade gliomas are amongst the most deadly human tumors. Treatment results are disappointing. Still, in several trials around 20% of patients respond to therapy. To date, diagnostic strategies to identify patients that will profit from a specific therapy do not exist.In this study, we used serum-free short-term treated in vitro cell cultures to predict treatment response in vitro. This approach allowed us (a to enrich specimens for brain tumor initiating cells and (b to confront cells with a therapeutic agent before expression profiling.As a proof of principle we analyzed gene expression in 18 short-term serum-free cultures of high-grade gliomas enhanced for brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC before and after in vitro treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sunitinib. Profiles from treated progenitor cells allowed to predict therapy-induced impairment of proliferation in vitro.For the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sunitinib used in this dataset, the approach revealed additional predictive information in comparison to the evaluation of classical signaling analysis.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue vs bone marrow: in vitro comparison of their tropism towards gliomas.

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    Courtney Pendleton

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor, and is refractory to surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC may be harvested from bone marrow (BMSC and adipose (AMSC tissue. These cells are a promising avenue of investigation for the delivery of adjuvant therapies. Despite extensive research into putative mechanisms for the tumor tropism of MSCs, there remains no direct comparison of the efficacy and specificity of AMSC and BMSC tropism towards glioma. METHODS: Under an IRB-approved protocol, intraoperative human Adipose MSCs (hAMSCs were established and characterized for cell surface markers of mesenchymal stem cell origin in conjunction with the potential for tri-lineage differentiation (adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic. Validated experimental hAMSCs were compared to commercially derived hBMSCs (Lonza and hAMSCs (Invitrogen for growth responsiveness and glioma tropism in response to glioma conditioned media obtained from primary glioma neurosphere cultures. RESULTS: Commercial and primary culture AMSCs and commercial BMSCs demonstrated no statistically significant difference in their migration towards glioma conditioned media in vitro. There was statistically significant difference in the proliferation rate of both commercial AMSCs and BMSCs as compared to primary culture AMSCs, suggesting primary cultures have a slower growth rate than commercially available cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have similar in vitro glioma tropism. Given the well-documented ability to harvest larger numbers of AMSCs under local anesthesia, adipose tissue may provide a more efficient source of MSCs for research and clinical applications, while minimizing patient morbidity during cell harvesting.

  1. Nanoprodrugs of NSAIDs Inhibit the Growth of U87-MG Glioma Cells

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    Bong-Seop Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several recent reports have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit the growth of various malignant cells suggesting their application as anticancer agents. In this study, we prepared six nanometer-sized prodrugs (nanoprodrugs of NSAIDs, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and naproxen through the spontaneous emulsification mechanism using monomeric and dimeric derivatives of the NSAIDs. We evaluated their effect on the proliferation of U87-MG glioma cells by cell counting, WST-1 cell proliferation reagent, and propidium iodide incorporation. The two ibuprofen nanoprodrugs inhibited the cell growth more potently than the indomethacin nanoprodrugs, whereas the naproxen nanoprodrugs did not show any significant effect. Remarkably, ibuprofen did not show any effect at an equimolar concentration. Approximately, 4.4% of the ibuprofen nanoprodrugs was found in the cell, whereas no ibuprofen could be detected suggesting that the superior effect of the nanoprodrugs can be attributed to the efficient cellular uptake of the nanoprodrugs.

  2. Noisy-threshold control of cell death

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    Vilar Jose MG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular responses to death-promoting stimuli typically proceed through a differentiated multistage process, involving a lag phase, extensive death, and potential adaptation. Deregulation of this chain of events is at the root of many diseases. Improper adaptation is particularly important because it allows cell sub-populations to survive even in the continuous presence of death conditions, which results, among others, in the eventual failure of many targeted anticancer therapies. Results Here, I show that these typical responses arise naturally from the interplay of intracellular variability with a threshold-based control mechanism that detects cellular changes in addition to just the cellular state itself. Implementation of this mechanism in a quantitative model for T-cell apoptosis, a prototypical example of programmed cell death, captures with exceptional accuracy experimental observations for different expression levels of the oncogene Bcl-xL and directly links adaptation with noise in an ATP threshold below which cells die. Conclusions These results indicate that oncogenes like Bcl-xL, besides regulating absolute death values, can have a novel role as active controllers of cell-cell variability and the extent of adaptation.

  3. Programmed cell death and hybrid incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A; Barr, C M

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new theory to explain developmental aberrations in plant hybrids. In our theory, hybrid incompatibilities arise from imbalances in the mechanisms that cause male sterility in hermaphroditic plants. Mitochondria often cause male sterility by killing the tapetal tissue that nurtures pollen mother cells. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria destroy the tapetum by triggering standard pathways of programmed cell death. Some nuclear genotypes repress mitochondrial male sterility and restore pollen fertility. Normal regulation of tapetal development therefore arises from a delicate balance between the disruptive effects of mitochondria and the defensive countermeasures of the nuclear genes. In hybrids, incompatibilities between male-sterile mitochondria and nuclear restorers may frequently upset the regulatory control of programmed cell death, causing tapetal abnormalities and male sterility. We propose that hybrid misregulation of programmed cell death may also spill over into other tissues, explaining various developmental aberrations observed in hybrids.

  4. The Expression of Connexins and SOX2 Reflects the Plasticity of Glioma Stem-Like Cells

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    Joana Balça-Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most malignant primary brain tumor, with an average survival rate of 15 months. GBM is highly refractory to therapy, and such unresponsiveness is due, primarily, but not exclusively, to the glioma stem-like cells (GSCs. This subpopulation express stem-like cell markers and is responsible for the heterogeneity of GBM, generating multiple differentiated cell phenotypes. However, how GBMs maintain the balance between stem and non-stem populations is still poorly understood. We investigated the GBM ability to interconvert between stem and non-stem states through the evaluation of the expression of specific stem cell markers as well as cell communication proteins. We evaluated the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of GSCs derived from differentiated GBM cell lines by comparing their stem-like cell properties and expression of connexins. We showed that non-GSCs as well as GSCs can undergo successive cycles of gain and loss of stem properties, demonstrating a bidirectional cellular plasticity model that is accompanied by changes on connexins expression. Our findings indicate that the interconversion between non-GSCs and GSCs can be modulated by extracellular factors culminating on differential expression of stem-like cell markers and cell-cell communication proteins. Ultimately, we observed that stem markers are mostly expressed on GBMs rather than on low-grade astrocytomas, suggesting that the presence of GSCs is a feature of high-grade gliomas. Together, our data demonstrate the utmost importance of the understanding of stem cell plasticity properties in a way to a step closer to new strategic approaches to potentially eliminate GSCs and, hopefully, prevent tumor recurrence.

  5. Control of cell proliferation in human glioma by glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshney, R I; Sherry, A; Hassanzadah, M; Freshney, M; Crilly, P; Morgan, D

    1980-06-01

    Survival and proliferation of cell cultures from human anaplastic astrocytomas were shown to be enhanced by glucocorticoids with an optimal concentration of approximately 2.5 x 10(-5)M (10 micrograms/ml). The stimulation of proliferation was only observed in a clonal growth assay and was reversed as the size of individual colonies reached approximately 50 cells. Above this size, and in regular monolayer cultures, glucocorticoids were found to inhibit cell proliferation as measured by direct cell counting and incorporation of [3H] thymidine. Cultures grown to maximum cell densities in non-limiting medium conditions reached a lower terminal cell density, and had a reduced labelling index with [3H] thymidine in the presence of glucocorticoids. Although there was little difference between the actions of beta-methasone, dexamethasone and ethyl prednisolone, methyl prednisolone was found to be more effective, both in terms of stimulation of clonal growth and inhibition of growth at high cell densities. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity with glucocorticoids up to 5 x 10(-5)M (20 micrograms/ml) and it is suggested that glucocorticoids act via a normal regulatory process, perhaps enhancing cell-cell recognition.

  6. Manipulation of energy and redox states in the C6 glioma cells by buthionine sulfoxamine and N-acetylcysteine and the effect on cell survival to cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M S; Yu, L C; Pat, S W

    2007-04-15

    Changes in cellular energy and redox states were studied in the C6 glioma cells following exposure to chemicals that affect glutathione metabolism. It was demonstrated that treatment with sublethal concentrations (25, 50 and 100 microM) of buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO) did not affect cellular energy state as measured by total adenosine nucleotides (TAN=ATP+ADP+ AMP), ATP:ADP:AMP and energy charge potential (ECP=[ATP + 0.5 (ADP)]/TAN). However, there was a significantly decrease in cellular GSH/GSSG and total glutathione (TG=[GSH+GSSG]/ TAN). The change was due to a significant decrease in intracellular GSH level without significant change in [GSSG]. Cells exposed to BSO for 24 hr were much more sensitive to subsequent injuries caused by Cd (0.6 mM for 3 hr). The results indicated that while a significant reduction of intracellular redox state did not affect cell viability, it could increase the susceptibility of cells to subsequent chemical stress. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), on the other hand, caused a dose (1, 5 and 10 mM)-dependent increase in GSH/GSSG without significant changes in intracellular energy state. Improvement of intracellular GSH/GSSG offered no protection against subsequent Cd induced cell death unless NAC was present at the time Cd was added. The pattern of cell death also correlated with the increase in intracellular free radial generation as measured by the fluorescence labeling with 27- dichlorofluorescin. Results of the present study demonstrated that intracellular redox states could be manipulated by addition of chemicals that affect glutathione metabolism. While the redox state may not be the sufficient condition to cause cell death, it could modulate the response of cells to subsequent Cd treatment. Furthermore, the action of NAC against Cd cytotoxicity may not be related to intracellular redox status.

  7. Downregulation of HIF-1a sensitizes U251 glioma cells to the temozolomide (TMZ) treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun-Hai [Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Ma, Zhi-Xiong [National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); Huang, Guo-Hao; Xu, Qing-Fu; Xiang, Yan [Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Li, Ningning; Sidlauskas, Kastytis [Division of Neuropathology and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG (United Kingdom); Zhang, Eric Erquan [National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); Lv, Sheng-Qing, E-mail: lvsq0518@hotmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of downregulation of HIF-1α gene on human U251 glioma cells and examine the consequent changes of TMZ induced effects and explore the molecular mechanisms. Methods: U251 cell line stably expressing HIF-1α shRNA was acquired via lentiviral vector transfection. The mRNA and protein expression alterations of genes involved in our study were determined respectively by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay and colony formation assay, cell invasion/migration capacity was determined by transwell invasion assay/wound healing assay, and cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Results: We successfully established a U251 cell line with highly efficient HIF-1α knockdown. HIF-1a downregulation sensitized U251 cells to TMZ treatment and enhanced the proliferation-inhibiting, invasion/migration-suppressing, apoptosis-inducing and differentiation-promoting effects exerted by TMZ. The related molecular mechanisms demonstrated that expression of O{sup 6}-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) and genes of Notch1 pathway were significantly upregulated by TMZ treatment. However, this upregulation was abrogated by HIF-1α knockdown. We further confirmed important regulatory roles of HIF-1α in the expression of MGMT and activation of Notch1 pathways. Conclusion: HIF-1α downregulation sensitizes U251 glioma cells to the temozolomide treatment via inhibiting MGMT expression and Notch1 pathway activation. - Highlights: • TMZ caused more significant proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in U251 cells after downregulating HIF-1α. • Under TMZ treatment, HIF-1 downregulated U251 cells exhibited weaker mobility and more differentiated state. • TMZ caused MGMT over-expression and Notch1 pathway activation, which could be abrogated by HIF-1α downregulation.

  8. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy targeting Wilms' tumor 1 in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Keiichi; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Maejima, Shinya; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Sano, Kenji; Higuchi, Yumiko; Koya, Terutsugu; Ochiai, Takanaga; Koide, Masanori; Uehara, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Midori; Sugiyama, Haruo; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Okamoto, Masato; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination is considered a potentially effective therapy against advanced cancer. The authors conducted a Phase I study to investigate the safety and immunomonitoring of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1)-pulsed DC vaccination therapy for patients with relapsed malignant glioma. WT1-pulsed and/or autologous tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccination therapy was performed in patients with relapsed malignant gliomas. Approximately 1 × 10(7) to 2 × 10(7) pulsed DCs loaded with WT1 peptide antigen and/or tumor lysate were intradermally injected into the axillary areas with OK-432, a streptococcal preparation, at 2-week intervals for at least 5-7 sessions (1 course) during an individual chemotherapy regimen. Ten patients (3 men, 7 women; age range 24-64 years [median 39 years]) with the following tumors were enrolled: glioblastoma (6), anaplastic astrocytoma (2), anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (1), and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (1). Modified WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccine was administered to 7 patients, tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine to 2 patients, and both tumor lysate-pulsed and WT1-pulsed DC vaccine to 1 patient. The clinical response was stable disease in 5 patients with WT1-pulsed DC vaccination. In 2 of 5 patients with stable disease, neurological findings improved, and MR images showed tumor shrinkage. No serious adverse events occurred except Grade 1-2 erythema at the injection sites. WT1 tetramer analysis detected WT1-reactive cytotoxic T cells after vaccination in patients treated with WT1-pulsed therapy. Positivity for skin reaction at the injection sites was 80% (8 of 10 patients) after the first session, and positivity remained for these 8 patients after the final session. This study of WT1-pulsed DC vaccination therapy demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and feasibility in the management of relapsed malignant gliomas.

  9. How Kidney Cell Death Induces Renal Necroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Kumar, Santhosh V; Lech, Maciej; Desai, Jyaysi; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The nephrons of the kidney are independent functional units harboring cells of a low turnover during homeostasis. As such, physiological renal cell death is a rather rare event and dead cells are flushed away rapidly with the urinary flow. Renal cell necrosis occurs in acute kidney injuries such as thrombotic microangiopathies, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, or tubular necrosis. All of these are associated with intense intrarenal inflammation, which contributes to further renal cell loss, an autoamplifying process referred to as necroinflammation. But how does renal cell necrosis trigger inflammation? Here, we discuss the role of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), mitochondrial (mito)-DAMPs, and alarmins, as well as their respective pattern recognition receptors. The capacity of DAMPs and alarmins to trigger cytokine and chemokine release initiates the recruitment of leukocytes into the kidney that further amplify necroinflammation. Infiltrating neutrophils often undergo neutrophil extracellular trap formation associated with neutrophil death or necroptosis, which implies a release of histones, which act not only as DAMPs but also elicit direct cytotoxic effects on renal cells, namely endothelial cells. Proinflammatory macrophages and eventually cytotoxic T cells further drive kidney cell death and inflammation. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of necroinflammation may help to identify the best therapeutic targets to limit nephron loss in kidney injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extracellular diffusion quantified by magnetic resonance imaging during rat C6 glioma cell progression

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    G. Song

    Full Text Available Solution reflux and edema hamper the convection-enhanced delivery of the standard treatment for glioma. Therefore, a real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI method was developed to monitor the dosing process, but a quantitative analysis of local diffusion and clearance parameters has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to compare diffusion into the extracellular space (ECS at different stages of rat C6 gliomas, and analyze the effects of the extracellular matrix (ECM on the diffusion process. At 10 and 20 days, after successful glioma modeling, gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA was introduced into the ECS of rat C6 gliomas. Diffusion parameters and half-life of the reagent were then detected using MRI, and quantified according to the mathematical model of diffusion. The main ECM components [chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs, collagen IV, and tenascin C] were detected by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. In 20-day gliomas, Gd-DTPA diffused more slowly and derived higher tortuosity, with lower clearance rate and longer half-life compared to 10-day gliomas. The increased glioma ECM was associated with different diffusion and clearance parameters in 20-day rat gliomas compared to 10-day gliomas. ECS parameters were altered with C6 glioma progression from increased ECM content. Our study might help better understand the glioma microenvironment and provide benefits for interstitial drug delivery to treat brain gliomas.

  11. Water Extract of Ashwagandha Leaves Limits Proliferation and Migration, and Induces Differentiation in Glioma Cells

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    Hardeep Kataria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Root extracts of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha are commonly used as a remedy for a variety of ailments and a general tonic for overall health and longevity in the Indian traditional medicine system, Ayurveda. We undertook a study to investigate the anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing activities in the water extract of Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX by examining in glioma cells. Preliminary detection for phytochemicals was performed by thin-layer chromatography. Cytotoxicity was determined using trypan blue and MTT assays. Expression level of an hsp70 family protein (mortalin, glial cell differentiation marker [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP] and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Anti-migratory assay was also done using wound-scratch assay. Expression levels of mortalin, GFAP and NCAM showed changes, subsequent to the treatment with ASH-WEX. The data support the existence of anti-proliferative, differentiation-inducing and anti-migratory/anti-metastasis activities in ASH-WEX that could be used as potentially safe and complimentary therapy for glioma.

  12. The regulation of apoptotic cell death

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    Amarante-Mendes G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a fundamental biological phenomenon in which the death of a cell is genetically and biochemically regulated. Different molecules are involved in the regulation of the apoptotic process. Death receptors, coupled to distinct members of the caspases as well as other adapter molecules, are involved in the initiation of the stress signals (The Indictment. Members of the Bcl-2 family control at the mitochondrial level the decision between life and death (The Judgement. The effector caspases are responsible for all morphological and biochemical changes related to apoptosis including the "eat-me" signals perceived by phagocytes and neighboring cells (The Execution. Finally, apoptosis would have little biological significance without the recognition and removal of the dying cells (The Burial.

  13. The regulation of apoptotic cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Amarante-Mendes

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a fundamental biological phenomenon in which the death of a cell is genetically and biochemically regulated. Different molecules are involved in the regulation of the apoptotic process. Death receptors, coupled to distinct members of the caspases as well as other adapter molecules, are involved in the initiation of the stress signals (The Indictment. Members of the Bcl-2 family control at the mitochondrial level the decision between life and death (The Judgement. The effector caspases are responsible for all morphological and biochemical changes related to apoptosis including the "eat-me" signals perceived by phagocytes and neighboring cells (The Execution. Finally, apoptosis would have little biological significance without the recognition and removal of the dying cells (The Burial.

  14. Plasma membrane changes during programmed cell deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Chen, Xin; Gueydan, Cyril; Han, Jiahuai

    2018-01-01

    Ruptured and intact plasma membranes are classically considered as hallmarks of necrotic and apoptotic cell death, respectively. As such, apoptosis is usually considered a non-inflammatory process while necrosis triggers inflammation. Recent studies on necroptosis and pyroptosis, two types of programmed necrosis, revealed that plasma membrane rupture is mediated by MLKL channels during necroptosis but depends on non-selective gasdermin D (GSDMD) pores during pyroptosis. Importantly, the morphology of dying cells executed by MLKL channels can be distinguished from that executed by GSDMD pores. Interestingly, it was found recently that secondary necrosis of apoptotic cells, a previously believed non-regulated form of cell lysis that occurs after apoptosis, can be programmed and executed by plasma membrane pore formation like that of pyroptosis. In addition, pyroptosis is associated with pyroptotic bodies, which have some similarities to apoptotic bodies. Therefore, different cell death programs induce distinctive reshuffling processes of the plasma membrane. Given the fact that the nature of released intracellular contents plays a crucial role in dying/dead cell-induced immunogenicity, not only membrane rupture or integrity but also the nature of plasma membrane breakdown would determine the fate of a cell as well as its ability to elicit an immune response. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the field of apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis, with an emphasis on the mechanisms underlying plasma membrane changes observed on dying cells and their implication in cell death-elicited immunogenicity.

  15. Inducible cell death in plant immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2006-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during vegetative and reproductive plant growth, as typified by autumnal leaf senescence and the terminal differentiation of the endosperm of cereals which provide our major source of food. PCD also occurs in response to environmental stress and pathogen attack......, and these inducible PCD forms are intensively studied due their experimental tractability. In general, evidence exists for plant cell death pathways which have similarities to the apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic forms described in yeast and metazoans. Recent research aiming to understand these pathways...

  16. ETosis: A Microbicidal Mechanism beyond Cell Death

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    Anderson B. Guimarães-Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Netosis is a recently described type of neutrophil death occurring with the release to the extracellular milieu of a lattice composed of DNA associated with histones and granular and cytoplasmic proteins. These webs, initially named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs, ensnare and kill microorganisms. Similarly, other cell types, such as eosinophils, mast cells, and macrophages, can also dye by this mechanism; thus, it was renamed as ETosis, meaning death with release of extracellular traps (ETs. Here, we review the mechanism of NETosis/etosis, emphasizing its role in diseases caused by protozoan parasites, fungi, and viruses.

  17. Resveratrol represses YKL-40 expression in human glioma U87 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Tamiya, Takashi; Murao, Koji; Zhang, Xiang; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Diah, Suwarni; Okada, Masaki; Miyake, Keisuke; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Fei, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant intracranial tumour that develops in both adults and children. Microarray gene analyses have confirmed that the human YKL-40 gene is one of the most over-expressed genes in these tumours but not in normal brain tissue. Clinical studies have shown that serum YKL-40 levels are positively correlated with tumour burden in addition to being an independent prognostic factor of a short relapse-free interval as well as short overall survival in patients with various cancers. Our previous study revealed that YKL-40 was closely correlated with the pathological grades of human primary astrocytomas and played a crucial role in glioma cell proliferation. Hence, YKL-40 could be an attractive target in the design of anti-cancer therapies. Cell viability and invasion assays were performed to detect the cell proliferation and invasive ability of U87 cells induced by resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene; Res) or YKL-40 small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In addition, the luciferase assay, real-time RT-PCR, western blotting, and ELISA were used to measure YKL-40 promoter activity, mRNA, and protein expression, respectively. The expressions of phosphor-ERK1/2 and ERK1/2 were determined by western blotting. Res inhibited U87 cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and repressed YKL-40 in U87 cells by decreasing the activity of its promoter and reducing mRNA transcription and protein expression in vitro. YKL-40 siRNA treatment also impaired the invasiveness of U87 cells. When U87 cells were cultured with 20 μM PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) alone, with 20 μM PD98059 and 100 μM Res, or with 100 μM Res alone for 48 h, YKL-40 protein expression decreased most significantly in the Res-treated group. PD98059 partially reversed the decrease of YKL-40 protein expression induced by Res. Furthermore, phosphor-ERK1/2 expression was reduced by Res treatment in a time-dependent manner. We demonstrated for the first time that Res

  18. Radiosensitive effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α inhibitor YC-1 on hypoxic glioma SHG44 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xinwei; Lu Xueguan; Tong Liumei; Zong Tianzhou; Chen Liesong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitive effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) inhibitor YC-1 on hypoxic glioma SHG44 cell line and its related mechanism. Methods: Glioma SHG44 cell line was cultured in normoxic (20% O 2 ), continuous hypoxia (1% O 2 ) for 12 h and 24 h, continuous hypoxia plus YC-1 was performed for 12 h and 24 h, respectively. The expression of HIF-1α was assessed by Western blot. The radiosensitivity was evaluated by the survival curve, and the sublethal damage repair (SLDR) ability was measured by dose-fraction experiment. Results: HIF-1α protein levels of glioma SHG44 cells were significantly increased after hypoxic cultures for 12 h and 24 h than those of the corresponding cells cultured in normoxic, while the radiosensitivity was lower. The OER (oxygen-enhancement ratio) of SHG44 cells in hypoxia for 12 h and 24 h were 1.22 and 1.37, respectively. By the further statistical analysis it was found that SLDR ability of glioma SHG44 was increased at hypoxia, and when irradiation was carried one at the interval of 8, 10, 12 h it was statistically significant (P<0.05). HIF-1α protein levels of glioma SHG44 cells cultured in hypoxia plus YC-1 for 12 h and 24 h were decreased significantly compared to the corresponding cells cultured in hypoxia only, while the radiosensitivity was significantly increased. the EF (enhancement factor) of YC-1 for glioma SHG44 cells at hypoxia for 12 h and 24 h was 1.27. By the further statistical analysis it was also found that SLDR ability was decreased significantly for hypoxic SHG44 cells which was co-cultured with YC-1, and at the interval of 8, 10, 12 h irradiation was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: YC-1 can increase the radiosensitivity of hypoxic glioma SHG44 cell line, and its mechanism is related to SLDR inhibited by YC-1. (authors)

  19. Inhibiting Heat Shock Proteins Can Potentiate the Cytotoxic Effect of Cannabidiol in Human Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Katherine A; Dennis, Jayne L; Dalgleish, Angus G; Liu, Wai M

    2015-11-01

    Cannabinoids possess a number of characteristics that make them putative anticancer drugs, and their value as such is currently being explored in a number of clinical studies. To further understand the roles that cannabinoids may have, we performed gene expression profiling in glioma cell lines cultured with cannabidiol (CBD) and/or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and pursued targets identified by this screening. Results showed that a large number of genes belonging to the heat shock protein (HSP) super-family were up-regulated following treatment, specifically with CBD. Increases were observed both at the gene and protein levels and arose as a consequence of increased generation of ROS by CBD, and correlated with an increase in a number of HSP client proteins. Furthermore, increases impeded the cytotoxic effect of CBD; an effect that was improved by co-culture with pharmacalogical inhibitors of HSPs. Similarly, culturing glioma cells with CBD and HSP inhibitors increased radiosensitivity when compared to CBD-alone. Taken together, these data indicate that the cytotoxic effects of CBD can be diminished by HSPs that indirectly rise as a result of CBD use, and that the inclusion of HSP inhibitors in CBD treatment regimens can enhance the overall effect. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Bex2 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis in malignant glioma cells via the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiuping; Meng, Qingming; Xu, Xuebin; Zhi, Tongle; Shi, Qiong; Wang, Yong; Yu, Rutong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The expression levels of Bex2 markedly increased in glioma tissues. ► Bex2 over-expression promoted cell proliferation, while its down-regulation inhibited cell growth. ► Bex2 down-regulation promoted cell apoptosis via JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway. -- Abstract: The function of Bex2, a member of the Brain Expressed X-linked gene family, in glioma is controversial and its mechanism is largely unknown. We report here that Bex2 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis in malignant glioma cells via the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. The expression level of Bex2 is markedly increased in glioma tissues. We observed that Bex2 over-expression promotes cell proliferation, while down-regulation of Bex2 inhibits cell growth. Furthermore, Bex2 down-regulation promotes cell apoptosis and activates the JNK pathway; these effects were abolished by administration of the JNK specific inhibitor, (SP600125). Thus, Bex2 may be an important player during the development of glioma.

  1. Influence of drugs on gap junctions in glioma cell lines and primary astrocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra eMoinfar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions (GJs are hemichannels on cell membrane. Once they are intercellulary connected to the neighboring cells, they build a functional syncytium which allows rapid transfer of ions and molecules between cells. This characteristic makes GJs a potential modulator in proliferation, migration and development of the cells. So far, several types of GJs are recognized on different brain cells as well as in glioma. Astrocytes, as one of the major cells that maintain neuronal homeostasis, express different types of GJs that let them communicate with neurons, oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells of the blood brain barrier; however, the main GJ in astrocytes is connexin 43. There are different cerebral diseases in which astrocyte GJs might play a role. Several drugs have been reported to modulate gap junctional communication in the brain which can consequently have beneficial or detrimental effects on the course of treatment in certain diseases. However, the exact cellular mechanism behind those pharmaceutical efficacies on GJs is not well-understood. Accordingly, how specific drugs would affect GJs and what some consequent specific brain diseases would be are the interests of the authors of this chapter. We would focus on pharmaceutical effects on GJs on astrocytes in specific diseases where GJs could possibly play a role including: 1 migraine and a novel therapy for migraine with aura, 2 neuroautoimmune diseases and immunomodulatory drugs in the treatment of demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, 3 glioma and antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory agents that are used in treating brain tumors and 4 epilepsy and anticonvulsants that are widely used for seizures therapy. All of the above-mentioned therapeutic categories can possibly affect GJs expression of astrocytes and the role is discussed in the upcoming chapter.

  2. Nrf2 is required to maintain the self-renewal of glioma stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jianhong; Wang, Handong; Sun, Qing; Ji, Xiangjun; Zhu, Lin; Cong, Zixiang; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Huandong; Zhou, Mengliang

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas are deadly cancers that display a functional cellular hierarchy maintained by self-renewing glioma stem cells (GSCs). Self-renewal is a complex biological process necessary for maintaining the glioma stem cells. Nuclear factor rythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2) plays a significant role in protecting cells from endogenous and exogenous stresses. Nrf2 is a key nuclear transcription factor that regulates antioxidant response element (ARE)-containing genes. Previous studies have demonstrated the significant role of Nrf2 in the proliferation of glioblastoma, and in their resistance to radioactive therapies. We examined the effect of knocking down Nrf2 in GSCs. Nrf2 expression was down-regulated by shRNA transinfected with lentivirus. Expression levels of Nestin, Nrf2, BMI-1, Sox2 and Cyclin E were assessed by western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry analysis. The capacity for self-renewal in vitro was assessed by genesis of colonies. The capacity for self-renewal in vivo was analyzed by tumor genesis of xenografts in nude mice. Knockdown of Nrf2 inhibited the proliferation of GSCs, and significantly reduced the expression of BMI-1, Sox2 and CyclinE. Knocking down of Nrf2 changed the cell cycle distribution of GSCs by causing an uncharacteristic increase in the proportion of cells in the G2 phase and a decrease in the proportion of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Nrf2 is required to maintain the self-renewal of GSCs, and its down-regulation can attenuate the self-renewal of GSCs significantly

  3. Homologous desensitization of histamine-mediated signal transduction system in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Lu; Wei, Jiann-Wu

    2013-04-30

    Molecular events involved in the homologous desensitization of histamine-mediated signal transduction system in glioma cells are not well understood. The aim of this study was designed to gain further insight into possible events in the process using the C6 glioma cells. Incubation of histamine caused increases in inositol phosphate (IP1) formation and intracellular free-calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in C6 glioma cells via the activation of a G-protein-coupled phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Histamine also caused an increase in extracellular release of arachidonic acid (AA) and formation of glycerophosphoinositol (GPI). These effects are likely to be mediated through the activation of receptor-coupled phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Pretreatment of C6 cells with histamine, from 0.1 microM to 1 mM concentrations, for 10 to 60 min significantly reduced the histamine-induced IP1 production, [Ca2+]i accumulation, AA release and GPI formation, despite repeated wash of the cells with buffer solution. Staurosporine (10 nM), a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, reversed almost completely IP1 production, or partially for [Ca2+]i, GPI formation and AA release of this homologous desensitization effect of histamine. Pretreatment of C6 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, at 0.1 nM to 0.1 microM for 2 to 15 min caused a reduction of histamine-induced IP1 formation and [Ca2+] accumulation, but enhanced histamine-induced AA release and GPI formation. Ten nM staurosporine completely reversed the effect of PMA on histamine-induced IP1 formation and partially on [Ca2+]i accumulation. However, staurosporine potentiated the effect of PMA on histamine-induced AA release and GPI formation, but the effect could be blocked by H7, a calcium-dependent PKC inhibitor. Our results indicate that activation of PKC by histamine in the signal transduction system is involved in the histamine-induced homologous desensitization event. Since PMA pretreatment could not mimic histamine

  4. β-Elemene Selectively Inhibits the Proliferation of Glioma Stem-Like Cells Through the Downregulation of Notch1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hai-Bin; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Hao-Ran; Mei, Xin; Zhao, Yi-Ying; Chen, Fu-Rong; Qu, Yue; Sai, Ke; Guo, Cheng-Cheng; Yang, Qun-Ying; Zhang, Zong-Ping; Chen, Zhong-Ping

    2017-03-01

    Glioma is the most frequent primary central nervous system tumor. Although the current first-line medicine, temozolomide (TMZ), promotes patient survival, drug resistance develops easily. Thus, it is important to investigate novel therapeutic reagents to solidify the treatment effect. β-Elemene (bELE) is a compound from a Chinese herb whose anticancer effect has been shown in various types of cancer. However, its role in the inhibition of glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) has not yet been reported. We studied both the in vitro and the in vivo inhibitory effect of bELE and TMZ in GSLCs and parental cells and their combined effects. The molecular mechanisms were also investigated. We also optimized the delivery methods of bELE. We found that bELE selectively inhibits the proliferation and sphere formation of GSLCs, other than parental glioma cells, and TMZ exerts its effects on parental cells instead of GSLCs. The in vivo data confirmed that the combination of bELE and TMZ worked better in the xenografts of GSLCs, mimicking the situation of tumorigenesis of human cancer. Notch1 was downregulated with bELE treatment. Our data also demonstrated that the continuous administration of bELE produces an ideal effect to control tumor progression. Our findings have demonstrated, for the first time, that bELE could compensate for TMZ to kill both GSLCs and nonstem-like cancer cells, probably improving the prognosis of glioma patients tremendously. Notch1 might be a downstream target of bELE. Therefore, our data shed light on improving the outcomes of glioma patients by combining bELE and TMZ. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:830-839. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  5. Optical imaging of cancer and cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Bangwen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work included in this PhD thesis was to explore the diverse application possibility of using NIR fluorescent probes with specific properties to visualize and characterize cancer and cell death. In this thesis, we mainly focus on optical imaging and its application, both at microscopic

  6. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Woltering, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the

  7. Lysosomal cell death at a glance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aits, Sonja; Jaattela, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Lysosomes serve as the cellular recycling centre and are filled with numerous hydrolases that can degrade most cellular macromolecules. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization and the consequent leakage of the lysosomal content into the cytosol leads to so-called "lysosomal cell death". This form...

  8. Effect of fluoxetine and adenosine receptor NECA agonist on G alpha q/11 protein of C6 glioma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářů, H.; Kovářů, F.; Lisá, Věra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2012), s. 614-618 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : C6 glioma cells * SSRI antidepressant * G alpha q/11 signalling * G protein coupled receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2012

  9. 'Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activity and/or structure homologs' (DASH) in growth-modulated glioma cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedo, Aleksi; Bušek, P.; Scholzová, E.; Malík, Radek; Vlašicová, K.; Janáčková, S.; Mareš, Vladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 385, č. 6 (2004), s. 557-559 ISSN 1431-6730 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/02/0962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : brain tumors * glioma cells * DPP-IV Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.598, year: 2004

  10. Hemoglobins, programmed cell death and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert D; Huang, Shuanglong; Stasolla, Claudio

    2013-10-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a universal process in all multicellular organisms. It is a critical component in a diverse number of processes ranging from growth and differentiation to response to stress. Somatic embryogenesis is one such process where PCD is significantly involved. Nitric oxide is increasingly being recognized as playing a significant role in regulating PCD in both mammalian and plant systems. Plant hemoglobins scavenge NO, and evidence is accumulating that events that modify NO levels in plants also affect hemoglobin expression. Here, we review the process of PCD, describing the involvement of NO and plant hemoglobins in the process. NO is an effector of cell death in both plants and vertebrates, triggering the cascade of events leading to targeted cell death that is a part of an organism's response to stress or to tissue differentiation and development. Expression of specific hemoglobins can alter this response in plants by scavenging the NO, thus, interrupting the death process. Somatic embryogenesis is used as a model system to demonstrate how cell-specific expression of different classes of hemoglobins can alter the embryogenic process, affecting hormone synthesis, cell metabolite levels and genes associated with PCD and embryogenic competence. We propose that plant hemoglobins influence somatic embryogenesis and PCD through cell-specific expression of a distinct plant hemoglobin. It is based on the premise that both embryogenic competence and PCD are strongly influenced by cellular NO levels. Increases in cellular NO levels result in elevated Zn(2+) and reactive-oxygen species associated with PCD, but they also result in decreased expression of MYC2, a transcription factor that is a negative effector of indoleacetic acid synthesis, a hormone that positively influences embryogenic competence. Cell-specific hemoglobin expression reduces NO levels as a result of NO scavenging, resulting in cell survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  11. A mathematical model describes the malignant transformation of low grade gliomas: Prognostic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena U Bogdańska

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumours. Low grade gliomas (LGGs, WHO grade II gliomas may grow very slowly for the long periods of time, however they inevitably cause death due to the phenomenon known as the malignant transformation. This refers to the transition of LGGs to more aggressive forms of high grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO grade III and IV gliomas. In this paper we propose a mathematical model describing the spatio-temporal transition of LGGs into HGGs. Our modelling approach is based on two cellular populations with transitions between them being driven by the tumour microenvironment transformation occurring when the tumour cell density grows beyond a critical level. We show that the proposed model describes real patient data well. We discuss the relationship between patient prognosis and model parameters. We approximate tumour radius and velocity before malignant transformation as well as estimate the onset of this process.

  12. Diversity of cell death pathways: insight from the fly ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Victoria K; Timmons, Allison K; McCall, Kimberly

    2013-11-01

    Multiple types of cell death exist including necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death. The Drosophila ovary provides a valuable model to study the diversity of cell death modalities, and we review recent progress to elucidate these pathways. At least five distinct types of cell death occur in the ovary, and we focus on two that have been studied extensively. Cell death of mid-stage egg chambers occurs through a novel caspase-dependent pathway that involves autophagy and triggers phagocytosis by surrounding somatic epithelial cells. For every egg, 15 germline nurse cells undergo developmental programmed cell death, which occurs independently of most known cell death genes. These forms of cell death are strikingly similar to cell death observed in the germlines of other organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temozolomide and carmustine cause large-scale heterochromatin reorganization in glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papait, Roberto; Magrassi, Lorenzo; Rigamonti, Dorotea; Cattaneo, Elena

    2009-02-06

    Temozolomide (TMZ) and carmustine (BCNU), cancer-drugs usually used in the treatment of gliomas, are DNA-methylating agents producing O6-methylguanine. It has been shown that 06-methylguanine triggers DNA mismatch repair and in turn induce apoptosis and senescence, respectively, over a 4 and 6 days period [Y. Hirose, M.S. Berger, R.O. Pieper, p53 effects both the duration of G2/M arrest and the fate of temozolomide-treated human glioblastoma cells, Cancer Res. 61 (2001) 1957-1963; W. Roos, M. Baumgartner, B. Kaina, Apoptosis triggered by DNA damage O6-methylguanine in human lymphocytes requires DNA replication and is mediated by p53 and Fas/CD95/Apo-1, Oncogene 23 (2004) 359-367]. Here we show that TMZ and BCNU have an earlier effect on nuclear organization and chromatin structure. In particular, we report that TMZ and BCNU induce clustering of pericentromeric heterochromatin regions and increase the amount of heterochromatic proteins MeCP2 and HP1alpha bound to chromatin. These drugs also decrease global levels of histone H3 acetylation and increase levels of histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 9 (H3-triMeK9). These events precede the senescence status. We conclude that TMZ and BCNU efficacy in glioma treatment may implicate a first event characterized by changes in heterochromatin organization and its silencing which is then followed by apoptosis and senescence.

  14. Temozolomide and carmustine cause large-scale heterochromatin reorganization in glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papait, Roberto; Magrassi, Lorenzo; Rigamonti, Dorotea; Cattaneo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) and carmustine (BCNU), cancer-drugs usually used in the treatment of gliomas, are DNA-methylating agents producing O6-methylguanine. It has been shown that 06-methylguanine triggers DNA mismatch repair and in turn induce apoptosis and senescence, respectively, over a 4 and 6 days period [Y. Hirose, M.S. Berger, R.O. Pieper, p53 effects both the duration of G2/M arrest and the fate of temozolomide-treated human glioblastoma cells, Cancer Res. 61 (2001) 1957-1963; W. Roos, M. Baumgartner, B. Kaina, Apoptosis triggered by DNA damage O6-methylguanine in human lymphocytes requires DNA replication and is mediated by p53 and Fas/CD95/Apo-1, Oncogene 23 (2004) 359-367]. Here we show that TMZ and BCNU have an earlier effect on nuclear organization and chromatin structure. In particular, we report that TMZ and BCNU induce clustering of pericentromeric heterochromatin regions and increase the amount of heterochromatic proteins MeCP2 and HP1α bound to chromatin. These drugs also decrease global levels of histone H3 acetylation and increase levels of histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 9 (H3-triMeK9). These events precede the senescence status. We conclude that TMZ and BCNU efficacy in glioma treatment may implicate a first event characterized by changes in heterochromatin organization and its silencing which is then followed by apoptosis and senescence.

  15. Dexamethasone inhibits the HSV-tk/ ganciclovir bystander effect in malignant glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolois Olivier

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HSV-tk/ ganciclovir (GCV gene therapy has been extensively studied in the setting of brain tumors and largely relies on the bystander effect. Large studies have however failed to demonstrate any significant benefit of this strategy in the treatment of human brain tumors. Since dexamethasone is a frequently used symptomatic treatment for malignant gliomas, its interaction with the bystander effect and the overall efficacy of HSV-TK gene therapy ought to be assessed. Methods Stable clones of TK-expressing U87, C6 and LN18 cells were generated and their bystander effect on wild type cells was assessed. The effects of dexamethasone on cell proliferation and sensitivity to ganciclovir were assessed with a thymidine incorporation assay and a MTT test. Gap junction mediated intercellular communication was assessed with microinjections and FACS analysis of calcein transfer. The effect of dexamethasone treatment on the sensitivity of TK-expressing to FAS-dependent apoptosis in the presence or absence of ganciclovir was assessed with an MTT test. Western blot was used to evidence the effect of dexamethasone on the expression of Cx43, CD95, CIAP2 and BclXL. Results Dexamethasone significantly reduced the bystander effect in TK-expressing C6, LN18 and U87 cells. This inhibition results from a reduction of the gap junction mediated intercellular communication of these cells (GJIC, from an inhibition of their growth and thymidine incorporation and from a modulation of the apoptotic cascade. Conclusion The overall efficacy of HSV-TK gene therapy is adversely affected by dexamethasone co-treatment in vitro. Future HSV-tk/ GCV gene therapy clinical protocols for gliomas should address this interference of corticosteroid treatment.

  16. Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics reveals metabolic differences in attracting and non-attracting human-in-mouse glioma stem cell xenografts and stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norelle C. Wildburger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (BM-hMSCs show promise as cell-based delivery vehicles for anti-glioma therapeutics, due to innate tropism for gliomas. However, in clinically relevant human-in-mouse glioma stem cell xenograft models, BM-hMSCs tropism is variable. We compared the proteomic profile of cancer and stromal cells in GSCXs that attract BM-hMSCs (“attractors” with those to do not (“non-attractors” to identify pathways that may modulate BM-hMSC homing, followed by targeted transcriptomics. The results provide the first link between fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, ROS, and N-glycosylation patterns in attractors. Reciprocal expression of these pathways in the stromal cells suggests microenvironmental cross-talk.

  17. Characterization of NCAM expression and function in BT4C and BT4Cn glioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Moran, N; Gaardsvoll, H

    1991-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, plays an important role in cell-cell adhesion. Therefore, we have studied NCAM expression in the glioma cell lines BT4C and BT4Cn. We demonstrate that the 2 cell lines differ in their metastatic ability; while BT4C cells have a very low capacity...... for producing experimental metastases, that of BT4Cn cells is high. In BT4C cells NCAM is synthesized as 4 polypeptides with Mr's of 190,000, 140,000, 115,000 and 97,000. The 140,000, 115,000 and 97,000 polypeptides are glycosylated and for the 140,000 and 115,000 polypeptides sulfatation is observed....... Conversely, no NCAM protein synthesis is observed in BT4Cn cells, even though NCAM mRNA is expressed. Thus, development of an increased metastatic capacity is accompanied by the disappearance of NCAM protein expression in this model system. The functional importance of NCAM expression was studied by a cell...

  18. The discussion of method for survey the radiosensitivity of human glioma cell line SHG-44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Xu Changshao; Zhou Juying; Xu Xiaoting; Luo Jialin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate if thiazolyl blue colorimetric assay (MTT) and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) can replace clone forming assay for survey the radiosensitivity of SHG-44. Methods; Three assays was applied to examine the growth inhibition of human glioma cell line SHG-44 in eight dose groups of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy, and statistical research was applied to analyze the correlation between survival fraction and various doses. Results: Dose was associated with survival fraction in these three assays at some range of irradiation doseage (dose≤3 Gy). If out of the range, the relation is poor. CCK-8 has no rather superiority than MTT. Conclusion: By now clone forming assay is still the 'gold standard'. In some cases, MTT and other assays can give us some reference, but these assays still can not replace clone forming assay. (authors)

  19. Vascular regulation of glioma stem-like cells: a balancing act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lucy J; Parrinello, Simona

    2017-12-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) are aggressive and therapy-resistant brain tumours driven by glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). GSC behaviour is controlled by the microenvironment, or niche, in which the cells reside. It is well-established that the vasculature is a key component of the GSC niche, which drives maintenance in the tumour bulk and invasion at the margin. Emerging evidence now indicates that the specific properties of the vasculature within these two regions impose different functional states on resident GSCs, generating distinct subpopulations. Here, we review these recent findings, focusing on the mechanisms that underlie GSC/vascular communication. We further discuss how plasticity enables GSCs to respond to vascular changes by interconverting bidirectionally between states, and address the therapeutic implications of this dynamic response. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Forkhead box P3 regulates ARHGAP15 expression and affects migration of glioma cells through the Rac1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Chen; Fu, Tao; Li, Lianling; Wu, Qiaoli; Cai, Ying; Wang, Jinhuan

    2017-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) plays a crucial role in the development and function of regulatory T cells and was recently identified as a tumor suppressor in different cancer types. Forkhead box P3 is expressed in normal brain tissues, but is strongly downregulated or absent in glioblastomas. In order to understand the FOXP3 adjustment mechanisms in glioma cells, we performed a DNA microarray in U87 cells overexpressing FOXP3 and validated the differences using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry in vitro and in vivo. We found that FOXP3 can regulate the expression of ARHGAP15. Expression of FOXP3 was also correlated with ARHGAP15 in glioma samples. Overexpression of FOXP3 inhibited glioma cell migration through ARHGAP15 upregulation and Rac1 inactivation. Silencing of FOXP3 promoted migration through ARHGAP15 downregulation and Rac1 activation. ARHGAP15, a GTPase-activating protein for Rac1, inhibits small GTPase signaling in a dual negative manner. We found that there is a correlation between expression of ARHGAP15 and glioma level. The small GTPase Rac1 plays an important role in cell migration. In addition, we found that FOXP3 regulates expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and N-cadherin, which is important given that epithelial-mesenchymal transition is critically involved in tumor spreading and dissemination. Thus, FOXP3 or ARHGAP15 may serve as a new molecular target for antimetastatic therapies in treating glioma. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  1. Inhibition of cell growth by EGR-1 in human primary cultures from malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Franco

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the putative role of EGR-1 in the growth of glioma cells. EGR-1 expression was examined during the early passages in vitro of 17 primary cell lines grown from 3 grade III and from 14 grade IV malignant astrocytoma explants. The explanted tumors were genetically characterized at the p53, MDM2 and INK4a/ARF loci, and fibronectin expression and growth characteristics were examined. A recombinant adenovirus overexpressing EGR-1 was tested in the primary cell lines. Results Low levels of EGR-1 protein were found in all primary cultures examined, with lower values present in grade IV tumors and in cultures carrying wild-type copies of p53 gene. The levels of EGR-1 protein were significantly correlated to the amount of intracellular fibronectin, but only in tumors carrying wild-type copies of the p53 gene (R = 0,78, p = 0.0082. Duplication time, plating efficiency, colony formation in agarose, and contact inhibition were also altered in the p53 mutated tumor cultures compared to those carrying wild-type p53. Growth arrest was achieved in both types of tumor within 1–2 weeks following infection with a recombinant adenovirus overexpressing EGR-1 but not with the control adenovirus. Conclusions Suppression of EGR-1 is a common event in gliomas and in most cases this is achieved through down-regulation of gene expression. Expression of EGR-1 by recombinant adenovirus infection almost completely abolishes the growth of tumor cells in vitro, regardless of the mutational status of the p53 gene.

  2. SHMT2 drives glioma cell survival in ischaemia but imposes a dependence on glycine clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohoon; Fiske, Brian P; Birsoy, Kivanc; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Kami, Kenjiro; Possemato, Richard L; Chudnovsky, Yakov; Pacold, Michael E; Chen, Walter W; Cantor, Jason R; Shelton, Laura M; Gui, Dan Y; Kwon, Manjae; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Ligon, Keith L; Kang, Seong Woo; Snuderl, Matija; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Sabatini, David M

    2015-04-16

    Cancer cells adapt their metabolic processes to support rapid proliferation, but less is known about how cancer cells alter metabolism to promote cell survival in a poorly vascularized tumour microenvironment. Here we identify a key role for serine and glycine metabolism in the survival of brain cancer cells within the ischaemic zones of gliomas. In human glioblastoma multiforme, mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT2) and glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) are highly expressed in the pseudopalisading cells that surround necrotic foci. We find that SHMT2 activity limits that of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) and reduces oxygen consumption, eliciting a metabolic state that confers a profound survival advantage to cells in poorly vascularized tumour regions. GLDC inhibition impairs cells with high SHMT2 levels as the excess glycine not metabolized by GLDC can be converted to the toxic molecules aminoacetone and methylglyoxal. Thus, SHMT2 is required for cancer cells to adapt to the tumour environment, but also renders these cells sensitive to glycine cleavage system inhibition.

  3. Programmed cell death in the plant immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, N S; Epple, P; Dangl, J L

    2011-08-01

    Cell death has a central role in innate immune responses in both plants and animals. Besides sharing striking convergences and similarities in the overall evolutionary organization of their innate immune systems, both plants and animals can respond to infection and pathogen recognition with programmed cell death. The fact that plant and animal pathogens have evolved strategies to subvert specific cell death modalities emphasizes the essential role of cell death during immune responses. The hypersensitive response (HR) cell death in plants displays morphological features, molecular architectures and mechanisms reminiscent of different inflammatory cell death types in animals (pyroptosis and necroptosis). In this review, we describe the molecular pathways leading to cell death during innate immune responses. Additionally, we present recently discovered caspase and caspase-like networks regulating cell death that have revealed fascinating analogies between cell death control across both kingdoms.

  4. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2013-08-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucleases and caspase-like proteases in nucleus dismantling, were evaluated; morphological changes in cytoplasm included subcellular aspects related to starch accumulation. This study proved that, following fertilization, the perisperm of quinoa simultaneously accumulates storage reserves and degenerates, both processes mediated by a programme of developmentally controlled cell death. The novel findings regarding perisperm development provide a starting point for further research in the Amaranthaceae genera, such as comparing seeds with and without perisperm, and specifying phylogeny and evolution within this taxon. Wherever possible and appropriate, differences between quinoa perisperm and grass starchy endosperm--a morphologically and functionally similar, although genetically different tissue--were highlighted and discussed.

  5. In vitro drug response and efflux transporters associated with drug resistance in pediatric high grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna J E Veringa

    Full Text Available Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG, including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG, are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. While it is clear that surgery (if possible, and radiotherapy are beneficial for treatment, the role of chemotherapy for these tumors is still unclear. Therefore, we performed an in vitro drug screen on primary glioma cells, including three DIPG cultures, to determine drug sensitivity of these tumours, without the possible confounding effect of insufficient drug delivery. This screen revealed a high in vitro cytotoxicity for melphalan, doxorubicine, mitoxantrone, and BCNU, and for the novel, targeted agents vandetanib and bortezomib in pHGG and DIPG cells. We subsequently determined the expression of the drug efflux transporters P-gp, BCRP1, and MRP1 in glioma cultures and their corresponding tumor tissues. Results indicate the presence of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP1 in the tumor vasculature, and expression of MRP1 in the glioma cells themselves. Our results show that pediatric glioma and DIPG tumors per se are not resistant to chemotherapy. Treatment failure observed in clinical trials, may rather be contributed to the presence of drug efflux transporters that constitute a first line of drug resistance located at the blood-brain barrier or other resistance mechanism. As such, we suggest that alternative ways of drug delivery may offer new possibilities for the treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma patients, and DIPG in particular.

  6. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawkar, Ganesh M.; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280–320 nm) and UV-A (320–390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:23344059

  7. UV-Induced cell death in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawkar, Ganesh M; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-14

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD).

  8. Effect of flupirtine on the growth and viability of U373 malignant glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchanathan, Elango; Ramanathan, Gnanasambandan; Lakkakula, Bhaskar Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya

    2013-01-01

    Flupirtine is a non-opioid analgesic without antipyretic or antiphlogistic properties but with favorable tolerability in humans. This analgesic also exhibits neuroprotective activities. Furthermore, flupirtine antagonizes glutamate- and NMDA-induced intracellular levels of Ca 2+ and counteracts the effects of focal cerebral ischemia. Although flupirtine has been used to relieve pain caused by different diseases and clinical procedures, information on the safety and efficacy of flupirtine is limited. The present study was conducted to investigate the neuroprotective effects of flupirtine on U373 malignant glioma (MG) cell lines. Cell viability and cell cycle analysis was performed by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Variations in the growth of U373 MG cells in 5 mM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), 1 mM flupirtine, and combined treatment indicated the antagonistic effects of NMDA and flupirtine on MG cell lines. The variation in the percentage of gated cell population in different cell cycle phases showed significant variations after 48 h of treatment. Flupirtine has neuroprotective effect of on U373 MG cells, which limits its use in the pain management of brain tumors. This property warrants further studies using animal models and large-scale clinical trials

  9. Hydrophobic fractal surface from glycerol tripalmitate and the effects on C6 glioma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Chen, Xuerui; Yu, Jing; Hong, Biyuan; Lei, Qunfang; Fang, Wenjun

    2016-06-01

    To provide a biomimic environment for glial cell culture, glycerol tripalmitate (PPP) has been used as a raw material to prepare fractal surfaces with different degrees of hydrophobicity. The spontaneous formation of the hydrophobic fractal surfaces was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphologies were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and then the fractal dimension (FD) values of the surfaces were determined with the box-counting method. C6 glioma cells were cultured and compared on different hydrophobic PPP surfaces and poly-L-lysine (PLL)-coated surface. The cell numbers as a function of incubation time on different surfaces during the cell proliferation process were measured, and the cell morphologies were observed under a fluorescence microscope. Influences of hydrophobic fractal surfaces on the cell number and morphology were analyzed. The experimental results show that the cell proliferation rates decrease while the cell morphology complexities increase with the growth of the fractal dimensions of the PPP surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Glucocorticoids promote a glioma stem cell-like phenotype and resistance to chemotherapy in human glioblastoma primary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostopoulou, Ourania N; Mohammad, Abdul-Aleem; Bartek, Jiri

    2018-01-01

    -driven changes in cell morphology, proliferation, migration, gene expression, secretory activity and growth as neurospheres. Dexamethasone treatment of GBM cells appeared to promote the development of a GSC-like phenotype and conferred resistance to physiological stress and chemotherapy. We also analyzed......Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are glioblastoma (GBM) cells that are resistant to therapy and can give rise to recurrent tumors. The identification of patient-related factors that support GSCs is thus necessary to design effective therapies for GBM patients. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to treat GBM......-associated edema. However, glucocorticoids participate in the physiological response to psychosocial stress, which has been linked to poor cancer prognosis. This raises concern that glucocorticoids affect the tumor and GSCs. Here, we treated primary human GBM cells with dexamethasone and evaluated GC...

  11. The infrared spectrum of human glioma cells is related to their in vitro and in vivo behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaigneaux, A.; Decaestecker, C.; Camby, I.; Mijatovic, T.; Kiss, R.; Ruysschaert, J.M.; Goormaghtigh, E.

    2004-01-01

    The present research investigates whether infrared spectra can be related to the biological characteristics of glioma cell lines. We used nine human glioma cell lines for which a series of in vitro and in vivo biological features had already been established [Glia 36 (2001) 375] and were able to show that their characteristic infrared spectra reflect their in vitro migration (i.e., motility and invasiveness) properties and their in vivo aggressiveness. More particularly, the infrared data evidenced correlations at the level of the lipid/protein ratio. These relationships were found to be tissue-dependent when controlled on seven pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. We also showed that oligodendroglial and astrocytic tumor cells, whose identification remains difficult, can easily be identified by their infrared spectra in the lipid acyl chain region as well as in the nucleic acid region. We concluded that infrared spectroscopy could usefully complement information provided by more conventional diagnostic and prognostic (e.g., morphological and molecular) approaches

  12. Snail regulates BMP and TGFβ pathways to control the differentiation status of glioma-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, Laia; Tzavlaki, Kalliopi; Dadras, Mahsa S; Tan, E-Jean; Hatem, Gad; Maturi, Naga P; Morén, Anita; Wik, Lotta; Watanabe, Yukihide; Savary, Katia; Kamali-Moghaddan, Masood; Uhrbom, Lene; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2018-02-16

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a brain malignancy characterized by high heterogeneity, invasiveness, and resistance to current therapies, attributes related to the occurrence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) promotes self-renewal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induces differentiation of GSCs. BMP7 induces the transcription factor Snail to promote astrocytic differentiation in GSCs and suppress tumor growth in vivo. We demonstrate that Snail represses stemness in GSCs. Snail interacts with SMAD signaling mediators, generates a positive feedback loop of BMP signaling and transcriptionally represses the TGFB1 gene, decreasing TGFβ1 signaling activity. Exogenous TGFβ1 counteracts Snail function in vitro, and in vivo promotes proliferation and re-expression of Nestin, confirming the importance of TGFB1 gene repression by Snail. In conclusion, novel insight highlights mechanisms whereby Snail differentially regulates the activity of the opposing BMP and TGFβ pathways, thus promoting an astrocytic fate switch and repressing stemness in GSCs.

  13. The role of glioma stem cells in chemotherapy resistance and glioblastoma multiforme recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffinger, Brenda; Spencer, Drew; Pytel, Peter; Ahmed, Atique U.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2016-01-01

    Glioma stem cells (GSCs) constitute a slow-dividing, small population within a heterogeneous glioblastoma. They are able to self-renew, recapitulate a whole tumor, and differentiate into other specific GBM subpopulations. Therefore, they have been held responsible for malignant relapse after primary standard therapy and the poor prognosis of recurrent GBM. The failure of current therapies to eliminate specific GSC subpopulations has been considered a major factor contributing to the inevitable recurrence in GBM patients following treatment. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance of GSCs and the reasons why complete eradication of GSCs is so difficult to achieve. We will also describe the targeted therapies currently available towards GSCs and possible mechanisms to overcome such chemoresistance and avoid therapeutic relapse. PMID:26027432

  14. Evaluation of mitochondrial respiratory function in highly glycolytic glioma cells reveals low ADP phosphorylation in relation to oxidative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Erika; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Ruas, Juliana S; Ignarro, Raffaela S; Figueira, Tiago R; Rogério, Fábio; Castilho, Roger F

    2017-07-01

    High-grade gliomas are aggressive and intensely glycolytic tumors. In the present study, we evaluated the mitochondrial respiratory function of glioma cells (T98G and U-87MG) and fresh human glioblastoma (GBM) tissue. To this end, measurements of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) were performed under various experimental conditions. The OCR of T98G and U-87MG cells was well coupled to ADP phosphorylation based on the ratio of ATP produced per oxygen consumed of ~2.5. In agreement, the basal OCR of GBM tissue was also partially associated with ADP phosphorylation. The basal respiration of intact T98G and U-87MG cells was not limited by the supply of endogenous substrates, as indicated by the increased OCR in response to a protonophore. These cells also displayed a high affinity for oxygen, as evidenced by the values of the partial pressure of oxygen when respiration is half maximal (p 50 ). In permeabilized glioma cells, ADP-stimulated OCR was only approximately 50% of that obtained in the presence of protonophore, revealing a significant limitation in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) relative to the activity of the electron transport system (ETS). This characteristic was maintained when the cells were grown under low glucose conditions. Flux control coefficient analyses demonstrated that the impaired OXPHOS was associated with the function of both mitochondrial ATP synthase and the adenine nucleotide translocator, but not the phosphate carrier. Altogether, these data indicate that the availability and metabolism of respiratory substrates and mitochondrial ETS are preserved in T98G and U-87MG glioma cells even though these cells possess a relatively restrained OXPHOS capability.

  15. A novel bispecific immunotoxin delivered by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to target blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry of malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yonghong Zhang,1,2 Xinlin Sun,1 Min Huang,1 Yiquan Ke,1 Jihui Wang,1 Xiao Liu1 1National Key Clinic Specialty, Neurosurgery Institute of Guangdong Province, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory on Brain Function Repair and Regeneration, Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Neurosurgery, First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: In previous years, immunotoxins have been shown to be a greatly promising therapeutic tool for brain malignancies, such as gliomas. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs exhibit tropism to tumor tissue. However, the effect of bispecific immunotoxins in malignant gliomas is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of bispecific immunotoxins in human malignant gliomas.Materials and methods: In the present study, the bispecific immunotoxin VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was established using deoxyribonucleic acid shuffling and cloning techniques. The VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was delivered by hMSCs to mouse malignant gliomas. The effects of the bispecific immunotoxins on glioma-derived blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumorigenic effects of immunotoxins were examined in vivo.Results: In vitro, transfected hMSCs significantly inhibited the cell viability of gliomas cell lines U87 and U251 in a dose-dependent manner compared with untransfected hMSCs (P<0.01. In vivo, the intratumoral injection of engineered hMSCs was effective at inhibiting tumor growth in a malignant glioma tumor model.Conclusion: The bispecific immunotoxin secreted from hMSCs acts as a novel strategy for improving treatment options for malignant gliomas in the clinic. Keywords: bispecific immunotoxin, human mesenchymal stem cells, ephrin A1, VEGF165, malignant glioma

  16. Picornaviruses and Apoptosis: Subversion of Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Sarah N; Walker, Erin J; Ghildyal, Reena

    2017-09-19

    Infected cells can undergo apoptosis as a protective response to viral infection, thereby limiting viral infection. As viruses require a viable cell for replication, the death of the cell limits cellular functions that are required for virus replication and propagation. Picornaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that modify the host cell apoptotic response, probably in order to promote viral replication, largely as a function of the viral proteases 2A, 3C, and 3CD. These proteases are essential for viral polyprotein processing and also cleave cellular proteins. Picornavirus proteases cleave proapoptotic adaptor proteins, resulting in downregulation of apoptosis. Picornavirus proteases also cleave nucleoporins, disrupting the orchestrated manner in which signaling pathways use active nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, including those involved in apoptosis. In addition to viral proteases, the transmembrane 2B protein alters intracellular ion signaling, which may also modulate apoptosis. Overall, picornaviruses, via the action of virally encoded proteins, exercise intricate control over and subvert cell death pathways, specifically apoptosis, thereby allowing viral replication to continue. Copyright © 2017 Croft et al.

  17. Bufalin Inhibits Cellular Proliferation and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Phenotypes via Upregulation of MiR-203 in Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prior studies have shown that bufalin inhibits cellular proliferation and induces apoptosis in various human cancers. MicroRNA-203 (miR-203 has been shown to function as an important regulator of tumor progression at various stages. In this study, we investigated the effect of miR-203 expression and bufalin treatment on glioma cell proliferation and stem cell-like phenotypes. Methods: We used cell viability assay, colony formation assay, cell apoptosis assay and neurosphere formation assay to dectect the treatment effect of bufalin on U251 and U87 cells. Cells were transfected with the miR-203 mimic without bufalin treatment or cells were transfected with anti-miR-203 under bufalin treatment, the above expreiments were repeated. RT-PCR was employed to quantify miR-203 expression. Western blot was performed to detect the stem cell-like (CSC markers, OCT4 and SOX2. Luciferase activity assay was used to determine whether the SPARC is the target of miR-203. Results: Bufalin treatment inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and CSC phenotypes and increased cell apoptosis and expression of miR-203. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-203 led to similar outcomes as bufalin treatment with respect to the cell viability, colony formation, cell apoptosis and the phenotypes of glioma cells. While anti-miR-203 attenuated the inhibitory effects of bufalin as promoting cell proliferation, colony formation and CSC phenotyes and inhibiting cell apoptosis. In addition, we identified SPARC as a novel target gene of miR-203. Conclusions: These findings suggest that miR-203 plays an important role in bufalin’s ability to inhibit the growth of glioma cells and the development of stem cell-like phenotypes.

  18. Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Veronica [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Gaggianesi, Miriam [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Spina, Valentina; Iovino, Flora [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Dieli, Francesco [Departement of Biopathology and Medicine Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Stassi, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.stassi@unipa.it [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Todaro, Matilde [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy)

    2011-04-11

    Nowadays it is reported that, similarly to other solid tumors, colorectal cancer is sustained by a rare subset of cancer stem–like cells (CSCs), which survive conventional anticancer treatments, thanks to efficient mechanisms allowing escape from apoptosis, triggering tumor recurrence. To improve patient outcomes, conventional anticancer therapies have to be replaced with specific approaches targeting CSCs. In this review we provide strong support that BMP4 is an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent colon cancer growth increasing differentiation markers expression and apoptosis. Recent data suggest that in colorectal CSCs, protection from apoptosis is achieved by interleukin-4 (IL-4) autocrine production through upregulation of antiapoptotic mediators, including survivin. Consequently, IL-4 neutralization could deregulate survivin expression and localization inducing chemosensitivity of the colon CSCs pool.

  19. Effects of concomitant temozolomide and radiation therapies on WT1-specific T-cells in malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Yasuyoshi; Hashimoto, Naoya; Tsuboi, Akihiro

    2010-01-01

    Immunotherapy targeting the Wilms' tumour 1 gene product has been proven safe and effective for treating malignant glioma in a phase II clinical study. Currently, radiation/temozolomide therapy is the standard treatment with only modest benefit. Whether combining radiation/temozolomide therapy with WT1 immunotherapy will have a negating effect on immunotherapy is still controversial because of the significant lymphocytopaenia induced by the former therapy. To address this issue, we investigated the changes in frequency and number of WT1-specific T-cells in patients with malignant gliomas. Twenty-two patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma who received standard radiation/temozolomide therapy were recruited for the study. Blood samples were collected before treatment and on the sixth week of therapy. The frequencies and numbers of lymphocytes, CD8 + T-cells, WT1-specific T-cells, regulatory T-cells, natural killer cells and natural killer T-cells were measured and analysed using T-tests. Analysis of the frequency of T lymphocytes and its subpopulation showed an increase in regulatory T-cells, but no significant change was noted in the populations of T-cells, WT1-specific T-cells, natural killer (NK) cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells. Reductions in the total numbers of T-cells, WT1-specific T-cells, NK cells and NKT cells were mainly a consequence of the decrease in the total lymphocyte count. Radiation/temozolomide therapy did not significantly affect the frequency of WT1-specific T-cells, suggesting that the combination with WT1 immunotherapy may be possible, although further assessment in the clinical setting is warranted. (author)

  20. Involvement of triacylglycerol in the metabolism of fatty acids by cultured neuroblastoma and glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, H.W.; Clarke, J.T.; Spence, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism (chain elongation, desaturation, and incorporation into complex lipids) of thirteen different radiolabeled fatty acids and acetate was examined in N1E-115 neuroblastoma and C-6 glioma cell lines in culture. During 6-hr incubations, all fatty acids were extensively (14-80%) esterified to complex lipids, mainly choline phosphoglycerides and triacylglycerol. With trienoic and tetraenoic substrates, inositol and ethanolamine phosphoglycerides also contained up to 30% of the labeled fatty acids; plasmalogen contained up to half of the label in the ethanolamine phosphoglyceride fraction of neuroblastoma cells. Chain elongation and delta 9, delta 6, and delta 5 desaturation occurred in both cell lines; delta 4 desaturation was not observed. Seemingly anomalous utilization of arachidic acid and some selectivity based on the geometric configuration of double bonds was observed. These studies indicate that these cell lines are capable of modulating cellular membrane composition by a combination of selective exclusion and removal of inappropriate acyl chains and of modification of other acyl chains by desaturation and chain elongation. The time courses and patterns of modification and incorporation of exogenous substrates into phospholipids and triacylglycerol suggest that exogenous unsaturated fatty acid may be incorporated into triacylglycerol and later released for further metabolism and incorporation into phospholipids. This supports a role for triacylglycerol in the synthesis of membrane complex lipids in cell lines derived from neural tissue

  1. Effect of hypoxia on the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in U87 glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Minchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the effect of hypoxia on the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in U87 glioma cells under the inhibition of IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme-1, which controls cell proliferation and tumor growth as a central mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress. It was shown that hypoxia down-regulated gene expression of malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2, malic enzyme 2 (ME2, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (GOT2, and subunit B of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB in control (transfected by empty vector glioma cells in a gene specific manner. At the same time, the expression level of mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2 and subunit D of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHD genes in these cells does not significantly change in hypoxic conditions. It was also shown that the inhibition of ІRE1 signaling enzyme function in U87 glioma cells decreases the effect of hypoxia on the expression of ME2, GOT2, and SDHB genes and introduces the sensitivity of IDH2 gene to hypoxia. Furthermore, the expression of all studied genes depends on IRE1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling in gene specific manner, because ІRE1 knockdown significantly decreases their expression in normoxic conditions, except for IDH2 gene, which expression level is strongly up-regulated. Therefore, changes in the expression level of nuclear genes encoding ME2, MDH2, IDH2, SDHB, SDHD, and GOT2 proteins possibly reflect metabolic reprogramming of mitochondria by hypoxia and IRE1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling and correlate with suppression of glioma cell proliferation under inhibition of the IRE1 enzyme function.

  2. NY-ESO-1- and survivin-specific T-cell responses in the peripheral blood from patients with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Poiret, Thomas; Persson, Oscar; Meng, Qingda; Rane, Lalit; Bartek, Jiri; Karbach, Julia; Altmannsberger, Hans-Michael; Illies, Christopher; Luo, Xiaohua; Harvey-Peredo, Inti; Jäger, Elke; Dodoo, Ernest; Maeurer, Markus

    2018-02-01

    The prognosis for patients with glioblastoma is grim. Ex vivo expanded tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-reactive T-cells from patients with glioma may represent a viable source for anticancer-directed cellular therapies. Immunohistochemistry was used to test the survivin (n = 40 samples) and NY-ESO-1 (n = 38 samples) protein expression in tumor specimens. T-cells from peripheral blood were stimulated with TAAs (synthetic peptides) in IL-2 and IL-7, or using a combination of IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21. CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells were tested for antigen-specific proliferation by flow cytometry, and IFN-γ production was tested by ELISA. Twenty-eight out of 38 cancer specimens exhibited NY-ESO-1 protein expression, 2/38 showed a strong universal (4+) NY-ESO-1 staining, and 9/40 cancer lesions exhibited a strong (4+) staining for survivin. We could detect antigen-specific IFN-γ responses in 25% blood samples for NY-ESO-1 and 30% for survivin. NY-ESO-1-expanded T-cells recognized naturally processed and presented epitopes. NY-ESO-1 or survivin expression in glioma represents viable targets for anticancer-directed T-cells for the biological therapy of patients with glioma.

  3. Resveratrol, a potential radiation sensitizer for glioma stem cells both in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a malignant human cancer that confers a dismal prognosis. Ionizing radiation (IR is applied as the standard treatment for malignant gliomas. However, radiotherapy remains merely palliative because of the existence of glioma stem cells (GSCs, which are regarded as highly radioresistant “seed” cells. In this study, the effect and possible mechanisms of radiotherapy in combination with resveratrol (Res were investigated in a radioresistant GSC line, SU-2. Our results showed that Res inhibited SU-2 proliferation and enhanced radiosensitivity as indicated by clonogenic survival assay. We also observed a decrease in the expression of neural stem cell marker CD133, which indicated that treatment with Res and IR induced SU-2 cell differentiation. In addition, the combination of Res with IR significantly increased autophagy and apoptosis levels in both in vitro cells and nude mouse model. Finally, Res significantly attenuated the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the significant radiosensitization ability of Res both in vitro and in vivo was attributed to its synergistic antitumor effects, including inhibition of self-renewal and stemness, induction of autophagy, promotion of apoptosis, and prevention of DNA repair. Therefore, Res may function as a radiation sensitizer for malignant glioma treatment.

  4. Programmed cell death in plants and caspase-like activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaussand, Gwénael Martial Daniel Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms involves an important balance between cell growth, cell division and cell death. In animals, programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role by forming and deleting structures, controlling cell numbers and eliminating abnormal damaged cells. Caspases were

  5. Melting Behaviour of Cell Death Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sherry; Sot, Jesus; Goni, Felix; Thewalt, Jenifer

    2009-05-01

    Sphingomyelin is a major lipid constituent of mammalian cell plasma membranes. It is converted into ceramide during programmed cell death. It is hypothesized that this conversion induces a structural change in membranes that is responsible for downstream signaling. To characterize these structural changes, deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to create a concentration-temperature phase diagram of palmitoyl sphingomyelin:ceramide multilamellar vesicles in excess water between 0-40 mol% ceramide and 25-80^oC. The two lipids are fully miscible at high temperatures and at 40 mol% ceramide. A variety of solid-liquid coexistence phase behavior is observed at lower concentrations. With increasing ceramide content, a gel phase is observed at progressively higher temperatures, implying that at physiological temperature, ceramide may increase the gel phase propensity of cell membranes.

  6. Frequent Nek1 overexpression in human gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jun [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Cai, Yu, E-mail: aihaozuqiu22@163.com [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Pin [Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Weiguo [Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2016-08-05

    Never in mitosis A (NIMA)-related kinase 1 (Nek1) regulates cell cycle progression to mitosis. Its expression and potential functions in human gliomas have not been studied. Here, our immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay and Western blot assay results showed that Nek1 expression was significantly upregulated in fresh and paraffin-embedded human glioma tissues. Its level in normal brain tissues was low. Nek1 overexpression in human gliomas was correlated with the proliferation marker (Ki-67), tumor grade, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) and more importantly, patients’ poor survival. Further studies showed that Nek1 expression level was also increased in multiple human glioma cell lines (U251-MG, U87-MG, U118, H4 and U373). Significantly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nek1 inhibited glioma cell (U87-MG/U251-MG) growth. Nek1 siRNA also sensitized U87-MG/U251-MG cells to temozolomide (TMZ), causing a profound apoptosis induction and growth inhibition. The current study indicates Nek1 might be a novel and valuable oncotarget of glioma, it is important for glioma cell growth and TMZ-resistance. - Highlights: • Nek1 is upregulated in multiple human glioma tissues and cell lines. • Nek1 overexpression correlates with glioma grades and patients’ KPS score. • Nek1 overexpression correlates with patients’ poor overall survival. • siRNA knockdown of Nek1 inhibits glioma cell growth. • siRNA knockdown of Nek1 sensitizes human glioma cells to temozolomide.

  7. In vitro anticancer drug test: A new method emerges from the model of glioma stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Riva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a grade IV astrocytoma and the most common malignant brain tumor. Current therapies provide a median survival of 12–15 months after diagnosis, due to the high recurrence rate. The failure of current therapies may be due to the presence, within the tumor, of cells characterized by enhanced self-renewal capacity, multilineage differentiation potential and elevated invasive behavior, called glioma stem cells (GSCs. To evaluate the pharmacological efficacy of selected drugs on six GSC lines, we set up a multiple drug responsivity assay based on the combined evaluation of cytomorphological and functional parameters, including the analysis of polymorphic nuclei, mitotic index and cell viability. In order to understand the real pharmacological efficacy of the tested drugs, we assigned a specific drug responsivity score to each GSC line, integrating the data produced by multiple assays. In this work we explored the antineoplastic effects of paclitaxel (PTX, an inhibitor of microtubule depolymerization, utilized as standard treatment in several cancers, and of valproic acid (VPA, an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs with multiple anticancer properties. We classified the six GSC lines as responsive or resistant to these drugs, on the basis of their responsivity scores. This method can also be useful to identify the best way to combine two or more drugs. In particular, we utilized the pro-differentiating effect of VPA to improve the PTX effectiveness and we observed a significant reduction of cell viability compared to single treatments.

  8. Radiotherapy and Glioma Stem Cells: Searching for Chinks in Cellular Armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragher, Seamus P; Sachdev, Sean; Ahmed, Atique

    2017-12-01

    Radiation became a pillar of oncologic treatment in the last century and provided a powerful and effective locoregional treatment of solid malignancies. After achieving some of the first cures in lymphomas and skin cancers, it assumed a key role in curative treatment of epithelioid malignancies. Despite success across a variety of histologic types, glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor afflicting adults, remains ultimately resistant to current radiation strategies. While GBMs demonstrate an initial response, recurrence is essentially universal and fatal, and typically reoccur in the areas that received the most intense radiation. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a subpopulation of tumor cells with expression profiles similar to neural stem cells and marked self-renewal capacities, have been shown to drive tumor recurrence and preclude curative radiotherapy. Recent research has shown that these cells have enhanced DNA repair capacity, elevated resistance to cytotoxic ion fluxes and escape multi-modality therapies. We will analyze the current understanding of GSCs and radiation by highlighting key discoveries probing their ability to withstand radiotherapy. We then speculate on novel mechanisms by which GSC can be made sensitive to or specifically targeted by radiation therapy.

  9. Non-coding RNAs as epigenetic regulator of glioma stem-like cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke eKatsushima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas show heterogeneous histological features. These distinct phenotypic states are thought to be associated with the presence of glioma stem cells (GSCs, which are highly tumorigenic and self-renewing sub-population of tumor cells that have different functional characteristics. Differentiation of GSCs may be regulated by multi-tiered epigenetic mechanisms that orchestrate the expression of thousands of genes. One such regulatory mechanism involves functional non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs; a large number of ncRNAs have been identified and shown to regulate the expression of genes associated with cell differentiation programs. Given the roles of miRNAs in cell differentiation, it is possible they are involved in the regulation of gene expression networks in GSCs that are important for the maintenance of the pluripotent state and for directing differentiation. Here, we review recent findings on ncRNAs associated with GSC differentiation and discuss how these ncRNAs contribute to the establishment of tissue heterogeneity during glioblastoma tumor formation.

  10. WW domain of BAG3 is required for the induction of autophagy in glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabova, Nana; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Saribas, A Sami; Knezevic, Tijana; Gordon, Jennifer; Weaver, Michael; Landry, Jacques; Khalili, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, selective degradation pathway of cellular components that is important for cell homeostasis under healthy and pathologic conditions. Here we demonstrate that an increase in the level of BAG3 results in stimulation of autophagy in glioblastoma cells. BAG3 is a member of a co-chaperone family of proteins that associate with Hsp70 through a conserved BAG domain positioned near the C-terminus of the protein. Expression of BAG3 is induced by a variety of environmental changes that cause stress to cells. Our results show that BAG3 overexpression induces autophagy in glioma cells. Interestingly, inhibition of the proteasome caused an increase in BAG3 levels and induced autophagy. Further analysis using specific siRNA against BAG3 suggests that autophagic activation due to proteosomal inhibition is mediated by BAG3. Analyses of BAG3 domain mutants suggest that the WW domain of BAG3 is crucial for the induction of autophagy. BAG3 overexpression also increased the interaction between Bcl2 and Beclin-1, instead of disrupting them, suggesting that BAG3 induced autophagy is Beclin-1 independent. These observations reveal a novel role for the WW domain of BAG3 in the regulation of autophagy. PMID:25204229

  11. Nitric oxide donors attenuate clongenic potential in rat C6 glioma cells treated with alkylating chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jir-Jei; Yin, Jiu-Haw; Yang, Ding-I

    2007-05-11

    1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) kills tumor cells via multiple actions including alkylation and carbamoylation. Previously, we have reported that formation of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in glioma cells overexpressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contributed to nitric oxide (NO)-dependent carbamoylating chemoresistance against BCNU. To further characterize the effects of NO on alkylating cytotoxicity, colony formation assay was applied to evaluate the effects of various NO donors on rat C6 glioma cells challenged with alkylating agents. We demonstrate that NO donors including GSNO, diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) substantially reduced the extent of colony formation in glioma cells treated with alkylating agents, namely methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Without alkylating agents these NO-releasing agents alone had no effects on clongenic potential of rat C6 glioma cells. Among these three NO donors used, the effectiveness in potentiating alkylating cytotoxicity is in the order of "GSNO>DEA/NO>SNP" when applied at the same dosages. GSNO also exerted similar synergistic actions reducing the extents of colony formation when co-administrated with 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-hydrazine (compound #1), another alkylating agent that mimics the chloroethylating action of BCNU. Together with our previous findings, we propose that NO donors may be used as adjunct chemotherapy with alkylating agents for such malignant brain tumors as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In contrast, production of NO as a result of iNOS induction, such as that occurring after surgical resection of brain tumors, may compromise the efficacy of carbamoylating chemotherapy.

  12. GLUCOSE DEPRIVATION AFFECTS THE EXPRESSION OF LONP1 AND CATHEPSINS IN IRE1 KNOCKDOWN U87 GLIOMA CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Minchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of genes encoding for LONP1/PRSS15 and cathepsins in U87 glioma cells in relation to inhibition of inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1 was the aim of the research. It was shown that glucose deprivation up-regulated the expression of CTSA, CTSB, CTSD, CTSK, CTSL, CTSO, and LONP1 genes and did not change the expression of CTSC, CTSF, and CTSS genes in control glioma cells (transfected by empty vector. Inhibition of ІRE1 signaling enzyme function in U87 glioma cells modified effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of most studied genes: removed the effect of glucose deprivation on CTSA and CTSO genes, introduces on CTSC and CTSS genes, reduced – on CTSK gene, and enhanced – on CTSL gene. Therefore, glucose deprivation affect the expression level of most studied genes in relation to the functional activity of IRE1 enzyme, a central mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress, which control cell proliferation and tumor growth.

  13. Upregulation of miR-184 enhances the malignant biological behavior of human glioma cell line A172 by targeting FIH-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qinghua; Gao, Weida; Liu, Bo; Ye, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, miRNAs have been suggested to play key roles in the formation and development of human glioma. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-184 expression on the malignant behavior of human glioma cells. The relative quantity of miR-184 was determined in human glioma cell lines, and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) was explored using western blotting. The effects of miR-184 inhibition on cell viability and apoptosis were explored, and the miR-184 target gene was determined using a luciferase assay and western blotting. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to evaluate cell growth and apoptosis. Matrigel invasion and scratch assays were performed to measure the ability of cell invasion and migration. miR-184 and HIF-1α protein levels were significantly upregulated in human glioma cells. Downregulation of miR-184 inhibited cell viability and increased the HEB cell apoptotic rate. Luciferase and western blot assays verified that FIH-1 was the target gene of miR-184 and negatively controlled the protein level of HIF-1α. Inhibition of HIF-1α by siRNA facilitated the apoptosis of HEB cells and suppressed A172 cell invasion and migration. miR-184 upregulation enhanced the malignant phenotype of human glioma cancer cells by reducing FIH-1 protein expression. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Proteomic data analysis of glioma cancer stem-cell lines based on novel nonlinear dimensional data reduction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespinats, Sylvain; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Wengert, Georg; Houben, Ivo; Lobbes, Marc; Stadlbauer, Andreas; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Glioma-derived cancer stem cells (GSCs) are tumor-initiating cells and may be refractory to radiation and chemotherapy and thus have important implications for tumor biology and therapeutics. The analysis and interpretation of large proteomic data sets requires the development of new data mining and visualization approaches. Traditional techniques are insufficient to interpret and visualize these resulting experimental data. The emphasis of this paper lies in the application of novel approaches for the visualization, clustering and projection representation to unveil hidden data structures relevant for the accurate interpretation of biological experiments. These qualitative and quantitative methods are applied to the proteomic analysis of data sets derived from the GSCs. The achieved clustering and visualization results provide a more detailed insight into the protein-level fold changes and putative upstream regulators for the GSCs. However the extracted molecular information is insufficient in classifying GSCs and paving the pathway to an improved therapeutics of the heterogeneous glioma.

  15. In Silico Neuro-Oncology: Brownian Motion-Based Mathematical Treatment as a Potential Platform for Modeling the Infiltration of Glioma Cells into Normal Brain Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Markos; Stamatakos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Intensive glioma tumor infiltration into the surrounding normal brain tissues is one of the most critical causes of glioma treatment failure. To quantitatively understand and mathematically simulate this phenomenon, several diffusion-based mathematical models have appeared in the literature. The majority of them ignore the anisotropic character of diffusion of glioma cells since availability of pertinent truly exploitable tomographic imaging data is limited. Aiming at enriching the anisotropy-enhanced glioma model weaponry so as to increase the potential of exploiting available tomographic imaging data, we propose a Brownian motion-based mathematical analysis that could serve as the basis for a simulation model estimating the infiltration of glioblastoma cells into the surrounding brain tissue. The analysis is based on clinical observations and exploits diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Numerical simulations and suggestions for further elaboration are provided. PMID:26309390

  16. Evidence for purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) release from rat C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Patricia; Zuccarini, Mariachiara; Buccella, Silvana; Peña-Altamira, Luis Emiliano; Polazzi, Elisabetta; Virgili, Marco; Monti, Barbara; Poli, Alessandro; Rathbone, Michel P; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Ciccarelli, Renata; Caciagli, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Intracellular purine turnover is mainly oriented to preserving the level of triphosphate nucleotides, fundamental molecules in vital cell functions that, when released outside cells, act as receptor signals. Conversely, high levels of purine bases and uric acid are found in the extracellular milieu, even in resting conditions. These compounds could derive from nucleosides/bases that, having escaped to cell reuptake, are metabolized by extracellular enzymes similar to the cytosolic ones. Focusing on purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) that catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of purine (deoxy)-nucleosides/bases, we found that it is constitutively released from cultured rat C6 glioma cells into the medium, and has a molecular weight and enzyme activity similar to the cytosolic enzyme. Cell exposure to 10 μM ATP or guanosine triphosphate (GTP) increased the extracellular amount of all corresponding purines without modifying the levels/activity of released PNP, whereas selective activation of ATP P2Y 1 or adenosine A 2A metabotropic receptors increased PNP release and purine base formation. The reduction to 1% in oxygen supply (2 h) to cells decreased the levels of released PNP, leading to an increased presence of extracellular nucleosides and to a reduced formation of xanthine and uric acid. Conversely, 2 h cell re-oxygenation enhanced the extracellular amounts of both PNP and purine bases. Thus, hypoxia and re-oxygenation modulated in opposite manner the PNP release/activity and, thereby, the extracellular formation of purine metabolism end-products. In conclusion, extracellular PNP and likely other enzymes deputed to purine base metabolism are released from cells, contributing to the purinergic system homeostasis and exhibiting an important pathophysiological role. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  18. Cell cycle regulation and radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaudon, V.

    2000-01-01

    Tight control of cell proliferation is mandatory to prevent cancer formation as well as to normal organ development and homeostasis. This occurs through checkpoints that operate in both time and space and are involved in the control of numerous pathways including DNA replication and transcription, cell cycle progression, signal transduction and differentiation. Moreover, evidence has accumulated to show that apoptosis is tightly connected with the regulation of cell cycle progression. In this paper we describe the main pathways that determine checkpoints in the cell cycle and apoptosis. It is also recalled that in solid tumors radiation-induced cell death occurs most frequently through non-apoptotic mechanisms involving oncosis, and mitotic or delayed cell death. (author)

  19. Na(+)/H(+) exchange subtype 1 inhibition during extracellular acidification and hypoxia in glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glunde, Kristine; Düssmann, Heiko; Juretschke, Hans-Paul; Leibfritz, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    Lactacidosis is a common feature of ischaemic brain tissue, but its role in ischaemic neuropathology is still not fully understood. Na(+)/H(+) exchange, a mechanism involved in the regulation of intracellular pH (pH(i)), is activated by low pH(i). The role of Na(+)/H(+) exchange subtype 1 was investigated during extracellular acidification and subsequent pH recovery in the absence and presence of (4-isopropyl-3-methylsulphonyl-benzoyl)-guanidine methanesulfonate (HOE642, Cariporid), a new selective and powerful inhibitor of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger subtype 1 (NHE-1). It was compared for normoxia and hypoxia in two glioma cell lines (C6 and F98). pH(i) was monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy using the intracellularly trapped pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Alterations in glial cell metabolism were characterized using high-resolution (1)H, (13)C and (31)P NMR spectroscopy of perchloric acid extracts. NHE-1 contributed to glial pH regulation, especially at pathologically low pH(i) values. NHE-1 inhibition with HOE642 during acidification caused exacerbated metabolic disorders which were prolonged during extracellular pH recovery. However, NHE-1 inhibition during hypoxia protected the energy state of glial cells.

  20. Proliferative potential of malignant glioma cells before and after interstitial brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunishiro, Katsuzo; Matsumoto, Kengo; Higashi, Hisato; Adachi, Hisashi; Tamiya, Takashi; Furuta, Tomohisa; Ohtomo, Takashi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-05-01

    The viability of tumor cells in radionecrotic tissue after interstitial brachytherapy (BRTX) was evaluated using immunohistochemical markers of proliferative potential in primary and recurrent tumors. Tumor specimens from 30 patients with malignant gliomas (14 anaplastic astrocytomas, 16 glioblastomas) taken before and after BRTX were examined using MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. Histological examinations of specimens obtained by craniotomy or stereotactic biopsy after BRTX revealed tumor recurrence in 18 patients and radionecrosis in 12 patients including two with pure radionecrosis and 10 with a mixture of both tumor and radionecrosis. The MIB-1 index of the tumors with radionecrosis was 7.6{+-}5.5%, and that of the primary tumors was 17.0{+-}11.2%, showing a significant difference (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the MIB-1 index of the primary tumors with local recurrence after BRTX and the primary tumors which underwent radionecrosis. Although morphologically viable tumor cells were found in the radionecrotic tissue, BRTX causes a reduction in the proliferative potential of these tumor cells. (author)

  1. Patterns of cell death in the perinatal mouse forebrain

    OpenAIRE

    Mosley, Morgan; Shah, Charisma; Morse, Kiriana A.; Miloro, Stephen A.; Holmes, Melissa M.; Ahern, Todd H.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cell death in brain development has long been appreciated, but many basic questions remain, such as what initiates or terminates the cell death period. One obstacle has been the lack of quantitative data defining exactly when cell death occurs. We recently created a “cell death atlas,” using the detection of activated caspase-3 (AC3) to quantify apoptosis in the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, and found that the highest rates of cell death were seen at th...

  2. Cloning and characterization of human RTVP-1b, a novel splice variant of RTVP-1 in glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Cunli; Sarid, Ronit; Cazacu, Simona; Finniss, Susan; Lee, Hae-Kyung; Ziv-Av, Amotz; Mikkelsen, Tom; Brodie, Chaya

    2007-01-01

    Here, we report the cloning and characterization of RTVP-1b, a novel splice variant of human RTVP-1, which was isolated from the U87 glioma cell line. Sequence analysis revealed that RTVP-1b contains an additional 71 base exon between exons 2 and 3 that is missing in RTVP-1, leading to a frame-shift and a different putative protein. The deduced protein was 237 amino acids in length, sharing the N-terminal 141 amino acids with RTVP-1. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that RTVP-1b was expressed in a wide range of tissues and that its expression was different from that of RTVP-1. In contrast, RTVP-1 and RTVP-1b showed similar patterns of expression in astrocytic tumors; highly expressed in glioblastomas as compared to normal brains, low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Overexpression of RTVP-1b increased glioma cell proliferation but did not affect cell migration. Our results suggest that RTVP-1b represents a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in gliomas

  3. Increased catalase activity by all-trans retinoic acid and its effect on radiosensitivity in rat glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hua; Jeon, Ha Yeun; Park, Woo Yoon; Kim, Won Dong; Ahn, Hee Yul [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Ran [Konkuk University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    It has been reported that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can inhibit glioma growing in vitro. However, clinical trials with ATRA alone in gliomas revealed modest results. ATRA has been shown to increase radiosensitivity in other tumor types, so combining radiation and ATRA would be one of alternatives to increase therapeutic efficacy in malignant gliomas. Thus, we intended to know the role of catalase, which is induced by ATRA, for radiosensitivity. If radiation-reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is removed by catalase, the effect of radiation will be reduced. A rat glioma cell line (36B10) was used for this study. The change of catalase activity and radiosensitivity by ATRA, with or without 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ), a chemical inhibitor of catalase were measured. Catalase activity was measured by the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} spectrophotometrically. Radiosensitivity was measured with clonogenic assay. Also ROS was measured using a 2, 7-dichlorofluores-cein diacetate spectrophotometrically. When 36B10 cells were exposed to 10, 25 and 50 {mu} M of ATRA for 48 h, the expression of catalase activity were increased with increasing concentration and incubation time of ATRA. Catalase activity was decreased with increasing the concentration of AT (1, 10 mM) dose-dependently. ROS was increased with ATRA and it was augmented with the combination of ATRA and radiation. ATZ decreased ROS production and increased cell survival in combination of ATRA and radiation despite the reduction of catalase. The increase of ROS is one of the reasons for the increased radiosensitivity in combination with ATRA. The catalase that is induced by ATRA doesn't decrease ROS production and radiosensitivity.

  4. Increased catalase activity by all-trans retinoic acid and its effect on radiosensitivity in rat glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hua; Jeon, Ha Yeun; Park, Woo Yoon; Kim, Won Dong; Ahn, Hee Yul; Yu, Jae Ran

    2005-01-01

    It has been reported that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can inhibit glioma growing in vitro. However, clinical trials with ATRA alone in gliomas revealed modest results. ATRA has been shown to increase radiosensitivity in other tumor types, so combining radiation and ATRA would be one of alternatives to increase therapeutic efficacy in malignant gliomas. Thus, we intended to know the role of catalase, which is induced by ATRA, for radiosensitivity. If radiation-reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is removed by catalase, the effect of radiation will be reduced. A rat glioma cell line (36B10) was used for this study. The change of catalase activity and radiosensitivity by ATRA, with or without 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ), a chemical inhibitor of catalase were measured. Catalase activity was measured by the decomposition of H 2 O 2 spectrophotometrically. Radiosensitivity was measured with clonogenic assay. Also ROS was measured using a 2, 7-dichlorofluores-cein diacetate spectrophotometrically. When 36B10 cells were exposed to 10, 25 and 50 μ M of ATRA for 48 h, the expression of catalase activity were increased with increasing concentration and incubation time of ATRA. Catalase activity was decreased with increasing the concentration of AT (1, 10 mM) dose-dependently. ROS was increased with ATRA and it was augmented with the combination of ATRA and radiation. ATZ decreased ROS production and increased cell survival in combination of ATRA and radiation despite the reduction of catalase. The increase of ROS is one of the reasons for the increased radiosensitivity in combination with ATRA. The catalase that is induced by ATRA doesn't decrease ROS production and radiosensitivity

  5. Chemoresistance and chemotherapy targeting stem-like cells in malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mia Dahl; Fosmark, Sigurd; Hellwege, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma remains a tumor with a dismal prognosis because of failure of current treatment. Glioblastoma cells with stem cell (GSC) properties survive chemotherapy and give rise to tumor recurrences that invariably result in the death of the patients. Here we summarize the current knowledge...

  6. Discovery of Power-Law Growth in the Self-Renewal of Heterogeneous Glioma Stem Cell Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimori, Michiya; Hayakawa, Yumiko; Boman, Bruce M; Fields, Jeremy Z; Awaji, Miharu; Kozano, Hiroko; Tamura, Ryoi; Yamamoto, Seiji; Ogata, Toru; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Endo, Shunro; Kurimoto, Masanori; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive tumorigenesis. This suggests that CSCs should make ideal therapeutic targets. However, because CSC populations in tumors appear heterogeneous, it remains unclear how CSCs might be effectively targeted. To investigate the mechanisms by which CSC populations maintain heterogeneity during self-renewal, we established a glioma sphere (GS) forming model, to generate a population in which glioma stem cells (GSCs) become enriched. We hypothesized, based on the clonal evolution concept, that with each passage in culture, heterogeneous clonal sublines of GSs are generated that progressively show increased proliferative ability. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether, with each passage, glioma neurosphere culture generated from four different glioma cell lines become progressively proliferative (i.e., enriched in large spheres). Rather than monitoring self-renewal, we measured heterogeneity based on neurosphere clone sizes (#cells/clone). Log-log plots of distributions of clone sizes yielded a good fit (r>0.90) to a straight line (log(% total clones) = k*log(#cells/clone)) indicating that the system follows a power-law (y = xk) with a specific degree exponent (k = -1.42). Repeated passaging of the total GS population showed that the same power-law was maintained over six passages (CV = -1.01 to -1.17). Surprisingly, passage of either isolated small or large subclones generated fully heterogeneous populations that retained the original power-law-dependent heterogeneity. The anti-GSC agent Temozolomide, which is well known as a standard therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), suppressed the self-renewal of clones, but it never disrupted the power-law behavior of a GS population. Although the data above did not support the stated hypothesis, they did strongly suggest a novel mechanism that underlies CSC heterogeneity. They indicate that power-law growth governs the self-renewal of heterogeneous

  7. Discovery of Power-Law Growth in the Self-Renewal of Heterogeneous Glioma Stem Cell Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiya Sugimori

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs drive tumorigenesis. This suggests that CSCs should make ideal therapeutic targets. However, because CSC populations in tumors appear heterogeneous, it remains unclear how CSCs might be effectively targeted. To investigate the mechanisms by which CSC populations maintain heterogeneity during self-renewal, we established a glioma sphere (GS forming model, to generate a population in which glioma stem cells (GSCs become enriched. We hypothesized, based on the clonal evolution concept, that with each passage in culture, heterogeneous clonal sublines of GSs are generated that progressively show increased proliferative ability.To test this hypothesis, we determined whether, with each passage, glioma neurosphere culture generated from four different glioma cell lines become progressively proliferative (i.e., enriched in large spheres. Rather than monitoring self-renewal, we measured heterogeneity based on neurosphere clone sizes (#cells/clone. Log-log plots of distributions of clone sizes yielded a good fit (r>0.90 to a straight line (log(% total clones = k*log(#cells/clone indicating that the system follows a power-law (y = xk with a specific degree exponent (k = -1.42. Repeated passaging of the total GS population showed that the same power-law was maintained over six passages (CV = -1.01 to -1.17. Surprisingly, passage of either isolated small or large subclones generated fully heterogeneous populations that retained the original power-law-dependent heterogeneity. The anti-GSC agent Temozolomide, which is well known as a standard therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, suppressed the self-renewal of clones, but it never disrupted the power-law behavior of a GS population.Although the data above did not support the stated hypothesis, they did strongly suggest a novel mechanism that underlies CSC heterogeneity. They indicate that power-law growth governs the self-renewal of heterogeneous

  8. Death Receptor-Mediated Cell Death and Proinflammatory Signaling in Nonalcoholic SteatohepatitisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hirsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is becoming a public health problem worldwide. A subset of patients develop an inflammatory disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, characterized by steatosis, hepatocellular death, macrophage and neutrophil accumulation, and varying stages of fibrosis. Hepatocyte cell death triggers the cellular inflammatory response, therefore reducing cell death may be salutary in the steatohepatitis disease process. Recently, a better understanding of hepatocyte apoptosis in NASH has been obtained and new information regarding other cell death modes such as necroptosis and pyroptosis has been reported. Hepatocyte lipotoxicity is often triggered by death receptors. In addition to causing apoptosis, death receptors have been shown to mediate proinflammatory signaling, suggesting that apoptosis in this context is not an immunologically silent process. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of hepatocyte cell death by death receptors and its mechanistic link to inflammation in NASH. We emphasize how proapoptotic signaling by death receptors may induce the release of proinflammatory extracellular vesicles, thereby recruiting and activating macrophages and promoting the steatohepatitis process. Potential therapeutic strategies are discussed based on this evolving information. Keywords: Apoptosis, Caspase Inhibitor, Cell Death, Death Receptors, Exosomes, Extracellular Vesicles, Fibrosis, Inflammation, Inflammasome, Microvesicles, Necroptosis, Pyroptosis

  9. Expression of IGFBP6, IGFBP7, NOV, CYR61, WISP1 and WISP2 genes in U87 glioma cells in glutamine deprivation condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Minchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied gene expression of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in U87 glioma cells upon glutamine deprivation depending on the inhibition of IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme-1, a central mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress. We have shown that exposure of control glioma cells upon glutamine deprivation leads to down-regulation of NOV/IGFBP9, WISP1 and WISP2 gene expressions and up-regulation of CYR61/IGFBP10 gene expression at the mRNA level. At the same time, the expression of IGFBP6 and IGFBP7 genes in control glioma cells was resistant to glutamine deprivation. It was also shown that the inhibition of IRE1 modifies the effect of glutamine deprivation on the expression of all studied genes. Thus, the inhibition of IRE1 signaling enzyme enhances the effect of glutamine deprivation on the expression of CYR61 and WISP1 genes and suppresses effect of the deprivation on WISP2 gene expression in glioma cells. Moreover, the inhibition of IRE1 introduces sensitivity of the expression of IGFBP6 and IGFBP7 genes to glutamine deprivation and removes this sensitivity to NOV gene. We have also demonstrated that the expression of all studied genes in glioma cells growing with glutamine is regulated by IRE1 signaling enzyme, because the inhibition of IRE1 significantly down-regulates IGFBP6 and NOV genes and up-regulates IGFBP7, CYR61, WISP1, and WISP2 genes as compared to control glioma cells. The present study demonstrates that glutamine deprivation condition affects most studied IGFBP and WISP gene expressions in relation to IRE1 signaling enzyme function and possibly contributes to slower glioma cell proliferation upon inhibition of IRE1.

  10. Programmed Cell Death in Plants: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locato, Vittoria; De Gara, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a controlled mechanism that eliminates specific cells under developmental or environmental stimuli. All organisms-from bacteria to multicellular eukaryotes-have the ability to induce PCD in selected cells. Although this process was first identified in plants, the interest in deciphering the signaling pathways leading to PCD strongly increased when evidence came to light that PCD may be involved in several human diseases. In plants, PCD activation ensures the correct occurrence of growth and developmental processes, among which embryogenesis and differentiation of tracheary elements. PCD is also part of the defense responses activated by plants against environmental stresses, both abiotic and biotic.This chapter gives an overview of the roles of PCD in plants as well as the problems arising in classifying different kinds of PCD according to defined biochemical and cellular markers, and in comparison with the various types of PCD occurring in mammal cells. The importance of understanding PCD signaling pathways, with their elicitors and effectors, in order to improve plant productivity and resistance to environmental stresses is also taken into consideration.

  11. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP–Wnt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lei; Lei, Hui; Chang, Ming-Ze; Liu, Zhi-Qin [Department of Neurological Disease, Xi' an Central Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710000 (China); Bie, Xiao-Hua, E-mail: biexiaohua_xjtu@126.com [Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Xi' an Red Cross Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China)

    2015-07-10

    We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, and these effects were accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, 14-3-3β knockdown induced ER stress in U87 cells, as evidenced by ER calcium release, increased expression of XBP1S mRNA and induction of ER related pro-apoptotic factors. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β significantly decreased the nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibited Topflash activity, which was shown to be reversely correlated with CHOP. Furthermore, Si-CHOP and sFRP were used to inhibit CHOP and Wnt, respectively. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects of 14-3-3β knockdown in U87 cells were mediated by increased expression of CHOP and followed inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In summary, the remarkable efficiency of 14-3-3β knockdown to induce apoptotic cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients. - Highlights: • Knockdown of 14-3-3β leads to cytotoxicity in human glioma U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β results in ER stress in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway via CHOP activation.

  12. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP–Wnt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Lei; Lei, Hui; Chang, Ming-Ze; Liu, Zhi-Qin; Bie, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, and these effects were accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, 14-3-3β knockdown induced ER stress in U87 cells, as evidenced by ER calcium release, increased expression of XBP1S mRNA and induction of ER related pro-apoptotic factors. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β significantly decreased the nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibited Topflash activity, which was shown to be reversely correlated with CHOP. Furthermore, Si-CHOP and sFRP were used to inhibit CHOP and Wnt, respectively. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects of 14-3-3β knockdown in U87 cells were mediated by increased expression of CHOP and followed inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In summary, the remarkable efficiency of 14-3-3β knockdown to induce apoptotic cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients. - Highlights: • Knockdown of 14-3-3β leads to cytotoxicity in human glioma U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β results in ER stress in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway via CHOP activation

  13. KDM2B overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and regulates glioma cell growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiwei; Zang, Jin; Zhang, Dongyong; Sun, Zhenxiang; Qiu, Bo; Wang, Xiaojie

    2018-01-01

    Yiwei Wang,1 Jin Zang,1 Dongyong Zhang,2 Zhenxiang Sun,1 Bo Qiu,2 Xiaojie Wang1 1Department of Human Anatomy, Shenyang Medical College, Huanggu District, Shenyang City, 2Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Heping District, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, ChinaBackground: Gliomas are one of the most lethal cancers in the human central nervous system. Despite clinical treatment advancements, the prognosis of patients with glioma remains ...

  14. Growth of cultured human glioma tumour cells can be regulated with histamine and histamine antagonists.

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Ven, L. T.; Prinsen, I. M.; Jansen, G. H.; Roholl, P. J.; Defferrari, R.; Slater, R.; Den Otter, W.

    1993-01-01

    The 50% survival time for low grade astrocytomas is 50 months and for high grade astrocytomas it is 13 months, underlining the need for new therapies. Several reports show that in vivo histamine antagonists cause retardation of tumour growth in some animal models and prolonged survival in cancer patients. Therefore we have tested the growth modulating effects of histamine and histamine antagonists on human glioma cultures. Twelve freshly excised human gliomas were cultured and tested for thei...

  15. Microenvironmental Stiffness Enhances Glioma Cell Proliferation by Stimulating Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Vaibhavi; Rape, Andrew D.; Ulrich, Theresa A.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The aggressive and rapidly lethal brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with profound tissue stiffening and genomic lesions in key members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that increasing microenvironmental stiffness in culture can strongly enhance glioma cell behaviors relevant to tumor progression, including proliferation, yet it has remained unclear whether stiffness and EGFR regulate proliferation through common or independent signaling mechanisms. Here we test the hypothesis that microenvironmental stiffness regulates cell cycle progression and proliferation in GBM tumor cells by altering EGFR-dependent signaling. We began by performing an unbiased reverse phase protein array screen, which revealed that stiffness modulates expression and phosphorylation of a broad range of signals relevant to proliferation, including members of the EGFR pathway. We subsequently found that culturing human GBM tumor cells on progressively stiffer culture substrates both dramatically increases proliferation and facilitates passage through the G1/S checkpoint of the cell cycle, consistent with an EGFR-dependent process. Western Blots showed that increasing microenvironmental stiffness enhances the expression and phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream effector Akt. Pharmacological loss-of-function studies revealed that the stiffness-sensitivity of proliferation is strongly blunted by inhibition of EGFR, Akt, or PI3 kinase. Finally, we observed that stiffness strongly regulates EGFR clustering, with phosphorylated EGFR condensing into vinculin-positive focal adhesions on stiff substrates and dispersing as microenvironmental stiffness falls to physiological levels. Our findings collectively support a model in which tissue stiffening promotes GBM proliferation by spatially and biochemically amplifying EGFR signaling. PMID:25000176

  16. Microenvironmental stiffness enhances glioma cell proliferation by stimulating epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Umesh

    Full Text Available The aggressive and rapidly lethal brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM is associated with profound tissue stiffening and genomic lesions in key members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that increasing microenvironmental stiffness in culture can strongly enhance glioma cell behaviors relevant to tumor progression, including proliferation, yet it has remained unclear whether stiffness and EGFR regulate proliferation through common or independent signaling mechanisms. Here we test the hypothesis that microenvironmental stiffness regulates cell cycle progression and proliferation in GBM tumor cells by altering EGFR-dependent signaling. We began by performing an unbiased reverse phase protein array screen, which revealed that stiffness modulates expression and phosphorylation of a broad range of signals relevant to proliferation, including members of the EGFR pathway. We subsequently found that culturing human GBM tumor cells on progressively stiffer culture substrates both dramatically increases proliferation and facilitates passage through the G1/S checkpoint of the cell cycle, consistent with an EGFR-dependent process. Western Blots showed that increasing microenvironmental stiffness enhances the expression and phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream effector Akt. Pharmacological loss-of-function studies revealed that the stiffness-sensitivity of proliferation is strongly blunted by inhibition of EGFR, Akt, or PI3 kinase. Finally, we observed that stiffness strongly regulates EGFR clustering, with phosphorylated EGFR condensing into vinculin-positive focal adhesions on stiff substrates and dispersing as microenvironmental stiffness falls to physiological levels. Our findings collectively support a model in which tissue stiffening promotes GBM proliferation by spatially and biochemically amplifying EGFR signaling.

  17. Overexpression of ceramide synthase 1 increases C18-ceramide and leads to lethal autophagy in human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Wen, Lijun; Zhu, Fei; Wang, Yanping; Xie, Qing; Chen, Zijun; Li, Yunsen

    2017-11-28

    Ceramide synthase 1 (CERS1) is the most highly expressed CERS in the central nervous system, and ceramide with an 18-carbon-containing fatty acid chain (C18-ceramide) in the brain plays important roles in signaling and sphingolipid development. However, the roles of CERS1 and C18-ceramide in glioma are largely unknown. In the present study, measured by electrospray ionization linear ion trap mass spectrometry, C18-ceramide was significantly lower in glioma tumor tissues compared with controls ( P C18-ceramide might have a role in glioma. These roles were examined by reconstitution of C18-ceramide in U251 and A172 glioma cells via addition of exogenous C18-ceramide or overexpression of CERS1, which has been shown to specifically induce the generation of C18-ceramide. Overexpression of CERS1 or adding exogenous C18-ceramide inhibited cell viability and induced cell death by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress, which induced lethal autophagy and inhibited PI3K/AKT signal pathway in U251 and A172 glioma cells. Moreover, overexpression of CERS1 or adding exogenous C18-ceramide increased the sensitivity of U251 and A172 glioma cells to teniposide (VM-26). Thus, the combined therapy of CERS1/C18-ceramide and VM-26 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human glioma.

  18. Plant programmed cell death, ethylene and flower senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Jong, de A.; Hoeberichts, F.A.; Iakimova, E.T.; Kapchina, V.

    2005-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) applies to cell death that is part of the normal life of multicellular organisms. PCD is found throughout the animal and plant kingdoms; it is an active process in which a cell suicide pathway is activated resulting in controlled disassembly of the cell. Most cases of PCD

  19. Baicalein inhibition of oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis via modulation of ERKs activation and induction of HO-1 gene expression in rat glioma cells C6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Chow, J.-M.; Lin, C.-W.; Wu, C.-Y.; Shen, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the protective mechanism of baicalein (BE) and its glycoside, baicalin (BI), on hydrogen-peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cell death in rat glioma C6 cells. Results of the MTT assay, LDH release assay, and morphological observation showed that H 2 O 2 addition reduced the viability of C6 cells, and this was prevented by the addition of BE but not BI. Incubation of C6 cells with BE significantly decreased the intracellular peroxide level induced by H 2 O 2 according to flow cytometric analysis using DCHF-DA as a fluorescent substrate. Suppression of H 2 O 2 -induced apoptotic events including DNA ladders, hypodiploid cells, and activation of caspases 3, 8, and, 9 by BE but not BI was identified in C6 cells. The cytotoxicity and phosphorylation of ERK proteins induced by H 2 O 2 were blocked by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Catalase addition prevented H 2 O 2 -induced ROS production, ERKs protein phosphorylation, and cell death, and BE dose-dependently inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced ERK protein phosphorylation in C6 cells. These data suggest that ROS-scavenging activity is involved in BE prevention of H 2 O 2 -induced cell death via blocking ERKs activation. Additionally, BE but not BI induced heat shock protein 32 (HSP32; HO-1) protein expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners, but not heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), or heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) protein expression. In the absence of H 2 O 2 , BE induces ERKs protein phosphorylation, and HO-1 protein expression induced by BE was blocked by the addition of cycloheximide, actinomycin D, and the ERK inhibitor PD98059. The addition of the HO inhibitor ZnPP inhibited the protective effect of BE against H 2 O 2 -induced cytotoxicity in C6 cells according to the MTT assay and apoptotic morphology under microscopic observation, accompanied by blocking the ROS-scavenging activity of BE in C6 cells. However, BE treatment was unable to protect C6 cells from C2-ceramide

  20. Autophagy Interplay with Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Regulation in the Growth Inhibiting Effect of Resveratrol in Glioma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo C.; Villodre, Emilly Schlee; Zamin, Lauren L.; Lenz, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Prognosis of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains very poor, thus making the development of new drugs urgent. Resveratrol (Rsv) is a natural compound that has several beneficial effects such as neuroprotection and cytotoxicity for several GBM cell lines. Here we evaluated the mechanism of action of Rsv on human GBM cell lines, focusing on the role of autophagy and its crosstalk with apoptosis and cell cycle control. We further evaluated the role of autophagy and the effect of Rsv on GBM Cancer Stem Cells (gCSCs), involved in GBM resistance and recurrence. Glioma cells treated with Rsv was tested for autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, cell cycle and phosphorylation or expression levels of key players of these processes. Rsv induced the formation of autophagosomes in three human GBM cell lines, accompanied by an upregulation of autophagy proteins Atg5, beclin-1 and LC3-II. Inhibition of Rsv-induced autophagy triggered apoptosis, with an increase in Bax and cleavage of caspase-3. While inhibition of apoptosis or autophagy alone did not revert Rsv-induced toxicity, inhibition of both processes blocked this toxicity. Rsv also induced a S-G2/M phase arrest, accompanied by an increase on levels of pCdc2(Y15), cyclin A, E and B, and pRb (S807/811) and a decrease of cyclin D1. Interestingly, this arrest was dependent on the induction of autophagy, since inhibition of Rsv-induced autophagy abolishes cell cycle arrest and returns the phosphorylation of Cdc2(Y15) and Rb(S807/811), and levels of cyclin A, and B to control levels. Finally, inhibition of autophagy or treatment with Rsv decreased the sphere formation and the percentage of CD133 and OCT4-positive cells, markers of gCSCs. In conclusion, the crosstalk among autophagy, cell cycle and apoptosis, together with the biology of gCSCs, has to be considered in tailoring pharmacological interventions aimed to reduce glioma growth using compounds with multiple targets such as Rsv. PMID:21695150

  1. The anti-cell death FNK protein protects cells from death induced by freezing and thawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Kentaro; Asoh, Sadamitsu; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ozaki, Daiya; Yamagata, Kumi; Ito, Hiromoto; Ohta, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    The FNK protein, constructed from anti-apoptotic Bcl-x L with enhanced activity, was fused with the protein transduction domain (PTD) of the HIV/Tat protein to mediate the delivery of FNK into cells. The fusion protein PTD-FNK was introduced into chondrocytes in isolated articular cartilage-bone sections, cultured neurons, and isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells to evaluate its ability to prevent cell death induced by freezing and thawing. PTD-FNK protected the cells from freeze-thaw damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of PTD-FNK with conventional cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide and hydroxyethyl starch) increased surviving cell numbers around 2-fold compared with controls treated only with the cryoprotectants. Notably, PTD-FNK allowed CD34 + cells among bone marrow mononuclear cells to survive more efficiently (12-fold more than the control cells) from two successive freeze-thaw cycles. Thus, PTD-FNK prevented cell death induced by freezing and thawing, suggesting that it provides for the successful cryopreservation of biological materials

  2. Microglia immunophenotyping in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annovazzi, Laura; Mellai, Marta; Bovio, Enrica; Mazzetti, Samanta; Pollo, Bianca; Schiffer, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Microglia, once assimilated to peripheral macrophages, in gliomas has long been discussed and currently it is hypothesized to play a pro-tumor role in tumor progression. Uncertain between M1 and M2 polarization, it exchanges signals with glioma cells to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment and stimulates cell proliferation and migration. Four antibodies are currently used for microglia/macrophage identification in tissues that exhibit different cell forms and cell localization. The aim of the present work was to describe the distribution of the different cell forms and to deduce their significance on the basis of what is known on their function from the literature. Normal resting microglia, reactive microglia, intermediate and bumpy forms and macrophage-like cells can be distinguished by Iba1, CD68, CD16 and CD163 and further categorized by CD11b, CD45, c-MAF and CD98. The number of microglia/macrophages strongly increased from normal cortex and white matter to infiltrating and solid tumors. The ramified microglia accumulated in infiltration areas of both high- and low-grade gliomas, when hypertrophy and hyperplasia occur. In solid tumors, intermediate and bumpy forms prevailed and there is a large increase of macrophage-like cells in glioblastoma. The total number of microglia cells did not vary among the three grades of malignancy, but macrophage-like cells definitely prevailed in high-grade gliomas and frequently expressed CD45 and c-MAF. CD98 + cells were present. Microglia favors tumor progression, but many aspects suggest that the phagocytosing function is maintained. CD98 + cells can be the product of fusion, but also of phagocytosis. Microglia correlated with poorer survival in glioblastoma, when considering CD163 + cells, whereas it did not change prognosis in isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant low grade gliomas.

  3. Cell lineage and cell death: Caenorhabditis elegans and cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Malia B; Cameron, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease in which cells have circumvented normal restraints on tissue growth and have acquired complex abnormalities in their genomes, posing a considerable challenge to identifying the pathways and mechanisms that drive fundamental aspects of the malignant phenotype. Genetic analyses of the normal development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have revealed evolutionarily conserved mechanisms through which individual cells establish their fates, and how they make and execute the decision to survive or undergo programmed cell death. The pathways identified through these studies have mammalian counterparts that are co-opted by malignant cells. Effective cancer drugs now target some of these pathways, and more are likely to be discovered.

  4. Analysis of cell death inducing compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicker, Jeppe; Pedersen, Henrik Toft; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers for early detection of toxicity hold the promise of improving the failure rates in drug development. In the present study, gene expression levels were measured using full-genome RAE230 version 2 Affymetrix GeneChips on rat liver tissue 48 h after administration of six different compounds......), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) and Cytochrome P450, subfamily IIC (mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase) (Cyp2C29). RT-PCR for these three genes was performed and four additional compounds were included for validation. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed the findings based on the microarray data and using...... the three genes a classification rate of 55 of 57 samples was achieved for the classification of not toxic versus toxic. The single most promising biomarker (OAT) alone resulted in a surprisingly 100% correctly classified samples. OAT has not previously been linked to toxicity and cell death...

  5. MicroRNA-203 Modulates the Radiation Sensitivity of Human Malignant Glioma Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ji Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Yeo Hyun; Lee, David J.; Kim, Dan Hyo; Park, Ji Min [Medical Science Research Institute, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Kyeonggido (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong-Gyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Ah, E-mail: inah228@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Medical Science Research Institute, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Kyeonggido (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether miR-203 could modulate the radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and which target gene(s) could be involved. Methods and Materials: Three human malignant glioma (MG) cell lines and normal human astrocytes were transfected with control microRNA, pre-miR-203, or antisense miR-203. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR), clonogenic assays, immunofluorescence, and invasion/migration assays were performed. To predict the target(s), bioinformatics analyses using microRNA target databases were performed. Results: Overexpression of miR-203 increased the radiation sensitivity of all 3 human MG cell lines and prolonged radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that miR-203 could be involved in post-transcriptional control of DNA repair, PI3K/AKT, SRC, and JAK/STAT3 and the vascular signaling pathway. Western blot analysis validated the fact that miR-203 downregulated ATM, RAD51, SRC, PLD2, PI3K-AKT, JAK-STAT3, VEGF, HIF-1α, and MMP2. Overexpression of miR-203 inhibited invasion and migration potentials, downregulated SLUG and Vimentin, and upregulated Claudin-1 and ZO1. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that miR-203 potentially controls DNA damage repair via the PI3K/AKT and JAK/STAT3 pathways and may collectively contribute to the modulation of radiation sensitivity in MG cells by inhibiting DNA damage repair, prosurvival signaling, and epithelium-mesenchyme transition. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-203 could be a target for overcoming the radiation resistance of GBM.

  6. 27-Hydroxycholesterol regulates cholesterol synthesis and transport in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu; Zhang, Dan-Di; Yu, Huan-Ling; Ma, Wei-Wei; Lu, Yan-Hui; Liu, Quan-Ri; Xiao, Rong

    2017-03-01

    The oxysterol 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) is a major cholesterol metabolite that can cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) from peripheral circulation to the brain. Currently, the role of 27-OHC on cholesterol homeostasis in astrocytes and the underlying mechanisms are not defined. Since all brain cholesterol is essentially synthesized in brain itself and astrocytes as net producers of cholesterol are essential for normal brain function, here we investigated the effects of 27-OHC on cholesterol synthesis and transport in C6 glioma cells. C6 cells were treated with 5, 10 and 20μM 27-OHC for 24h and the cell viability and apoptosis, the cholesterol levels and metabolism-related mediators, genes and proteins were subsequently assessed using cell-counting kit (CCK)-8, Amplex red, ELISA, real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. We found that 27-OHC decreased cholesterol levels by down-regulating the expression of sterol-regulated element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1a), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CR) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and promoted cholesterol transport by up-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ (PPAR-γ), liver X receptor-α (LXR-α), ATP-binding cassette transporter protein family member A1 (ABCA1) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE)genes. Our results suggested that 27-OHC may represent a sensitive modulator of cholesterol metabolism disorder by suppressing cholesterol synthesis and stimulating cholesterol transport in astrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphodynamics of a growing microbial colony driven by cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pushpita; Levine, Herbert

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial cells can often self-organize into multicellular structures with complex spatiotemporal morphology. In this work, we study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a growing microbial colony in the presence of cell death. We present an individual-based model of nonmotile bacterial cells which grow and proliferate by consuming diffusing nutrients on a semisolid two-dimensional surface. The colony spreads by growth forces and sliding motility of cells and undergoes cell death followed by subsequent disintegration of the dead cells in the medium. We model cell death by considering two possible situations: In one of the cases, cell death occurs in response to the limitation of local nutrients, while the other case corresponds to an active death process, known as apoptotic or programmed cell death. We demonstrate how the colony morphology is influenced by the presence of cell death. Our results show that cell death facilitates transitions from roughly circular to highly branched structures at the periphery of an expanding colony. Interestingly, our results also reveal that for the colonies which are growing in higher initial nutrient concentrations, cell death occurs much earlier compared to the colonies which are growing in lower initial nutrient concentrations. This work provides new insights into the branched patterning of growing bacterial colonies as a consequence of complex interplay among the biochemical and mechanical effects.

  8. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction, [6]-Gingerol and Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis of Glioma Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirah Abdul Rahman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant bioactives [6]-gingerol (GING, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and asiaticoside (AS and vitamin E, such as tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF, have been reported to possess anticancer activity. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic properties of these bioactive compounds alone or in combination on glioma cancer cells. TRF, GING, EGCG and AS were tested for cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines 1321N1 (Grade II, SW1783 (Grade III and LN18 (Grade IV in culture by the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS assay. With the exception of AS, combinations of two compounds were tested, and the interactions of each combination were evaluated by the combination index (CI using an isobologram. Different grades of glioma cancer cells showed different cytotoxic responses to the compounds, where in 1321N1 and LN18 cells, the combination of EGCG + GING exhibited a synergistic effect with CI = 0.77 and CI = 0.55, respectively. In contrast, all combinations tested (TRF + GING, TRF + EGCG and EGCG + GING were found to be antagonistic on SW1783 with CI values of 1.29, 1.39 and 1.39, respectively. Combined EGCG + GING induced apoptosis in both 1321N1 and LN18 cells, as evidenced by Annexin-V FITC/PI staining and increased active caspase-3. Our current data suggests that the combination of EGCG + GING synergistically induced apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation 1321N1 and LN18 cells, but not SW1783 cells, which may be due to their different genetic profiles.

  9. Cell-in-Cell Death Is Not Restricted by Caspase-3 Deficiency in MCF-7 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; He, Meifang; Li, Linmei; Liang, Zhihua; Zou, Zehong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cell-in-cell structures are created by one living cell entering another homotypic or heterotypic living cell, which usually leads to the death of the internalized cell, specifically through caspase-dependent cell death (emperitosis) or lysosome-dependent cell death (entosis). Although entosis has attracted great attention, its occurrence is controversial, because one cell line used in its study (MCF-7) is deficient in caspase-3. Methods We investigated this issue using MCF-7 and A431 cell lines, which often display cell-in-cell invasion, and have different levels of caspase-3 expression. Cell-in-cell death morphology, microstructures, and signaling pathways were compared in the two cell lines. Results Our results confirmed that MCF-7 cells are caspase-3 deficient with a partial deletion in the CASP-3 gene. These cells underwent cell death that lacked typical apoptotic properties after staurosporine treatment, whereas caspase-3-sufficient A431 cells displayed typical apoptosis. The presence of caspase-3 was related neither to the lysosome-dependent nor to the caspase-dependent cell-in-cell death pathway. However, the existence of caspase-3 was associated with a switch from lysosome-dependent cell-in-cell death to the apoptotic cell-in-cell death pathway during entosis. Moreover, cellular hypoxia, mitochondrial swelling, release of cytochrome C, and autophagy were observed in internalized cells during entosis. Conclusion The occurrence of caspase-independent entosis is not a cell-specific process. In addition, entosis actually represents a cellular self-repair system, functioning through autophagy, to degrade damaged mitochondria resulting from cellular hypoxia in cell-in-cell structures. However, sustained autophagy-associated signal activation, without reduction in cellular hypoxia, eventually leads to lysosome-dependent intracellular cell death. PMID:27721872

  10. The effects of radiation on p53-mutated glioma cells using cDNA microarray technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, F.Q.H.; Hsiao, Y.-Y.H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In this study, we investigated the effects of 10-Gy irradiation on cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and clonogenic death in the p53-mutated human U138MG (malignant glioblastoma) cell line. In order to evaluate time-dependent events in cellular responses to radiation, we did a time course study by incubating cells ranging from 0.5 to 48 hours after irradiation. Cell-cycle distribution and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and annexin-V plus PI staining. Cell viability and proliferative capacity were studied by colony formation assay. Dual fluorescence cDNA microarray technique was used to examine the differential expression patterns of the irradiated cells. The cDNA microarray chips used contained DNA sequences corresponding to 12,814 human genes. From the flow cytometry data, it can be observed that radiation induced G2/M phase arrest and that late apoptosis was more evident following G2/M arrest. After 36 hours, some cells underwent senescence and the remains continued on with the cell cycle. Microarray analyses revealed changes in the expression of a small number of cell-cycle-related genes (p21, cyclin B1, etc.) and cell-death genes (tumor necrosis factors, DDB2, etc.) suggesting their involvement in radiation-induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. In silico interpretations of the molecular mechanisms responsible for these radiation effects are in progress

  11. Programmed cell death and cell extrusion in rat duodenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The small intestinal epithelium is continously renewed through a balance between cell division and cell loss. How this balance is achieved is uncertain. Thus, it is unknown to what extent programmed cell death (PCD) contributes to intestinal epithelial cell loss. We have used a battery...... of techniques detecting the events associated with PCD in order to better understand its role in the turnover of the intestinal epithelium, including modified double- and triple-staining techniques for simultaneously detecting multiple markers of PCD in individual cells. Only a partial correlation between TUNEL...... positivity for DNA fragmentation, c-jun phosphorylation on serine-63, positivity for activated caspase-3 and apoptotic morphology was observed. Our results show that DNA fragmentation does not invariable correlate to activation of caspase-3. Moreover, many cells were found to activate caspase-3 early...

  12. Senescence and programmed cell death : substance or semantics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Woltering, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    The terms senescence and programmed cell death (PCD) have led to some confusion. Senescence as visibly observed in, for example, leaf yellowing and petal wilting, has often been taken to be synonymous with the programmed death of the constituent cells. PCD also obviously refers to cells, which show

  13. Mechanisms of Betulinic acid‐induced cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potze, L.

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to investigate the mechanisms by which BetA induces cell death in cancer cells in more detail. At the start of the studies described in this thesis several questions urgently needed an answer. Although BetA induces cell death via apoptosis, when blocking this form of

  14. Antroquinonol Targets FAK-Signaling Pathway Suppressed Cell Migration, Invasion, and Tumor Growth of C6 Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Tsai, May-Jywan; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine that is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays a pivotal role in multiple cell signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration, and proliferation. This study attempts to determine the effect of synthesized antroquinonol on the modulation of FAK signaling pathways and explore their underlying mechanisms. Antroquinonol significantly inhibits cell viability with an MTT assay in both N18 neuroblastoma and C6 glioma cell lines, which exhibits sub G1 phase cell cycle, and further induction of apoptosis is confirmed by a TUNEL assay. Antroquinonol decreases anti-apoptotic proteins, whereas it increases p53 and pro-apoptotic proteins. Alterations of cell morphology are observed after treatment by atomic force microscopy. Molecular docking results reveal that antroquinonol has an H-bond with the Arg 86 residue of FAK. The protein levels of Src, pSrc, FAK, pFAK, Rac1, and cdc42 are decreased after antroquinonol treatment. Additionally, antroquinonol also regulates the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins. Furthermore, antroquinonol suppresses the C6 glioma growth in xenograft studies. Together, these results suggest that antroquinonol is a potential anti-tumorigenesis and anti-metastasis inhibitor of FAK.

  15. Antroquinonol Targets FAK-Signaling Pathway Suppressed Cell Migration, Invasion, and Tumor Growth of C6 Glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadharajan Thiyagarajan

    Full Text Available Focal adhesion kinase (FAK is a non-receptor protein tyrosine that is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays a pivotal role in multiple cell signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration, and proliferation. This study attempts to determine the effect of synthesized antroquinonol on the modulation of FAK signaling pathways and explore their underlying mechanisms. Antroquinonol significantly inhibits cell viability with an MTT assay in both N18 neuroblastoma and C6 glioma cell lines, which exhibits sub G1 phase cell cycle, and further induction of apoptosis is confirmed by a TUNEL assay. Antroquinonol decreases anti-apoptotic proteins, whereas it increases p53 and pro-apoptotic proteins. Alterations of cell morphology are observed after treatment by atomic force microscopy. Molecular docking results reveal that antroquinonol has an H-bond with the Arg 86 residue of FAK. The protein levels of Src, pSrc, FAK, pFAK, Rac1, and cdc42 are decreased after antroquinonol treatment. Additionally, antroquinonol also regulates the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT proteins. Furthermore, antroquinonol suppresses the C6 glioma growth in xenograft studies. Together, these results suggest that antroquinonol is a potential anti-tumorigenesis and anti-metastasis inhibitor of FAK.

  16. Phenotypic modification of human glioma and non-small cell lung carcinoma by glucocorticoids and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, J S; Frame, M C; Freshney, R I; Vaughan, P F; Mackie, A E; Singer, I

    1986-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are cytostatic for human glioma grown at a high cell density in cell culture. The effect is not cytotoxic, appears to involve a modification of the cell surface, and has been detected with methyl prednisolone, dexamethasone, and beta-methasone. Glucocorticoids were also found to reduce malignancy-associated properties (plasminogen activator and endothelial mitogenesis) and enhance differentiation (glutamyl synthetase activity and high affinity GABA uptake). Cytostasis was also seen at high cell densities in non-small cell lung carcinoma with a concomitant reduction in plasminogen activator activity and endothelial mitogenesis. Preliminary data on surfactant production in A549 cells suggests that the repression of malignancy-associated properties is accompanied by an increase in cell differentiation. Treatment of the WIL adenocarcinoma gown as a xenograft in nude mice caused total cessation of growth and massive central necrosis in the tumor.

  17. Programmed cell death for defense against anomaly and tumor formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Sohei; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Taisei

    1995-01-01

    Cell death after exposure to low-level radiation is often considered evidence that radiation is poisonous, however small the dose. Evidence has been accumulating to support the notion that cell death after low-level exposure to radiation results from activation of suicidal genes open-quote programmed cell death close-quote or open-quote apoptosis close-quote - for the health of the whole body. This paper gives experimental evidence that embryos of fruit flies and mouse fetuses have potent defense mechanisms against teratogenic or tumorigenic injury caused by radiation and carcinogens, which function through programmed cell death

  18. The End of the Beginning: Cell Death in the Germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeanne S; Timmons, Allison K; Mondragon, Albert A; McCall, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death occurs in the germline of many organisms, both as an essential part of development and throughout adult life. Germline cell death can be apoptotic or nonapoptotic, depending on the stimulus or stage of development. Here, we focus on the Drosophila ovary, which is a powerful model for studying diverse types of cell death. In Drosophila, the death of primordial germ cells occurs normally during embryonic development, and germline nurse cells are programmed to die during oocyte development in adult flies. Cell death of previtellogenic egg chambers in adults can also be induced by starvation or other environmental cues. Mid-oogenesis seems to be particularly sensitive to such cues and has been proposed to serve as a checkpoint to avoid the energetically expensive cost of egg production. After the germline dies in mid-oogenesis, the remnants are engulfed by an epithelial layer of follicle cells; thus, the fly ovary also serves as a highly tractable model for engulfment by epithelial cells. These examples of cell death in the fly ovary share many similarities to the types of cell death seen in the mammalian germline. Recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of cell death in the germline is discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic Reprogramming in Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Stoll

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many cancers have long been thought to primarily metabolize glucose for energy production—a phenomenon known as the Warburg Effect, after the classic studies of Otto Warburg in the early twentieth century. Yet cancer cells also utilize other substrates, such as amino acids and fatty acids, to produce raw materials for cellular maintenance and energetic currency to accomplish cellular tasks. The contribution of these substrates is increasingly appreciated in the context of glioma, the most common form of malignant brain tumor. Multiple catabolic pathways are used for energy production within glioma cells, and are linked in many ways to anabolic pathways supporting cellular function. For example: glycolysis both supports energy production and provides carbon skeletons for the synthesis of nucleic acids; meanwhile fatty acids are used both as energetic substrates and as raw materials for lipid membranes. Furthermore, bio-energetic pathways are connected to pro-oncogenic signaling within glioma cells. For example: AMPK signaling links catabolism with cell cycle progression; mTOR signaling contributes to metabolic flexibility and cancer cell survival; the electron transport chain produces ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS which act as signaling molecules; Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs mediate interactions with cells and vasculature within the tumor environment. Mutations in the tumor suppressor p53, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2 have been implicated in oncogenic signaling as well as establishing metabolic phenotypes in genetically-defined subsets of malignant glioma. These pathways critically contribute to tumor biology. The aim of this review is two-fold. Firstly, we present the current state of knowledge regarding the metabolic strategies employed by malignant glioma cells, including aerobic glycolysis; the pentose phosphate pathway; one-carbon metabolism; the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is

  20. Metabolic Reprogramming in Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Marie; Stoll, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    Many cancers have long been thought to primarily metabolize glucose for energy production-a phenomenon known as the Warburg Effect, after the classic studies of Otto Warburg in the early twentieth century. Yet cancer cells also utilize other substrates, such as amino acids and fatty acids, to produce raw materials for cellular maintenance and energetic currency to accomplish cellular tasks. The contribution of these substrates is increasingly appreciated in the context of glioma, the most common form of malignant brain tumor. Multiple catabolic pathways are used for energy production within glioma cells, and are linked in many ways to anabolic pathways supporting cellular function. For example: glycolysis both supports energy production and provides carbon skeletons for the synthesis of nucleic acids; meanwhile fatty acids are used both as energetic substrates and as raw materials for lipid membranes. Furthermore, bio-energetic pathways are connected to pro-oncogenic signaling within glioma cells. For example: AMPK signaling links catabolism with cell cycle progression; mTOR signaling contributes to metabolic flexibility and cancer cell survival; the electron transport chain produces ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) which act as signaling molecules; Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs) mediate interactions with cells and vasculature within the tumor environment. Mutations in the tumor suppressor p53, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2 have been implicated in oncogenic signaling as well as establishing metabolic phenotypes in genetically-defined subsets of malignant glioma. These pathways critically contribute to tumor biology. The aim of this review is two-fold. Firstly, we present the current state of knowledge regarding the metabolic strategies employed by malignant glioma cells, including aerobic glycolysis; the pentose phosphate pathway; one-carbon metabolism; the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is central to amino acid

  1. Angiogenesis in gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Czykier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain gliomas are characterized by invasive growth and neovascularisation potential. Angiogenesis plays a major role in the progression of gliomas and its determination has a great prognostic value. The aim of the study was to assess the vascularisation of chosen brain gliomas and to estimate how it is correlated with tumour histological type, malignancy grade, location and size, and with age and sex of patients. Tumour vascularisation analysis was based on the determination of microvascular proliferation (MVP and microvessel density (MVD. Microvascular proliferation was measured with immunohistochemical methods using mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect cell proliferation antigens. The following antibodies were used Ki-67 and PCNA (DAKO. Identification of vessels was performed by CD31 antibody and anti-human von Willebrand factor (DAKO. The highest microvascular proliferation and microvascular density were observed in multiform glioblastomas and the lowest in oligodendrogliomas. Significant correlation was observed between the vascularisation and malignancy grade.

  2. Immunocytochemical Localization of Glia-Derived Nexin, Laminin and Fibronectin on the Surface or Extracellular Matrix of C6 Rat Glioma Cells, Astrocytes and Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfter, W.; Reinhard, E.; Liverani, D.; Ortman, R.; Monard, D.

    1989-07-01

    The expression and cellular distribution of glia-derived nexin (GDN), laminin and fibronectin on C6 rat glioma cells, rat brain astrocytes and rat fibroblasts were investigated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Western blot analysis of C6 cell homogenates confirmed the specificities of the antibodies. Immunocytochemical staining of C6 cells, astrocytes and fibroblasts showed that laminin, fibronectin and GDN were abundant on the surface of glioma cells and astrocytes whereas on fibroblasts fibronectin was abundant though only traces of GDN and laminin could be detected. The light microscopy data were confirmed by ultrastructural studies showing that each antigen was present on the surface of the C6 rat glioma cells as numerous spots with slightly different distribution patterns for each of the antigens. In fibroblast cultures, the antigens were also localized in the extracellular matrix in the vicinity of the cells. Migrating fibroblasts but not migrating glioma cells or astrocytes deposit the matrix-proteins onto the substratum leaving behind a track of GDN, laminin and fibronectin. When the cells were treated with heparin prior to antibody incubation, the GDN immunoreactivity completely disappeared, whereas the distribution and abundance of laminin and fibronectin was not affected. Our data show that GDN binds, possibly by a heparin-like molecule, to the outer surface of cells or to the extracellular matrix and may protect cells and matrix proteins against proteolytic degradation.

  3. Patterns of cell death in the perinatal mouse forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Morgan; Shah, Charisma; Morse, Kiriana A; Miloro, Stephen A; Holmes, Melissa M; Ahern, Todd H; Forger, Nancy G

    2017-01-01

    The importance of cell death in brain development has long been appreciated, but many basic questions remain, such as what initiates or terminates the cell death period. One obstacle has been the lack of quantitative data defining exactly when cell death occurs. We recently created a "cell death atlas," using the detection of activated caspase-3 (AC3) to quantify apoptosis in the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, and found that the highest rates of cell death were seen at the earliest postnatal ages in most regions. Here we have extended these analyses to prenatal ages and additional brain regions. We quantified cell death in 16 forebrain regions across nine perinatal ages from embryonic day (E) 17 to postnatal day (P) 11 and found that cell death peaks just after birth in most regions. We found greater cell death in several regions in offspring delivered vaginally on the day of parturition compared with those of the same postconception age but still in utero at the time of collection. We also found massive cell death in the oriens layer of the hippocampus on P1 and in regions surrounding the anterior crossing of the corpus callosum on E18 as well as the persistence of large numbers of cells in those regions in adult mice lacking the pro-death Bax gene. Together these findings suggest that birth may be an important trigger of neuronal cell death and identify transient cell groups that may undergo wholesale elimination perinatally. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:47-64, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Paramagnetic Gd2O3 Nanoparticle-Based Targeting Theranostic Agent for C6 Rat Glioma Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Pyo Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to synthesize theranostic agent targeting C6 rat glioma cell, which was based on the dextran coated paramagnetic gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (D-PGONs conjugated with folic acid (FA or paclitaxel (PTX. The D-PGONs were synthesized by the in situ coprecipitation method, and the average value of the size distribution was 2.9 nm. FTIR spectroscopy was fulfilled to confirm the conjugations of FA or PTX with D-PGONs. The bioprotective effects of dextran coating and chemotherapeutic effect of PTX in the C6 glioma cell were evaluated by the MTT assay. The differences in uptakes between the synthesized theranostic agents into C6 cells were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the magnetic contrast enhancement with different concentration of the synthesized agent was compared by the T1-weighted MRI imaging. It was experimentally shown that the synthesized theranostic agent targets C6 cells due to the ligand-receptor-mediated endocytosis and provides enhancement in MR contrast depending on the concentration due to the paramagnetic property of gadolinium nanoparticle. In addition, it was shown by the results of MTT assay that the synthesized nanocomposites were more effective in reducing cell viability than bare gadolinium nanoparticles. In conclusion, it was shown that FA and PTX conjugated D-PGONs could be used as the theranostic agent with paramagnetism and chemotherapeutic property.

  5. Antiproliferative effects of mitraphylline, a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid of Uncaria tomentosa on human glioma and neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Prado, E; García Gimenez, M D; De la Puerta Vázquez, R; Espartero Sánchez, J L; Sáenz Rodríguez, M T

    2007-04-01

    Uncaria tomentosa inner bark extract is a popular plant remedy used in folk medicine to treat tumor and inflammatory processes. In this study, the anti-tumoral effects of its pentacyclic alkaloid mitraphylline were investigated. Furthermore, its growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic effects on glioma GAMG and neuroblastoma SKN-BE(2) cell lines were studied using cyclophosphamide and vincristine as controls. A colter counter was used to determine viable cell numbers, followed by application of the tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium], inner salt, colorimetric method to evaluate cell viability in this cytotoxicity assay. Micromolar concentrations of mitraphylline (from 5 to 40 microM) inhibited the growth of both cell lines. It inhibited the growth of the two cell lines studied in a dose-dependent manner. The IC(50) values were 12.3 microM (30h) for SKN-BE(2) and 20 microM (48 h) for GAMG, respectively. This action suggests that mitraphylline is a new and promising agent in the treatment of human neuroblastoma and glioma.

  6. Global quantitative proteomic analysis of human glioma cells profiled host protein expression in response to enterovirus type 71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei-Ke; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Sheng-Lin; Xianyu, Ling-Zhi; Lu, Song-Ya

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the leading causes of hand, foot and mouth disease with neurological complications in some cases. To study the pathogenesis of EV71 infection, large-scale analyses of EV71 infected cells have been performed. However, most of these studies employed rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells or used transcriptomic strategy. Here, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of EV71-infected U251 cells, a human glioma cell line. A total of 3125 host proteins were quantified, in which 451 were differentially regulated as a result of EV71 infection at 8 or 20 hpi or both. Gene Ontology analysis indicates the regulated proteins were enriched in "metabolic process", "biological regulation" and "cellular process", implying that these biological processes were affected by EV71 infection. Furthermore, functional study indicated that TRAF2 and TRAF6 among the up-regulated proteins could inhibit the replication of EV71 at the early phase post infection, and the anti-EV71 function of both proteins was independent of interferon β. Our study not only provided an overview of cellular response to EV71 infection in a human glioma cell line, but also found that TRAF2 and TRAF6 might be potential targets to inhibit the replication of EV71. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002454 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002454). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Enhanced anti-tumor effect of zoledronic acid combined with temozolomide against human malignant glioma cell expressing O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Fukai

    Full Text Available Temozolomide (TMZ, a DNA methylating agent, is widely used in the adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltranferase (MGMT, a DNA repair enzyme, is frequently discussed as the main factor that limits the efficacy of TMZ. Zoledronic acid (ZOL, which is clinically applied to treat cancer-induced bone diseases, appears to possess direct anti-tumor activity through apoptosis induction by inhibiting mevalonate pathway and prenylation of intracellular small G proteins. In this study, we evaluated whether ZOL can be effectively used as an adjuvant to TMZ in human malignant glioma cells that express MGMT. Malignant glioma cell lines, in which the expression of MGMT was detected, did not exhibit growth inhibition by TMZ even at a longer exposure. However, combination experiment of TMZ plus ZOL revealed that a supra-additive effect resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth. In combined TMZ/ZOL treatment, an increased apoptotic rate was apparent and significant activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose polymerase were observed compared with each single drug exposure. There were decreased amounts of Ras-GTP, MAPK and Akt phosphorylation and MGMT expression in the ZOL-treated cells. Subcutanous xenograft models showed significant decrease of tumor growth with combined TMZ/ZOL treatment. These results suggest that ZOL efficaciously inhibits activity of Ras in malignant glioma cells and potentiates TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity, inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis of malignant glioma cells that express MGMT and resistant to TMZ. Based on this work, combination of TMZ with ZOL might be a potential therapy in malignant gliomas that receive less therapeutic effects of TMZ due to cell resistance.

  8. Multiple mediators of plant programmed cell death : interplay of conserved cell death mechanisms and plant-specific regulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a process aimed at the removal of redundant, misplaced, or damaged cells and it is essential to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. In contrast to the relatively well-described cell death pathway in animals, often referred to as apoptosis,

  9. Cell death programs in Yersinia immunity and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Hannah Philip

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell death plays a central role in host-pathogen interactions, as it can eliminate the pathogen’s replicative niche and provide pro-inflammatory signals necessary for an effective immune response; conversely, cell death can allow pathogens to eliminate immune cells and evade anti-microbial effector mechanisms. In response to developmental signals or cell-intrinsic stresses, the executioner caspases-3 and -7 mediate apoptotic cell death, which is generally viewed as immunologically silent or immunosuppressive. A proinflammatory form of cell death that requires caspase-1, termed pyroptosis, is activated in response to microbial products within the host cytosol or disruption of cellular membranes by microbial pathogens. Infection by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia has features of both apoptosis and pyroptosis. Cell death and caspase-1 processing in Yersinia-infected cells occur in response to inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling by the Yersinia virulence factor YopJ. However, the molecular basis of YopJ-induced cell death, and the role of different death pathways in anti-Yersinia immune responses remain enigmatic. Here, we discuss the role that cell death may play in inducing specific pro-inflammatory signals that shape innate and adaptive immune responses against Yersinia infection.

  10. A High-Throughput Screen Identifies 2,9-Diazaspiro[5.5]Undecanes as Inducers of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response with Cytotoxic Activity in 3D Glioma Cell Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia J Martinez

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is involved in Ca2+ signaling and protein folding. ER Ca2+ depletion and accumulation of unfolded proteins activate the molecular chaperone GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein 78 which in turn triggers the ER stress response (ERSR pathway aimed to restore ER homeostasis. Failure to adapt to stress, however, results in apoptosis. We and others have shown that malignant cells are more susceptible to ERSR-induced apoptosis than their normal counterparts, implicating the ERSR as a potential target for cancer therapeutics. Predicated on these findings, we developed an assay that uses a GRP78 biosensor to identify small molecule activators of ERSR in glioma cells. We performed a quantitative high-throughput screen (qHTS against a collection of ~425,000 compounds and a comprehensive panel of orthogonal secondary assays was formulated for stringent compound validation. We identified novel activators of ERSR, including a compound with a 2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane core, which depletes intracellular Ca2+ stores and induces apoptosis-mediated cell death in several cancer cell lines, including patient-derived and 3D cultures of glioma cells. This study demonstrates that our screening platform enables the identification and profiling of ERSR inducers with cytotoxic activity and advocates for characterization of these compound in in vivo models.

  11. RNA Viruses: ROS-Mediated Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshi, Mohammad Latif; Su, Yi-Che; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well known for being both beneficial and deleterious. The main thrust of this review is to investigate the role of ROS in ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus pathogenesis. Much evidences has accumulated over the past decade, suggesting that patients infected with RNA viruses are under chronic oxidative stress. Changes to the body's antioxidant defense system, in relation to SOD, ascorbic acid, selenium, carotenoids, and glutathione, have been reported in various tissues of RNA-virus infected patients. This review focuses on RNA viruses and retroviruses, giving particular attention to the human influenza virus, Hepatitis c virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the aquatic Betanodavirus. Oxidative stress via RNA virus infections can contribute to several aspects of viral disease pathogenesis including apoptosis, loss of immune function, viral replication, inflammatory response, and loss of body weight. We focus on how ROS production is correlated with host cell death. Moreover, ROS may play an important role as a signal molecule in the regulation of viral replication and organelle function, potentially providing new insights in the prevention and treatment of RNA viruses and retrovirus infections. PMID:24899897

  12. PTEN-induction in U251 glioma cells decreases the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Randy J.; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Pollak, Michael

    2005-01-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene whose loss of function is observed in ∼40-50% of human cancers. Although insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) was classically described as a growth inhibitor, multiple recent reports have shown an association of overexpression and/or high serum levels of IGFBP-2 with poor prognosis of several malignancies, including gliomas. Using an inducible PTEN expression system in the PTEN-null glioma cell line U251, we demonstrate that PTEN-induction is associated with reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and a substantial reduction of the high levels of IGFBP-2 expression. The PTEN-induced decrease in IGFBP-2 expression could be mimicked with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, indicating that the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN is responsible for the observed effect. However, the rapamycin analog CCI-779 did not affect IGFBP-2 expression, suggesting that the PTEN-induced decrease in IGFBP-2 expression is not attributable to decreased mTOR signalling. Recombinant human IGFBP-2 was unable to rescue U251-PTEN cells from the antiproliferative effects of PTEN, and IGFBP-2 siRNA did not affect the IGF-dependent or -independent growth of this cell line. These results suggest that the clinical data linking IGFBP-2 expression to poor prognosis may arise, at least in part, because high levels of IGFBP-2 expression correlate with loss of function of PTEN, which is well known to lead to aggressive behavior of gliomas. Our results motivate translational research regarding the relationship between IGFBP-2 expression and loss of function of PTEN

  13. TLR9 expression in glioma tissues correlated to glioma progression and the prognosis of GBM patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Cao, Shouqiang; Yan, Ying; Ying, Qiao; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Ke; Wu, Anhua

    2010-01-01

    Our study aims to evaluate the expression of TLR9 in glioma tissues, examine the association between TLR9 expression, clinicopathological variables, and glioma patient outcome, we further characterized the direct effects of TLR9 agonist CpG ODN upon the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells in vitro. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence were used to determine the expression of TLR9 in glioma cell lines and clinical glioma samples. Tissue microarry and immunohistochemistry were applied to evaluated TLR9 expression in 292 newly diagnosed glioma and 13 non-neoplastic brain tissues. We further investigated the effect of CpG ODN on the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells in vitro with MTT assays and matrigel transwell assay respectively. RT-PCR showed that TLR9 expressed in all the glioma samples and glioma cell lines we examined. The tissue array analysis indicated that TLR9 expression is correlated with malignancy of glioma (p < 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that TLR9 expression is an independent prognostic factor for PFS of GBM patients(P = 0.026). TLR9 agonist CpG ODN has no significant effect on glioma proliferation, but matrigel transwell analysis showed that TLR9 agonist CpG ODN can significantly enhance glioma invasion in vitro. Our data indicated that TLR9 expression increases according to the histopathological grade of glioma, and the TLR9 expression level is related to the PFS of GBM patients. In addition, our findings warrant caution in the directly injection of TLR9 agonist CpG ODN into glioma tissues for the glioma immunotherapy

  14. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathways induced by Drosophila programmed cell death regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claveria, Cristina; Torres, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Multicellular organisms eliminate unwanted or damaged cells by cell death, a process essential to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Cell death is a tightly regulated event, whose alteration by excess or defect is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as cancer, autoimmune syndromes, and neurodegenerative processes. Studies in model organisms, especially in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, have been crucial in identifying the key molecules implicated in the regulation and execution of programmed cell death. In contrast, the study of cell death in Drosophila melanogaster, often an excellent model organism, has identified regulators and mechanisms not obviously conserved in other metazoans. Recent molecular and cellular analyses suggest, however, that the mechanisms of action of the main programmed cell death regulators in Drosophila include a canonical mitochondrial pathway

  15. Andrographolide Induces Apoptosis of C6 Glioma Cells via the ERK-p53-Caspase 7-PARP Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hung Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glioma is the most malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Efforts on the development of new chemotherapy are mandatory. Andrographolide (AND, a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to have antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. Whether AND can exert its antitumor activity in glioblastoma cells remains unknown. This study examined the anticancer effects of AND, both in vitro and in vivo. Methods. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry and nuclear staining. The signaling pathway for AND was determined by western blotting. The effects of AND on tumor growth was evaluated in a mouse model. Results and Conclusion. In vitro, with application of specific inhibitors and siRNA, AND-induced apoptosis was proven through ROS-ERK-P53-caspase 7-PARP signaling pathway. In vivo, AND significantly retarded tumor growth and caused regression of well-formed tumors in vivo. Furthermore, AND did not induce apoptosis or activate ERK and p53 in primary cultured astrocyte cells, and it may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioma.

  16. Andrographolide induces apoptosis of C6 glioma cells via the ERK-p53-caspase 7-PARP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Hung; Wang, Seu-Mei; Syu, Jhih-Pu; Chen, Ying; Wang, Sheng-De; Peng, Yu-Sen; Kuo, Meng-Fai; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2014-01-01

    Glioma is the most malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Efforts on the development of new chemotherapy are mandatory. Andrographolide (AND), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to have antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. Whether AND can exert its antitumor activity in glioblastoma cells remains unknown. This study examined the anticancer effects of AND, both in vitro and in vivo. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry and nuclear staining. The signaling pathway for AND was determined by western blotting. The effects of AND on tumor growth was evaluated in a mouse model. In vitro, with application of specific inhibitors and siRNA, AND-induced apoptosis was proven through ROS-ERK-P53-caspase 7-PARP signaling pathway. In vivo, AND significantly retarded tumor growth and caused regression of well-formed tumors in vivo. Furthermore, AND did not induce apoptosis or activate ERK and p53 in primary cultured astrocyte cells, and it may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioma.

  17. Mechanisms of Virus-Induced Neural Cell Death

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyler, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Virtually all known neurotropic viruses are capable of killing infected cells by inducing a specific pattern of cell death known as apoptosis, yet the mechanism by which this occurs and its relevance...

  18. Chemical -induced apoptotic cell death in tomato cells : involvement of caspase-like proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.J.; Hoeberichts, F.A.; Yakimova, E.T.; Maximova, E.; Woltering, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    A new system to study programmed cell death in plants is described. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) suspension cells were induced to undergo programmed cell death by treatment with known inducers of apoptosis in mammalian cells. This chemical-induced cell death was accompanied by the

  19. Hydrogen peroxide as a signal controlling plant programmed cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, Tsanko S.; Hille, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has established itself as a key player in stress and programmed cell death responses, but little is known about the signaling pathways leading from H2O2 to programmed cell death in plants. Recently, identification of key regulatory mutants and near-full genome coverage

  20. Chemical- and pathogen-induced programmed cell death in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Atanassov, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This review focuses on recent update in the understanding of programmed cell death regarding the differences and similarities between the diverse types of cell death in animal and plant systems and describes the morphological and some biochemical determinants. The role of PCD in plant development

  1. Sphingolipid metabolism and programmed cell death in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassieva, Stefanka Diankova

    2003-01-01

    Programmed cell death is genetically determined. When the regulation of the process is disrupted it can have severe or lethal consequences for the organism. In mammals, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases are associated with abnormalities in programmed cell death. Development of an animal embryo

  2. Actin as Deathly Switch? How Auxin Can Suppress Cell-Death Related Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoli; Riemann, Michael; Liu, Qiong; Nick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant innate immunity is composed of two layers – a basal immunity, and a specific effector-triggered immunity, which is often accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Initiation of cell death depends on a complex network of signalling pathways. The phytohormone auxin as central regulator of plant growth and development represents an important component for the modulation of plant defence. In our previous work, we showed that cell death is heralded by detachment of actin from the membrane. Both, actin response and cell death, are triggered by the bacterial elicitor harpin in grapevine cells. In this study we investigated, whether harpin-triggered actin bundling is necessary for harpin-triggered cell death. Since actin organisation is dependent upon auxin, we used different auxins to suppress actin bundling. Extracellular alkalinisation and transcription of defence genes as the basal immunity were examined as well as cell death. Furthermore, organisation of actin was observed in response to pharmacological manipulation of reactive oxygen species and phospholipase D. We find that induction of defence genes is independent of auxin. However, auxin can suppress harpin-induced cell death and also counteract actin bundling. We integrate our findings into a model, where harpin interferes with an auxin dependent pathway that sustains dynamic cortical actin through the activity of phospholipase D. The antagonism between growth and defence is explained by mutual competition for signal molecules such as superoxide and phosphatidic acid. Perturbations of the auxin-actin pathway might be used to detect disturbed integrity of the plasma membrane and channel defence signalling towards programmed cell death. PMID:25933033

  3. Phase I Study of Cellular Immunotherapy for Recurrent/Refractory Malignant Glioma Using Intratumoral Infusions of GRm13Z40-2, An Allogeneic CD8+ Cytolitic T-Cell Line Genetically Modified to Express the IL 13-Zetakine and HyTK and to be Resistant to Glucocorticoids, in Combination With Interleukin-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-03

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Anaplastic Meningioma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brain Stem Glioma; Ependymoblastoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Grade III Meningioma; Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Mixed Glioma; Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Brain Tumor

  4. HIF-1α inhibition by siRNA or chetomin in human malignant glioma cells: effects on hypoxic radioresistance and monitoring via CA9 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bache Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia induces activation of the HIF-1 pathway and is an essential characteristic of malignant gliomas. Hypoxia has been linked to tumor progression, therapy resistance and poor prognosis. However, little is known about the impact of HIF-1α inhibition on radioresistance of malignant glioma. Methods In this study, we investigated the effects of the inhibition of HIF-1α on cell survival and radiosensitivity in U251MG and U343MG glioma cells, using two different strategies. HIF-1α inhibition was achieved by siRNA targeting of HIF-1α or via chetomin, a disruptor of interactions between HIF-1α and p300. The inhibition of the HIF-1 pathway was monitored by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses of the expression levels of HIF-1α and CA9. CA9 expression was investigated as a potential indicator of the efficacy of HIF-1 inhibition and the resulting radiosensitivity of malignant glioma cell lines was determined by clonogenic assay after irradiation under normoxic (2-10 Gy or hypoxic (2-15 Gy conditions. Results Although siRNA and chetomin show distinct modes of action, both attenuated the hypoxia-induced radioresistance of malignant glioma cell lines U251MG (DMF10: 1.35 and 1.18 and U343MG (DMF10: 1.78 and 1.48. However, siRNA and chetomin showed diverse effects on radiosensitivity under normoxic conditions in U251MG (DMF10: 0.86 and 1.35 and U343MG (DMF10: 1.33 and 1.02 cells. Conclusions Results from this in vitro study suggest that inhibition of HIF-1α is a promising strategy to sensitize human malignant gliomas to radiotherapy and that CA9 could serve as an indicator of effective HIF-1-related radiosensitization.

  5. Heat stress induces ferroptosis-like cell death in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distéfano, Ayelén Mariana; Martin, María Victoria; Córdoba, Juan Pablo; Bellido, Andrés Martín; D'Ippólito, Sebastián; Colman, Silvana Lorena; Soto, Débora; Roldán, Juan Alfredo; Bartoli, Carlos Guillermo; Zabaleta, Eduardo Julián; Fiol, Diego Fernando; Stockwell, Brent R; Dixon, Scott J; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina

    2017-02-01

    In plants, regulated cell death (RCD) plays critical roles during development and is essential for plant-specific responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent, oxidative, nonapoptotic form of cell death recently described in animal cells. In animal cells, this process can be triggered by depletion of glutathione (GSH) and accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated whether a similar process could be relevant to cell death in plants. Remarkably, heat shock (HS)-induced RCD, but not reproductive or vascular development, was found to involve a ferroptosis-like cell death process. In root cells, HS triggered an iron-dependent cell death pathway that was characterized by depletion of GSH and ascorbic acid and accumulation of cytosolic and lipid ROS. These results suggest a physiological role for this lethal pathway in response to heat stress in Arabidopsis thaliana The similarity of ferroptosis in animal cells and ferroptosis-like death in plants suggests that oxidative, iron-dependent cell death programs may be evolutionarily ancient. © 2017 Distéfano et al.

  6. Chronicles of a death foretold: dual sequential cell death checkpoints in TNF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Marie Anne; Ting, Adrian T

    2010-03-15

    The kinase RIP1 wears a coat of many colors during TNF receptor signaling and can regulate both activation of pro-survival NFkB and programmed cell death pathways. In this review, we outline how coating RIP1 with K63-linked ubiquitin chains forms a protective layer that prevents RIP1 from binding apoptotic regulators and serves as an early guard against cell death. Further on, binding of NFkB signaling components to the ubiquitin coat of RIP1 activates long-term pro-survival signaling and forms a more impenetrable suit of armor against cell death. If RIP1 is not decorated with ubiquitin chains it becomes an unstoppable harbinger of bad news: programmed cell death.

  7. Expression of attractin and its differential enzyme activity in glioma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, R.; Mareš, Vladislav; Kleibl, Z.; Pohlreich, P.; Vlašicová, K.; Šedo, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 2 (2001), s. 289-294 ISSN 0006-291X Grant - others:GA UK(XC) 58/1999/C Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : glioma * attractin * dipeptidyl peptidase Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.946, year: 2001

  8. Development and evaluation of human AP endonuclease inhibitors in melanoma and glioma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, M Z; Vyjayanti, V N; Laughton, C A

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of DNA base excision repair (BER) has the potential to enhance response to chemotherapy and improve outcomes in tumours such as melanoma and glioma. APE1, a critical protein in BER that processes potentially cytotoxic abasic sites (AP sites), is a promising new target in cancer....... In the current study, we aimed to develop small molecule inhibitors of APE1 for cancer therapy....

  9. Biochemical events in naturally occurring forms of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesus, L

    1993-08-09

    Several molecular elements of programmed cell death and apoptosis have recently been revealed. The function of gene products which deliver the lethal 'hit' is still not known. Well-characterized and newly discovered cell surface structures (e.g. antigen receptors, FAS/APO-1), as well as transcriptional factors (steroid receptor, c-myc, P53, retinoblastoma protein and others), have been implicated in the initiation of the death pathway. Negative regulators of the process (ced-9 gene product in programmed death of cells in Caenorhabditis elegans and bcl-2 protein in apoptosis) have been described. Biochemical mechanisms responsible for the silent nature of natural deaths of cells include their rapid engulfment (mainly through integrin receptors), transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking of cellular proteins, and fragmentation of DNA. Several lines of evidence suggest that distinct molecular mechanisms may operate in various forms of natural cell death.

  10. Regulatory effects of Spirulina complex polysaccharides on growth of murine RSV-M glioma cells through Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Yu; Tominaga, Akira; Okuyama, Hiromi; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Taguchi, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Yutaka; Yawata, Toshio; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Ono, Shiro; Shimizu, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first to report that Spirulina complex polysaccharides (CPS) suppress glioma growth by down-regulating angiogenesis via a Toll-like receptor 4 signal. Murine RSV-M glioma cells were implanted s.c. into C3H/HeN mice and TLR4 mutant C3H/HeJ mice. Treatment with either Spirulina CPS or Escherichia coli (E. coli) lipopolysaccharides (LPS) strongly suppressed RSV-M glioma cell growth in C3H/HeN, but not C3H/HeJ, mice. Glioma cells stimulated production of interleukin (IL)-17 in both C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ tumor-bearing mice. Treatment with E. coli LPS induced much greater IL-17 production in tumor-bearing C3H/HeN mice than in tumor-bearing C3H/HeJ mice. In C3H/HeN mice, treatment with Spirulina CPS suppressed growth of re-transplanted glioma; however, treatment with E. coli LPS did not, suggesting that Spirulina CPS enhance the immune response. Administration of anti-cluster of differentiation (CD)8, anti-CD4, anti-CD8 antibodies, and anti-asialo GM1 antibodies enhanced tumor growth, suggesting that T cells and natural killer cells or macrophages are involved in suppression of tumor growth by Spirulina CPS. Although anti-interferon-γ antibodies had no effect on glioma cell growth, anti-IL-17 antibodies administered four days after tumor transplantation suppressed growth similarly to treatment with Spirulina CPS. Less angiogenesis was observed in gliomas from Spirulina CPS-treated mice than in those from saline- or E. coli LPS-treated mice. These findings suggest that, in C3H/HeN mice, Spirulina CPS antagonize glioma cell growth by down-regulating angiogenesis, and that this down-regulation is mediated in part by regulating IL-17 production. © 2012 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. PTEN enhances TNF-induced apoptosis through modulation of nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway in human glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Dimpy; Takada, Yasunari; Shen, Ruijun; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Yung, W.K. Alfred

    2006-01-01

    The PTEN tumor suppressor gene modulates cell growth and survival known to be regulated by the activation of the transcription factor NFκB, suggesting PTEN might affect the NFκB activation pathway. We found that PTEN inhibited NFκB activation induced by TNF. The suppression of NFκB activation correlated with sequential inhibition of the tumor necrosis factor-induced expression of NFκB-regulated anti-apoptotic (IAP1, IAP2, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, cFLIP, Bfl-1/A1, and survivin) gene products. Downregulation of the antiapoptotic genes by PTEN increased TNF-induced apoptosis, as indicated by caspase activation, TUNEL, annexin staining, and esterase assay. We conclude that the ectopic expression of PTEN enhances TNF-induced apoptosis and downregulates the proliferation of glioma cells through the suppression of various molecules including NFκB, and various mediators of cellular survival and proliferation, and that this targets might be essential for its central role in the growth and survival of glioma cancer cells

  12. ROS enhancement by silicon nanoparticles in X-ray irradiated aqueous suspensions and in glioma C6 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Gara, Pedro M.; Garabano, Natalia I.; Llansola Portoles, Manuel J.; Moreno, M. Sergio; Dodat, Diego; Casas, Oscar R.; Gonzalez, Mónica C.; Kotler, Mónica L.

    2012-01-01

    The capability of silicon nanoparticles to increase the yield of reactive species upon 4 MeV X-ray irradiation of aqueous suspensions and C6 glioma cell cultures was investigated. ROS generation was detected and quantified using several specific probes. The particles were characterized by FTIR, XPS, TEM, DLS, luminescence, and adsorption spectroscopy before and after irradiation to evaluate the effect of high energy radiation on their structure. The total concentration of O 2 •− /HO 2 • , HO • , and H 2 O 2 generated upon 4-MeV X-ray irradiation of 6.4 μM silicon nanoparticle aqueous suspensions were on the order of 10 μM per Gy, ten times higher than that obtained in similar experiments but in the absence of particles. Cytotoxic 1 O 2 was generated only in irradiation experiments containing the particles. The particle surface became oxidized to SiO 2 and the luminescence yield reduced with the irradiation dose. Changes in the surface morphology did not affect, within the experimental error, the yields of ROS generated per Gy. X-ray irradiation of glioma C6 cell cultures with incorporated silicon nanoparticles showed a marked production of ROS proportional to the radiation dose received. In the absence of nanoparticles, the cells showed no irradiation-enhanced ROS generation. The obtained results indicate that silicon nanoparticles of 1 O 2 upon X-ray irradiation opens novel approaches in the design of therapy strategies.

  13. Invasion suppressor cystatin E/M (CST6): High-level cell type-specific expression in normal brain and epigenetic silencing in gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jingxin; Ai, Lingbao; Ramachandran, Cheppail; Yao, Bing; Gopalakrishnan, Suhasni; Fields, C. Robert; Delmas, Amber L.; Dyer, Lisa M.; Melnick, Steven J.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Schwartz, Philip H.; Fine, Howard A.; Brown, Kevin D.; Robertson, Keith D.

    2008-01-01

    DNA hypermethylation mediated gene silencing is a frequent and early contributor to aberrant cell growth and invasion in cancer. Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults and the second most common tumor in children. Morbidity and mortality are high in glioma patients because tumors are resistant to treatment and are highly invasive into surrounding brain tissue rendering complete surgical resection impossible. Invasiveness is regulated by the interplay between secreted proteases (e.g. cathepsins) and their endogenous inhibitors (cystatins). In our previous studies we identified cystatin E/M (CST6) as a frequent target of epigenetic silencing in glioma. Cystatin E/M is a potent inhibitor of cathepsin B, which is frequently over-expressed in glioma. Here we study the expression of cystatin E/M in normal brain and show that it is highly and moderately expressed in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, respectively, but not in neurons. Consistent with this, the CST6 promoter is hypomethylated in all normal samples using methylation specific PCR, bisulfite genomic sequencing, and pyrosequencing. In contrast, 78% of 28 primary brain tumors demonstrated reduced/absent cystatin E/M expression using a tissue microarray and this reduced expression correlated with CST6 promoter hypermethylation. Interestingly, CST6 was expressed in neural stem cells (NSC) and markedly induced upon differentiation, while a glioma tumor initiating cell (TIC) line was completely blocked for CST6 expression by promoter methylation. Analysis of primary pediatric brain tumor-derived lines also showed CST6 downregulation and methylation in nearly 100% of 12 cases. Finally, ectopic expression of cystatin E/M in glioma lines reduced cell motility and invasion. These results demonstrate that epigenetic silencing of CST6 is frequent in adult and pediatric brain tumors and occurs in TICs, which are thought to give rise to the tumor. CST6 methylation may therefore represent a novel

  14. Proinflammatory-Activated Glioma Cells Induce a Switch in Microglial Polarization and Activation Status, From a Predominant M2b Phenotype to a Mixture of M1 and M2a/B Polarized Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Lisi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are primary brain tumors characterized by morphological and genetic complexities, as well as diffuse infiltration into normal brain parenchyma. Within gliomas, microglia/macrophages represent the largest tumor-infiltrating cell population, contributing by at least one-third to the total tumor mass. Bi-directional interactions between glioma cells and microglia may therefore play an important role on tumor growth and biology. In the present study, we have characterized the influence of glioma-soluble factors on microglial function, comparing the effects of media harvested under basal conditions with those of media obtained after inducing a pro-inflammatory activation state in glioma cells. We found that microglial cells undergo a different pattern of activation depending on the stimulus; in the presence of activated glioma-derived factors, i.e. a condition mimicking the late stage of pathology, microglia presents as a mixture of polarization phenotypes (M1 and M2a/b, with up-regulation of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase, ARG (arginase and IL (interleukine-10. At variance, microglia exposed to basal glioma-derived factors, i.e. a condition resembling the early stage of pathology, shows a more specific pattern of activation, with increased M2b polarization status and up-regulation of IL-10 only. As far as viability and cell proliferation are concerned, both LI-CM [LPS (lipopolysaccharide—IFNγ (interferon γ conditioned media] and C-CM (control-conditioned media induce similar effects on microglial morphology. Finally, in human glioma tissue obtained from surgical resection of patients with IV grade glioblastoma, we detected a significant amount of CD68 positive cells, which is a marker of macrophage/microglial phagocytic activity, suggesting that in vitro findings presented here might have a relevance in the human pathology as well.

  15. Stem cell death and survival in heart regeneration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; Kalvelyte, Audrone; Stulpinas, Aurimas; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Foldes, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis disrupts cardiac function and leads to cardiac decompensation and terminal heart failure. Delineating the regulatory signaling pathways that orchestrate cell survival in the heart has significant therapeutic implications. Cardiac tissue has limited capacity to regenerate and repair. Stem cell therapy is a successful approach for repairing and regenerating ischemic cardiac tissue; however, transplanted cells display very high death percentage, a problem that affects success of tissue regeneration. Stem cells display multipotency or pluripotency and undergo self-renewal, however these events are negatively influenced by upregulation of cell death machinery that induces the significant decrease in survival and differentiation signals upon cardiovascular injury. While efforts to identify cell types and molecular pathways that promote cardiac tissue regeneration have been productive, studies that focus on blocking the extensive cell death after transplantation are limited. The control of cell death includes multiple networks rather than one crucial pathway, which underlies the challenge of identifying the interaction between various cellular and biochemical components. This review is aimed at exploiting the molecular mechanisms by which stem cells resist death signals to develop into mature and healthy cardiac cells. Specifically, we focus on a number of factors that control death and survival of stem cells upon transplantation and ultimately affect cardiac regeneration. We also discuss potential survival enhancing strategies and how they could be meaningful in the design of targeted therapies that improve cardiac function.

  16. Glioma stem cells targeted by oncolytic virus carrying endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene and the expression of its exogenous gene in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guidong; Su, Wei; Jin, Guishan; Xu, Fujian; Hao, Shuyu; Guan, Fangxia; Jia, William; Liu, Fusheng

    2011-05-16

    The development of the cancer stem cell (CSCs) niche theory has provided a new target for the treatment of gliomas. Gene therapy using oncolytic viral vectors has shown great potential for the therapeutic targeting of CSCs. To explore whether a viral vector carrying an exogenous Endo-Angio fusion gene (VAE) can infect and kill glioma stem cells (GSCs), as well as inhibit their vascular niche in vitro, we have collected surgical specimens of human high-grade glioma (world health organization, WHO Classes III-VI) from which we isolated and cultured GSCs under conditions originally designed for the selective expansion of neural stem cells. Our results demonstrate the following: (1) Four lines of GSCs (isolated from 20 surgical specimens) could grow in suspension, were multipotent, had the ability to self-renew and expressed the neural stem cell markers, CD133 and nestin. (2) VAE could infect GSCs and significantly inhibit their viability. (3) The Endo-Angio fusion gene was expressed in GSCs 48 h after VAE infection and could inhibit the proliferation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). (4) Residual viable cells lose the ability of self-renewal and adherent differentiation. In conclusion, VAE can significantly inhibit the activity of GSCs in vitro and the expression of exogenous Endo-Angio fusion gene can inhibit HBMEC proliferation. VAE can be used as a novel virus-gene therapy strategy for glioma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. TP53 induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) knockdown results in radiosensitization of glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña-Rico, Miguel A.; Nieves Calvo-Vidal, María; Villalonga-Planells, Ruth; Martínez-Soler, Fina; Giménez-Bonafé, Pepita; Navarro-Sabaté, Àurea; Tortosa, Avelina; Bartrons, Ramon; Manzano, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The TP53 induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) functions to lower fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P 2 ) levels in cells, consequently decreasing glycolysis and leading to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which correlate with a higher resistance to cell death. The decrease in intracellular ROS levels in response to TIGAR may also play a role in the ability of p53 to protect from the accumulation of genomic lesions. Given these good prospects of TIGAR for metabolic regulation and p53-response modulation, we analyzed the effects of TIGAR knockdown in U87MG and T98G glioblastoma-derived cell lines. Methods/results: After TIGAR-knockdown in glioblastoma cell lines, different metabolic parameters were assayed, showing an increase in Fru-2,6-P 2 , lactate and ROS levels, with a concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. In addition, cell growth was inhibited without evidence of apoptotic or autophagic cell death. In contrast, a clear senescent phenotype was observed. We also found that TIGAR protein levels were increased shortly after irradiation. In addition, avoiding radiotherapy-triggered TIGAR induction by gene silencing resulted in the loss of capacity of glioblastoma cells to form colonies in culture and the delay of DNA repair mechanisms, based in γ-H2AX foci, leading cells to undergo morphological changes compatible with a senescent phenotype. Thus, the results obtained raised the possibility to consider TIGAR as a therapeutic target to increase radiotherapy effects. Conclusion: TIGAR abrogation provides a novel adjunctive therapeutic strategy against glial tumors by increasing radiation-induced cell impairment, thus allowing the use of lower radiotherapeutic doses.

  18. A crucial role for DOK1 in PDGF-BB-stimulated glioma cell invasion through p130Cas and Rap1 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Angela; Evans, Ian M; Frolov, Antonina; Britton, Gary; Pellet-Many, Caroline; Yamaji, Maiko; Mehta, Vedanta; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Li, Ningning; Brandner, Sebastian; Zachary, Ian C; Frankel, Paul

    2014-06-15

    DOK1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated glioma cell motility. Mechanisms regulating tumour cell motility are essential for invasion and metastasis. We report here that PDGF-BB-mediated glioma cell invasion and migration are dependent on the adaptor protein downstream of kinase 1 (DOK1). DOK1 is expressed in several glioma cell lines and in tumour biopsies from high-grade gliomas. DOK1 becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon PDGF-BB stimulation of human glioma cells. Knockdown of DOK1 or expression of a DOK1 mutant (DOK1FF) containing Phe in place of Tyr at residues 362 and 398, resulted in inhibition of both the PDGF-BB-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas (also known as BCAR1) and the activation of Rap1. DOK1 colocalises with tyrosine phosphorylated p130Cas at the cell membrane of PDGF-BB-treated cells. Expression of a non-tyrosine-phosphorylatable substrate domain mutant of p130Cas (p130Cas15F) inhibited PDGF-BB-mediated Rap1 activation. Knockdown of DOK1 and Rap1 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced chemotactic cell migration, and knockdown of DOK1 and Rap1 and expression of DOK1FF inhibited PDGF-mediated three-dimensional (3D) spheroid invasion. These data show a crucial role for DOK1 in the regulation of PDGF-BB-mediated tumour cell motility through a p130Cas-Rap1 signalling pathway. [Corrected] © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Disruption of endolysosomal trafficking pathways in glioma cells by methuosis-inducing indole-based chalcones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Nneka E; Overmeyer, Jean H; Maltese, William A

    2017-06-01

    Methuosis is a form of non-apoptotic cell death involving massive vacuolization of macropinosome-derived endocytic compartments, followed by a decline in metabolic activity and loss of membrane integrity. To explore the induction of methuosis as a potential therapeutic strategy for killing cancer cells, we have developed small molecules (indole-based chalcones) that trigger this form of cell death in glioblastoma and other cancer cell lines. Here, we report that in addition to causing fusion and expansion of macropinosome compartments, the lead compound, 3-(5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propen-1-one (MOMIPP), disrupts vesicular trafficking at the lysosomal nexus, manifested by impaired degradation of EGF and LDL receptors, defective processing of procathepsins, and accumulation of autophagosomes. In contrast, secretion of the ectodomain derived from a prototypical type-I membrane glycoprotein, β-amyloid precursor protein, is increased rather than diminished. A closely related MOMIPP analog, which causes substantial vacuolization without reducing cell viability, also impedes cathepsin processing and autophagic flux, but has more modest effects on receptor degradation. A third analog, which causes neither vacuolization nor loss of viability, has no effect on endolysosomal trafficking. The results suggest that differential cytotoxicity of structurally similar indole-based chalcones is related, at least in part, to the severity of their effects on endolysosomal trafficking pathways.

  20. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment: Immune Targets for Glioma Therapeutics

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    Marianela Candolfi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus-mediated delivery of the immune-stimulatory cytokine Flt3L and the conditionally cytotoxic thymidine kinase (TK induces tumor regression and long-term survival in preclinical glioma (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM] models. Flt3L induces expansion and recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs into the brain. Although pDCs can present antigen and produce powerful inflammatory cytokines, that is, interferon α (IFN-α, their role in tumor immunology remains debated. Thus, we studied the role of pDCs and IFN-α in Ad.TK/GCV+ Ad.Flt3L-mediated anti-GBM therapeutic efficacy. Our data indicate that the combined gene therapy induced recruitment of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs into the tumor mass; which were capable of in vivo phagocytosis, IFN-α release, and T-cell priming. Thus, we next used either pDCs or an Ad vector encoding IFN-α delivered within the tumor microenvironment. When rats were treated with Ad.TK/GCV in combination with pDCs or Ad-IFN-α, they exhibited 35% and 50% survival, respectively. However, whereas intracranial administration of Ad.TK/GCV + Ad.Flt3L exhibited a high safety profile, Ad-IFN-α led to severe local inflammation, with neurologic and systemic adverse effects. To elucidate whether the efficacy of the immunotherapy was dependent on IFN-α-secreting pDCs, we administered an Ad vector encoding B18R, an IFN-α antagonist, which abrogated the antitumoral effect of Ad.TK/GCV + Ad.Flt3L. Our data suggest that IFN-α release by activated pDCs plays a critical role in the antitumor effect mediated by Ad.TK/GCV + Ad.Flt3L. In summary, taken together, our results demonstrate that pDCs mediate anti-GBM therapeutic efficacy through the production of IFN-α, thus manipulation of pDCs constitutes an attractive new therapeutic target for the treatment of GBM.

  1. Changes in gene expression during programmed cell death in tomato cell suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.; Orzaez, D.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Woltering, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    To identify genes involved in plant programmed cell death (PCD), changes in gene expression during PCD in a model system of suspension-cultured tomato cells were studied. In this system, cell death is triggered by treatment with camptothecin, an inhibitor of topoisomerase I. Cell death was

  2. Imaging plant cell death: GFP-Nit1 aggregation marks an early step of wound and herbicide induced cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somerville Chris R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A great deal is known about the morphological endpoints of plant cell death, but relatively little is known about its sequence of events and / or its execution at the biochemical level. Live cell imaging using GFP-tagged markers is a powerful way to provide dynamic portraits of a cellular process that can in turn provide a descriptive foundation valuable for future biochemical and genetic investigations. Results While characterizing a collection of random GFP-protein fusion markers we discovered that mechanical wounding induces rapid aggregation of a GFP-Nitrilase 1 fusion protein in Arabidopsis cells directly abutting wound sites. Time-lapse imaging of this response shows that the aggregation occurs in cells that subsequently die 30 – 60 minutes post-wounding, indicating that GFP-Nit1 aggregation is an early marker of cell death at wound sites. Time-lapse confocal imaging was used to characterize wound-induced cell death using GFP-Nit1 and markers of the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. These analyses provide dynamic portraits of well-known death-associated responses such as nuclear contraction and cellular collapse and reveal novel features such as nuclear envelope separation, ER vesiculation and loss of nuclear-lumen contents. As a parallel system for imaging cell death, we developed a chemical method for rapidly triggering cell death using the herbicides bromoxynil or chloroxynil which cause rapid GFP-Nit1 aggregation, loss of nuclear contents and cellular collapse, but not nuclear contraction, separating this response from others during plant cell death. Conclusion Our observations place aggregation of Nitrilase 1 as one of the earliest events associated with wound and herbicide-induced cell death and highlight several novel cellular events that occur as plant cells die. Our data create a detailed descriptive framework for future investigations of plant cell death and provide new tools for both its cellular and

  3. Imaging plant cell death: GFP-Nit1 aggregation marks an early step of wound and herbicide induced cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Sean R; Somerville, Chris R

    2005-01-01

    Background A great deal is known about the morphological endpoints of plant cell death, but relatively little is known about its sequence of events and / or its execution at the biochemical level. Live cell imaging using GFP-tagged markers is a powerful way to provide dynamic portraits of a cellular process that can in turn provide a descriptive foundation valuable for future biochemical and genetic investigations. Results While characterizing a collection of random GFP-protein fusion markers we discovered that mechanical wounding induces rapid aggregation of a GFP-Nitrilase 1 fusion protein in Arabidopsis cells directly abutting wound sites. Time-lapse imaging of this response shows that the aggregation occurs in cells that subsequently die 30 – 60 minutes post-wounding, indicating that GFP-Nit1 aggregation is an early marker of cell death at wound sites. Time-lapse confocal imaging was used to characterize wound-induced cell death using GFP-Nit1 and markers of the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. These analyses provide dynamic portraits of well-known death-associated responses such as nuclear contraction and cellular collapse and reveal novel features such as nuclear envelope separation, ER vesiculation and loss of nuclear-lumen contents. As a parallel system for imaging cell death, we developed a chemical method for rapidly triggering cell death using the herbicides bromoxynil or chloroxynil which cause rapid GFP-Nit1 aggregation, loss of nuclear contents and cellular collapse, but not nuclear contraction, separating this response from others during plant cell death. Conclusion Our observations place aggregation of Nitrilase 1 as one of the earliest events associated with wound and herbicide-induced cell death and highlight several novel cellular events that occur as plant cells die. Our data create a detailed descriptive framework for future investigations of plant cell death and provide new tools for both its cellular and biochemical analysis. PMID

  4. Cas Ilgly Induces Apoptosis in Glioma C6 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo through Caspase-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Mechanisms

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    Cristina Trejo-Solís

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the effects of Casiopeina Il-gly (Cas ILgly—a new copper compound exhibiting antineoplastic activity—on glioma C6 cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as an approach to identify potential therapeutic agents against malignant glioma. The exposure of C6 cells to Cas Ilgly significantly inhibited cell proliferation, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In cultured C6 cells, Cas Ilgly caused mitochondrio-nuclear translocation of apoptosis induction factor (AIF and endonuclease G at all concentrations tested; in contrast, fragmentation of nucleosomal DNA, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation were observed at high concentrations. Administration of N-acetyl-l-cystein, an antioxidant, resulted in significant inhibition of AIF translocation, nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activation induced by Cas Ilgly. These results suggest that caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways both participate in apoptotic events elicited by Cas Ilgly. ROS formation induced by Cas Ilgly might also be involved in the mitochondrio-nuclear translocation of AIF and apoptosis. In addition, treatment of glioma C6-positive rats with Cas Ilgly reduced tumor volume and mitotic and cell proliferation indexes, and increased apoptotic index. Our findings support the use of Cas Ilgly for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

  5. Antidepressants elevate GDNF expression and release from C₆ glioma cells in a β-arrestin1-dependent, CREB interactive pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moran; Schreiber, Gabriel; Avissar, Sofia

    2011-11-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), essential for neuronal survival, plasticity and development, has been implicated in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs (ADs). β-arrestin1, a member of the arrestin protein family, was found to play a role in AD mechanism of action. The present study aimed at evaluating whether the effect of ADs on GDNF in C6 rat glioma cells is exerted through a β-arrestin1-dependent, CREB-interactive pathway. For chronic treatment, C6 rat glioma cells were treated for 3 d with different classes of ADs: imipramine - a non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor, citalopram - a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or desipramine - a norepinephrine selective reuptake inhibitor (NSRI) and compared to mood stabilizers (lithium and valproic acid) or to the antipsychotic haloperidol. Only ADs significantly elevated β-arrestin1 levels in the cytosol, while reducing phospho-β-arrestin1 levels in the cell nuclear fraction. ADs significantly increased both GDNF expression and release from the cells, but were unable to induce such effects in β-arrestin1 knock-down cells. Chronic AD treatment significantly increased CREB phosphorylation without altering the level of total CREB in the nuclear fraction of the cells. Moreover, treatment with ADs significantly increased β-arrestin1/CREB interaction. These findings support the involvement of β-arrestin1 in the mechanism of action of ADs. We suggest that following AD treatment, β-arrestin1 generates a transcription complex involving CREB essential for GDNF expression and release, thus enhancing GDNF's neuroprotective action that promotes cellular survival and plasticity when the survival and function of neurons is compromised as occurs in major depression.

  6. Vacquinol-1 inducible cell death in glioblastoma multiforme is counter regulated by TRPM7 activity induced by exogenous ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Philip; Mostafa, Haouraa; Soboh, Ayman; Schneider, Julian M; Pala, Andrej; Baron, Ann-Kathrin; Moepps, Barbara; Wirtz, C Rainer; Georgieff, Michael; Schneider, Marion

    2017-05-23

    Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most malignant brain tumors in humans and have a very poor prognosis. New therapeutic options are urgently needed. A novel drug, Vacquinol-1 (Vac), a quinolone derivative, displays promising properties by inducing rapid cell death in GBM but not in non-transformed tissues. Features of this type of cell death are compatible with a process termed methuosis. Here we tested Vac on a highly malignant glioma cell line observed by long-term video microscopy. Human dental-pulp stem cells (DPSCs) served as controls. A major finding was that an exogenous ATP concentration of as little as 1 μM counter regulated the Vac-induced cell death. Studies using carvacrol, an inhibitor of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7), demonstrated that the ATP-inducible inhibitory effect is likely to be via TRPM7. Exogenous ATP is of relevance in GBM with large necrotic areas. Our results support the use of GBM cultures with different grades of malignancy to address their sensitivity to methuosis. The video-microscopy approach presented here allows decoding of signaling pathways as well as mechanisms of chemotherapeutic resistance by long-term observation. Before implementing Vac as a novel therapeutic drug in GBM, cells from each individual patient need to be assessed for their ATP sensitivity. In summary, the current investigation supports the concept of methuosis, described as non-apoptotic cell death and a promising approach for GBM treatment. Tissue-resident ATP/necrosis may interfere with this cell-death pathway but can be overcome by a natural compound, carvacrol that even penetrates the blood-brain barrier.

  7. Inhibition of IRE1 signaling affects the expression of genes encoded glucocorticoid receptor and some related factors and their hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minchenko D.O.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the effect of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, mediated by IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1, which is a central mediator of the unfolded protein response on the expression of genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1 and some related proteins (SGK1, SGK3, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, NNT and their hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of the glioma growth.

  8. Transfection of glioma cells with the neural-cell adhesion molecule NCAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, K; Pedersen, P H; Bjerkvig, R

    1994-01-01

    of the injection site, with a sharply demarcated border between the tumor and brain tissue. In contrast, the parental cell line showed single-cell infiltration and more pronounced destruction of normal brain tissue. Using a 51Cr-release assay, spleen cells from rats transplanted with BT4Cn tumor cells generally...

  9. Mechanical Stress Promotes Cisplatin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad, Sandra; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is a commonly used platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent. Its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance and multiple side effects, thereby warranting a new approach to improving the pharmacological effect of CisPt. A newly developed mathematical hypothesis suggested that mechanical loading, when coupled with a chemotherapeutic drug such as CisPt and immune cells, would boost tumor cell death. The current study investigated the aforementioned mathematical hypothesis by exposing human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to CisPt, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and mechanical stress individually and in combination. HepG2 cells were also treated with a mixture of CisPt and carnosine with and without mechanical stress to examine one possible mechanism employed by mechanical stress to enhance CisPt effects. Carnosine is a dipeptide that reportedly sequesters platinum-based drugs away from their pharmacological target-site. Mechanical stress was achieved using an orbital shaker that produced 300 rpm with a horizontal circular motion. Our results demonstrated that mechanical stress promoted CisPt-induced death of HepG2 cells (~35% more cell death). Moreover, results showed that CisPt-induced death was compromised when CisPt was left to mix with carnosine 24 hours preceding treatment. Mechanical stress, however, ameliorated cell death (20% more cell death). PMID:25685789

  10. Accelerated Tumor Cell Death by Angiogenic Modifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Leland W. K

    2002-01-01

    ... cancer cells in vitro and xenografts tumor models in vivo While in vitro synergistic interaction was demonstrated specifically in human prostate cancer cell lines containing a functional androgen...

  11. Neuronal markers are expressed in human gliomas and NSE knockdown sensitizes glioblastoma cells to radiotherapy and temozolomide

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    Yan Tao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of neuronal elements has been identified in various glial tumors, and glioblastomas (GBMs with neuronal differentiation patterns have reportedly been associated with longer survival. However, the neuronal class III β-tubulin has been linked to increasing malignancy in astrocytomas. Thus, the significance of neuronal markers in gliomas is not established. Methods The expressions of class III β-tubulin, neurofilament protein (NFP, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE were investigated in five GBM cell lines and two GBM biopsies with immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Moreover, the expression levels were quantified by real-time qPCR under different culture conditions. Following NSE siRNA treatment we used Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS to monitor cell growth and migration and MTS assays to study viability after irradiation and temozolomide treatment. Finally, we quantitated NSE expression in a series of human glioma biopsies with immunohistochemistry using a morphometry software, and collected survival data for the corresponding patients. The biopsies were then grouped according to expression in two halves which were compared by survival analysis. Results Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting showed that all markers except NFP were expressed both in GBM cell lines and biopsies. Notably, qPCR demonstrated that NSE was upregulated in cellular stress conditions, such as serum-starvation and hypoxia, while we found no uniform pattern for the other markers. NSE knockdown reduced the migration of glioma cells, sensitized them to hypoxia, radio- and chemotherapy. Furthermore, we found that GBM patients in the group with the highest NSE expression lived significantly shorter than patients in the low-expression group. Conclusions Neuronal markers are aberrantly expressed in human GBMs, and NSE is consistently upregulated in different cellular stress conditions

  12. Knock down of HIF-1α in glioma cells reduces migration in vitro and invasion in vivo and impairs their ability to form tumor spheres

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    Esencay Mine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common and malignant primary intracranial human neoplasm. GBMs are characterized by the presence of extensive areas of necrosis and hypoxia. Hypoxia and its master regulator, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 play a key role in glioma invasion. Results To further elucidate the functional role of HIF-1α in glioma cell migration in vitro and in invasion in vivo, we used a shRNA approach to knock down HIF-1α expression complemented with genome-wide expression profiling, performed in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Our data show that knock down of HIF-1α in glioma cells significantly impairs their migration in vitro as well as their ability to invade into the brain parenchyma in vivo. Next, we assessed the role that HIF-1α plays in maintaining the characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs. By using the tumor sphere forming assay, we demonstrate that HIF-1α plays a role in the survival and self-renewal potential of CSCs. Finally, expression profiling experiments in glioma cells provided detailed insight into a broad range of specific biological pathways and processes downstream of HIF-1α. We discuss the role of these processes in the migratory and invasive properties, as well as the stem cell biology of glioblastomas Conclusions Our data show that knock down of HIF-1α in human and murine glioma cells impairs their migration in vitro and their invasion in vivo. In addition, our data suggest that HIF-1α plays a role in the survival and self-renewal potential of CSCs and identify genes that might further elucidate the role of HIF-1α in tumor migration, invasion and stem cell biology.

  13. OASIS/CREB3L1 is induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress in human glioma cell lines and contributes to the unfolded protein response, extracellular matrix production and cell migration.

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    Ravi N Vellanki

    Full Text Available OASIS is a transcription factor similar to ATF6 that is activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this study we investigated the expression of OASIS in human glioma cell lines and the effect of OASIS knock-down on the ER stress response and cell migration. OASIS mRNA was detected in three distinct glioma cell lines (U373, A172 and U87 and expression levels were increased upon treatment with ER stress-inducing compounds in the U373 and U87 lines. OASIS protein, which is glycosylated on Asn-513, was detected in the U373 and U87 glioma lines at low levels in control cells and protein expression was induced by ER stress. Knock-down of OASIS in human glioma cell lines resulted in an attenuated unfolded protein response to ER stress (reduced GRP78/BiP and GRP94 induction and decreased expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan extracellular matrix proteins, but induction of the collagen gene Col1a1 was unaffected. Cells in which OASIS was knocked-down exhibited altered cell morphology and reduced cell migration. These results suggest that OASIS is important for the ER stress response and maintenance of some extracellular matrix proteins in human glioma cells.

  14. Mitochondrial VDAC and hexokinase together modulate plant programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Ashwini; Dubey, Ashvini Kumar; Reddy, Palakolanu S; Udayakumar, M; Mathew, Mathew K

    2013-08-01

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and mitochondrially located hexokinase have been implicated both in pathways leading to cell death on the one hand, and immortalization in tumor formation on the other. While both proteins have also been implicated in death processes in plants, their interaction has not been explored. We have examined cell death following heterologous expression of a rice VDAC in the tobacco cell line BY2 and in leaves of tobacco plants and show that it is ameliorated by co-expression of hexokinase. Hexokinase also abrogates death induced by H2O2. We conclude that the ratio of expression of the two proteins and their interaction play a major role in modulating death pathways in plants.

  15. Inhibition of p38 MAPK activity leads to cell type-specific effects on the molecular circadian clock and time-dependent reduction of glioma cell invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Charles S; Kim, Sam Moon; Karunarathna, Nirmala; Neuendorff, Nichole; Gerard Toussaint, L; Earnest, David J; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah

    2018-01-10

    The circadian clock is the basis for biological time keeping in eukaryotic organisms. The clock mechanism relies on biochemical signaling pathways to detect environmental stimuli and to regulate the expression of clock-controlled genes throughout the body. MAPK signaling pathways function in both circadian input and output pathways in mammals depending on the tissue; however, little is known about the role of p38 MAPK, an established tumor suppressor, in the mammalian circadian system. Increased expression and activity of p38 MAPK is correlated with poor prognosis in cancer, including glioblastoma multiforme; however, the toxicity of p38 MAPK inhibitors limits their clinical use. Here, we test if timed application of the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor VX-745 reduces glioma cell invasive properties in vitro. The levels and rhythmic accumulation of active phosphorylated p38 MAPK in different cell lines were determined by western blots. Rhythmic luciferase activity from clock gene luciferase reporter cells lines was used to test the effect of p38 MAPK inhibition on clock properties as determined using the damped sine fit and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Nonlinear regression and Akaike's information criteria were used to establish rhythmicity. Boyden chamber assays were used to measure glioma cell invasiveness following time-of-day-specific treatment with VX-745. Significant differences were established using t-tests. We demonstrate the activity of p38 MAPK cycles under control of the clock in mouse fibroblast and SCN cell lines. The levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK were significantly reduced in clock-deficient cells, indicating that the circadian clock plays an important role in activation of this pathway. Inhibition of p38 MAPK activity with VX-745 led to cell-type-specific period changes in the molecular clock. In addition, phosphorylated p38 MAPK levels were rhythmic in HA glial cells, and high and arrhythmic in invasive IM3 glioma cells. We show that inhibition of

  16. Many ways to excit? Cell death categories in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Woltering, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and defence. It occurs at all stages of the life cycle, from fertilization of the ovule to death of the whole plant. Without it, tall trees would probably not be possible and plants would more easily succumb to invading

  17. Cytokine induction of VCAM-1 but not IL13Rα2 on glioma cells: a tale of two antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi Mahadev

    Full Text Available The interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL13Rα2 is a cell surface receptor that is over-expressed by a subset of high-grade gliomas, but not expressed at significant levels by normal brain tissue. For both malignant and non-malignant cells, IL13Rα2 surface expression is reported to be induced by various cytokines such as IL-4 or IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF. Our group has developed a therapeutic platform to target IL13Rα2-positive brain tumors by engineering human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs to express the IL13-zetakine chimeric antigen receptor. We therefore sought to investigate the potential of cytokine stimulation to induce IL13Rα2 cell surface expression, and thereby increase susceptibility to IL13Rα2-specific T cell killing. In the course of these experiments, we unexpectedly found that the commercially available putative IL13Rα2-specific monoclonal antibody B-D13 recognizes cytokine-induced VCAM-1 on glioblastoma. We provide evidence that the induced receptor is not IL13Rα2, because its expression does not consistently correlate with IL13Rα2 mRNA levels, it does not bind IL-13, and it is not recognized by IL13-zetakine CTL. Instead we demonstrate by immunoprecipitation experiments and mass spectrometry that the antigen recognized by the B-D13 antibody following cytokine stimulation is VCAM-1, and that VCAM-1, but not IL13Rα2, is induced on glioma cells by TNF alone or in combination with IL-13 or IL-4. Further evaluation of several commercial B-D13 antibodies revealed that B-D13 is bi-specific, recognizing both IL13Rα2 and VCAM-1. This binding is non-overlapping based on soluble receptor competition experiments, and mass spectrometry identifies two distinct heavy and light chain species, providing evidence that the B-D13 reagent is di-clonal. PE-conjugation of the B-D13 antibody appears to disrupt IL13Rα2 recognition, while maintaining VCAM-1 specificity. While this work calls into question previous studies that have used

  18. Functional Changes of Dendritic Cells in C6 Glioma-Bearing Rats That Underwent Combined Argon-Helium Cryotherapy and IL-12 Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Cui, Yao; Li, Xiqing; Guo, Yanwu; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Jiadong; Xu, Jian; Han, Shuangyin; Shi, Xiwen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes in tumor tissues of glioma-bearing rats that underwent argon-helium cryoablation as well as changes in antitumor immunity before and after combined interleukin 12 treatment. Two hundred sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into a blank control group, intravenous injection interleukin-12 group, cryotherapy group, and cryotherapy + intravenous injection group. C6 glioma cells proliferated in vitro were implanted subcutaneously on the backs of rats to establish C6 glioma-bearing animal models. Each group underwent the corresponding treatments, and morphological changes in tumor tissues were examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. CD11c staining was examined using immunohistochemistry, and differences in dendritic cells and T-cell subsets before and after treatment were analyzed using flow cytometry. The control group showed no statistical changes in terms of tumor tissue morphology and cellular immunity, cryotherapy group, and cryotherapy + intravenous injection group, among which the count for the cryotherapy + intravenous injection group was significantly higher than those of all other groups. In the argon-helium cryotherapy group, tumor cells were damaged and dendritic cell markers were positive. The number of CD11c+ and CD86+ cells increased significantly after the operation as did the cytokine interferon-γ level (P < .01), suggesting a shift toward Th1-type immunity. Combined treatment of argon-helium cryoablation and interleukin 12 for gliomas not only effectively injured tumor tissues but also boosted immune function and increased antitumor ability. Therefore, this approach is a promising treatment measure for brain gliomas. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Checkpoint Inhibition: Programmed Cell Death 1 and Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand Inhibitors in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasboas, Jose Caetano; Ansell, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by a reactive immune infiltrate surrounding relatively few malignant cells. In this scenario, active immune evasion seems to play a central role in allowing tumor progression. Immune checkpoint inhibitor pathways are normal mechanisms of T-cell regulation that suppress immune effector function following an antigenic challenge. Hodgkin lymphoma cells are able to escape immune surveillance by co-opting these mechanisms. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway in particular is exploited in HL as the malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells express on their surface cognate ligands (PD-L1/L2) for the PD-1 receptor and thereby dampen the T-cell-mediated antitumoral response. Monoclonal antibodies that interact with and disrupt the PD-1:PD-L1/L2 axis have now been developed and tested in early-phase clinical trials in patients with advanced HL with encouraging results. The remarkable clinical activity of PD-1 inhibitors in HL highlights the importance of immune checkpoint pathways as therapeutic targets in HL. In this review, we discuss the rationale for targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 in the treatment of HL. We will evaluate the published clinical data on the different agents and highlight the safety profile of this class of agents. We discuss the available evidence on the use of biomarkers as predictors of response to checkpoint blockade and summarize the areas under active investigation in the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for the treatment of HL.

  20. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Gentile

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138 widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens' effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1 obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue's noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention.

  1. Inhibitory effect of miR-184 on the potential of proliferation and invasion in human glioma and breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ren; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    MiR-184 was an important suppressor to tumor cells proliferation and invasion and some studies show that it was down-regulated in aggressive human tumor cells and a potential tumor therapy target through expression of miR-184 results in reduced tumor cell aggressiveness. In this study, miR-184 showed an inhibitive activity of glioma U87MG cell line and breast cancer MCF-7 cell line in proliferation and invasion by MTS and transwell assay. We found that the miR-184 also could arrest cell cycle and adhesion by up-regulating the expression of p53 and p21 and activity of caspase-3/8, suppressing the expression of SND1, MMP-2/9, CD44 and activity of AKT/NF-κB pathway. The results showed that miR-184 could be a potential target for glioma and breast cancer treatment.

  2. Autophagic components contribute to hypersensitive cell death in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Joensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy has been implicated as a prosurvival mechanism to restrict programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-triggered hypersensitive response (HR) during plant innate immunity. This model is based on the observation that HR lesions spread in plants with reduced autophagy gene...... expression. Here, we examined receptor-mediated HR PCD responses in autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis knockout mutants (atg), and show that infection-induced lesions are contained in atg mutants. We also provide evidence that HR cell death initiated via Toll/Interleukin-1 (TIR)-type immune receptors through...... the defense regulator EDS1 is suppressed in atg mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PCD triggered by coiled-coil (CC)-type immune receptors via NDR1 is either autophagy-independent or engages autophagic components with cathepsins and other unidentified cell death mediators. Thus, autophagic cell death...

  3. Accelerated Tumor Cell Death by Angiogenic Modifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Leland W. K

    2001-01-01

    Because of the inherent stability of endothelial cells and the importance of this cell type for the proliferation of both localized and disseminated cancers, anti- angiogenic therapy is an attractive...

  4. Inhibition of IRE1 modifies hypoxic regulation of G6PD, GPI, TKT, TALDO1, PGLS and RPIA genes expression in U87 glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Minchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the effect of hypoxia on the expression level of mRNA of the basic enzymes of pentose-phosphate cycle (G6PD, TKT, TALDO1, PGLS and RPIA and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI in U87 glioma cells in relation to inhibition of IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1. It was shown that hypoxia leads to up-regulation of the expression of GPI and PGLS genes and to down-regulation of TALDO1 and RPIA genes in control glioma cells. Changes for GPI gene were more significant than for other genes. At the same time, inhibition of IRE1 modified the effect of hypoxia on the expression of all studied genes. In particular, it increased sensitivity to hypoxia of G6PD and TKT genes expression and suppressed the effect of hypoxia on the expression of GPI and RPIA genes. Additionally, inhibition of IRE1 eliminated hypoxic regulation of PGLS gene and did not change significantly effect of hypoxia on the expression of TALDO1 gene in glioma cells. Present study demonstrated that hypoxia, which often contributes to tumor growth, affects the expression of most studied genes and inhibition of IRE1 modified the hypoxic regulation of pentose-phosphate cycle gene expressions in a gene specific manner and thus possibly contributes to slower glioma growth, but several aspects of this regulation warrant further investigation.

  5. Downregulation of the long non-coding RNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 inhibits glioma cell proliferation and invasion and promotes apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Bin; Hao, Junhai; Man, Weitao; Chang, Yongkai; Ma, Shunchang; Hu, Yeshuai; Liu, Fusheng; Yang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Expression of the long non-coding RNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) is associated with various aggressive tumors. The present study aimed to investigate the biological function of TUG1 in regulating apoptosis, proliferation, invasion and cell cycle distribution in human glioma U251 cells. Lentivirus-mediated TUG1-specific microRNA was transfected into U251 cells to abrogate the expression of TUG1. Flow cytometry analysis was used to examine the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of U251 cells. Cellular proliferation was examined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays and invasion was examined by Transwell assays. The apoptotic rate of cells in the TUG1-knockdown group was significantly higher than in the negative control (NC) group (11.58 vs. 9.14%, PTUG1-knockdown group was lower compared with that of the NC group. A Transwell invasion assay was performed, which revealed that the number of invaded cells from the TUG1-knockdown group was the less compared with that of the NC group. In addition, the G 0 /G 1 phase population was significantly increased within the treated group (44.85 vs. 38.45%, PTUG1 may inhibit proliferation and invasion, and promote glioma U251 cell apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of TUG1 may have an effect on cell cycle arrest. The data presented in the current study indicated that TUG1 may be a novel therapeutic target for glioma.

  6. Neuronal death after perinatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia: Focus on autophagy-mediated cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, C; Ginet, V; Clarke, P G H; Puyal, J; Truttmann, A C

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy