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Sample records for gliocladium-like conidiophore morphology

  1. VeA of Aspergillus niger increases spore dispersing capacity by impacting conidiophore architecture.

    Wang, Fengfeng; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wyatt, Timon; Wösten, Han A B; Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus species are highly abundant fungi worldwide. Their conidia are among the most dominant fungal spores in the air. Conidia are formed in chains on the vesicle of the asexual reproductive structure called the conidiophore. Here, it is shown that the velvet protein VeA of Aspergillus niger maximizes the diameter of the vesicle and the spore chain length. The length and width of the conidiophore stalk and vesicle were reduced nearly twofold in a ΔveA strain. The latter implies a fourfold reduced surface area to develop chains of spores. Over and above this, the conidial chain length was approximately fivefold reduced. The calculated 20-fold reduction in formation of conidia by ΔveA fits the 8- to 17-fold decrease in counted spore numbers. Notably, morphology of the ΔveA conidiophores of A. niger was very similar to that of wild-type Aspergillus sydowii. This suggests that VeA is key in conidiophore architecture diversity in the fungal kingdom. The finding that biomass formation of the A. niger ΔveA strain was reduced twofold shows that VeA not only impacts dispersion capacity but also colonization capacity of A. niger.

  2. VeA of Aspergillus niger increases spore dispersing capacity by impacting conidiophore architecture

    Wang, Fengfeng; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wyatt, Timon; Wösten, Han A B; Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan

    Aspergillus species are highly abundant fungi worldwide. Their conidia are among the most dominant fungal spores in the air. Conidia are formed in chains on the vesicle of the asexual reproductive structure called the conidiophore. Here, it is shown that the velvet protein VeA of Aspergillus niger

  3. Consecutive monitoring of lifelong production of conidia by individual conidiophores of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei on barley leaves by digital microscopic techniques with electrostatic micromanipulation.

    Moriura, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Oichi, Wataru; Nakashima, Shinya; Hirai, Tatsuo; Sameshima, Takeshi; Nonomura, Teruo; Kakutani, Koji; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Higashi, Katsuhide; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Conidial formation and secession by living conidiophores of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei on barley leaves were consecutively monitored using a high-fidelity digital microscopic technique combined with electrostatic micromanipulation to trap the released conidia. Conidial chains formed on conidiophores through a series of septum-mediated division and growth of generative cells. Apical conidial cells on the conidiophores were abstricted after the conidial chains developed ten conidial cells. The conidia were electrically conductive, and a positive charge was induced in the cells by a negatively polarized insulator probe (ebonite). The electrostatic force between the conidia and the insulator was used to attract the abstricted conidia from the conidiophores on leaves. This conidium movement from the targeted conidiophore to the rod was directly viewed under the digital microscope, and the length of the interval between conidial septation and secession, the total number of the conidia produced by a single conidiophore, and the modes of conidiogenesis were clarified. During the stage of conidial secession, the generative cells pushed new conidial cells upwards by repeated division and growth. The successive release of two apical conidia was synchronized with the successive septation and growth of a generative cell. The release ceased after 4-5 conidia were released without division and growth of the generative cell. Thus, the life of an individual conidiophore (from the erection of the conidiophore to the release of the final conidium) was shown to be 107 h and to produce an average of 33 conidia. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the direct estimation of life-long conidial production by a powdery mildew on host leaves.

  4. Cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular characterization ...

    Dr tariq

    and least in Am-5. Morphological variations in size, shape and septation of hyphae, conidiophore and ... also observed variation in susceptibility amongst different ... incubated for 7 days at 24±1°C. The isolates were purified using ... was scrapped with the help of a sterilized razor blade, strained ... 372 Afr. J. Biotechnol. test.

  5. Three new species of Trichoderma with hyaline ascospores from China.

    Zhu, Z X; Zhuang, W Y

    2015-01-01

    Collections of Trichoderma having hyaline ascospores from different areas of China were examined. Using combined analyses of morphological data, culture characters and phylogenetic information based on rDNA sequences of partial nuc translation elongation factor 1-α encoding gene (TEF1-α) and the gene encoding the second largest nuc RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2), three new species, Trichoderma applanatum, T. oligosporum and T. sinoluteum, were discovered and are described. Trichoderma applanatum produces continuous flat to pulvinate, white to cream stromata with dense orange or pale brown ostioles, and simple acremonium-like to verticillium-like conidiophores, belongs to the Hypocreanum clade and is closely related to T. decipiens. Trichoderma oligosporum forms reddish brown stromata with a downy surface, hyaline conidia and gliocladium-like conidiophores, and is closely related to but distinct from T. crystalligenum in the Psychrophila clade. Trichoderma sinoluteum, as a member of the Polysporum clade, is characterized by pale yellow stromata, white pustulate conidiomata, pachybasium-like conidiophores, and hyaline conidia. Differences between the new species and their close relatives are discussed. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  6. Preliminary research on morphological differentiation of avilamycin high-yield mutant strain H15

    Liang Xinle; Jin Yingyan; Chen Ming; Zhang Hong

    2010-01-01

    Morphological differentiation characters such as colony, sporotrichial, and conidiophores of mutant H15, which was derived from Streptomyces viridochromogenes 4.1119 treated with 60 Co γ-rays irradiation, were investigated by scanning electron microscope and fluorescence microscope. The results showed that mutant H15 was remarkable variation from the strain 4.1119. Cultured on agar surface, H15 had a grayish-whitish-green colony, linear sporotrichial, smooth and round conidiophore without any spike, whereas strain 4.1119 had spiral sporotrichial and round conidiophore with spike on the surface. In the submerged cultures, differentiation process of mycelia pellet of H15 was also different. Spores germinated as a compartmentalized mycelium, the young compartmentalized mycelium started to form pellets which grew in a radial pattern. After apoptosis took place in the center of the pellets, the pellet diameter growth arrested. Compared with the strain 4.1119, H15 required a long developing course for hyphae clustering and pellets formation (at 48 h, φ 245 μm). The stage of pellet arrest or apoptosis in the pellet centre were extended, which would benefit the avilamycin accumulation since the antibiotic was mainly produced at the same time. These suggested that pellet formation kinetics, relational balance between pellet diameter enlargement and mycelia apoptosis in the pellet arrest stage were key factors to avilamyin accumulation in submerged cultures of Streptomyces viridoehrongenes H15. (authors)

  7. Morphological differentiation of Streptomyces viridochromogenes E-219 on solid culture

    Liang Xinle; Zhu Jing; Jin Yingyan

    2012-01-01

    The Streptomyces viridochromogenes E-219 was derived from Streptomyces viridochromogenes CGMCC4.1119 treated with 60 Co γ-rays irradiation and protoplast fusion. With the help of fluorescent probes, fluorescence microscope and electron microscopy, the morphology and development of E-219 on solid surface culture were investigated in this study. The effect of agarslant culture time on the production of Avilamycin was also studied to provide theoretical basis for industrial fermentation of selecting the appropriate seed to culture on the agarslant culture medium. The results implied that the development of colonies of Streptomyces viridochromogenes accompanied the intermittent hyhae apoptosis, and the production of spores was from the active mycelium. The colonial morphology of strain E-219 was significantly different from the original strain CGMCC4h1119. There were variegated hyphae formation in the stage of spore germination and initial hyphae development (10 h) with the live and dead segments alternated in a highly regular fashion within the same hypha. After the early single colony formation, the third phase was followed by profuse growth of the live segments derived from the variegated hypha, then the second apoptosis of the mycelia (48 h) was occurred with another quick growth, and sporulation was occurred at 96 h. Strain CGMCC4.1119 had spiral sporotrichial and round conidiophores with spike, whereas strain E-219 had linear sporotrichial, smooth and dylindrical conidiophore. The results of shake flask experiments indicated that the spores of E-219 had that highest activity when cultured on agarslant culture medium and incubated for 106 h with the production of avilamycin up to 1200 mg/L. (authors)

  8. Pathogenic, morphological and molecular characteristics of Alternaria Tenuissima from soybean

    Jasnić Stevan M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2008 and 2009 phytopathological isolations were done from soybean plants and seed samples from several localities in Serbia. A total of 19 isolates of Alternaria spp. were isolated, 13 from the seed and 3 from both leaf and stem. In order to determine and characterize isolates, cultural, morphological, molecular and pathogenic characteristics were thoroughly investigated. The slowest growth of the examined isolates was noted on Malt agar (MA with average colony diameter of 42.9 mm after 7 days of incubation. On other two media (V8 and PCA, colony growth was uniform and faster, with average diameter of 66.8 mm and 66.1 mm, respectively. Isolates of fungi form unbranched or poorly branched conidial chains on short unbranched conidiophores. Conidia are dark in colour, multicellular with transverse and longitudinal septae. They are of different size regarding the place of formation in the chain. Based on these characteristics, the tested isolates were determined as Alternaria tenuissima. Molecular identification with sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA verified that investigated isolates belong to Alternaria tenuissima group. Pathogenicity test proved that all isolates were more or less virulent to soybean seed (12.5% to 40% of rotten seeds, while pathogenicity on plants was poorly expressed.

  9. Morphological demosaicking

    Quan, Shuxue

    2009-02-01

    Bayer patterns, in which a single value of red, green or blue is available for each pixel, are widely used in digital color cameras. The reconstruction of the full color image is often referred to as demosaicking. This paper introduced a new approach - morphological demosaicking. The approach is based on strong edge directionality selection and interpolation, followed by morphological operations to refine edge directionality selection and reduce color aliasing. Finally performance evaluation and examples of color artifacts reduction are shown.

  10. The homeobox BcHOX8 gene in Botrytis cinerea regulates vegetative growth and morphology.

    Zsuzsanna Antal

    Full Text Available Filamentous growth and the capacity at producing conidia are two critical aspects of most fungal life cycles, including that of many plant or animal pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a homeobox transcription factor encoding gene that plays a role in these two particular aspects of the development of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Deletion of the BcHOX8 gene in both the B. cinerea B05-10 and T4 strains causes similar phenotypes, among which a curved, arabesque-like, hyphal growth on hydrophobic surfaces; the mutants were hence named Arabesque. Expression of the BcHOX8 gene is higher in conidia and infection cushions than in developing appressorium or mycelium. In the Arabesque mutants, colony growth rate is reduced and abnormal infection cushions are produced. Asexual reproduction is also affected with abnormal conidiophore being formed, strongly reduced conidia production and dramatic changes in conidial morphology. Finally, the mutation affects the fungus ability to efficiently colonize different host plants. Analysis of the B. cinerea genome shows that BcHOX8 is one member of a nine putative homeobox genes family. Available gene expression data suggest that these genes are functional and sequence comparisons indicate that two of them would be specific to B. cinerea and its close relative Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  11. Occurence of Cryptocline taxicola (All. Petr. on needles of Taxus spp. – symptoms and morphological features

    Ivana Šafránková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other European trees species Taxus spp. is not often prone to phytopathological problems. The fungus Cryptocline taxicola (All. Petr was found on needles of cultivars of Yet (T. baccata L., T. cuspidata S. & Z., Taxus × media Rehd. in Brno in the summer and the autumn of 2007. The article attemps to describe the disease symptoms and morphological features. Infected needles and whole shoots turn brown. Fruiting bodies were observed on upper and lower surfaces necrotic and chlorotic needles. Acervuli of the fungus were black, subepidermal, ∅ 160–370 × 90–145 μm, surrounded by brown circles epidermis, and the epidermis ruptures as they brake through. Conidia were smooth-walled and hyaline, without septa, ellipsoid to oval, 10–18 × 4,5–8,4 μm. Conidiophores were hyaline, cylindrical, with phyalides, 12–18 × 2,8–3,4 μm. The fungus forms dark colonies wish greyish aerial mycelium on potato-dextrose agar (PDA.

  12. The Inhibitory Effects of Curcuma longa L. Essential Oil and Curcumin on Aspergillus flavus Link Growth and Morphology

    Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Ferreira, Francine Maery Dias; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Machinski Junior, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%), α-turmerone (23.5%) and β-turmerone (22.7%). The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01–0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants. PMID:24367241

  13. The Inhibitory Effects of Curcuma longa L. Essential Oil and Curcumin on Aspergillus flavus Link Growth and Morphology

    Flávio Dias Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%, α-turmerone (23.5% and β-turmerone (22.7%. The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01–0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants.

  14. The inhibitory effects of Curcuma longa L. essential oil and curcumin on Aspergillus flavus link growth and morphology.

    Dias Ferreira, Flávio; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Dias Ferreira, Francine Maery; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%), α -turmerone (23.5%) and β -turmerone (22.7%). The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01-0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants.

  15. Auroral morphology

    Deehr, C.S.; Romick, G.J.; Sivjee, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The aurora is a radiant manifestation of solar particle emissions and their control by intervening electromagnetic fields. The analogy with a television system was first made, we believe, by Elvey, (1958). The latest concepts of solar-terrestrial control are included in description by Akasofu (1979) showing the phosphor screen as the upper atmosphere with an auroral image produced by particles from a source on the sun, modulated by electric and magnetic fields with the magnetohydrodynamic (MDH) generator formed by electrons and protons from the solar wind across the geomagnetic tail as the power supply. Thus, the size and shape of the aurora must reflect all the forces acting in the auroral particles on their way from the sun to the earth. Auroral morphology, therefore, is the study of the occurence of aurora in space and time for the purpose of describing the origin of solar particels and the forces acting upon them between the time of their production on the sun and their loss in the atmosphere. The advantage of using the aurora as a television monitor of this process over any conceivable system of in situ measurements is obvious when one considers the large number of space vehicles which would be necessary to record the information concentrated in the auroral oval which differs in scale with the magnetosphere by perhaps 10 6 . (orig.)

  16. Gross morphology betrays phylogeny

    Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Fregin, Silke

    2011-01-01

    .). Superficial morphological similarity to cisticolid warblers has previously clouded the species true relationship. Detailed morphology, such as facial bristles and claw and footpad structure, also supports a closer relationship to Cettiidae and some other non-cisticolid warblers....

  17. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  18. Generalized Morphology using Sponges

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical morphology has traditionally been grounded in lattice theory. For non-scalar data lattices often prove too restrictive, however. In this paper we present a more general alternative, sponges, that still allows useful definitions of various properties and concepts from morphological

  19. Extrinsic morphology of graphene

    Li, Teng

    2011-01-01

    Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses a significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene–substrate interaction, thus is distinct from the random intrinsic morphology of freestanding graphene. The regulated extrinsic morphology of graphene sheds light on new pathways to fine tune the properties of graphene. To guide further research to explore these fertile opportunities, this paper reviews recent progress on modeling and experimental studies of the extrinsic morphology of graphene under a wide range of external regulation, including two-dimensional and one-dimensional substrate surface features and one-dimensional and zero-dimensional nanoscale scaffolds (e.g. nanowires and nanoparticles)

  20. Morphological neural networks

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  1. FABRICATION, MORPHOLOGICAL AND OPTOELECTRONIC ...

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... porous silicon has better optoelectronic properties than bulk .... Measurement: The morphological properties of PS layer such as nanocrystalline size, the .... excess carrier removal by internal recombination and diffusion.

  2. Morphology of PVD films

    Carr, M.J.; Grotzky, V.K.; Helms, C.J.; Johns, W.L.; Naimon, E.R.; Rafalski, A.L.; Smith, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data show that the morphology of PVD chromium coatings is dependent on substrate temperature, deposition rate, and the oxygen content of the chromium source material. For chromium containing about 700-ppM oxygen, a variety of morphologies can form depending on substrate temperature and deposition rate. For chromium contaning 1000 to 2000 ppM of oxygen, porous coatings of the Type IV variety are produced over essentially the full range of temperatures and rates possible with current coating equipment. For chromium containing less than about 400 ppM of oxygen, dense coatings of the Type I variety are produced over the range of temperatures and rates investigated

  3. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    Cuppen, H.M.; van Eerd, A.R.T.; Meekes, H.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few

  4. Morphology at the Rijksherbarium

    Heel, van W.A.

    1979-01-01

    In the following the role of morphology, anatomy and palynology in systematics at the Rijksherbarium will be discussed, as far as flowering plants are concerned. It will be demonstrated that most of the research in this field is rooted in the interest of individual workers, and that no planning was

  5. Morphology of leukaemias

    W. Ladines-Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukaemias are characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of immature blood cells with lymphoid or myeloid lineage. Morphological classification is based on the identification of the leukaemia cell line and its stage of differentiation. The first microscopic descriptions dating from the 1930s pointed to 2 different types of leukaemia cells: lymphoid and myeloid. In 1976, the consensus that led to the French-American-British (FAB classification was achieved. This includes criteria for identifying myeloid and lymphoid leukaemias, and gives a list of morphological subtypes, describing how these affect the patient's prognosis. Today, despite new classifications based on sophisticated studies, FAB classification is widely used by experts due to its technical simplicity, good diagnostic reliability and cost-effectiveness.

  6. Morphology targets: What do seedling morphological attributes tell us?

    Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Morphology is classically defined as the form and structure of individual organisms, as distinct from their anatomy or physiology. We use morphological targets in the nursery because they are easy to measure, and because we can often quantitatively link seedling morphological traits with survival and growth performance in the field. In the 20 years since the Target...

  7. Morphological analysis of ionomers

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the progress made during the period of April 1st, 1989 and March 31st, 1990. Topics covered are: SANS of Telechelic Ionomers, SANS of Sulfonated Polyurethanes, Effect of Matrix Polarity and Ambient Aging on the Morphology of Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Adhesive Sphere Model for Analysis of SAXS Data from Ionomers, Comparison of Structure-Property Relationships in Carboxylated and Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Development of a Liquid-like Hard Sphere Model for Deformed Ionomer Samples, and Polymer Synthesis for Proposed Research

  8. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  9. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  10. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  11. Differential morphology and image processing.

    Maragos, P

    1996-01-01

    Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision.

  12. Morphology of open bite.

    Krey, Karl-Friedrich; Dannhauer, Karl-Heinz; Hierl, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to define and illustrate the skeletal morphology of open-bite patients against the background of sagittal jaw relationships on the basis of lateral cephalograms. Lateral cephalograms of 197 untreated adults were analyzed in dental imaging software (Onyx Ceph 3™; Image Instruments, Chemnitz, Germany). Four groups were formed based on vertical (Index scores) and sagittal (individualized ANB values) parameters. Ninety-nine patients were defined as the control group due to their neutral sagittal and vertical relationships. The remaining patients were found by their vertical relationships to represent open-bite cases and were divided by their sagittal relationships into three study groups: neutral (Class I, n = 34), distal (Class II, n = 26), and mesial (Class III, n = 38). A geometric morphometric approach was used to analyze the x,y-coordinates of 28 skeletal landmarks on each cephalogram. Relative size was captured based on centroid size (CS). The shape-determining factors in the groups were compared by permutation testing after Procrustes transformation, and intergroup differences were visualized in the form of thin-plate splines. While size (CS) was significantly increased in the Class III group, the other two groups were not different from the control group. After Procrustes transformation, characteristic and invariably significant (p common that the mandibular ramus is compressed, but marked differences are seen in terms of vertical development of the maxilla. This differentiated view of open-bite cases should be taken into consideration during individual etiology assessment and treatment planning.

  13. Morphology of a Wetland Stream

    Jurmu; Andrle

    1997-11-01

    / Little attention has been paid to wetland stream morphology in the geomorphological and environmental literature, and in the recently expanding wetland reconstruction field, stream design has been based primarily on stream morphologies typical of nonwetland alluvial environments. Field investigation of a wetland reach of Roaring Brook, Stafford, Connecticut, USA, revealed several significant differences between the morphology of this stream and the typical morphology of nonwetland alluvial streams. Six morphological features of the study reach were examined: bankfull flow, meanders, pools and riffles, thalweg location, straight reaches, and cross-sectional shape. It was found that bankfull flow definitions originating from streams in nonwetland environments did not apply. Unusual features observed in the wetland reach include tight bends and a large axial wavelength to width ratio. A lengthy straight reach exists that exceeds what is typically found in nonwetland alluvial streams. The lack of convex bank point bars in the bends, a greater channel width at riffle locations, an unusual thalweg location, and small form ratios (a deep and narrow channel) were also differences identified. Further study is needed on wetland streams of various regions to determine if differences in morphology between alluvial and wetland environments can be applied in order to improve future designs of wetland channels.KEY WORDS: Stream morphology; Wetland restoration; Wetland creation; Bankfull; Pools and riffles; Meanders; Thalweg

  14. Killer whale morphology - Variation in morphology of killer whale ecotypes

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using elliptic Fourier analysis to determine the patterns of variation in morphology of dorsal fin shape, saddle patch shape, and eye patch shape of resident,...

  15. Morphologic Subtypes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Torbenson, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas can be further divided into distinct subtypes that provide important clinical information and biological insights. These subtypes are distinct from growth patterns and are on based on morphologic and molecular findings. There are 12 reasonably well-defined subtypes as well as 6 provisional subtypes, together making up 35% of all hepatocellular carcinomas. These subtypes are discussed, with an emphasis on their definitions and the key morphologic findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mitochondrial morphology and cardiovascular disease

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic and are able to interchange their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and a fragmented disconnected arrangement by the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are regulated by the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins 1 and 2, and optic atrophy 1) and the mitochondrial fission proteins (dynamin-related peptide 1 and mitochondrial fission protein 1) and have been implicated in a...

  17. The parachute morphology as equilibrium morphology of vesicle-polymer hybrids?

    Jung, M.; Hubert, D.H.W.; Herk, van A.M.; German, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Polymerisation in vesicles leads to novel polymer colloid morphologies. Two morphologies are currently reported: the triple-shell and the parachute morphology. The termodynamic analysis of these two morphologies, presented here, stresses the importance of considering interfacial energies between

  18. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    Posin, S.B.; Greeley, R.

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology

  19. Fast algorithm for Morphological Filters

    Lou Shan; Jiang Xiangqian; Scott, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    In surface metrology, morphological filters, which evolved from the envelope filtering system (E-system) work well for functional prediction of surface finish in the analysis of surfaces in contact. The naive algorithms are time consuming, especially for areal data, and not generally adopted in real practice. A fast algorithm is proposed based on the alpha shape. The hull obtained by rolling the alpha ball is equivalent to the morphological opening/closing in theory. The algorithm depends on Delaunay triangulation with time complexity O(nlogn). In comparison to the naive algorithms it generates the opening and closing envelope without combining dilation and erosion. Edge distortion is corrected by reflective padding for open profiles/surfaces. Spikes in the sample data are detected and points interpolated to prevent singularities. The proposed algorithm works well both for morphological profile and area filters. Examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and superiority on efficiency of this algorithm over the naive algorithm.

  20. Morphology study of niobium pentoxide

    Romero, R.P.P.; Panta, P.C.; Araujo, A.O. de; Bergmann, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Niobium pentoxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) has been studied due to physical properties and their use in obtaining electronic ceramics, optical lenses, pH sensors, special filters for TV receivers, among other applications. This study investigated the morphology of the niobium pentoxide obtained by hydrothermal synthesis from the precursor pentachloride niobium (NbCl 5 ), where the synthesis was carried out at a temperature of 150 and 200 °C for 130 min and the product obtained was calcined at temperatures 600, 800 and 1000 °C for 60 min. The following characterizations were performed for analysis of the material, among them, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for analysis of the crystal structure, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for detecting the existing functional groups and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology of material. As a result, different morphologies were obtained and consequently different niobium pentoxide properties studied. (author)

  1. Thorium oxalate solubility and morphology

    Monson, P.R. Jr.; Hall, R.

    1981-10-01

    Thorium was used as a stand-in for studying the solubility and precipitation of neptunium and plutonium oxalates. Thorium oxalate solubility was determined over a range of 0.001 to 10.0 in the concentration parameter [H 2 C 2 O 4 ]/[HNO 3 ] 2 . Morphology of thorium oxide made from the oxalate precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The different morphologies found for oxalate-lean and oxalate-rich precipitations were in agreement with predictions based on precipitation theory

  2. Pollen morphology of the Alangiaceae

    Reitsma, Tj.

    1970-01-01

    This paper presents a pollen-morphological study of Alangium, a genus mainly restricted to the tropics of the Old World, of which 18 of the 19 known species were studied. The pollen grains, studied with the use of a light microscope, a transmission electron microscope and a scanning electron

  3. Craniofacial morphology in Muenke syndrome

    Keller, Mette Kirstine; Hermann, Nuno V; Darvann, Tron A

    2007-01-01

    corresponding to bone was created for each individual. The sutures were inspected for synostosis, and the degree of synostosis was assessed. Increased digital markings were recorded for both groups. Craniofacial morphology was assessed quantitatively using bony landmarks and recording of the midsagittal surface...

  4. Morphology stabilization of heterogeneous blends

    1980-01-01

    A heterogeneous elastomer blend is described, consisting of at least two elastomer components which are cross-linkable by irradiation and having a stabilized morphology formed by subjecting the blend to high energy radiation to a point from below to slightly above the gel dose of the blend. (author)

  5. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    as a function of polymer, type of ink, annealing etc. Ptychography is a new state of the art X-ray imaging technique based on coherent scattering. Together with Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) it has been used in this study to inspect the morphology of the active layer taken from working solar...

  6. Mandibular morphological changes associated with ...

    This report described the morphological alterations on the mandible in a 3- year- old West African dwarfdoe caused by Actinomycesviscosus infection. The animal recovered after treatment but was later culled and the head submitted to the Department of Veterinary Anatomy. Hot water maceration of the lower jaw and the ...

  7. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    Literature on liver morphology in untreated obesity reveals varying prevalences of various pathological findings. The purpose of this literature study was to summarize and evaluate the published observations and to discuss discrepant findings. A complete search was aimed at utilizing bibliographic...... methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 per cent of the cases. The most frequent abnormality reported was fatty change, present in 80 per cent...... of obesity, age, sex, alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus) does not point towards a single causal factor. Co-influence of additional pathogenetic factors are likely in the development of liver changes in morbid obesity....

  8. Language categories in Russian morphology

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  9. Astragalar Morphology of Selected Giraffidae.

    Nikos Solounias

    Full Text Available The artiodactyl astragalus has been modified to exhibit two trochleae, creating a double pullied structure allowing for significant dorso-plantar motion, and limited mediolateral motion. The astragalus structure is partly influenced by environmental substrates, and correspondingly, morphometric studies can yield paleohabitat information. The present study establishes terminology and describes detailed morphological features on giraffid astragali. Each giraffid astragalus exhibits a unique combination of anatomical characteristics. The giraffid astragalar morphologies reinforce previously established phylogenetic relationships. We find that the enlargement of the navicular head is a feature shared by all giraffids, and that the primitive giraffids possess exceptionally tall astragalar heads in relation to the total astragalar height. The sivatheres and the okapi share a reduced notch on the lateral edge of the astragalus. We find that Samotherium is more primitive in astragalar morphologies than Palaeotragus, which is reinforced by tooth characteristics and ossicone position. Diagnostic anatomical characters on the astragalus allow for giraffid species identifications and a better understanding of Giraffidae.

  10. Morphology development in immiscible polymer blends

    Cardinaels, R.M.; Moldenaers, P.; Guo, Qipeng

    This chapter discusses the morphology development of immiscible binary polymer blends. It first describes morphology development in droplet-matrix structures, the dynamics of fibrillar structures and cocontinuous structures. The chapter then considers binary immiscible polymer blends, such systems

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL STRATEGIES IN TEXT MESSAGING AMONG ...

    Text messaging is the application of abridged morphological forms in order ... the emergence of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) in the world. ... Our thesis statement is that these morphological patterns as used in SMS are ...

  12. Morphological families in the mental lexicon

    Jong, Nivja Helena de

    2002-01-01

    Words can occur as constituents of other words. Some words have a high morphological productivity, in that they occur in many complex words, whereas others are morphological islands. Previous studies have found that the size of a word's morphological family can co-determine response latencies in

  13. Pelvic morphology in ischiofemoral impingement

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Azevedo, Debora C.; Oliveira, Adriana L.; Simeone, Frank J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin; Stubbs, Allston J.

    2015-01-01

    To assess MRI measures to quantify pelvic morphology that may predispose to ischiofemoral impingement (IFI). We hypothesized that patients with IFI have a wider interischial distance and an increased femoral neck angle compared with normal controls. The study was IRB-approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. IFI was diagnosed based on clinical findings (hip or buttock pain) and ipsilateral edema of the quadratus femoris muscle on MRI. Control subjects did not report isolated hip/buttock pain and underwent MRI for surveillance of neoplasms or to exclude pelvic fractures. Two MSK radiologists measured the ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) distance, the ischial angle as a measure of inter-ischial distance, and the femoral neck angle. The quadratus femoris muscle was evaluated for edema. Groups were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate standard least-squares regression modeling was used to control for age and gender. The study group comprised 84 patients with IFI (53 ± 16 years, 73 female, 11 male) and 51 controls (52 ± 16 years, 33 female, 18 male). Thirteen out of 84 patients (15 %) had bilateral IFI. Patients with IFI had decreased IF and QF distance (p < 0.0001), increased ischial angle (p = 0.004), and increased femoral neck angle (p = 0.02) compared with controls, independent of age and gender. Patients with IFI have increased ischial and femoral neck angles compared with controls. These anatomical variations in pelvic morphology may predispose to IFI. MRI is a useful method of not only assessing the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities associated with IFI, but also of quantifying anatomical variations in pelvic morphology that can predispose to IFI. (orig.)

  14. Pelvic morphology in ischiofemoral impingement

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Azevedo, Debora C.; Oliveira, Adriana L.; Simeone, Frank J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, Allston J. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2014-11-06

    To assess MRI measures to quantify pelvic morphology that may predispose to ischiofemoral impingement (IFI). We hypothesized that patients with IFI have a wider interischial distance and an increased femoral neck angle compared with normal controls. The study was IRB-approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. IFI was diagnosed based on clinical findings (hip or buttock pain) and ipsilateral edema of the quadratus femoris muscle on MRI. Control subjects did not report isolated hip/buttock pain and underwent MRI for surveillance of neoplasms or to exclude pelvic fractures. Two MSK radiologists measured the ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) distance, the ischial angle as a measure of inter-ischial distance, and the femoral neck angle. The quadratus femoris muscle was evaluated for edema. Groups were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate standard least-squares regression modeling was used to control for age and gender. The study group comprised 84 patients with IFI (53 ± 16 years, 73 female, 11 male) and 51 controls (52 ± 16 years, 33 female, 18 male). Thirteen out of 84 patients (15 %) had bilateral IFI. Patients with IFI had decreased IF and QF distance (p < 0.0001), increased ischial angle (p = 0.004), and increased femoral neck angle (p = 0.02) compared with controls, independent of age and gender. Patients with IFI have increased ischial and femoral neck angles compared with controls. These anatomical variations in pelvic morphology may predispose to IFI. MRI is a useful method of not only assessing the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities associated with IFI, but also of quantifying anatomical variations in pelvic morphology that can predispose to IFI. (orig.)

  15. Foot anthropometry and morphology phenomena.

    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-12-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors are determined by principal component analysis. Some practical recommendation and conclusion for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  16. On the morphology of superclusters

    West, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper explores the morphology of superclusters, focusing on the shapes and orientations of superclusters and possible alignments of the galaxy clusters which reside within them. A catalog of superclusters is generated using a simple procedure which uses available data on the three-dimensional distribution of Abell clusters. The results point toward a population of predominantly prolate superclusters with a moderate degree of flattening, with the galaxy clusters which reside within them exhibiting a clear tendency to be aligned over quite large distances. 99 refs

  17. Cartography – morphology – topology

    Dinesen, Cort Ross; Peder Pedersen, Claus

    I 2004 a Summer School was established on the Greek island of Hydra. The was to be the basis of research-based morphological and topological studies, which have since taken place for 4 weeks of every year. Starting with Hydra’s topography different ways of considering topology were developed....... The work was approached from a new angle every year through a series of associated questions, resulting in an extensive body of drawings describing the various discourses raised. The developed observational forms reflected in the collected body of drawings constitute a topological landscape with a great...... and developing topological emergence as a passage between cartographic appropriation and creative becoming while simultaneously lifting the material out of its mimetic reference, makes room for the of a movement towards a production of meaning as well as a basis for initiating architectonic practices. We seek...

  18. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio; Asami, Koji

    2008-01-01

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes

  19. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio [Life Science Laboratory, Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Sony Bioinformatics Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Asami, Koji [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Division of Multidisciplinary Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: Yoshihito.Hayashi@jp.sony.com

    2008-05-21

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes.

  20. Morphology and fracture of enamel.

    Myoung, Sangwon; Lee, James; Constantino, Paul; Lucas, Peter; Chai, Herzl; Lawn, Brian

    2009-08-25

    This study examines the inter-relation between enamel morphology and crack resistance by sectioning extracted human molars after loading to fracture. Cracks appear to initiate from tufts, hypocalcified defects at the enamel-dentin junction, and grow longitudinally around the enamel coat to produce failure. Microindentation corner cracks placed next to the tufts in the sections deflect along the tuft interfaces and occasionally penetrate into the adjacent enamel. Although they constitute weak interfaces, the tufts are nevertheless filled with organic matter, and appear to be stabilized against easy extension by self-healing, as well as by mutual stress-shielding and decussation, accounting at least in part for the capacity of tooth enamel to survive high functional forces.

  1. Morphological inversion of complex diffusion

    Nguyen, V. A. T.; Vural, D. C.

    2017-09-01

    Epidemics, neural cascades, power failures, and many other phenomena can be described by a diffusion process on a network. To identify the causal origins of a spread, it is often necessary to identify the triggering initial node. Here, we define a new morphological operator and use it to detect the origin of a diffusive front, given the final state of a complex network. Our method performs better than algorithms based on distance (closeness) and Jordan centrality. More importantly, our method is applicable regardless of the specifics of the forward model, and therefore can be applied to a wide range of systems such as identifying the patient zero in an epidemic, pinpointing the neuron that triggers a cascade, identifying the original malfunction that causes a catastrophic infrastructure failure, and inferring the ancestral species from which a heterogeneous population evolves.

  2. Surface morphology of erbium silicide

    Lau, S.S.; Pai, C.S.; Wu, C.S.; Kuech, T.F.; Liu, B.X.

    1982-01-01

    The surface of rare-earth silicides (Er, Tb, etc.), formed by the reaction of thin-film metal layers with a silicon substrate, is typically dominated by deep penetrating, regularly shaped pits. These pits may have a detrimental effect on the electronic performance of low Schottky barrier height diodes utilizing such silicides on n-type Si. This study suggests that contamination at the metal-Si or silicide-Si interface is the primary cause of surface pitting. Surface pits may be reduced in density or eliminated entirely through either the use of Si substrate surfaces prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions prior to metal deposition and silicide formation or by means of ion irradiation techniques. Silicide layers formed by these techniques possess an almost planar morphology

  3. Open data and digital morphology

    Davies, Thomas G.; Cunningham, John A.; Asher, Robert J.; Bates, Karl T.; Bengtson, Stefan; Benson, Roger B. J.; Boyer, Doug M.; Braga, José; Dong, Xi-Ping; Evans, Alistair R.; Friedman, Matt; Garwood, Russell J.; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.; Jeffery, Nathan S.; Lebrun, Renaud; Martínez-Pérez, Carlos; O'Higgins, Paul M.; Orliac, Maëva; Rowe, Timothy B.; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Shubin, Neil H.; Starck, J. Matthias; Stringer, Chris; Summers, Adam P.; Sutton, Mark D.; Walsh, Stig A.; Weisbecker, Vera; Witmer, Lawrence M.; Wroe, Stephen; Yin, Zongjun

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the development of methods for visualizing and analysing specimens digitally, in three and even four dimensions, has transformed the study of living and fossil organisms. However, the initial promise that the widespread application of such methods would facilitate access to the underlying digital data has not been fully achieved. The underlying datasets for many published studies are not readily or freely available, introducing a barrier to verification and reproducibility, and the reuse of data. There is no current agreement or policy on the amount and type of data that should be made available alongside studies that use, and in some cases are wholly reliant on, digital morphology. Here, we propose a set of recommendations for minimum standards and additional best practice for three-dimensional digital data publication, and review the issues around data storage, management and accessibility. PMID:28404779

  4. Spatially variant morphological restoration and skeleton representation.

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Charif-Chefchaouni, Mohammed; Schonfeld, Dan

    2006-11-01

    The theory of spatially variant (SV) mathematical morphology is used to extend and analyze two important image processing applications: morphological image restoration and skeleton representation of binary images. For morphological image restoration, we propose the SV alternating sequential filters and SV median filters. We establish the relation of SV median filters to the basic SV morphological operators (i.e., SV erosions and SV dilations). For skeleton representation, we present a general framework for the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. We study the properties of the SV morphological skeleton representation and derive conditions for its invertibility. We also develop an algorithm for the implementation of the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. The latter algorithm is based on the optimal construction of the SV structuring element mapping designed to minimize the cardinality of the SV morphological skeleton representation. Experimental results show the dramatic improvement in the performance of the SV morphological restoration and SV morphological skeleton representation algorithms in comparison to their translation-invariant counterparts.

  5. Morphological aspects of radiation injury

    Congdon, C C; Fliedner, T M

    1971-04-01

    The injury to haemopoietic and lymphatic tissues produced by ionizing irradiation in various species of mammals including man is one of the major features of the biological effects of radiation (Bond et al. 1965,' Cottier, 1961). At the moment of injury and for a short time thereafter relatively little morphological evidence of cell damage in bone marrow other than cessation of cell division and DNA synthesis is seen. Within a few hours, however, depending on the level of exposure, major destruction of red bone marrow tissue can occur. In this chapter the histologic changes in bone marrow are summarized for correlation with the functional aspects of the change in the target tissue, particularly its cell renewal features and where possible the remarkable flux or migration of cells through bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. This latter topic of cellular traffic represents the outcome of extensive physiological studies on haemopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by mammalian radiobiologists. The initial injury, the structural changes and the physiological consequences are the first half of the radiation injury sequence. Regeneration also has morphological features of major importance to the understanding of radiation haematology. It is common to discuss radiation effects on biological materials from the point of view of external or internal sources of exposure. In addition exposure rate, whole body or partial body, type and quality of the ionizing source are features that must be taken into account. While these features are extremely important, the simplest approach to understanding histologic effects on the bone marrow is to assume acute penetrating whole-body exposure in the lethal range. With this background the differences related to variations in the conditions of exposure can usually be understood. The individual human or animal organism receiving the exposure must also be considered in the final outcome of the experience because age, sex, nutritional status and presence

  6. Potential relationships between morphological differentiation and mutants with high nuclease P1 production of Penicillium citrinum

    Xinle, Liang; Qian, Shou; Hong, Zhang; Min, Chen [Department of Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Xuan, Liu [Beihai Institute of Environmental Science, Beihai, Guangxi (China)

    2009-08-15

    Diversification of colony characteristics of mutants derived from Penicillium citrinum CICC 4011 treated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiation and protoplast fusion were analyzed. There were distinct differences among mutants with different nuclease P1 activity, especially in pigment productivity. Color of colony was changed from the original green to white, grey-green, or yellow-green etc., while the nuclease P1 activity would be fluctuated with the color change. The hypothesis was suggested that there would be a relationship between pigments and nuclease P1 production. Mutants with grey-green colony would give out high nuclease P1 outputs in a high probability such as mutant J1Y6 (nuclease P1 activity, 167.3U/ml) and fusant F-13 (nuclease P1 activity, 568.7U/ml), while others with deep-green colony observed low nuclease outputs. Four variation strains didn't show any significant difference in growth rate. Broom branches of conidiophore stem in J1Y6 and F-13 were obviously reduced, conidiophores productivity reduced, but hyphae growth haled. These suggested that nuclease P1 production was associated with growth phase, but pigment synthesis course wasn't. RAPD from 6 randomly selected primers was used to analyze the polymorphic rich of the four strains, the results showed that there were 70 percent polymorphism detection rate among those. UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic map constructed by NTSYS-PC software, which showed that J1Y6 and F-14 were clustered as one group at similar coefficient 0.9, where there was an appear distance from the group of 4011 and F-R-33 strains (similar coefficient 0.8). (authors)

  7. Potential relationships between morphological differentiation and mutants with high nuclease P1 production of Penicillium citrinum

    Liang Xinle; Shou Qian; Zhang Hong; Chen Min; Liu Xuan

    2009-01-01

    Diversification of colony characteristics of mutants derived from Penicillium citrinum CICC 4011 treated with 60 Co γ-irradiation and protoplast fusion were analyzed. There were distinct differences among mutants with different nuclease P1 activity, especially in pigment productivity. Color of colony was changed from the original green to white, grey-green, or yellow-green etc., while the nuclease P1 activity would be fluctuated with the color change. The hypothesis was suggested that there would be a relationship between pigments and nuclease P1 production. Mutants with grey-green colony would give out high nuclease P1 outputs in a high probability such as mutant J1Y6( nuclease P1 activity, 167.3U/ml) and fusant F-13 (nuclease P1 activity, 568.7U/ml), while others with deep-green colony observed low nuclease outputs. Four variation strains didn't show any significant difference in growth rate. Broom branches of conidiophore stem in J1Y6 and F-13 were obviously reduced, conidiophores productivity reduced, but hyphae growth haled. These suggested that nuclease P1 production was associated with growth phase, but pigment synthesis course wasn't. RAPD from 6 randomly selected primers was used to analyze the polymorphic rich of the four strains, the results showed that there were 70 percent polymorphism detection rate among those. UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic map constructed by NTSYS-PC software, which showed that J1Y6 and F-14 were clustered as one group at similar coefficient 0.9, where there was an appear distance from the group of 4011 and F-R-33 strains (similar coefficient 0.8). (authors)

  8. Thermally induced morphological transition of silver fractals

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey; Kébaili, Nouari

    2014-01-01

    We present both experimental and theoretical study of thermally induced morphological transition of silver nanofractals. Experimentally, those nanofractals formed from deposition and diffusion of preformed silver clusters on cleaved graphite surfaces exhibit dendritic morphologies that are highly...... sensitive to any perturbation, particularly caused by temperature. We analyze and characterize the morphological transition both in time and temperature using the recently developed Monte Carlo simulation approach for the description of nanofractal dynamics and compare the obtained results...

  9. The limits on trypanosomatid morphological diversity.

    Richard John Wheeler

    Full Text Available Cell shape is one, often overlooked, way in which protozoan parasites have adapted to a variety of host and vector environments and directional transmissions between these environments. Consequently, different parasite life cycle stages have characteristic morphologies. Trypanosomatid parasites are an excellent example of this in which large morphological variations between species and life cycle stage occur, despite sharing well-conserved cytoskeletal and membranous structures. Here, using previously published reports in the literature of the morphology of 248 isolates of trypanosomatid species from different hosts, we perform a meta-analysis of the occurrence and limits on morphological diversity of different classes of trypanosomatid morphology (trypomastigote, promastigote, etc. in the vertebrate bloodstream and invertebrate gut environments. We identified several limits on cell body length, cell body width and flagellum length diversity which can be interpreted as biomechanical limits on the capacity of the cell to attain particular dimensions. These limits differed for morphologies with and without a laterally attached flagellum which we suggest represent two morphological superclasses, the 'juxtaform' and 'liberform' superclasses. Further limits were identified consistent with a selective pressure from the mechanical properties of the vertebrate bloodstream environment; trypanosomatid size showed limits relative to host erythrocyte dimensions. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the limits of morphological diversity in any protozoan parasite, revealing the morphogenetic constraints and extrinsic selection pressures associated with the full diversity of trypanosomatid morphology.

  10. Growth morphologies of crystal surfaces

    Xiao, Rong-Fu; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1991-03-01

    We have expanded our earlier Monte Carlo model [Phys. Rev. A 38, 2447 (1988); J. Crystal Growth 100, 313 (1990)] to three dimensions and included reevaporation after accommodation and growth on dislocation-induced steps. We found again that, for a given set of growth parameters, the critical size, beyond which a crystal cannot retain its macroscopically faceted shape, scales linearly with the mean free path in the vapor. However, the three-dimensional (3D) the systems show increased shape stability compared to corresponding 2D cases. Extrapolation of the model results to mean-free-path conditions used in morphological stability experiments leads to order-of-magnitude agreement of the predicted critical size with experimental findings. The stability region for macroscopically smooth (faceted) surfaces in the parameter space of temperature and supersaturation depends on both the surface and bulk diffusion. While surface diffusion is seen to smooth the growth morphology on the scale of the surface diffusion length, bulk diffusion is always destabilizing. The atomic surface roughness increases with increase in growth temperature and supersaturation. That is, the tendency of surface kinetics anisotropies to stabilize the growth shape is reduced through thermal and kinetic roughening. It is also found that the solid-on-solid assumption, which can be advantageously used at low temperatures and supersaturations, is insufficient to describe the growth dynamics of atomically rough interfaces where bulk diffusion governs the process. For surfaces with an emerging screw dislocation, we find that the spiral growth mechanism dominates at low temperatures and supersaturations. The polygonization of a growth spiral decreases with increasing temperature or supersaturation. When the mean free path in the nutrient is comparable to the lattice constant, the combined effect of bulk and surface diffusion reduces the terrace width of a growth spiral in its center region. At elevated

  11. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  12. Secular trend: morphology and performance.

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Schipman, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Danial, Mario; Guillaume, Marion; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In a context of morphological expansion of the general population, how do athletes follow such a pattern of anthropometric growth? Is there any relation to performance? Biometric data including mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and age were collected for 50,376 American athletes representing 249,336 annual performers playing in professional baseball, football, ice hockey and basketball. Distributions by mass in National Football League (NFL) players are described by periods. Field goals have been studied in relation to players' height in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Between 1871 and 2011, athletes from the four sports have increased significantly in mass, height and BMI, following a multi-exponential function series. Consequently, biometric differences between athletes and the general population are increasing gradually. Changes in the mass distribution within the NFL show the emergence of a biometrical specificity in relation to the field position. At the professional level, performance remains structured around precise biometric values. In the NBA, a height-attractor at 201.3 ± 6.3 cm for the best scorers is invariant, regardless of the level of play. These results suggest that laws of growth and biometrics drive high-level sport and organise performance around the specific constraint of each field position. Discrepancies between some mass and height developments question the (disproportionate) large mass increase (relative to the height increase) during the 1980s and 1990s.

  13. Controls on alluvial fans morphology

    Delorme, P.; Devauchelle, O.; Lajeunesse, E.; Barrier, L.; Métivier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Using laboratory experiments, we investigate the influence of water and sediment discharges on the morphology of an alluvial fan. In our flume, a single-thread laminar river deposits corundum sand (0.4 mm) into a conical fan. We record the fan progradation with top-view images, and measure its shape using the deformation of a Moiré pattern. The fan remains virtually self-affine as it grows, with a nearly constant slope. We find that, when the sediment discharge is small, the longitudinal slope of the fan remains close to that of a river at the threshold for sediment transport. A higher sediment discharge causes the fan's slope to depart from the threshold value. Due to the downstream decrease of the sediment load, this slope gets shallower towards the fan's toe. This mechanism generates a slightly concave fan profile. This suggests that the proximal slope of an alluvial fan could be a proxy for the sediment flux that feeds the fan.Finally, we discuss the applicability of these results to natural systems.

  14. Strengthening the morphological study of informal settlements

    McCartney, S.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    Methods of articulating the morphological structure of slums can have considerable potential in better planning for site-specific design or policy responses for these areas in the contemporary city. Although urban morphology traditionally studies landscapes as stratified residues with distinct

  15. Low genetic differentiation among morphologically distinct ...

    Labeobarbus altianalis and L. bynni bynni are hexaploid cyprinid fishes in the genus Labeobarbus. In the Great Lakes region of Africa, these two large-bodied barbs exhibit considerable morphological variations. Their intraspecific classification, currently based on geographical distribution and morphological variation, is of ...

  16. Correlation between morphological and biological characteristics of ...

    Hepatocyte dysfunction with the possibility of eventual organ failure is created from most liver diseases. Images of cell morphology can be obtained nondestructively using a conventional inverted microscope. Therefore, this study attempted to investigate several morphological parameters of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ...

  17. Relationship among Fitness, Morphological Characteristics, Skills ...

    The specific morphological and fitness demands of the sport are, therefore, not fully understood. The purpose of this ... The findings convincingly suggest that coaches should include fitness, morphological and skills tests in their coaching and fitness programmes, team selection and talent identification processes. Keywords: ...

  18. Morphological features in children with autism

    Özgen, Mihriban Heval

    2008-01-01

    The central research aim in the present thesis was to extend the insight in several aspects of the role of the morphological features in autism. Clinical morphology might be used as a biomarker for ASD to reveal insight into the complexity of the disorder. In Chapter 1 current terminology and

  19. The Contribution of Morphological Awareness to the Spelling of Morphemes and Morphologically Complex Words in French

    Fejzo, Anila

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between morphological awareness and the spelling of morphemes and morphologically complex words among 75 third- and fourth-grade Francophone students of low socio-economic status. To reach this objective, we administered a dictation comprised of morphologically complex words with prefixes,…

  20. The Relationship between Morphological Awareness and Morphological Decomposition among English Language Learners

    Kraut, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Morphological awareness facilitates many reading processes. For this reason, L1 and L2 learners of English are often directly taught to use their knowledge of English morphology as a useful reading strategy for determining parts of speech and meaning of novel words. Over time, use of morphological awareness skills while reading develops into an…

  1. Wetting morphologies on randomly oriented fibers.

    Sauret, Alban; Boulogne, François; Soh, Beatrice; Dressaire, Emilie; Stone, Howard A

    2015-06-01

    We characterize the different morphologies adopted by a drop of liquid placed on two randomly oriented fibers, which is a first step toward understanding the wetting of fibrous networks. The present work reviews previous modeling for parallel and touching crossed fibers and extends it to an arbitrary orientation of the fibers characterized by the tilting angle and the minimum spacing distance. Depending on the volume of liquid, the spacing distance between fibers and the angle between the fibers, we highlight that the liquid can adopt three different equilibrium morphologies: 1) a column morphology in which the liquid spreads between the fibers, 2) a mixed morphology where a drop grows at one end of the column or 3) a single drop located at the node. We capture the different morphologies observed using an analytical model that predicts the equilibrium configuration of the liquid based on the geometry of the fibers and the volume of liquid.

  2. Morphology and Temperatures at Pele

    Howell, Robert R.; Lopes, R. M. C.

    2010-10-01

    The Pele region of Io has been the site of vigorous volcanic activity from the time of the first Voyager I observations in 1979 up through the final Galileo ones in 2001. There is high temperature thermal emission from what is thought to be a rapidly overturning lava lake, and also the source of a large sulfur-rich plume. We present a new analysis of Voyager I visible wavelength images, and Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) and Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) thermal emission observations which better define the morphology of the region and the intensity of the emission. The observations show remarkably correlations between the locations of the emission and the features seen in the Voyager images, which provide insight into eruption mechanisms and constrain the longevity of the activity. We also analyze an additional wavelength channel of NIMS data (1.87 micron) which paradoxically, because of reduced sensitivity, allows us to estimate temperatures at the peak locations of emission. Measurements of eruption temperatures on Io are crucial because they provide our best clues to the composition of the magma. High color temperatures indicative of ultramafic composition have been reported for the Pillan hot spot and possibly for Pele, although recent work has called into question the requirement for magma temperatures above those expected for ordinary basalts. Our new analysis of the Pele emission near the peak of the hot spot shows color temperatures near the upper end of the basalt range during the I27 and I32 encounters. We also analyze those temperatures in terms of lava cooling models to determine the required magma temperatures.

  3. The morphology of cometary nuclei

    Keller, H. U.; Jorda, L.

    the Rosetta comet rendezvous mission) to about 50 km (comet Hale- Bopp, comet P/Schwassman-Wachmann 1). Their albedos are very low, about 0.04. Their shapes are irregular, axes ratios of 2:1 are often derived. Even though comets are characterized by their activity, in most cases only a small fraction of the nuclear surface (in some cases less than 1%) is active. An exception seems to be comet P/Wirtanen where all its surface is required to be active in order to explain its production rates (Rickman and Jorda 1998). The detection of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) in the Kuiper belt (Jewitt and Luu 1993) reveals a new population of cometary bodies with dimensions an order of magnitude bigger (100 km and larger) than the typical comet observed in the inner planetary system. Little is known about the extent, density, size distribution and physical characteristics of these objects. This region is supposedly the reservoir for short-period comets, manly those controlled by Jupiter (Jupiter family comets). Our present concept of a cometary nucleus has been strongly influenced by the first pictures of the nucleus of comet Halley achieved during the Giotto flyby in 1986. While this revelation seems to be confirmed as typical by modern observations it carries the danger of prototyping new observational results and inferences. Missions and spacecraft are already on their way (Deep Space, Contour, Stardust, Deep Impact) or in preparation (Rosetta) to diversify our knowledge. The morphology of cometary nuclei is determined by their formation process in the early solar nebula, their dynamics and evolution. The physics of the processes leading to their apparent activity while approaching the Sun are still obscure in many details but determine the small- and intermediate-scale morphology. The large-scale morphology, the shape, of a cometary nucleus is determined by its fragility and inner structure and by its generally complex rotational state. These topics will be reviewed in the

  4. Observed gas hydrate morphologies in marine sediment

    Holland, M.; Schultheiss, P.; Roberts, J.; Druce, M. [Geotek Ltd., Daventry, Northamptonshire (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The morphology of gas hydrate in marine sediments determines the basic physical properties of the sediment-hydrate matrix and provides information regarding the formation of gas hydrate deposits, and the nature of the disruption that will occur on dissociation. Small-scale morphology is useful in estimating the concentrations of gas hydrate from geophysical data. It is also important for predicting their response to climate change or commercial production. Many remote techniques for gas hydrate detection and quantification depend on hydrate morphology. In this study, morphology of gas hydrate was examined in HYACINTH pressure cores from recent seagoing expeditions. Visual and infrared observations from non-pressurized cores were also used. The expeditions and pressure core analysis were described in detail. This paper described the difference between two types of gas hydrate morphologies, notably pore-filling and grain-displacing. Last, the paper addressed the impact of hydrate morphology. It was concluded that a detailed morphology of gas hydrate is an essential component for a full understanding of the past, present, and future of any gas hydrate environment. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Benjamin eTorben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation.Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate.As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  6. Retention and failure morphology of prefabricated posts

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of cement, post material, surface treatment, and shape (1) on the retention of posts luted in the root canals of extracted human teeth and (2) on the failure morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (Para...... at 37 degrees C for 7 days, retention was determined by extraction of the posts. Failure morphology of extracted posts was analyzed and quantified stereomicroscopically. RESULTS: Type of luting cement, post material, and shape of post influenced the retention and failure morphology of the posts. Because...

  7. Morphology and microstructure of composite materials

    Tiwari, S. N.; Srinivansan, K.

    1991-01-01

    Lightweight continuous carbon fiber based polymeric composites are currently enjoying increasing acceptance as structural materials capable of replacing metals and alloys in load bearing applications. As with most new materials, these composites are undergoing trials with several competing processing techniques aimed at cost effectively producing void free consolidations with good mechanical properties. As metallic materials have been in use for several centuries, a considerable database exists on their morphology - microstructure; and the interrelationships between structure and properties have been well documented. Numerous studies on composites have established the crucial relationship between microstructure - morphology and properties. The various microstructural and morphological features of composite materials, particularly those accompanying different processing routes, are documented.

  8. Morphological representation of order-statistics filters.

    Charif-Chefchaouni, M; Schonfeld, D

    1995-01-01

    We propose a comprehensive theory for the morphological bounds on order-statistics filters (and their repeated iterations). Conditions are derived for morphological openings and closings to serve as bounds (lower and upper, respectively) on order-statistics filters (and their repeated iterations). Under various assumptions, morphological open-closings and close-openings are also shown to serve as (tighter) bounds (lower and upper, respectively) on iterations of order-statistics filters. Simulations of the application of the results presented to image restoration are finally provided.

  9. Scaling laws for coastal overwash morphology

    Lazarus, Eli D.

    2016-12-01

    Overwash is a physical process of coastal sediment transport driven by storm events and is essential to landscape resilience in low-lying barrier environments. This work establishes a comprehensive set of scaling laws for overwash morphology: unifying quantitative descriptions with which to compare overwash features by their morphological attributes across case examples. Such scaling laws also help relate overwash features to other morphodynamic phenomena. Here morphometric data from a physical experiment are compared with data from natural examples of overwash features. The resulting scaling relationships indicate scale invariance spanning several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, these new relationships for overwash morphology align with classic scaling laws for fluvial drainages and alluvial fans.

  10. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  11. Resource use by two morphologically similar insectivorous bats ...

    Studies of morphologically dissimilar insectivorous bats have lead to the conclusion that morphology is the prime correlate of habitat use, and consequently of diet. This has lead to the prediction that morphologically similar bats should have similar diets. We examined the diet and morphology of two morphologically similar ...

  12. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...

  13. Improving word coverage using unsupervised morphological analyser

    To enable a computer to process information in human languages, ... vised morphological analyser (UMA) would learn how to analyse a language just by looking ... result for English, but they did remarkably worse for Finnish and Turkish.

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF ...

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF FISHES ... The exact phylogeny of the chimaeroids is obscure due to difficulties encountered in ...... species was obtained from the University of Cape Town Ecological Records;.

  15. Baseline Haematology and Erythrocyte Morphological Changes of ...

    olayemitoyin

    show that the associated morphological changes were all not significant and fall within the acceptable range using the reference ... blood metabolites and other component of the body .... immersion lens with 1000x magnification (Olympus.

  16. Parametric based morphological transformation for contrast ...

    rithm is illustrated through the processing of gray scale images and color images with different backgrounds. Keywords. Histogram equalization; image background; mathematical morphology; Weber's ratio. 1. Introduction. Contrast enhancement has a crucial role in image processing applications, such as digital.

  17. 3D Morphology Design for Forward Osmosis

    Shi, Meixia; Printsypar, Galina; Phuoc, Duong; Calo, Victor M.; Iliev, Oleg; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multi-scale simulation approach to model forward osmosis (FO) processes using substrates with layered homogeneous morphology. This approach accounts not only for FO setup but also for detailed microstructure of the substrate using

  18. Presentation of valid correlations in some morphological

    Florian Miftari; Hazir Salihu; Musa Selimi

    2018-01-01

    Study-research deals with younger students of both sexes aged 13-14, who, besides attending classes of physical education and sports, also practice in basketball schools in the city of Pristina. The experiment contains a total of 7 morphological variables, while four tests of basic motion skills and seven variables are from specific motion skills. In this study, the verification and analysis of the correlation of morphological characteristics and basic and situational motor skills in both gro...

  19. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.; Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoolo...

  20. Morphological Variations of Hippocampal Formation in Epilepsy

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Hospital Sao Paulo and other centers in Brazil compared the hippocampal formation (HF morphology of healthy asymptomatic individuals (n=30 with that of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS(n=68, of patients with malformations of cortical development (MCD(n=34, and of patients with morphological HF variations without other structural signs (pure MVHF(n=12.

  1. Morphology and probability in image processing

    Fabbri, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author presents an analysis of some concepts which relate morphological attributes of digital objects to statistically meaningful measures. Some elementary transformations of binary images are described and examples of applications are drawn from the geological and image analysis domains. Some of the morphological models applicablle in astronomy are discussed. It is shown that the development of new spatially oriented computers leads to more extensive applications of image processing in the geosciences

  2. A combinatorial approach to angiosperm pollen morphology.

    Mander, Luke

    2016-11-30

    Angiosperms (flowering plants) are strikingly diverse. This is clearly expressed in the morphology of their pollen grains, which are characterized by enormous variety in their shape and patterning. In this paper, I approach angiosperm pollen morphology from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics. This involves generating angiosperm pollen morphotypes by algorithmically combining character states and enumerating the results of these combinations. I use this approach to generate 3 643 200 pollen morphotypes, which I visualize using a parallel-coordinates plot. This represents a raw morphospace. To compare real-world and theoretical morphologies, I map the pollen of 1008 species of Neotropical angiosperms growing on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, onto this raw morphospace. This highlights that, in addition to their well-documented taxonomic diversity, Neotropical rainforests also represent an enormous reservoir of morphological diversity. Angiosperm pollen morphospace at BCI has been filled mostly by pollen morphotypes that are unique to single plant species. Repetition of pollen morphotypes among higher taxa at BCI reflects both constraint and convergence. This combinatorial approach to morphology addresses the complexity that results from large numbers of discrete character combinations and could be employed in any situation where organismal form can be captured by discrete morphological characters. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Developing a New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    Gridach, Mourad; Chenfour, Noureddine

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop th...

  4. Flexible architecture of inducible morphological plasticity.

    Kishida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kinya

    2006-05-01

    1. Predator-induced morphological defences are produced in response to an emergent predator regime. In natural systems, prey organisms usually experience temporal shifting of the composition of the predator assemblage and of the intensity of predation risk from each predator species. Although, a repetitive morphological change in response to a sequential shift of the predator regime such as alteration of the predator species or diminution of the predation risk may be adaptive, such flexible inducible morphological defences are not ubiquitous. 2. We experimentally addressed whether a flexible inducible morphological defence is accomplished in response to serial changes in the predation regime, using a model prey species which adopt different defensive morphological phenotypes in response to different predator species. Rana pirica (Matsui) tadpoles increased body depth and tail depth against the predatory larval salamander Hynobius retardatus (Dunn); on the other hand, they only increased tail depth against the predatory larval dragonfly Aeshna nigroflava (Martin). 3. Rana pirica tadpoles with the predator-specific phenotypes were subjected to removal or exchange of the predator species. After removal of the predator species, tadpoles with each predator-specific phenotype changed their phenotype to the nondefensive basic one, suggesting that both predator-specific phenotypes are costly to maintain. After an exchange of the predator species, tadpoles with each predator-specific phenotype reciprocally, flexibly shifted their phenotype to the now more suitable predator-specific one only by modifying their body part. The partial modification can effectively reduce time and energy expenditures involved in repetitive morphological changes, and therefore suggest that the costs of the flexible morphological changes are reduced.

  5. Phalangeal morphology of Shanghuang fossil primates.

    Gebo, Daniel L; Dagosto, Marian; Ni, Xijun; Beard, K Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Here, we describe hundreds of isolated phalanges attributed to middle Eocene fossil primates from the Shanghuang fissure-fillings from southern Jiangsu Province, China. Extending knowledge based on previous descriptions of postcranial material from Shanghuang, this sample of primate finger and toe bones includes proximal phalanges, middle phalanges, and over three hundred nail-bearing distal phalanges. Most of the isolated proximal and middle phalanges fall within the range of small-bodied individuals, suggesting an allocation to the smaller haplorhine primates identified at Shanghuang, including eosimiids. In contrast to the proximal and middle phalanges from Shanghuang, there are a variety of shapes, sizes, and possible taxonomic allocations for the distal phalanges. Two distal phalangeal morphologies are numerically predominant at Shanghuang. The sample of larger bodied specimens is best allocated to the medium-sized adapiform Adapoides while the smaller ones are allocated to eosimiids on the basis of the commonality of dental and tarsal remains of these taxa at Shanghuang. The digit morphology of Adapoides is similar morphologically to that of notharctines and cercamoniines, while eosimiid digit morphology is unlike living anthropoids. Other primate distal phalangeal morphologies at Shanghuang include grooming "claws" as well as specimens attributable to tarsiids, tarsiiforms, the genus Macrotarsius, and a variety of adapiforms. One group of distal phalanges at Shanghuang is morphologically indistinguishable from those of living anthropoids. All of the phalanges suggest long fingers and toes for the fossil primates of Shanghaung, and their digit morphology implies arboreality with well-developed digital flexion and strong, grasping hands and feet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and Realization of an Arabic Morphological Automaton-New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    Mourad Gridach; Noureddine Chenfour

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop th...

  7. Hip morphologic measurements in an Egyptian population.

    Aly, Tarek A

    2011-04-11

    The study of acetabular morphology has shown that there are geographic differences in the morphology and prevalence of acetabular dysplasia among different ethnic groups. However, few data exist on the shape of the acetabulum in various populations around the world. In this study, we examined samples of pelvic radiographs from Egyptian adults. Acetabular dysplasia in adults is characterized by a shallow and relatively vertical acetabulum.The aim of this study was to examine acetabular morphology to determine the prevalence of hip dysplasia in adult Egyptians. This included 244 adults, 134 men and 110 women between 18 and 60 years, who were used to measure center edge angle, acetabular Sharp angle, acetabular head index on anteroposterior radiographic views of the hip joints, and vertical center anterior margin angle on false profile views. The radiographs were taken of patients with no hip complaints at Tanta University Hospital.The results were statistically studied according to the age, height, and weight of patients. The prevalence of acetabular dysplasia was 2.25% for Egyptian men and 3.6% for women with respect to center edge angles, vertical center anterior margin angle, and acetabular head index.We concluded that gender variations in the morphology of the acetabulum and sex influences geometrical measurements of the acetabulum. Egyptian women were more dysplastic than men using the 4 parameters of hip measurements. There are also racial variations in hip morphology. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Morphology and rheology in filamentous cultivations.

    Wucherpfennig, T; Kiep, K A; Driouch, H; Wittmann, C; Krull, R

    2010-01-01

    Because of their metabolic diversity, high production capacity, secretion efficiency, and capability of carrying out posttranslational modifications, filamentous fungi are widely exploited as efficient cell factories in the production of metabolites, bioactive substances, and native or heterologous proteins, respectively. There is, however, a complex relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, transport phenomena, the viscosity of the cultivation broth, and related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass, every growth form having a distinct influence on broth rheology. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages for mycelial or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Because of the still inadequate understanding of the morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimized production process, it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the relevant approaches in biochemical engineering. In this chapter, morphology and growth of filamentous fungi are described, with special attention given to specific problems as they arise from fungal growth forms; growth and mass transfer in fungal biopellets are discussed as an example. To emphasize the importance of the flow behavior of filamentous cultivation broths, an introduction to rheology is also given, reviewing important rheological models and recent studies concerning rheological parameters. Furthermore, current knowledge on morphology and productivity in relation to the environom is outlined in the last section of this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E.; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10 -4 Pa to 10 2 Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  10. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.escribano.salazar@gmail.co [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2010-04-02

    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  11. Nanoscale Morphology Evolution Under Ion Irradiation

    Aziz, Michael J. [President & Fellows of Harvard College, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We showed that the half-century-old paradigm of morphological instability under irradiation due to the curvature-dependence of the sputter yield, can account neither for the phase diagram nor the amplification or decay rates that we measure in the simplest possible experimental system -- an elemental semiconductor with an amorphous surface under noble-gas ion irradiation; We showed that a model of pattern formation based on the impact-induced redistribution of atoms that do not get sputtered away explains our experimental observations; We developed a first-principles, parameter-free approach for predicting morphology evolution, starting with molecular dynamics simulations of single ion impacts, lasting picoseconds, and upscaling through a rigorous crater-function formalism to develop a partial differential equation that predicts morphology evolution on time scales more than twelve orders of magnitude longer than can be covered by the molecular dynamics; We performed the first quantitative comparison of the contributions to morphological instability from sputter removal and from impact-induced redistribution of atoms that are removed, and showed that the former is negligible compared to the latter; We established a new paradigm for impact-induced morphology evolution based on crater functions that incorporate both redistribution and sputter effects; and We developed a model of nanopore closure by irradiation-induced stress and irradiationenhanced fluidity, for the near-surface irradiation regime in which nuclear stopping predominates, and showed that it explains many aspects of pore closure kinetics that we measure experimentally.

  12. Bariatric surgery, gut morphology and enteroendocrine cells

    Hansen, Carl Frederik

    40 hormones. In this PhD study, gut morphology and the population of endocrine cells have been examined in three rodent animal models using stereological techniques. First, in a rodent model of type-2 diabetes (T2DM), the Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF), the population of endocrine L-cells...... to contribute to the positive effects of bariatic surgery but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. The endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract that produce and secrete hormones are difficult to examine as they are distributed as single cells. Several types of endocrine cells together produce more than...... and the gut morphology were quantified. The number of Lcells was 4.8 million in the normal rat and the L-cells were found to double in number in the diabetic ZDF rat model. Second, the L-cell population, gut morphology and endocrine cell gene expression were examined in a rodent model of Roux-en-Y gastric...

  13. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  14. Semantic transparency affects morphological priming . . . eventually.

    Heyer, Vera; Kornishova, Dana

    2018-05-01

    Semantic transparency has been in the focus of psycholinguistic research for decades, with the controversy about the time course of the application of morpho-semantic information during the processing of morphologically complex words not yet resolved. This study reports two masked priming studies with English - ness and Russian - ost' nominalisations, investigating how semantic transparency modulates native speakers' morphological priming effects at short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). In both languages, we found increased morphological priming for nominalisations at the transparent end of the scale (e.g. paleness - pale) in comparison to items at the opaque end of the scale (e.g. business - busy) but only at longer prime durations. The present findings are in line with models that posit an initial phase of morpho-orthographic (semantically blind) decomposition.

  15. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  16. Bioinformatic and Biometric Methods in Plant Morphology

    Surangi W. Punyasena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microscopy, imaging, and data analyses have permitted both the greater application of quantitative methods and the collection of large data sets that can be used to investigate plant morphology. This special issue, the first for Applications in Plant Sciences, presents a collection of papers highlighting recent methods in the quantitative study of plant form. These emerging biometric and bioinformatic approaches to plant sciences are critical for better understanding how morphology relates to ecology, physiology, genotype, and evolutionary and phylogenetic history. From microscopic pollen grains and charcoal particles, to macroscopic leaves and whole root systems, the methods presented include automated classification and identification, geometric morphometrics, and skeleton networks, as well as tests of the limits of human assessment. All demonstrate a clear need for these computational and morphometric approaches in order to increase the consistency, objectivity, and throughput of plant morphological studies.

  17. [Education and Training of Personnel in Morphology].

    Katagiri, Hisako; Yamagata, Junko

    2016-02-01

    We introduce our efforts to utilize education, training, competence assessment, and quality control of personnel engaged in urinary sediment and blood cell morphology examinations in our laboratory. There are no standard samples for these morphological examinations, and standardization has not been completed for all types of blood cells or urinary sediment components. We had been carrying out simultaneous microscopic examination involving trainee staff and senior laboratory technologists as a means of education and evaluation, but acceptance criteria were unclear. Moreover, we had continued our operation without assessment of the level of achievement of routine works or the competence of individual staff members. Taking the opportunity of receiving ISO 15189 certification, we have been able to establish clear standards for evaluating personnel education and training in morphological examinations. We will continuously make efforts to maintain and manage this system.

  18. Menstruum induces changes in mesothelial cell morphology.

    Koks, C A; Demir Weusten, A Y; Groothuis, P G; Dunselman, G A; de Goeij, A F; Evers, J L

    2000-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that menstrual endometrium preferentially adheres to the subepithelial lining of the peritoneum. It remains to be elucidated, however, whether this damage is preexisting or inflicted by the menstrual tissue itself. We hypothesized that the menstrual tissue itself damages the peritoneum. To investigate this, the viability of menstrual endometrial tissue in peritoneal fluid (PF) was evaluated and the morphologic changes in the mesothelial cells were studied by in vitro cocultures of menstruum with mesothelial cell monolayers. Menstruum was collected with a menstrual cup. Endometrial tissue was isolated from the menstruum, resuspended in culture medium or in the cell-free fraction of PF and cultured for 24, 48 or 72 h. A 3(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to obtain a relative measure of viable adhered endometrial cells. Mesothelial cells isolated from human omental tissue were cultured on Matrigel or uncoated plastic. At confluence, overnight cocultures were performed and scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphologic changes. The viability of endometrial fragments was 84% (n = 36, p Menstrual endometrial fragments or menstrual serum added to and cocultured with mesothelial cells induced severe morphologic alterations of the latter, including retraction, shrinking and gap formation. Similar morphologic changes were observed when mesothelial cells were cocultured with menstrual endometrial fragments in PF or in culture inserts. Incubation with conditioned medium from cultured menstrual endometrium induced similar but less pronounced changes in morphology. In conclusion, menstrual endometrial fragments remain viable in PF in vitro for at least 72 h. Antegradely shed menstruum induces changes in mesothelial cell morphology, including retraction and shrinking with exposure of the underlying surface. These findings suggest that menstruum is harmful to the peritoneal

  19. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-08-01

    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  20. The Morphological Analysis Found in Tempo Magazine

    Lubis, Khairunnisa

    2015-01-01

    A paper entitled “The Morphological Analysis Found in Tempo Magazine” discussed about affixation process that is one of field linguistics, Morphology. The data of this research is five articles in Tempo magazine 1405/September 23-29, 2013. The scope of this writing is to find some kinds of prefixes and suffixes are used in Tempo magazine and to find what the dominant affix is. The method of research applied is descriptive qualitative. After analyzing the data, there are 5 kinds of prefixes, n...

  1. Morphological modeling of terrains and volume data

    Comic, Lidija; Magillo, Paola; Iuricich, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the mathematical background behind discrete approaches to morphological analysis of scalar fields, with a focus on Morse theory and on the discrete theories due to Banchoff and Forman. The algorithms and data structures presented are used for terrain modeling and analysis, molecular shape analysis, and for analysis or visualization of sensor and simulation 3D data sets. It covers a variety of application domains including geography, geology, environmental sciences, medicine and biology. The authors classify the different approaches to morphological analysis which are all ba

  2. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-09-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  3. Characterization and morphological properties of glass fiber ...

    Characterization and morphological properties of glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites fabricated under varying degrees of hand lay-up techniques. ... Hence, these composites are projected to possess better dimensional stability adaptable for high performance structural applications. Keywords: composite, interfacial ...

  4. Probing polymer nanocomposite morphology by small angle ...

    Polyamide nanocomposite films were prepared from nanometer-sized silica particles having particle radius of gyration (g) of about 66 Å and trimesoyl chloride--phenylene diamine-based polyamides having macromolecular units of about 100-140 Å. The nanoscale morphology of the samples was characterized using ...

  5. Delimiting Cladosporium from morphologically similar genera

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Schubert, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Cladosporium is restricted to dematiaceous hyphomycetes with a coronate scar type, and Davidiella teleomorphs. In the present study numerous cladosporium-like taxa are treated, and allocated to different genera based on their morphology and DNA phylogeny derived from the LSU nrRNA gene.

  6. Correlation between Morphological, Optical and Electrical ...

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were employed for the surface morphological measurements. The charge carrier concentrations, mobilities and AC resistivities were deduced from Drude's model. The DC resistivities were determined from the four-point probe measurements.

  7. The effect of storage on platelet morphology

    Sturk, A.; Burt, L. M.; Hakvoort, T.; ten Cate, J. W.; Crawford, N.

    1982-01-01

    Platelet concentrates were stored for one, two or three days at 4 degrees C (unagitated) or at room temperature (unagitated and linearly agitated). After washing the concentrates twice at room temperature and then incubating them for 60 minutes at 37 degrees C, the platelet morphology was

  8. Morphological diagnosis of sudden cardiac death

    Hougen, H P; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Villanueva, E

    1989-01-01

    The study reveals preliminary results of a bilateral project involving the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen (Denmark) and the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Granada (Spain). Morphological findings were compared to the results of thanatochemical analyses of peri...

  9. Morphological changes of the beaches of Goa

    Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Morphological variations of 2 of the major beaches of Goa have been found to be cyclic over a period of approximately 1 yr. These beaches attain their maximum sediment storage around April/May. They are then subjected to rapid rates of erosion...

  10. Morphological diversity in oleaginous watermelon ( Citrullus ...

    A hundred and seventy-one oleaginous watermelon accessions either collected from different countries or obtained from gene banks were evaluated and compared based on 11 quantitative morphological traits. Principal component analysis on 11 traits revealed 81.19% of the total variability and pointed out variations ...

  11. Morphology and dynamics of explosive vents

    Gisler, Galen R.; Galland, Olivier; Haug, Øystein T.

    2014-05-01

    Eruptive processes in nature produce a wide variety of morphologies, including cone sheets, dykes, sills, and pipes. The choice of a particular eruptive style is determined partly by local inhomogeneities, and partly by the gross overall properties of the country rock and the physical properties of the eruptive fluid. In this study we report on experimental and numerical designed to capture a range of morphologies in an eruptive system. Using dimensional analysis we link the experimental and numerical work together and draw implications for field studies. Our experimental work uses silica flour in a Hele-Shaw cell, with air as the eruptive fluid. A phase diagram demonstrates a separation between two distinct morphologies, with vertical structures occurring at high pressure or low depth of fill and diagonal ones at low pressure or high depth of fill. In the numerical work the eruptive fluid is a mixture of basaltic magma, supercritical water, and carbon dioxide, and the ambient material is a fill of basalt with varying material properties. In the numerical work we see three distinct morphologies: vertical pipes are produced at high pressures and softer backgrounds, diagonal pipes at lower pressures and stiffer backgrounds, while horizontal sills are produced in intermediate regimes.

  12. Pollen morphology of some European Rosaceae

    Reitsma, Tj.

    1966-01-01

    In this preliminary investigation attention was paid to pollen morphology of West-European species of the Rosaceae. Some new terms were used like fastigium, endocingulus etc. The terminology of Iversen and Troels-Smith has been followed in addition to improvements by Erdtman. A key is given to the

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION AND PROTEIN PROFILING OF ...

    Owner

    characterizing Nigerian Corchorus species. Keywords: Vegetative characters, SDS-PAGE, Corchorus ... In regions like China, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Corchorus species is of great economic importance and bulk of ... The morphological characterization of the. Corchorus samples was conducted in the experimental.

  14. Synthesis, structural and surface morphological characterizations of ...

    Sulfated zirconia (SZ) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized and deposited via chemical route called sol-gel technique. The structural, morphological, and optical properties the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscopy ...

  15. Mechanical and morphological investigation of virgin polyethylene ...

    Abstract. This research was accomplished to examine the mechanical, morphological and crystallization kinetics study of ..... Ag-NPs used in this experiment is of 99.9% purity having average particle size ... and true density of 10.5 g cm. −3.

  16. External morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male

    Neves, Ricardo Cardoso; da Cunha, Maria Ribeiro; Funch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the phylum was first described, the dwarf male has a remarkably complex bodyplan albeit its very small size (approx. 30–40 lm in length). Aiming to increase the knowledge on the gross morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male, specimens from S. pandora and S. americanus were analyzed by scanning electron...

  17. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...

  18. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  19. Morphological characterisation of two endemic species of ...

    The results showed no morphological variation on qualitative characteristics of leaf, growth habit and stem length. The coefficient of variations (CV) and standard deviations (SD) for all qualitative traits were zero. Boll length was positively correlated to boll weight with a factor of 0.355. Leaf length was inversely correlated to ...

  20. Cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular characterization ...

    Alternaria blotch (Alternaria mali) causes severe foliar damage to apple trees in Kashmir. Twenty one (21) isolates of A. mali were collected from different locations and characterized for cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular variations. A. mali colonies varied in their cultural behaviour ranging from velvety to ...

  1. Dislocation morphology in deformed and irradiated niobium

    Chang, C.P.

    1977-06-01

    Niobium foils of moderate purity were examined for the morphology of dislocations or defect clusters in the deformed or neutron-irradiated state by transmission electron microscopy. New evidence has been found for the dissociation of screw dislocations into partials on the (211) slip plane according to the Crussard mechanism: (a/2) [111] → (a/3) [111] + (a/6) [111

  2. morphological characteristics and classification of soils derived

    Prof. Ekwueme

    MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION OF. SOILS DERIVED FROM DIVERSE PARENT MATERIALS IN CENTRAL. CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA. 271. M. E. NSOR and I. J. IBANGA. (Received 5 October 2007; Revision Accepted 5 December 2007). ABSTRACT. Variation in soil characteristics ...

  3. Esophageal Dysfunction in Friesian Horses: Morphological Features

    Ploeg, M.; Grone, A.; Saey, V.; Bruijn, de C.M.; Back, W.; Weeren, van P.R.; Scheideman, W.; Picavet, T.; Ducro, B.J.; Wijnberg, I.; Delesalle, C.

    2015-01-01

    Megaesophagus appears to be more common in Friesian horses than in other breeds. A prevalence of approximately 2% was observed among Friesian horses presented to the Wolvega Equine Clinic and the Utrecht University Equine Clinic. In this study, morphologic changes in the esophagi of Friesian horses

  4. Baseline Haematology and Erythrocyte Morphological Changes of ...

    Summary: This study evaluates the haematological parameters and the observed erythrocytes morphological changes in dogs raised in Ibadan, Oyo State in the south western part of Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from sixty-four apparently healthy dogs. The haematological parameters of the blood samples ...

  5. Morphological peculiarities of bryophytes asexual organs

    Oksana Lobachevska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main types of brood organs of dominant bryophyte species on dumps of the mining factories were determined. The special features of morphology, localization and genesis of specialized asexual propagula and gemmae were detected. The analysis of their role in reproductive strategy of colonist species was conducted.

  6. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    history of the Fan. After India's soft collision with the Eurasian plate, these events may have played a critical role in shaping various morphological features since late Eocene in the Bay of Bengal. The present 12 kHz Echo sounder data collected along...

  7. Parametric based morphological transformation for contrast ...

    for contrast enhancement of color images in poor-lighting ... high and low mean brightness value, there is a significant change in the view of the enhanced ... The two most fundamental morphological operations dilation and erosion are defined by ..... Menotti David 2007 Multi-histogram equalization methods for contrast ...

  8. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    Doorn, van W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Woltering, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the

  9. Determination of morphological features and molecular interactions ...

    This research focused on identifying the morphological features and molecular interactions of the Nigerian Bentonitic clays using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) characterisation technique. The SEM microstructure images indicated that the bentonite samples are generally moderately dispersive to dispersive with ...

  10. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  11. Genome size, morphological and palynological variations, and ...

    The present study compares the morphological, palynologycal and genome size (C-value content) characteristics in the long-styled and short-styled plants in three Linum species, that is, ... The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test performed among the three Linum species showed a significant difference in 2C-value content.

  12. Book review: Insect morphology and phylogeny

    Susanne Randolf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Beutel RG, Friedrich F, Ge S-Q, Yang X-K (2014 Insect Morphology and Phylogeny: A textbook for students of entomology. De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, 516 pp., softcover. ISBN 978-3-11-026263-6.

  13. Assessment of biodiversity based on morphological characteristics ...

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... Different morphological characteristics and PCR based random amplified ... accelerated land and water degradation (Anonymous,. 2004). Loss of the ... temperate to hot arid regions. ... and conservation of such plants require a broad under- standing of ..... mental conditions, therefore, hunting native germ-.

  14. A framework for bootstrapping morphological decomposition

    Joubert, LJ

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for a bootstrapping approach to the morphological decomposition of words in agglutinative languages such as isiZulu is motivated, and the complexities of such an approach are described. The authors then introduce a generic framework which...

  15. Mapping spatial patterns with morphological image processing

    Peter Vogt; Kurt H. Riitters; Christine Estreguil; Jacek Kozak; Timothy G. Wade; James D. Wickham

    2006-01-01

    We use morphological image processing for classifying spatial patterns at the pixel level on binary land-cover maps. Land-cover pattern is classified as 'perforated,' 'edge,' 'patch,' and 'core' with higher spatial precision and thematic accuracy compared to a previous approach based on image convolution, while retaining the...

  16. Isolation and morphological characterization of antibiotic producing ...

    Purpose: To isolate and characterize antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil samples in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Methods: Crowded plate technique was used for the isolation of actinomycetes in media such as soybean – casein digest medium and actinomycetes isolation agar. The morphological and cultural ...

  17. Obaraedo: Conformity to Proppian Morphology | Okodo | AFRREV ...

    Various folktales of the Igbo people contain all the thirty-one functions of Propp's Morphology. Although, no one tale is expected to have all the functions, a lot has a pretty number of the functions. One of such tales is Obaraedo. Obaraedo has some motifs which are believably in line with the sequential occurrences of the ...

  18. Morphological and Phonological Structure in Zulu Reduplication

    Cook, Toni

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides an account of Zulu reduplication within the derivational framework of Distributed Morphology (DM). New Zulu data challenge the idea of reified domains like the D(erivational)-Stem and Macrostem as relevant constituents for reduplication (Downing 1997, Hyman, Inkelas, and Sibanda 2009). Instead, a crucial distinction is…

  19. Morphological, cultural, pathogenic and molecular variability ...

    Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) causes severe foliar damage to Indian mustard in Uttarakhand. Ten (10) isolates of A. brassicae were collected from different hosts and characterized for cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular variations. A. brassicae colonies varied in their cultural behaviour ranging from ...

  20. Morphological studies of some cultivated soils

    Slager, S.

    1966-01-01

    A study was made of those morphological and physical soil properties considered to govern root development.

    A deep and wide-branched root system was shown only to develop in a soil containing a permanent heterogeneous pore system, formed by biological activity in the profile. Therefore a

  1. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  2. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  3. Morphology Is a Link to the Past: Examining Formative and Secular Galactic Evolution through Morphology

    Galloway, Melanie A.

    Galaxy morphology is one of the primary keys to understanding a galaxy's evolutionary history. External mechanisms (environment/clustering, mergers) have a strong impact on the formative evolution of the major galactic components (disk, bulge, Hubble type), while internal instabilities created by bars, spiral arms, or other substructures drive secular evolution via the rearrangement of material within the disk. This thesis will explore several ways in which morphology impacts the dynamics and evolution of a galaxy using visual classifications from several Galaxy Zoo projects. The first half of this work will detail the motivations of using morphology to study galaxy evolution, and describe how morphology is measured, debiased, and interpreted using crowdsourced classification data via Galaxy Zoo. The second half will present scientific studies which make use of these classifications; first by focusing on the morphology of galaxies in the local Universe (z color. These results are consistent with a cosmological model in which bar-driven fueling contributes to the growth of black holes, but other dynamical mechanisms must also play a significant role. Next, the morphological dependence on wavelength is studied in Chapter 5 by comparing the optical morphological classifications from GZ2 to classifications done on infrared images in GZ:UKIDSS. Consistent morphologies were found in both sets and similar bar fractions, which confirms that for most galaxies, both old and young stellar populations follow similar spatial distributions. Last, the morphological changes in galaxy populations are computed as a function of their age using classifications from Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (Chapter 6). The evolution of the passive disc population from z = 1 to z = 0.3 was studied in a sample of 20,000 galaxies from the COSMOS field and morphologically classified by the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble project. It was found that the fraction of disc galaxies that are red, as well as the fraction of red

  4. Presentation of valid correlations in some morphological

    Florian Miftari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Study-research deals with younger students of both sexes aged 13-14, who, besides attending classes of physical education and sports, also practice in basketball schools in the city of Pristina. The experiment contains a total of 7 morphological variables, while four tests of basic motion skills and seven variables are from specific motion skills. In this study, the verification and analysis of the correlation of morphological characteristics and basic and situational motor skills in both groups of both sexes (boys and girls were treated. Based on the results obtained between several variables, valid correlations with high coefficients are presented, whereas among the variables are presented correlations with optimal values. The experimentation in question includes the number of 80 entities of both sexes; the group of 40 boys and the other group consisting of 40 girls who have undergone the tests for this study-experiment.

  5. Imaging Blood Vessel Morphology in Skin

    Schuh, Sandra; Holmes, Jon; Ulrich, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables the visualization of morphological changes of skin cancer. The use of OCT in the diagnostic investigation and in the therapy decision of non-melanoma skin cancer and other skin changes is already established, and has found its way into routine...... practice. With the development of speckle-variance OCT, also named dynamic OCT (D-OCT), the vascular architecture and the blood flow of the skin can be displayed in vivo and in 3D. This novel angiographic variant of OCT offers the ability to visualize and measure vessel morphology providing a new insight...... into healthy, inflammatory and neoplastic skin lesions such as malignant melanoma. This review focuses on the possibilities of using D-OCT on healthy and diseased skin. We suggest and illustrate key diagnostic characteristics by analyzing the initial publications and preliminary unpublished data on vessel...

  6. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics

    Poh-Chin Lai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery. The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities.

  7. Cortex and amygdala morphology in psychopathy.

    Boccardi, Marina; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Hare, Robert D; Cavedo, Enrica; Najt, Pablo; Pievani, Michela; Rasser, Paul E; Laakso, Mikko P; Aronen, Hannu J; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Vaurio, Olli; Thompson, Paul M; Tiihonen, Jari

    2011-08-30

    Psychopathy is characterized by abnormal emotional processes, but only recent neuroimaging studies have investigated its cerebral correlates. The study aim was to map local differences of cortical and amygdalar morphology. Cortical pattern matching and radial distance mapping techniques were used to analyze the magnetic resonance images of 26 violent male offenders (age: 32±8) with psychopathy diagnosed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and no schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and in matched controls (age: 35± sp="0.12"/>11). The cortex displayed up to 20% reduction in the orbitofrontal and midline structures (corrected pamygdala (corrected p=0.05 on the right; and symmetrical pattern on the left). Psychopathy features specific morphology of the main cerebral structures involved in cognitive and emotional processing, consistent with clinical and functional data, and with a hypothesis of an alternative evolutionary brain development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological patterns of urban sprawl territories

    Angelica I. Stan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global criticism on urban sprawl, the questions which arises are: what can we do with the expansion forms already occurred in most part of our cities; can they be fully or partially integrated into the city? But first, which exactly are the common morphological features of urban expansion areas in large European cities, and (by comparison in Romania? The urban form correlated to these „sparwl patterns” and „sprawl mechanisms” shows more then the lack of planning, but a social input in occuping the territory, related with a specific meaning of the landscape. The paper explores the relationship between the five distinct morphological patterns ways of forming in relation to spatial and landscape shapes which they generate, in the territories of sprawl, all illustrated through case studies of Bucharest.

  9. Semantic growth of morphological families in English

    Henry Regina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the question of when and how morphological families are formed in one’s mental lexicon, by analyzing age-of-acquisition norms to morphological families (e.g., booking, bookshelf, check book and their shared morphemes (book. We demonstrate that the speed of growth and the size of the family depend on how early the shared morpheme is acquired and how many connections the family has at the time a new concept is incorporated in the family. These findings dovetail perfectly with the Semantic Growth model of connectivity in semantic networks by Steyvers and Tenenbaum (2005. We discuss implications of our findings for theories of vocabulary acquisition.

  10. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics

    Chen, Si; Stimson, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities. PMID:29518956

  11. A statistical model for mapping morphological shape

    Li Jiahan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living things come in all shapes and sizes, from bacteria, plants, and animals to humans. Knowledge about the genetic mechanisms for biological shape has far-reaching implications for a range spectrum of scientific disciplines including anthropology, agriculture, developmental biology, evolution and biomedicine. Results We derived a statistical model for mapping specific genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs that control morphological shape. The model was formulated within the mixture framework, in which different types of shape are thought to result from genotypic discrepancies at a QTL. The EM algorithm was implemented to estimate QTL genotype-specific shapes based on a shape correspondence analysis. Computer simulation was used to investigate the statistical property of the model. Conclusion By identifying specific QTLs for morphological shape, the model developed will help to ask, disseminate and address many major integrative biological and genetic questions and challenges in the genetic control of biological shape and function.

  12. Organic Based Solar Cells with Morphology Control

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    The field of organic solar cells has in the last years gone through an impressive development with efficiencies reported up to 12 %. For organic solar cells to take the leap from primarily being a laboratory scale technology to being utilized as renewable energy source, several issues need...... Microscopy and as solar cells in a blend with PCBM. It was concluded that these particles did not show a potential large enough for continuous work due to a high material loss and low efficiency when applied in solar cells. The second method to achieve was preparation of pre-arranged morphology organic...... nanoparticles consisting of a blend of donor and acceptor in an aqueous dispersion, thereby addressing two of the issues remaining in the field of organic solar cells. This approach was used on six different polymers, which all had the ability to prepare aqueous nanoparticle inks. The morphology...

  13. Morphological Computation: Synergy of Body and Brain

    Keyan Ghazi-Zahedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous examples that show how the exploitation of the body’s physical properties can lift the burden of the brain. Examples include grasping, swimming, locomotion, and motion detection. The term Morphological Computation was originally coined to describe processes in the body that would otherwise have to be conducted by the brain. In this paper, we argue for a synergistic perspective, and by that we mean that Morphological Computation is a process which requires a close interaction of body and brain. Based on a model of the sensorimotor loop, we study a new measure of synergistic information and show that it is more reliable in cases in which there is no synergistic information, compared to previous results. Furthermore, we discuss an algorithm that allows the calculation of the measure in non-trivial (non-binary systems.

  14. 3D Morphology Design for Forward Osmosis

    Shi, Meixia

    2016-06-06

    We propose a multi-scale simulation approach to model forward osmosis (FO) processes using substrates with layered homogeneous morphology. This approach accounts not only for FO setup but also for detailed microstructure of the substrate using the digitally reconstructed morphology. We fabricate a highly porous block copolymer membrane, which has not been explored for FO heretofore, and use it as the substrate for interfacial polymerization. The substrate has three sub-layers, namely a top layer, a sponge-like middle layer, and a nonwoven fabric layer. We generate a digital microstructure for each layer, and verify them with experimental measurements. The permeability and effective diffusivity of each layer are computed based on their virtual microstructures and used for FO operation in cross-flow setups at the macro scale. The proposed simulation approach predicts accurately the FO experimental data.

  15. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics.

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Chen, Si; Low, Chien-Tat; Cerin, Ester; Stimson, Robert; Wong, Pui Yun Paulina

    2018-03-07

    Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities.

  16. Modelling the morphology of migrating bacterial colonies

    Nishiyama, A.; Tokihiro, T.; Badoual, M.; Grammaticos, B.

    2010-08-01

    We present a model which aims at describing the morphology of colonies of Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis. Our model is based on a cellular automaton which is obtained by the adequate discretisation of a diffusion-like equation, describing the migration of the bacteria, to which we have added rules simulating the consolidation process. Our basic assumption, following the findings of the group of Chuo University, is that the migration and consolidation processes are controlled by the local density of the bacteria. We show that it is possible within our model to reproduce the morphological diagrams of both bacteria species. Moreover, we model some detailed experiments done by the Chuo University group, obtaining a fine agreement.

  17. Morphology of auroral zone radio wave scintillation

    Rino, C.L.; Matthews, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the morphology of midnight sector and morning sector auroral zone scintillation observations made over a two-year period using the Wideband satelite, which is in a sun-synchronous, low-altitude orbit. No definitive seasonal variation was found. The nighttime data showed the highest scintillation ocurrence levels, but significant amounts of morning scintillation were observed. For the most part the scintillation activity followed the general pattern of local magnetic activity. The most prominent feature in the nightime data is a localized amplitude and phase scintillation enhancement at the point where the propagation vector lies within an L shell. A geometrical effect due to a dynamic slab of sheetlike structures in the F region is hypothesized as the source of his enhancement. The data have been sorted by magnetic activity, proximity to local midnight, and season. The general features of the data are in agreement with the accepted morphology of auroral zone scintillation

  18. FST Based Morphological Analyzer for Hindi Language

    Deepak Kumar; Manjeet Singh; Seema Shukla

    2012-01-01

    Hindi being a highly inflectional language, FST (Finite State Transducer) based approach is most efficient for developing a morphological analyzer for this language. The work presented in this paper uses the SFST (Stuttgart Finite State Transducer) tool for generating the FST. A lexicon of root words is created. Rules are then added for generating inflectional and derivational words from these root words. The Morph Analyzer developed was used in a Part Of Speech (POS) Tagger based on Stanford...

  19. Neuron Morphology Influences Axon Initial Segment Plasticity.

    Gulledge, Allan T; Bravo, Jaime J

    2016-01-01

    In most vertebrate neurons, action potentials are initiated in the axon initial segment (AIS), a specialized region of the axon containing a high density of voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. It has recently been proposed that neurons use plasticity of AIS length and/or location to regulate their intrinsic excitability. Here we quantify the impact of neuron morphology on AIS plasticity using computational models of simplified and realistic somatodendritic morphologies. In small neurons (e.g., dentate granule neurons), excitability was highest when the AIS was of intermediate length and located adjacent to the soma. Conversely, neurons having larger dendritic trees (e.g., pyramidal neurons) were most excitable when the AIS was longer and/or located away from the soma. For any given somatodendritic morphology, increasing dendritic membrane capacitance and/or conductance favored a longer and more distally located AIS. Overall, changes to AIS length, with corresponding changes in total sodium conductance, were far more effective in regulating neuron excitability than were changes in AIS location, while dendritic capacitance had a larger impact on AIS performance than did dendritic conductance. The somatodendritic influence on AIS performance reflects modest soma-to-AIS voltage attenuation combined with neuron size-dependent changes in AIS input resistance, effective membrane time constant, and isolation from somatodendritic capacitance. We conclude that the impact of AIS plasticity on neuron excitability will depend largely on somatodendritic morphology, and that, in some neurons, a shorter or more distally located AIS may promote, rather than limit, action potential generation.

  20. Sample size for morphological traits of pigeonpea

    Giovani Facco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the sample size (i.e., number of plants required to accurately estimate the average of morphological traits of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. and to check for variability in sample size between evaluation periods and seasons. Two uniformity trials (i.e., experiments without treatment were conducted for two growing seasons. In the first season (2011/2012, the seeds were sown by broadcast seeding, and in the second season (2012/2013, the seeds were sown in rows spaced 0.50 m apart. The ground area in each experiment was 1,848 m2, and 360 plants were marked in the central area, in a 2 m × 2 m grid. Three morphological traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter were evaluated 13 times during the first season and 22 times in the second season. Measurements for all three morphological traits were normally distributed and confirmed through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Randomness was confirmed using the Run Test, and the descriptive statistics were calculated. For each trait, the sample size (n was calculated for the semiamplitudes of the confidence interval (i.e., estimation error equal to 2, 4, 6, ..., 20% of the estimated mean with a confidence coefficient (1-? of 95%. Subsequently, n was fixed at 360 plants, and the estimation error of the estimated percentage of the average for each trait was calculated. Variability of the sample size for the pigeonpea culture was observed between the morphological traits evaluated, among the evaluation periods and between seasons. Therefore, to assess with an accuracy of 6% of the estimated average, at least 136 plants must be evaluated throughout the pigeonpea crop cycle to determine the sample size for the traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter in the different evaluation periods and between seasons. 

  1. Evolutionary morphology of the rabbit skull

    Brian Kraatz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt. Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in leporids, and here we use an extensive 3D geometric morphometrics dataset to further explore what influences leporid cranial diversity. Facial tilt angle, a trait that strongly correlates with locomotor mode, significantly predicts the cranial shape variation captured by the primary axis of cranial shape space, and describes a small proportion (13.2% of overall cranial shape variation in the clade. However, locomotor mode does not correlate with overall cranial shape variation in the clade, because there are two district morphologies of generalist species, and saltators and cursorial species have similar morphologies. Cranial shape changes due to phyletic size change (evolutionary allometry also describes a small proportion (12.5% of cranial shape variation in the clade, but this is largely driven by the smallest living leporid, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis. By integrating phylogenetic history with our geometric morphometric data, we show that the leporid cranium exhibits weak phylogenetic signal and substantial homoplasy. Though these results make it difficult to reconstruct what the ‘ancestral’ leporid skull looked like, the fossil records suggest that dorsal arching and facial tilt could have occurred before the origin of the crown group. Lastly, our study highlights the diversity of cranial variation in crown leporids, and highlights a need for additional phylogenetic work that includes stem (fossil leporids and includes morphological data that captures the transformed morphology of rabbits and hares.

  2. Gross morphology of rhea oropharyngeal cavity

    Marcio N. Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rhea (Rhea americana americana is an american bird belonging to Ratite's family. Studies related to its morphology are still scarce. This study aims to describe the macroscopic structures of the oropharyngeal cavity. Five heads (2 to 6 months old formalin preserved were anatomically dissected to expose the oropharynx. The oropharynx of the rhea was "bell-shaped" composed by the maxillary and mandibular rhamphotheca. The roof and floor presented two distinct regions different in colour of the mucosa. The rostral region was pale pink contrasting to grey coloured caudal region. The median longitudinal ridge extended rostrally from the apex of the choana to the tip of the beak in the roof and it is clearly more prominent and rigid than the homolog in the floor that appeared thin and stretched merely along the rostral portion of the regio interramalis. The floor was formed by the interramal region, (regio interramalis tongue and laryngeal mound containing glove-shaped glottis. This study confirmed the basic morphology of the oropharinx of the rhea. However, important morphological information not previously described is highlighted and contradictory information present in the literature is clarified.

  3. Neurocranial morphology and growth in Williams syndrome.

    Axelsson, Stefan; Kjaer, Inger; Heiberg, Arvid; Bjørnland, Tore; Storhaug, Kari

    2005-02-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital neurodevelopmental disorder with distinctive facial features, cardiovascular abnormalities, short stature, mental retardation, and behaviour and cognitive characteristics. The aim of this study was to describe the neurocranial morphology and growth in a group of 62 individuals with WS. The neurocranium was analysed on lateral cephalograms and comparisons were made with neurocranial standards from longitudinal data derived from the Oslo University Craniofacial Growth Archive. The size and morphology of the neurocranium in WS subjects differed from controls. Females as a group showed greater differences than males. The posterior cranial base length was shorter in both WS males and females, and the anterior cranial base length was shorter in WS females whereas it was close to normal in the WS male group. The cranial base angle was, however, not different from the control groups. A flattening was seen in the superior aspect of the parietal bone in both WS males and females. In the posterior part of the neurocranium, the prominence of the occipital bone was larger than in the control groups, which was also reflected in a larger total length of the neurocranium. The thickness of the frontal and occipital bones was considerably greater than in the control group. The deviant size and morphology of the neurocranium in WS subjects was already established in the youngest age group and maintained throughout the observation period. The growth pattern of the neurocranium in WS subjects seemed to be similar to that of the control groups, except in a few individuals.

  4. Functional Morphology of Eunicidan (Polychaeta) Jaws

    Clemo, W. C.; Dorgan, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Polychaetes exhibit diverse feeding strategies and diets, with some species possessing hardened teeth or jaws of varying complexity. Species in the order Eunicida have complex, rigidly articulated jaws consisting of multiple pairs of maxillae and a pair of mandibles. While all Eunicida possess this general jaw structure, a number of characteristics of the jaw parts vary considerably among families. These differences, described for fossilized and extant species' jaws, were used to infer evolutionary relationships, but current phylogeny shows that jaw structures that are similar among several families are convergent. Little has been done, however, to relate jaw functional morphology and feeding behavior to diet. To explore these relationships, we compared the jaw kinematics of two taxa with similar but evolutionarily convergent jaw structures: Diopatra (Onuphidae) and Lumbrineris (Lumbrineridae). Diopatra species are tube-dwelling and predominantly herbivorous, whereas Lumbrineris species are burrowing carnivores. Jaw kinematics were observed and analyzed by filming individuals biting or feeding and tracking tooth movements in videos. Differences in jaw structure and kinematics between Diopatra and Lumbrineris can be interpreted to be consistent with their differences in diet. Relating jaw morphology to diet would provide insight into early annelid communities by linking fossil teeth (scolecodonts) to the ecological roles of extant species with similar morphologies.

  5. Postoperative X-ray morphology: Thorax

    Vogel, H.

    1987-01-01

    The publication focuses on the X-ray morphology of lungs. While one chapter is dedicated to the diagnoses obtained during the postoperative case of patients operated for the lungs a second chapter deals with the X-ray diagnosis of patients during the first days after lung surgery. Chapter 3 discusses the postoperative medical care of patients in medical intensive case units after operations other than lung surgery. The parallels between the critical care of patients after heart surgery and the critical care after operations other than heart surgery explain their simultaneous discussion in one chapter. Some diagnoses refer to patients subjected to long-term oxygen breathing and patients after abdomen and bone joint surgery. These are parallels between the volume 'Postoperative X-ray morphology: Blood vessels' and the chapter 'Heart' dealing with the coronary vessels; postoperative changes due to cogenital vitiae belong to pediatric radiology. The oesophagus dealt with in 'mediastinum und mediastinal organs' is also discussed in the volume on 'Postoperative X-ray morphology: Abdomen.' In order to avoid repetitions both chapters represent but a selection of facts. The publication focuses on the medical care of adult heat patients after cardiac valve surgery and coronary bypass surgery on the basis of native diagnostics. Methods of a more radical nature (for example those preceding re-operations) are only mentioned briefly. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Diversity Of Mandibular Morphology In Some Carnivorans

    Rahmat S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of mandibular morphology of some aquatic (seals, walruses, and sea otters and terrestrial (hyenas and pandas carnivorans demonstrates a rather general pattern correlating size of condyloid angle, size of gape, and diet. Structural differences of carnivoran jaws reveal morphological and ecological adaptations that are directly correlated with availability of prey, diving depth, feeding competition and specialized feeding methods. Specifically, the inclination of the condyloid process relative to the axis of the alveolar row (= condyloid angle can be used to determine dietary preferences, including size of prey. Generally, carnivorans with a large condyloid angle feed on larger prey, while a low condyloid angle suggests feeding on small prey or can be an advantageous feeding mechanism. Mirounga angustirostris (Northern elephant seal displays sex-specific characters in cranial and postcranial elements. Likewise, significant sexually dimorphic differences in the size of condyloid angle imply that deeper-diving male Northern elephant seals have a feeding niche dissimilar to that of females. Morphological assessment of male M. angustirostris suggests they are bottom-feeding seals that utilize a suction-feeding mechanism to capture small prey and crush shells with their teeth, which become weaker as they age.

  7. A PRIMER ON UNIFYING DEBRIS DISK MORPHOLOGIES

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  8. A PRIMER ON UNIFYING DEBRIS DISK MORPHOLOGIES

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  9. A Primer on Unifying Debris Disk Morphologies

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-08-01

    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  10. Morphological variation in maize inbred lines

    Jiban Shrestha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify morphological variation in maize inbred lines, one hundred five inbred lines were planted under randomized complete block design with two replications at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during summer season (March to June, 2010. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were done. The results revealed a wide range of morphological variation among the tested inbred lines. The inbred lines grouped in cluster 4 namely PUTU-13, L-9, RL-105, RL-197, RL-103, RML-9, RML-41, RL-165, RL-36, RL-76, RL-125, RL-30-3, L-6, RL-107, RL-174, RL-41, L-13, RML-76 and L-5 had 0.833 days anthesis-silking interval and earlier in flowering (tasseling in 54.50 days and silking in 55.33 days. Moreover they consisted of 1.16 plant aspect, 1.25 ear aspect, 33.08 cm tassel length and 13.5 tassel branch number. Among tested lines, the above inbred lines had better morphological traits, so it was concluded that they were good candidates for development of hybrids and synthetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10521 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 98-107

  11. Morphology of Thermoplastic Elastomers:Stereoblock Polypropylene

    Pople, John A

    2002-08-06

    The morphologies of low-density (0.86 g/cm{sup 3}), elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) derived from bis(2-arylindenyl) hafnium dichloride were investigated using a combination of polarized optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM). These low-crystallinity polypropylenes, when crystallized isothermally from the melt, exhibit morphologies reminiscent of classical semi-crystalline polymers. The presence of lamellae, cross-hatching, hedrites, and spherulites was revealed by high resolution TM-AFM. These elastomeric polypropylenes can be fractionated into components of different average tacticities and crystallinities, but similar molecular mass. The analysis of the morphologies of all of the fractions revealed both large hierarchical structures and cross-hatching typical of the {alpha}-modification of crystalline isotactic polypropylene for all but the lowest crystalline ether soluble fraction. Evidence for high-melting crystals in all of the fractions are most consistent with a stereoblock microstructure of atactic and isotactic sequences.

  12. Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (?????0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the

  13. Controlling Film Morphology in Conjugated Polymer

    Park, Lee Y.; Munro, Andrea M.; Ginger, David S.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of patterned surface chemistry on the microscale and nanoscale morphology of solution-processed donor/acceptor polymer-blend films. Focusing on combinations of interest in polymer solar cells, we demonstrate that patterned surface chemistry can be used to tailor the film morphology of blends of semiconducting polymers such as poly-[2-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-5-methoxy-p-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV), poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT), poly[(9,9-dioctylflorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-benzothiadiazole)] (F8BT), and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N’-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N’-phenyl-1,4-phenylendiamine) (PFB) with the fullerene derivative, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). We present a method for generating patterned, fullerene-terminated monolayers on gold surfaces, and use microcontact printing and Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) to pattern alkanethiols with both micro- and nanoscale features. After patterning with fullerenes and other functional groups, we backfill the rest of the surface with a variety of thiols to prepare substrates with periodic variations in surface chemistry. Spin coating polymer:PCBM films onto these substrates, followed by thermal annealing under nitrogen, leads to the formation of structured polymer films. We characterize these films with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The surface patterns are effective in guiding phase separation in all of the polymer:PCBM systems investigated, and lead to a rich variety of film morphologies that are inaccessible with unpatterned substrates. We demonstrate our ability to guide pattern formation in films thick enough of be of interest for actual device applications (up to 200 nm in thickness) using feature sizes as small as 100 nm. Finally, we show that the surface chemistry can lead to variations in film morphology on length scales significantly smaller than those used in generating the original surface patterns. The variety of

  14. Eight novel Bipolaris species identified from John L. Alcorn’s collections at the Queensland Plant Pathology Herbarium (BRIP)

    Tan, Yu Pei; Crous, Pedro W.; Shivas, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    Several unidentified specimens of Bipolaris deposited in the Queensland Plant Pathology Herbarium (BRIP) that were previously recognised by Dr. John L. Alcorn as taxonomically interesting were re-examined. The morphology of conidia and conidiophores, as well as phylogenetic inference from the

  15. Aspergillus section Nidulantes (formerly Emericella): Polyphasic taxonomy, chemistry and biology

    Chen, A.J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Sun, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes includes species with striking morphological characters, such as biseriate conidiophores with brown-pigmented stipes, and if present, the production of ascomata embedded in masses of Hülle cells with often reddish brown ascospores. The majority of species in this se...

  16. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE PINNA

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... show ethnic variations. This study describes ethnic differences in the morphology of the pinna. Both ears ... Keywords: Pinna morphology, Ethnic difference, Variations. INTRODUCTION ..... World J Med Res. 1 (5): 091-095.

  17. Investigations of morphological changes during annealing of polyethylene single crystals

    Tian, M.; Loos, J.

    2001-01-01

    The morphological evolution of isolated individual single crystals deposited on solid substrates was investigated during annealing experiments using in situ and ex situ atomic force microscopy techniques. The crystal morphology changed during annealing at temperatures slightly above the original

  18. Childhood hydrocephalus – is radiological morphology associated with etiology

    Foss-Skiftesvik, Jon; Andresen, Morten; Juhler, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians use a non-standardized, intuitive approach when correlating radiological morphology and etiology of hydrocephalus.......Clinicians use a non-standardized, intuitive approach when correlating radiological morphology and etiology of hydrocephalus....

  19. Categorization of aortic aneurysm thrombus morphology by magnetic resonance imaging

    de la Motte, Louise; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Thomsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed for qualitative categorization of intraluminal thrombus morphology. We aimed to correlate the qualitative MRI categorization previously described to quantitative measurements of signal intensity and to compare morphological characteristics...

  20. The morphology of skin sheep of different genotypes

    LADYSH I.A.

    2011-01-01

    The peculiarities of the morphology by the merino sheep skin Askania and Prekos breed in the different natureclimatic conditions were studied. The breeds and age peculiarities of the morphology skin layers were established.

  1. Modelling the cybersecurity environment using morphological ontology design engineering

    Jansen van Vuuren, JC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ). This methodology is based on the combination of three different research methods, i.e. design science, general morphological analysis, and ontology based representation. General morphological analysis offers a solution for extracting meaningful information from...

  2. Morphology and behaviour : functional links in development and evolution Introduction

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are

  3. System-morphological approach: Another look at morphology research and geomorphological mapping

    Lastochkin, Alexander N.; Zhirov, Andrey I.; Boltramovich, Sergei F.

    2018-02-01

    A large number of studies require a clear and unambiguous morphological basis. For over thirty years, Russian scientists have been applying a system-morphological approach for the Arctic and Antarctic research, ocean floor investigation, for various infrastructure construction projects (oil and gas, sports, etc.), in landscape and environmental studies. This article is a review aimed to introduce this methodological approach to the international scientific community. The details of the methods and techniques can be found in a series of earlier papers published in the Russian language in 1987-2016. The proposed system-morphological approach includes: 1) partitioning of the Earth surface, i.e. precise identification of linear, point, and areal elements of topography considered as a two-dimensional surface without any geological substance; 2) further identification of larger formations: geomorphological systems and regions; 3) analysis of structural relations and symmetry of topography; and 4) various dynamic (litho- and glaciodynamic, tectonic, etc.) interpretations of the observed morphology. This method can be used to study the morphology of the surface topography as well as less accessible interfaces such as submarine and subglacial ones.

  4. Analysis of Lamarckian Evolution in Morphologically Evolving Robots

    Jelisavcic, Milan; Kiesel, Rafael; Glette, Kyrre; Haasdijk, Evert; Eiben, A.E.

    Evolving robot morphologies implies the need for lifetime learning so that newborn robots can learn to manipulate their bodies. An individual’s morphology will obviously combine traits of all its parents; it must adapt its own controller to suit its morphology, and cannot rely on the controller of

  5. Upper spine morphology in hypophosphatemic rickets and healthy controls

    Gjørup, Hans; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Beck-Nielsen, Signe S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe upper spine morphology in adult patients with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls to assess differences in spine morphology in terms of severity of skeletal impact and to study associations between spine morphology...

  6. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    The outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer in 90 couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% were analysed. Based on the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa the patients were divided into three groups: group A - normal morphological features 0 - 5%; group B - 6 ...

  7. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    Pingel, Jessica; Fredberg, U.; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy....... The expressions of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and tendon morphology were determined in both chronically diseased and healthy tendon parts....

  8. Sediment transport and channel morphology of small, forested streams.

    Marwan A. Hassan; Michael Church; Thomas E. Lisle; Francesco Brardinoni; Lee Benda; Gordon E. Grant

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews sediment transport and channel morphology in small, forested streams in the Pacific Northwest region of North America to assess current knowledge of channel stability and morphology relevant to riparian management practices around small streams. Small channels are defined as ones in which morphology and hydraulics may be significantly influenced by...

  9. Tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology in pre-orthodontic children with and without morphological deviations in the upper cervical spine

    Jasemi, Ashkan; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze differences in prevalence and pattern of tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology between non syndromic children with tooth agenesis with and without upper cervical spine morphological deviations and to analyze associations between craniofacial morphology and tooth agenesis...... in the two groups together. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six pre-orthodontic children with tooth agenesis were divided into two groups with (19 children, mean age 11.9) and without (107 children, mean age 11.4) upper spine morphological deviations. Visual assessment of upper spine morphology...... and measurements of craniofacial morphology were performed on lateral cephalograms. Tooth agenesis was evaluated from orthopantomograms. RESULTS: No significant differences in tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology were found between children with and without upper spine morphological deviations (2.2 ± 1.6 vs...

  10. Morphologic analysis of the SKI preparedness

    Stenstroem, Maria

    2003-08-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is an independent government agency responsible for technical assessments and information concerning accidents involving nuclear facilities at home and abroad. With the events of September 11 in New York and Washington D.C., circumstances have also changed for Swedish government agencies. Increased focus had been placed on a broadened threat spectrum, especially as concerns terrorism and the use of non-conventional weapons and methods. This means that SKI must develop adequate preparedness for new types of threats and events. What types of threats, and how SKI's preparedness planning should be developed, are questions which were addressed in a study by a working group from SKI and FOI -the Swedish National Defence Research Agency. The purpose of the study was to identify serious threats and events, which would require SKI's involvement, and to analyze what resources and competencies would by needed in order for SKI to fulfill it responsibilities. Investigating a broadened threat spectrum involves defining and analyzing a multi-dimensional problem complex, which is both difficult to quantify and involves very complicated internal relationships. Morphological analysis is a method for structuring and analyzing such problem complexes, and for developing models based on natural language concepts. The working group developed and studied ten different scenarios, which defined the parameter space for a broadened threat spectrum for SKI. On the basis of these scenarios, a morphological model was developed which describes the demands that these scenarios place on SKI as an organization. On the basis of this, a further morphological model was developed, in order to systematically dimension the resources that would be needed in the face of these demands. Through this analysis, a clearer picture of the demands and required resources for future threats has emerged. The information and insights generated will serve to better develop

  11. Effects of Polymeric Dielectric Morphology on Pentacene Morphology and Organic TFT Characteristics

    Ye Rongbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on the effects of the polymeric dielectric morphology on pentacene morphology and organic thin film transistor (TFT characteristics. The morphology and thickness of cyclo-olefin polymer (COP dielectric could be controlled by selecting a solvent. Higher the solvent’s boiling point is, thinner and smother COP films could be obtained. Using the solvent of trimethylcyclohexane, the spin-coated COP films of ca. 330 nm with the peak-to-valley of 7.35 nm and the roughness of root mean square of 0.58 nm were obtained, and pentacene TFT showed high mobility of 2.0 cm2V-1s-1, which originated from highly ordering of pentacene thin films deposited on the smoother and thinner COP films.

  12. Morphology study of refractory carbide powders

    Vavrda, J.; Blazhikova, Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Refractory carbides were investigated using JSM-U3 electron microscope of Joelco company at 27 KV accelerating voltage. Some photographs of each powder were taken with different enlargements to characterise the sample upon the whole. It was shown that morphological and especially topographic study of powders enables to learn their past history (way of fabrication and treatment). The presence of steps of compact particle fractures and cracks is accompanied by occurence of fine dispersion of carbides subjected to machining after facrication. On the contrary, the character of crystallographic surfaces and features of surface growth testify to the way of crystallization

  13. Dan Brown: Morphology of a Bestsellersaurus

    Stefano Calabrese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dan Brown’s success finds reasons in multiple factors, social, morphological, cognitive and commercial: the cross-medial restructuring of aesthetic communication on a global scale; the use of zero-sum homeostatic mechanisms in shaping themes, characters and meanings; the mixing of history and fiction; the disappearance of naturalistic elements; the time structuring of plots in «packs», cognitively easy to comprehend; the presence of urban settings, recognizable and meaningful for the global tourist; the elimination of ambiguous elements, favouring an aesthetic orientation to problem solving.

  14. [Morphological changes in tongue cancer after cryosurgery].

    Zhou, X D; Mao, T Q

    1993-01-01

    Tca 8113 (human tongue cancer cell line) cell transplanted tumors in nude mice were treated with cryosurgery for three freeze-thaw cycles. Tumor samples were obtained by biopsies pre- and post-cryosurgery for morphological study. The results showed intercellular adhesion damage, nuclear pyknosis, cell death, etc. One week after, the deep parts of the frozen samples were similar to that of the untreated ones. Our study indicates the change of biomembrance may be also important as of nuclei in cell death and may play an important role in the treatment of cancer by cryochemistry.

  15. Heat of mixing and morphological stability

    Nandapurkar, P.; Poirier, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model, which incorporates heat of mixing in the energy balance, has been developed to analyze the morphological stability of a planar solid-liquid interface during the directional solidification of a binary alloy. It is observed that the stability behavior is almost that predicted by the analysis of Mullins and Sekerka (1963) at low growth velocities, while deviations in the critical concentration of about 20-25 percent are observed under rapid solidification conditions for certain systems. The calculations indicate that a positive heat of mixing makes the planar interface more unstable, whereas a negative heat of mixing makes it more stable, in terms of the critical concentration.

  16. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    van Doorn, W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    , which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined....... the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death...

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF SPLEEN: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Siva Chidambaram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spleen is a large lymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrial region having an important role in immunological and hematological functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find the morphological variations of the spleen with respect to it’s a Shape, b Number of notches on its borders and c Presence of anomalous fissure on its surface. The Study was done on 60 formalin fixed cadaveric spleen from the Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 60 spleens we examined, the various shapes of the spleen were noted suc h as wedge shape (73.33%, triangular (13.33%, tetrahedral (6.67% and oval shape(6.67%.The number of spleen showing notches on its superior border was 38(63.33% and in inferior border it was 6(10%. Absence of splenic notch was observed in 10(16.67% s pleens and the remaining 6 spleens (10% shows notches on its both the borders. The anomalous splenic fissure was found in 4(6.67% spleens on its diaphragmatic surface. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of spleen are essential for physician, s urgeon, radiologist and forensic surgeon to differentiate it from the splenic pathology and splenic injury. In addition to this, it is also important for anatomist during routine classroom dissection and discussion.

  18. Surface morphologies of He-implanted tungsten

    Bannister, M.E., E-mail: bannisterme@ornl.gov [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6371 (United States); Meyer, F.W.; Hijazi, H. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6371 (United States); Unocic, K.A.; Garrison, L.M.; Parish, C.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Surface morphologies of tungsten surfaces, both polycrystalline and single-crystal [1 1 0], were investigated using SEM and FIB/SEM techniques after implantations at elevated surfaces temperatures (1200–1300 K) using well-characterized, mono-energetic He ion beams with a wide range of ion energies (218 eV–250 keV). Nanofuzz was observed on polycrystalline tungsten (PCW) following implantation of 100-keV He ions at a flux threshold of 0.9 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, but not following 200-keV implantations with similar fluxes. No nanofuzz formation was observed on single-crystal [1 1 0] tungsten (SCW), despite fluxes exceeding those demonstrated previously to produce nanofuzz on polycrystalline tungsten. Pre-damaging the single-crystal tungsten with implanted C impurity interstitials did not significantly affect the surface morphologies resulting from the high-flux He ion implantations. The main factor leading to the different observed surface structures for the pristine and C-implanted single-crystal W samples appeared to be the peak He ion flux characterizing the different exposures. It was speculated that nanofuzz formation was not observed for any SCW target exposures because of increased incubation fluences required for such targets.

  19. Solutocapillary Convection Effects on Polymeric Membrane Morphology

    Krantz, William B.; Todd, Paul W.; Kinagurthu, Sanjay

    1996-01-01

    Macro voids are undesirable large pores in membranes used for purification. They form when membranes are cast as thin films on a smooth surface by evaporating solvent (acetone) from a polymer solution. There are two un-tested hypotheses explaining the growth of macro voids. One states that diffusion of the non-solvent (water) is solely responsible, while the other states that solutocapillary convection is the primary cause of macro void growth. Solutocapillary convection is flow-caused by a concentration induced surface-tension gradient. Macrovoid growth in the former hypothesis is gravity independent, while in the latter it is opposed by gravity. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, experiments were designed to cast membranes in zero-gravity. A semi-automated apparatus was designed and built for casting membranes during the 20 secs of zero-g time available in parabolic aircraft flight such as NASA's KC-135. The phase changes were monitored optically, and membrane morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These studies appear to be the first quantitative studies of membrane casting in micro-gravity which incorporate real-time data acquisition. Morphological studies of membranes cast at 0, 1, and 1.8 g revealed the presence of numerous, sparse and no macrovoids respectively. These results are consistent with the predictions of the solutocapillary hypothesis of macrovoid growth.

  20. Morphological Heterogeneity and Attachment of Phaeobacter inhibens.

    Segev, Einat; Tellez, Adèle; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Roseobacter clade is a key group of bacteria in the ocean exhibiting diverse metabolic repertoires and a wide range of symbiotic life-styles. Many Roseobacters possess remarkable capabilities of attachment to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. When attached to each other, these bacteria form multi-cellular structures called rosettes. Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied Roseobacter, exhibits various cell sizes and morphologies that are either associated with rosettes or occur as single cells. Here we describe the distribution of P. inhibens morphologies and rosettes within a population. We detect an N-acetylglucosamine-containing polysaccharide on the poles of some cells and at the center of all rosettes. We demonstrate that rosettes are formed by the attachment of individual cells at the polysaccharide-containing pole rather than by cell division. Finally, we show that P. inhibens attachment to abiotic surfaces is hindered by the presence of DNA from itself, but not from other bacteria. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that cell adhesiveness is likely to play a significant role in the life cycle of P. inhibens as well as other Roseobacters.

  1. Morphological Heterogeneity and Attachment of Phaeobacter inhibens.

    Einat Segev

    Full Text Available The Roseobacter clade is a key group of bacteria in the ocean exhibiting diverse metabolic repertoires and a wide range of symbiotic life-styles. Many Roseobacters possess remarkable capabilities of attachment to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. When attached to each other, these bacteria form multi-cellular structures called rosettes. Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied Roseobacter, exhibits various cell sizes and morphologies that are either associated with rosettes or occur as single cells. Here we describe the distribution of P. inhibens morphologies and rosettes within a population. We detect an N-acetylglucosamine-containing polysaccharide on the poles of some cells and at the center of all rosettes. We demonstrate that rosettes are formed by the attachment of individual cells at the polysaccharide-containing pole rather than by cell division. Finally, we show that P. inhibens attachment to abiotic surfaces is hindered by the presence of DNA from itself, but not from other bacteria. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that cell adhesiveness is likely to play a significant role in the life cycle of P. inhibens as well as other Roseobacters.

  2. Ultrastructural Morphology of Sperm from Human Globozoospermia

    Giuseppe Ricci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globozoospermia is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of sperm with round head, lacking acrosome. Coiling tail around the nucleus has been reported since early human studies, but no specific significance has conferred it. By contrast, studies on animal models suggest that coiling tail around the nucleus could represent a crucial step of defective spermatogenesis, resulting in round-headed sperm. No observations, so far, support the transfer of this hypothesis to human globozoospermia. The purpose of this work was to compare ultrastructural morphology of human and mouse model globozoospermic sperm. Sperm have been investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The images that we obtained show significant similarities to those described in GOPC knockout mice, an animal model of globozoospermia. By using this model as reference, we were able to identify the probable steps of the tail coiling process in human globozoospermia. Although we have no evidence that there is the same pathophysiology in man and knocked-out mouse, the similarities between these ultrastructural observations in human and those in the experimental model are very suggestive. This is the first demonstration of the existence of relevant morphological homologies between the tail coiling in animal model and human globozoospermia.

  3. The Morphology of Emulsion Polymerized Latex Particles

    Wignall, G. D.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Linne, M. A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L. H.; Wai, M. P.; Gelman, R. A.; Fatica, M. G.; Hoerl, R. H.; Fisher, L. W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structure as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10{sup 4} 10{sup 6} the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights.

  4. Morphological rational operator for contrast enhancement.

    Peregrina-Barreto, Hayde; Herrera-Navarro, Ana M; Morales-Hernández, Luis A; Terol-Villalobos, Iván R

    2011-03-01

    Contrast enhancement is an important task in image processing that is commonly used as a preprocessing step to improve the images for other tasks such as segmentation. However, some methods for contrast improvement that work well in low-contrast regions affect good contrast regions as well. This occurs due to the fact that some elements may vanish. A method focused on images with different luminance conditions is introduced in the present work. The proposed method is based on morphological transformations by reconstruction and rational operations, which, altogether, allow a more accurate contrast enhancement resulting in regions that are in harmony with their environment. Furthermore, due to the properties of these morphological transformations, the creation of new elements on the image is avoided. The processing is carried out on luminance values in the u'v'Y color space, which avoids the creation of new colors. As a result of the previous considerations, the proposed method keeps the natural color appearance of the image.

  5. Acute radiation sickness - morphology of CNS syndrome

    Kamarad, V.

    1989-01-01

    The effect was studied of supralethal doses of 60 Co gamma radiation on morphological changes in the brains of laboratory animals. For experiments, female rats irradiated with doses of 15 to 960 Gy, female mice irradiated with doses of 50 to 300 Gy and dogs irradiated with 6 to 500 Gy were used. For evaluation of the changes, light microscopy, electron microscopy and histochemistry were employed. The findings generally agreed with the results by other authors whose numerous studies are reviewed in detail. They included brain edema, alterations in enzyme activities, dystrophic changes and hemorrhages in nerve cells, marked structural changes in blood capillaries, damage of endothelial cells, etc. The observed changes in the activities of blood-brain barrier enzymes, increased pinocytotic activity and the formation of endothelial tunnels accompanied with necrosis of part of endothelial cells are clear morphological manifestations of marked alterations in the function of the blood-brain barrier that result in brain edema development. The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier significantly worsens primary changes induced by radiation, especially in nerve cels, and adversely affects possible repair processes. (L.O.). 146 figs., 8 tabs., 352 refs

  6. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths.

    van Doorn, W G; Beers, E P; Dangl, J L; Franklin-Tong, V E; Gallois, P; Hara-Nishimura, I; Jones, A M; Kawai-Yamada, M; Lam, E; Mundy, J; Mur, L A J; Petersen, M; Smertenko, A; Taliansky, M; Van Breusegem, F; Wolpert, T; Woltering, E; Zhivotovsky, B; Bozhkov, P V

    2011-08-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during tissue and organ formation and elimination, whereas necrosis is typically found under abiotic stress. Some examples of plant PCD cannot be ascribed to either major class and are therefore classified as separate modalities. These are PCD associated with the hypersensitive response to biotrophic pathogens, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined.

  7. Radio Source Morphology: 'nature or nuture'?

    Banfield, Julie; Emonts, Bjorn; O'Sullivan, Shane

    2012-10-01

    Radio sources, emanating from supermassive black-holes in the centres of active galaxies, display a large variety of morphological properties. It is a long-standing debate to what extent the differences between various types of radio sources are due to intrinsic properties of the central engine (`nature') or due to the properties of the interstellar medium that surrounds the central engine and host galaxy (`nurture'). Settling this `nature vs. nurture' debate for nearby radio galaxies, which can be studied in great detail, is vital for understanding the properties and evolution of radio galaxies throughout the Universe. We propose to observe the radio galaxy NGC 612 where previous observations have detected the presence of a large-scale HI bridge between the host galaxy and a nearby galaxy NGC 619. We request a total of 13 hrs in the 750m array-configuration to determine whether or not the 100 kpc-scale radio source morphology is directly related to the intergalactic distribution of neutral hydrogen gas.

  8. Elaiophores: their taxonomic distribution, morphology and functions

    Clivia Carolina Fiorilo Possobom

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elaiophores are floral glands that secrete non-volatile oils as a reward for their pollinators. Their secretions mediate a specialized interaction between oil-producing plants and a few species of oil-collecting bees - Apidae and Melittidae. The present review focuses on the morphological and functional aspects of these secretory structures. We also provide information on their chemistry and pollination ecology. Our survey is organized taxonomically among the plant families for which elaiophore occurrence has been confirmed -for the monocots, Iridaceae and Orchidaceae, and for the eudicots, Calceolariaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Krameriaceae, Malpighiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Primulaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Stilbaceae. Most oil flowers are zygomorphic, bisexual, nectarless and present their elaiophores on the protective whorls or on the androecium. Trichomal elaiophores are reported in all of these families except Krameriaceae and Malpighiaceae, and they vary in the density and morphology of the trichomes. Epithelial elaiophores occur in some monocot representatives and in Krameriaceae and Malpighiaceae, and are similar among species. An intermediate type of elaiophore is reported in some species of Orchidaceae. Regardless of elaiophore type, these glands have similar subcellular features and secretion-release mechanisms. Finally, we note the dearth of information on elaiophore ultrastructure and functioning for several plant families.

  9. Morphology and Structures of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Seo, Mira; Ann, HongBae

    2015-08-01

    We performed an analysis of the structure of nearby dwarf galaxies based on a 2-dimensional decomposition of galaxy images using GALFIT. The present sample consists of ~1,100 dwarf galaxies with redshift less than z = 0.01, which is is derived from the morphology catalog of the Visually classified galaxies in the local universe (Ann, Seo, and Ha 2015). In this catalog, dwarf galaxies are divided into 5 subtypes: dS0, dE, dSph, dEbc, dEblue with distinction of the presence of nucleation in dE, dSph, and dS0. We found that dSph and dEblue galaxies are fainter than other subtypes of dwarf galaxies. In most cases, single component, represented by the Sersic profile with n=1~1.5, well describes the luminosity distribution of dwarf galaxies in the present sample. However, a significant fraction of dS0, dEbc, and dEbue galaxies show sub-structures such as spiral arms and rings. We will discuss the morphology dependent evolutionary history of the local dwarf galaxies.

  10. Morphological caracteristics of malocclusion class II

    Pavlović J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusion are complex anomalies of the skeletal and dental systems. The aim of this study is that the rengenkefalometrics analysis closer determine the morphological characteristics of this malocclusion. For this study were used 30 patients aged 18-30, previously clinically diagnosed class II, before the planned orthodontic treatment. The results analisis lateral cephalometric radiographs were compared with the 30 patients with class I malocclusion. Analyzed three linear and two angular cranial base dimensions and nine angular and four linear measures from the facial skeleton. The Results show: No statistically significant differensis in cranial base angle (SNBa and anterior cranial base length (S-N between class II and control Class I. Angle maxillar prognathism ( SNA is no signifikant different between class I and Class II but SNB angle were signifikant smaller. The length of maxillary base (A'-SnP is longer and the length of mandibule (Pg'-MT1/MT is signifficantly smaller. The gonial angle (ArGo-Me was smaller with open articular angle (GoArSN. Morphological characteristics of class II malocclusion are , retrognathic and smaller mandibular ligth, normognathic and longer maxilla, open articular angle with vertical tendency of the craniofacial growth pattern.

  11. PERSIAN DOMES: HISTORY, MORPHOLOGY AND TYPOLOGIES

    Maryam Ashkan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Persian master builders had introduced an architectural innovation which had an imperishable effect on dome architecture in the Middle East and Central Asia: surmounting a dome on squinches. This paper aims to provide a broader perspective of Persian domes as the most significant feature of Eastern domes in the Middle East. As opposed to previous general historic studies, this paper introduces a new analytical approach directed towards analysis of architectural concepts and stylistic attributes of Persian domes based on an epistemological premise of their space syntax. By analytic reviewing of examples, the paper addresses the origin of Persian domes, their formal morphological constitutions, and their typological forms based on the diversity of the external shell over the specific timeline, from the pre-Islamic era through the Qajar period in Iran. The study of the Persian dome’s characteristics can illustrate undiscovered information about the essences of developing dome constructions in the Middle East. It can also establish new design standards regarding the frameworks of domical building configurations to be used for creating typological diversity in dome design and to renew the morphological principles of the traditional dome compositions in contemporary architectural designs. Finally, the insights gained can inform conservation efforts on domical structures in the region and elsewhere.

  12. Cervical column morphology and craniofacial profiles in monozygotic twins.

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Pallisgaard, Carsten; Kjaer, Inger

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have described the relationships between cervical column morphology and craniofacial morphology. The aims of the present study were to describe cervical column morphology in 38 pairs of adult monozygotic (MZ) twins, and compare craniofacial morphology in twins with fusions with craniofacial morphology in twins without fusion. Visual assessment of cervical column morphology and cephalometric measurements of craniofacial morphology were performed on profile radiographs. In the cervical column, fusion between corpora of the second and third vertebrae was registered as fusion. In the twin group, 8 twin pairs had fusion of the cervical column in both individuals within the pair (sub-group A), 25 pairs had no fusions (subgroup B), and in 5 pairs, cervical column morphology was different within the pair (subgroup C), as one twin had fusion and the other did not. Comparison of craniofacial profiles showed a tendency to increased jaw retrognathia, larger cranial base angle, and larger mandibular inclination in subgroup A than in subgroup B. The same tendency was observed within subgroup C between the individual twins with fusion compared with those without fusion. These results confirm that cervical fusions and craniofacial morphology may be interrelated in twins when analysed on profile radiographs. The study also documents that differences in cervical column morphology can occur in individuals within a pair of MZ twins. It illustrates that differences in craniofacial morphology between individuals within a pair of MZ twins can be associated with cervical fusion.

  13. Morphological development of petals in Ranunculaceae

    Yi Ren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The petals, or the honey-leaves, are of great divergence in morphology in Ranunculaceae, i. e., tubular, bilabial, cup-shaped, flat, concaved or scaled at the base, with or without spur or succate. The previous observations showed that although the petals differ in mature morphology, they showed great similarity in the early development stage. The petal primordia are all hemispherical, rounded and much smaller than the sepal primordia, a relatively long plastochron exists between the last sepal and the first petal and differentiate into a blade and a short stalk. Thus, we assumed that the different morphology of the mature petals might be due to the morphological repatterning of petals in the development. To prove the hypothesis, the morphological development of the petals from 22 species from 20 genera, recovering all ten petalous clades and the major morphological types, in Ranunculaceae was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The young petal undergoes the following developmental stages to the mature petal after it differentiates into blade and stalk. In the first stage, a depression appears at the base of the blade and the nectary tissue will appear in the depression in the later development. In the second stage, two bulges appear at the base of the depression that makes the petal bilabial and the bulges will be the upper lip of the petal and thus the blade will be the lower lip. In the third stage, two bulges become larger and fuse with one another at first and then fuse with the margins of the blade in each side, or each of the bulges fuses with the margin of the blade at first and then fuses with one another, or the bulges stop further growth and the depression deepened to form the succate or the spur. In the fourth stage, the lips, the two fused sides and the stalk growth in different speed. The divergence of development of different petals happens mainly in the third and the fourth stages and less divergence in the second and

  14. Morphological Evolution of Block Copolymer Particles: Effect of Solvent Evaporation Rate on Particle Shape and Morphology.

    Shin, Jae Man; Kim, YongJoo; Yun, Hongseok; Yi, Gi-Ra; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2017-02-28

    Shape and morphology of polymeric particles are of great importance in controlling their optical properties or self-assembly into unusual superstructures. Confinement of block copolymers (BCPs) in evaporative emulsions affords particles with diverse structures, including prolate ellipsoids, onion-like spheres, oblate ellipsoids, and others. Herein, we report that the evaporation rate of solvent from emulsions encapsulating symmetric polystyrene-b-polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) determines the shape and internal nanostructure of micron-sized BCP particles. A distinct morphological transition from the ellipsoids with striped lamellae to the onion-like spheres was observed with decreasing evaporation rate. Experiments and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations showed that the evaporation rate affected the organization of BCPs at the particle surface, which determined the final shape and internal nanostructure of the particles. Differences in the solvent diffusion rates in PS and PB at rapid evaporation rates induced alignment of both domains perpendicular to the particle surface, resulting in ellipsoids with axial lamellar stripes. Slower evaporation rates provided sufficient time for BCP organization into onion-like structures with PB as the outermost layer, owing to the preferential interaction of PB with the surroundings. BCP molecular weight was found to influence the critical evaporation rate corresponding to the morphological transition from ellipsoid to onion-like particles, as well as the ellipsoid aspect ratio. DPD simulations produced morphologies similar to those obtained from experiments and thus elucidated the mechanism and driving forces responsible for the evaporation-induced assembly of BCPs into particles with well-defined shapes and morphologies.

  15. Hybrid nanostructures: synthesis, morphology and functional properties

    Povolotskaya, A V; Povolotskiy, A V; Manshina, A A

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanostructures representing combinations of different materials and possessing properties that are absent in separate components forming the hybrid are discussed. Particular attention is given to hybrid structures containing plasmonic and magnetic nanoparticles, methods of their synthesis and the relationship between the composition, structure and properties. The functional features of the hybrid nanomaterials of various morphology (with core–shell structures, with encapsulated metal nanoparticles and with metal nanoparticles on the surface) are considered. The unique properties of these hybrid materials are demonstrated, which are of interest for solving problems of catalysis and photocatalysis, detecting impurities in various media, in vivo visualization, bioanalysis, as well as for the design of optical labels and multifunctional diagnostic nanoplatforms. The bibliography includes 182 references

  16. ULTRAVIOLET HALOS AROUND SPIRAL GALAXIES. I. MORPHOLOGY

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cafmeyer, Julian; Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: hodgeskl@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We examine ultraviolet halos around a sample of highly inclined galaxies within 25 Mpc to measure their morphology and luminosity. Despite contamination from galactic light scattered into the wings of the point-spread function, we find that ultraviolet (UV) halos occur around each galaxy in our sample. Around most galaxies the halos form a thick, diffuse disk-like structure, but starburst galaxies with galactic superwinds have qualitatively different halos that are more extensive and have filamentary structure. The spatial coincidence of the UV halos above star-forming regions, the lack of consistent association with outflows or extraplanar ionized gas, and the strong correlation between the halo and galaxy UV luminosity suggest that the UV light is an extragalactic reflection nebula. UV halos may thus represent 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} of dust within 2–10 kpc of the disk, whose properties may change with height in starburst galaxies.

  17. Malignant histiocytosis in childhood: morphologic considerations.

    Jurco, S; Starling, K; Hawkins, E P

    1983-12-01

    Eight cases diagnosed over a ten-year period as malignant histiocytosis (MH; histiocytic medullary reticulosis) were reviewed to clarify diagnostic criteria for the childhood disease and to identify sources of diagnostic confusion. Five of the eight cases met the authors' criteria for diagnosis; i.e., they were characterized by loose mixed infiltrates composed of three cell types--well-differentiated histiocytes, prohistiocytes, and malignant histiocytes--and they had no leukemic phase. Three cases did not share these features and were reclassified. The liver was found to be the organ most useful in premortem diagnosis, and immunoperoxidase staining for immunoglobulins and lysozyme was also helpful. The clinical and morphologic features of the five cases confirm the authors' view that diagnoses of MH should be limited to cases in which there is a loose pleomorphic population of all three types of histiocytes and that cases with monomorphous populations of aggregated malignant cells should be classified as lymphomas.

  18. Clinical Insights Into Foveal Morphology in Albinism.

    McCafferty, Brandon K; Wilk, Melissa A; McAllister, John T; Stepien, Kimberly E; Dubis, Adam M; Brilliant, Murray H; Anderson, Jennifer L; Carroll, Joseph; Summers, C Gail

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of albinism is foveal hypoplasia. However, literature suggests variable foveal development. This study evaluates the association between ocular phenotype and foveal morphology to demonstrate the broad structural and functional spectrum. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), nystagmus, angle kappa, stereoacuity, iris transillumination, macular melanin presence, foveal avascular zone, and annular reflex were recorded in 14 patients with albinism. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography provided macular images. The clinical phenotype was broad, with BCVA varying from 20/20 to 20/100. Better BCVA was associated with a preserved foveal avascular zone, annular macular reflex, stereoacuity, and macular melanin. Imaging demonstrated a continuum of foveal development correlating with BCVA. Individuals with a rudimentary pit had normal inner and outer segment lengthening and better BCVA. The spectrum of ocular structure and visual function in albinism is broad, suggesting a possible diagnosis of albinism in a patient with an even more normal clinical presentation. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Nornahraun lava morphology and mode of emplacement

    Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Höskuldsson, Armann; Riishuus, Morten S.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Drouin, Vincent; Gallagher, Catherine; Askew, Rob; Moreland, William M.; Dürig, Tobias; Dumont, Stephanie; Þórdarson, Þór

    2015-04-01

    The ongoing Nornahraun eruption is the largest effusive eruption in Iceland since the Laki eruption in 1783-84, with an estimated lava volume of ~1.15 km3 covering an area of ~83.4 km2 (as of 5 JAN 2015). The eruption provides an unprecedented opportunity to study i) lava morphologies and their emplacement styles, ii) the transition from from open to closed lava pathways and iii) lava pond formation. Tracking of the lava advancement and morphology has been performed by GPS and GoPro cameras installed in 4×4 vehicles as well as video footage. Complimentary observations have been provided from aircraft platforms and by satellite data. Of particular importance for lava morphology observations are 1-12 m/pixel airborne SAR images (x-band). The Nornahraun flow field comprises a continuum of morphologies from pāhoehoe to 'a'ā, which have varied tem-porally and spatially. At the onset of the eruption 31 AUG, lava flows advanced rapidly (400-800 m/hr) from the 1.5 km long fissure as large slabby pāhoehoe [1-3] sheet lobes, 100-500 m wide and 0.3-1 m thick at the flow fronts. By 1 SEPT, the flows began channeling towards the NE constrained by the older Holuhraun I lava field and the to-pography of flood plain itself. A central open channel developed, feeding a 1-2 km wide active 'a'ā frontal lobe that advanced 1-2 km/day. In addition to its own caterpillar motion, the frontal lobe advanced in a series of 30-50 m long breakouts, predominantly slabby and rubbly pāhoehoe [4,5]. These breakouts had initial velocities of 10-30 m/hr and reached their full length within tens of minutes and subsequently inflated over hours. With the continuous advancement of the 'a'ā flow front, the breakouts were incorporated into the 'a'ā flow fronts and seldom preserved. At the margins of the frontal lava lobe, the breakouts were more sporadic, but predominantly rubbly pāhoehoe and slabby pāhoehoe, as at the flow front. The lava flow advanced ENE into Jökulsá á Fjöllum on 7 SEPT

  20. Nanostructured surfaces investigated by quantitative morphological studies

    Perani, Martina; Carapezzi, Stefania; Mutta, Geeta Rani; Cavalcoli, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of different surfaces has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. Two different tools have been employed to this scope: the analysis of the height–height correlation function and the determination of the mean grain size, which have been combined to obtain a complete characterization of the surfaces. Different materials have been analyzed: SiO_xN_y, InGaN/GaN quantum wells and Si nanowires, grown with different techniques. Notwithstanding the presence of grain-like structures on all the samples analyzed, they present very diverse surface design, underlying that this procedure can be of general use. Our results show that the quantitative analysis of nanostructured surfaces allows us to obtain interesting information, such as grain clustering, from the comparison of the lateral correlation length and the grain size. (paper)

  1. semiconducting nanostructures: morphology and thermoelectric properties

    Culebras, Mario; Torán, Raquel; Gómez, Clara M.; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-08-01

    Semiconducting metallic oxides, especially perosvkite materials, are great candidates for thermoelectric applications due to several advantages over traditionally metallic alloys such as low production costs and high chemical stability at high temperatures. Nanostructuration can be the key to develop highly efficient thermoelectric materials. In this work, La 1- x Ca x MnO 3 perosvkite nanostructures with Ca as a dopant have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method to be used in thermoelectric applications at room temperature. Several heat treatments have been made in all samples, leading to a change in their morphology and thermoelectric properties. The best thermoelectric efficiency has been obtained for a Ca content of x=0.5. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are strongly related to the calcium content.

  2. Particulate morphology mathematics applied to particle assemblies

    Gotoh, Keishi

    2012-01-01

    Encompassing over fifty years of research, Professor Gotoh addresses the correlation function of spatial structures and the statistical geometry of random particle assemblies. In this book morphological study is formed into random particle assemblies to which various mathematics are applied such as correlation function, radial distribution function and statistical geometry. This leads to the general comparison between the thermodynamic state such as gases and liquids and the random particle assemblies. Although structures of molecular configurations change at every moment due to thermal vibration, liquids can be regarded as random packing of particles. Similarly, gaseous states correspond to particle dispersion. If physical and chemical properties are taken away from the subject, the remainder is the structure itself. Hence, the structural study is ubiquitous and of fundamental importance. This book will prove useful to chemical engineers working on powder technology as well as mathematicians interested in le...

  3. Nietzsche e la morfologia. Nietzsche and Morphology

    Andrea Bocchetti

    2016-12-01

    Goethe’s thought as a scientist and Morphology have had a pivotal influence on Nietzsche’s thinking. Indeed they are necessary chapters to go through in order to understand how some of the key points of his thought have developed. Understanding how these factors are tangled to Nietzsche's speculation allows to rebuild the origin of suggestions from which the young Nietzsche moved from to examine the new impulses brought by biology. Moreover, it is remarkable to notice that the concept of Life as Will to Power sprout up right from these ideas. In particular, Nietzsche's Will to Power accomplished all the elements present in Goethe's considerations on living: Form, Metamorphosis, Becoming, living entity, plural-Individual.

  4. Macroscopic morphology of radiation damage in copper

    Black, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    This Thesis describes the damage produced in copper single crystals when they are irradiated with neutrons from a nuclear reactor, and shows that the morphology of the damage is dependent on the temperature of irradiation. The production of point defects in the initial stages of the bombardment and their subsequent diffusion is described in Chapter One. Chapter Two describes the techniques used to etch and thus make visible the damage regions. The defect clusters were examined with a microscope. A typical selection of micrographs of the damage is presented and discussed in Chapter Three. In the final chapter, Chapter Four, the results of the present work are discussed in the light of work done by other research workers. The Thesis ends with a brief suggestion for future work to be carried out on neutron irradiated copper single crystals

  5. Fuel morphology effects on fission product release

    Osetek, D.J.; Hartwell, J.K.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of fission product release behavior observed during four severe fuel damage tests on bundles of UO 2 fuel rods. Transient temperatures up to fuel melting were obtained in the tests that included both rapid and slow cooldown, low and high (36 GWd/t) burnup fuel and the addition of Ag-In-Cd control rods. Release fractions of major fission product species and release rates of noble gas species are reported. Significant differences in release behavior are discussed between heatup and cooldown periods, low and high burnup fuel and long- and short-lived fission products. Explanations for the observed differences are offered that relate fuel morphology changes to the releases

  6. Root morphology of Ni-treated plants

    Leskova, A.; Fargasova, A.; Giehl, R. F. H.; Wiren, N. von

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots are very important organs in terms of nutrient and water acquisition but they also serve as anchorages for the aboveground parts of the plants. The roots display extraordinary plasticity towards stress conditions as a result of integration of environmental cues into the developmental processes of the roots. Our aim was to investigate the root morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to a particular stress condition, excess Ni supply. We aimed to find out which cellular processes - cell division, elongation and differentiation are affected by Ni, thereby explaining the seen root phenotype. Our results reveal that a distinct sensitivity exists between roots of different order and interference with various cellular processes is responsible for the effects of Ni on roots. We also show that Ni-treated roots have several auxin-related phenotypes. (authors)

  7. Morphological pattern of parotid gland tumors

    Musani, M.A.; Zafar, A.; Malik, S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the morphological pattern of parotid tumours. During this study, 204 patients with parotid tumours were registered. The patients of all ages and both gender were included in this study. All patients were evaluated by history, clinical examination, F.N.A.C. and ultrasound, C.T/MRI was done in selected cases. All patients were surgically managed and their tumour specimen was sent for histopathology. Classification of individual tumour was based on 1991 World Health Organization Classification. Discrete data was presented in percentage and proportions. Out of 204 cases, 152 (74.5%) were benign and 52 (25.5%) were malignant. Of these, 117 (57.35%) patients were females and 87 (42.65%) males. Benign tumours were more common in females whereas malignant tumours were common in males. The mean age of patients was 34 years and 42 years for benign and malignant tumours respectively. Pleomorphic adenoma was most common benign tumor (83.5%), followed by Warthins tumour. The most common malignant tumour was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (60%), followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma. Superficial lobe of parotid gland was the commonest site, 120 benign and all 52 malignant tumours arising from it while 32 benign tumours originated from deep lobe. Parotid swelling for years was main feature of benign tumours, whereas malignant tumours presented with pain, fixation to skin or underlying structure, cervical lymphadenopathy and facial palsy. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was most common malignant tumour. The morphological patterns and distribution followed the known pattern. (author)

  8. Crystal Morphology Engineering of Pharmaceutical Solids: Tabletting Performance Enhancement

    Mirza, Sabiruddin; Miroshnyk, Inna; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Antikainen, Osmo; Rantanen, Jukka; Vuorela, Pia; Vuorela, Heikki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2009-01-01

    Crystal morphology engineering of a macrolide antibiotic, erythromycin A dihydrate, was investigated as a tool for tailoring tabletting performance of pharmaceutical solids. Crystal habit modification was induced by using a common pharmaceutical excipient, hydroxypropyl cellulose, as an additive during crystallization from solution. Observed morphology of the crystals was compared with the predicted Bravais–Friedel–Donnay–Harker morphology. An analysis of the molecular arrangements along the ...

  9. A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of ...

    A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of true francolins (Galliformes: Francolinus, Scleroptila, Peliperdix and Dendroperdix spp.) and spurfowls ( Pternistis spp.) in a phylogenetic context.

  10. Where and how morphologically complex words interplay with naming pictures.

    Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens; Dohmes, Petra

    2002-01-01

    Two picture-word experiments are reported in which a delay of 7 to 10 was introduced between distractor and picture. Distractor words were either derived words (Experiment 1) or compounds (Experiment 2), morphologically related to the picture name. In both experiments, the position of morphological overlap between distractor (e.g., rosebud vs tea-rose) and picture name (rose) was manipulated. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological distractors, and effects were independent of distractor type and position of overlap. The results are evaluated against "full listing" and "decomposition" approaches of morphological representation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  11. STRUCTURE OF MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BODYBUILDERS

    Vladimir Mutavdžić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Today body-building as a spport is well known and accepted world-wide. When scientifi researches on this fi eld are in question, it is evident that they are very rare partly and probably due to its real interpretation as well as due to its insuffi cient affi rmation and popularization here. Reason for this is also the wrong interpretation of the sport’s essence among sports-people – the body-builders themselves and among the experts and scientists from this fi eld. Intrest in the research of morphological sphere of body-builders was inspired by the fact that exercising body-building is a very specifi c physical activity that, due to its nature, demands body-builders to have specifi c morphological characteristics that characterize and differ them from other sports-people. The goal of this research was determining the structure of the morhologicall sphere of a body-builder. It was performed on the sample of 30 selected sportsmen, bodybuilders, of chronological age between 17 and 19 ( 6 months, members of the Sports' Club Strength ''Leskovac'', the Weight Lifters' Club '' Dubočica'' and the Body-building Club '' Dubočica'' from Leskovac. All the examiees have been submitted to training processes during a period longer than a year. For the purpose of determining the structure of the morphological sphere the Factor Analysis has been applied. Based on the data from the matrix of the Factor Structure the isolated factors can be interpreted in the following manner: The fi rst isolated factor in the sphere of applied anthropometric variables can be defi ned as a dimension of the body-volume and the transversal dimensionality of the skeleton sine it’s best defi ned by the following variables: the chest-circumference (AOGKS, the upper-arm circumference (AONAD, the thigh circumference (AOBUT, the body-weight (AMAST and the shoulder-width (ASIRA. The second isolated factor in the sphere of applied anthropometric variables can be defi ned as the

  12. Binary blend Nanoparticles with defined morphology

    Ghazy, O.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The word blend in linguistics means a word formed from two parts of two words. In polymer science polymer blends means polymer mixtures, a class of materials analogues to the metal alloys. Blending of polymers is a simple and economic way to create new materials meeting specific desired properties. The other alternative is to synthesize such materials eventually facing the organic chemistry design difficulties. The low entropy of mixing polymers makes the process thermodynamically unfavorable, unless there are some specific interactions between the mixed polymers. As a result, in thermal equilibrium typically a phase separation between the blend components takes place. The main challenge facing the blending of polymers is the control of the length scale of the phase separation. One of the most important applications, where the control of the phase separation is crucial for the performance is the organic solar cells. In organic solar cells a blend of an electron donating polymer and electron accepting one is formed. The dimensions of the phase separation between the two polymers should be in the range of the exciton diffusion length [1-3] (in semiconductors, exciton diffusion length is the average distance traveled by the electron-hole pair before recombination). Only under this condition the charge transfer at the interface between the two polymer layers can take place and the solar cell performs efficiently. The thin polymer blend layers for such applications are commonly deposited by spin coating from solution containing both polymers. The morphology of the thin layer prepared in this way is highly influenced by the preparation conditions such as the surface properties of the substrate, the solvent from which the blend was deposited, the temperature, and the annealing temperature [4-9]. Therefore controlling the length scale of phase separation in layers casted or spin coated from solutions is difficult and is a matter of trials and errors. Recently a novel

  13. Morphological integration of soft-tissue facial morphology in Down Syndrome and siblings.

    Starbuck, John; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan

    2011-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS), resulting from trisomy of chromosome 21, is the most common live-born human aneuploidy. The phenotypic expression of trisomy 21 produces variable, though characteristic, facial morphology. Although certain facial features have been documented quantitatively and qualitatively as characteristic of DS (e.g., epicanthic folds, macroglossia, and hypertelorism), all of these traits occur in other craniofacial conditions with an underlying genetic cause. We hypothesize that the typical DS face is integrated differently than the face of non-DS siblings, and that the pattern of morphological integration unique to individuals with DS will yield information about underlying developmental associations between facial regions. We statistically compared morphological integration patterns of immature DS faces (N = 53) with those of non-DS siblings (N = 54), aged 6-12 years using 31 distances estimated from 3D coordinate data representing 17 anthropometric landmarks recorded on 3D digital photographic images. Facial features are affected differentially in DS, as evidenced by statistically significant differences in integration both within and between facial regions. Our results suggest a differential affect of trisomy on facial prominences during craniofacial development. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Morphology and spacing of river meander scrolls

    Strick, Robert J. P.; Ashworth, Philip J.; Awcock, Graeme; Lewin, John

    2018-06-01

    Many of the world's alluvial rivers are characterised by single or multiple channels that are often sinuous and that migrate to produce a mosaicked floodplain landscape of truncated scroll (or point) bars. Surprisingly little is known about the morphology and geometry of scroll bars despite increasing interest from hydrocarbon geoscientists working with ancient large meandering river deposits. This paper uses remote sensing imagery, LiDAR data-sets of meandering scroll bar topography, and global coverage elevation data to quantify scroll bar geometry, anatomy, relief, and spacing. The analysis focuses on preserved scroll bars in the Mississippi River (USA) floodplain but also compares attributes to 19 rivers of different scale and depositional environments from around the world. Analysis of 10 large scroll bars (median area = 25 km2) on the Mississippi shows that the point bar deposits can be categorised into three different geomorphological units of increasing scale: individual 'scrolls', 'depositional packages', and 'point bar complexes'. Scroll heights and curvatures are greatest near the modern channel and at the terminating boundaries of different depositional packages, confirming the importance of the formative main channel on subsequent scroll bar relief and shape. Fourier analysis shows a periodic variation in signal (scroll bar height) with an average period (spacing) of 167 m (range 150-190 m) for the Mississippi point bars. For other rivers, a strong relationship exists between the period of scroll bars and the adjacent primary channel width for a range of rivers from 55 to 2042 mis 50% of the main channel width. The strength of this correlation over nearly two orders of magnitude of channel size indicates a scale independence of scroll bar spacing and suggests a strong link between channel migration and scroll bar construction with apparent regularities despite different flow regimes. This investigation of meandering river dynamics and floodplain

  15. Tritium evolution from various morphologies of palladium

    Tuggle, D.G.; Claytor, T.N.; Taylor, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have been able to extend the tritium production techniques to various novel morphologies of palladium. These include small solid wires of various diameters and a type of pressed powder wire and a plasma cell. In most successful experiments, the amount of palladium required, for an equivalent tritium output, has been reduced by a factor of 100 over the older powder methods. In addition, they have observed rates of tritium production (>5 nCi/h) that far exceed most of the previous results. Unfortunately, the methods that they currently use to obtain the tritium are poorly understood and consequently there are numerous variables that need to be investigated before the new methods are as reliable and repeatable as the previous techniques. For instance, it seems that surface and/or bulk impurities play a major role in the successful generation of any tritium. In those samples with total impurity concentrations of >400 ppM essentially no tritium has been generated by the gas loading and electrical simulation methods

  16. Functional morphology of the aardvark tail.

    Endo, H; Mori, K; Koyabu, D; Kawada, S; Komiya, T; Itou, T; Koie, H; Kitagawa, M; Sakai, T

    2013-04-01

    The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The morphology of electrostatic tripolar regions

    Nocera, L.

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic tripolar regions in plasmas develop a skewness of their own electric potential waveform as a peculiar morphological property, which distinguishes them from symmetric electrostatic solitary waves. Within the collision-less, kinetic treatment developed here, this property holds if the velocity distributions of electrons and ions are singular in value, irrespective of their smoothness at the region's boundary and of the smoothness of the potential waveform and of the electron and ion density distributions. These singularities are integrable, and are of the logarithmic and jump type: the former occur at isolated points in phase space; the latter occur on the left branch of the electron separatrix and on the left branch of the ion sub-separatrix. The distributions are non-negative if, at its local extrema, the potential waveform is skewed to the left, in agreement with observations, and if the skewness is smaller than a given bound: a sufficient condition for such skewness to be small about the minimum of the potential waveform is that a sufficiently fast electron beam exists on the high-potential boundary of the tripolar region. In those special cases in which the particle distributions are continuous in value, the above mentioned singularities affect their space and velocity derivatives. These results could be extracted from very general considerations on the degree of smoothness of the spatial distribution of the electric potential and on the non-negativity of the electron and ion distributions, without the assistance of any specific models

  18. Deep learning for studies of galaxy morphology

    Tuccillo, D.; Huertas-Company, M.; Decencière, E.; Velasco-Forero, S.

    2017-06-01

    Establishing accurate morphological measurements of galaxies in a reasonable amount of time for future big-data surveys such as EUCLID, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope or the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a challenge. Because of its high level of abstraction with little human intervention, deep learning appears to be a promising approach. Deep learning is a rapidly growing discipline that models high-level patterns in data as complex multilayered networks. In this work we test the ability of deep convolutional networks to provide parametric properties of Hubble Space Telescope like galaxies (half-light radii, Sérsic indices, total flux etc..). We simulate a set of galaxies including point spread function and realistic noise from the CANDELS survey and try to recover the main galaxy parameters using deep-learning. We compare the results with the ones obtained with the commonly used profile fitting based software GALFIT. This way showing that with our method we obtain results at least equally good as the ones obtained with GALFIT but, once trained, with a factor 5 hundred time faster.

  19. Biomass Morphology Subjected to Different Chemical Treatment

    Sutan, Norsuzailina Mohamed; Masjida Mazlan, Siti; Taib, Siti Noor Linda; Lee, Delsye Teo Ching; Hassan, Alsidqi; Kudnie Sahari, Siti; Mohamad Said, Khairul Anwar; Rahman Sobuz, Habibur

    2018-03-01

    A growing interest of sugarcane bagasse fibre composite has been observed in recent years due to its attractiveness properties such as low specific weight, renewable source and producible with low investment at low cost. However, these materials have a low interfacial adhesion between fibre and matrix which lead to reduction in certain mechanical properties of the composite. To overcome this problem, studies show that certain chemical treatments on the surface of the fibres are some alternatives that significantly increase the adhesion reinforcement/matrix, in some cases improving its mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different type of chemical treatment which are alkali and acid treatment on sugarcane bagasse fibre surface morphology. Seeking to improve the adhesion fibre matrix, the fibre has been treated with 5% of NaOH and 5% of HCL solution with added of bagasse fibre used in the range of 0% to 3% of cement weight respectively. Through SEM investigation, it is confirmed that chemical treatment helps to remove hemicelluloses from raw bagasse fiber as well as improved fibre matrix adhesion.

  20. Penis morphology in a Burmese amber harvestman

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Selden, Paul A.; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-02-01

    A unique specimen of the fossil harvestman Halitherses grimaldii Giribet and Dunlop, 2005 (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar reveals a fully extended penis. This is the first record of a male copulatory organ of this nature preserved in amber and is of special importance due to the age of the deposit. The penis has a slender, distally flattened truncus, a spatulate heart-shaped glans and a short distal stylus, twisted at the tip. In living harvestmen, the penis yields crucial characters for their systematics. Male genital morphology in H. grimaldii appears to be unique among the wider Dyspnoi clade to which this fossil belongs. The large eyes in the fossil differ markedly from other members of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae to which H. grimaldii was originally referred. Based on recent data, it has been argued that large eyes may be plesiomorphic for Palpatores (i.e. the suborders Eupnoi and Dyspnoi), potentially rendering this character plesiomorphic for the fossil too. Thus, the unique structure of the penis seen here, and the probable lack of diaphanous teeth, present in all other extant non-acropsopilionid Dyspnoi, suggest that H. grimaldii represents a new, extinct family of large-eyed dyspnoid harvestmen, Halithersidae fam. nov.; a higher taxon in amber diagnosed here on both somatic and genital characters.

  1. Molar development in sheep: morphology, radiography, microhardness

    Milhaud, G.; Nezit, J.

    1991-01-01

    The chronology of molar development is studied from radiographic and macroscopic observations on 48 south Pre-Alps were living under optimal nutritional conditions. It was found that the first molar started its development in utero, the second molar at one month after birth, and the third molar, at 9-10 months. The first molar emerged into the oral cavity at 3 months, the second at 9 months and the third molar at 18 months. The first molar began the development of its roots at 6-7 months, the second molar at 11-12 months and the third molar at 20-22 months. The first molar reached completion of the growth of its roots at 3.5-4 years, the second and the third molars at about 6 years. The molars show the particularity of being functional during the three months which follow their eruption although the development of the crown is not completed. Then the accelerated wear is only partially compensated by the growth of the roots. The study also shows how the combined effects of wear and dentine deposit in the pulp cavity affect the morphology of molars. It reveals the marked hardness of enamel (240 Vickers units) and the low resistance of dentine at the surface of attrition (30 Vickers units)

  2. Morphological Characters and Histology of Pheretima darnleiensis

    ANDY DARMAWAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheretima darnleiensis is a native earthworm of Southeast Asia, India, and Japan. Although it is commonly found in Indonesia, the earthworm has never been studied well. This study was aimed to examine the morphological characters and structure of its several organs for an identification purpose, which is important for the earthworm culture. Earthworms were collected in a plot of 55-150 × 55-150 cm width and 20 cm depth at Bogor Agricultural University in Darmaga and Baranangsiang Campuses by hand sorting method. Examinations were carried out on its external as well as internal characters. The histology of the organs was studied using paraffin method. The observed characters on P. darnleiensis were the presence of prostate gland, one pair of male pores on segment XVIII, a cylindrical body with perichaetine setae, caeca on segment XXVII, copulatory pouches without diverticula and stalked glands, bithecal spermatheca with nephridia, and the first spermathecal pore on segment 4/5. In addition, other characters found on P. darnleiensis were the presence of an annular clitellum on segment XIV-XVI, an epilobus prostomium with open base, approximately 40 single pointed setae on segment XIII, one midventral female pore on segment XIV, one pair of lateroventral male pores on segment XVIII, four pairs of lateroventral spermathecal pores on segment 4/5, 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, and the first middorsal dorsal pore on segment 12/13. The histology of P. darnleiensis showed basic structure as found in other earthworms.

  3. Morphology and ultrastructure of retrovirus particles

    Wei Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrovirus morphogenesis entails assembly of Gag proteins and the viral genome on the host plasma membrane, acquisition of the viral membrane and envelope proteins through budding, and formation of the core through the maturation process. Although in both immature and mature retroviruses, Gag and capsid proteins are organized as paracrystalline structures, the curvatures of these protein arrays are evidently not uniform within one or among all virus particles. The heterogeneity of retroviruses poses significant challenges to studying the protein contacts within the Gag and capsid lattices. This review focuses on current understanding of the molecular organization of retroviruses derived from the sub-nanometer structures of immature virus particles, helical capsid protein assemblies and soluble envelope protein complexes. These studies provide insight into the molecular elements that maintain the stability, flexibility and infectivity of virus particles. Also reviewed are morphological studies of retrovirus budding, maturation, infection and cell-cell transmission, which inform the structural transformation of the viruses and the cells during infection and viral transmission, and lead to better understanding of the interplay between the functioning viral proteins and the host cell.

  4. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2010-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  5. Morphological characterization ofMadura Cattle

    Bambang Setiadi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characterization of Madura cattle in Madura islands was done as an input for "action plans" of national animals genetic resources management according to the global system ofFAO. Assessments were done in Sumenep District and Pamekasan District, East Java. According to the body measurements, Madura cattle can be classified as a small to medium type with withers height of about 120 cm. Because of potential productivity in the limitation of environmental resources, Madura cattle can be classified as a "superior" cattle . Body measurements of Madura cattle in the present study were relatively the same with those of 50 years ago, indicating that there is no breeding improvement activities except natural selection . The variability of body measurements is relatively narrow . Improving productivity by outbreeding is needed . To conserve the unique germ plasm of the Indonesian genotype, such as Madura cattle and a possibility to improve their productivity by a complete prevention of cross breeding in the Madura islands needs further evaluation .

  6. The ionosphere - Morphology, development and coupling

    Williams, E. R.; Watkins, G. W.; Blix, T. A.; Thrane, E. V.; Entzian, G.

    1987-08-01

    The morphology of the MAP/WINE winter is examined, principally from ground-based and satellite observations. Winter anomaly is evident, occurring in bursts with a west to east shift in time. Auroral activity, particularly with reference to the times of major rocket salvoes, is generally low, with Andoya to the south of the auroral boundary in most cases. Minor stratospheric warmings, of which four occurred, are found to correlate with minima in radio wave absorption. Using data from a broad sector of Europe, coupling between the lower thermosphere and mesosphere is seen over large areas. Westerly winds are associated with high absorption (winter anomaly) and reversal to easterly winds with stratospheric warmings and low absorption. It is found possible to select cases, from amongst the MT series of rocket launchings, corresponding to quiet conditions, stratospheric warming, winter anomaly, and particle precipitation in the general absence of other effects. The observed effects all point to transport being a major factor, and the need to measure vertical transport over the range of geophysical conditions examined is highlighted.

  7. [Acne vulgaris: morphologic, endocrinologic and psychosomatic aspects].

    Welp, K; Gieler, U

    1990-12-01

    25 male patients suffering from acne vulgaris were examined by means of endocrinological, morphological, and 5 psychometric procedures in order to check the correlations and interactions between the psychological and dermatological aspects of the disease. In comparison with a control group, the acne patients did not show any striking endocrinological abnormalities; we found no correlation between the extensiveness of the lesions and the level of DHEA sulphate. All the psychological tests yielded results deviating from those achieved by the representative controls, but they were comparable with those of other patients suffering from psychosomatic diseases. The individual feeling of being "disfigured" found its expression in self-consciousness, lack of trust in his/her own body, as well as the clinically relevant difference between his/her conception of self and the ideal of self. During times of enhanced psychosocial strains subjectively assumed by the patients, the lesions increased and the patients were disturbed in social interaction and communication. Surprisingly, we did not find any correlation between the clinical status and significant psychometric findings. Our results show that in acne vulgaris, the individual experience of wanting physical attractiveness, associated with a predominantly neurotic depressive personal structure, may play a central part in a disturbed process of interaction with the environment and suggest the influence of psychic factors in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

  8. Control of Cellular Morphology by Mechanical Factors

    Thoumine, Olivier

    1996-11-01

    This short review deals with the influence of mechanical factors on eucaryotic cell morphology and structure. We classify these factors into two types: i) external forces (e.g. gravitational forces or hemodynamic stresses), which when applied experimentally allow characterization of passive mechanical properties; and ii) internal forces, e.g. generated by molecular motors or polymerization processes. Perturbation of one or more of these forces induces significant changes in cell shape, cytoskeleton and pericellular matrix organization. We describe these phenomena in view of current models. Cette brève revue traite de l'influence des facteurs mécaniques sur la morphologie et la structure des cellules eucaryotes. Nous classifions ces facteurs en deux catégories : i) les forces externes (par exemple les forces de gravitation et les contraintes hèmodynamiques) qui, imposées in vitro, permettent de caractériser les propriétés mécaniques passives ; et ii) les forces internes, par exemple celles générées par les moteurs moléculaires ou les processus de polymérisation. La perturbation de l'une ou de l'autre de ces forces provoque des changements significatifs de la morphologie cellulaire ainsi que l'organisation du cytosquelette et de la matrice péricellulaire. Nous décrivons ces phénomènes en fonction de modèles existants.

  9. Finding mesoscale ocean structures with mathematical morphology

    Lea, S.M.; Lybanon, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors introduce a technique to aid in interpreting infrared satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean Gulf Stream region. Present interpretive methods are largely manual, require significant effort, and are highly dependent on the interpreter's skill. The quasiautomated technique is based on mathematical morphology, specifically the image transformations of opening and closing, which are defined in terms of erosion and dilation. The implementation performs successive openings and closings at increasing thresholds until a stable division into objects and background is found. This method finds the North Wall of the Gulf Stream in approximately the same place as human analysts and another automated procedure, and does less smoothing of small irregularities than the other two methods. The North Wall is continuous and sharp except where obscured by clouds. Performance in locating warm-core eddies is also comparable to the other methods. However, the present procedure does not find cold-core rings well. The authors are presently investigating ways to reduce the effects of clouds and delete the unwanted water areas found by the method. They expect to be able to improve the cold-core eddy performance

  10. Balamuthia mandrillaris: Morphology, biology, and virulence

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a protist pathogen that can cause encephalitis with a fatality rate of >95%. This is due to our incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis. B. mandrillaris has two stages in its life cycle, an active trophozoite stage during which it divides mitotically. However, under unfavorable conditions, the trophozoite transforms into a dormant cyst stage. A major concern during the course of therapy is that B. mandrillaris can transform into cysts. Cysts are highly resistant to physical and chemical conditions and present a problem in successful antimicrobial chemotherapy. Several lines of evidence suggest that B. mandrillaris encephalitis develops as a result of hematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system and cause inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neuronal injury. Recent studies have identified several parasite-host determinants for B. mandrillaris translocation of the blood-brain barrier, and host inflammatory markers that may be associated with neuronal injury. These determinants may provide important targets for the prevention and treatment of this devastating infection. Here, we present a brief overview of the current understanding of the morphology, biology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis. PMID:25709948

  11. Morphologic-echocardiographic correlates of Ebstein's malformation.

    Rusconi, P G; Zuberbuhler, J R; Anderson, R H; Rigby, M L

    1991-07-01

    The cross-sectional echocardiographic findings were analysed retrospectively in 26 patients with Ebstein's malformation in the light of studies of autopsied specimens from different patients showing this lesion. The salient anatomical feature in diagnosis is the finding of the hinge point of the septal and mural leaflets of the valve within the inlet component of the right ventricle rather than at the atrioventricular junction. The other important feature is the nature of the distal attachment of the leaflets, particularly the anterosuperior one, which can either be in focal or linear fashion. The hinge point of the septal leaflet was noted echocardiographically to be displaced in 19 patients but, significantly, the leaflet was absent in the other seven. Also significant was that the hinge point of the mural leaflet at the crux had been visualized in only 15 of the patients. The anterosuperior leaflet had a distal linear attachment in 20 of the patients, with the anteroseptal commissure becoming a keyhole in six of these through which blood passed to the functional right ventricle. The valve remained a competent structure, even though closing at the junction of atrialized and functional components of the right ventricle rather than at the atrioventricular junction. Cross-sectional echocardiography is the technique of choice with which to display the salient morphological features of Ebstein's malformation.

  12. Nasal morphological characteristics of the Serbian population

    Jovanović J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nasal parameters in the population of central Serbia and to compare them with those determined in earlier studies in different populations. The research was conducted on 496 randomly selected persons (262 males and 234 females, aged 18-65 years. The measured parameters were nasal height and nasal breadth and the standard spreading caliper with scale was used for measurements. There were significant differences in the nasal parameters between male and female subjects. The nasal breadth was 34.72 mm in females, and in the male population it was 36.7 mm. The mean values of nasal height were 52.6 mm and 54.32 mm in females and males, respectively. The nasal index in females and males was 66.01 and 67.56, respectively, and the mean value of the nasal index of all respondents was 66.78. After conducting the research it was concluded that the dominant nasal type in the population of the central part of Serbia is leptorrhine. The present study showed the existence of sexual dimorphism in nasal morphology. The data obtained in our study may be useful in anthropological and forensic research, as well as in cosmetic planning and reconstructive surgery.

  13. Growth morphology of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate crystals

    The growth morphology of crystals of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate (ZTS) is investigated experimentally, and computed using the Hartman–Perdok approach. Attachment energies of the observed habit faces are calculated for determining their relative morphological importance. A computer code is developed for carrying out ...

  14. Morphological features of indigenous chicken ecotype populations of Kenya

    Ngeno, K.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized indigenous chicken (IC) ecotypes morphologically. Five IC ecotypes studied were Kakamega (KK), Siaya (BN), West Pokot (WP), Narok (NR) and Bomet (BM). Data on morphological features were collected from 1 580 chickens and 151 for zoometric measurements. Descriptive

  15. Core Vocabulary: Its Morphological Content and Presence in Exemplar Texts

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cervetti, Gina N.

    2018-01-01

    This study addresses the distribution of words in texts at different points of schooling. The first aim was to identify a core vocabulary that accounts for the majority of the words in texts through the lens of morphological families. Results showed that 2,451 morphological families, averaging 4.61 members, make up the core vocabulary of school…

  16. A morphological description of the sagittal otoliths of two mormyrids ...

    The morphology of the sagittal otoliths of two South African mormyrid fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus and Petrocephalus catostoma, were studied to determine possible morphological significance. The sagittae of M. macrolepidotus and P. catostoma are kidney-shaped and oblong, respectively. The ventral margin is ...

  17. Structural, optical and morphological studies of undoped and Zn ...

    Structural, optical and morphological studies of undoped and Zn-doped CdSe QDs via aqueous route synthesis. N THIRUGNANAM D GOVINDARAJAN ... Undoped and Zn-doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were successfully synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. The structural, optical and morphological ...

  18. The Syntax-Semantics Interface in Distributed Morphology

    Kelly, Justin Robert

    2013-01-01

    Distributed Morphology (DM; Halle & Marantz 1993; Marantz 1997) is founded on the premise that the syntax is the only computational component of the grammar. Much research focuses on how this premise is relevant to the syntax-morphology interface in DM. In this dissertation, I examine theory-internal issues related to the syntax-semantics…

  19. Fracture Surface Morphology Under Ductile Tearing of Metal Plates

    Kacar, Muhammet F.; Tekoglu, Cihan; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2017-01-01

    The present work takes as offset the hypothesis that microstructural parameters, related to particle size and distribution, govern the transition between crack surface morphologies observed in experiments. The key question is; why does tearing of a given metal plate leave a specific morphology...

  20. A new class of morphological pyramids for multiresolution image analysis

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Asano, T; Klette, R; Ronse, C

    2003-01-01

    We study nonlinear multiresolution signal decomposition based on morphological pyramids. Motivated by a problem arising in multiresolution volume visualization, we introduce a new class of morphological pyramids. In this class the pyramidal synthesis operator always has the same form, i.e. a

  1. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  2. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    Two auditory lexical decision experiments document for morphologically complex words two points at which the probability of a target word given the evidence shifts dramatically. The first point is reached when morphologically unrelated competitors are no longer compatible with the evidence. Adapt...

  3. Comparative morphological and ecological studies of two Stachys ...

    In this study, comparative morphological and ecological studies of Stachys balansae and S. carduchorum were investigated. Morphologically, general views of taxa and micromorphological features of the trichomes were studied. S. balansae differs from S. carduchorum in its leaves sericeouspilose on the upper surface and ...

  4. Construction Morphology and the Parallel Architecture of Grammar

    Booij, Geert; Audring, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a systematic exposition of how the basic ideas of Construction Grammar (CxG) (Goldberg, 2006) and the Parallel Architecture (PA) of grammar (Jackendoff, 2002]) provide the framework for a proper account of morphological phenomena, in particular word formation. This framework is referred to as Construction Morphology (CxM). As…

  5. Improving the Computational Morphological Analysis of a Swahili ...

    approach to the morphological analysis of Swahili. We particularly focus our discussion on its ability to retrieve lemmas for word forms and evaluate it as a tool for corpus-based dictionary compilation. Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, MORPHOLOGY, CORPUS ANNOTATION, LEMMATIZATION, MACHINE LEARNING, SWAHILI ...

  6. Morphology and Spelling in Arabic: Development and Interface

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, two experiments were carried out: the first tested the development of derivational root and word-pattern morphological awareness in Arabic; the second tested morphological processing in Arabic spelling. 143 Arabic native speaking children with normal reading skills in 2nd, 4th and 6th grade participated in the study. The…

  7. Cytogenetic and morphological assessment of bone marrow in therapeutic irradiation

    Sharma, U.; Das, B.P.; Singhal, R.M.; Radhakrishnaiah, Y.; Rath, G.K.; Padmaraju, I.; Bhargava, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological and cytogenetic study from the irradiated bone marrow, in 59 cases of radically irradiated carcinoma cervix was done. Regeneration of a marrow adjudged on cellular morphology was after 12 months whereas cytogenetic studies revealed it at the end of three months. It is concluded that cytogenetic study is a more sensitive parameter in assessing the recovery of bone marrow. (author)

  8. Assessment of morphological and hydrological parameters of Oyun ...

    The study involves evaluation of basin area, slopes, shape of the basin as morphological parameters and analysis of flow frequencies for flood and low flows, developing unit hydrograph and analysis of rainfall intensity distribution in the study area as hydrological parameters. The morphological analysis of the basin yielded ...

  9. Variant root morphology of third mandibular molar in normal and ...

    The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology which leads to increased difficulty during its extraction. The root morphology of the third molar is considered to be the most variable in the human dentition. The study aims to document these variations which will be useful ...

  10. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  11. Associations between the Cervical Vertebral Column and Craniofacial Morphology

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment of the cerv......Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment...... of the cervical vertebral column and cephalometric analysis of the craniofacial skeleton were performed on profile radiographs of subjects with neutral occlusion, patients with severe skeletal malocclusions and patients with OSA. Material from human triploid foetuses and mouse embryos was analysed histologically....... Results. Recent studies have documented associations between fusion of the cervical vertebral column and craniofacial morphology, including head posture in patients with severe skeletal malocclusions. Histological studies on prenatal material supported these findings. Conclusion. It is suggested...

  12. Morphology and formation mechanism of ceria nanoparticles by spray pyrolysis

    Shih, Shao-Ju; Wu, Ying-Ying; Chen, Chin-Yi; Yu, Chin-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Ceria-based materials are used in industrial applications such as catalyst supports, carbon monoxide reduction catalysts, and solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes. Various applications require different morphological particles. The ceria particles with various morphologies from the precursors of cerium(III) acetate hydrate, cerium(IV) nitrate hydrate, and cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate were prepared by spray pyrolysis (SP) because SP has the potential for simple and continuous process. The precursor behaviors and the particle morphologies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and by transmission electron microscopy. Four main morphologies of solid spherical, hollow spherical with a single pore, hollow concave, and hollow spherical with multiple pores were observed. The experimental results suggest that the morphological formation mechanism is highly correlated with the factors of precursor solubilities, solvent evaporation rates (droplet diameters), and precursor melting temperatures. In addition, total concentrations of cerium(III) in the ceria particles from various precursors were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  13. Novel multiform morphologies of hydroxyapatite: Synthesis and growth mechanism

    Mary, I. Reeta [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Coimbatore 641018 (India); Sonia, S.; Viji, S.; Mangalaraj, D.; Viswanathan, C. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ponpandian, N., E-mail: ponpandian@buc.edu.in [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel multiform morphologies of hydroxyapatite from nanoscale building blocks. • Facile hydro/solvothermal method under mild reaction conditions without the necessity of post-annealing treatment. • Growth mechanism by Ostwald ripening and self-assembly processes. - Abstract: Morphological evolution of materials becomes a prodigious challenge due to their key role in defining their functional properties and desired applications. Herein, we report the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) microstructures with multiform morphologies, such as spheres, cubes, hexagonal rods and nested bundles constructed from their respective nanoscale building blocks via a simple cost effective hydro/solvothermal method. A possible formation mechanism of diverse morphologies of HAp has been presented. Structural analysis based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirms the purity of the HAp microstructures. The multiform morphologies of HAp were corroborated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM).

  14. Morphological studies of polymer dispersed liquid crystal materials

    Han, Jin-Woo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the morphologies of polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) based on E7/NOA61. Scanning electron microscope studies show that the PDLC morphology is strongly affected by the LC concentration and the cure temperature. A typical PDLC morphology with isolated LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is only observed at low LC compositions and at low cure temperatures. Increasing either the LC composition or the cure temperature results in a polymer ball morphology, in which LCs exist in irregularly shaped voids in the polymer network structure. It is shown that the transition between these two morphologies can be qualitatively explained using a pseudo-binary phase diagram.

  15. Mandibular condylar morphology for bruxers with different grinding patterns.

    Tao, Jianxiang; Wu, Junhua; Zhang, Xuying

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mandibular condylar morphology for bruxers with different grinding patterns. Condylar sectional morphology and condylar position of 30 subjects were determined by two viewers using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image data sets. The grinding patterns during sleep bruxism (SB) were determined objectively using a Brux-checker device.Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis for the condylar morphology type between different tooth grinding patterns. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis between condylar position and the canine guidance area during SB. Theincidence of condylarmorphologicaldivergence from idealwas35%.There isa significant difference in distribution of condylar morphology type between the group grinding (GG) and GG combined with mediotrusive side grinding (MG) (p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between condylar position and canine guidance area during bruxism. MG during SB is associated with condylar morphology that is considered not to be ideal.

  16. Seed morphology and its taxonomic significance in the family malvaceae

    Abid, R.; Ather, A.

    2016-01-01

    The seed morphological studies of 75 taxa belonging to 6 sub-families of the family Malvaceae were carried out from Pakistan. In Pakistan the family Malvaceae is represented by 6 sub-families viz., Byttnerioideae, Dombeyoideae, Malvoideae, Bombacoideae, Helicteroideae and Sterculioideae. The seed macro and micro morphological characters are examined, using light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Detailed seed morphological descriptions, micrographs and keys based on seed characters are also provided. A variety in various quantitative and qualitative seed characters was observed. The micro-morphological characters of seeds are quite significant to strengthen the taxonomic decisions within the family Malvaceae at various levels. The data obtained from the seed morphological characters were analyzed numerically to trace out the phylogenetic affinities for the taxa within the family Malvaceae from Pakistan. (author)

  17. How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting

    Little, Christopher M.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The response of ice shelf basal melting to climate is a function of ocean temperature, circulation, and mixing in the open ocean and the coupling of this external forcing to the sub-ice shelf circulation. Because slope strongly influences the properties of buoyancy-driven flow near the ice shelf base, ice shelf morphology plays a critical role in linking external, subsurface heat sources to the ice. In this paper, the slope-driven dynamic control of local and area-integrated melting rates is examined under a wide range of ocean temperatures and ice shelf shapes, with an emphasis on smaller, steeper ice shelves. A 3-D numerical ocean model is used to simulate the circulation underneath five idealized ice shelves, forced with subsurface ocean temperatures ranging from -2.0°C to 1.5°C. In the sub-ice shelf mixed layer, three spatially distinct dynamic regimes are present. Entrainment of heat occurs predominately under deeper sections of the ice shelf; local and area-integrated melting rates are most sensitive to changes in slope in this "initiation" region. Some entrained heat is advected upslope and used to melt ice in the "maintenance" region; however, flow convergence in the "outflow" region limits heat loss in flatter portions of the ice shelf. Heat flux to the ice exhibits (1) a spatially nonuniform, superlinear dependence on slope and (2) a shape- and temperature-dependent, internally controlled efficiency. Because the efficiency of heat flux through the mixed layer decreases with increasing ocean temperature, numerical simulations diverge from a simple quadratic scaling law.

  18. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  19. Morphology of Tigris River within Baghdad City

    A. A. Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial changes have occurred in the morphology of the River Tigris within Baghdad City. Although huge volumes of sediment are being trapped in recently constructed headwater reservoirs, the number of islands in the Tigris at Baghdad is increasing. The debris of bridges destroyed in the wars of 1991 and 2003 and their subsequent reconstruction have enhanced the development of these islands. As a consequence the ability of the river to carry the peaks of flood waters has been reduced. This has led to potential increase of flooding in parts of the city.

    The bed of the River Tigris has been surveyed on three occasions (1976, 1991, and 2008. The most recent survey was conducted by the Ministry of Water Resources, extended 49 km from the Al-Muthana Bridge north Baghdad to the confluence with the Diyala River south Baghdad. It yielded cross-section profiles at 250 m intervals. The data are used to predict the maximum flood capacity for the river using the one-dimensional hydraulic model for steady flow "HEC-RAS" modeling. Calibration of the model was carried out using field measurements for water levels along the last 15 km of the reach and the last 10 yr of observation at the Sarai Baghdad gauging station.

    The model showed a significant predicted reduction in the current river capacity below that which the river had carried during the floods of 1971 and 1988. The three surveys conducted on the same reach of the Tigris indicated that the ability of the river to transport water has decreased.

  20. Morphological characterization of shocked porous material

    Xu Aiguo; Zhang Guangcai; Pan, X F; Zhang Ping; Zhu Jianshi

    2009-01-01

    Morphological measures are introduced to probe the complex procedure of shock wave reaction on porous material. They characterize the geometry and the topology of the pixelized map of a state variable like temperature. The relevance to thermodynamical properties of a material is revealed and various experimental conditions are simulated. Numerical results indicate that the shock wave reaction results in a complicated sequence of compressions and rarefactions in porous material. The increasing rate of the total fractional white area A roughly gives the velocity D of a compressive-wave series. When a velocity D is mentioned, the corresponding threshold contour level of the state variable, such as temperature, should also be stated. When the threshold contour level increases, D becomes smaller. The area A increases parabolically with time t during the initial period. The A(t) curve goes back to being linear in the following three cases: (i) when the porosity δ approaches 1, (ii) when the initial shock becomes stronger and (iii) when the contour level approaches the minimum value of the state variable. The area with high temperature may continue to increase even after the early compressive waves have arrived at the downstream free surface and some rarefactive waves have come back into the target body. In the case of energetic material needing a higher temperature for initiation, a higher porosity is preferred and the material may be initiated after the precursory compressive waves have scanned the entire target body. In some cases we need scattered hot spots, but in others we need connected ones. One may desire the fabrication of a porous body and choose the appropriate shock strength according to what is needed. With the Minkowski measures, the dependence on experimental conditions is reflected simply by a few coefficients. They may be used as order parameters to classify the maps of physical variables in a similar way to thermodynamic phase transitions.

  1. Morphological features in a Xhosa schizophrenia population

    Muller Jacqueline E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demonstrating an association between physical malformation and schizophrenia could be considered supportive of a neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia and may offer insights into a critical period for the development of this illness. The aim of our study was to investigate whether differences in the presence of minor physical anomalies could be demonstrated between schizophrenia sufferers and normal controls in a Xhosa population with a view to identifying a means of subtyping schizophrenia for use in future genetic studies. Methods Sixty-three subjects with schizophrenia (21 sibling pairs, 1 sibship of four and a group of probands with an affected non-participating sibling (n = 17, 81 normal controls (37 singletons and 22 sibling pairs of Xhosa ethnicity were recruited. Each participant was then examined for minor physical anomalies using the Modified Waldrop scale. The relationship between each of the morphological features and the presence of an affected sib was examined using the Chi-squared test, followed by an intra-pair concordance analysis in the sibling pairs. Results Gap between first and second toes was significantly more common in the affected sib pair group when compared to the non-affected sib pair group (p = 0.019 and non-affected singleton control group (p = 0.013. Concordance analysis also revealed increased concordance for this item in the affected sib pair group. Conclusion These findings offer an intriguing possibility that in the Xhosa population, affected sib pair status may be linked to a neurodevelopmental insult during a specific period of the fetal developmental.

  2. Glucagon Amyloid-like Fibril Morphology Is Selected via Morphology-Dependent Growth Inhibition

    Andersen, C.B.; Otzen, D.; Christiansen, Gunna

    2007-01-01

    Protein Structure and Biophysics, Novo Nordisk A/S, Novo Nordisk Park, DK-2760 Malov, Denmark, Centre for Insoluble Protein Structures (inSPIN), Department of Life Sciences, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 49, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark, and Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology...... twisted fibril seeds cannot grow at high concentrations. We conclude that there exists a morphology-dependent mechanism for inhibition of glucagon fibril growth. Light scattering experiments indicate that glucagon is mainly monomeric below 1 mg/mL and increasingly trimeric above this concentration. We...

  3. Morphological mutants of Neurospora crassa: possible evidence of abnormal morphology due to changes in DNA composition

    Chaudhuri, R K; Dutta, S.K. Ojha, M.

    1973-01-01

    DNA from seven experimentally induced morphological mutants and the wild type strain 74A of Neurospora crassa showed typical bimodal denaturation profiles in a Gilford 2400 spectrophotometer. The ''slime'' and ''ropy'' mutants showed a comparatively high proportion of A + T rich DNA sequences. Studies on thermal denaturation, percent hybridization, and thermal stability indicate the DNA sequences of the slime mutant were distinctly different from the normal genomes of parental DNA as well as other wild type DNAs. No such difference was noticed in any other mutant and natural isolate of the species N. crassa tested. These studies indicate possible correlation between a change in DNA nucleotide sequences and abnormal morphogenesis.

  4. Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery

  5. Characterization of Morphology using MAMA Software

    Gravelle, Julie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-02

    The MAMA (Morphological Analysis for Material Attribution) software was developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory funded through the National Technical Nuclear Forensics Center in the Department of Homeland Security. The software allows images to be analysed and quantified. The largest project I worked on was to quantify images of plutonium oxides and ammonium diuranates prepared by the group with the software and provide analyses on the particles of each sample. Images were quantified through MAMA, with a color analysis, a lexicon description and powder x-ray diffraction. Through this we were able to visually see a difference between some of the syntheses. An additional project was to revise the manual for MAMA to help streamline training and provide useful tips to users to more quickly become acclimated to using the software. The third project investigated expanding the scope of MAMA and finding a statistically relevant baseline for the particulates through the analysis of maps in the software and using known measurements to compare the error associated with the software. During this internship, I worked on several different projects dealing with the MAMA software. The revision of the usermanual for the MAMA software was the first project I was able to work and collaborate on. I first learned how to use the software by getting instruction from a skilled user at the laboratory, Dan Schwartz, and by using the existing user manual and examples. After becoming accustomed to the program, I started to go over the manual to correct and change items that were not as useful or descriptive as they could have been. I also added in tips that I learned as I explored the software. The updated manual was also worked on by several others who have been developing the program. The goal of these revisions was to ensure the most concise and simple directions to the software were available to future users. By incorporating tricks and shortcuts that I discovered and picked up

  6. Morpho-z: improving photometric redshifts with galaxy morphology

    Soo, John Y. H.; Moraes, Bruno; Joachimi, Benjamin; Hartley, William; Lahav, Ofer; Charbonnier, Aldée; Makler, Martín; Pereira, Maria E. S.; Comparat, Johan; Erben, Thomas; Leauthaud, Alexie; Shan, Huanyuan; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic

    2018-04-01

    We conduct a comprehensive study of the effects of incorporating galaxy morphology information in photometric redshift estimation. Using machine learning methods, we assess the changes in the scatter and outlier fraction of photometric redshifts when galaxy size, ellipticity, Sérsic index, and surface brightness are included in training on galaxy samples from the SDSS and the CFHT Stripe-82 Survey (CS82). We show that by adding galaxy morphological parameters to full ugriz photometry, only mild improvements are obtained, while the gains are substantial in cases where fewer passbands are available. For instance, the combination of grz photometry and morphological parameters almost fully recovers the metrics of 5-band photometric redshifts. We demonstrate that with morphology it is possible to determine useful redshift distribution N(z) of galaxy samples without any colour information. We also find that the inclusion of quasar redshifts and associated object sizes in training improves the quality of photometric redshift catalogues, compensating for the lack of a good star-galaxy separator. We further show that morphological information can mitigate biases and scatter due to bad photometry. As an application, we derive both point estimates and posterior distributions of redshifts for the official CS82 catalogue, training on morphology and SDSS Stripe-82 ugriz bands when available. Our redshifts yield a 68th percentile error of 0.058(1 + z), and a outlier fraction of 5.2 per cent. We further include a deep extension trained on morphology and single i-band CS82 photometry.

  7. Genetic Determinism vs. Phenotypic Plasticity in Protist Morphology.

    Mulot, Matthieu; Marcisz, Katarzyna; Grandgirard, Lara; Lara, Enrique; Kosakyan, Anush; Robroek, Bjorn J M; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Payne, Richard J; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2017-11-01

    Untangling the relationships between morphology and phylogeny is key to building a reliable taxonomy, but is especially challenging for protists, where the existence of cryptic or pseudocryptic species makes finding relevant discriminant traits difficult. Here we use Hyalosphenia papilio (a testate amoeba) as a model species to investigate the contribution of phylogeny and phenotypic plasticity in its morphology. We study the response of H. papilio morphology (shape and pores number) to environmental variables in (i) a manipulative experiment with controlled conditions (water level), (ii) an observational study of a within-site natural ecological gradient (water level), and (iii) an observational study across 37 European peatlands (climate). We showed that H. papilio morphology is correlated to environmental conditions (climate and water depth) as well as geography, while no relationship between morphology and phylogeny was brought to light. The relative contribution of genetic inheritance and phenotypic plasticity in shaping morphology varies depending on the taxonomic group and the trait under consideration. Thus, our data call for a reassessment of taxonomy based on morphology alone. This clearly calls for a substantial increase in taxonomic research on these globally still under-studied organisms leading to a reassessment of estimates of global microbial eukaryotic diversity. © 2017 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2017 International Society of Protistologists.

  8. The effect of parity on morphological evolution among phrynosomatid lizards.

    Oufiero, C E; Gartner, G E A

    2014-11-01

    The shift from egg laying to live-bearing is one of the most well-studied transitions in evolutionary biology. Few studies, however, have assessed the effect of this transition on morphological evolution. Here, we evaluated the effect of reproductive mode on the morphological evolution of 10 traits, among 108 species of phrynosomatid lizards. We assess whether the requirement for passing shelled eggs through the pelvic girdle has led to morphological constraints in oviparous species and whether long gestation times in viviparous species have led to constraints in locomotor morphology. We fit models to the data that vary both in their tempo (strength and rate of selection) and mode of evolution (Brownian or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck) and estimates of trait optima. We found that most traits are best fit by a generalized multipeak OU model, suggesting differing trait optima for viviparous vs. oviparous species. Additionally, rates (σ(2) ) of both pelvic girdle and forelimb trait evolution varied with parity; viviparous species had higher rates. Hindlimb traits, however, exhibited no difference in σ(2) between parity modes. In a functional context, our results suggest that the passage of shelled eggs constrains the morphology of the pelvic girdle, but we found no evidence of morphological constraint of the locomotor apparatus in viviparous species. Our results are consistent with recent lineage diversification analyses, leading to the conclusion that transitions to viviparity increase both lineage and morphological diversification. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Process depending morphology and resulting physical properties of TPU

    Frick, Achim, E-mail: achim.frick@hs-aalen.de; Spadaro, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.spadaro@hs-aalen.de [Institute of Polymer Science and Processing (iPSP), Aalen University (Germany)

    2015-12-17

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a rubber like material with outstanding properties, e.g. for seal applications. TPU basically provides high strength, low frictional behavior and excellent wear resistance. Though, due to segmented structure of TPU, which is composed of hard segments (HSs) and soft segments (SSs), physical properties depend strongly on the morphological arrangement of the phase separated HSs at a certain ratio of HSs to SSs. It is obvious that the TPU deforms differently depending on its bulk morphology. Basically, the morphology can either consist of HSs segregated into small domains, which are well dispersed in the SS matrix or of few strongly phase separated large size HS domains embedded in the SS matrix. The morphology development is hardly ruled by the melt processing conditions of the TPU. Depending on the morphology, TPU provides quite different physical properties with respect to strength, deformation behavior, thermal stability, creep resistance and tribological performance. The paper deals with the influence of important melt processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and shear conditions, on the resulting physical properties tested by tensile and relaxation experiments. Furthermore the morphology is studied employing differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), transmission light microscopy (TLM), scanning electron beam microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron beam microscopy (TEM) investigations. Correlations between processing conditions and resulting TPU material properties are elaborated. Flow and shear simulations contribute to the understanding of thermal and flow induced morphology development.

  10. Deciphering morphological variation in the braincase of caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona).

    Maddin, Hillary C

    2011-07-01

    High levels of morphological homoplasy have hindered progress in understanding morphological evolution within gymnophione lissamphibians. Stemming from the hypothesis that the braincase has the potential to yield phylogenetic information, the braincases of 27 species (23 genera) of gymnophione amphibians were examined using high-resolution micro-computed tomography and histologically prepared specimens. Morphology of the brain and its relationship to features of the braincase is described, and it is shown that eight different patterns exist in the distribution of foramina in the antotic region. The distribution of variants is congruent with molecule-based phylogeny. Additionally, all variants are shown to correspond directly to stages along developmental continua, suggesting that the evolutionary truncation of development in the antotic region at various stages has driven the evolution of morphology in this region. Attempts to correlate the observed morphology with proxies of putative heterochronic events (including those attributable to burrowing, life history, and size) fail to explain the distribution of morphology if each proxy is considered separately. Thus, it is concluded that either currently unrecognized causes of heterochrony or combinations thereof have influenced morphology in different lineages independently. These data identify clades whose morphology can now be reconsidered in light of previously unrecognized heterochronic events, thereby providing a foundation for future analyses of the evolution of morphology within Gymnophiona as a whole. Most significantly, these data confirm, for the first time in a lissamphibian group, that the braincase can preserve important phylogenetic information that is otherwise obscured in regions of the skull that experience strong influences from functional constraints. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Midbrain morphology reflects extent of brain damage in Krabbe disease

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Narayanan, Srikala; Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poe, Michele D.; Escolar, Maria L. [University of Pittsburgh, Program for the Study of Neurodevelopment in Rare Disorders, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    To study the relationships between midbrain morphology, Loes score, gross motor function, and cognitive function in infantile Krabbe disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists blinded to clinical status and neurodevelopmental function of children with early or late infantile Krabbe disease. A simplified qualitative 3-point scoring system based on midbrain morphology on midsagittal MRI was used. A score of 0 represented normal convex morphology of the midbrain, a score of 1 represented flattening of the midbrain, and a score of 3 represented concave morphology of the midbrain (hummingbird sign). Spearman correlations were estimated between this simplified MRI scoring system and the Loes score, gross motor score, and cognitive score. Forty-two MRIs of 27 subjects were reviewed. Analysis of the 42 scans showed normal midbrain morphology in 3 (7.1 %) scans, midbrain flattening in 11 (26.2 %) scans, and concave midbrain morphology (hummingbird sign) in 28 (66.7 %) scans. Midbrain morphology scores were positively correlated with the Loes score (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with both gross motor and cognitive scores (r = -.84, p < 0.001; r = -0.87, p < 0.001, respectively). The inter-rater reliability for the midbrain morphology scale was κ =.95 (95 % CI: 0.86-1.0), and the inter-rater reliability for the Loes scale was κ =.58 (95 % CI: 0.42-0.73). Midbrain morphology scores of midsagittal MRI images correlates with cognition and gross motor function in children with Krabbe disease. This MRI scoring system represents a simple but reliable method to assess disease progression in patients with infantile Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  12. Midbrain morphology reflects extent of brain damage in Krabbe disease

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Narayanan, Srikala; Panigrahy, Ashok; Poe, Michele D.; Escolar, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    To study the relationships between midbrain morphology, Loes score, gross motor function, and cognitive function in infantile Krabbe disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists blinded to clinical status and neurodevelopmental function of children with early or late infantile Krabbe disease. A simplified qualitative 3-point scoring system based on midbrain morphology on midsagittal MRI was used. A score of 0 represented normal convex morphology of the midbrain, a score of 1 represented flattening of the midbrain, and a score of 3 represented concave morphology of the midbrain (hummingbird sign). Spearman correlations were estimated between this simplified MRI scoring system and the Loes score, gross motor score, and cognitive score. Forty-two MRIs of 27 subjects were reviewed. Analysis of the 42 scans showed normal midbrain morphology in 3 (7.1 %) scans, midbrain flattening in 11 (26.2 %) scans, and concave midbrain morphology (hummingbird sign) in 28 (66.7 %) scans. Midbrain morphology scores were positively correlated with the Loes score (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with both gross motor and cognitive scores (r = -.84, p < 0.001; r = -0.87, p < 0.001, respectively). The inter-rater reliability for the midbrain morphology scale was κ =.95 (95 % CI: 0.86-1.0), and the inter-rater reliability for the Loes scale was κ =.58 (95 % CI: 0.42-0.73). Midbrain morphology scores of midsagittal MRI images correlates with cognition and gross motor function in children with Krabbe disease. This MRI scoring system represents a simple but reliable method to assess disease progression in patients with infantile Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  13. Association between trochlear morphology and chondromalacia patella: an MRI study.

    Duran, Semra; Cavusoglu, Mehtap; Kocadal, Onur; Sakman, Bulent

    This study aimed to compare trochlear morphology seen in magnetic resonance imaging between patients with chondromalacia patella and age-matched control patients without cartilage lesion. Trochlear morphology was evaluated using the lateral trochlear inclination, medial trochlear inclination, sulcus angle and trochlear angle on the axial magnetic resonance images. Consequently, an association between abnormal trochlear morphology and chondromalacia patella was identified in women. In particular, women with flattened lateral trochlea are at an increased risk of patellar cartilage structural damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Segregation effect of radiation induced crosslinking of HDPE: morphology change

    Deng Pengyang; Zhong Xiaoguang

    2000-01-01

    Scanning Electronic Microscopy has been used to study morphology of pure gel; sol-gel blend and sol-gel segregation samples of radiation induced crosslinking of HDPE. The results show that the morphology of segregation sample is the same as that of pure gel and different from that of sol-gel blend. This kind of morphology change proves that the sol-gel blend have occurred a liquid---solid phase segregation in the melting state. The liquid phase (sol) will naturally immersed in the network of the gel. (author)

  15. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Ingenieria Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia); Perez, F A [WNANO, West Virginia University (United States); Riascos, H [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  16. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A; Perez, F A; Riascos, H

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  17. Morphology of the cervical spinal cord on computed myelography

    Thijssen, H O.M. [Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Keyser, A; Horstink, M W.M. [Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology; Meijer, E [Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    1979-01-01

    To ensure adequate use of the technique of computed myelography (CM) it is necessary to have an exact picture of the morphology of the normal spinal cord as demonstrated by this technique. This has been obtained by studying the morphology and measuring the frontal and sagittal diameter of the cervical cord in 20 patients. The normal values are presented. The changes of this morphology in one patient with a tumour, one patient with atrophy of the spinal cord and in some patients with congenital malformations are also reported.

  18. Gamma ray induced chlorophyll and morphological mutants in grasspea

    Das, P.K.; Kundagrami, S.

    2000-01-01

    Higher dose of gamma ray treatment such as 30 kR promoted larger chlorophyll as well as morphological mutation frequency and spectrum. In both M 1 and M 2 generation marginata significantly out numbered other types of chlorophyll mutations. On the other hand, along morphological mutations stunted growth types were recovered more frequently. Both the genotypes Nirmal and P-24 differed greatly for their mutagenic specificity. In both M 1 and M 2 generation Nirmal recorded higher chlorophyll and morphological mutation frequency and spectrum indicating differential genotype response to different dosages of gamma ray treatment. (author)

  19. Morphology and pore structure of rare earth oxides

    Bruce, L.A.; Hoang, M.; Hardin, S.; Turney, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy of rare earth oxides, prepared by two different routes, has been related to adsorption, characteristics for nitrogen at 77 K. The most common morphology was that of thin sheets, then small equiaxed particles, and, more rarely, rod-like particles. The presence of small equiaxed particles was found to be a prerequisite for adsorption hysteresis. Evaluation of linear 't' plots indicated freedom from micropores in all samples, but positive deviations in the presence of sheet morphology at high relative pressures left open the possibility of wedge-like pores in these samples. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  20. Morphology and function in the empirical analysis of reading adjustment

    Carpio, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of varying the criterion and the morphology of the percentage of correct response upon reading adjustment tasks. Participants were 20 voluntary students, distributed in four groups, which were differentiated by the certainty - variability of the criterion and the certainty - variability of the morphology of response to satisfy the criterion. All participants were exposed to a first evaluation, training and finally a second evaluation similar to the first one was applied. Results question the role of morphology as a comprehension strategy independent of a functional criterion, domain and of the text itself

  1. Generic model of morphological changes in growing colonies of fungi

    López, Juan M.; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2002-02-01

    Fungal colonies are able to exhibit different morphologies depending on the environmental conditions. This allows them to cope with and adapt to external changes. When grown in solid or semisolid media the bulk of the colony is compact and several morphological transitions have been reported to occur as the external conditions are varied. Here we show how a unified simple mathematical model, which includes the effect of the accumulation of toxic metabolites, can account for the morphological changes observed. Our numerical results are in excellent agreement with experiments carried out with the fungus Aspergillus oryzae on solid agar.

  2. Hybrid morphological modelling of shoreline response to a detached breakwater

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Drønen, Nils; Deigaard, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We present a new type of model for calculating morphological changes induced by the presence of breakwaters. The model combines a process based area model, used to calculate the sediment transport field in the two horizontal dimensions, with a simplified morphological updating scheme where the ev...... in more detail the evolving morphology behind coastal breakwaters. It is demonstrated how the model is able to calculate the evolution of either salient or tombolo planforms, and furthermore it is shown that the results are in reasonable agreement with existing rules....

  3. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time.......In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  4. Morphology, temperature, and eruption dynamics at Pele

    Howell, Robert R.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.

    2011-06-01

    The Pele region of Io has been the site of vigorous volcanic activity from the time of the first Voyager I observations in 1979 up through the final Galileo ones in 2001. There is high-temperature thermal emission from a visibly dark area that is thought to be a rapidly overturning lava lake, and is also the source of a large sulfur-rich plume. We present a new analysis of Voyager I visible wavelength images, and Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) and Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) thermal emission observations which better define the morphology of the region and the intensity of the emission. The observations show remarkable correlations between the locations of the emission and the features seen in the Voyager images, which provide insight into eruption mechanisms and constrain the longevity of the activity. We also analyze an additional wavelength channel of NIMS data (1.87 μm) which paradoxically, because of reduced sensitivity, allows us to estimate temperatures at the peak locations of emission. Measurements of eruption temperatures on Io are crucial because they provide our best clues to the composition of the magma. High color temperatures indicative of ultramafic composition have been reported for the Pillan hot spot and possibly for Pele, although recent work has called into question the requirement for magma temperatures above those expected for ordinary basalts. Our new analysis of the Pele emission near the peak of the hot spot shows color temperatures near the upper end of the basalt range during the I27 and I32 encounters. In order to analyze the observed color temperatures we also present an analytical model for the thermal emission from fire-fountains, which should prove generally useful for analyzing similar data. This is a modification of the lava flow emission model presented in Howell (Howell, R.R. [1997]. Icarus 127, 394-407), adapted to the fire-fountain cooling curves first discussed in Keszthelyi et al. (Keszthelyi, L., Jaeger, W

  5. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    1990-08-18

    Aug 18, 1990 ... couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% ... gonadotrophin (HCG) 5000 ID was given when the average size of three ... have a normal sperm count and motility but have lower than normal ...

  6. Evaluating morphological variability of Artemisia herba-alba Asso ...

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... This work was interested on the study of the morphological variability of 120 individuals of ... stations in western Algeria , which was assessed through 15 quantitative and qualitative characters.

  7. Do generalists and specialists agree on descriptive acne morphology?

    Yazdanyar, S; Bryld, L E; Heidenheim, M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acne is a common skin disease, which is treated by many different specialities. Clinical guidelines for treatment are based on the recognition of acne morphology. The assessment of acne morphology is therefore an important element of the proper diagnosis and treatment of acne. OBJECTIVE......: To evaluate the level of congruence in the assessment of acne morphology in General Practitioners (GPs) and Dermatologists compared to the assessment of an expert. METHODS: The study was conducted during 2008-2009. Randomly selected GP and Dermatologists Practitioners, (DPs) from Denmark were invited...... in the distribution of answers. CONCLUSION: GPs described acne morphology recognized clinical hallmarks of severity in acne less well than dermatologists and were far less consistent....

  8. Laryngotracheal morphology of Afro-Madagascan geckos: a comparative survey.

    Russell, A P; Rittenhouse, D R; Bauer, A M

    2000-09-01

    The structural variation of the gekkonid larynx and trachea is examined within a representative subset of 17 species of Afro-Madagascan gekkonines to determine if there are underlying morphological correlates of vocalization. The documented morphology is compared to that of the tokay (Gekko gecko), which has previously been described. Data were obtained from gross anatomical observations, scanning electron microscopy, histological examinations and computer-generated, three-dimensional, skeletal reconstructions. Although there is limited variation among most Afro-Malagasy gekkonids, the larynges of Ptenopus garrulus and Uroplatus fimbriatus exhibit marked degrees of differentiation, suggesting that laryngeal and tracheal morphology may account for the documented vocal variability of gekkonid lizards. Cladistic analyses indicated that parallel adaptive trends characterize the laryngeal morphology of the examined taxa. Alternate designs and refinements to a model of gekkonid phonation are presented, and the evolution of acoustic communication in the Gekkonidae is considered. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Morphological development of the small intestine in White Roman ...

    Customer

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... intestine using the light microscope and scanning electron microscope in order to ... in morphology and structure of small intestinal segments in geese from ... in the multi-regression model (Steel and Torrie, 1960). RESULTS.

  10. Golden Rule of Morphology and Variants of Word forms

    Hlaváčová Jaroslava

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many languages, some words can be written in several ways. We call them variants. Values of all their morphological categories are identical, which leads to an identical morphological tag. Together with the identical lemma, we have two or more wordforms with the same morphological description. This ambiguity may cause problems in various NLP applications. There are two types of variants – those affecting the whole paradigm (global variants and those affecting only wordforms sharing some combinations of morphological values (inflectional variants. In the paper, we propose means how to tag all wordforms, including their variants, unambiguously. We call this requirement “Golden rule of morphology”. The paper deals mainly with Czech, but the ideas can be applied to other languages as well.

  11. Morphological features of choroidal metastases: An OCT analysis

    Ludovico Iannetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological characteristics and retinal changes of chroidal metastases using Spectral Domain OCT are described in a case with primary lung adenocarcinoma and secondary choroidal involvement.

  12. Prediction and Theoretical Investigation of the Morphology of ...

    Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety (Tianjin University of Science and ... Keywords: Erythromycin dihydrate, Morphology prediction, Theoretical ... For atomic charge assignments and .... interactions involved in its attachment energy, in.

  13. Morphology-Controlled Synthesis of Organometal Halide Perovskite Inverse Opals.

    Chen, Kun; Tüysüz, Harun

    2015-11-09

    The booming development of organometal halide perovskites in recent years has prompted the exploration of morphology-control strategies to improve their performance in photovoltaic, photonic, and optoelectronic applications. However, the preparation of organometal halide perovskites with high hierarchical architecture is still highly challenging and a general morphology-control method for various organometal halide perovskites has not been achieved. A mild and scalable method to prepare organometal halide perovskites in inverse opal morphology is presented that uses a polystyrene-based artificial opal as hard template. Our method is flexible and compatible with different halides and organic ammonium compositions. Thus, the perovskite inverse opal maintains the advantage of straightforward structure and band gap engineering. Furthermore, optoelectronic investigations reveal that morphology exerted influence on the conducting nature of organometal halide perovskites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and ...

    Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and geographical variation. ... Seven species are important pasture grasses throughout the western Transvaal, Orange Free State, northern Cape and Natal. ... Language: English.

  15. Combining morphological analysis and Bayesian Networks for strategic decision support

    De Waal, AJ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis (MA) and Bayesian networks (BN) are two closely related modelling methods, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages for strategic decision support modelling. MA is a method for defining, linking and evaluating...

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies of bombardment induced surface morphology changes

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Williams, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In this review results of experimental and theoretical studies of solid surface morphology changes due to ion bombardment are discussed. An attempt is undertaken to classify the observed specific features of a structure, generated by ion bombardment [ru

  17. Genetic variation of durum wheat landraces using morphological ...

    Genetic variation of durum wheat landraces using morphological and protein markers. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS ... No significant correlation was observed among the two methods tested. It is concluded ...

  18. On sub-modularization and morphological heterogeneity in modular robotics

    Lyder, A. H.; Stoy, K.; Garciá, R. F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Modular robots are a kind of robots built from mechatronic modules, which can be assembled in many different ways allowing the modular robot to assume a wide range of morphologies and functions. An important question in modular robotics is to which degree modules should be heterogeneous....... In this paper we introduce two contributing factors to heterogeneity namely morphological heterogeneity and sub-functional modularization. Respectively, the ideas are to create modules with significantly different morphologies and to spread sub-functionality across modules. Based on these principles we design...... and implement the Thor robot and evaluate it by participating in the ICRA Planetary Robotic Contingency Challenge. The Thor robot demonstrates that sub-functional modularity and morphological heterogeneity may increase the versatility of modular robots while reducing the complexity of individual modules, which...

  19. Effect of varying temperature on growth, morphology and soluble ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... High temperature severely affects cell morphology (cell size, cell types, formation of filaments/minicells ... media (Anagnostopolous and Spizezen, 1961) were used. .... inactivation of fts Z (filamentous temperature sensitive).

  20. Pollen morphology of European bladderworts (Utricularia L., Lentibulariaceae)

    Beretta, M.; Rodondi, G.; Adamec, Lubomír; Andreis, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 1 (2014), s. 22-30 ISSN 0034-6667 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Utricularia * pollen morphology * determination key Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.940, year: 2014

  1. The Mathematical Morpho-Logical View on Reasoning about Space

    Aiello, Marco; Ottens, Brammert; Veloso, MM

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative reasoning about mereotopological relations has been extensively investigated, while more recently geometrical and spatio-temporal reasoning are gaining increasing attention. We propose to consider mathematical morphology operators as the inspiration for a new language and inference

  2. Pollen morphology and variability of Tulipa hungarica Borb

    Yomi

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... Pollen morphology of the endemic species Tulipa hungarica Borb was investigated with the goal of ... pollen size may balance the competitive advantages of .... (2009). Comparative analysis of microspore size variability in the.

  3. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  4. Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods.

    Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Marine tetrapod clades (e.g. seals, whales) independently adapted to marine life through the Mesozoic and Caenozoic, and provide iconic examples of convergent evolution. Apparent morphological convergence is often explained as the result of adaptation to similar ecological niches. However, quantitative tests of this hypothesis are uncommon. We use dietary data to classify the feeding ecology of extant marine tetrapods and identify patterns in skull and tooth morphology that discriminate trophic groups across clades. Mapping these patterns onto phylogeny reveals coordinated evolutionary shifts in diet and morphology in different marine tetrapod lineages. Similarities in morphology between species with similar diets-even across large phylogenetic distances-are consistent with previous hypotheses that shared functional constraints drive convergent evolution in marine tetrapods.

  5. Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and ...

    Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects. ... This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative ... from 32 Countries:.

  6. Advertisement call and tadpole morphology of the clutch-guarding ...

    Advertisement call and tadpole morphology of the clutch-guarding frog Mantidactylus argenteus from eastern ... We provide the first descriptions of the tadpole and advertisement call of Mantidactylus argenteus. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Comparative morphology of the feeding appendages of four ...

    The morphology of feeding appendages of the coexisting estuarine copepods, Pseudodiaptomus hessei and ..... are indicative of a predominantly herbivorous feeding habit; an EI value of ..... of a mysid crustacean, Hemimysis lamornae. Trans.

  8. AmAMorph: Finite State Morphological Analyzer for Amazighe

    Fatima Zahra Nejme

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents AmAMorph, a morphological analyzer for Amazighe language using a system based on the NooJ linguistic development environment. The paper begins with the development of Amazighe lexicons with large coverage formalization. The built electronic lexicons, named ‘NAmLex’, ‘VAmLex’ and ‘PAmLex’ which stand for ‘Noun Amazighe Lexicon’, ‘Verb Amazighe Lexicon’ and ‘Particles Amazighe Lexicon’, link inflectional, morphological, and syntacticsemantic information to the list of lemmas. Automated inflectional and derivational routines are applied to each lemma producing over inflected forms. To our knowledge,AmAMorph is the first morphological analyzer for Amazighe. It identifies the component morphemes of the forms using large coverage morphological grammars. Along with the description of how the analyzer is implemented, this paper gives an evaluation of the analyzer.

  9. Morphological type correlation between nearest neighbor pairs of galaxies

    Yamagata, Tomohiko

    1990-01-01

    Although the morphological type of galaxies is one of the most fundamental properties of galaxies, its origin and evolutionary processes, if any, are not yet fully understood. It has been established that the galaxy morphology strongly depends on the environment in which the galaxy resides (e.g., Dressler 1980). Galaxy pairs correspond to the smallest scales of galaxy clustering and may provide important clues to how the environment influences the formation and evolution of galaxies. Several investigators pointed out that there is a tendency for pair galaxies to have similar morphological types (Karachentsev and Karachentseva 1974, Page 1975, Noerdlinger 1979). Here, researchers analyze morphological type correlation for 18,364 nearest neighbor pairs of galaxies identified in the magnetic tape version of the Center for Astrophysics Redshift Catalogue.

  10. Surface morphology of some articulated corallines from India

    Kerkar, V.; Iyer, S.D.

    Surface structures of seven species belonging to four genera of subfamily Corallinoidae (Fly: Corallinaceae) were microscopically investigated Two distinct surface morphologies were revealed namely a 'Corallina type' (c-type) with round to irregular...

  11. Morphological and molecular identification of fungi associated with ...

    Eneke

    Macro-propagation technology, which has the potential to produce 50-60 shoots per sucker ... Isolates were characterized using cultural, micro-morphological and ... The technology requires little .... and the colour tint on the surface was white,.

  12. The impact of module morphologies on modular robots

    Liu, Ceyue; Liu, Jiangong; Moreno Garcia, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    RGE, and defined the number of connection faces and their relative positions as morphological parameters. Afterwards, we evolved the morphology and control of robots composed of EMeRGE modules in a robotic simulation platform. Simulation results indicate that robots containing modules with only two available......Many different types of modular robots have been designed in the last two decades. However, limited research has been done on analyzing which module morphology is able to create better robots for a given task. To address this issue, this paper investigates how the number and position of available...... connection faces in a module influence the evolvability of the modular robot. In contrast to previous research on modular robots, an analysis of the morphology of the module is done in order to improve and simplify its mechanical design. To this end, we designed a homogeneous module called EMe...

  13. Unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite

    Malwela, T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports a unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite. A nanocomposite of poly[butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) with 3 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite was prepared by melt...

  14. Inter-populations genetic and morphological diversity in three Silene ...

    enoho

    2012-03-30

    Mar 30, 2012 ... 2Biology Department, School of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (SRBIAU), ... other populations in both morphological and molecular features. ... species with world-wide distribution.

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of L-methioninase ...

    Six species of L-methioninase producing Aspergillus species, isolated from Egyptian soil, were selected for comprehensive morphotypic and molecular characterization. Based on morphological and physiological features, these isolates were identified as Aspergillus flavipes, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus flavus, ...

  16. Variant Root Morphology of Third Mandibular Molar in Normal and ...

    isaac kipyator

    2017-11-12

    Nov 12, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology ... treatment in the School of Dental Sciences since 2010. ... mandibular third molar include presence of three.

  17. The Effect of Stirring on the Morphology of Birnessite Nanoparticles

    Marcos A. Cheney

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical stirring on the morphology of hexagonal layer-structure birnessite nanoparticles produced from decomposition of KMnO4 in dilute aqueous H2SO4 is investigated, with characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and N2 adsorption (BET. Mechanical stirring during an initial stage of synthesis is shown to produce black birnessite containing nanofibers, whereas granular particulates of brown birnessite are produced without stirring. This is the first reduction synthesis of black birnessite nanoparticles with dendritic morphology without any use of organic reductant, and suggests that a particular morphology can arise from structural preferences of Mn in acidic conditions rather than particular organic reactants. These results enlighten the possibility of synthesizing nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology.

  18. Investigating Soot Morphology in Counterflow Flames at Elevated Pressures

    Amin, Hafiz Muhammad Fahid

    2018-01-01

    Practical combustion devices such as gas turbines and diesel engines operate at high pressures to increase their efficiency. Pressure significantly increases the overall soot yield. Morphology of these ultra-fine particles determines their airborne

  19. Morphological classification of genetic diversity in cultivated okra ...

    Morphological classification of genetic diversity in cultivated okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench using principal component analysis (PCA) and single linkage cluster analysis (SLCA). CC Nwangburuka, OB Kehinde, DK Ojo, OA Denton, AR Popoola ...

  20. Mechanism of action of pefloxacin on surface morphology, DNA ...

    work-group

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... Morphological alterations on the cell surface of the K. aerogenes was shown by scanning electron microscopy ... against Gram-negative bacteria involved in UTI, the ..... chromosome: possibility of two levels of action. Proc.

  1. The genius Melandrium Roehl. pauline morphology of Tajikistan flora

    Suliga, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    For definition systematic question elucidation, pauline morphological of Melandrium type investigation were held by us, which showed that it will break on three independent types: Elisanthe (Fenzl) Reinchenb, Gastrolychnis (Fenzl) Reinchenb, and Melandrium Roehl

  2. Effects of plant morphology on vegetation resistance, resilience and ...

    Effects of plant morphology on vegetation resistance, resilience and tolerance in. Mabira forest ... impacts of visitors activities of the camping sites and to understand the .... (Howard, 199 1 ): Milicia excels a, Cordia millenii, Irving/a gabonensis ...

  3. Orthographic Transparency Enhances Morphological Segmentation in Children Reading Hebrew Words

    Haddad, Laurice; Weiss, Yael; Katzir, Tami; Bitan, Tali

    2018-01-01

    Morphological processing of derived words develops simultaneously with reading acquisition. However, the reader’s engagement in morphological segmentation may depend on the language morphological richness and orthographic transparency, and the readers’ reading skills. The current study tested the common idea that morphological segmentation is enhanced in non-transparent orthographies to compensate for the absence of phonological information. Hebrew’s rich morphology and the dual version of the Hebrew script (with and without diacritic marks) provides an opportunity to study the interaction of orthographic transparency and morphological segmentation on the development of reading skills in a within-language design. Hebrew speaking 2nd (N = 27) and 5th (N = 29) grade children read aloud 96 noun words. Half of the words were simple mono-morphemic words and half were bi-morphemic derivations composed of a productive root and a morphemic pattern. In each list half of the words were presented in the transparent version of the script (with diacritic marks), and half in the non-transparent version (without diacritic marks). Our results show that in both groups, derived bi-morphemic words were identified more accurately than mono-morphemic words, but only for the transparent, pointed, script. For the un-pointed script the reverse was found, namely, that bi-morphemic words were read less accurately than mono-morphemic words, especially in second grade. Second grade children also read mono-morphemic words faster than bi-morphemic words. Finally, correlations with a standardized measure of morphological awareness were found only for second grade children, and only in bi-morphemic words. These results, showing greater morphological effects in second grade compared to fifth grade children suggest that for children raised in a language with a rich morphology, common and easily segmented morphemic units may be more beneficial for younger compared to older readers. Moreover

  4. Orthographic Transparency Enhances Morphological Segmentation in Children Reading Hebrew Words

    Laurice Haddad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological processing of derived words develops simultaneously with reading acquisition. However, the reader’s engagement in morphological segmentation may depend on the language morphological richness and orthographic transparency, and the readers’ reading skills. The current study tested the common idea that morphological segmentation is enhanced in non-transparent orthographies to compensate for the absence of phonological information. Hebrew’s rich morphology and the dual version of the Hebrew script (with and without diacritic marks provides an opportunity to study the interaction of orthographic transparency and morphological segmentation on the development of reading skills in a within-language design. Hebrew speaking 2nd (N = 27 and 5th (N = 29 grade children read aloud 96 noun words. Half of the words were simple mono-morphemic words and half were bi-morphemic derivations composed of a productive root and a morphemic pattern. In each list half of the words were presented in the transparent version of the script (with diacritic marks, and half in the non-transparent version (without diacritic marks. Our results show that in both groups, derived bi-morphemic words were identified more accurately than mono-morphemic words, but only for the transparent, pointed, script. For the un-pointed script the reverse was found, namely, that bi-morphemic words were read less accurately than mono-morphemic words, especially in second grade. Second grade children also read mono-morphemic words faster than bi-morphemic words. Finally, correlations with a standardized measure of morphological awareness were found only for second grade children, and only in bi-morphemic words. These results, showing greater morphological effects in second grade compared to fifth grade children suggest that for children raised in a language with a rich morphology, common and easily segmented morphemic units may be more beneficial for younger compared to older

  5. Phenotypic Covariation And Morphological Diversification In The Ruminant Skull

    Haber, Annat

    2015-01-01

    Differences among clades in their diversification patterns result from a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. In this study I examined the role of intrinsic factors in the morphological diversification of ruminants in general, and in the differences between bovids and cervids in particular. Using skull morphology, which embodies many of the adaptations that distinguish bovids and cervids, I examined 132 of the 200 extant ruminant species. As a proxy for intrinsic constraints I quan...

  6. Three-dimensional morphological segregation in rich clusters of galaxies

    Salvador-Sole, E.; Sanroma, M.; Jordana, J.J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The implications of the observed correlation between morphological fractions and projected number density of galaxies in rich clusters are analyzed. It is found that this correlation is the result of a well-defined intrinsic correlation that depends on cluster concentration, whether the observed correlation is strictly universal or not. This dependence is in overall agreement with that expected from the action of mechanisms of environment-induced morphological evolution of galaxies. 30 references

  7. Impact spacecraft imagery and comparative morphology of craters

    Moutsoulas, M.; Piteri, S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of hard-landing 'simple' missions for wide-scale planetary exploration is considered. As an example of their imagery potentialities, Ranger VII data are used for the study of the morphological characteristics of 16 Mare Cognitum craters. The morphological patterns of lunar craters, expressed in terms of the Depth/Diameter ratios appear to be in most cases independent of the crater location or size. (Auth.)

  8. Glacial morphology and depositional sequences of the Antarctic Continental Shelf

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Schneider, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a simple model for the unusual depositional sequences and morphology of the Antarctic continental shelf. It considers the regional stratal geometry and the reversed morphology to be principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the ice grounding line. The model offers several guidelines for stratigraphic interpretation of the Antarctic shelf and a Northern Hemisphere shelf, both of which were subject to many glacial advances and retreats. -Authors

  9. Morphology-based Enhancement of a French SIMPLE Lexicon

    Namer , Fiammetta; Bouillon , Pierrette; Jacquey , Evelyne; Ruimy , Nilda

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic methodology for acquiring a French SIMPLE lexicon based on the morphological properties of complex words. This method combines the results of the French morphological analyzer DériF with infor-mation from general lexical resources and corpora, when available. It is evaluated on a set of neolo-gisms extracted from Le Monde newspaper cor-pora.

  10. Corallite skeletal morphological variation in Hawaiian Porites lobata

    Tisthammer, Kaho H.; Richmond, Robert H.

    2018-06-01

    Due to their high morphological plasticity and complex evolutionary history, the species boundaries of many reef-building corals are poorly understood. The skeletal structures of corals have traditionally been used for species identification, but these structures can be highly variable, and currently we lack knowledge regarding the extent of morphological variation within species. Porites species are notorious for their taxonomic difficulties, both morphologically and genetically, and currently there are several unresolved species complexes in the Pacific. Despite its ubiquitous presence and broad use in coral research, Porites lobata belongs to one such unresolved species complex. To understand the degree of intraspecific variation in skeletal morphology, 120 corallites from the Hawaiian P. lobata were examined. A subset of samples from two genetically differentiated populations from contrasting high- and low-stress environments in Maunalua Bay, Hawaii, were then quantitatively analyzed using multivariate morphometrics. Our observations revealed high intraspecific variation in corallite morphology, as well as significant morphological differences between the two populations of P. lobata. Additionally, significant correlation was found between the morphological and genetic distances calculated from approximately 18,000 loci generated from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing. The unique morphological characters observed from the genetically differentiated population under environmental stress suggest that these characters may have adaptive values, but how such traits relate to fitness and how much plasticity they can exhibit remain to be determined by future studies. Relatively simple morphometric analyses used in our study can be useful in clarifying the existing ambiguity in skeletal architecture, thus contributing to resolving species issues in corals.

  11. 3D Print of the Maxillary Sinus for Morphological Study

    Araneda, Nadia; Parra, Marcelo; Valdivia Osorio, José; Olate, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The maxillary sinus (MS) is described as a pyramid-shaped cavity of the maxilla. Knowledge of its morphology makes it possible to define normality and abnormality so that its three-dimensional analysis can be a valuable preoperative tool during surgery in this anatomical area. The aim of this study is to present a strategy of morphological analysis of the MS using 3D printing acquired through computed cone beam tomography (CBCT) images. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, inclu...

  12. A model for the generation and interconversion of ER morphologies

    Shemesh, Tom; Klemm, Robin W.; Romano, Fabian B.; Wang, Songyu; Vaughan, Joshua; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Tukachinsky, Hanna; Kozlov, Michael M.; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important membrane-bound organelle in all eukaryotic cells. Depending on cell type and functional state, the ER membrane can adopt different morphologies, including a network of interconnected tubules, and sheets that can contain fenestrations or be stacked on top of each other. How these different morphologies are generated is unclear. Here, we present a comprehensive theoretical model that explains the formation and interconversion of virtually all known...

  13. Morphological and biological features of seedlings of some Trifolium species

    Valentina A. Kalinkina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The author conducted morphological and biological characteristics of seedlings of six species belonging to three sections: Lupinaster(T. lupinasterL, T. pacificumBobr, T. eximium Steph. Ex. DC., Chronosemium(T. campestre Schreb. and Trifolium (T. arvenseL., T. pratense L. of the genus Trifolium. Dimensional and qualitative morphological characteristics of the main structural elements of the seedlings of these species are represented in the article.

  14. Reconstructing the Morphology of an Evolving Coronal Mass Ejection

    2009-01-01

    694, 707 Wood, B. E., Howard, R. A ., Thernisien, A ., Plunkett, S. P., & Socker, D. G. 2009b, Sol. Phys., 259, 163 Wood, B. E., Karovska , M., Chen, J...Reconstructing the Morphology of an Evolving Coronal Mass Ejection B. E. Wood, R. A . Howard, D. G. Socker Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science...mission, we empirically reconstruct the time-dependent three-dimensional morphology of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from 2008 June 1, which exhibits

  15. Formation of broccoli-like morphology of tantalum powder

    Suzuki, Ryosuke O.; Baba, Masahiko; Ono, Youhei; Yamamoto, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    'Broccoli'-like morphology of Ta powder was found when Ca reduces Ta 2 O 5 in the molten CaCl 2 . It consisted of fine particles and branches, and it was different from the conventional spherical particles. The formation of this morphology depended on the stacking methods of the starting materials. Eight types of filling methods proved that the branch was formed when the CaO-enriched region was locally produced near the oxide

  16. Formation of broccoli-like morphology of tantalum powder

    Suzuki, Ryosuke O [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Baba, Masahiko [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ono, Youhei [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kosuke [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2005-03-08

    'Broccoli'-like morphology of Ta powder was found when Ca reduces Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the molten CaCl{sub 2}. It consisted of fine particles and branches, and it was different from the conventional spherical particles. The formation of this morphology depended on the stacking methods of the starting materials. Eight types of filling methods proved that the branch was formed when the CaO-enriched region was locally produced near the oxide.

  17. CT morphology of splenic vessels in splenoportal fistula

    Mansfeld, L; Poehls, C; Boitz, F

    1986-12-01

    CT examination of a 53-year-old patient with endocarditis and clinical signs of hepatosplenomegaly revealed an atypical vascular morphology in the hilum of the spleen, for which no diagnosis could be established. Angiography indicated the presence of a symptom-free splenoportal fistula, the histological study of which suggested its congenital genesis. The paper describes the morphology, as ascertained by CT, of the splenic vessels characterised by changed haemodynamics due to a hilar splenoportal fistula.

  18. CT morphology of splenic vessels in splenoportal fistula

    Mansfeld, L.; Poehls, C.; Boitz, F.

    1986-01-01

    CT examination of a 53-year-old patient with endocarditis and clinical signs of hepatosplenomegaly revealed an atypical vascular morphology in the hilum of the spleen, for which no diagnosis could be established. Angiography indicated the presence of a symptom-free splenoportal fistula, the histological study of which suggested its congenital genesis. The paper describes the morphology, as ascertained by CT, of the splenic vessels characterised by changed haemodynamics due to a hilar splenoportal fistula. (orig.) [de

  19. Cross-Lingual Morphological Tagging for Low-Resource Languages

    Buys, Jan; Botha, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Morphologically rich languages often lack the annotated linguistic resources required to develop accurate natural language processing tools. We propose models suitable for training morphological taggers with rich tagsets for low-resource languages without using direct supervision. Our approach extends existing approaches of projecting part-of-speech tags across languages, using bitext to infer constraints on the possible tags for a given word type or token. We propose a tagging model using Ws...

  20. Morphological composition of cultivar of Urochloa brizantha under light intensities

    Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Luciane do Carmo Seraphim; Marco Aurélio Factori; Vania Luiza Fournou de Lima; Janaína Carolina de Sá

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of silvopastoral systems (SSP) is a management option that gives good results for animal production, but the shading of the trees can alter production, growth behavior and morphological composition of the forage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphological composition of Urochloa brizantha cultivars Marandu and Piatã under natural light and artificial shading of 30 and 60%. The experiment was conducted at FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu. The experimental design was a rand...

  1. Phylogeny of Selaginellaceae: There is value in morphology after all!

    Weststrand, Stina; Korall, Petra

    2016-12-01

    The cosmopolitan lycophyte family Selaginellaceae, dating back to the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous, is notorious for its many species with a seemingly undifferentiated gross morphology. This morphological stasis has for a long time hampered our understanding of the evolutionary history of the single genus Selaginella. Here we present a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of Selaginella, and based on the resulting phylogeny, we discuss morphological evolution in the group. We sampled about one-third of the approximately 750 recognized Selaginella species. Evolutionary relationships were inferred from both chloroplast (rbcL) and single-copy nuclear gene data (pgiC and SQD1) using a Bayesian inference approach. The morphology of the group was studied and important features mapped onto the phylogeny. We present an overall well-supported phylogeny of Selaginella, and the phylogenetic positions of some previously problematic taxa (i.e., S. sinensis and allies) are now resolved with strong support. We show that even though the evolution of most morphological characters involves reversals and/or parallelisms, several characters are phylogenetically informative. Seven major clades are identified, which each can be uniquely diagnosed by a suite of morphological features. There is value in morphology after all! Our hypothesis of the evolutionary relationships of Selaginella is well founded based on DNA sequence data, as well as morphology, and is in line with previous findings. It will serve as a firm basis for further studies on Selaginella with respect to, e.g., the poorly known alpha taxonomy, as well as evolutionary questions such as historical biogeographic reconstructions. © 2016 Weststrand and Korall. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0).

  2. Morphology control of brushite prepared by aqueous solution synthesis

    T. Toshima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, CaHPO4·2H2O, also known as brushite, is one of the important bioceramics due to not only diseases factors such as kidney stone and plaque formation but also purpose as fluoride insolubilization material. It is used medicinally to supply calcium, and is of interest for its unique properties in biological and pathological mineralization. It is important to control the crystal morphology of brushite since its chemical reactivity depends strongly on its surface properties; thus, its morphology is a key issue for its applications as a functional material or precursor for other bioceramics. Here, we report the effects of the initial pH and the Ca and phosphate ion concentrations on the morphology of DCPD particles during aqueous solution synthesis. Crystal morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology phase diagram of DCPD crystallization revealed that increasing the initial pH and/or ion concentration transformed DCPD morphology from petal-like into plate-like structures.

  3. Evaluating the morphological completeness of a training image.

    Gao, Mingliang; Teng, Qizhi; He, Xiaohai; Feng, Junxi; Han, Xue

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) stochastic structure of a porous medium is helpful for studying its physical properties. A 3D stochastic structure can be reconstructed from a two-dimensional (2D) training image (TI) using mathematical modeling. In order to predict what specific morphology belonging to a TI can be reconstructed at the 3D orthogonal slices by the method of 3D reconstruction, this paper begins by introducing the concept of orthogonal chords. After analyzing the relationship among TI morphology, orthogonal chords, and the 3D morphology of orthogonal slices, a theory for evaluating the morphological completeness of a TI is proposed for the cases of three orthogonal slices and of two orthogonal slices. The proposed theory is evaluated using four TIs of porous media that represent typical but distinct morphological types. The significance of this theoretical evaluation lies in two aspects: It allows special morphologies, for which the attributes of a TI can be reconstructed at a special orthogonal slice of a 3D structure, to be located and quantified, and it can guide the selection of an appropriate reconstruction method for a special TI.

  4. Morphology captures diet and locomotor types in rodents.

    Verde Arregoitia, Luis D; Fisher, Diana O; Schweizer, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    To understand the functional meaning of morphological features, we need to relate what we know about morphology and ecology in a meaningful, quantitative framework. Closely related species usually share more phenotypic features than distant ones, but close relatives do not necessarily have the same ecologies. Rodents are the most diverse group of living mammals, with impressive ecomorphological diversification. We used museum collections and ecological literature to gather data on morphology, diet and locomotion for 208 species of rodents from different bioregions to investigate how morphological similarity and phylogenetic relatedness are associated with ecology. After considering differences in body size and shared evolutionary history, we find that unrelated species with similar ecologies can be characterized by a well-defined suite of morphological features. Our results validate the hypothesized ecological relevance of the chosen traits. These cranial, dental and external (e.g. ears) characters predicted diet and locomotion and showed consistent differences among species with different feeding and substrate use strategies. We conclude that when ecological characters do not show strong phylogenetic patterns, we cannot simply assume that close relatives are ecologically similar. Museum specimens are valuable records of species' phenotypes and with the characters proposed here, morphology can reflect functional similarity, an important component of community ecology and macroevolution.

  5. The place of morphology in learning to read in English.

    Rastle, Kathleen

    2018-02-24

    Morphology is a major organising principle of English and other alphabetic languages, but has been largely neglected in theories of reading acquisition. In this article, I develop the view that learning to appreciate morphological relationships may be a vital part of acquiring a direct mapping between printed words and their meanings, represented in the ventral brain pathway of the reading network. I show that morphology provides an important degree of regularity across this mapping in English, and suggest that this regularity is directly associated with irregularity in the mapping between spelling and sound. I further show that while children in primary school display explicit knowledge of morphological relationships, there is scant evidence they show the rapid morphological analysis of printed words that skilled readers exhibit. These findings suggest that the acquisition of long-term morphological knowledge may be associated with the ongoing development of reading expertise. Implications for reading instruction are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Theoretical and experimental morphologies of 4-aminobenzophenone (ABP) crystals

    Wang, Qingwu; Sheen, D. B.; Shepherd, E. E. A.; Sherwood, J. N.; Simpson, G. S.; Hammond, R. B.

    1997-11-01

    The lattice energy (Elatt), slice energies (Eslice) and attachment energies (Eatt) of the different habit faces of ABP crystals have been calculated using the computer program HABIT. On the basis of the attachment energies of different crystal faces, the morphology was defined as {1 0 0}, {0 0 1}, {1 1 0}, {11bar0} and {1 01bar}. To confirm this theoretical prediction, we have grown ABP films and ABP crystals from the vapour phase. In both cases, the morphologically most important face was defined as {1 0 0} face using X-ray diffraction techniques. The remaining faces of the vapour-grown crystals were defined using a projection method, while the crystallites in the films were morphologically analysed by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experimental morphologies are basically in agreement with the computation. Deviations from the equilibrium morphology can be ascribed to departure from equilibrium conditions during growth. For completeness, the results are compared with those for crystals grown from solutions for which deviations in morphology from the theoretical predictions can be ascribed to interaction between the crystal faces and solvent molecules.

  7. The Applications of Morphology Controlled ZnO in Catalysis

    Yuhai Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO, with the unique chemical and physical properties of high chemical stability, broad radiation absorption range, high electrochemical coupling coefficient, and high photo-stability, is an attractive multifunctional material which has promoted great interest in many fields. What is more, its properties can be tuned by controllable synthesized morphologies. Therefore, after the success of the abundant morphology controllable synthesis, both the morphology-dependent ZnO properties and their related applications have been extensively investigated. This review concentrates on the properties of morphology-dependent ZnO and their applications in catalysis, mainly involved reactions on green energy and environmental issues, such as CO2 hydrogenation to fuels, methanol steam reforming to generate H2, bio-diesel production, pollutant photo-degradation, etc. The impressive catalytic properties of ZnO are associated with morphology tuned specific microstructures, defects or abilities of electron transportation, etc. The main morphology-dependent promotion mechanisms are discussed and summarized.

  8. Morphology engineering of high performance binary oxide electrodes.

    Chen, Kunfeng; Sun, Congting; Xue, Dongfeng

    2015-01-14

    Advances in materials have preceded almost every major technological leap since the beginning of civilization. On the nanoscale and microscale, mastery over the morphology, size, and structure of a material enables control of its properties and enhancement of its usefulness for a given application, such as energy storage. In this review paper, our aim is to present a review of morphology engineering of high performance oxide electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage. We begin with the chemical bonding theory of single crystal growth to direct the growth of morphology-controllable materials. We then focus on the growth of various morphologies of binary oxides and their electrochemical performances for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors. The morphology-performance relationships are elaborated by selecting examples in which there is already reasonable understanding for this relationship. Based on these comprehensive analyses, we proposed colloidal supercapacitor systems beyond morphology control on the basis of system- and ion-level design. We conclude this article with personal perspectives on the directions toward which future research in this field might take.

  9. Observations on the morphology of Australorbis nigricans

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1955-05-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study was done on A. nigricans, based on the observation of shell, radula, renal region and genitalia of 50 specimens measuring 18 mm in diameter. The data obtained are to be compared with those recorded in our previous paper (PARAENSE & DESLANDES, 1955 on A. glabratus. The characteristics common to both species will not be mentioned here. The numerals refere to the means and their standard deviations: no special reference being done, they correspond to length measurementes. Shell - 18 mm in diameter, 6.37 ± 0.29 mm in greatest width, 6 whorls. Prevailing colur ferruginous sepia, a minority of olivaceous, ochreous, nigrescent and deeply black specimens being found. Right side variously depressed, umbilicated, 1.5 to 3.5 mm deep from the bottom of the umblicus to the highest level of the last whorl. Left side more depressed than the right one, broadly concave, 1.5 to 3.5 mm deep. Both sides show a varously distinct keel, that looks sharper at the left. Aperture deltoid, varying in outline and width. Body, extended - 60.26 ± 3.62 mm, less pigmented than in glabratus. Renal tube - 30.68 ± 1.69 mm, showing neither ridge nor pigmented line along its ventral surface, this negative character affording a sure means of separation from glabratus. Ovotestis - 14.48 ± 1.93 mm. Ovisperm duct - 13.04 ± 1.60 mm, including the non-unwound seminal vesicle. The latter was 0.97 ± 0,21 mm in greatest width. Carrefour - Resembling that of glabratus. Sperm duct - 21.36 ± 1.53 mm. Prostate - Prostate duct 7.14 ± 0.74 mm, collecting a row of long diverticula numbering 19.6 ± 3.1 and more separate than in glabratus. Last diverticulum generally bifurcate or arborescent, the remaining ones arborescent. Vas deferens - 28.68 ± 1.38. Ratio vas deferens/vergic sac = 6.8±0.8. Verge - 3.08 ± 0.28 mm long, 0.11 ± 0.02 mm wide. Vergic sac - 3.07 ± 0.28 mm long, about 0.20 mm wide. Ratio vergic sac/preputium = 0.84 ± 0.12. Preputium - 3.69 ± 0.47 mm

  10. Global study of holistic morphological effectors in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Suzuki, Godai; Wang, Yang; Kubo, Karen; Hirata, Eri; Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2018-02-20

    The size of the phenotypic effect of a gene has been thoroughly investigated in terms of fitness and specific morphological traits in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but little is known about gross morphological abnormalities. We identified 1126 holistic morphological effectors that cause severe gross morphological abnormality when deleted, and 2241 specific morphological effectors with weak holistic effects but distinctive effects on yeast morphology. Holistic effectors fell into many gene function categories and acted as network hubs, affecting a large number of morphological traits, interacting with a large number of genes, and facilitating high protein expression. Holistic morphological abnormality was useful for estimating the importance of a gene to morphology. The contribution of gene importance to fitness and morphology could be used to efficiently classify genes into functional groups. Holistic morphological abnormality can be used as a reproducible and reliable gene feature for high-dimensional morphological phenotyping. It can be used in many functional genomic applications.

  11. Linking hydro-morphology with invertebrate ecology in diverse morphological units of a large river-floodplain system

    Blettler, MCM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available study were 1) to determine changes in invertebrate community due to hydrological stages, 2) to link local physical features [flow configuration, sediment composition and morphological feature) with the ecological structure between and within dissimilar...

  12. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    Jugovic,Jure; Koren,Toni

    2014-01-01

    Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775), M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850) and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe) was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is als...

  13. Morphologies of precise polyethylene-based acid copolymers and ionomers

    Buitrago, C. Francisco

    Acid copolymers and ionomers are polymers that contain a small fraction of covalently bound acidic or ionic groups, respectively. For the specific case of polyethylene (PE), acid and ionic pendants enhance many of the physical properties such as toughness, adhesion and rheological properties. These improved properties result from microphase separated aggregates of the polar pendants in the non-polar PE matrix. Despite the widespread industrial use of these materials, rigorous chemical structure---morphology---property relationships remain elusive due to the inevitable structural heterogeneities in the historically-available acid copolymers and ionomers. Recently, precise acid copolymers and ionomers were successfully synthesized by acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization. These precise materials are linear, high molecular weight PEs with pendant acid or ionic functional groups separated by a precisely controlled number of carbon atoms. The morphologies of nine precise acid copolymers and eleven precise ionomers were investigated by X-ray scattering, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For comparison, the morphologies of linear PEs with pseudo-random placement of the pendant groups were also studied. Previous studies of precise copolymers with acrylic acid (AA) found that the microstructural precision produces a new morphology in which PE crystals drive the acid aggregates into layers perpendicular to the chain axes and presumably at the interface between crystalline and amorphous phases. In this dissertation, a second new morphology for acid copolymers is identified in which the aggregates arrange on cubic lattices. The fist report of a cubic morphology was observed at room and elevated temperatures for a copolymer functionalized with two phosphonic acid (PA) groups on every 21st carbon atom. The cubic lattice has been identified as face-centered cubic (FCC). Overall, three morphology types have been

  14. Observation on the morphology of Australorbis glabratus

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1955-05-01

    Full Text Available The present morphological study of A. glabratus was based on the observation of shell, radula, renal region and genitalia of 50 specimens having a shell diameter of 18 mm. In this summary we record the data pertaining to the chracteristics that can be used in systematics. The numerals refere to the mean and their standard deviation; no special reference being made, they correspond to length measurements. Shell: 18 mm in diameter, 5.59 ± 0.24 mm in greatest width, 5 to 6 whorls. Right side umbilicated, left one weakly depressed. Last whorl about thrice as tall as the penultimate one at the aperture, the measurements being taken on the right side. Aperture perpendicular or a little oblique. Body, extended: 47.06 ± 3.31 mm. Renal tube: Narrow and elongated, 23.84 ± 1.90 mm, showing a pigmented ridge along its ventral surface. Ovotestis: 12.78 ± 1.50 mm. Mainly trifurcate diverticula attaching in fan-like manner to the collecting canal (this arrangement is seen to best advantage in the cephalic middle of the ovotestis. The collecting canal greatly swells at the cephalic end, narrowing suddenly as it leaves the ovotestis. Ovisperm duct: 13.70 ± 1.68 mm, including the non-unwound seminal vesicle. The latter, situated about 1 mm from the beginning af the ovisperm duct, was 1.14 ± 0.29 mm in greatest diameter, and is beset by numerous short diverticula. Sperm duct: 14.16 ± 1.27 mm, pursuing a sinous course along the oviduct. Prostate: Prostate duct 5.53 ± 0.74 mm, collecting a row of long diverticula, the latter 21.6 ± 3.5 in number. Last diverticulum generally simple or bifurcate, penultimate generally arborescent, bifurcate or simple, antepenultimate nearly always arborescent, the remaining ones arborescent. The arborescent diverticula frequently give off secondary branches. Vas deferens: 17.50 ± 2.05 mm. The ratio vas deferens/vergic sac was 4.7 ± 0.6. Verge: 3.70 ± 0.54 mm long, 0.12 ± 0.03 mm wide. Free end tapering to a point where

  15. Wetting morphologies and their transitions in grooved substrates

    Seemann, Ralf; Bommer, Stefan; Herrmann, Carsten; Michler, Dominik [Experimental Physics, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan; Khare, Krishnacharya; Kostourou, Konstantina; Gurevich, Evgeny [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany); Law, Bruce M; McBride, Sean, E-mail: r.seemann@physik.uni-saarland.de [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2011-05-11

    When exposed to a partially wetting liquid, many natural and artificial surfaces equipped with complex topographies display a rich variety of liquid interfacial morphologies. In the present article, we focus on a few simple paradigmatic surface topographies and elaborate on the statics and dynamics of the resulting wetting morphologies. It is demonstrated that the spectrum of wetting morphologies increases with increasing complexity of the groove structure. On elastically deformable substrates, additional structures in the liquid morphologies can be observed, which are caused by deformations of the groove geometry in the presence of capillary forces. The emergence of certain liquid morphologies in grooves can be actively controlled by changes in wettability and geometry. For electrically conducting solid substrates, the apparent contact angle can be varied by electrowetting. This allows, depending on groove geometry, a reversible or irreversible transport of liquid along surface grooves. In the case of irreversible liquid transport in triangular grooves, the dynamics of the emerging instability is sensitive to the apparent hydrodynamic slip at the substrate. On elastic substrates, the geometry can be varied in a straightforward manner by stretching or relaxing the sample. The imbibition velocity in deformable grooves is significantly reduced compared to solid grooves, which is a result of the microscopic deformation of the elastic groove material close to the three phase contact line.

  16. Morphological processing with deficient phonological short-term memory.

    Kavé, Gitit; Ze'ev, Hagit Bar; Lev, Anita

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the processing of Hebrew derivational morphology in an individual (S.E.) with deficient phonological short-term memory. In comparison to 10 age- and education-matched men, S.E. was impaired on digit span tasks and demonstrated no recency effect in word list recall. S.E. had low word retention span, but he exhibited phonological similarity and word length effects. His ability to make lexical decisions was intact. In a paired-associate test S.E. successfully learned semantically and morphologically related pairs but not phonologically related pairs, and his learning of nonwords was facilitated by the presence of Hebrew consonant roots. Semantic and morphological similarity enhanced immediate word recall. Results show that S.E. is capable of conducting morphological decomposition of Hebrew-derived words despite his phonological deficit, suggesting that transient maintenance of morphological constituents is independent of temporary storage and rehearsal of phonological codes, and that each is processed separately within short-term memory.

  17. SKELETAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE FORELIMB OF MYRMECOPHAGA TRIDACTYLA.

    Sesoko, Natália Ferreira; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Bortolini, Zara; de Souza, Lívia Pasini; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Anteater forelimbs are morphologically adapted to obtain food and to provide defense and locomotion. Four species are known, but there are few anatomical studies presenting the morphologic features of each species. The aim of this study was to describe the skeletal morphology of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) forelimb. Pictures and schematic drawings of six cadavers were created to show the bone morphology. In addition, radiographs and computed tomographs were obtained. The skeletal structure of the forelimb had several notable anatomical features. The scapula had two spines, with apparent differences between infant and adult animals. The humerus had a pectoral ridge, a pectoral tubercle, and a pronounced medial epicondyle that represent the origins of muscles important for fossorial activity. The radius had cranial, lateral, and caudal ridges that became more prominent in older animals, and the distal condyle joint provided enhanced support of the dorsal articulation for the manus. Knowledge of the bone morphology of the forelimb generates a better understanding of giant anteater habits and helps in the diagnosis of skeletal abnormalities and in the routine medical assessment of this species.

  18. Morphologic identification of atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia by digital microscopy.

    Marionneaux, S; Maslak, P; Keohane, E M

    2014-08-01

    Atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (aCLL) is a morphologic variant found in approximately 25% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although aCLL has a more aggressive course compared to typical CLL (tCLL), it is not usually reported. This retrospective study used digital microscopy to morphologically classify CLL patients as aCLL or tCLL, and determined the prevalence of prognostic markers in each group. CellaVision AB (Lund, Sweden) was used to evaluate lymphocyte morphology on archived blood films of 97 CLL patients, and results of their prognostic marker analysis at diagnosis were obtained. The unpaired t-test, Chi-square, or Fisher's Exact test were used for statistical analysis. 27% of CLL cases were morphologically classified as aCLL. The aCLL group had a higher prevalence of trisomy 12, unmutated IgVH, and CD38 expression (markers associated with poor prognosis), and a lower prevalence of 13q14 deletions compared to tCLL; this was statistically significant. Using digital imaging to identify aCLL is feasible, economical, and may provide clinically relevant prognostic information at diagnosis and during periodic monitoring. Further study of a larger number of patients is needed to assess the clinical utility of reporting aCLL morphology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Role of beach morphology in wave overtopping hazard assessment

    Phillips, Benjamin; Brown, Jennifer; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Plater, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the role of beach morphology in controlling wave overtopping volume will further minimise uncertainties in flood risk assessments at coastal locations defended by engineered structures worldwide. XBeach is used to model wave overtopping volume for a 1:200 yr joint probability distribution of waves and water levels with measured, pre- and post-storm beach profiles. The simulation with measured bathymetry is repeated with and without morphological evolution enabled during the modelled storm event. This research assesses the role of morphology in controlling wave overtopping volumes for hazardous events that meet the typical design level of coastal defence structures. Results show disabling storm-driven morphology under-represents modelled wave overtopping volumes by up to 39% under high Hs conditions, and has a greater impact on the wave overtopping rate than the variability applied within the boundary conditions due to the range of wave-water level combinations that meet the 1:200 yr joint probability criterion. Accounting for morphology in flood modelling is therefore critical for accurately predicting wave overtopping volumes and the resulting flood hazard and to assess economic losses.

  20. The Morphological Change of Silver Nanoparticles in Water

    Wang Peng; Wang Rong-Yao; Jin Jing-Yang; Xu Le; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The solvent-induced morphological change of silver nanoparticles is studied with a combination of optical spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). By using the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy arising from Ag nanoparticles, an in-situ investigation of the spectral changes is carried out before, during and after exposure of Ag island films to water. Combining with the morphological observations by AFM, we sort out the morphological and dielectric contributions to the water-induced LSPR changes. Our results demonstrate that a slight morphological change induced by water contact can result in an apparent blue shift of the LSPR spectral maximum. Furthermore, it is found that this structural change leads to a higher sensitivity of the Ag island films in response to the change in the external dielectric environment. This solvent-induced morphological change, and consequently the modification of the LSPR of the metal nanoparticles, may have significant impact in the applications of solvent-involved plasmon sensors, such as chemical/biological sensing and single-molecule spectroscopy. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Cell dynamic morphology classification using deep convolutional neural networks.

    Li, Heng; Pang, Fengqian; Shi, Yonggang; Liu, Zhiwen

    2018-05-15

    Cell morphology is often used as a proxy measurement of cell status to understand cell physiology. Hence, interpretation of cell dynamic morphology is a meaningful task in biomedical research. Inspired by the recent success of deep learning, we here explore the application of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to cell dynamic morphology classification. An innovative strategy for the implementation of CNNs is introduced in this study. Mouse lymphocytes were collected to observe the dynamic morphology, and two datasets were thus set up to investigate the performances of CNNs. Considering the installation of deep learning, the classification problem was simplified from video data to image data, and was then solved by CNNs in a self-taught manner with the generated image data. CNNs were separately performed in three installation scenarios and compared with existing methods. Experimental results demonstrated the potential of CNNs in cell dynamic morphology classification, and validated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. CNNs were successfully applied to the classification problem, and outperformed the existing methods in the classification accuracy. For the installation of CNNs, transfer learning was proved to be a promising scheme. © 2018 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2018 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Effects of polyacrylic acid additive on barium sulfate particle morphology

    Li, Jie; Liu, Dandan; Jiang, Hongkun; Wang, Jun; Jing, Xiaoyan; Chen, Rongrong [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhu, Wenting [Department of Gastroenterology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin 150081 (China); Han, Shihui [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Wanyou [College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Hao, E-mail: weihao7512@126.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, polyacrylic acid (PAA) was used as a growth modifier to control micron-sized barium sulfate particles via a simple precipitation reaction between sodium sulfate and barium chloride at ambient temperature. The barium sulfate particles were exhibited various morphologies, such as monodisperse spheres, ellipsoids, rose-like aggregates, etc. To better understand the formation mechanisms of the various morphologies of these particles, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed. It was found that the PAA concentration, pH, and Ba{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions concentrations were the most important parameters controlling the morphology of the BaSO{sub 4} particles. These parameters affected the BaSO{sub 4} morphology by influencing the interactions between the PAA carboxyl groups and inorganic ions and the conformation change of the PAA molecular chains. Moreover, this work attempts to provide a preliminary understanding of the formation of the spherical BaSO{sub 4} particles with the randomly coiled conformation of the polymer. - Highlights: • Polyacrylic acid (PAA) was used as a growth modifier to control micron-sized BaSO{sub 4} particles. • The PAA/BaSO{sub 4} particles were exhibited various morphologies. • Provide a preliminary understanding of the formation mechanism of BaSO{sub 4} particles.

  3. Very Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Morphologic Classification of Erythrocytes.

    Durant, Thomas J S; Olson, Eben M; Schulz, Wade L; Torres, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Morphologic profiling of the erythrocyte population is a widely used and clinically valuable diagnostic modality, but one that relies on a slow manual process associated with significant labor cost and limited reproducibility. Automated profiling of erythrocytes from digital images by capable machine learning approaches would augment the throughput and value of morphologic analysis. To this end, we sought to evaluate the performance of leading implementation strategies for convolutional neural networks (CNNs) when applied to classification of erythrocytes based on morphology. Erythrocytes were manually classified into 1 of 10 classes using a custom-developed Web application. Using recent literature to guide architectural considerations for neural network design, we implemented a "very deep" CNN, consisting of >150 layers, with dense shortcut connections. The final database comprised 3737 labeled cells. Ensemble model predictions on unseen data demonstrated a harmonic mean of recall and precision metrics of 92.70% and 89.39%, respectively. Of the 748 cells in the test set, 23 misclassification errors were made, with a correct classification frequency of 90.60%, represented as a harmonic mean across the 10 morphologic classes. These findings indicate that erythrocyte morphology profiles could be measured with a high degree of accuracy with "very deep" CNNs. Further, these data support future efforts to expand classes and optimize practical performance in a clinical environment as a prelude to full implementation as a clinical tool. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  4. Morphological appearance manifolds for group-wise morphometric analysis.

    Lian, Nai-Xiang; Davatzikos, Christos

    2011-12-01

    Computational anatomy quantifies anatomical shape based on diffeomorphic transformations of a template. However, different templates warping algorithms, regularization parameters, or templates, lead to different representations of the same exact anatomy, raising a uniqueness issue: variations of these parameters are confounding factors as they give rise to non-unique representations. Recently, it has been shown that learning the equivalence class derived from the multitude of representations of a given anatomy can lead to improved and more stable morphological descriptors. Herein, we follow that approach, by approximating this equivalence class of morphological descriptors by a (nonlinear) morphological appearance manifold fitting to the data via a locally linear model. Our approach parallels work in the computer vision field, in which variations lighting, pose and other parameters lead to image appearance manifolds representing the exact same figure in different ways. The proposed framework is then used for group-wise registration and statistical analysis of biomedical images, by employing a minimum variance criterion to perform manifold-constrained optimization, i.e. to traverse each individual's morphological appearance manifold until group variance is minimal. The hypothesis is that this process is likely to reduce aforementioned confounding effects and potentially lead to morphological representations reflecting purely biological variations, instead of variations introduced by modeling assumptions and parameter settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. URBAN MORPHOLOGY AND AIR QUALITY IN DENSE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENTS: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND AIR POLLUTION AT STREET-LEVEL

    PRIYANTHA EDUSSURIYA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is the second part of the series that identifies whether site-specific urban morphological parameters are correlated with air quality. This study aims to identify the most important urban morphological parameters that affects air quality at street level that affect air quality in metropolis like Hong Kong through field measurements and statistical analyses. The study considers 20 urban residential areas in five major districts of Hong Kong and real-time street level air pollutant and microclimatic data are collected from these areas. 21 morphological variables are identified and calculated based on the geometry of the urban fabric. Using principal component analyses, it is shown that out of the many urban morphological factors, only five morphological variables (plan area density, occlusivity, aerodynamic roughness height, mean built volume, compactness factor and four land development factors (aspect ratio, distance between building, mean building height and standard deviation of building height correlate with particulate matter. Besides mineralisation factor, contiguity and canyon ratio marginally correlate with particulate matter. On the other hand, nine variables (plan area density, compactness factor, occlusivity, aerodynamic roughness height, average size of building volume, aspect ratio, distance between buildings, mean building height and standard deviations of building heights correlate with NOx. All others play insignificant roles in street-level pollution effect. Moreover statistical analyses show little correlation between CO and ozone with urban morphological parameters. It is also established that the key microclimatic variables that connects PM and NOx with the urban morphological factors are northerly wind, relative humidity and temperature, which in turn translates to affecting the street-level air pollution.

  6. The role of SANRAD facility in quantitative and morphological investigation

    Nshimirimana, Robert; Beer, Frikkie de; Radebe, Mabuti

    2011-01-01

    The SANRAD (South African Neutron Radiography) facility hosts a neutron/X-ray tomography system, which is extensively being utilized in non-destructive examination experiments where it is necessary to determine the properties (e.g. size, porosity, permeability and morphology) of samples. Those properties have a great importance in a variety of fields such as nuclear shielding, paleontology, geosciences, anatomy and reverse engineering studies. Quantitative and morphological investigations require a tomography system capable of producing tomograms with a high spatial resolution and free of artefacts where specialized imaging software is applied in the investigations. The SANRAD facility is used by the scientific and engineering communities in their qualitative, quantitative and morphological investigations. The capability of the SANRAD facility to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively the internal structure of several objects non-destructively is demonstrated with special emphasis on the precision and accuracy of the system.

  7. Mitochondrial morphology transitions and functions: implications for retrograde signaling?

    Picard, Martin; Shirihai, Orian S.; Gentil, Benoit J.

    2013-01-01

    In response to cellular and environmental stresses, mitochondria undergo morphology transitions regulated by dynamic processes of membrane fusion and fission. These events of mitochondrial dynamics are central regulators of cellular activity, but the mechanisms linking mitochondrial shape to cell function remain unclear. One possibility evaluated in this review is that mitochondrial morphological transitions (from elongated to fragmented, and vice-versa) directly modify canonical aspects of the organelle's function, including susceptibility to mitochondrial permeability transition, respiratory properties of the electron transport chain, and reactive oxygen species production. Because outputs derived from mitochondrial metabolism are linked to defined cellular signaling pathways, fusion/fission morphology transitions could regulate mitochondrial function and retrograde signaling. This is hypothesized to provide a dynamic interface between the cell, its genome, and the fluctuating metabolic environment. PMID:23364527

  8. Lung Morphological Changes in Closed Chest Injury (an experimental study

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study lung morphological changes in a closed chest injury model in laboratory animals. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out in 30 male albino nonbred rats weighing 350—380 g. Closed chest injury was simulated, by exposing the chest of anesthetized rats to a 300-g metal cylinder falling from a height of 30 cm. The observation periods were 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Results. The signs of evident perivenular edema that was uncharas-teristic to acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by other causes are an important peculiarity of lung morphological changes in this experimental model of closed chest injury. Conclusion. The experimental studies clarified the pattern of lung morphological changes in the early period after closed chest injury. Key words: closed chest injury, pulmonary edema.

  9. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  10. T-wave morphology analysis of competitive athletes

    Hong, L; Andersen, Lars Juel; Graff, Claus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T-wave morphology has been shown to be more sensitive than QT and QTc interval to describe repolarization abnormalities. The electrocardiogram (ECG) performed in athletes may manifest abnormalities, including repolarization alterations. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the characteristics of T-wave morphology features in athletes. METHODS: Eighty male elite athletes, consisting of 40 Tour de France cyclists (age 27±5years), 40 soccer players (age 26±6years) and 40 healthy men (age 27±5years) were included. RESULTS: Sinus bradycardia, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, incomplete...... interval, and repolarization features than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: T-wave morphology of athletes is different from non-athletes, depending of the sport. Decreased potassium current in cardiomyocytes associated with LVH may contribute to these changes....

  11. Lithium secondary batteries: Role of polymer cathode morphology

    Naoi, Katsuhiko; Osaka, Tetsuya; Owens, Boone B.

    1988-06-01

    Electrically conducting polymers have been utilized both as the cathode and as the electrolyte element of Li secondary cells. Polymer cathodes were limited in their suitability for batteries because of the low energy content associated with low levels of doping and the inclusion of complex ionic species in the cathode. Recent studies have indicated that doping levels up to 100 percent can be achieved in polyanilene. High doping levels in combination with controlled morphologies have been found to improve the energy and rate capabilities of polymer cathodes. A morphology-modifying technique was utilized to enhance the charge/discharge characteristics of Li/liquid electrolyte polypyrrole cells. The polymer is electropolymerized in a preferred orientation morphology when the substrate is first precoated with an insulating film of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). Modification of the kinetic behavior of the electrode results from variations in the chemical composition of the NBR.

  12. Craniomandibular morphology and phylogenetic affinities of panthera atrox

    Christiansen, Per; Harris, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The great North American Pleistocene pantherine felid Panthera atrox has had a turbulent phylogenetic history, and has been claimed to show affinities to both the jaguar and the tiger; currently, it is most often regarded as a subspecies of the extant lion. The cranial, mandibular, and dental...... morphology of Panthera atrox was compared with those of extant lions, jaguars, and tigers using bivariate, multivariate, and shape analyses. Results indicate that the skull of Panthera atrox shows lion affinities, but also deviates from lions in numerous aspects. Mandibular morphology is more similar...... to jaguars and tigers and, as with cranial morphology, the mandible shows a number of traits not present among extant pantherines. Multivariate analyses grouped Panthera atrox separately from other pantherines. Panthera atrox was no lion, and cannot be assigned to any of the extant pantherines...

  13. Intraspecific morphological and genetic differentiation in Scrophularia grayana (Scrophulariaceae).

    Kamada, Takuro; Yamashiro, Tadashi; Maki, Masayuki

    2007-05-01

    Scrophularia grayana, which is distributed throughout northern Japan and Sakhalin, and its locally endemic variety var. grayanoides, have been examined morphometrically and genetically. Principal-component analysis using a total of 26 morphological characteristics revealed that these taxa are morphologically differentiated, but that the difference is not distinct. These two taxa have the same number of chromosomes in the somatic cells, 2n = 94, suggesting that ploidal level difference is not relevant to their divergence. The distributions of the taxa are adjoining in the north of Japanese mainland Honshu. Nevertheless, principal-coordinate analysis using putative 112 ISSR loci indicated they are genetically very distinct. Many taxon-specific alleles were found, and many of the alleles were fixed in each taxon. This genetic information suggests that a relatively long time has passed since the taxa became differentiated and that gene flow has rarely occurred between them, although morphological similarity has been maintained, probably because of natural selective forces.

  14. Morphological and physical behavior of styrenic, phosphonium-containing ionomers

    Beyer, Rick; Stokes, Kristoffer

    2010-03-01

    Despite many years of effort, a clear understanding of the factors controlling morphology in Nafion and other ionomers has not been achieved. The increasing need for fuel cell technology continues to drive efforts to develop materials having better performance characteristics even though fundamental structure-property relationships remain unclarified. Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) present several benefits over proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, including cost of manufacture (less expensive catalysts) and a significantly shorter path to commercialization. Here we present the most recent findings from our efforts to examine structure-morphology-property relationships for a series of model cationic ionomers. A series of statistical copolymers of styrene and p-vinylbenzyl-trimethyl-phosphonium chloride have been prepared via RAFT polymerization, allowing us to investigate the effect of ion content on physical behavior. Chemical, physical, and morphological characterization has been undertaken using NMR, TGA, DSC, SAXS, and TEM.

  15. A reservoir morphology database for the conterminous United States

    Rodgers, Kirk D.

    2017-09-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Reservoir Fisheries Habitat Partnership, combined multiple national databases to create one comprehensive national reservoir database and to calculate new morphological metrics for 3,828 reservoirs. These new metrics include, but are not limited to, shoreline development index, index of basin permanence, development of volume, and other descriptive metrics based on established morphometric formulas. The new database also contains modeled chemical and physical metrics. Because of the nature of the existing databases used to compile the Reservoir Morphology Database and the inherent missing data, some metrics were not populated. One comprehensive database will assist water-resource managers in their understanding of local reservoir morphology and water chemistry characteristics throughout the continental United States.

  16. Flow and fouling in membrane filters: Effects of membrane morphology

    Sanaei, Pejman; Cummings, Linda J.

    2015-11-01

    Membrane filters are widely-used in microfiltration applications. Many types of filter membranes are produced commercially, for different filtration applications, but broadly speaking the requirements are to achieve fine control of separation, with low power consumption. The answer to this problem might seem obvious: select the membrane with the largest pore size and void fraction consistent with the separation requirements. However, membrane fouling (an inevitable consequence of successful filtration) is a complicated process, which depends on many parameters other than membrane pore size and void fraction; and which itself greatly affects the filtration process and membrane functionality. In this work we formulate mathematical models that can (i) account for the membrane internal morphology (internal structure, pore size & shape, etc.); (ii) fouling of membranes with specific morphology; and (iii) make some predictions as to what type of membrane morphology might offer optimum filtration performance.

  17. Crossing safety barriers: influence of children's morphological and functional variables.

    Cordovil, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Barreiros, João

    2012-05-01

    Thirty-three children between 3 and 6 years of age were asked to climb four different types of safety barriers. Morphological and functional variables of the children, which were expected to influence climbing or passing through skills, were collected. The influence of those variables on children's success rate and time to cross was tested. No barrier offered a total restraining efficacy. The horizontal bars barrier was crossed by 97% of the children. In the group of children that succeeded in crossing the four barriers, mean time to cross the most difficult barrier was 15 s. Age was the best predictor for success in crossing most barriers but morphology and strength were important predictors of time to cross. The influence of anthropometric variables in time to cross was dependent upon the characteristics of the barrier. A good design of safety barriers should consider children's age, morphology and strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphology Evolution of Polycarbonate-Polystyrene Blends During Compounding

    Chuai, Chengzhi; Almdal, Kristoffer; Johannsen, Ib

    2001-01-01

    The morphology evolution of polycarbonate-polystyrene (PC/PS) blends during the compounding process in three blending methods of industrial relevance, namely melt blending, re-melt blending in a twin-screw extruder and tri-melt blending in an injection-moulding machine, was investigated using......-empirical model. The results show that the formation of co-continuous morphology strongly depends on blend composition and melt blending method, whereas the model prediction for phase inversion deviates from the experimental values. Further, we found that the initial mechanism of morphology evolution involves...... scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Co examine nine blend compositions. Blends were prepared at compositions where phase inversion was expected to occur according to model predictions. The experimental results were compared to the values of the point of phase inversion calculated with the semi...

  19. Automated Feature Extraction of Foredune Morphology from Terrestrial Lidar Data

    Spore, N.; Brodie, K. L.; Swann, C.

    2014-12-01

    Foredune morphology is often described in storm impact prediction models using the elevation of the dune crest and dune toe and compared with maximum runup elevations to categorize the storm impact and predicted responses. However, these parameters do not account for other foredune features that may make them more or less erodible, such as alongshore variations in morphology, vegetation coverage, or compaction. The goal of this work is to identify other descriptive features that can be extracted from terrestrial lidar data that may affect the rate of dune erosion under wave attack. Daily, mobile-terrestrial lidar surveys were conducted during a 6-day nor'easter (Hs = 4 m in 6 m water depth) along 20km of coastline near Duck, North Carolina which encompassed a variety of foredune forms in close proximity to each other. This abstract will focus on the tools developed for the automated extraction of the morphological features from terrestrial lidar data, while the response of the dune will be presented by Brodie and Spore as an accompanying abstract. Raw point cloud data can be dense and is often under-utilized due to time and personnel constraints required for analysis, since many algorithms are not fully automated. In our approach, the point cloud is first projected into a local coordinate system aligned with the coastline, and then bare earth points are interpolated onto a rectilinear 0.5 m grid creating a high resolution digital elevation model. The surface is analyzed by identifying features along each cross-shore transect. Surface curvature is used to identify the position of the dune toe, and then beach and berm morphology is extracted shoreward of the dune toe, and foredune morphology is extracted landward of the dune toe. Changes in, and magnitudes of, cross-shore slope, curvature, and surface roughness are used to describe the foredune face and each cross-shore transect is then classified using its pre-storm morphology for storm-response analysis.

  20. Morphology and digitally aided morphometry of the human paracentral lobule.

    Spasojević, Goran; Malobabic, Slobodan; Pilipović-Spasojević, Olivera; Djukić-Macut, Nataša; Maliković, Aleksandar

    2013-02-01

    The human paracentral lobule, the junction of the precentral and postcentral gyri at the medial hemispheric surface, contains several important functional regions, and its variable morphology requires exact morphological and quantitativedata. In order to obtain precise data we investigated the morphology of the paracentral lobule and quantified its visible (extrasulcal) surface. This surface corresponds to commonly used magnetic resonance imaging scout images. We studied 84 hemispheres of adult persons (42 brains; 26 males and 16 females; 20-65 years) fixed in neutral formalin for at least 4 weeks. The medial hemispheric surface was photographed at standard distance and each digital photo was calibrated. Using the intercommissural line system (commissura anterior-commissura posterior or CA-CP line), we performed standardised measurements of the paracentral lobule. Exact determination of its boundaries and morphological types was followed by digital morphometry of its extrasulcal surface using AutoCAD software. We found two distinct morphological types of the human paracentral lobule: continuous type, which was predominant (95.2%), and rare segmented type (4.8%). In hemispheres with segmented cingulate sulcus we also found the short transitional lobulo-limbic gyrus (13.1%). The mean extrasulcal surface of the left paracentral lobule was significantly larger, both in males (left 6.79 cm2 vs. right 5.76 cm2) and in females (left 6.05 cm2 vs. right 5.16 cm2). However, even larger average surfaces in males were not significantly different than the same in females. Reported morphological and quantitative data will be useful during diagnostics and treatment of pathologies affecting the human paracentral lobule, and in further studies of its cytoarchitectonic and functional parcellations.

  1. Prevalence of cam hip shape morphology: a systematic review.

    Dickenson, E; Wall, P D H; Robinson, B; Fernandez, M; Parsons, H; Buchbinder, R; Griffin, D R

    2016-06-01

    Cam hip shape morphology is a recognised cause of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and is associated with hip osteoarthritis. Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiological evidence assessing the prevalence of cam hip shape morphology in the general population and any studied subgroups including subjects with and without hip pain. All studies that reported the prevalence of cam morphology, measured by alpha angles, in subjects aged 18 and over, irrespective of study population or presence of hip symptoms were considered for inclusion. We searched AMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL in October 2015. Two authors independently identified eligible studies and assessed risk of bias. We planned to pool data of studies considered clinically homogenous. Thirty studies met inclusion criteria. None of the included studies were truly population-based: three included non-representative subgroups of the general population, 19 included differing clinical populations, while eight included professional athletes. All studies were judged to be at high risk of bias. Due to substantial clinical heterogeneity meta analysis was not possible. Across all studies, the prevalence estimates of cam morphology ranged from 5 to 75% of participants affected. We were unable to demonstrate a higher prevalence in selected subgroups such as athletes or those with hip pain. There is currently insufficient high quality data to determine the true prevalence of cam morphology in the general population or selected subgroups. Well-designed population-based epidemiological studies that use homogenous case definitions are required to determine the prevalence of cam morphology and its relationship to hip pain. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    Jure Jugovic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775, M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850 and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is also compared with the results of the other two approaches. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 small albeit significant differences in wing morphology exist among the three species and (2 while the structure of male genitalia and phylogenetic position of the three species are concordant, they are (3 in discordance with the wing morphology. The present study represents another example where identification based on external morphology would lead to highly unreliable determinations, hence identification based on phylogenetic studies and/or genitalia is strongly recommended not only for the three studied species but also more broadly within the genus. Furthermore, we show that some of the characters generally used in the identification of these three Melitaea species should be avoided in future.

  3. The relationship between pharyngeal morphology measured with cone-beam computed tomography and maxillary morphology measured by lateral cephalogram

    Yamaguchi, Fumie; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Miyamoto, Asami; Maki, Koutaro

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between pharyngeal morphology measured with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and maxillary morphology measured from lateral cephalograms. The subjects comprised 45 women, with a mean age of 27.9 years (range, 16-50 years), who attended the Department of Orthodontics at Showa University. The evaluation of pharyngeal morphology was based on 9 variables measured by CBCT: pharyngeal space volume, pharyngeal vertical length, pharyngeal sagittal length, pharyngeal coronal length, epiglottis length, epiglottis width, the distance from the genion to the hyoidale, the distance from the hyoidale to the aditus larynges base, and the distance from the aditus larynges base to the genion. Maxillary morphology was evaluated from 5 measured sites: SNA, S'-Ptm', A'-Ptm', the occiusal plane angle, and the palatal plane angle. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to detect associations between pharyngeal and maxillary morphological variables. There were significant correlations between pharyngeal coronal length and SNA, the distance from the genion to the hyoidale and the occlusal plane angle, pharyngeal coronal length and A'-Ptm', pharyngeal vertical length and the palatal plane angle, as well as the aditus larynges base to the genion and the occlusal plane. This information has potential clinical value for better understanding obstructive sleep apnea in adult patients, and for structurally based treatments such as surgical orthodontics. (author)

  4. The luminosity of galactic components and morphological segregation

    Solanes, J. M.; Salvador-Sole, E.; Sanroma, M.

    1989-01-01

    The luminosities of the bulge and disk components of disk galaxies are analyzed, and the possible correlation of these luminosities with morphological type and local density is explored. Galaxies of different types are found to be located in distinct bands in the bulge-to-disk luminosity ratio vs total luminosity diagram, allowing the determination of the typical bulge luminosity function of disk galaxies of different types from their respective total luminosity functions, along with a better characterization of morphological segregation among disk galaxies. No evidence for any bulge luminosity segregation is found, and disks appear to be less luminous with increasing local density. 33 refs

  5. Morphology selection for cupric oxide thin films by electrodeposition.

    Dhanasekaran, V; Mahalingam, T; Chandramohan, R

    2011-10-01

    Polycrystalline cupric oxide thin films were deposited using alkaline solution bath employing cathodic electrodeposition method. The thin films were electrodeposited at various solution pH. The surface morphology and elemental analyzes of the films were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. SEM studies revealed that the surface morphology could be tailored suitably by adjusting the pH value during deposition. Mesh average on multiple lattice mode atomic force microscopy image was obtained and reported. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Analysis of the English morphology by semantic networks

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to study the morphology of natural language, in this case English language. The research is of the language is from the perspective of knowledge representation, when we look at the word as a concept in the Concept languages. The research is in the relationship of the individual words and their classification in the sentence. For the analysis there are used several methods (syntax, lexical categories, morphology). This article focuses mainly on the word, as the foundation of every natural language (English).

  7. AmAMorph: Finite State Morphological Analyzer for Amazighe

    Fatima Zahra Nejme; Siham Boulaknadel; Driss Aboutajdine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents AmAMorph, a morphological analyzer for Amazighe language using a system based on the NooJ linguistic development environment. The paper begins with the development of Amazighe lexicons with large coverage formalization. The built electronic lexicons, named ‘NAmLex’, ‘VAmLex’ and ‘PAmLex’ which stand for ‘Noun Amazighe Lexicon’, ‘Verb Amazighe Lexicon’ and ‘Particles Amazighe Lexicon’, link inflectional, morphological, and syntacticsemantic information to the list of lemmas...

  8. A Freely Available Wide Coverage Morphological Analyzer for English

    Karp, Daniel; Schabes, Yves; Zaidel, Martin; Egedi, Dania

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological lexicon for English that handles more than 317000 inflected forms derived from over 90000 stems. The lexicon is available in two formats. The first can be used by an implementation of a two-level processor for morphological analysis. The second, derived from the first one for efficiency reasons, consists of a disk-based database using a UNIX hash table facility. We also built an X Window tool to facilitate the maintenance and browsing of the lexicon. The pa...

  9. Molecular morphology and crystallization in the quantum limit

    Bohr, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    The effects of phonons on crystallization and crystal morphology are investigated. It is shown that the commensuration of the lattice vibrations with the lattice will favor certain crystal morphologies. Vibrational effects can also be important for the molecular structure of chain molecules...... protein are estimated to differ by several electron volts. For a biomolecule, such energy is significant and may contribute to cold denaturing as seen for proteins. This is consistent with the empirical observation that cold denaturation is exothermic and hot denaturation endothermic....

  10. Distinct termination morphologies for vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests

    Vinten, P; Marshall, P; Lefebvre, J; Finnie, P

    2010-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, including single-walled nanotubes, are imaged optically as they grow in situ from cobalt/alumina catalyst using water-assisted acetylene chemical vapor deposition. Three distinct termination morphologies are identified and investigated optically and via scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative growth dynamics are extracted and show gradual deceleration and sudden termination of growth. The termination morphology is discussed in terms of the balance of forces within the forest. We speculate that sudden termination is a collective effect arising from an imbalance in these forces.

  11. Exploring the morphological and electronic properties of silicene superstructures

    Grazianetti, Carlo; Chiappe, Daniele; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Tallarida, Grazia; Fanciulli, Marco; Molle, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Silicene, the Si counterpart of graphene, grows on Ag(111) forming domains. Investigation, by means of scanning tunneling microscopy, of morphological properties is carried out by considering post-deposition process. Particular attention is here addressed to the post-deposition annealing temperature, which plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology. On the other hand, electronic properties are probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and a position-dependent local density of states results, which can be understood in terms of symmetry breaking in the honeycomb lattice.

  12. Prognostic importance of congenital cataract morphology: A case report

    Çağrı İlhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract (CC has an important place in pediatric ocular diseases. CCs are different from senile nuclear cataracts in terms of their etiologic, clinic and morphological characteristics. CCs occur many different forms such as non-hereditary isolated cases or autosomal dominant bilateral cases. In addition, many of ocular and systemic diseases can be associated with CC and ophthalmologist should be aware of these potential risks. In this article, we questioned whether the different morphological features of CC have prognostic importance or effect decision of surgery by considering a case of CC.

  13. Recent Advances in Controlling the Depositing Morphologies of Inkjet Droplets.

    Sun, Jiazhen; Bao, Bin; He, Min; Zhou, Haihua; Song, Yanlin

    2015-12-30

    Inkjet printing has been widely used in functional material patterning for fabrication of optical/electrical devices. The depositing morphologies of inkjet droplets are critical to the resolution and performance of resulted functional patterns. This review summarizes various strategies to control the depositing morphologies of inkjet droplets, including suppressing and utilizing coffee-ring effect, employing liquid substrates, developing patterned substrates and controlling droplets coalescence. Moreover, the remaining challenges in controlling inkjet droplets are presented, and the broad research and application prospects of controlling nanomaterial patterning by inkjet printing are proposed.

  14. Craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone

    Jovana Julsoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: In addition to well-established physical characteristics, Turner syndrome patients have distinct craniofacial morphology. Since short stature is the most typical characteristic, Turner syndrome patients are commonly treated with growth hormone in order to increase final height. At the same time, growth hormone treatment was found to influence craniofacial growth and morphology in various groups of treated patients. Whereas craniofacial characteristics of Turner syndrome patients are well documented, comparatively little is known of craniofacial morphology of those who are treated with growth hormone. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone in comparison to healthy females. Materials and methods: The cephalometric evaluation was conducted on twenty lateral cephalograms of Turner syndrome patients (13.53 ± 4.04 years treated with growth hormone for at least one year (4.94 ± 1.92 years in average. As a control group, forty lateral cephalograms of healthy female controls, who matched Turner syndrome patients by chronological (11.80 ± 2.37 years and skeletal age, were used. Eleven angular, seven linear measurements and six dimensional ratios were measured to describe craniofacial morphology. Results: The results obtained for angular measurements, in cephalometric analyses for Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone, revealed bimaxillary retrognathism. The linear measurements indicated longer mandibular ramus, anterior cranial base and both anterior and posterior facial heights. However, posterior cranial base and maxilla were in proportion to the anterior cranial base, when comparing dimensional ratios. Anterior cranial base, maxilla and mandibular ramus were larger in proportion to mandibular body; as well as posterior facial height was when compared to anterior facial height. Turner syndrome patients treated with growth

  15. Morphological and chemical characteristics of fruits of selected Rosa sp.

    Agnieszka Najda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and chemical parameters, antioxidant activity (DPPH of five rose species (Rosa rugosa, R. villosa, R. californica, R. spinosissima, and R. × damascene and grouping them according to the harvest date. On the basis of the study, rose species grown in eastern Poland were grouped according to their harvest time, and three dates of cumulative ripeness of pseudofruits were distinguished. Rosehips of studied species varied referring to their harvest date and morphological properties and were characterized by diverse contents of primary metabolites analyzed. In addition, obtained extracts showed high antioxidant activity, which has a significant impact on their value for processing.

  16. ABC Triblock Copolymer Vesicles with Mesh-like Morphology

    Zhao, Wei; Russell, Thomas; Grason, Gregory

    2010-03-01

    Polymer vesicles can be made from poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-2-vinylpyridene) (PI-b-PS-b-P2VP) triblock copolymer under the confinement of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane. It was found that these vesicles have well-defined, nanoscopic size and a microphase-separated hydrophobic core, comprised of PS and PI blocks. Vesicle formation was tracked using both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. A mesh-like morphology formed in the core at a well-defined composition of three blocks. Confinement played an important role in generating these vesicles with such an unusual morphology.

  17. Zinc oxide tetrapod: a morphology with multifunctional applications

    Modi, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide has emerged as a material of great interest due to its unique optical, electrical and magnetic properties. This review comprehensively covers the various aspects of zinc oxide tetrapods. Tetrapod is a one dimensional zinc oxide nano-microstructure and has been found to have very promising applications in diverse fields. The growth model, properties, synthesis methods and variations in the tetrapod morphology by varying the synthesis conditions have been discussed. The promising applications of zinc oxide tetrapod morphology have been also discussed in detail. (review)

  18. STUDIES ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN BIGHEAD CARP FRY

    ELENA CIORNEA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates some morphological characters (total length, standard bodily length, head length, maxim height and bodily circumference in representatives of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis occurring in their first growing summer. Biometric analyses were performed on 100 individuals, in the end the morphological characters under investigations being statistically processed. Explanation of the experimental results evidences low values of the standard error of the mean, which is indicative of a grouping of all external bodily variables under investigation close to the average value.

  19. Morphology of the porous silicon obtained by electrochemical anodization method

    Bertel H, S. D.; Dussán C, A.; Diaz P, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    In this report, the dependence of porous silicon with the synthesis parameters and their correlation with the optical and morphological properties is studied. The P-type silicon-crystalline samples and orientation were prepared by electrochemical anodization and were characterized using SEM in order to know the evolution of the pore morphology. It was observed that the porosity and thickness of the samples increased with the increase of the concentration in the solution and a high pore density (70%) with a pore size between 40nm and 1.5μm.

  20. Exploring the morphological and electronic properties of silicene superstructures

    Grazianetti, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.grazianetti@mdm.imm.cnr.it [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, via R. Cozzi 53, I-20126 Milano, MI (Italy); Chiappe, Daniele; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Tallarida, Grazia [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, via R. Cozzi 53, I-20126 Milano, MI (Italy); Molle, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.molle@mdm.imm.cnr.it [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    Silicene, the Si counterpart of graphene, grows on Ag(111) forming domains. Investigation, by means of scanning tunneling microscopy, of morphological properties is carried out by considering post-deposition process. Particular attention is here addressed to the post-deposition annealing temperature, which plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology. On the other hand, electronic properties are probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and a position-dependent local density of states results, which can be understood in terms of symmetry breaking in the honeycomb lattice.

  1. Morphological Evolution of the Turtle Shell and its Mechanical Implications, Part 2: Theoretical

    McLaughlin, Connor

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists have considered understanding the relationship between organismal morphology and functional performance to be fundamental for understanding phenotypic diversification. Numerous studies have investigated performance and morphological evolution within lineages. However, far less attention has been paid to the relationship between performance and morphological diversification among lineages. This study develops the turtle shell as a model system for studying morphological...

  2. Morphology is dead – long live morphology! Integrating MorphoEvoDevo into molecular EvoDevo and phylogenomics

    Andreas eWanninger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphology, the description and analysis of organismal form, is one of the oldest biological disciplines that has significantly contributed to our understanding as to how animals function and how the overwhelming diversity of phenotypes evolved. The early discovery that comparative studies of morphogenesis add to our understanding of the evolutionary history and interrelationships of organisms led to the formulation of highly influential evolutionary principles, including Haeckel’s theory of recapitulation or Hatschek’s trochozoon-hypothesis, and established the intellectual foundation of a research area today termed EvoDevo. While the rapid integration of molecular techniques into systematics, phylogenetics, and developmental biology from the 1980s onwards made some consider morphology as having little to contribute to evolutionary research, methodological progress together with a revived focus on morphogenesis has resulted in an unexpected renaissance of evolutionary developmental morphology, here termed MorphoEvoDevo. Herein, I briefly summarize some classical landmark contributions and progress achieved by studies using the MorphoEvoDevo approach. I will focus on the role of morphology in modern evolutionary biology, especially with respect to the molecular-driven approaches such as phylogenetics and developmental genetics. I argue that, while MorphoEvoDevo may well survive as an independent field of research, in times of increased competition for funding it will significantly profit from integration of the molecular disciplines into research programs with a strong emphasis on morphology. After all, morphological data are indispensable for reconstruction of phenotypic ground patterns and character evolution, and only a holistic approach incorporating all major subdisciplines of the evolutionary biosciences may ultimately result in a deep understanding, from molecules to ecosystems, of the driving forces that have shaped our organismal

  3. ultrasound reflecting the morphological properties in soft tissue

    Lorentzen, Torben; Larsen, Torben; Court-Payen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is an image modality providing the examiner with real-time images which reflect the morphological properties in soft tissue. Different types of transducers are used for different kind of exams. US is cheap, fast, and safe. US is widely used in abdominal imaging including obstetrics...

  4. Effects of soil treatment with abattoir effluent on morphological and ...

    The effects of abattoir wastewater treated soil on morphological and biochemical profiles of cowpea seedlings (Vigna unguiculata) grown in gasoline polluted soil was studied. Percentage germination, shoot length, root length and leaf area of cowpea seedlings grown in gasoline treated soil decreased significantly (P ...

  5. Morphological Priming by Itself: A Study of Portuguese Conjugations

    Verissimo, Joao; Clahsen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Does the language processing system make use of abstract grammatical categories and representations that are not directly visible from the surface form of a linguistic expression? This study examines stem-formation processes and conjugation classes, a case of "pure" morphology that provides insight into the role of grammatical structure in…

  6. Rates of morphological evolution are heterogeneous in Early Cretaceous birds

    Lloyd, Graeme T.

    2016-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous is a critical interval in the early history of birds. Exceptional fossils indicate that important evolutionary novelties such as a pygostyle and a keeled sternum had already arisen in Early Cretaceous taxa, bridging much of the morphological gap between Archaeopteryx and crown birds. However, detailed features of basal bird evolution remain obscure because of both the small sample of fossil taxa previously considered and a lack of quantitative studies assessing rates of morphological evolution. Here we apply a recently available phylogenetic method and associated sensitivity tests to a large data matrix of morphological characters to quantify rates of morphological evolution in Early Cretaceous birds. Our results reveal that although rates were highly heterogeneous between different Early Cretaceous avian lineages, consistent patterns of significantly high or low rates were harder to pinpoint. Nevertheless, evidence for accelerated evolutionary rates is strongest at the point when Ornithuromorpha (the clade comprises all extant birds and descendants from their most recent common ancestors) split from Enantiornithes (a diverse clade that went extinct at the end-Cretaceous), consistent with the hypothesis that this key split opened up new niches and ultimately led to greater diversity for these two dominant clades of Mesozoic birds. PMID:27053742

  7. Morphological PLL for potential applications on renewable energy

    Rocha-Osorio, Carlos M.; Solís-Chaves, Juan S.; Golestan, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a new Phase Locked Loop (PLL) structure using a positive sequence component extraction based on Recursive Least Squares, altogether with a morphological filter and a fuzzy-tuned proportional-integral (PI) controller when the power quality conditions are degraded. A high detect...

  8. The morphology of durability issues in PEM fuel cells

    Kundu, S.; Fowler, M.; Simon, L.; Grot, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The work presented here examines durability issues in PEM fuel cell materials by examining material morphology and linking morphological features to performance. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques have been able to identify a variety of features on the catalyst layer, each with their own implication to the overall performance and durability of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). These features include cracking, delamination of the catalyst layer, catalyst clustering, electrolyte clustering, and thickness variations. Links between several of these features and catalyst dispersion conditions was also examined, showing that how the material was manufactured influences the type of morphological features present. The SEM has also been used with accelerated aging techniques to closely examine aging of the gas diffusion layer (GDL). It can be shown that over time the GDL will loose its hydrophobic character and hence become more susceptible to flooding in a fuel cell. The impact of morphological changes were determined using fuel cell models and experimental work. The ultimate aim of this work is to provide material developers with the tools and knowledge necessary to design better materials and therefore bring fuel cells closer to commercialization. (author)

  9. original article the use of morphological and cell wall chemical

    boaz

    THE USE OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND CELL WALL CHEMICAL MARKERS IN. THE IDENTIFICATION OF ... aerial hyphae, with or without diffusible pigments on medium surface (7, 14). Cell wall components of Actinomycetes enable rapid qualitative identification of certain .... Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the.

  10. Field identification of two morphologically similar bats, Miniopterus ...

    Miniopterus schreibersii natalensis and Miniopterus fraterculus are two morphologically similar, but genetically distinct, species of insectivorous bat that, more often than not, share roosts. Identifying these two species in the field is difficult because of an overlap in the ranges of both forearm and mass. We thus attempted to ...

  11. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy ...

    the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. ... the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy ... of beach dynamics and depositional environment. ...... erates beach ridges and inland sediment deposits ... Waterways, Harbors and Coastal Engineering Division;.

  12. Studies on the morphology and compatibility between Schistosoma ...

    A description is given of the morphological variation of the shell, the radula features and the copulatory organ of Bulinus sp. (2n=36) from four populations in the western Cameroon crater lakes. To assess the role of diploid snails belonging to the Bulinus natalensis/tropicus complex in the transmission of urinary ...

  13. Supraorbital morphology and social dynamics in human evolution.

    Godinho, Ricardo Miguel; Spikins, Penny; O'Higgins, Paul

    2018-04-09

    Uniquely, with respect to Middle Pleistocene hominins, anatomically modern humans do not possess marked browridges, and have a more vertical forehead with mobile eyebrows that play a key role in social signalling and communication. The presence and variability of browridges in archaic Homo species and their absence in ourselves have led to debate concerning their morphogenesis and function, with two main hypotheses being put forward: that browridge morphology is the result of the spatial relationship between the orbits and the brain case; and that browridge morphology is significantly impacted by biting mechanics. Here, we virtually manipulate the browridge morphology of an archaic hominin (Kabwe 1), showing that it is much larger than the minimum required to fulfil spatial demands and that browridge size has little impact on mechanical performance during biting. As browridge morphology in this fossil is not driven by spatial and mechanical requirements alone, the role of the supraorbital region in social communication is a potentially significant factor. We propose that conversion of the large browridges of our immediate ancestors to a more vertical frontal bone in modern humans allowed highly mobile eyebrows to display subtle affiliative emotions.

  14. Hydrodynamic processes in sharp meander bends and their morphological implications

    Blanckaert, K.

    2011-01-01

    The migration rate of sharp meander bends exhibits large variance and indicates that some sharply curved bends tend to stabilize. These observations remain unexplained. This paper examines three hydrodynamic processes in sharp bends with fixed banks and discusses their morphological implications:

  15. Protective relaying of power systems using mathematical morphology

    Wu, QH; Ji, TY

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the development of novel protective relaying algorithms, using Mathematical Morphology (MM). This book introduces the fundamental principles of MM, and brings together the applications of MM to develop different protective relaying algorithms for the protection of a variety of power system components.

  16. Morphological and Photometric Properties of Active and Non-Active ...

    kagoyire

    2Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Fac. of Science, Physics Department, P.O.. Box 1410 ... evolutionary transition from the blue cloud to the red sequence galaxies. ... galaxies, we studied their properties in the green valley, and established the ..... The Morphological Content and Environmental Dependence of.

  17. Molecules, morphology, and the monophyly of diapsid reptiles

    Lee, Michael S.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The morphological and molecular evidence for higher-level reptile relationships is reassessed, A combined analysis of 176 osteological, 40 soft anatomical, and 2903 (1783 aligned) molecular characters in 28 amniote taxa yields the traditional reptile tree. Synapsids (including mammals) are the

  18. Morphological variation of Nile tilapia populations from major water ...

    ... by hatchery operators throughout the country and in the East African region. ... there was high morphological variation among the different populations of Nile tilapia ... Most of the variation (86.97%) was associated with the fish body size, the ...

  19. Morphological evaluation of the superior colliculus of young Wistar ...

    Morphological evaluation of the superior colliculus of young Wistar rats following prenatal exposure to Carica papaya leaf extract. ... 9 and 10 of gestation (Group A); days 16 and 17 (Group B); and on days 9, 10, 16 and 17 (Group C); while Group D represented the control, and received distilled water throughout gestation.

  20. Changes in morphology and strength following an eight week ...

    The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the impact of eight weeks of progressive resistance exercise on strength and morphology of previously sedentary, healthy, post-menopausal women. Six women were recruited from the Grahamstown community in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Recruits were ...

  1. Helium effects on tungsten surface morphology and deuterium retention

    Ueda, Y.; H. Y. Peng,; H. T. Lee,; N. Ohno,; S. Kajita,; Yoshida, N.; Doerner, R.; De Temmerman, G.; V. Alimov,; G. Wright,

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental results on tungsten surface morphology, especially nano-structure (fuzz), induced by helium plasma exposure at temperatures between 1000 K and 2000 K are reviewed. This structure was firstly reported in 2006. In this review, most of experimental results reported

  2. Morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in southwestern Nigeria

    Background: Endometrium remains the most sensitive indicator of ovarian function and endometrial biopsy is one of the diagnostic procedures in endometrial pathology. The current study was carried out to examine the morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria and compare the results ...

  3. Morphological analysis of mouse testes following gestational and ...

    Histologically, seminiferous tubular diameter of controls was larger than those of the alcohol exposed groups. There was also delay in the development of spermatogenic cells in the testes of those exposed to alcohol. KEY WORDS: Maternal alcohol consumption, Morphology, Offspring, Testes. (Nigerian Veterinary Journal: ...

  4. Multiscale Morphology of Nanoporous Copper Made from Intermetallic Phases

    Egle, Tobias; Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; Barroo, Cédric; Janvelyan, Nare; Baumgaertel, Andreas C.

    2017-01-01

    Many application-relevant properties of nanoporous metals critically depend on their multiscale architecture. For example, the intrinsically high step-edge density of curved surfaces at the nanoscale provides highly reactive sites for catalysis, whereas the macroscale pore and grain morphology determines the macroscopic properties, such as mass transport, electrical conductivity, or mechanical properties. Here, in this work, we systematically study the effects of alloy composition and dealloying conditions on the multiscale morphology of nanoporous copper (np-Cu) made from various commercial Zn–Cu precursor alloys. Using a combination of X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, and focused ion beam cross-sectional analysis, our results reveal that the macroscopic grain structure of the starting alloy surprisingly survives the dealloying process, despite a change in crystal structure from body-centered cubic (Zn–Cu starting alloy) to face-centered cubic (Cu). The nanoscale structure can be controlled by the acid used for dealloying with HCl leading to a larger and more faceted ligament morphology compared to that of H_3PO_4. Finally, anhydrous ethanol dehydrogenation was used as a probe reaction to test the effect of the nanoscale ligament morphology on the apparent activation energy of the reaction.

  5. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...

  6. Constraints on morphological borrowing: evidence from Latin America

    Bakker, D.; Hekking, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the borrowing of morphology from Spanish by three unrelated and typologically diffferent American-Indian languages: Quechua, Guarani and Otomi. On the basis of three corpora of spontaneous speech produced by a sizeable number of informants, we will suggest that there are

  7. Changes in channel morphology over human time scales [Chapter 32

    John M. Buffington

    2012-01-01

    Rivers are exposed to changing environmental conditions over multiple spatial and temporal scales, with the imposed environmental conditions and response potential of the river modulated to varying degrees by human activity and our exploitation of natural resources. Watershed features that control river morphology include topography (valley slope and channel...

  8. The best stain for morphological study of human seminal fluid's ...

    Objectives:There is a high need for proper evaluation of the morphological features of human sperms. The importance of this lies in the field of andrology, male fertility and in vitro fertilization. The wet smears can give rough clue about the shape of the sperms, but it is neither accurate nor reproducible. This study aimed to ...

  9. The effect of sperm morphology and testicular spermatozoa ...

    Objective. To determine the correlation between sperm morphology groups (strict criteria) and testicular spermatozoa, and day 2 and 3 embryo quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cases. Methods. A retrospective study was done of 2 402 IVF and ICSI-fertilised embryos classified as ...

  10. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... the morphology and fine structure of the ion transporting epithelium ... The general structure of the salt gland of nauplii cultured at 180 g/L disappeared. ...... Wu G, Zhang H, Sun J, Liu F, Ge X, Chen WH, Yu, J, Wang W (2011).

  11. Morphological Instabilities in a Growing Yeast Colony: Experiment and Theory

    Sams, Thomas; Sneppen, Kim; Jensen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    We study the growth of colonies of the yeast Pichia membranaefaciens on agarose film. The growth conditions are controlled in a setup where nutrients are supplied through an agarose film suspended over a solution of nutrients. As the thickness of the agarose film is varied, the morphology of the ...

  12. Effect of electrodeposition potential on composition and morphology ...

    Structure and morphology of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron ... a large optical absorption coefficient (5 × 105 cm. −1) which results from the .... It again indicates that among four elements Ga has the most ...

  13. Video rate morphological processor based on a redundant number representation

    Kuczborski, Wojciech; Attikiouzel, Yianni; Crebbin, Gregory A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a video rate morphological processor for automated visual inspection of printed circuit boards, integrated circuit masks, and other complex objects. Inspection algorithms are based on gray-scale mathematical morphology. Hardware complexity of the known methods of real-time implementation of gray-scale morphology--the umbra transform and the threshold decomposition--has prompted us to propose a novel technique which applied an arithmetic system without carrying propagation. After considering several arithmetic systems, a redundant number representation has been selected for implementation. Two options are analyzed here. The first is a pure signed digit number representation (SDNR) with the base of 4. The second option is a combination of the base-2 SDNR (to represent gray levels of images) and the conventional twos complement code (to represent gray levels of structuring elements). Operation principle of the morphological processor is based on the concept of the digit level systolic array. Individual processing units and small memory elements create a pipeline. The memory elements store current image windows (kernels). All operation primitives of processing units apply a unified direction of digit processing: most significant digit first (MSDF). The implementation technology is based on the field programmable gate arrays by Xilinx. This paper justified the rationality of a new approach to logic design, which is the decomposition of Boolean functions instead of Boolean minimization.

  14. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    Borges, Valeria B.; Maia, Maria C.A.; Couto, Maria A.P.G., E-mail: antun@eq.ufrj.br, E-mail: gimenes@eq.ufrj.br [Coordenaao s Programas de Pos-graduacaoem Processos Quimicos e Bioquimicos. Escola de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/ UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Secao de Defesa Nuclear do Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Mauro C.L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ). Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  15. The role of graphite morphology and matrix structure on low ...

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Thermal cycling resistance; graphite morphology; grey cast iron; austempered ductile iron; compacted/vermicular graphite iron; matrix decompo- sition. 1. Introduction. When a material is subjected to a temperature gradient, it tends to expand differentially. During this process, thermal stresses are induced. The source of ...

  16. Morphological Characterization of the African Giant Rat (Cricetomys ...

    olayemitoyin

    gambianus, Waterhouse) Brain Across Age Groups: Gross Features of. Cortices ... Keywords: African giant rats, Brain, Morphology, Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Olfactory bulb ..... as shrinkage with aging rather than selective .... lasting increase in the number of proliferating cells, ... radial glia in the adult rat dentate gyrus.

  17. Morphological study of synthesized chlorinated polyethylene by inductive plasma

    Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.; Carapia, L.; Fernandez, G.; Morales, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work a morphological study on the synthesis of Chlorinated polyethylene for plasma starting from Trichloroethylene in a polymerization process and ablation simultaneous of metals, where silver atoms and copper are inserted directly during the growth of the polymer from the gas phase to the one solid is presented. (Author)

  18. Morphology of the Zambezi River plume in the Sofala Bank ...

    In this paper, hydrographic data collected in the vicinity of the Zambezi River plume between 2004-2007 is discussed alongside historical data to infer the plume morphology. The sampling plan called for 73 CTD stations that were interspersed with sampling of shrimp recruitment. Satellite-derived wind speed and river ...

  19. Effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological ...

    The experiment evaluated effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological characteristics and nutritive value of burgundy bean (Macroptilium bracteatum) at the screen house of Department of Agronomy, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The treatments were 3 stages of growth repeated 3 times in a completely ...

  20. Morphological and cytosine DNA methylation changes induced by a ...

    Boron (B) toxicity is one of the abiotic stresses limiting plant growth in arid and semi arid regions globally. Although studies have been conducted on the combined effect of B and sodium chloride (NaCl) toxicity on overall plant growth revealing an antagonistic relationship, the morphology and epigenetic interactions have ...

  1. Structural, morphological, optical and antibacterial activity of rod ...

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... (2016) 87: 57 c Indian Academy of Sciences ... of rod-shaped zinc oxide and manganese-doped ... PACS Nos 78.20.Ci; 78.67.Bf; 32.30.Rj; 78; 87.85.J−. 1. Introduction ... over, various morphologies of ZnO such as nanowires.

  2. Effect of yoghurt waste on gut morphology and growth performance ...

    The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of yoghurt waste on intestinal morphology and growth performance of pigs weaned at 7 weeks of age. A total of 20 weaned pigs (15.6 ± 2kg, initial body weight {BW}) were randomly assigned in groups of four, to 5 experimental treatments in a randomized block design.

  3. Manifold Shape : from Differential Geometry to Mathematical Morphology

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Much progress has been made in extending Euclidean mathematical morphology to more complex structures such as complete lattices or spaces with a non-commutative symmetry group. Such generalizations are important for practical situations such as translation and rotation invariant pattern recognition

  4. RECONSTRUCTION OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY MODELS FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

    Reconstruction of Human Lung Morphology Models from Magnetic Resonance ImagesT. B. Martonen (Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) and K. K. Isaacs (School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514)

  5. Elements of morphology: standard terminology for the external genitalia

    Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Allanson, Judith E.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Carey, John C.; Opitz, John M.; Vilain, Eric

    2013-01-01

    An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions

  6. Elements of Morphology: Standard Terminology for the Nose and Philtrum

    Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Hall, Judith G.; Méhes, Károly; Patton, Michael; Stevenson, Roger E.

    2009-01-01

    An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions

  7. Cortical astrocytes exposed to tributyltin undergo morphological changes in vitro.

    Mizuhashi, S; Ikegaya, Y; Nishiyama, N; Matsuki, N

    2000-11-01

    We investigated the effect of tributyltin (TBT), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, on the morphology and viability of cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes exhibited smooth and planiform morphology under normal conditions. Following exposure to TBT, however, they showed rapid morphological changes that are characterized by asteriated cell bodies and process formation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Higher concentrations of TBT produced progressive cell death of the astrocytes. In serum-free medium, TBT at a concentration as low as 200 nM induced the stellation. Pharmacological studies revealed that the morphological changes were alleviated by application of diverse free radical scavengers or antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, Trolox, ascorbic acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, suggesting that TBT-induced stellation is caused by oxidative stress involving free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, we found that the astrocyte stellation was abolished by treatment with inhibitors of phospholipase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase or tyrosine phosphatase. The data suggest that TBT causes the stellation through intracellular signaling cascades rather than its non-specific toxicity. These findings provide an important insight for reconciling the problems in assumed aversive actions of this environmental pollutant for mammals.

  8. Insights into Penicillium roqueforti Morphological and Genetic Diversity

    Gillot, Guillaume; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Monika; Le Floch, Gaétan; Debaets, Stella; Ropars, Jeanne; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana; Coton, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Fungi exhibit substantial morphological and genetic diversity, often associated with cryptic species differing in ecological niches. Penicillium roqueforti is used as a starter culture for blue-veined cheeses, being responsible for their flavor and color, but is also a common spoilage organism in various foods. Different types of blue-veined cheeses are manufactured and consumed worldwide, displaying specific organoleptic properties. These features may be due to the different manufacturing methods and/or to the specific P. roqueforti strains used. Substantial morphological diversity exists within P. roqueforti and, although not taxonomically valid, several technological names have been used for strains on different cheeses (e.g., P. gorgonzolae, P. stilton). A worldwide P. roqueforti collection from 120 individual blue-veined cheeses and 21 other substrates was analyzed here to determine (i) whether P. roqueforti is a complex of cryptic species, by applying the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition criterion (GC-PSR), (ii) whether the population structure assessed using microsatellite markers correspond to blue cheese types, and (iii) whether the genetic clusters display different morphologies. GC-PSR multi-locus sequence analyses showed no evidence of cryptic species. The population structure analysis using microsatellites revealed the existence of highly differentiated populations, corresponding to blue cheese types and with contrasted morphologies. This suggests that the population structure has been shaped by different cheese-making processes or that different populations were recruited for different cheese types. Cheese-making fungi thus constitute good models for studying fungal diversification under recent selection. PMID:26091176

  9. Solid state protein monolayers: Morphological, conformational, and functional properties

    Pompa, P. P.; Biasco, A.; Frascerra, V.; Calabi, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; de Waal, E.; Canters, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its nativelike conformation and ET function, even after removal of the aqueous solvent.

  10. Universal and particular in morphological processing: Evidence from Hebrew.

    Farhy, Yael; Veríssimo, João; Clahsen, Harald

    2018-05-01

    Do properties of individual languages shape the mechanisms by which they are processed? By virtue of their non-concatenative morphological structure, the recognition of complex words in Semitic languages has been argued to rely strongly on morphological information and on decomposition into root and pattern constituents. Here, we report results from a masked priming experiment in Hebrew in which we contrasted verb forms belonging to two morphological classes, Paal and Piel, which display similar properties, but crucially differ on whether they are extended to novel verbs. Verbs from the open-class Piel elicited familiar root priming effects, but verbs from the closed-class Paal did not. Our findings indicate that, similarly to other (e.g., Indo-European) languages, down-to-the-root decomposition in Hebrew does not apply to stems of non-productive verbal classes. We conclude that the Semitic word processor is less unique than previously thought: Although it operates on morphological units that are combined in a non-linear way, it engages the same universal mechanisms of storage and computation as those seen in other languages.

  11. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films.

    Krishna, H; Sachan, R; Strader, J; Favazza, C; Khenner, M; Kalyanaraman, R

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO2 under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm < or = h < or = 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm < or = h < or = 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO2. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  12. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films

    Krishna, H; Favazza, C [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Sachan, R; Strader, J; Kalyanaraman, R [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Khenner, M, E-mail: ramki@utk.edu [Department of Mathematics, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO{sub 2} under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm {<=} h {<=} 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm {<=} h {<=} 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO{sub 2}. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  13. Influence of substrate on structural, morphological and optical ...

    Administrator

    differences in crystallite sizes, microstrain and texture coefficient with respect to the employed substrates. The morphology of ... perties of ZnO thin films, the real effect on the structural ... related to the piezoelectric property, which is an impor- tant issue on ..... ceramics (New York: Springer Berlin Heidelberg) 2nd edn. Bai S N ...

  14. Host Diet Affects the Morphology of Monarch Butterfly Parasites.

    Hoang, Kevin; Tao, Leiling; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2017-06-01

    Understanding host-parasite interactions is essential for ecological research, wildlife conservation, and health management. While most studies focus on numerical traits of parasite groups, such as changes in parasite load, less focus is placed on the traits of individual parasites such as parasite size and shape (parasite morphology). Parasite morphology has significant effects on parasite fitness such as initial colonization of hosts, avoidance of host immune defenses, and the availability of resources for parasite replication. As such, understanding factors that affect parasite morphology is important in predicting the consequences of host-parasite interactions. Here, we studied how host diet affected the spore morphology of a protozoan parasite ( Ophryocystis elektroscirrha ), a specialist parasite of the monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus ). We found that different host plant species (milkweeds; Asclepias spp.) significantly affected parasite spore size. Previous studies have found that cardenolides, secondary chemicals in host plants of monarchs, can reduce parasite loads and increase the lifespan of infected butterflies. Adding to this benefit of high cardenolide milkweeds, we found that infected monarchs reared on milkweeds of higher cardenolide concentrations yielded smaller parasites, a potentially hidden characteristic of cardenolides that may have important implications for monarch-parasite interactions.

  15. Effects of nutrient and light stress on some morphological ...

    Tomato seedlings were subjected to light and nutrient stress to determine the effects of each of these stress factors as well as their combined effects on some morphological parameters of the plant. A two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) carried out on the data obtained showed that light produced significant effect on all ...

  16. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    Borges, Valeria B.; Maia, Maria C.A.; Couto, Maria A.P.G.; Vital, Helio C.; Souza, Mauro C.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  17. Morphological adaptation of Cercis griffithii seedlings in response to ...

    The experiment for evaluate the effect of drought and salinity stresses on the morphological behaviours of Afghan redbud seedlings was done in Torogh nursery in Iran country. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design; without stress (tap common water in the nursery- EC 0.8 dS m-1), drought stress ...

  18. Morphology and Classification of the Southern Sombreiro -Warri ...

    The soils of the Southern Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic plain surrounded by mangrove forest in Kalabari Kingdom, Eastern Niger Delta were studied to assess their morphological characteristics and classification. Four profile pits were sunk, one in each of the following towns: Degema, Abonnema, Buguma and Tombia.

  19. Morphological analysis of polymer systems with broad particle size distribution

    Šlouf, Miroslav; Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Nevoralová, Martina; Fortelný, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, April (2015), s. 8-16 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer blends * morphology * image analysis Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2015

  20. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of La1 ...

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 7. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of La1−NaMnO3 ( ≤ ) nanoparticles produced by the solution combustion method. C O Ehi-Eromosele B I Ita K O Ajanaku A Edobor-Osoh O Aladesuyi S A Adalikwu F E Ehi- ...