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Sample records for gliadin component blocks

  1. Biochemical and functional properties of wheat gliadins: a review.

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak; Khatkar, B S

    2015-01-01

    Gliadins account for 40-50% of the total storage proteins of wheat and are classified into four subcategories, α-, β-, γ-, and ω-gliadins. They have also been classified as ω5-, ω1, 2-, α/β-, and γ-gliadins on the basis of their primary structure and molecular weight. Cysteine residues of gliadins mainly form intramolecular disulfide bonds, although α-gliadins with odd numbers of cysteine residues have also been reported. Gliadins are generally regarded to possess globular protein structure, though recent studies report that the α/β-gliadins have compact globular structures and γ- and ω-gliadins have extended rod-like structures. Newer techniques such as Mass Spectrometry with the development of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) have been employed to determine the molecular weight of purified ω- gliadins and to carry out the direct analysis of bread and durum wheat gliadins. Few gliadin alleles and components, such as Gli-B1b, Gli-B2c and Gli-A2b in bread wheat cultivars, γ-45 in pasta, γ-gliadins in cookies, lower gliadin content for chapatti and alteration in Gli 2 loci in tortillas have been reported to improve the product quality, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the precise role of gliadin subgroups in dough strength and product quality.

  2. Genetic variation of gliadin composition of wheat varieties in shanxi

    Sun Daizhen; Wang Shuguang; Yang Wude; Cao Yaping; Yang Haifeng

    2009-01-01

    In order to discover genetic variation of gliadin composition of wheat varieties in Shanxi, A-PAGE method was used to analyze difference of gliadin composition and genetic diversity of 214 varieties including local bred, introduced and landraces wheat in recent 40 years. The results were as follows: number of gliadin band increased by 2.1 and 1.5 in bred and introduced wheat varieties compared to Shanxi landraces. In total 70 bands,the frequency of 26 bands detected from bred and introduced cultivars was up, 23 down, 21 no regular pattern compared to Shanxi landraces. In 4 gliadin zones, variation of types and frequency of gliadin band in ω zone was largest, γ was the second, β and α was smallest. Two band block of 16.5 and 19.1, and three band block of 12.9, 15.7 and 17.8 were tested in ω zone, but they do not express in the same variety. Mean of genetic distance in Shanxi wheat landraces was larger than those in other two type wheat cultivars. The cluster analysis found that cultivars of landraces, bred or introduced were divided into the same group, which showed genetic difference of loci encoded gliadin in Shanxi wheat landraces was larger than the other two type wheat cultivars, namely, the level of genetic variation of gliadin in bred or introduced cultivars was not high in the last 40 years. (authors)

  3. Gliadin induces an increase in intestinal permeability and zonulin release by binding to the chemokine receptor CXCR3.

    Lammers, Karen M; Lu, Ruliang; Brownley, Julie; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Craig; Thomas, Karen; Rallabhandi, Prasad; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Tamiz, Amir; Alkan, Sefik; Netzel-Arnett, Sarah; Antalis, Toni; Vogel, Stefanie N; Fasano, Alessio

    2008-07-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gliadin, a component of the grain protein gluten. Gliadin induces an MyD88-dependent zonulin release that leads to increased intestinal permeability, a postulated early element in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. We aimed to establish the molecular basis of gliadin interaction with intestinal mucosa leading to intestinal barrier impairment. Alpha-gliadin affinity column was loaded with intestinal mucosal membrane lysates to identify the putative gliadin-binding moiety. In vitro experiments with chemokine receptor CXCR3 transfectants were performed to confirm binding of gliadin and/or 26 overlapping 20mer alpha-gliadin synthetic peptides to the receptor. CXCR3 protein and gene expression were studied in intestinal epithelial cell lines and human biopsy specimens. Gliadin-CXCR3 interaction was further analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy, laser capture microscopy, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis. Ex vivo experiments were performed using C57BL/6 wild-type and CXCR3(-/-) mouse small intestines to measure intestinal permeability and zonulin release. Affinity column and colocalization experiments showed that gliadin binds to CXCR3 and that at least 2 alpha-gliadin 20mer synthetic peptides are involved in this binding. CXCR3 is expressed in mouse and human intestinal epithelia and lamina propria. Mucosal CXCR3 expression was elevated in active celiac disease but returned to baseline levels following implementation of a gluten-free diet. Gliadin induced physical association between CXCR3 and MyD88 in enterocytes. Gliadin increased zonulin release and intestinal permeability in wild-type but not CXCR3(-/-) mouse small intestine. Gliadin binds to CXCR3 and leads to MyD88-dependent zonulin release and increased intestinal permeability.

  4. Gliadin affects glucose homeostasis and intestinal metagenome in C57BL6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    Zhang, Li; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Bahl, Martin Iain

    limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gliadin on glucose homeostasis and intestinal ecology in the mouse. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet containing either 4% gliadin or no gliadin for 22 weeks. Gliadin consumption significantly increased the HbA1c level over......Dietary gluten and its component gliadin are well-known environmental triggers of celiac disease and important actors in type-1 diabetes, and are reported to induce alterations in the intestinal microbiota. However, research on the impact of gluten on type-2 diabetes in non-celiac subjects is more...... time, with a borderline significance of higher HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) after 22 weeks. Sequencing of the V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that gliadin altered the abundance of 81 bacterial taxa, separating the intestinal microbial profile...

  5. Opportunity-based block replacement: the single component case

    R. Dekker (Rommert); E. Smeitink

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider a block replacement model in which a component can be replaced preventively at maintenance opportunities only. Maintenance opportunities occur randomly and are modelled through a renewal process. In the first, theoretical part of the paper we derive an

  6. Gliadin, zonulin and gut permeability: Effects on celiac and non-celiac intestinal mucosa and intestinal cell lines.

    Drago, Sandro; El Asmar, Ramzi; Di Pierro, Mariarosaria; Grazia Clemente, Maria; Tripathi, Amit; Sapone, Anna; Thakar, Manjusha; Iacono, Giuseppe; Carroccio, Antonio; D'Agate, Cinzia; Not, Tarcisio; Zampini, Lucia; Catassi, Carlo; Fasano, Alessio

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about the interaction of gliadin with intestinal epithelial cells and the mechanism(s) through which gliadin crosses the intestinal epithelial barrier. We investigated whether gliadin has any immediate effect on zonulin release and signaling. Both ex vivo human small intestines and intestinal cell monolayers were exposed to gliadin, and zonulin release and changes in paracellular permeability were monitored in the presence and absence of zonulin antagonism. Zonulin binding, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) redistribution were evaluated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Tight junction occludin and ZO-1 gene expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When exposed to gliadin, zonulin receptor-positive IEC6 and Caco2 cells released zonulin in the cell medium with subsequent zonulin binding to the cell surface, rearrangement of the cell cytoskeleton, loss of occludin-ZO1 protein-protein interaction, and increased monolayer permeability. Pretreatment with the zonulin antagonist FZI/0 blocked these changes without affecting zonulin release. When exposed to luminal gliadin, intestinal biopsies from celiac patients in remission expressed a sustained luminal zonulin release and increase in intestinal permeability that was blocked by FZI/0 pretreatment. Conversely, biopsies from non-celiac patients demonstrated a limited, transient zonulin release which was paralleled by an increase in intestinal permeability that never reached the level of permeability seen in celiac disease (CD) tissues. Chronic gliadin exposure caused down-regulation of both ZO-1 and occludin gene expression. Based on our results, we concluded that gliadin activates zonulin signaling irrespective of the genetic expression of autoimmunity, leading to increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules.

  7. New strategy for the determination of gliadins in maize- or rice-based foods matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: fractionation of gliadins from maize or rice prolamins by acidic treatment.

    Hernando, Alberto; Valdes, Israel; Méndez, Enrique

    2003-08-01

    A procedure for determining small quantities of gliadins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) in gluten-free foods containing relatively large amounts of prolamin proteins from maize or rice is described. We report for the first time that gliadins, the ethanol-soluble wheat prolamin fraction, can be quantitatively solubilized in 1.0 M acetic acid, while the corresponding ethanol-soluble maize or rice prolamin fraction remains insoluble in acetic acid. We describe a methodology for the detection of gliadins in maize and rice foods based on a two-step procedure of extraction (60% aqueous ethanol followed by 1 M acetic acid). Subsequent MALDI-TOFMS analysis of the resulting acidic extract from these gluten-free foods clearly confirms the presence of a typical mass pattern corresponding to gliadin components, ranging from 30 to 45 kDa. Depending on the percentages of maize or rice flours employed in the elaboration of these foods, the combined procedure enables levels of gliadins from 100 to 400 ppm to be detected. The efficiency of this combined procedure corroborates enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay data for a large number of maize/rice gluten-free foods by means of direct visualization of the characteristic gliadin mass pattern in maize or rice foods. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cloning and characterization of novel γ-gliadin genes from Aegilops markgrafii in relation to evolution and wheat breeding

    Min Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gliadins are the major components of storage proteins in wheat and play an important role in determining the extensibility properties of dough. In the present work, six novel full-length γ-gliadin genes were cloned from the C genome of Aegilops markgrafii using a PCR-based strategy. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that the cloned genes had primary structures that were similar, but not identical, to published γ-gliadins from other wheat-related species. The lengths of the open reading frames (ORFs ranged from 909 to 963 bp, and the repetitive and glutamine-rich domains were mainly responsible for the size of the proteins. An extra cysteine residue was present in the repetitive domain of sequence JX566513. All amino acid sequences of γ-gliadin genes from Ae. markgrafii were searched for the five peptides identified as T cell stimulatory epitopes in celiac disease (CD patients. Peptide Gliγ-3 was present in sequences JX566513 and JX566514. Peptide Gliγ-5 was present only in JX566513. The other γ-gliadins contained no toxic epitopes. These results provide information to better understand the use of Ae. markgrafii in wheat breeding and the evolutionary relationship of the γ-gliadin genes in Ae. markgrafii and other Triticeae species.

  9. The effects of gliadin on urine metabolome in mice

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Zhang, Li; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    Gliadin, a proline-rich protein of gluten, is thought to modulate the gut microbiota and affect the intestinal permeability and immune system. However, little is known about the long-term effects of gliadin on the host and microbial metabolism. To study this, we compared the urine metabolome of two...... groups of mice, which were on a high fat diet with and without gliadin, respectively, for 23 weeks. Using liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (MS) followed by multivariate analyses we were able to show a clear separation of the two groups of mice based on their urine metabolome. Discriminating...... in the gliadin mice. Also, Maillard reaction products and β-oxidized tocopherols were observed in higher levels in the urine of gliadin mice, suggesting increased oxidative stress in the gliadin mice. Indisputably, gliadin affected the urine metabolome. However, the mechanisms behind the observed metabolite...

  10. molecular characterization of γ gliadin from durum wheat

    R. Mzid

    1 sept. 2017 ... "Gli-A1" encoding a γ-gliadin protein associated with gluten strength and ... Keywords: in silico; Storage Proteins; Gliadin; Triticum ; wheat; ... Les différences qui définissent la propriété de la pâte et sa qualité de cuisson.

  11. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of α-gliadin gene ...

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 93; Issue 3 ... Research Article Volume 93 Issue 3 December 2014 pp 725-731 ... Although the unique properties of wheat -gliadin gene family are well characterized, little is known about the evolution and genomic divergence of -gliadin gene family within the Triticeae.

  12. Gliadin fragments promote migration of dendritic cells

    Chládková, Barbara; Kamanová, Jana; Palová-Jelínková, Lenka; Cinová, Jana; Šebo, Peter; Tučková, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2011), 938-948 ISSN 1582-1838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA ČR GD310/08/H077; GA ČR GA310/08/0447; GA AV ČR IAA500200801; GA AV ČR IAA500200914 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : celiac disease * gliadin * dendritic cell Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2011

  13. Gliadin Detection in Food by Immunoassay

    Grant, Gordon; Sporns, Peter; Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

    Immunoassays are very sensitive and efficient tests that are commonly used to identify a specific protein. Examples of applications in the food industry include identification of proteins expressed in genetically modified foods, allergens, or proteins associated with a disease, including celiac disease. This genetic disease is associated with Europeans and affects about one in every 200 people in North America. These individuals react immunologically to wheat proteins, and consequently their own immune systems attack and damage their intestines. This disease can be managed if wheat proteins, specifically "gliadins," are avoided in foods.

  14. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. The...

  15. Gliadin Fragments and a Specific Gliadin 33-mer Peptide Close KATP Channels and Induce Insulin Secretion in INS-1E Cells and Rat Islets of Langerhans

    Dall, Morten; Calloe, Kirstine; Haupt-Jorgensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    . A similar effect was observed in isolated rat islets (1.6-fold increase). In INS-1E cells, diazoxide reduced the stimulatory effect of gliadin digest. Additionally, gliadin digest was shown to decrease current through KATP-channels. A specific gliadin 33-mer had a similar effect, both on current and insulin...

  16. Detailed Analysis of the Expression of an Alpha-gliadin Promoter and the Deposition of Alpha-gliadin Protein During Wheat Grain Development

    Herpen, van T.W.J.M.; Riley, M.; Sparks, C.; Jones, H.D.; Gritsch, C.; Dekking, E.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Shewry, P.R.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: Alpha-gliadin proteins are important for the industrial quality of bread wheat flour, but they also contain many epitopes that can trigger celiac (c¿liac) disease (CD). The B-genome-encoded -gliadin genes, however, contain very few epitopes. Controlling -gliadin gene expression

  17. Molecular characterization of γ gliadin from durum wheat ( Triticum ...

    gliadin protein associated with gluten strength and viscoelasticity of the dough, we performed an in silico molecular and structural analysis in order to define its putative functional properties. The latter could be a valuable candidate as molecular ...

  18. Activation of human monocytes by proteolytic fragments of gliadin

    Jelínková, Lenka; Tučková, Ludmila; Cinová, Jana; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2003), s. 08 ISSN 0165-2478 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : proteolytic * fragments * gliadin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2003

  19. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain', and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  20. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  1. Gliadin peptide P31-43 localises to endocytic vesicles and interferes with their maturation.

    Maria Vittoria Barone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac Disease (CD is both a frequent disease (1:100 and an interesting model of a disease induced by food. It consists in an immunogenic reaction to wheat gluten and glutenins that has been found to arise in a specific genetic background; however, this reaction is still only partially understood. Activation of innate immunity by gliadin peptides is an important component of the early events of the disease. In particular the so-called "toxic" A-gliadin peptide P31-43 induces several pleiotropic effects including Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR-dependent actin remodelling and proliferation in cultured cell lines and in enterocytes from CD patients. These effects are mediated by delayed EGFR degradation and prolonged EGFR activation in endocytic vesicles. In the present study we investigated the effects of gliadin peptides on the trafficking and maturation of endocytic vesicles. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both P31-43 and the control P57-68 peptide labelled with fluorochromes were found to enter CaCo-2 cells and interact with the endocytic compartment in pulse and chase, time-lapse, experiments. P31-43 was localised to vesicles carrying early endocytic markers at time points when P57-68-carrying vesicles mature into late endosomes. In time-lapse experiments the trafficking of P31-43-labelled vesicles was delayed, regardless of the cargo they were carrying. Furthermore in celiac enterocytes, from cultured duodenal biopsies, P31-43 trafficking is delayed in early endocytic vesicles. A sequence similarity search revealed that P31-43 is strikingly similar to Hrs, a key molecule regulating endocytic maturation. A-gliadin peptide P31-43 interfered with Hrs correct localisation to early endosomes as revealed by western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: P31-43 and P57-68 enter cells by endocytosis. Only P31-43 localises at the endocytic membranes and delays vesicle trafficking by interfering with Hrs

  2. The ?-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its closely related species

    Qi, Peng-Fei; Wei, Yu-Ming; Ouellet, Th?r?se; Chen, Qing; Tan, Xin; Zheng, You-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isol...

  3. Cutting method for structural component into block like shape, and device used for cutting

    Nakazawa, Koichi; Ito, Akira; Tateiwa, Masaaki.

    1995-01-01

    Two grooves each of a predetermined depth are formed along a surface of a structural component, and a portion between the two grooves is cut in the direction of the depth from the surface of the structural component by using a cutting wire of a wire saw device. Then, the cutting wire is moved in the extending direction of the grooves while optionally changing the position in the direction of the depth to conduct cutting for the back face. Further, the cutting wire is moved in the direction of the depth of the groove toward the surface, to cut a portion between the two grooves. The wire saw device comprises a wire saw main body movable along the surface of the structural component, a pair of wire guide portions extending in the direction of the depth, guide pooleys capable of guiding the cutting wire guides revolvably and rotatably disposed at the top end, and an endless annular cutting wire extending between the wire guide portions. Thus, it is possible to continuously cut out blocks set to optional size and thickness. In addition, remote cutting is possible with no requirement for an operator to access to the vicinity of radioactivated portions. (N.H.)

  4. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of α-gliadin gene ...

    Supplementary data: Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of α-gliadin gene sequences reveals significant genomic divergence in Triticeae species. Guang-Rong Li, Tao Lang, En-Nian Yang, Cheng Liu ... The MITE insertion at the 3 UTR is boxed. Figure 2. The secondary structure of MITE insertion in HM452949.

  5. Migration of human dendritic cells induced by gliadin fragments

    Pecharová, Barbara; Jelínková, Lenka; Kamanová, Jana; Tučková, Ludmila

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2009), s. 649-649 ISSN 0014-2980. [European Congress of Immunology /2./. 13.09.2009-16.09.2009, Berlin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : gliadin fragments * celiac disease * migration Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  6. Genetic diversity of gliadin pattern, morphological traits and baking ...

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... diversity of 102 double haploids of wheat (sent from. CIMMYT) through studying gliadin protein ... biomass, yield per plant, harvest index, number of grains per spike, spike density, spike length, plant ... per spike, also 6 baking quality traits, protein content, gluten index,. SDS sedimentation, sedimentation ...

  7. Effect of External Electric Field Stress on Gliadin Protein Conformation

    Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Shirin; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    A molecular dynamic (MD) modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of external electric field on gliadin protein structure and surface properties. Static electric field strengths of 0.001 V/nm and 0.002 V/nm induced conformational changes in the protein but had no significant effect on its surface properties. The study of hydrogen bond evolution during the course of simulation revealed that the root mean square deviation, radius of gyration and secondary structure formation, all de...

  8. Optimization of components in high-yield synthesis of block copolymer-mediated gold nanoparticles

    Ray, Debes; Aswal, Vinod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The optimization to achieve stable and high-yield gold nanoparticles in block copolymer-mediated synthesis has been examined. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized using block copolymer P85 in gold salt HAuCl 4 ·3H 2 O solution. This method usually has a very limited yield which does not simply increase with the increase in the gold salt concentration. We show that the yield can be enhanced by increasing the block copolymer concentration but is limited to the factor by which the concentration is increased. On the other hand, the presence of an additional reductant (trisodium citrate) in 1:1 molar ratio with gold salt enhances the yield by manyfold. In this case (with additional reductant), the stable and high-yield nanoparticles having size about 14 nm can be synthesized at very low block copolymer concentrations. These nanoparticles thus can be efficiently used for their application such as for adsorption of proteins.

  9. Distribution of protein components of wheat from different regions

    kesiena

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... The distribution of wheat protein components in different regions was researched to ..... properties of wheat gliadins II. effects on dynamic rheoligical ... fractions properties of wheat dough depending on molecular size and.

  10. The In Vitro Effects of Enzymatic Digested Gliadin on the Functionality of the Autophagy Process

    Federico Manai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gliadin, the alcohol-soluble protein fraction of wheat, contains the factor toxic for celiac disease (CD, and its toxicity is not reduced by digestion with gastro-pancreatic enzymes. Importantly, it is proved that an innate immunity to gliadin plays a key role in the development of CD. The immune response induces epithelial stress and reprograms intraepithelial lymphocytes into natural killer (NK-like cells, leading to enterocyte apoptosis and an increase in epithelium permeability. In this contribution, we have reported that in Caco-2 cells the administration of enzymatically digested gliadin (PT-gliadin reduced significantly the expression of the autophagy-related marker LC3-II. Furthermore, electron and fluorescent microscope analysis suggested a compromised functionality of the autophagosome apparatus. The rescue of the dysregulated autophagy process, along with a reduction of PT-gliadin toxicity, was obtained with a starvation induction protocol and by 3-methyladenine administration, while rapamycin, a well-known autophagy inducer, did not produce a significant improvement in the clearance of extra- and intra-cellular fluorescent PT-gliadin amount. Altogether, our results highlighted the possible contribution of the autophagy process in the degradation and in the reduction of extra-cellular release of gliadin peptides and suggest novel molecular targets to counteract gliadin-induced toxicity in CD.

  11. Prevention or early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

    Funda, David; Fundova, Petra; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2014-01-01

    gluten-free diets prevent T1D in animal models. Herewith we investigated whether intranasal (i.n.) administration of gliadin or gluten may arrest the diabetogenic process. I.n. administration of gliadin to 4-week-old NOD mice significantly reduced the diabetes incidence. Similarly, the insulitis...

  12. Sensitization to Gliadin Induces Moderate Enteropathy and Insulitis in Nonobese Diabetic-DQ8 Mice

    Galipeau, Heather J.; Rulli, Nestor E.; Jury, Jennifer; Huang, Xianxi; Araya, Romina; Murray, Joseph A.; David, Chella S.; Chirdo, Fernando G.; McCoy, Kathy D.; Verdu, Elena F.

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is frequently diagnosed in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and T1D patients can exhibit Abs against tissue transglutaminase, the auto-antigen in CD. Thus, gliadin, the trigger in CD, has been suggested to have a role in T1D pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether gliadin contributes to enteropathy and insulitis in NOD-DQ8 mice, an animal model that does not spontaneously develop T1D. Gliadin-sensitized NOD-DQ8 mice developed moderate enteropathy, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and barrier dysfunction, but not insulitis. Administration of anti-CD25 mAbs before gliadin-sensitization induced partial depletion of CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and led to severe insulitis, but did not exacerbate mucosal dysfunction. CD4+ T cells isolated from pancreatic lymph nodes of mice that developed insulitis showed increased proliferation and proinflammatory cytokines after incubation with gliadin but not with BSA. CD4+ T cells isolated from nonsensitized controls did not response to gliadin or BSA. In conclusion, gliadin sensitization induced moderate enteropathy in NOD-DQ8 mice. However, insulitis development required gliadin-sensitization and partial systemic depletion of CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. This humanized murine model provides a mechanistic link to explain how the mucosal intolerance to a dietary protein can lead to insulitis in the presence of partial regulatory T cell deficiency. PMID:21911598

  13. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more

  14. Effects of gliadin addition on the rheological, microscopic and thermal characteristics of wheat gluten.

    Khatkar, B S; Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, micro-structural, thermal and rheological changes in the gluten network upon addition of gliadins at 5% and 10% levels were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic rheometry. The addition of gliadins decreased the peak dough height inferring decrease in dough strength. The dough stability also decreased from 3.20 to 1.40 min upon addition of 10% gliadin to the base flour. The TGA profile and the glass transition behavior of the control gluten and gluten obtained from dough with gliadin added at 5% and 10% levels showed decrease in thermal stability. The SEM micrograph of the control gluten showed foam like protein matrix. As the gliadin percentage in the gluten was increased, the compactness of the gluten structure reduced considerably leading to the formation of a more open weak gluten network. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transversus abdominis plane block as a component of multimodal analgesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Oksar, Menekse; Koyuncu, Onur; Turhanoglu, Selim; Temiz, Muhyittin; Oran, Mustafa Cemil

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate and compare intercostal-iliac transversus abdominis plane (TAP) and oblique subcostal TAP (OSTAP) blocks for multimodal analgesia in patients receiving laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical study. Operating room, postoperative recovery area, and ward. In total, 60 laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients (43 women, 17 men, American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I-II) were enrolled from the general surgery department of our tertiary care center. The patients were assigned to 1 of the 3 groups. Group 1 received TAP blocks (n=20), group 2 received OSTAP blocks (n=20), and group 3 patients were used as controls and received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) only (n=20). After the induction of anesthesia, blocks were performed bilaterally in study groups 1 and 2, using 20mL of lidocaine (5mg/mL). PCA with intravenous tramadol was routinely provided for all patients during the first 24hours. The intraoperative use of remifentanil, postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores, demand for PCA, and total analgesic consumption were recorded. The patients in the control group had greater analgesic demands and analgesic consumption than did those in groups 1 and 2. However, patients in the OSTAP group had lower VAS scores than did those in groups 1 and 3. The demand for analgesia was greater in the control group than in groups 1 and 2. Moreover, lower VAS scores were recorded in the OSTAP group than in groups 1 and 3 and were positively correlated with total PCA consumption among all patients. However, postoperative VAS scores were negatively correlated with the total intraoperative consumption of remifentanil at 24hours. TAP and OSTAP blocks improved postoperative analgesia in patients receiving laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which resulted in lower VAS scores and reduction in total analgesic consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Production and characterization of two major Aspergillus oryzae secreted prolyl endopeptidases able to efficiently digest proline-rich peptides of gliadin.

    Eugster, Philippe J; Salamin, Karine; Grouzmann, Eric; Monod, Michel

    2015-12-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases are key enzymes in the digestion of proline-rich proteins. Fungal extracts rich in prolyl endopeptidases produced by a species such as Aspergillus oryzae used in food fermentation would be of particular interest for the development of an oral enzyme therapy product in patients affected by intolerance to gluten. Two major A. oryzae secreted prolyl endopeptidases of the MEROPS S28 peptidase family, AoS28A and AoS28B, were identified when this fungus was grown at acidic pH in a medium containing soy meal protein or wheat gliadin as the sole source of nitrogen. AoS28B was produced by 12 reference A. oryzae strains used in food fermentation. AoS28A was secreted by six of these 12 strains. This protease is the orthologue of the previously characterized Aspergillus fumigatus (AfuS28) and Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP) prolyl endopeptidases which are encoded by genes with a similar intron-exon structure. Large amounts of secreted AoS28A and AoS28B were obtained by gene overexpression in A. oryzae. AoS28A and AoS28B are endoproteases able to cleave N-terminally blocked proline substrates. Both enzymes very efficiently digested the proline-rich 33-mer of gliadin, the most representative immunotoxic peptide deriving from gliadin, with some differences in terms of specificity and optimal pH. Digestion of the gliadin peptide in short peptides with both enzymes was found to occur from its N terminus.

  17. Cement blocks with EVA waste for extensive modular green roof: contribution of the components for thermal insulation

    A. B. DE MELO

    Full Text Available Abstract Green roofs can contribute in many ways to the quality of the environment, being known for reducing the heat transfer to the interior of the buildings. Amongst the available techniques for the execution of this type of covering, the use of light cement blocks which are compatible with the system of extensive modular green roofs is proposed. For the light cement blocks, produced with EVA aggregates (waste from the footwear industry, an additional contribution in the capacity of thermal insulation of the proposed green roof is expected. In the present article, the demonstration of such contribution is intended through measurements carried out in prototypes in hot and humid climates. After characterizing the capacity of thermal insulation of the proposed green roof, with different types of conventional covering as a reference, an additional contribution of the component used in this green roof was identified by making comparisons with measurements collected from another green roof, executed with cement blocks without the presence of the EVA aggregates. In the experiments, external and internal surface temperatures were measured in each of the prototypes' coverings, as well as the air temperatures in the internal and external environments. From the analysis of the data for a typical summer day, it was possible to prove that the proposed green roof presented the lowest temperature ranges, considering the internal air and surface temperatures. The presence of the EVA aggregates in the proposed blocks contributed to the decrease of the internal temperatures.

  18. Early effects of gliadin on enterocyte intracellular signalling involved in intestinal barrier function.

    Clemente, M G; De Virgiliis, S; Kang, J S; Macatagney, R; Musu, M P; Di Pierro, M R; Drago, S; Congia, M; Fasano, A

    2003-02-01

    Despite the progress made in understanding the immunological aspects of the pathogenesis of coeliac disease (CD), the early steps that allow gliadin to cross the intestinal barrier are still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to establish whether gliadin activates a zonulin dependent enterocyte intracellular signalling pathway(s) leading to increased intestinal permeability. The effect of gliadin on the enterocyte actin cytoskeleton was studied on rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cell cultures by fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorimetry. Zonulin concentration was measured on cell culture supernatants by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Transepithelial intestinal resistance (Rt) was measured on ex vivo intestinal tissues mounted in Ussing chambers. Incubation of cells with gliadin led to a reversible protein kinase C (PKC) mediated actin polymerisation temporarily coincident with zonulin release. A significant reduction in Rt was observed after gliadin addition on rabbit intestinal mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers. Pretreatment with the zonulin inhibitor FZI/0 abolished the gliadin induced actin polymerisation and Rt reduction but not zonulin release. Gliadin induces zonulin release in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Activation of the zonulin pathway by PKC mediated cytoskeleton reorganisation and tight junction opening leads to a rapid increase in intestinal permeability.

  19. Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 modulates immune responses in a gliadin-induced enteropathy animal model.

    José Moisés Laparra

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten proteins (gliadin that involves innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we hypothesise that the administration of Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347, previously selected for reducing gliadin immunotoxic effects in vitro, could exert protective effects in an animal model of gliadin-induced enteropathy. The effects of this bacterium were evaluated in newborn rats fed gliadin alone or sensitised with interferon (IFN-γ and fed gliadin. Jejunal tissue sections were collected for histological, NFκB mRNA expression and cytokine production analyses. Leukocyte populations and T-cell subsets were analysed in peripheral blood samples. The possible translocation of the bacterium to different organs was determined by plate counting and the composition of the colonic microbiota was quantified by real-time PCR. Feeding gliadin alone reduced enterocyte height and peripheral CD4+ cells, but increased CD4+/Foxp3+ T and CD8+ cells, while the simultaneous administration of B. longum CECT 7347 exerted opposite effects. Animals sensitised with IFN-γ and fed gliadin showed high cellular infiltration, reduced villi width and enterocyte height. Sensitised animals also exhibited increased NFκB mRNA expression and TNF-α production in tissue sections. B. longum CECT 7347 administration increased NFκB expression and IL-10, but reduced TNF-α, production in the enteropathy model. In sensitised gliadin-fed animals, CD4+, CD4+/Foxp3+ and CD8+ T cells increased, whereas the administration of B. longum CECT 7347 reduced CD4+ and CD4+/Foxp3+ cell populations and increased CD8+ T cell populations. The bifidobacterial strain administered represented between 75-95% of the total bifidobacteria isolated from all treated groups, and translocation to organs was not detected. These findings indicate that B. longum attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines and the CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response in

  20. Building Block Approach' for Structural Analysis of Thermoplastic Composite Components for Automotive Applications

    Carello, M.; Amirth, N.; Airale, A. G.; Monti, M.; Romeo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced thermoplastic prepreg composite materials stand out with regard to their ability to allow complex designs with high specific strength and stiffness. This makes them an excellent choice for lightweight automotive components to reduce mass and increase fuel efficiency, while maintaining the functionality of traditional thermosetting prepreg (and mechanical characteristics) and with a production cycle time and recyclability suited to mass production manufacturing. Currently, the aerospace and automotive sectors struggle to carry out accurate Finite Elements (FE) component analyses and in some cases are unable to validate the obtained results. In this study, structural Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) has been done on a thermoplastic fiber reinforced component designed and manufactured through an integrated injection molding process, which consists in thermoforming the prepreg laminate and overmolding the other parts. This process is usually referred to as hybrid molding, and has the provision to reinforce the zones subjected to additional stresses with thermoformed themoplastic prepreg as required and overmolded with a shortfiber thermoplastic resin in single process. This paper aims to establish an accurate predictive model on a rational basis and an innovative methodology for the structural analysis of thermoplastic composite components by comparison with the experimental tests results.

  1. Effect of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits, and subunits of gliadin on physicochemical parameters of different wheat genotypes

    Mariana Souza Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of functional properties of wheat flour by specific tests allows genotypes with appropriate characteristics to be selected for specific industrial uses. The objective of wheat breeding programs is to improve the quality of germplasm bank in order to be able to develop wheat with suitable gluten strength and extensibility for bread making. The aim of this study was to evaluate 16 wheat genotypes by correlating both glutenin subunits of high and low molecular weight and gliadin subunits with the physicochemical characteristics of the grain. Protein content, sedimentation volume, sedimentation index, and falling number values were analyzed after the grains were milled. Hectoliter weight and mass of 1000 seeds were also determined. The glutenin and gliadin subunits were separated using polyacrylamide gel in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The data were evaluated using variance analysis, Pearson's correlation, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis. The IPR 85, IPR Catuara TM, T 091015, and T 091069 genotypes stood out from the others, which indicate their possibly superior grain quality with higher sedimentation volume, higher sedimentation index, and higher mass of 1000 seeds; these genotypes possessed the subunits 1 (Glu-A1, 5 + 10 (Glu-D1, c (Glu-A3, and b (Glu-B3, with exception of T 091069 genotype that possessed the g allele instead of b in the Glu-B3.

  2. The γ-gliadin-like γ-prolamin genes in the tribe Triticeae

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... Over one-third of these putatively functional γ-prolamin peptides contained different number of cysteine residues as .... pected to be chimeric were not used here. ..... chemical and molecular characterization of gliadins. Mol.

  3. Radioimmunoassay for antigliadin-antibodies using 14C-labelled gliadin

    Menzel, J.

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for antibodies to gliadin has been developed. Gliadin from wheat gluten was labelled with [1- 14 C]acetic anhydride to a specific activity of 2.6 x 10 6 dpm/mg. Immunological evidence is presented that the antigen was not essentially altered by the labelling procedure. Experimentally-induced antigliadin antibodies or sera of patients with coeliac disease (CD) were reacted with labelled gliadin and the immune complexes formed precipitated by antiglobulin. Precipitating antibodies were determined by incubating CD sera with labelled gliadin and measuring the radioacticity in precipitates formed without the addition of second antibody. Comparison with other methods for the detection of antigliadin antibodies, including immunoelectrophoresis, immunodiffusion and passive hemagglutination indicated that total and precipitating antibodies were determined only by RIA. The assay also provides information on the immunoglobulin class of antigliadin-antibodies present in sera of patients with coeliac disease

  4. Assessing Genetic Diversity Based on Gliadin Proteins in Aegilops cylindrica Populations from Northwest of Iran

    Toraj KHABIRI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild wheat progenitors served as a valuable gene pool in breeding perspectives. In this respect, gliadins could be an important tool in assessing genetic variability as protein markers. Thus, genetic diversity of gliadin protein patterns in seventeen populations of Aegilops cylindrica collected from northwest of Iran were investigated using acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that the highest number of bands in the electrophoregrams were related to the ω type of geliadins. Conversely, the lowest number of bands were pertained to the β type of gliadins. Genetic diversity between populations was greater than within population variation. Assessment of total variation for the three gliadin types indicated that the highest total variation was related to β type while, the lowest one was belonged to ω type. Cluster analysis using complete linkage method divided populations into two separated groups in which genetic diversity does not follow from geographical distribution.

  5. Production and molecular characterization of bread wheat lines with reduced amount of α-type gliadins.

    Camerlengo, Francesco; Sestili, Francesco; Silvestri, Marco; Colaprico, Giuseppe; Margiotta, Benedetta; Ruggeri, Roberto; Lupi, Roberta; Masci, Stefania; Lafiandra, Domenico

    2017-12-19

    Among wheat gluten proteins, the α-type gliadins are the major responsible for celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that affects about 1% of the world population. In fact, these proteins contain several toxic and immunogenic epitopes that trigger the onset of the disease. The α-type gliadins are a multigene family, encoded by genes located at the complex Gli-2 loci. Here, three bread wheat deletion lines (Gli-A2, Gli-D2 and Gli-A2/Gli-D2) at the Gli-2 loci were generated by the introgression in the bread wheat cultivar Pegaso of natural mutations, detected in different bread wheat cultivars. The molecular characterization of these lines allowed the isolation of 49 unique expressed genes coding α-type gliadins, that were assigned to each of the three Gli-2 loci. The number and the amount of α-type gliadin transcripts were drastically reduced in the deletion lines. In particular, the line Gli-A2/Gli-D2 contained only 12 active α-type gliadin genes (-75.6% respect to the cv. Pegaso) and a minor level of transcripts (-80% compared to cv. Pegaso). Compensatory pleiotropic effects were observed in the two other classes of gliadins (ω- and γ-gliadins) either at gene expression or protein levels. Although the comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences highlighted the typical structural features of α-type gliadin proteins, substantial differences were displayed among the 49 proteins for the presence of toxic and immunogenic epitopes. The deletion line Gli-A2/Gli-D2 did not contain the 33-mer peptide, one of the major epitopes triggering the celiac disease, representing an interesting material to develop less "toxic" wheat varieties.

  6. A radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin to assess the suitability of gluten free foods for patients with coeliac disease

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J.; Evans, D.J.; Lennox, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a clinical condition characterised by malabsorption secondary to abnormalities of the small intestine. The condition is known to be exacerbated by wheat gliadin, rye, barley and possibly oats. The only assays that are available for testing for the presence of wheat gluten in foods are double diffusion against rabbit anti-gliadin antiserum and measurement of Kjeldahl nitrogen in products derived from wheat flour. We have developed a radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin with a detection limit of 1 ng. Nominally gluten free foods based on wheat starch have been shown to contain up to 1.9x10 -2 % wheat gliadin. Bread made from Nutregen wheat starch which has now been withdrawn contains 6.4 mg gliadin per standard 30 g slice. A radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin could be used to define standards for the suitability of gluten free products based on wheat starch for patients with coeliac disease. (author)

  7. A radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin to assess the suitability of gluten free foods for patients with coeliac disease.

    Ciclitira, P J; Ellis, H J; Evans, D J; Lennox, E S

    1985-03-01

    Coeliac disease is a clinical condition characterised by malabsorption secondary to abnormalities of the small intestine. The condition is known to be exacerbated by wheat gliadin, rye, barley and possibly oats. The only assays that are available for testing for the presence of wheat gluten in foods are double diffusion against rabbit anti-gliadin antiserum and measurement of Kjeldahl nitrogen in products derived from wheat flour. We have developed a radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin with a detection limit of 1 ng. Nominally gluten free foods based on wheat starch have been shown to contain up to 1.9 X 10(-2)% wheat gliadin. Bread made from Nutregen wheat starch which has now been withdrawn contains 6.4 mg gliadin per standard 30 g slice. A radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin could be used to define standards for the suitability of gluten free products based on wheat starch for patients with coeliac disease.

  8. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for IgG gliadin antibodies using 125I-labelled staphylococcal protein A

    Troncone, R.; Pignata, C.; Farris, E.; Ciccimarra, F.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for IgG gliadin antibodies is described. Serum specimens were added to wells of plastic microtitre plates coated with gliadin. After removal of the unbound material, gliadin antibodies were detected by adding 125 I-labelled staphylococcal protein A ( 125 I-SpA). Serum specimens from coeliac patients on a normal diet or on a gluten-free diet were tested, as well as sera from an age-matched control group. Measurements to obtain precise quantitative values were made with gliadin antibody-rich serum as reference standard. High titres of gliadin antibodies were found in 18 out of 19 coeliac patients on a normal diet (95%); in patients on a strict gluten-free diet serum values did not exceed 2 S.D. of the control mean. Due to the high sensitivity of the method a low but detectable amount of gliadin antibody was present in the sera of all controls. (Auth.)

  9. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for IgG gliadin antibodies using /sup 125/I-labelled staphylococcal protein A

    Troncone, R.; Pignata, C.; Farris, E.; Ciccimarra, F. (Naples Univ. (Italy). II Facolta di Medicina)

    1983-10-14

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for IgG gliadin antibodies is described. Serum specimens were added to wells of plastic microtitre plates coated with gliadin. After removal of the unbound material, gliadin antibodies were detected by adding /sup 125/I-labelled staphylococcal protein A (/sup 125/I-SpA). Serum specimens from coeliac patients on a normal diet or on a gluten-free diet were tested, as well as sera from an age-matched control group. Measurements to obtain precise quantitative values were made with gliadin antibody-rich serum as reference standard. High titres of gliadin antibodies were found in 18 out of 19 coeliac patients on a normal diet (95%); in patients on a strict gluten-free diet serum values did not exceed 2 S.D. of the control mean. Due to the high sensitivity of the method a low but detectable amount of gliadin antibody was present in the sera of all controls.

  10. Abrasive blasting, a technique for the industrial decontamination of metal components and concrete blocks from decommissioning to unconditional release levels

    Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.

    2007-01-01

    When decommissioning nuclear installations, large quantities of metal components are produced as well as significant amounts of other radioactive materials, which mostly show low surface contamination. Having been used or having been brought for a while in a controlled area marks them as 'suspected material'. In view of the very high costs for radioactive waste processing and disposal, alternatives have been considered, and much effort has gone to recycling through decontamination, melting and unconditional release of metals. In a broader context, recycling of materials can considered to be a first order ecological priority in order to limit the quantities of radioactive wastes for final disposal and to reduce the technical and economic problems involved with the management of radioactive wastes. It will help as well to make economic use of primary material and to conserve natural resources of basic material for future generations. In a demonstration programme, Belgoprocess has shown that it is economically interesting to decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, the unit cost for decontamination being only 30 % of the global cost for radioactive waste treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal. As a result, an industrial dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure. At the end of December 2006, more than 1,128 Mg of contaminated metal has been treated as well as 313 Mg of concrete blocks. The paper gives an overview of the experience relating to the decontamination of metal material and concrete blocks at the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Dessel, Belgium as well from the decontamination of concrete containers by abrasive blasting. (authors)

  11. BL-7010 demonstrates specific binding to gliadin and reduces gluten-associated pathology in a chronic mouse model of gliadin sensitivity.

    Justin L McCarville

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder in individuals that carry DQ2 or DQ8 MHC class II haplotypes, triggered by the ingestion of gluten. There is no current treatment other than a gluten-free diet (GFD. We have previously shown that the BL-7010 copolymer poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-styrene sulfonate (P(HEMA-co-SS binds with higher efficiency to gliadin than to other proteins present in the small intestine, ameliorating gliadin-induced pathology in the HLA-HCD4/DQ8 model of gluten sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of two batches of BL-7010 to interact with gliadin, essential vitamins and digestive enzymes not previously tested, and to assess the ability of the copolymer to reduce gluten-associated pathology using the NOD-DQ8 mouse model, which exhibits more significant small intestinal damage when challenged with gluten than HCD4/DQ8 mice. In addition, the safety and systemic exposure of BL-7010 was evaluated in vivo (in rats and in vitro (genetic toxicity studies. In vitro binding data showed that BL-7010 interacted with high affinity with gliadin and that BL-7010 had no interaction with the tested vitamins and digestive enzymes. BL-7010 was effective at preventing gluten-induced decreases in villus-to-crypt ratios, intraepithelial lymphocytosis and alterations in paracellular permeability and putative anion transporter-1 mRNA expression in the small intestine. In rats, BL-7010 was well-tolerated and safe following 14 days of daily repeated administration of 3000 mg/kg. BL-7010 did not exhibit any mutagenic effect in the genetic toxicity studies. Using complementary animal models and chronic gluten exposure the results demonstrate that administration of BL-7010 is effective and safe and that it is able to decrease pathology associated with gliadin sensitization warranting the progression to Phase I trials in humans.

  12. Protective effects of ID331 Triticum monococcum gliadin on in vitro models of the intestinal epithelium.

    Iacomino, Giuseppe; Di Stasio, Luigia; Fierro, Olga; Picariello, Gianluca; Venezia, Antonella; Gazza, Laura; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mamone, Gianfranco

    2016-12-01

    A growing interest in developing new strategies for preventing coeliac disease has motivated efforts to identify cereals with null or reduced toxicity. In the current study, we investigate the biological effects of ID331 Triticum monococcum gliadin-derived peptides in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Triticum aestivum gliadin derived peptides were employed as a positive control. The effects on epithelial permeability, zonulin release, viability, and cytoskeleton reorganization were investigated. Our findings confirmed that ID331 gliadin did not enhance permeability and did not induce zonulin release, cytotoxicity or cytoskeleton reorganization of Caco-2 cell monolayers. We also demonstrated that ID331 ω-gliadin and its derived peptide ω(105-123) exerted a protective action, mitigating the injury of Triticum aestivum gliadin on cell viability and cytoskeleton reorganization. These results may represent a new opportunity for the future development of innovative strategies to reduce gluten toxicity in the diet of patients with gluten intolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against deamidated-gliadin-peptides outperform anti-endomysium and tissue transglutaminase antibodies in children

    Mubarak, A.; Gmelig-Meyling, F. H. J.; Wolters, V. M.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; Houwen, R. H. J.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of deamidated-gliadin-peptides-antibodies in the diagnosis of celiac disease, serology was tested in 212 children suspected with celiac disease who had undergone a small-intestinal-biopsy. For deamidated-gliadin-peptides-antibodies, two kits were tested. Positive and

  14. Microbial Transglutaminase Used in Bread Preparation at Standard Bakery Concentrations Does Not Increase Immunodetectable Amounts of Deamidated Gliadin.

    Heil, Andreas; Ohsam, Jürgen; van Genugten, Bernard; Diez, Oscar; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Kumazawa, Yoshiyuki; Pasternack, Ralf; Hils, Martin

    2017-08-16

    The effect of standard bakery concentrations of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) in wheat bread preparation on the immunoreactivity of sera of celiac disease (CD) patients was investigated. Immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific to unmodified and/or deamidated gliadin showed no differences between control bread and MTG bread. Deamidation of gliadin could not be detected at standard MTG concentrations. Sera of CD patients were characterized using anti-gliadin and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and grouped into DGP high- and low-titer pools. The recognition pattern obtained after using both CD sera pools for immunoblotting did not reveal differences between control and MTG-treated bread protein extracts. Our results indicate that MTG treatment of wheat bread prepared with typical MTG concentrations used in standard bakery processes does not lead to immunodetectable amounts of CD immunotoxic deamidated gliadins.

  15. The Santa Izabel Complex, Gavião Block, Brazil: Components, geocronology, regional correlations and tectonic implications

    Medeiros, Eder Luis Mathias; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; Barbosa, Johildo Salomão Figueiredo; Paquette, Jean Louis; Peucat, Jean Jacques; Jesus, Silvandira dos Santos Góes Pereira de; Barbosa, Rafael Gordilho; Brito, Reinaldo Santana Correia de; Carneiro, Mauricio Antônio

    2017-12-01

    Cratons, as well as the basement of their marginal orogens, may represent important sites of research regarding the formation and evolution of Archean continental crusts. The Gavião Block is one of the oldest terranes in South America with rocks aged up to 3.6 Ga. Among the Archean units that outcrop in the southern sector of this block is the Santa Izabel Complex, which for the most part is located in the São Francisco Craton, close to its limit with the Araçuaí-West Congo Orogen. This complex has generally been described as comprising ortho- and paraderived rocks that were metamorphosed in high amphibolite facies. Studies in the southern region of this complex have shown the main components: (i) orthogneisses, whose protoliths are the Mesoarchean rocks of the Santa Izabel Magmatic Suite; and (iii) migmatites. and (iv) amphibolitic and metaultramafic enclaves. U-Pb studies (LA-ICPMS and SHRIMP) performed on zircons of the paleosome in metatexites and inherited zircons in migmatites indicate crystallization ages between 3091 ± 24 and 3136 ± 8 Ma for the rocks of the Santa Izabel Magmatic Suite. Inherited zircons aged ca. 3.4 Ga in paleosomes demonstrate the influence of older continental crust in the formation of these rocks. For the Caraguatai Magmatic Suite, the alignment of zircons and monazites suggests a crystallization age around 2.6 Ga. The Rhyacian migmatites were divided into metatexites and diatexites. Diatexites were divided into: (i) discontinuous boudinated early diatexites, which are parallel to stromatic metatexites, composing the gneissic banding. These rocks have diffuse metamorphic banding and features that suggest the action of mylonitization processes; and (ii) late diatexites, forming more continuous bodies, which truncate the gneissic banding. The migmatization occurred in two stages, with time interval between ca. 2.1 Ga and 2.07 Ga. The structural framework reveal the existence of four progressive Rhyacian deformation phases (Dn to Dn

  16. Molecular characterization of covalent complexes between tissue transglutaminase and gliadin peptides

    Fleckenstein, Burkhard; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2004-01-01

    recognized by intestinal T cells from patients. Incubation of TG2 with gliadin peptides also results in the formation of covalent TG2-peptide complexes. Here we report the characterization of complexes between TG2 and two immunodominant gliadin peptides. Two types of covalent complexes were found......; the peptides are either linked via a thioester bond to the active site cysteine of TG2 or via isopeptide bonds to particular lysine residues of the enzyme. We quantified the number of gliadin peptides bound to TG2 under different conditions. After 30 min of incubation of TG2 at 1 microm with an equimolar ratio...... of peptides to TG2, approximately equal amounts of peptides were bound by thioester and isopeptide linkage. At higher peptide to TG2 ratios, more than one peptide was linked to TG2, and isopeptide bond formation dominated. The lysine residues in TG2 that act as acyl acceptors were identified by matrix...

  17. A Type-2 Block-Component-Decomposition Based 2D AOA Estimation Algorithm for an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Array

    Yu-Fei Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a two-dimensional angle of arrival (2D AOA estimation algorithm for the electromagnetic vector sensor (EMVS array based on Type-2 block component decomposition (BCD tensor modeling. Such a tensor decomposition method can take full advantage of the multidimensional structural information of electromagnetic signals to accomplish blind estimation for array parameters with higher resolution. However, existing tensor decomposition methods encounter many restrictions in applications of the EMVS array, such as the strict requirement for uniqueness conditions of decomposition, the inability to handle partially-polarized signals, etc. To solve these problems, this paper investigates tensor modeling for partially-polarized signals of an L-shaped EMVS array. The 2D AOA estimation algorithm based on rank- ( L 1 , L 2 , · BCD is developed, and the uniqueness condition of decomposition is analyzed. By means of the estimated steering matrix, the proposed algorithm can automatically achieve angle pair-matching. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the present algorithm has the advantages of both accuracy and robustness of parameter estimation. Even under the conditions of lower SNR, small angular separation and limited snapshots, the proposed algorithm still possesses better performance than subspace methods and the canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD method.

  18. Association of gliadin antibodies, HLA alleles, and schizophrenia in Cuban population patients

    José A. Galván

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several lines of evidence have suggested an interesting link between gluten ingestion and schizophrenia. For example, increased levels of gliadin and transglutaminase antibodies have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: To verify these observations we compared the prevalence of gliadin and transglutaminse antibodies, as well as the presence of the HLA alleles, HLA DQA1*0501-DQB1*02 (DQ2 and HLA-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 (DQ8, among patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. A total of 108 patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy controls were evaluated. Gliadin antibodies were determined by a visual semiquantitative assay and tissue transglutaminase antibodies were determined both by one-step immunochromatografic assay and ELISA. HLA typing was performed by PCR amplification using sequence-specific primers for each allele. Results: We found a strong association between the presence of gliadin antibodies and schizophrenia (OR 3.488; 95% CI, 1.43-8.44. However, tissue transglutaminase antibodies were not detected in either group neither by immunochromatograpic or ELISA. No significant association was found for the DQ2 or DQ8 heterodimer and the disease, but a significant positive association between schizophrenia and HLA alleles DQA1*0301 and DQB1*02 was present (OR = 2.80; 95% CI, 1.27-6.17, and OR = 2.37, 95% CI, 1.24-4.53, respectively. Conclusions: The present study showed that the presence of gliadin antibodies was not correlated with the presence of HLA DQA1*0301 or DQB1*02 alleles within the group of patients with schizophrenia. Our study replicates the findings that anti-gliadin antibodies are associated with schizophrenia but also suggests that the presence of these antibodies and the HLA alleles DQB1*02 and DQA1*0301 are independently associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia.

  19. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J.; Evans, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to α, #betta#, #betta# and #betta# gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions. (Auth.)

  20. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-08-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

  1. Microbial transglutaminase treatment in pasta-production does not affect the immunoreactivity of gliadin with celiac disease patients' sera.

    Ruh, Tobias; Ohsam, Jürgen; Pasternack, Ralf; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Kumazawa, Yoshiyuki; Hils, Martin

    2014-07-30

    The effect of microbial transglutaminase (MTG)-treatment of pasta-dough on the immunoreactivity with celiac disease patient's sera has been investigated. Modification by MTG has been proven by determination of the MTG reaction product ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine (3.63 μmol/g protein), which was not detectable in non-MTG-treated pasta. Antigenicity has been analyzed by immunoblotting and ELISA using gliadin-extracts from pasta and MTG-treated pasta. Immunoblotting showed that the antibody-population (antigliadin antibodies and antideamidated gliadin antibodies) of the sera is specific for every individual patient. Immunoblotting and ELISA showed that there is no difference in immunoreactivity of gliadin extracted from pasta and MTG-pasta. Recognition pattern and intensity in Western blot as well as antibody titer has also been identical even for sera with a high antideamidated gliadin antibody titer. These results indicate no difference between pasta-gliadin and MTG-pasta-gliadin and especially no increased deamidation in pasta-gliadin by MTG-treatment.

  2. Chain conformations of the component polymers and the microphase separation structures of homopolymer/block coplymer blends

    Torikai, Naoya; Mogi, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Yushu; Noda, Ichiro; Han, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Microdomain spacings of lamellar structures formed by styrene homopolymer/styrene-2-vinylpyridine diblock copolymer/2-vinylpyridine homopolymer blends were measured by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and single chain conformations of block copolymers in the same blend system were measured by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The molecular weight of diblock copolymers is 78K-72K, and three kinds of styrene homopolymer (S H ) and 2-vinylpyridine homopolymer (P H ) pairs were blended, their molecular weight ratios to that of host block chains were 0.17, 0.38, and 0.78, respectively. Two blend ratios of homopolymer (H)/block copolymer (B), i.e. 1/2 and 1/1 were examined. It was found that the domain spacings of all blends are larger than that of pure block copolymer and that they are increasing with increasing the molecular weight of homopolymers and/or with increasing the volume fraction of homopolymers. Further, block chains in the blends were confirmed to have almost the same chain dimension as that of block chain in pure block copolymer system in the direction parallel to the domain interface irrespective of molecular weight and volume fraction of homopolymers. (author)

  3. Usefulness of antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides in celiac disease diagnosis and follow-up.

    Volta, Umberto; Granito, Alessandro; Fiorini, Erica; Parisi, Claudia; Piscaglia, Maria; Pappas, Georgios; Muratori, Paolo; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2008-06-01

    The prevalence of the recently described deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies was compared with that of the routinely used antigliadin, antiendomysial, and tissue transglutaminase antibodies in the sera of 128 untreated celiac patients and 134 controls. Sensitivity and specificity for celiac disease were 83.6 and 90.3% for IgA and 84.4 and 98.5% for IgG antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides. The new test displayed higher diagnostic accuracy than antigliadin antibodies and, although less sensitive than antiendomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies, showed significantly higher specificity than tissue transglutaminase antibodies (P < 0.001). Persistence of peptide antibodies after gluten withdrawal was an expression of low compliance with the diet and of the lack of improvement of the intestinal mucosa. The combined use of tissue transglutaminase and deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies seems to be a very useful tool for celiac disease diagnosis. Moreover, antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides can be helpful in disease follow-up.

  4. Dynamic evolution of alpha-gliadin prolamin gene family in homeologous genomes of hexaploid wheat

    Bread wheat is an allohexaploid species containing the three closely related A, B, and D subgenomes. Homeologous Gli-2 loci located on chromosomes 6A, 6B and 6D encode complex groups of alpha-gliadin seed storage proteins that contribute to the functional properties of wheat flour, but also trigger ...

  5. Molecular cloning and variation of ω-gliadin genes from a somatic ...

    repetitive domain, which hampers cloning. Further analysis of ω-gliadins at the DNA level would provide more informa- tion to define the evolution and function of this gene family. (Hassania et al. 2008). ∗For correspondence. E-mail: fanguo2002@sdu.edu.cn. Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nevishi (syn. Thinopyrum ponticum ...

  6. Electrospun Blank Nanocoating for Improved Sustained Release Profiles from Medicated Gliadin Nanofibers

    Xinkuan Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials providing sustained release profiles are highly desired for efficacious drug delivery. Advanced nanotechnologies are useful tools for creating elaborate nanostructure-based nanomaterials to achieve the designed functional performances. In this research, a modified coaxial electrospinning was explored to fabricate a novel core-sheath nanostructure (nanofibers F2, in which a sheath drug-free gliadin layer was successfully coated on the core ketoprofen (KET-gliadin nanocomposite. A monolithic nanocomposite (nanofibers F1 that was generated through traditional blending electrospinning of core fluid was utilized as a control. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that both nanofibers F1 and F2 were linear. Transmission electron microscopy verified that nanofibers F2 featured a clear core-sheath nanostructure with a thin sheath layer about 25 nm, whereas their cores and nanofibers F1 were homogeneous KET-gliadin nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction patterns verified that, as a result of fine compatibility, KET was dispersed in gliadin in an amorphous state. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrated that the thin blank nanocoating in nanofibers F2 significantly modified drug release kinetics from a traditional exponential equation of nanofibers F1 to a zero-order controlled release model, linearly freeing 95.7 ± 4.7% of the loaded cargoes over a time period of 16 h.

  7. Electrospun Blank Nanocoating for Improved Sustained Release Profiles from Medicated Gliadin Nanofibers.

    Liu, Xinkuan; Shao, Wenyi; Luo, Mingyi; Bian, Jiayin; Yu, Deng-Guang

    2018-03-22

    Nanomaterials providing sustained release profiles are highly desired for efficacious drug delivery. Advanced nanotechnologies are useful tools for creating elaborate nanostructure-based nanomaterials to achieve the designed functional performances. In this research, a modified coaxial electrospinning was explored to fabricate a novel core-sheath nanostructure (nanofibers F2), in which a sheath drug-free gliadin layer was successfully coated on the core ketoprofen (KET)-gliadin nanocomposite. A monolithic nanocomposite (nanofibers F1) that was generated through traditional blending electrospinning of core fluid was utilized as a control. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that both nanofibers F1 and F2 were linear. Transmission electron microscopy verified that nanofibers F2 featured a clear core-sheath nanostructure with a thin sheath layer about 25 nm, whereas their cores and nanofibers F1 were homogeneous KET-gliadin nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction patterns verified that, as a result of fine compatibility, KET was dispersed in gliadin in an amorphous state. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrated that the thin blank nanocoating in nanofibers F2 significantly modified drug release kinetics from a traditional exponential equation of nanofibers F1 to a zero-order controlled release model, linearly freeing 95.7 ± 4.7% of the loaded cargoes over a time period of 16 h.

  8. Cloning and characterization of novel fast ω-gliadin genes in ...

    2015-06-02

    Jun 2, 2015 ... In this study, the novel fast u-gliadin genes were cloned from genome A of ... Wheat is one of the most important sources of food in the human diet. In the ..... This work was financially supported by the National Natural Sci-.

  9. Large Gliadin Peptides Detected in the Pancreas of NOD and Healthy Mice following Oral Administration

    Bruun, Susanne W.; Josefsen, Knud; Tanassi, Julia T

    2016-01-01

    secretion from beta cells directly. We hypothesized that gluten fragments may cross the intestinal barrier to be distributed to organs other than the gut. If present in pancreas, gliadin could interact directly with the immune system and the beta cells to initiate diabetes development. We orally...

  10. Prevention of early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

    Funda, David P.; Fundová, Petra; Hansen, A. K.; Buschard, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2014) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/09/1640; GA MZd(CZ) NS10340 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : gliadin * diabetes * diabetes 1 type * NOD mice Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  11. Gliadin, endomysial and thyroid antibodies in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA)

    Kučera, P.; Nováková, D.; Běhanová, M.; Novák, J.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Anděl, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 133, - (2003), s. 139-143 ISSN 0009-9104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/01/0933; GA AV ČR IBS5020203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 111200001 Keywords : anti-gliadin * coeliac * thyroidal Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.347, year: 2003

  12. Label-free detection of gliadin food allergen mediated by real-time apta-PCR.

    Pinto, Alessandro; Polo, Pedro Nadal; Henry, Olivier; Redondo, M Carmen Bermudo; Svobodova, Marketa; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten. The only effective treatment consists in a lifelong gluten-free diet, requiring the food industry to tightly control the gluten contents of their products. To date, several gluten quantification approaches using antibodies are available and recommended by the legal authorities, such as Codex Alimentarius. However, whilst these antibody-based tests exhibit high sensitivity and specificity, the production of antibodies inherently requires the killing of host animals and is time-consuming and relatively expensive. Aptamers are structured single-stranded nucleic acid ligands that bind with high affinity and specificity to their cognate target, and aiming for a cost-effective viable alternative to the use of antibodies. Herein, we report the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX)-based selection of a DNA aptamer against gliadin from a combinatorial DNA library and its application in a novel detection assay. Taking into account the hydrophobic nature of the gliadin target, a microtitre plate format was exploited for SELEX, where the target was immobilised via hydrophobic interactions, thus exposing aptatopes accessible for interaction with the DNA library. Evolution was followed using surface plasmon resonance, and following eight rounds of SELEX, the enriched DNA pool was cloned, sequenced and a clear consensus motif was identified. An apta-PCR assay was developed where competition for the aptamer takes place between the surface-immobilised gliadin and gliadin in the target sample, akin to an ELISA competitive format where the more target present in the sample, the less aptamer will bind to the immobilised gliadin. Following competition, any aptamer bound to the immobilised gliadin was heat-eluted and quantitatively amplified using real-time PCR, achieving a detection limit of approx. 2 nM (100 ng mL(-1)). The specificity of the selected aptamer was

  13. Effects of Gliadin consumption on the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Homeostasis in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

    Zhang, Li; Andersen, Daniel; Roager, Henrik Munch

    2017-01-01

    of an obesogenic diet. Mice were fed either a defined high-fat diet (HFD) containing 4% gliadin (n = 20), or a gliadin-free, isocaloric HFD (n = 20) for 23 weeks. Combined analysis of several parameters including insulin resistance, histology of liver and adipose tissue, intestinal microbiota in three gut...... that gliadin disturbs the intestinal environment and affects metabolic homeostasis in obese mice, suggesting a detrimental effect of gluten intake in gluten-tolerant subjects consuming a high-fat diet.......Dietary gluten causes severe disorders like celiac disease in gluten-intolerant humans. However, currently understanding of its impact in tolerant individuals is limited. Our objective was to test whether gliadin, one of the detrimental parts of gluten, would impact the metabolic effects...

  14. The PECS II block as a major analgesic component for clavicle operations: A description of 7 case reports.

    Schuitemaker R, J B; Sala-Blanch, X; Rodriguez-Pérez, C L; Mayoral R, J T; López-Pantaleon, L A; Sánchez-Cohen, A P

    2018-01-01

    Clavicle fractures correspond to 35% of traumatic fractures of the shoulder girdle. Regional anaesthesia has shown better analgesic results than systemic treatment for perioperative management. Innervation of the clavicle is complex, at present its knowledge raises controversy. The lateral pectoral nerve through the innervating musculature predominantly participates in the lateral and anterior part of the clavicle. The following report of 7 cases describes the effective postoperative analgesia of modified PEC II block in patients with middle third clavicle fracture or acromioclavicular dislocation who underwent a modified PEC II block for postoperative pain management, in the context of a multimodal analgesia. The potential advantage of this management over other analgesic procedures should be evaluated in specific clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Specificity analysis of anti-gliadin mouse monoclonal antibodies used for detection of gliadin in food for gluten-free diet

    Sánchez, Daniel; Tučková, Ludmila; Burkhard, M.; Plicka, J.; Mothes, T.; Hoffmanová, I.; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, - (2007), s. 2627-2632 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA AV ČR IAA500200709; GA ČR GP310/04/P242; GA ČR GA310/05/2245; GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA MZe 1B53002; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : antibody specificity * gliadin * celiac disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.532, year: 2007

  16. Gliadin and glutenin polymorphism in durum wheat landraces and breeding varieties of Azerbaijan

    Sadigov-Baykishi Hamlet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat genotypes including 7 landraces and 17 breeding varieties were studied. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under acidic conditions of pH 3.1 was used to study gliadin and glutenin polymorphisms. In total, 32 gliadin and 8 high molecular weight glutenin alleles were identified. The contribution of B genome (58.5% to the allelic variation of durum wheat varieties was higher than of A genome. The cluster analysis delineated genotypes into four main clusters. According to cluster analysis, legitimacy identifying the distribution of botanical varieties through the tree was observed. The study confirms the suitability of biochemical markers for cultivar identification and genetic relation study in durum wheat genotypes.

  17. Monitoring of daily gliadin intake in patients on gluten-free diets

    Gabrovská, D.; Kocna, P.; Rysová, J.; Borovská, Dana; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2011), s. 5-17 ISSN 1214-6994 R&D Projects: GA MZe 1B53002; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Gliadin * Gluten -free diet Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  18. The γ-gliadin-like γ-prolamin genes in the tribe Triticeae

    Supplementary data: The γ-gliadin-like γ-prolamin genes in the tribe Triticeae. Peng-Fei Qi, Cheng-Xing Le, Zhao Wang, Yu-Bin Liu, Qing Chen, Zhen-Zhen Wei, Bin-Jie Xu, Zheng-Yuan Wei,. Shou-Fen Dai, Yu-Ming Wei and You-Liang Zheng. J. Genet. 93, 35–41. Table 1. The γ-prolamin genes of diploid Triticeae species.

  19. Small intestine in lymphocytic and collagenous colitis: mucosal morphology, permeability, and secretory immunity to gliadin.

    Moayyedi, P; O'Mahony, S; Jackson, P; Lynch, D A; Dixon, M F; Axon, A T

    1997-01-01

    There is a recognised association between the "microscopic" forms of colitis and coeliac disease. There are a variety of subtle small intestinal changes in patients with "latent" gluten sensitivity, namely high intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) counts, abnormal mucosal permeability, and high levels of secretory IgA and IgM antibody to gliadin. These changes have hitherto not been investigated in microscopic colitis. Nine patients (four collagenous, five lymphocytic colitis) with normal villous...

  20. Preparation of Ulex europaeus lectin-gliadin nanoparticle conjugates and their interaction with gastrointestinal mucus.

    Ezpeleta, I; Arangoa, M A; Irache, J M; Stainmesse, S; Chabenat, C; Popineau, Y; Orecchioni, A M

    1999-11-25

    One approach to improve the bioavailability and efficiency of drugs consists of the association of a ligand (i.e. lectins), showing affinity for biological structures located on the mucosa surfaces, to nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. In this context, Ulex europaeus lectin-gliadin nanoparticle conjugates (UE-GNP) were prepared with the aim of evaluating their in vitro bioadhesive properties. The lectin was fixed by a covalent procedure to gliadin nanoparticles by a two-stage carbodiimide method. Typically, the amount of bound lectin was calculated to be approximately 15 microg lectin/mg nanoparticle, which represented a coupling efficiency of approximately 16% of the initial lectin concentration. In addition, the activity of these conjugates was tested with bovine submaxillary gland mucin (BSM) and the level of binding to this mucin was always much greater with UE-GNP than with controls (gliadin nanoparticles). However, the presence of 50 micromol fucose, which is the reported specific sugar for U. europaeus lectin, specifically inhibited the activity of these conjugates and, therefore, the UE-GNP binding to BSM was attenuated by 70%. These results clearly showed that the activity and specificity of U. europaeus lectin was preserved after covalent coupling to these biodegradable carriers.

  1. Functional properties of bioplastics made from wheat gliadins modified with cinnamaldehyde.

    Balaguer, M Pau; Gómez-Estaca, Joaquín; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2011-06-22

    Cinnamaldehyde is a naturally occurring α,β-unsaturated aldehyde. Its potential as a natural cross-linker to improve the physical performance of cast wheat gliadin films was evaluated. The cross-linking reaction was found to be dependent on the pH of the reaction medium, with pH 2 as the optimum. The water resistance (weight loss after immersion), mechanical properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break), thermal properties (T(g) and decomposition behavior), optical properties and morphology of films were evaluated. Cross-linked films showed high transparency, maintained their integrity after immersion, and displayed significant improvements in tensile strength and Young's modulus without impairment of their elongation properties. These effects, which were proportional to the amount of cinnamaldehyde added, highlight the possible formation of intermolecular covalent bonds between "monomeric" gliadins, leading to a polymerized network. Thus, this treatment could provide a new alternative to the toxic cross-linkers commonly employed and so extend the use of gliadin films.

  2. Role of intestinal bacteria in gliadin-induced changes in intestinal mucosa: study in germ-free rats.

    Jana Cinova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Celiac disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that is induced by dietary wheat gluten proteins (gliadins in genetically predisposed individuals. The overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and infections has been suggested to contribute to CD pathogenesis. We aimed to study the effects of gliadin and various intestinal bacterial strains on mucosal barrier integrity, gliadin translocation, and cytokine production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Changes in gut mucosa were assessed in the intestinal loops of inbred Wistar-AVN rats that were reared under germ-free conditions in the presence of various intestinal bacteria (enterobacteria and bifidobacteria isolated from CD patients and healthy children, respectively and CD-triggering agents (gliadin and IFN-γ by histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and a rat cytokine antibody array. Adhesion of the bacterial strains to the IEC-6 rat cell line was evaluated in vitro. Gliadin fragments alone or together with the proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN-γ significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the small intestine; this effect was more pronounced in the presence of Escherichia coli CBL2 and Shigella CBD8. Shigella CBD8 and IFN-γ induced the highest mucin secretion and greatest impairment in tight junctions and, consequently, translocation of gliadin fragments into the lamina propria. Shigella CBD8 and E. coli CBL2 strongly adhered to IEC-6 epithelial cells. The number of goblet cells in small intestine increased by the simultaneous incubation of Bifidobacterium bifidum IATA-ES2 with gliadin, IFN-γ and enterobacteria. B. bifidum IATA-ES2 also enhanced the production of chemotactic factors and inhibitors of metalloproteinases, which can contribute to gut mucosal protection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the composition of the intestinal microbiota affects the permeability of the intestinal mucosa

  3. The effect of different component ratios in block polymers and processing conditions on electrodeposition efficiency onto titanium

    Fukuhara, Yusuke; Kyuzo, Megumi [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Yusuke [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Nagai, Akiko [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Chen, Peng [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Hanawa, Takao, E-mail: hanawa.met@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MPC polymers with an ability of electrodeposition were synthesized. • MPC polymers were immobilized on titanium substrates by electrodeposition. • Immobilization by electrodeposition of MPC polymer decreased water contact angle and protein adsorption. • Length of MPC unit and electrodeposition time did not influence water contact angle and protein adsorption. - Abstract: 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers for electrodeposition to titanium surfaces were synthesized. The polymers were block-type copolymers composed of a poly(MPC) segment and a poly(2-aminoethylmethacrylate (AEMA)) segment, which could electronically adsorb to a titanium oxide film on the titanium surface. The polymer was synthesized as expected by nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. In a 0.26 mmol L{sup −1} PMbA solution adjusted to pH 11, −3.0 V (vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode) was applied to a titanium substrate for 300 s. We evaluated the effects of the molecular structure of poly(MPC-block-AEMA) (PMbA) with a different polymerization degree of MPC unit, whereas the polymerization degree of the AEMA units was fixed. The 15-min electrodeposition of PMbA100 was the most efficient condition in this study. On the other hand, the results of the water contact angle and the amount of adsorbed protein did not change, even when altering the MPC unit number and electrodeposition time. This indicates that the immobilization by electrodeposition of PMbA is important for the inhibition of protein adsorption, while the polymerization degree of the MPC unit and the electrodeposition time do not influence them. This study will enhance the understanding of effective polymer structures for electrodeposition and electrodeposition conditions.

  4. Reduced-Gliadin Wheat Bread: An Alternative to the Gluten-Free Diet for Consumers Suffering Gluten-Related Pathologies

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Altamirano-Fortoul, Rossana; Real, Ana; Comino, Isabel; Sousa, Carolina; Rosell, Cristina M.; Barro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free) that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world. PMID:24621595

  5. Variations and classification of toxic epitopes related to celiac disease among α-gliadin genes from four Aegilops genomes.

    Li, Jie; Wang, Shunli; Li, Shanshan; Ge, Pei; Li, Xiaohui; Ma, Wujun; Zeller, F J; Hsam, Sai L K; Yan, Yueming

    2012-07-01

    The α-gliadins are associated with human celiac disease. A total of 23 noninterrupted full open reading frame α-gliadin genes and 19 pseudogenes were cloned and sequenced from C, M, N, and U genomes of four diploid Aegilops species. Sequence comparison of α-gliadin genes from Aegilops and Triticum species demonstrated an existence of extensive allelic variations in Gli-2 loci of the four Aegilops genomes. Specific structural features were found including the compositions and variations of two polyglutamine domains (QI and QII) and four T cell stimulatory toxic epitopes. The mean numbers of glutamine residues in the QI domain in C and N genomes and the QII domain in C, N, and U genomes were much higher than those in Triticum genomes, and the QI domain in C and N genomes and the QII domain in C, M, N, and U genomes displayed greater length variations. Interestingly, the types and numbers of four T cell stimulatory toxic epitopes in α-gliadins from the four Aegilops genomes were significantly less than those from Triticum A, B, D, and their progenitor genomes. Relationships between the structural variations of the two polyglutamine domains and the distributions of four T cell stimulatory toxic epitopes were found, resulting in the α-gliadin genes from the Aegilops and Triticum genomes to be classified into three groups.

  6. Diversification of the celiac disease α-gliadin complex in wheat: a 33-mer peptide with six overlapping epitopes, evolved following polyploidization.

    Ozuna, Carmen V; Iehisa, Julio C M; Giménez, María J; Alvarez, Juan B; Sousa, Carolina; Barro, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    The gluten proteins from wheat, barley and rye are responsible both for celiac disease (CD) and for non-celiac gluten sensitivity, two pathologies affecting up to 6-8% of the human population worldwide. The wheat α-gliadin proteins contain three major CD immunogenic peptides: p31-43, which induces the innate immune response; the 33-mer, formed by six overlapping copies of three highly stimulatory epitopes; and an additional DQ2.5-glia-α3 epitope which partially overlaps with the 33-mer. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing of α-gliadin genes from diploid and polyploid wheat provided six types of α-gliadins (named 1-6) with strong differences in their frequencies in diploid and polyploid wheat, and in the presence and abundance of these CD immunogenic peptides. Immunogenic variants of the p31-43 peptide were found in most of the α-gliadins. Variants of the DQ2.5-glia-α3 epitope were associated with specific types of α-gliadins. Remarkably, only type 1 α-gliadins contained 33-mer epitopes. Moreover, the full immunodominant 33-mer fragment was only present in hexaploid wheat at low abundance, probably as the result of allohexaploidization events from subtype 1.2 α-gliadins found only in Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat. Type 3 α-gliadins seem to be the ancestral type as they are found in most of the α-gliadin-expressing Triticeae species. These findings are important for reducing the incidence of CD by the breeding/selection of wheat varieties with low stimulatory capacity of T cells. Moreover, advanced genome-editing techniques (TALENs, CRISPR) will be easier to implement on the small group of α-gliadins containing only immunogenic peptides. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dynamic trafficking of wheat γ-gliadin and of its structural domains in tobacco cells, studied with fluorescent protein fusions

    Francin-Allami, Mathilde; Saumonneau, Amélie; Lavenant, Laurence; Bouder, Axelle; Sparkes, Imogen; Hawes, Chris; Popineau, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Prolamins, the main storage proteins of wheat seeds, are synthesized and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the endosperm cells, where they accumulate in protein bodies (PBs) and are then exported to the storage vacuole. The mechanisms leading to these events are unresolved. To investigate this unconventional trafficking pathway, wheat γ-gliadin and its isolated repeated N-terminal and cysteine-rich C-terminal domains were fused to fluorescent proteins and expressed in tobacco leaf epidermal cells. The results indicated that γ-gliadin and both isolated domains were able to be retained and accumulated as protein body-like structures (PBLS) in the ER, suggesting that tandem repeats are not the only sequence involved in γ-gliadin ER retention and PBLS formation. The high actin-dependent mobility of γ-gliadin PBLS is also reported, and it is demonstrated that most of them do not co-localize with Golgi body or pre-vacuolar compartment markers. Both γ-gliadin domains are found in the same PBLS when co-expressed, which is most probably due to their ability to interact with each other, as indicated by the yeast two-hybrid and FRET-FLIM experiments. Moreover, when stably expressed in BY-2 cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to γ-gliadin and its isolated domains were retained in the ER for several days before being exported to the vacuole in a Golgi-dependent manner, and degraded, leading to the release of the GFP ‘core’. Taken together, the results show that tobacco cells are a convenient model to study the atypical wheat prolamin trafficking with fluorescent protein fusions. PMID:21617248

  8. Gliadin peptides induce tissue transglutaminase activation and ER-stress through Ca2+ mobilization in Caco-2 cells.

    Ivana Caputo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD is an intestinal inflammatory condition that develops in genetically susceptible individuals after exposure to dietary wheat gliadin. The role of post-translational modifications of gliadin catalyzed by tissue transglutaminase (tTG seems to play a crucial role in CD. However, it remains to be established how and where tTG is activated in vivo. We have investigated whether gliadin peptides modulate intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis and tTG activity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied Ca(2+ homeostasis in Caco-2 cells by single cell microfluorimetry. Under our conditions, A-gliadin peptides 31-43 and 57-68 rapidly mobilized Ca(2+ from intracellular stores. Specifically, peptide 31-43 mobilized Ca(2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria, whereas peptide 57-68 mobilized Ca(2+ only from mitochondria. We also found that gliadin peptide-induced Ca(2+ mobilization activates the enzymatic function of intracellular tTG as revealed by in situ tTG activity using the tTG substrate pentylamine-biotin. Moreover, we demonstrate that peptide 31-43, but not peptide 57-68, induces an increase of tTG expression. Finally, we monitored the expression of glucose-regulated protein-78 and of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-homologous protein, which are two biochemical markers of ER-stress, by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. We found that chronic administration of peptide 31-43, but not of peptide 57-68, induces the expression of both genes. CONCLUSIONS: By inducing Ca(2+ mobilization from the ER, peptide 31-43 could promote an ER-stress pathway that may be relevant in CD pathogenesis. Furthermore, peptides 31-43 and 57-68, by activating intracellular tTG, could alter inflammatory key regulators, and induce deamidation of immunogenic peptides and gliadin-tTG crosslinking in enterocytes and specialized antigen-presenting cells.

  9. Effect of gluten free diet on immune response to gliadin in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

    Caio, Giacomo; Volta, Umberto; Tovoli, Francesco; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2014-02-13

    Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a syndrome characterized by gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurring in a few hours/days after gluten and/or other wheat protein ingestion and rapidly improving after exclusion of potential dietary triggers. There are no established laboratory markers for non-celiac gluten sensitivity, although a high prevalence of first generation anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class has been reported in this condition. This study was designed to characterize the effect of the gluten-free diet on anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Anti-gliadin antibodies of both IgG and IgA classes were assayed by ELISA in 44 non-celiac gluten sensitivity and 40 celiac disease patients after 6 months of gluten-free diet. The majority of non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients (93.2%) showed the disappearance of anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class after 6 months of gluten-free diet; in contrast, 16/40 (40%) of celiac patients displayed the persistence of these antibodies after gluten withdrawal. In non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients anti-gliadin antibodies IgG persistence after gluten withdrawal was significantly correlated with the low compliance to gluten-free diet and a mild clinical response. Anti-gliadin antibodies of the IgG class disappear in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity reflecting a strict compliance to the gluten-free diet and a good clinical response to gluten withdrawal.

  10. Gluten exacerbates IgA nephropathy in humanized mice through gliadin-CD89 interaction.

    Papista, Christina; Lechner, Sebastian; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; LeStang, Marie-Bénédicte; Abbad, Lilia; Bex-Coudrat, Julie; Pillebout, Evangéline; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Jablonski, Mathieu; Flamant, Martin; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Yiangou, Minas; Berthelot, Laureline; Monteiro, Renato C

    2015-08-01

    IgA1 complexes containing deglycosylated IgA1, IgG autoantibodies, and a soluble form of the IgA receptor (sCD89), are hallmarks of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Food antigens, notably gluten, are associated with increased mucosal response and IgAN onset, but their implication in the pathology remains unknown. Here, an IgAN mouse model expressing human IgA1 and CD89 was used to examine the role of gluten in IgAN. Mice were given a gluten-free diet for three generations to produce gluten sensitivity, and then challenged for 30 days with a gluten diet. A gluten-free diet resulted in a decrease of mesangial IgA1 deposits, transferrin 1 receptor, and transglutaminase 2 expression, as well as hematuria. Mice on a gluten-free diet lacked IgA1-sCD89 complexes in serum and kidney eluates. Disease severity depended on gluten and CD89, as shown by reappearance of IgAN features in mice on a gluten diet and by direct binding of the gluten-subcomponent gliadin to sCD89. A gluten diet exacerbated intestinal IgA1 secretion, inflammation, and villous atrophy, and increased serum IgA1 anti-gliadin antibodies, which correlated with proteinuria in mice and patients. Moreover, early treatment of humanized mice with a gluten-free diet prevented mesangial IgA1 deposits and hematuria. Thus, gliadin-CD89 interaction may aggravate IgAN development through induction of IgA1-sCD89 complex formation and a mucosal immune response. Hence, early-stage treatment with a gluten-free diet could be beneficial to prevent disease.

  11. Gliadin fragments induce phenotypic and functional maturation of human dendritic cells

    Palová-Jelínková, Lenka; Rožková, D.; Pecharová, Barbara; Bártová, J.; Šedivá, A.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Spíšek, R.; Tučková, Ludmila

    -, - (2005), s. 7038-7045 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2245; GA ČR GD310/03/H147; GA AV ČR IAA5020210; GA AV ČR KJB5020407; GA AV ČR IBS5020203; GA MZd NI7542; GA MZd NI7537 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : gliadin * celiac * dentritic cells Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.387, year: 2005

  12. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs

  13. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Nerve Blocks

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  15. Portable gliadin-immunochip for contamination control on the food production chain.

    Chiriacò, Maria Serena; de Feo, Francesco; Primiceri, Elisabetta; Monteduro, Anna Grazia; de Benedetto, Giuseppe Egidio; Pennetta, Antonio; Rinaldi, Ross; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common digestive disorders caused by an abnormal immune reaction to gluten. So far there are no available therapies, the only solution is a strict gluten-free diet, which however could be very challenging as gluten can be hidden in many food products. Furthermore an additional problem is related to cross-contamination of nominal gluten-free foods with gluten-based ones during manufacturing. Here we propose a lab on chip platform as a powerful tool to help food manufacturers to evaluate the real amount of gluten in their products by an accurate in-situ control of the production chain and maybe to specify the real gluten content in packages labeling. Our portable gliadin-immunochips, based on an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy transduction method, were first calibrated and then validated for both liquid and solid food matrixes by analyzing different beers and flours. The high specificity of our assay was also demonstrated by performing control experiments on rice and potatoes flours containing prolamin-like proteins. We achieved limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm for gliadin that is 20 times lower than the worldwide limit established for gluten-free food while the method of analysis is faster and cheaper than currently employed ELISA-based methods. Moreover our results on food samples were validated through a mass spectrometry standard analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Gliadin consumption on the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Homeostasis in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

    Zhang, Li; Andersen, Daniel; Roager, Henrik Munch

    2017-01-01

    Dietary gluten causes severe disorders like celiac disease in gluten-intolerant humans. However, currently understanding of its impact in tolerant individuals is limited. Our objective was to test whether gliadin, one of the detrimental parts of gluten, would impact the metabolic effects of an ob...

  17. Gliadin affects glucose homeostasis and intestinal metagenome in C57BL/6 mice fed and high-fat diet

    Zhang, Li; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Bahl, Martin Iain

    time, with a borderline significance of higher HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) after 22 weeks. Sequencing of the V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that gliadin changed the abundance of 81 bacterial taxa, separating the intestinal microbial profile...

  18. Alpha-gliadin genes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat contain different sets of celiac disease epitopes

    Herpen, van T.W.J.M.; Goryunova-Svetlana, V.; Schoot, van der J.; Mitreva, M.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Schenk, M.F.; Veelen, van P.; Koning, de F.; Soest, van L.J.M.; Vosman, B.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important staple food. However, wheat gluten proteins cause celiac disease (CD) in 0.5 to 1% of the general population. Among these proteins, the a-gliadins contain several peptides that are associated to the disease. Results - We obtained 230

  19. Axial strain localization of CuCrZr tubes during manufacturing of ITER-like mono-block W/Cu components using HIP

    Zhao, S.X.; Peng, L.J.; Li, Q.; Wang, W.J.; Wei, R.; Qin, S.G.; Shi, Y.L.; Chang, S.P.; Xu, Y.; Liu, G.H.; Wang, T.J.; Luo, G.-N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Axial cracking and denting of CuCrZr tubes were observed. • Annealing the as-received tubes can alleviate cracking. • Denting results in the formation bonding flaws at the Cu/CuCrZr interfaces. - Abstract: Two forms of axial strain localization of CuCrZr tubes, i.e., cracking and denting, were observed during the manufacturing of ITER-like mono-block W/Cu components for EAST employing hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Microscopic investigations indicate that the occurrence of axial strain localization correlates to the heavily deformed Cu grains and elongated Cr-rich precipitates as well as highly anisotropic microstructures, which impair the circumferential ductility. Annealing the as-received tubes at 600 °C alleviates cracking due to partial recrystallization of Cu grains. However, the annealed tubes are still sensitive to wall thinning (caused by non-uniform polishing or tube bending), which results in denting. Denting may cause bonding flaws at CuCrZr/Cu interfaces and the underlying mechanisms are discussed. To some extent, denting seems do not affect the high heat flux performance of components. In this paper, we demonstrate that testing only the axial mechanical properties is not enough for manufacturers who use HIP or hot radial pressing technologies, especially for those anisotropic tubes

  20. Four-Component Relativistic Density-Functional Theory Calculations of Nuclear Spin-Rotation Constants: Relativistic Effects in p-Block Hydrides.

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Demissie, Taye B; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-08-11

    We present an implementation of the nuclear spin-rotation (SR) constants based on the relativistic four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. This formalism has been implemented in the framework of the Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham theory, allowing assessment of both pure and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. In the density-functional theory (DFT) implementation of the response equations, a noncollinear generalized gradient approximation (GGA) has been used. The present approach enforces a restricted kinetic balance condition for the small-component basis at the integral level, leading to very efficient calculations of the property. We apply the methodology to study relativistic effects on the spin-rotation constants by performing calculations on XHn (n = 1-4) for all elements X in the p-block of the periodic table and comparing the effects of relativity on the nuclear SR tensors to that observed for the nuclear magnetic shielding tensors. Correlation effects as described by the density-functional theory are shown to be significant for the spin-rotation constants, whereas the differences between the use of GGA and hybrid density functionals are much smaller. Our calculated relativistic spin-rotation constants at the DFT level of theory are only in fair agreement with available experimental data. It is shown that the scaling of the relativistic effects for the spin-rotation constants (varying between Z(3.8) and Z(4.5)) is as strong as for the chemical shieldings but with a much smaller prefactor.

  1. Macrophage-mediated gliadin degradation and concomitant IL-27 production drive IL-10- and IFN-γ-secreting Tr1-like-cell differentiation in a murine model for gluten tolerance.

    van Leeuwen, M A; Costes, L M M; van Berkel, L A; Simons-Oosterhuis, Y; du Pré, M F; Kozijn, A E; Raatgeep, H C; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, D J; van Rooijen, N; Koning, F; Samsom, J N

    2017-05-01

    Celiac disease is caused by inflammatory T-cell responses against the insoluble dietary protein gliadin. We have shown that, in humanized mice, oral tolerance to deamidated chymotrypsin-digested gliadin (CT-TG2-gliadin) is driven by tolerogenic interferon (IFN)-γ- and interleukin (IL)-10-secreting type 1 regulatory T-like cells (Tr1-like cells) generated in the spleen but not in the mesenteric lymph nodes. We aimed to uncover the mechanisms underlying gliadin-specific Tr1-like-cell differentiation and hypothesized that proteolytic gliadin degradation by splenic macrophages is a decisive step in this process. In vivo depletion of macrophages caused reduced differentiation of splenic IFN-γ- and IL-10-producing Tr1-like cells after CT-TG2-gliadin but not gliadin peptide feed. Splenic macrophages, rather than dendritic cells, constitutively expressed increased mRNA levels of the endopeptidase Cathepsin D; macrophage depletion significantly reduced splenic Cathepsin D expression in vivo and Cathepsin D efficiently degraded recombinant γ-gliadin in vitro. In response to CT-TG2-gliadin uptake, macrophages enhanced the expression of Il27p28, a cytokine that favored differentiation of gliadin-specific Tr1-like cells in vitro, and was previously reported to increase Cathepsin D activity. Conversely, IL-27 neutralization in vivo inhibited splenic IFN-γ- and IL-10-secreting Tr1-like-cell differentiation after CT-TG2-gliadin feed. Our data infer that endopeptidase mediated gliadin degradation by macrophages and concomitant IL-27 production drive differentiation of splenic gliadin-specific Tr1-like cells.

  2. Impact of food processing and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on gliadin immunoreactivity in rolls.

    Brzozowski, Bartosz

    2018-07-01

    The enzymatic modification of wheat proteins during dough fermentation and its digestion as supported by peptidases of microbiological origin can result in the degradation of important peptides in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease. However, baking bread and the high temperature associated with this could change the physicochemical and immunological properties of proteins. Thermal changes in the spatial structure of proteins and their hydrolysis can lead to a masking or degrading of immunoreactive peptides. The addition of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP), comprising peptidases isolated from Lactobacillus acidophilus 5e2 (LA) or transglutaminase (TG) in the course of fermentation, decreases its immunoreactivity by 83.9%, 51.9% and 18.5%, respectively. An analysis of the fractional composition of gliadins revealed that γ- and ω-gliadins are the proteins most susceptible to enzymatic modification. Hydrolysis of wheat storage proteins with PEP and LA reduces the content of αβ-, γ- and ω-gliadins by 13.7%, 60.2% and 41.9% for PEP and by 22.1%, 43.5% and 36.9% for LA, respectively. Cross-linking of proteins with TG or their hydrolysis by PEP and LA peptidases during the process of forming wheat dough, followed by digesting bread samples with PEP and LA peptidases, decreases the immunoreactivity of bread hydrolysates from 2.4% to 0.02%. The content of peptide detected in polypeptide sequences is 263.4 ± 3.3, 30.9 ± 1.5 and 7.9 ± 0.4 mg kg -1 in samples of hydrolysates of bread digested with PEP, as produced from dough modified by TG, PEP and LA, respectively. Enzymatic pre-modification of proteins during the process of dough fermentation decreases their immunoreactive potential, such that fewer peptides recognised by R5 antibodies are released during the digestion process from the bread matrix. Immunoreactive peptides are degraded more effectively when digestive enzymes are supported by the addition of PEP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017

  3. Silencing of omega-5 gliadins in transgenic wheat eliminates a major source of environmental variability and improves dough mixing properties of flour.

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Seabourn, Bradford W

    2014-12-24

    The end-use quality of wheat flour varies as a result of the growth conditions of the plant. Among the wheat gluten proteins, the omega-5 gliadins have been identified as a major source of environmental variability, increasing in proportion in grain from plants that receive fertilizer or are subjected to high temperatures during grain development. The omega-5 gliadins also have been associated with the food allergy wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Recently, transgenic lines with reduced levels of omega-5 gliadins were developed using RNA interference (RNAi). These lines make it possible to determine whether changes in the levels of omega-5 gliadins in response to environmental conditions and agronomic inputs may be responsible for changes in flour end-use quality. Two transgenic wheat lines and a non-transgenic control were grown under a controlled temperature regimen with or without post-anthesis fertilizer and the protein composition of the resulting flour was analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In one transgenic line, all 2-DE spots identified as omega-5 gliadins were substantially reduced without effects on other proteins. In the other transgenic line, the omega-5 gliadins were absent and there was a partial reduction in the levels of the omega-1,2 gliadins and the omega-1,2 chain-terminating gliadins as well as small changes in several other proteins. With the exception of the omega gliadins, the non-transgenic control and the transgenic plants showed similar responses to the fertilizer treatment. Protein contents of flour were determined by the fertilizer regimen and were similar in control and transgenic samples produced under each regimen while both mixing time and mixing tolerance were improved in flour from transgenic lines when plants received post-anthesis fertilizer. The data indicate that omega-5 gliadins have a negative effect on flour quality and suggest that changes in quality with the growth

  4. Gliadin stimulation of murine macrophage inflammatory gene expression and intestinal permeability are MyD88-dependent: role of the innate immune response in Celiac disease.

    Thomas, Karen E; Sapone, Anna; Fasano, Alessio; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2006-02-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of TLR signaling in intestinal homeostasis. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered in susceptible individuals by the ingestion of gliadin-containing grains. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that gliadin initiates this response by stimulating the innate immune response to increase intestinal permeability and by up-regulating macrophage proinflammatory gene expression and cytokine production. To this end, intestinal permeability and the release of zonulin (an endogenous mediator of gut permeability) in vitro, as well as proinflammatory gene expression and cytokine release by primary murine macrophage cultures, were measured. Gliadin and its peptide derivatives, 33-mer and p31-43, were found to be potent inducers of both a zonulin-dependent increase in intestinal permeability and macrophage proinflammatory gene expression and cytokine secretion. Gliadin-induced zonulin release, increased intestinal permeability, and cytokine production were dependent on myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), a key adapter molecule in the TLR/IL-1R signaling pathways, but were neither TLR2- nor TLR4-dependent. Our data support the following model for the innate immune response to gliadin in the initiation of CD. Gliadin interaction with the intestinal epithelium increases intestinal permeability through the MyD88-dependent release of zonulin that, in turn, enables paracellular translocation of gliadin and its subsequent interaction with macrophages within the intestinal submucosa. There, the interaction of gliadin with macrophages elicits a MyD88-dependent proinflammatory cytokine milieu that facilitates the interaction of T cells with APCs, leading ultimately to the Ag-specific adaptive immune response seen in patients with CD.

  5. Biochemical properties of bioplastics made from wheat gliadins cross-linked with cinnamaldehyde.

    Balaguer, M Pau; Gómez-Estaca, Joaquín; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2011-12-28

    The aim of this work has been to study the modification of gliadin films with cinnamaldehyde as a potential cross-linker agent. The molecular weight profile and cross-linking density showed that cinnamaldehyde increased reticulation in the resulting films. The participation of free amino groups of the protein in the newly created entanglements could be a possible mechanism of connection between the polypeptidic chains. The combination of a Schiff base and a Michael addition is a feasible approach to understanding this mechanism. The protein solubility in different media pointed to lower participation by both noncovalent and disulfide bonds in stabilizing the structure of the cross-linked films. The new covalent bonds formed by the cinnamaldehyde treatment hampered water absorption and weight loss, leading to more water-resistant matrices which had not disintegrated after 5 months. The properties of this novel bioplastic could be modified to suit the intended application by using cinnamaldehyde, a naturally occurring compound.

  6. Dynamics of genetic variation at gliadin-coding loci in bread wheat cultivars developed in small grains research center (Kragujevac during last 35 years

    Novosljska-Dragovič Aleksandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple alleles of gliadin-coding loci are well-known genetic markers of common wheat genotypes. Based on analysis of gliadin patterns in common wheat cultivars developed at the Small Grains Research Center in Kragujevac dynamics of genetic variability at gliadin-coding loci has been surveyed for the period of 35 years. It was shown that long-term breeding of the wheat cultivars involved gradual replacement of ancient alleles for those widely spread in some regions in the world, which belong to well-known cultivars-donor of some important traits. Developing cultivars whose pedigree involved much new foreign genetic material has increased genetic diversity as well as has changed frequency of alleles of gliadin-coding loci. So we can conclude that the genetic profile of modern Serbian cultivars has changed considerably. Genetic formula of gliadin was made for each the cultivar studied. The most frequent alleles of gliadin-coding loci among modern cultivars should be of great interest of breeders because these alleles are probably linked with genes that confer advantage to their carriers at present.

  7. Alpha-gliadin genes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat contain different sets of celiac disease epitopes

    van Veelen Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum is an important staple food. However, wheat gluten proteins cause celiac disease (CD in 0.5 to 1% of the general population. Among these proteins, the α-gliadins contain several peptides that are associated to the disease. Results We obtained 230 distinct α-gliadin gene sequences from severaldiploid wheat species representing the ancestral A, B, and D genomes of the hexaploid bread wheat. The large majority of these sequences (87% contained an internal stop codon. All α-gliadin sequences could be distinguished according to the genome of origin on the basis of sequence similarity, of the average length of the polyglutamine repeats, and of the differences in the presence of four peptides that have been identified as T cell stimulatory epitopes in CD patients through binding to HLA-DQ2/8. By sequence similarity, α-gliadins from the public database of hexaploid T. aestivum could be assigned directly to chromosome 6A, 6B, or 6D. T. monococcum (A genome sequences, as well as those from chromosome 6A of bread wheat, almost invariably contained epitope glia-α9 and glia-α20, but never the intact epitopes glia-α and glia-α2. A number of sequences from T. speltoides, as well as a number of sequences fromchromosome 6B of bread wheat, did not contain any of the four T cell epitopes screened for. The sequences from T. tauschii (D genome, as well as those from chromosome 6D of bread wheat, were found to contain all of these T cell epitopes in variable combinations per gene. The differences in epitope composition resulted mainly from point mutations. These substitutions appeared to be genome specific. Conclusion Our analysis shows that α-gliadin sequences from the three genomes of bread wheat form distinct groups. The four known T cell stimulatory epitopes are distributed non-randomly across the sequences, indicating that the three genomes contribute differently to epitope content. A systematic

  8. Deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies as a routine test for celiac disease: a prospective analysis.

    Volta, Umberto; Granito, Alessandro; Parisi, Claudia; Fabbri, Angela; Fiorini, Erica; Piscaglia, Maria; Tovoli, Francesco; Grasso, Valentina; Muratori, Paolo; Pappas, Georgios; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    This study was designed to establish whether deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies (DGP-AGA) could improve the serologic workup for celiac disease (CD). The best serologic approach for CD screening is currently based on the combined detection of tissue transglutaminase (tTGA), endomysial (EmA), and gliadin antibodies (AGA). One hundred forty-four consecutive patients with gastrointestinal and extraintestinal signs suggestive for CD were investigated using serologic tests, that is, IgG and IgA DGP-AGA, IgA tTGA, IgA EmA, and duodenal biopsy. Forty-eight out of 144 patients (33%) had CD with different severity of villous atrophy. IgA tTGA showed 93.7% sensitivity compared with 91.6% for IgA EmA, 84.3% for IgA DGP-AGA, and 82.3% for IgG DGP-AGA. Of the 3 cases negative for IgA tTGA, IgA EmA, and IgA DGP-AGA, 2 had total IgA deficiency, although both were positive for IgG DGP-AGA. IgG DGP-AGA showed a very high specificity for CD (98.9%), not only superior to IgA DGP-AGA (79.8%), but also to IgA tTGA (96.6%) and very close to IgA EmA (100%). Our prospective study shows that the combined search for IgA tTGA and IgG DGP-AGA provides the best diagnostic accuracy for CD, allowing the identification of all CD cases---except one---with a very high specificity. The serologic workup for CD screening could be significantly improved by the routine introduction of IgG DGP-AGA together with IgA tTGA, thus reducing the number of tests and with an obvious advantage in terms of cost-efficacy.

  9. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin. The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.

  10. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Barro, Francisco; Rosell, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin). The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.

  11. Prolidase is a critical enzyme for complete gliadin digestion in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Tereshchenkova, Valeriia F; Goptar, Irina A; Zhuzhikov, Dmitry P; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Oppert, Brenda; Filippova, Irina Yu; Elpidina, Elena N

    2017-08-01

    Prolidase is a proline-specific metallopeptidase that cleaves imidodipeptides with C-terminal Pro residue. Prolidase was purified and characterized from the Tenebrio molitor larval midgut. The enzyme was localized in the soluble fraction of posterior midgut tissues, corresponding to a predicted cytoplasmic localization of prolidase according to the structure of the mRNA transcript. Expression of genes encoding prolidase and the major digestive proline-specific peptidase (PSP)-dipeptidyl peptidase 4-were similar. The pH optimum of T. molitor prolidase was 7.5, and the enzyme was inhibited by Z-Pro, indicating that it belongs to type I prolidases. In mammals, prolidase is particularly important in the catabolism of a proline-rich protein-collagen. We propose that T. molitor larval prolidase is a critical enzyme for the final stages of digestion of dietary proline-rich gliadins, providing hydrolysis of imidodipeptides in the cytoplasm of midgut epithelial cells. We propose that the products of hydrolysis are absorbed from the luminal contents by peptide transporters, which we have annotated in the T. molitor larval gut transcriptome. The origin of prolidase substrates in the insect midgut is discussed in the context of overall success of grain feeding insects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adsorption and Distribution of Edible Gliadin Nanoparticles at the Air/Water Interface.

    Peng, Dengfeng; Jin, Weiping; Li, Jing; Xiong, Wenfei; Pei, Yaqiong; Wang, Yuntao; Li, Yan; Li, Bin

    2017-03-22

    Edible gliadin nanoparticles (GNPs) were fabricated using the anti-solvent method. They possessed unique high foamability and foam stability. An increasing concentration of GNPs accelerated their initial adsorption speed from the bulk phase to the interface and raised the viscoelastic modulus of interfacial films. High foamability (174.2 ± 6.4%) was achieved at the very low concentration of GNPs (1 mg/mL), which was much better than that of ovalbumin and sodium caseinate. Three stages of adsorption kinetics at the air/water interface were characterized. First, they quickly diffused and adsorbed at the interface, resulting in a fast increase of the surface pressure. Then, nanoparticles started to fuse into a film, and finally, the smooth film became a firm and rigid layer to protect bubbles against coalescence and disproportionation. These results explained that GNPs had good foamability and high foam stability simultaneously. That provides GNPs as a potential candidate for new foaming agents applied in edible and biodegradable products.

  13. Reducing Water Sensitivity of Chitosan Biocomposite Films Using Gliadin Particles Made by In Situ Method

    Dajian Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to sustain rapid expansion in the field of biocomposites, it is necessary to develop novel fillers that are biodegradable, and easy to disperse and obtain. In this work, gliadin particles (GPs fabricated through an in situ method have been reported as fillers for creating chitosan (CS-based biocomposite films. In general, the particles tend to agglomerate in the polymer matrix at high loading (approximately >10% in the biopolymer/particles composites prepared by the traditional solution-blending method. However, the micrographs of biocomposites confirmed that the GPs are well dispersed in the CS matrix in all CS/GPs composites even at a high loading of 30% in this study. It was found that the GPs could improve the mechanical properties of the biocomposites. In addition, the results of moisture uptake and solubility in water of biocomposites showed that water resistance of biocomposites was enhanced by the introduction of GPs. These results suggested that GPs fabricated through an in situ method could be a good candidate for use in biopolymer-based composites.

  14. Functional properties and antifungal activity of films based on gliadins containing cinnamaldehyde and natamycin.

    Balaguer, Mari Pau; Fajardo, Paula; Gartner, Hunter; Gomez-Estaca, Joaquin; Gavara, Rafael; Almenar, Eva; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2014-03-03

    Gliadin films cross-linked with cinnamaldehyde (1.5, 3, and 5%) and incorporated with natamycin (0.5%) were prepared by casting, and their antifungal activity, water resistance, and barrier properties were characterized. Incorporation of natamycin gave rise to films with greater water uptake, weight loss and diameter gain, and higher water vapor and oxygen permeabilities. These results may be associated to a looser packing of the protein chains as a consequence of the presence of natamycin. The different cross-linking degree of the matrices influenced the natamycin migration to the agar test media, increasing from 13.3 to 23.7 (μg/g of film) as the percentage of cinnamaldehyde was reduced from 5% to 1.5%. Antifungal activity of films was assayed against common food spoilage fungi (Penicillium species, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum acutatum). The greatest effectiveness was obtained for films containing natamycin and treated with 5% of cinnamaldehyde. The level of cinnamaldehyde reached in the head-space of the test assay showed a diminishing trend as a function of time, which was in agreement with fungal growth and cinnamaldehyde metabolization. Developed active films were used in the packaging of cheese slices showing promising results for their application in active packaging against food spoilage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Integration of transcriptomic and proteomic data from a single wheat cultivar provides new tools for understanding the roles of individual alpha gliadin proteins in flour quality and celiac disease

    One-hundred-thirty-six expressed sequence tags (ESTs) encoding alpha gliadins from Triticum aestivum cv Butte 86 were identified in public databases and assembled into 19 contigs. Consensus sequences for 12 of the contigs encoded complete alpha gliadin proteins, but only two were identical to protei...

  16. Role of ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block as a component of multimodal analgesic regimen for lower segment caesarean section: a randomized double blind clinical study.

    Jadon, Ashok; Jain, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Swastika; Motaka, Mayur; Parida, Sudhansu Sekhar; Sinha, Neelam; Agrawal, Amit; Pati, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-14

    While opioids are the mainstay for post-operative analgesia after lower segment caesarean section, they are associated with various untoward effects. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been postulated to provide effective analgesia for caesarean section. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of this block for post caesarean analgesia in a randomised controlled trial. One hundred thirty-nine mothers undergoing caesarean delivery were randomised to receive TAP block with either 20 ml 0.375% ropivacaine or 20 ml saline after obtaining informed consent. All the subjects received a standard spinal anaesthetic and diclofenac was administered for post-operative pain. Breakthrough pain was treated with tramadol. Post-operatively, all the subjects were assessed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18 & 24 h. The primary outcome was the time to first analgesic request. The secondary measures of outcome were pain, nausea, sedation, number of doses of tramadol administered and satisfaction with the pain management. The median (interquartile range) time to first analgesic request was prolonged in the TAP group compared to the control group (p consumption when used for multimodal analgesia for pain relief after caesarean section. However, the risk of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity remains unknown with this block. Hence larger safety trials and measures to limit this complication need to be ascertained. The trial was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India ( CTRI/2017/03/008194 ) on 23/03/2017 (trial registered retrospectively).

  17. Effect of Gliadin on Permeability of Intestinal Biopsy Explants from Celiac Disease Patients and Patients with Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity

    Hollon, Justin; Leonard Puppa, Elaine; Greenwald, Bruce; Goldberg, Eric; Guerrerio, Anthony; Fasano, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intestinal exposure to gliadin leads to zonulin upregulation and consequent disassembly of intercellular tight junctions and increased intestinal permeability. We aimed to study response to gliadin exposure, in terms of barrier function and cytokine secretion, using intestinal biopsies obtained from four groups: celiac patients with active disease (ACD), celiac patients in remission (RCD), non-celiac patients with gluten sensitivity (GS) and non-celiac controls (NC). Methods: Ex-vivo human duodenal biopsies were mounted in microsnapwells and luminally incubated with either gliadin or media alone. Changes in transepithelial electrical resistance were monitored over 120 min. Media was subsequently collected and cytokines quantified. Results: Intestinal explants from all groups (ACD (n = 6), RCD (n = 6), GS (n = 6), and NC (n = 5)) demonstrated a greater increase in permeability when exposed to gliadin vs. media alone. The increase in permeability in the ACD group was greater than in the RCD and NC groups. There was a greater increase in permeability in the GS group compared to the RCD group. There was no difference in permeability between the ACD and GS groups, between the RCD and NC groups, or between the NC and GS groups. IL-10 was significantly greater in the media of the NC group compared to the RCD and GS groups. Conclusions: Increased intestinal permeability after gliadin exposure occurs in all individuals. Following gliadin exposure, both patients with gluten sensitivity and those with active celiac disease demonstrate a greater increase in intestinal permeability than celiacs in disease remission. A higher concentration of IL-10 was measured in the media exposed to control explants compared to celiac disease in remission or gluten sensitivity. PMID:25734566

  18. Effect of Gliadin on Permeability of Intestinal Biopsy Explants from Celiac Disease Patients and Patients with Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity

    Justin Hollon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal exposure to gliadin leads to zonulin upregulation and consequent disassembly of intercellular tight junctions and increased intestinal permeability. We aimed to study response to gliadin exposure, in terms of barrier function and cytokine secretion, using intestinal biopsies obtained from four groups: celiac patients with active disease (ACD, celiac patients in remission (RCD, non-celiac patients with gluten sensitivity (GS and non-celiac controls (NC. Methods: Ex-vivo human duodenal biopsies were mounted in microsnapwells and luminally incubated with either gliadin or media alone. Changes in transepithelial electrical resistance were monitored over 120 min. Media was subsequently collected and cytokines quantified. Results: Intestinal explants from all groups (ACD (n = 6, RCD (n = 6, GS (n = 6, and NC (n = 5 demonstrated a greater increase in permeability when exposed to gliadin vs. media alone. The increase in permeability in the ACD group was greater than in the RCD and NC groups. There was a greater increase in permeability in the GS group compared to the RCD group. There was no difference in permeability between the ACD and GS groups, between the RCD and NC groups, or between the NC and GS groups. IL-10 was significantly greater in the media of the NC group compared to the RCD and GS groups. Conclusions: Increased intestinal permeability after gliadin exposure occurs in all individuals. Following gliadin exposure, both patients with gluten sensitivity and those with active celiac disease demonstrate a greater increase in intestinal permeability than celiacs in disease remission. A higher concentration of IL-10 was measured in the media exposed to control explants compared to celiac disease in remission or gluten sensitivity.

  19. Epidural block

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000484.htm Epidural block - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) ...

  20. Antifungal properties of gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde and application in active food packaging of bread and cheese spread foodstuffs.

    Balaguer, Mari Pau; Lopez-Carballo, Gracia; Catala, Ramon; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2013-09-16

    Gliadin films incorporating 1.5, 3 and 5% cinnamaldehyde (g/100g protein) were tested against food-spoilage fungi Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger in vitro, and were employed in an active food packaging system for sliced bread and cheese spread. Gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde were highly effective against fungal growth. P. expansum and A. niger were completely inhibited after storage in vitro for 10 days in the presence of films incorporating 3% cinnamaldehyde. Indeed 1.5% cinnamaldehyde was sufficient in the case of P. expansum. The amount of cinnamaldehyde retained in films after storage for 45 days at 20 °C and 0% RH was also sufficient in most cases to prevent fungal growth in vitro. Active food packaging with gliadin films incorporating 5% cinnamaldehyde increased the shelf-life of both sliced bread and cheese spread. Mold growth was observed on sliced bread after 27 days of storage at 23 °C with active packaging, whereas in the control bread packaged without the active film fungal growth appeared around the fourth day. In the cheese spread, no fungi were observed after 26 days of storage at 4 °C when the product was packaged with the active film. However, growth of fungi was observed in control packaged cheese after 16 days of storage. This work demonstrates a noteworthy potential of these novel bioplastics incorporating natural antimicrobial compounds as innovative solutions to be used in active food packaging to extend shelf-life of food products. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Population Blocks.

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLIADIN AND HMW GLUTENIN PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN COLOURED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. VARIETIES

    Valéria Šudyová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is one of the most important grains in our daily diet. Coloured wheat contains natural anthocyanin compounds. Bioactive compounds in wheat have attracted increasingly more interest from breeders because of their benefits. It is important to fully understand protein properties of red, blue, purple, and yellow-coloured wheat in order to predict their potential uses for culturing new varieties. All 21 accessions originating from different geographical areas of world were evaluated for high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS and T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation using SDS-PAGE and A-PAGE. The data indicated the prevalence of the allele 1 (36%, allele 0 (30% and allele 2* (34% at the Glu-1A and five alleles, namely 7+8 (36%, 7+9 (29%, 20 (21%, 7 (12% and 17+18 (2% represented the Glu-1B. Existence of 2 alleles at the locus Glu-1D was revealed, in fact 21% of them showed the subunit pairs Glu-1D 5+10 correlated with good bread making properties. Protein subunit Glu-1A1 and Glu-1A2* were correlated positively with improved dough strength as compared to subunit null. On the chromosome Glu-1B subunit 17+18 and 7+8 were associated with slightly stronger gluten type than 7+9, whereas subunit 20 and 7 were associated with weak gluten properties. On the basis of electrophoretic separation of gliadin fraction it was found that only one genotype contained T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. The Glu-1 quality score ranged from 4 to 10. Suitable accessions can be used for the crossing programs to improve colour and good technological quality of bread wheat.  doi:10.5219/161

  3. Sourdough Fermentation of Wheat Flour does not Prevent the Interaction of Transglutaminase 2 with α2-Gliadin or Gluten

    Niklas Engström

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2 plays a crucial role in the initiation of celiac disease by catalyzing the deamidation of gluten peptides. In susceptible individuals, the deamidated peptides initiate an immune response leading to celiac disease. Several studies have addressed lactic fermentation plus addition of enzymes as a means to degrade gluten in order to prevent adverse response in celiacs. Processing for complete gluten degradation is often harsh and is not likely to yield products that are of comparable characteristics as their gluten-containing counterparts. We are concerned that incomplete degradation of gluten may have adverse effects because it leads to more available TG2-binding sites on gluten peptides. Therefore, we have investigated how lactic acid fermentation affects the potential binding of TG2 to gluten protein in wheat flour by means of estimating TG2-mediated transamidation in addition to measuring the available TG2-binding motif QLP, in α2-gliadin. We show that lactic fermentation of wheat flour, as slurry or as part of sourdough bread, did not decrease the TG2-mediated transamidation, in the presence of a primary amine, to an efficient level (73%–102% of unfermented flour. Nor did the lactic fermentation decrease the available TG2 binding motif QLP in α2-gliadin to a sufficient extent in sourdough bread (73%–122% of unfermented control to be useful for celiac safe food.

  4. Thermal behavior of native and hydrophobized wheat gluten, gliadin and glutenin-rich fractions by modulated DSC.

    Micard, V; Guilbert, S

    2000-06-13

    The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of hydrophobized and native wheat gluten and its protein fractions, with water mass fraction from 0 to 0.2, was studied using modulated differential scanning calorimetry. The T(g) values of unplasticized products were approximately 175 degrees C whatever the treatment (hydrophobization) or the fraction tested, except for the gliadin-rich fraction (162 degrees C). Experimental change in heat capacity at the glass transition (DeltaC(p)) ranged from 0.32 to 0. 50 J/g/ degrees C depending on the gluten fractions. The Gordon-Taylor fit of T(g) evolution as a function of water content showed that glutenin-rich fractions were more sensitive to water plasticization than the gliadin-rich fraction. The Kwei equation gave better fit to experimental data and demonstrated that the water plasticization of gluten and its fractions is influenced by secondary interactions. However, the application of the Couchman-Karasz equation without fitting predicts satisfactorily the plasticization of gluten proteins by water.

  5. Application of Microwave Irradiation and Heat to Improve Gliadin Detection and Ricin ELISA Throughput with Food Samples

    Eric A. E. Garber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The utility of microwave irradiation to accelerate the onset of equilibrium and improve ELISA performance was examined using ELISAs for the detection of the plant toxin ricin and gliadin. The ricin ELISA normally requires several one hour incubations at 37 °C, a total assay time of approximately five hours, and employs a complex buffer containing PBS, Tween-20®, and non-fat milk. Different energy levels and pulse designs were compared to the use of abbreviated incubation times at 37 °C for the detection of ricin in food. The use of microwave irradiation had no significant advantage over the application of heat using an oven incubator and performed worse with some foods. In contrast, a gliadin ELISA that relied on 30 min incubation steps at room temperature and a salt-based buffer performed better upon irradiation but also displayed improvement upon incubating the microtiter plate at 37 °C. Whether microwave irradiation was advantageous compared to incubation in an oven was inconclusive. However, by abbreviating the incubation time of the ricin ELISA, it was possible to cut the assay time to less than 2 hours and still display LOD values < 10 ppb and recoveries of 78%–98%.

  6. Silencing of omega-5 gliadins in transgenic wheat eliminates a major source of environmental variability and improves dough mixing properties of flour

    Background The end-use quality of wheat flour varies as a result of the growth conditions of the plant. Among the wheat gluten proteins, the omega-5 gliadins have been identified as a major source of environmental variability, increasing in proportion in grain from plants that receive fertilizer or ...

  7. Detection of specific IgA antibodies against a novel deamidated 8-Mer gliadin peptide in blood plasma samples from celiac patients.

    Sara Vallejo-Diez

    Full Text Available We studied whether celiac disease (CD patients produce antibodies against a novel gliadin peptide specifically generated in the duodenum of CD patients by a previously described pattern of CD-specific duodenal proteases. Fingerprinting and ion-trap mass spectrometry of CD-specific duodenal gliadin-degrading protease pattern revealed a new 8-mer gliadin-derived peptide. An ELISA against synthetic deamidated 8-mer peptides (DGP 8-mer was used to study the presence of IgA anti-DGP 8-mer antibodies in plasma samples from 81 children (31 active CD patients (aCD, 17 CD patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD, 10 healthy controls (C and 23 patients with other gastrointestinal pathology (GP and 101 adults (16 aCD, 12 GFD, 27 C and 46 GP-patients. Deamidation of the 8-mer peptide significantly increased the reactivity of the IgA antibodies from CD patients against the peptide. Significant IgA anti-DGP 8-mer antibodies levels were detected in 93.5% of aCD-, 11.8% of GFD- and 4.3% of GP-patients in children. In adults, antibodies were detected in 81.3% of aCD-patients and 8.3% of GFD-patients while were absent in 100% of C- and GP-patients. Duodenal CD-specific gliadin degrading proteases release an 8-mer gliadin peptide that once deamidated is an antigen for specific IgA antibodies in CD patients which may provide a new accurate diagnostic tool in CD.

  8. A celiac cellular phenotype, with altered LPP sub-cellular distribution, is inducible in controls by the toxic gliadin peptide P31-43.

    Merlin Nanayakkara

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a frequent inflammatory intestinal disease, with a genetic background, caused by gliadin-containing food. Undigested gliadin peptides P31-43 and P57-68 induce innate and adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses, respectively. Alterations in the cell shape and actin cytoskeleton are present in celiac enterocytes, and gliadin peptides induce actin rearrangements in both the CD mucosa and cell lines. Cell shape is maintained by the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, sites of membrane attachment to the extracellular matrix. The locus of the human Lipoma Preferred Partner (LPP gene was identified as strongly associated with CD using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. The LPP protein plays an important role in focal adhesion architecture and acts as a transcription factor in the nucleus. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that a constitutive alteration of the cell shape and the cytoskeleton, involving LPP, occurs in a cell compartment far from the main inflammation site in CD fibroblasts from skin explants. We analyzed the cell shape, actin organization, focal adhesion number, focal adhesion proteins, LPP sub-cellular distribution and adhesion to fibronectin of fibroblasts obtained from CD patients on a Gluten-Free Diet (GFD and controls, without and with treatment with A-gliadin peptide P31-43. We observed a "CD cellular phenotype" in these fibroblasts, characterized by an altered cell shape and actin organization, increased number of focal adhesions, and altered intracellular LPP protein distribution. The treatment of controls fibroblasts with gliadin peptide P31-43 mimics the CD cellular phenotype regarding the cell shape, adhesion capacity, focal adhesion number and LPP sub-cellular distribution, suggesting a close association between these alterations and CD pathogenesis.

  9. Detection block

    Bezak, A.

    1987-01-01

    A diagram is given of a detection block used for monitoring burnup of nuclear reactor fuel. A shielding block is an important part of the detection block. It stabilizes the fuel assembly in the fixing hole in front of a collimator where a suitable gamma beam is defined for gamma spectrometry determination of fuel burnup. The detector case and a neutron source case are placed on opposite sides of the fixing hole. For neutron measurement for which the water in the tank is used as a moderator, the neutron detector-fuel assembly configuration is selected such that neutrons from spontaneous fission and neutrons induced with the neutron source can both be measured. The patented design of the detection block permits longitudinal travel and rotation of the fuel assembly to any position, and thus more reliable determination of nuclear fuel burnup. (E.S.). 1 fig

  10. No allelic variation in genes with high gliadin homology in patients with celiac disease and type 1 diabetes

    Nielsen, Christian; Hansen, Dorte; Husby, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    recognize gluten-derived peptides in which specific glutamine residues are deamidated to glutamic acid by tissue transglutaminase. Recently, intestinally expressed human genes with high homology to DQ2-gliadin celiac T-cell epitopes have been identified. Single or double point mutations which would increase...... the celiac T-cell epitope homology, and mutation in these genes, leading to the expression of glutamic acid at particular positions, could hypothetically be involved in the initiation of CD in HLA-DQ2-positive children. Six gene regions with high celiac T-cell epitope homology were investigated for single......-nucleotide polymorphisms using direct sequencing of DNA from 20 CD patients, 27 type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients with associated CD, 24 patients with T1DM without CD and 110 healthy controls, all of Caucasian origin. No variants in any of these genes in any of the investigated groups were found. We conclude...

  11. Selective loss of Purkinje cells in a patient with anti-gliadin-antibody-positive autoimmune cerebellar ataxia

    Hasegawa Akira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The patient was an 84-year-old woman who had the onset of truncal ataxia at age 77 and a history of Basedow's disease. Her ataxic gait gradually deteriorated. She could not walk without support at age 81 and she was admitted to our hospital at age 83. Gaze-evoked nystagmus and dysarthria were observed. Mild ataxia was observed in all limbs. Her deep tendon reflex and sense of position were normal. IgA anti-gliadin antibody, IgG anti-gliadin antibody, anti-SS-A/Ro antibody, anti-SS-B/La antibody and anti-TPO antibody were positive. A conventional brain MRI did not show obvious cerebellar atrophy. However, MRI voxel based morphometry (VBM and SPECT-eZIS revealed cortical cerebellar atrophy and reduced cerebellar blood flow. IVIg treatment was performed and was moderately effective. After her death at age 85, the patient was autopsied. Neuropathological findings were as follows: selective loss of Purkinje cells; no apparent degenerative change in the efferent pathways, such as the dentate nuclei or vestibular nuclei; no prominent inflammatory reaction. From these findings, we diagnosed this case as autoimmune cerebellar atrophy associated with gluten ataxia. All 3 autopsies previously reported on gluten ataxia have noted infiltration of inflammatory cells in the cerebellum. In this case, we postulated that the infiltration of inflammatory cells was not found because the patient's condition was based on humoral immunity. The clinical conditions of gluten ataxia have not yet been properly elucidated, but are expected to be revealed as the number of autopsied cases increases.

  12. Antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides identify adult coeliac disease patients negative for antibodies against endomysium and tissue transglutaminase.

    Dahle, C; Hagman, A; Ignatova, S; Ström, M

    2010-07-01

    This study was done to evaluate the diagnostic utility of antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides compared to traditional markers for coeliac disease. To evaluate diagnostic utility of antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP). Sera from 176 adults, referred for endoscopy without previous analysis of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) or endomysium (EmA), were retrospectively analysed by ELISAs detecting IgA/IgG antibodies against DGP or a mixture of DGP and tTG, and compared with IgA-tTG and EmA. Seventy-nine individuals were diagnosed with coeliac disease. Receiver operating characteristic analyses verified the manufacturers' cut-off limits except for IgA/IgG-DGP/tTG. In sera without IgA deficiency, the sensitivity was higher for IgA/IgG-DGP (0.85-0.87) compared with IgA-tTg (0.76) and EmA (0.61). All tests showed high specificity (0.95-1.00). Eighteen coeliac disease-sera were negative regarding IgA-tTG, nine of which were positive for IgA/IgG-DGP. Sera from coeliac disease-patients >70 years were more often negative for IgA-tTG (50%) and IgA/IgG-DGP (36%) than younger patients (15% and 8% respectively) (P adult coeliac disease patients negative for antibodies against endomysium and tissue transglutaminase. Serology is often negative in elderly patients with coeliac disease; a small bowel biopsy should therefore be performed generously before coeliac disease is excluded.

  13. Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Reduced Levels of ω5-Gliadins, the Major Sensitizing Allergen in Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Pineau, Florence; Lupi, Roberta; Drouet, Martine; Beaudouin, Etienne; Morisset, Martine; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-10-28

    The ω5-gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which ω5-gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interference. Sera from 7 of 11 WDEIA patients showed greatly reduced levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to ω5-gliadins in both transgenic lines. However, these sera also showed low levels of reactivity to other gluten proteins. Sera from three patients showed the greatest reactivity to proteins other than ω5-gliadins, either high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), α-gliadins, or non-gluten proteins. The complexity of immunological responses among these patients suggests that flour from the transgenic lines would not be suitable for individuals already diagnosed with WDEIA. However, the introduction of wheat lacking ω5-gliadins could reduce the number of people sensitized to these proteins and thereby decrease the overall incidence of this serious food allergy.

  14. Aplicación de electroforesis capilar para la caracterización de gliadinas de trigos argentinos Use of capillary electrophoresis for characterization of Argentinean wheat gliadins

    A. Colombo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las gliadinas son proteínas del trigo que desempeñan un papel central en la formación del gluten, ya que son las responsables de la viscosidad de la red. Pese a su importancia han sido menos estudiadas que las gluteninas, debido a que sus inusuales propiedades de solubilidad e hidrofobicidad dificultan su caracterización. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar el perfil proteico de las gliadinas de cultivares de trigos argentinos mediante electroforesis capilar, y evaluar la capacidad de esta técnica para discriminar entre los diferentes cultivares. Para ello se trabajó con 12 cultivares de trigo de las diferentes categorías de calidad asignadas por el INTA, a los que se caracterizó en cuanto a su composición y calidad tecnológica y se les extrajo las gliadinas para estudiarlas por electroforesis capilar. Los resultados obtenidos confirman el potencial de esta técnica para lograr separaciones de gliadinas, con la ventaja de requerir poca preparación y poca cantidad de la muestra analizada y sencillos protocolos de limpieza y mantenimiento de capilar, permitiendo el análisis de gran cantidad de muestras. Asimismo, se demostró la capacidad de la electroforesis capilar para discriminar diferentes cultivares sobre la base de su perfil de gliadinas, lo que permite la diferenciación de genotipos.Gliadins are a group of wheat proteins that play a major role in gluten development since they account for net viscosity. Despite this fact, gliadins have not been studied as deeply as glutenins because of their unusual solubility properties and their high hydrophobicity. The objectives of this work were to study the gliadin profile of Argentinean wheats comprising a broad quality range by means of capillary electrophoresis and to assess the suitability of this technique for wheat cultivar discrimination. For this purpose, chemical compositions of twelve wheat cultivars belonging to different quality groups were determined. Besides, flour

  15. HIV-1 Promotes the Degradation of Components of the Type 1 IFN JAK/STAT Pathway and Blocks Anti-viral ISG Induction.

    Gargan, Siobhan; Ahmed, Suaad; Mahony, Rebecca; Bannan, Ciaran; Napoletano, Silvia; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Borrow, Persephone; Bergin, Colm; Stevenson, Nigel J

    2018-04-01

    Anti-retroviral therapy successfully suppresses HIV-1 infection, but fails to provide a cure. During infection Type 1 IFNs normally play an essential role in viral clearance, but in vivo IFN-α only has a modest impact on HIV-1 infection, suggesting its possible targeting by HIV. Here, we report that the HIV protein, Vif, inhibits effective IFN-α signalling via degradation of essential JAK/STAT pathway components. We found that STAT1 and STAT3 are specifically reduced in HEK293T cells expressing Vif and that full length, infectious HIV-1 IIIB strain promotes their degradation in a Vif-dependent manner. HIV-1 IIIB infection of myeloid ThP-1 cells also reduced the IFN-α-mediated induction of the anti-viral gene, ISG15, but not MxA, revealing a functional consequence of this HIV-1-mediated immune evasion strategy. Interestingly, while total STAT levels were not reduced upon in vitro IIIB infection of primary human PBMCs, IFN-α-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 and ISG induction were starkly reduced, with removal of Vif (IIIBΔVif), partially restoring pSTATs, ISG15 and MxB induction. Similarly, pSTAT1 and pSTAT3 expression and IFN-α-induced ISG15 were reduced in PBMCs from HIV-infected patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, IFN-α pre-treatment of a CEM T lymphoblast cells significantly inhibited HIV infection/replication (measured by cellular p24), only in the absence of Vif (IIIBΔVif), but was unable to suppress full length IIIB infection. When analysing the mechanism by which Vif might target the JAK/STAT pathway, we found Vif interacts with both STAT1 and STAT3, (but not STAT2), and its expression promotes ubiquitination and MG132-sensitive, proteosomal degradation of both proteins. Vif's Elongin-Cullin-SOCS-box binding motif enables the formation of an active E3 ligase complex, which we found to be required for Vif's degradation of STAT1 and STAT3. In fact, the E3 ligase scaffold proteins, Cul5 and Rbx2, were also found to be

  16. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ji-Young, E-mail: jiyoung.min@ip-korea.org [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-04

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  17. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong; Min, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  18. Monitoring of in vitro deamidation of gliadin peptic fragment by mass spectrometry may reflect one of the molecular mechanisms taking place in celiac disease development

    Novák, Petr; Man, Petr; Tučková, Ludmila; Tlaskalová, Helena; Bezouška, Karel; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2002), s. 507-511 ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 416; GA ČR GA310/00/1373; GA MZd NI5264 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : mass spectrometry * sequencing * gliadin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.781, year: 2002

  19. Gliadin-Specific T-Cells Mobilized in the Peripheral Blood of Coeliac Patients by Short Oral Gluten Challenge: Clinical Applications

    Stefania Picascia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a common lifelong food intolerance triggered by dietary gluten affecting 1% of the general population. Gliadin-specific T-cell lines and T-cell clones obtained from intestinal biopsies have provided great support in the investigation of immuno-pathogenesis of CD. In the early 2000 a new in vivo, less invasive, approach was established aimed to evaluate the adaptive gliadin-specific T-cell response in peripheral blood of celiac patients on a gluten free diet. In fact, it has been demonstrated that three days of ingestion of wheat-containing food induces the mobilization of memory T lymphocytes reactive against gliadin from gut-associated lymphoid tissue into peripheral blood of CD patients. Such antigen-specific T-cells releasing interferon-γ can be transiently detected by using the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT assays or by flow cytometry tetramer technology. This paper discusses the suitability of this in vivo tool to investigate the repertoire of gluten pathogenic peptides, to support CD diagnosis, and to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies. A systematic review of all potential applications of short oral gluten challenge is provided.

  20. Characterization of antimicrobial properties on the growth of S. aureus of novel renewable blends of gliadins and chitosan of interest in food packaging and coating applications.

    Fernandez-Saiz, P; Lagaron, J M; Hernandez-Muñoz, P; Ocio, M J

    2008-05-10

    The biocide properties of chitosan-based materials have been known for many years. However, typical antimicrobial formulations of chitosan, mostly chitosonium salts, are known to be very water sensitive materials which may impair their use in many application fields such as food packaging or food coating applications. This first work reports on the development and characterization of the antimicrobial properties of novel fully renewable blends of chitosan with more water-resistant gliadin proteins isolated from wheat gluten. Chitosan release to the nutrient broth from a wide range of blends was studied making use of the ninhydrin method. The results indicated that both pure chitosan and its blends with gliadins presented significant antimicrobial activity, which increased with increasing the amount of chitosan in the composite formulation as expected. The gliadins-chitosan blends showed good transparency and film-forming properties and better water resistance than pure chitosan. The release tests revealed that dissolution of the biocide glucosamine groups, i.e. the chitosan water soluble fractions, also increased with the amount of chitosan present in the formulation. The release of these groups was for the first time directly correlated with the antimicrobial properties exhibited by the blends. Thus, incorporation of chitosan into an insoluble biopolymer matrix was revealed as a very feasible strategy to generate novel chitosan-based antimicrobial materials with potential advantages, for instance active food packaging applications.

  1. Effects of inulin on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough.

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Denglin; Li, Xuan; Xu, Baocheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Jianxue

    2016-11-01

    High-purity gliadin, glutenin and gluten fractions were extracted from wheat gluten flour. To investigate the effects of three types of inulin with different degrees of polymerization (DP) on the emulsifying properties, disulfide contents, secondary structures and microstructures of these fractions, Turbidimetry, spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in this study. The results showed that the emulsifying activity of gliadin was higher than that of glutenin and gluten, but its emulsion stability was lower than that of glutenin. Adding inulin increased the emulsifying activity of the three protein fractions and emulsion stability of gliadin and gluten, but decreased the emulsion stability of glutenin and disulfide bond contents of glutenin and gluten. In the presence of inulin, the α-helical structure of the three proteins had no significant change, whereas the β-turn structure decreased and β-sheet structure increased. The SEM images showed that inulin had the most significant effect on the glutenin microstructure. In general, inulin with a higher DP had greater effects on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The γ-gliadin-like γ-prolamin genes in the tribe Triticeae

    gluten; cysteine; coeliac disease; evolution; -prolamin; Triticeae. ... components of seed storage proteins in wheat and other Triticeae species. ... Over one-third of these putatively functional -prolamin peptides contained different number of ...

  3. Molecular diversity of α-gliadin expressed genes in genetically contrasted spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) accessions and comparison with bread wheat (T. aestivum ssp. aestivum) and related diploid Triticum and Aegilops species.

    Dubois, Benjamin; Bertin, Pierre; Mingeot, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The gluten proteins of cereals such as bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum ) and spelt ( T. aestivum ssp. spelta ) are responsible for celiac disease (CD). The α-gliadins constitute the most immunogenic class of gluten proteins as they include four main T-cell stimulatory epitopes that affect CD patients. Spelt has been less studied than bread wheat and could constitute a source of valuable diversity. The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of spelt α-gliadin transcripts and to compare it with those of bread wheat. Genotyping data from 85 spelt accessions obtained with 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to select 11 contrasted accessions, from which 446 full open reading frame α-gliadin genes were cloned and sequenced, which revealed a high allelic diversity. High variations among the accessions were highlighted, in terms of the proportion of α-gliadin sequences from each of the three genomes (A, B and D), and their composition in the four T-cell stimulatory epitopes. An accession from Tajikistan stood out, having a particularly high proportion of α-gliadins from the B genome and a low immunogenic content. Even if no clear separation between spelt and bread wheat sequences was shown, spelt α-gliadins displayed specific features concerning e.g. the frequencies of some amino acid substitutions. Given this observation and the variations in toxicity revealed in the spelt accessions in this study, the high genetic diversity held in spelt germplasm collections could be a valuable resource in the development of safer varieties for CD patients.

  4. An efficient, block-by-block algorithm for inverting a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix

    Reuter, Matthew G; Hill, Judith C

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for computing any block of the inverse of a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix (defined as a block tridiagonal matrix with a small number of deviations from the purely block Toeplitz structure). By exploiting both the block tridiagonal and the nearly block Toeplitz structures, this method scales independently of the total number of blocks in the matrix and linearly with the number of deviations. Numerical studies demonstrate this scaling and the advantages of our method over alternatives.

  5. Office-Based Point of Care Testing (IgA/IgG-Deamidated Gliadin Peptide) for Celiac Disease.

    Lau, Michelle S; Mooney, Peter D; White, William L; Rees, Michael A; Wong, Simon H; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Sanders, David S

    2018-06-19

    Celiac disease (CD) is common yet under-detected. A point of care test (POCT) may improve CD detection. We aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of an IgA/IgG-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP)-based POCT for CD detection, patient acceptability, and inter-observer variability of the POCT results. From 2013-2017, we prospectively recruited patients referred to secondary care with gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia and/or weight loss (group 1); and patients with self-reported gluten sensitivity with unknown CD status (group 2). All patients had concurrent POCT, IgA-tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TTG), IgA-endomysial antibodies (IgA-EMA), total IgA levels, and duodenal biopsies. Five hundred patients completed acceptability questionnaires, and inter-observer variability of the POCT results was compared among five clinical staff for 400 cases. Group 1: 1000 patients, 58.5% female, age 16-91, median age 57. Forty-one patients (4.1%) were diagnosed with CD. The sensitivities of the POCT, IgA-TTG, and IgA-EMA were 82.9, 78.1, and 70.7%; the specificities were 85.4, 96.3, and 99.8%. Group 2: 61 patients, 83% female; age 17-73, median age 35. The POCT had 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value in detecting CD in group 2. Most patients preferred the POCT to venepuncture (90.4% vs. 2.8%). There was good inter-observer agreement on the POCT results with a Fleiss Kappa coefficient of 0.895. The POCT had comparable sensitivities to serology, and correctly identified all CD cases in a gluten sensitive cohort. However, its low specificity may increase unnecessary investigations. Despite its advantage of convenience and rapid results, it may not add significant value to case finding in an office-based setting.

  6. Analysis of Block OMP using Block RIP

    Wang, Jun; Li, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiqin

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is a canonical greedy algorithm for sparse signal reconstruction. When the signal of interest is block sparse, i.e., it has nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters, the block version of OMP algorithm (i.e., Block OMP) outperforms the conventional OMP. In this paper, we demonstrate that a new notion of block restricted isometry property (Block RIP), which is less stringent than standard restricted isometry property (RIP), can be used for a very straightforw...

  7. Effective Identification of Low-Gliadin Wheat Lines by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS: Implications for the Development and Analysis of Foodstuffs Suitable for Celiac Patients.

    María Dolores García-Molina

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the ability of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to distinguish wheat lines with low gliadin content, obtained by RNA interference (RNAi, from non-transgenic wheat lines. The discriminant analysis was performed using both whole grain and flour. The transgenic sample set included 409 samples for whole grain sorting and 414 samples for flour experiments, while the non-transgenic set consisted of 126 and 156 samples for whole grain and flour, respectively.Samples were scanned using a Foss-NIR Systems 6500 System II instrument. Discrimination models were developed using the entire spectral range (400-2500 nm and ranges of 400-780 nm, 800-1098 nm and 1100-2500 nm, followed by analysis of means of partial least square (PLS. Two external validations were made, using samples from the years 2013 and 2014 and a minimum of 99% of the flour samples and 96% of the whole grain samples were classified correctly.The results demonstrate the ability of NIRS to successfully discriminate between wheat samples with low-gliadin content and wild types. These findings are important for the development and analysis of foodstuff for celiac disease (CD patients to achieve better dietary composition and a reduction in disease incidence.

  8. Safety evaluation of transgenic low-gliadin wheat in Sprague Dawley rats: An alternative to the gluten free diet with no subchronic adverse effects.

    Ozuna, Carmen Victoria; Barro, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Gluten-associated pathologies have increased in recent years and there is a greater demand for low or gluten-free products. Transgenic low-gliadin wheat lines showed low T-cell response, good bread-making properties, and excellent sensory assets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the whole-wheat flour from one transgenic low-gliadin line (named E82) in a 90-day feeding study. In this study males (n = 50) and females (n = 50) SD rats were used. They were fed with doses of 1.42, 2.83 and 5.67 g/kg/day of the transgenic E82 line, 5.67 g/kg/day of the WT and a blank group. We found that there were no significant differences in the development of animals. Biochemistry for liver and kidney function were similar for males and females of all groups. Other haematological and metabolic blood parameters, as well as organ weight did not show significant differences in the five groups of animals. In the histopathological study performed for the higher dose of transgenic E82 line, WT and blank group no abnormalities were observed. The whole-wheat flour of E82 line administered to rats at tested doses for 90 days did not have any adverse effects and there was no difference with the rats which ate WT wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs

  10. Binding of peptides from the N-terminal region of alpha-gliadin to the celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 molecule assessed in biochemical and T cell assays

    Johansen, B H; Gjertsen, H A; Vartdal, F

    1996-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is most probably an immunological disease, precipitated in susceptible individuals by ingestion of wheat gliadin and related proteins from other cereals. The disease shows a strong HLA association predominantly to the cis- or trans-encoded HLA-DQ(alpha1*0501, beta1*02) (i.e., DQ...

  11. Emplacement of small and large buffer blocks

    Saari, H.; Nikula, M.; Suikki, M.

    2010-05-01

    The report describes emplacement of a buffer structure encircling a spent fuel canister to be deposited in a vertical hole. The report deals with installability of various size blocks and with an emplacement gear, as well as evaluates the achieved quality of emplacement and the time needed for installing the buffer. Two block assembly of unequal size were chosen for examination. A first option involved small blocks, the use of which resulted in a buffer structure consisting of small sector blocks 200 mm in height. A second option involved large blocks, resulting in a buffer structure which consists of eight blocks. In these tests, the material chosen for both block options was concrete instead of bentonite. The emplacement test was a three-phase process. A first phase included stacking a two meter high buffer structure with small blocks for ensuring the operation of test equipment and blocks. A second phase included installing buffer structures with both block options to a height matching that of a canister-encircling cylindrical component. A third phase included testing also the installability of blocks to be placed above the canister by using small blocks. In emplacement tests, special attention was paid to the installability of blocks as well as to the time required for emplacement. Lifters for both blocks worked well. Due to the mass to be lifted, the lifter for large blocks had a more heavy-duty frame structure (and other lifting gear). The employed lifters were suspended in the tests on a single steel wire rope. Stacking was managed with both block sizes at adequate precision and stacked-up towers were steady. The stacking of large blocks was considerably faster. Therefore it is probably that the overall handling of the large blocks will be more convenient at a final disposal site. From the standpoint of reliability in lifting, the small blocks were safer to install above the canister. In large blocks, there are strict shape-related requirements which are

  12. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  13. Development of TaqMan probes targeting the four major celiac disease epitopes found in α-gliadin sequences of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum).

    Dubois, Benjamin; Bertin, Pierre; Muhovski, Yordan; Escarnot, Emmanuelle; Mingeot, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is caused by specific sequences of gluten proteins found in cereals such as bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum ) and spelt ( T. aestivum ssp. spelta ). Among them, the α-gliadins display the highest immunogenicity, with four T-cell stimulatory epitopes. The toxicity of each epitope sequence can be reduced or even suppressed according to the allelic form of each sequence. One way to address the CD problem would be to make use of this allelic variability in breeding programs to develop safe varieties, but tools to track the presence of toxic epitopes are required. The objective of this study was to develop a tool to accurately detect and quantify the immunogenic content of expressed α-gliadins of spelt and bread wheat. Four TaqMan probes that only hybridize to the canonical-i.e. toxic-form of each of the four epitopes were developed and their specificity was demonstrated. Six TaqMan probes targeting stable reference genes were also developed and constitute a tool to normalize qPCR data. The probes were used to measure the epitope expression levels of 11 contrasted spelt accessions and three ancestral diploid accessions of bread wheat and spelt. A high expression variability was highlighted among epitopes and among accessions, especially in Asian spelts, which showed lower epitope expression levels than the other spelts. Some discrepancies were identified between the canonical epitope expression level and the global amount of expressed α-gliadins, which makes the designed TaqMan probes a useful tool to quantify the immunogenic potential independently of the global amount of expressed α-gliadins. The results obtained in this study provide useful tools to study the immunogenic potential of expressed α-gliadin sequences from Triticeae accessions such as spelt and bread wheat. The application of the designed probes to contrasted spelt accessions revealed a high variability and interesting low canonical epitope expression levels in the

  14. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  15. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E.

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  16. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  17. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gliadin assessment in processed food products available for persons with celiac disease: a feasibility study for developing a gluten-free food database.

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Kalaitsidou, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Savvidou, Afroditi; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dimitrios, Triantafyllou

    2011-12-01

    Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the Greek National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing a gluten-free food product database based on the assessment of the gluten content in processed foods available for CDP. Gluten was assessed in 41 processed food products available for CDP. Group A consisted of 26 products for CDP included in the NFID, and group B contained 15 food products for CDP not registered in the NFID but listed in the safe lists of the local Celiac Association (CA). High-sensitivity ω-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. Gluten was lower than 20 ppm in 37 of 41 analyzed products (90.2%): in 24 of 26 (92.3%) products in group A and in 13 of 15 (86.7%) products in group B (P = .61). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups regarding gluten content. No product in either group contained gluten in excess of 100 ppm. Most of the analyzed products included in the Greek NFID or listed in the lists of the local CA, even those not officially labeled "gluten free," can be safely consumed by CDP. The use of commercially available ω-gliadin ELISA is able to identify those products that contain inappropriate levels of gluten, making feasible it to develop an integrated gluten-free processed food database.

  18. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  19. Poly(ferrocenylsilane)-block-Polylactide Block Copolymers

    Roerdink, M.; van Zanten, Thomas S.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    A PFS/PLA block copolymer was studied to probe the effect of strong surface interactions on pattern formation in PFS block copolymer thin films. Successful synthesis of PFS-b-PLA was demonstrated. Thin films of these polymers show phase separation to form PFS microdomains in a PLA matrix, and

  20. The production and crystallization of the human leukocyte antigen class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 complexed with deamidated gliadin peptides implicated in coeliac disease

    Henderson, Kate N.; Reid, Hugh H.; Borg, Natalie A.; Broughton, Sophie E.; Huyton, Trevor [The Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Anderson, Robert P. [Autoimmunity and Transplantation Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3050 (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Grattan Street, Parkville, Victoria 3050 (Australia); McCluskey, James [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rossjohn, Jamie, E-mail: jamie.rossjohn@med.monash.edu.au [The Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2007-12-01

    The production and crystallization of human leukocyte antigen class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in complex with deamidated gliadin peptides is reported. Crystals of HLA-DQ2{sup PQPELPYPQ} diffracted to 3.9 Å, while the HLA-DQ8{sup EGSFQPSQE} crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å, allowing structure determination by molecular replacement. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 are key risk factors in coeliac disease, as they bind deamidated gluten peptides that are subsequently recognized by CD4{sup +} T cells. Here, the production and crystallization of both HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in complex with the deamidated gliadin peptides DQ2 α-I (PQPELPYPQ) and DQ8 α-I (EGSFQPSQE), respectively, are reported.

  1. Block That Pain!

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Block That Pain! Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can ...

  2. Bundle Branch Block

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  3. Generalized Block Failure

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  4. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  5. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  6. Block Cipher Analysis

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  7. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  8. Designers Block 2002

    Dickson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Artiklen indleder med: ved siden aaf Londons etablerede designmesse '100% Design', er der vokset et undergrundsmiljø af designudstillinger op. Det dominerende og mest kendte initiativ er Designers Block, der i år udstillede to steder i byen. Designers Block er et mere uformelt udstillingsforum...

  9. Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks

    Oleg Alekseev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.

  10. Predictability of blocking

    Tosi, E.; Ruti, P.; Tibaldi, S.; D'Andrea, F.

    1994-01-01

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Molds for Fabrication of Insulated Concrete Block

    Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D. [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    ORNL worked with concrete block manufacturer, NRG Insulated Block, to demonstrate additive manufacturing of a multi-component block mold for its line of insulated blocks. Solid models of the mold parts were constructed from existing two-dimensional drawings and the parts were fabricated on a Stratasys Fortus 900 using ULTEM 9085. Block mold parts were delivered to NRG and installed on one of their fabrication lines. While form and fit were acceptable, the molds failed to function during NRG’s testing.

  12. Characterizing permanent magnet blocks with Helmholtz coils

    Carnegie, D. W.; Timpf, J.

    1992-08-01

    Most of the insertion devices to be installed at the Advanced Photon Source will utilize permanent magnets in their magnetic structures. The quality of the spectral output is sensitive to the errors in the field of the device which are related to variations in the magnetic properties of the individual blocks. The Advanced Photon Source will have a measurement facility to map the field in the completed insertion devices and equipment to test and modify the magnetic strength of the individual magnet blocks. One component of the facility, the Helmholtz coil permanent magnet block measurement system, has been assembled and tested. This system measures the total magnetic moment vector of a block with a precision better than 0.01% and a directional resolution of about 0.05°. The design and performance of the system will be presented.

  13. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    Doikov, Nikita; Richtarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\cal O}(1/\\epsilon)$, ${\\cal O}(1/\\sqrt{\\epsilon})$ and ${\\cal O}(\\log (1/\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  14. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    Doikov, Nikita

    2018-02-12

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\epsilon)$, ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\sqrt{\\\\epsilon})$ and ${\\\\cal O}(\\\\log (1/\\\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  15. Conformational Studies of ε- CBz- L- Lysine and L- Valine Block Copolypeptides

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformational studies of ε-CBz-L-lysine and L-valine block copoylpeptides using x- ray diffraction and CD spectra are described. The block copolypeptides contain valine block in the center and on both side of the valine are ε-CBz-L-lysine blocks. The conformation of the copolypeptides changes with increases in the chain length of ε- CBz-L- lysine blocks. When length of ε- CBZ- L- lysine blocks is 9, the block copolypeptide has exclusive beta sheet structure. With the increase in chain length of ε-CBz-L-lysine blocks from 9 to 14, the block copolypeptide shows presence of both alpha helix and beta sheet components. With further increase in chain length of ε- CBz- L- lysine blocks, the beta sheet component disappears and block copolypeptides exhibits exclusive α -helix conformation.

  16. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  17. RX for Writer's Block.

    Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

  18. Block copolymer battery separator

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  19. Blocking in Category Learning

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  20. Protective Effect of 1,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3 on Pepsin-Trypsin-Resistant Gliadin-Induced Tight Junction Injuries.

    Dong, Shouquan; Singh, Tikka Prabhjot; Wei, Xin; Yao, Huang; Wang, Hongling

    2018-01-01

    Tight junction (TJ) injuries induced by pepsin-trypsin-resistant gliadin (PT-G) play an important role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. Previously, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (VD3) was reported to be a TJ regulator that attenuates lipopolysaccharide- and alcohol-induced TJ injuries. However, whether VD3 can attenuate PT-G-induced TJ injuries is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of VD3 on PT-G-induced TJ injuries. Caco-2 monolayers were used as in vitro models. After being cultured for 21 days, the monolayers were treated with PT-G plus different concentrations of VD3. Then, the changes in trans-epithelial electrical resistance and FITC-dextran 4000 (FD-4) flux were determined to evaluate the monolayer barrier function. TJ protein levels were measured to assess TJ injury severity, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) expression and zonulin release levels were determined to estimate zonulin release signaling pathway activity. Additionally, a gluten-sensitized mouse model was established as an in vivo model. After the mice were treated with VD3 for 7 days, we measured serum FD-4 concentrations, TJ protein levels, MyD88 expression, and zonulin release levels to confirm the effect of VD3. Both in vitro and in vivo, VD3 significantly attenuated the TJ injury-related increase in intestinal mucosa barrier permeability. Moreover, VD3 treatment up-regulated TJ protein expression levels and significantly decreased MyD88 expression and zonulin release levels. VD3 has protective effects against PT-G-induced TJ injuries both in vitro and in vivo, which may correlate with the disturbance of the MyD88-dependent zonulin release signaling pathway.

  1. A systematic approach for component-based software development

    Guareis de farias, Cléver; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    2000-01-01

    Component-based software development enables the construction of software artefacts by assembling prefabricated, configurable and independently evolving building blocks, called software components. This paper presents an approach for the development of component-based software artefacts. This

  2. Other components

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  3. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    Koskinen, V.

    2012-05-01

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  4. Impression block with orientator

    Brilin, V I; Ulyanova, O S

    2015-01-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  5. Integral-fuel blocks

    Cunningham, C.; Simpkin, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    A prismatic moderator block is described which has fuel-containing channels and coolant channels disposed parallel to each other and to edge faces of the block. The coolant channels are arranged in rows on an equilateral triangular lattice pattern and the fuel-containing channels are disposed in a regular lattice pattern with one fuel-containing channel between and equidistant from each of the coolant channels in each group of three mutually adjacent coolant channels. The edge faces of the block are parallel to the rows of coolant channels and the channels nearest to each edge face are disposed in two rows parallel thereto, with one of the rows containing only coolant channels and the other row containing only fuel-containing channels. (Official Gazette)

  6. Right bundle branch block

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  7. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages.

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  8. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  9. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The styrene...

  10. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  11. Electronic components

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  12. Ganglion block. When and how?

    Bale, R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.) [de

  13. Linoleum Block Printing Revisited.

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses practical considerations of teaching linoleum block printing in the elementary grades (tool use, materials, motivation) and outlines a sequence of design concepts in this area for the primary, intermediate and junior high grades. A short list of books and audiovisual aids is appended. (SJL)

  14. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  15. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  16. Effect of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits, and subunits of gliadin on physicochemical parameters of different wheat genotypes Efeito das subunidades de glutenina de alto e baixo peso molecular e das subunidades de gliadina sobre os parâmetros físico-químicos de diferentes genótipos de trigo

    Mariana Souza Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of functional properties of wheat flour by specific tests allows genotypes with appropriate characteristics to be selected for specific industrial uses. The objective of wheat breeding programs is to improve the quality of germplasm bank in order to be able to develop wheat with suitable gluten strength and extensibility for bread making. The aim of this study was to evaluate 16 wheat genotypes by correlating both glutenin subunits of high and low molecular weight and gliadin subunits with the physicochemical characteristics of the grain. Protein content, sedimentation volume, sedimentation index, and falling number values were analyzed after the grains were milled. Hectoliter weight and mass of 1000 seeds were also determined. The glutenin and gliadin subunits were separated using polyacrylamide gel in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The data were evaluated using variance analysis, Pearson's correlation, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis. The IPR 85, IPR Catuara TM, T 091015, and T 091069 genotypes stood out from the others, which indicate their possibly superior grain quality with higher sedimentation volume, higher sedimentation index, and higher mass of 1000 seeds; these genotypes possessed the subunits 1 (Glu-A1, 5 + 10 (Glu-D1, c (Glu-A3, and b (Glu-B3, with exception of T 091069 genotype that possessed the g allele instead of b in the Glu-B3.A identificação das propriedades funcionais de farinhas de trigo através de testes específicos possibilita selecionar genótipos de trigo com características adequadas a cada uso industrial. O principal objetivo dos programas de melhoramento genético é melhorar a qualidade do banco de germoplasma para que seja possível desenvolver trigos com força de glúten e extensibilidade adequadas para produção de produtos panificáveis. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar 16 genótipos de trigo correlacionando as subunidades de gluteninas de alto e baixo peso

  17. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  18. SNUPPS power block engineering

    Thompson, C A [Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The Standard Power Block is based on a modular concept and consists of the following: turbine building, auxiliary building, fuel building, control building, radwaste building, diesel generators building, and outside storage tanks and transformers. Each power block unit includes a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor and has a thermal power rating of 3425 MW(t). The corresponding General Electric turbine generator net electrical output is 1188 MW(e). This standardization approach results in not only a reduction in the costs of engineering, licensing, procurement, and project planning, but should also result in additional savings by the application of experience gained in the construction of the first unit to the following units and early input of construction data to design.

  19. Change Around the Block?

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-04-01

    Proponents of a block grant or per-capita cap trumpet them as vehicles for the federal government to give the states a capped amount of funding for Medicaid that legislatures would effectively distribute how they see fit. Questions abound as to what capped Medicaid funding would look like, and what effect it would have on the current Medicaid-eligible population, covered services, and physician payments.

  20. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  1. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  2. Impact-Contact Analysis of Prismatic Graphite Blocks Using Abaqus

    Kang, Ji Ho; Kim, Gyeong Ho; Choi, Woo Seok

    2010-12-01

    Graphite blocks are the important core components of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. As these blocks are simply stacked in array, collisions among neighboring components may occur during earthquakes or accidents. The final objective of the research project is to develop a reliable seismic model of the stacked graphite blocks from which their behavior can be predicted and, thus, they are designed to have sufficient strength to maintain their structural integrity during the anticipated occurrences. The work summarized in this report is a first step toward the big picture and is dedicated to build a realistic impact-contact dynamics model of the graphite block using a commercial FEM package, Abaqus. The developed model will be further used to assist building a reliable lumped dynamics model of these stacked graphite components

  3. Block and sub-block boundary strengthening in lath martensite

    Du, C.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Vaes, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined uniaxial micro-tensile tests were performed on lath martensite single block specimens and multi-block specimens with different number of block boundaries parallel to the loading direction. Detailed slip trace analyses consistently revealed that in the {110}<111> slip system with the

  4. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  5. Atrioventricular block, ECG tracing (image)

    ... an abnormal rhythm (arrhythmia) called an atrioventricular (AV) block. P waves show that the top of the ... wave (and heart contraction), there is an atrioventricular block, and a very slow pulse (bradycardia).

  6. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-13

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  7. Powder wastes confinement block and manufacturing process of this block

    Dagot, L.; Brunel, G.

    1996-01-01

    This invention concerns a powder wastes containment block and a manufacturing process of this block. In this block, the waste powder is encapsulated in a thermo hardening polymer as for example an epoxy resin, the encapsulated resin being spread into cement. This block can contain between 45 and 55% in mass of wastes, between 18 and 36% in mass of polymer and between 14 and 32% in mass of cement. Such a containment block can be used for the radioactive wastes storage. (O.M.). 4 refs

  8. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  9. Isotope heating block

    Wenk, E.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made not to lead the separated nuclear 'waste' from spent nuclear fuel elements directly to end storage, but to make use of the heat produced from the remaining radiation, e.g. for seawater desalination. According to the invention, the activated fission products are to be processed, e.g. by calcination or vitrification, so that one can handle them. They should then be arranged in layers alternately with plate-shaped heat conducting pipes to form a homogeneous block; the heat absorbed by the thermal plates should be further passed on to evaporators or heat exchangers. (UWI) [de

  10. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  11. Principal components

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  12. A standard graphite block

    Ivkovic, M; Zdravkovic, Z; Sotic, O [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-04-15

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 {+-}3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm{sup 3}; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb.

  13. A standard graphite block

    Ivkovic, M.; Zdravkovic, Z.; Sotic, O.

    1966-04-01

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm 3 ; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  14. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  15. Photovoltaic building blocks

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...... it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...

  16. Celiac ganglia block

    Akinci, Devrim; Akhan, Okan

    2005-01-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation

  17. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  18. Some Blocks from Heliopolis

    dr.Nageh Omar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available These group of Architectural Fragments have been discovered during Excavations at Souq el – Khamees Site at the end of Mostorod Street in el – Matarya Area by the Supreme Council of Antiquities Mission Season 2003 and none published before . The Site of Excavations is Situated about 500 metres to the west Obelisk of the King Senusert I According to the inscriptions on the block (pl.1.a,fig.1 represents the coronation name of the king Senusret III, the fifth king of the twelfth dynasty within the cartouche .Through This recent discover and his Sphinx statue we Suggest that the king Senusret III built a shrine or Temple at Heliopols which was possibly a part of the great Temple of the universal God of Heliopolis . For block dating to the king Akhenaten and many monuments are discovered in Heliopolis at the same period emphasized that the king Akhenaten built temple for the god Aten in Heliopolis and through Studies about the king Akhenaten, we suggest that the king Akhenaten take his new principles from Heliopolis . The king Ramesses II mentioned from stela which discovered at Manshyt el- Sader, in the second horizontal line that he erected oblesk and some statues at the great Temple in Heliopolis , this recent Discover about Statue of the king Ramesses II emphasized site of excavations perhaps a shrine or open court from temple of the king Ramesses II at the great Temple in Heliopolis For nbt – htpt, we could show that the goddess Hathor take a forward position in Heliopolis and become the Lady of Hetepet in Heliopolis since Eighteenth dynasty at least

  19. Block copolymer libraries: modular versatility of the macromolecular Lego system.

    Lohmeijer, Bas G G; Wouters, Daan; Yin, Zhihui; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2004-12-21

    The synthesis and characterization of a new 4 x 4 library of block copolymers based on polystyrene and poly(ethylene oxide) connected by an asymmetrical octahedral bis(terpyridine) ruthenium complex at the block junction are described, while initial studies on the thin film morphology of the components of the library are presented by the use of Atomic Force Microscopy, demonstrating the impact of a library approach to derive structure-property relationships.

  20. HEAO Block 2 study executive summary

    1976-03-01

    An executive summary is presented of a preliminary study done on several potential High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) missions which are follow-on missions to the currently defined HEAO program. The purpose was to examine several typical missions and determine the relative complexities associated with them. The four payloads investigated were a 1.2 m Diameter x-ray Telescope observatory, a Large Area Moderate Angular Resolution (LAMAR) observatory, a cosmic ray observatory, and (4) a gamma ray observatory. Each of the four observatories was considered a national facility. Low cost approaches were stressed throughout, with considerable use of HEAO Block I experience and designs effected to provide a high degree of confidence that such approaches were achievable. The use of the Multi-Mission Spacecraft (MMS) and the HEAO Block I spacecraft was considered as a result of this low cost emphasis. Also, NASA standard components were considered, where applicable

  1. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES

    Craig E. Barnes

    2013-03-05

    A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

  2. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  3. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  4. The block transfer system

    Bradish, G.J. III; Reid, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The central instrumentation control and data acquisition (CICADA) computer system is comprised of a functionally distributed hierarchical network of thirteen (13) 32-bit mini-computers that are the heart of the control, monitoring, data collection and data analysis for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). The CICADA system was designed with the goal of providing complete control, monitoring, and data acquisition for TFTR, which includes the acquisition and storage of 20M points of data within a five-minute shot cycle. It was realized early in the system design that in order to meet this goal an ancillary system would have to be provided to supplement the subsystem CAMAC systems that, due to the relatively slow throughput of the serial highways and the overhead of relaying data to the central facilities within a star network, would not provide the necessary throughput. The authors discuss how the block transfer system provided a means of moving data directly from the CAMAC crate to the application running on the central facility computers

  5. Estimadores de componentes de variância em delineamento de blocos aumentados com tratamentos novos de uma ou mais populações Estimators of variance components in the augmented block design with new treatments from one or more populations

    João Batista Duarte

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar, por meio de simulação, as estimativas de componentes de variância produzidas pelos métodos ANOVA (análise da variância, ML (máxima verossimilhança, REML (máxima verossimilhança restrita e MIVQUE(0 (estimador quadrático não viesado de variância mínima, no delineamento de blocos aumentados com tratamentos adicionais (progênies de uma ou mais procedências (cruzamentos. Os resultados indicaram superioridade relativa do método MIVQUE(0. O método ANOVA, embora não tendencioso, apresentou as estimativas de menor precisão. Os métodos de máxima verossimilhança, sobretudo ML, tenderam a subestimar a variância do erro experimental ( e a superestimar as variâncias genotípicas (, em especial nos experimentos de menor tamanho (n/>0,5. Contudo, o método produziu as piores estimativas de variâncias genotípicas quando as progênies vieram de diferentes cruzamentos e os experimentos foram pequenos.This work compares by simulation estimates of variance components produced by the ANOVA (analysis of variance, ML (maximum likelihood, REML (restricted maximum likelihood, and MIVQUE(0 (minimum variance quadratic unbiased estimator methods for augmented block design with additional treatments (progenies stemming from one or more origins (crosses. Results showed the superiority of the MIVQUE(0 estimation. The ANOVA method, although unbiased, showed estimates with lower precision. The ML and REML methods produced downwards biased estimates for error variance (, and upwards biased estimates for genotypic variances (, particularly the ML method. Biases for the REML estimation became negligible when progenies were derived from a single cross, and experiments were of larger size with ratios />0.5. This method, however, provided the worst estimates for genotypic variances when progenies were derived from several crosses and the experiments were of small size (n<120 observations.

  6. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  7. Writing Blocks and Tacit Knowledge.

    Boice, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature on writing block looks at two kinds: inability to write in a timely, fluent fashion, and reluctance by academicians to assist others in writing. Obstacles to fluent writing are outlined, four historical trends in treating blocks are discussed, and implications are examined. (MSE)

  8. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  9. Region 9 Census Block 2010

    Geography:The TIGER Line Files are feature classes and related database files (.) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census Blocks are statistical areas bounded on all sides by visible features, such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks, and/or by non visible boundaries such as city, town, township, and county limits, and short line-of-sight extensions of streets and roads. Census blocks are relatively small in area; for example, a block in a city bounded by streets. However, census blocks in remote areas are often large and irregular and may even be many square miles in area. A common misunderstanding is that data users think census blocks are used geographically to build all other census geographic areas, rather all other census geographic areas are updated and then used as the primary constraints, along with roads and water features, to delineate the tabulation blocks. As a result, all 2010 Census blocks nest within every other 2010 Census geographic area, so that Census Bureau statistical data can be tabulated at the block level and aggregated up t

  10. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  11. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Sobko, Evgeny [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics

    2016-12-07

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  12. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sobko, Evgeny [Nordita and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2017-03-15

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  13. Rolling block mazes are PSPACE-complete

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a rolling block maze, one or more blocks lie on a rectangular board with square cells. In most mazes, the blocks have size k × m × n where k, m, n are integers that determine the size of the block in terms of units of the size of the board cells. The task of a rolling block maze is to roll a

  14. Left bundle-branch block

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  15. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  16. Defying gravity using Jenga™ blocks

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes how Jenga™ blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum.

  17. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Kris Borer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  18. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Kris Borer

    2010-01-01

    In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  19. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  20. Comparative study between ultrasound guided TAP block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries

    Ruqaya M Elsayed Goda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transverses abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transverses abdominis block.

  1. Various semiclassical limits of torus conformal blocks

    Alkalaev, Konstantin [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of General and Applied Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskiy per. 7, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Geiko, Roman [Mathematics Department, National Research University Higher School of Economics,Usacheva str. 6, Moscow, 119048 (Russian Federation); Rappoport, Vladimir [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, Moscow, 127994 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-12

    We study four types of one-point torus blocks arising in the large central charge regime. There are the global block, the light block, the heavy-light block, and the linearized classical block, according to different regimes of conformal dimensions. It is shown that the blocks are not independent being connected to each other by various links. We find that the global, light, and heavy-light blocks correspond to three different contractions of the Virasoro algebra. Also, we formulate the c-recursive representation of the one-point torus blocks which is relevant in the semiclassical approximation.

  2. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  3. Heritability, variance components and genetic advance of some ...

    Heritability, variance components and genetic advance of some yield and yield related traits in Ethiopian ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... randomized complete block design at Adet Agricultural Research Station in 2008 cropping season.

  4. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones

    Lupo, A.R.; Smith, P.J.; Oglesby, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Several climatological studies have been previously performed using large observational data sets (i.e., 10 years or longer) in order to determine the predominant characteristics of blocking anticyclones, including favored development regions, duration, preferred seasonal occurrence, and frequency of occurrence. These studies have shown that blocking anticyclones occur most frequently from October to April over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific oceans downstream from both the North American and Asian continental regions and the storm track regions to the east of these continents. Some studies have also revealed the presence of a third region block formation in western Russia near 40 degrees E which is associated with another storm track region over the Mediterranean and western Asia

  5. MWTF jumper connector integral seal block development and leak testing

    Ruff, E.S.; Jordan, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In fiscal year 1993, tests of an o-ring/tetraseal retainer designed to replace a gasket-type seal used in PUREX-type process jumper connectors encouraged the design of an improved seal block. This new seal block combines several parts into one unitized component called an integral seal block. This report summarizes development and leak testing of the new integral seal block. The integral seal block uses a standard o-ring nested in a groove to accomplish leak tightness. This seal block eliminates the need to machine acme threads into the lower skirt casting and seal retainers, eliminates tolerance stack-up, reduces parts inventory, and eliminates an unnecessary leak path in the jumper connector assembly. This report also includes test data on various types of o-ring materials subjected to heat and pressure. Materials tested included Viton, Kalrez, and fluorosilicone, with some incidental data on teflon coated silicone o-rings. Test experience clearly demonstrates the need to test each seal material for temperature and pressure in its intended application. Some materials advertised as being open-quotes betterclose quotes at higher temperatures did not perform up to expectations. Inspection of the fluorosilicone and Kalrez seals after thermal testing indicates that they are much more susceptible to heat softening than Viton

  6. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  7. Cryptanalysis of Selected Block Ciphers

    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.

    , pseudorandom number generators, and authenticated encryption designs. For this reason a multitude of initiatives over the years has been established to provide a secure and sound designs for block ciphers as in the calls for Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), lightweight...... ciphers initiatives, and the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR). In this thesis, we first present cryptanalytic results on different ciphers. We propose attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack. It is utilized to break the full block cipher...

  8. Block fuel element for gas-cooled high temperature reactors

    Hrovat, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns a block fuel element consisting of only one carbon matrix which is almost isotropic of high crystallinity into which the coated particles are incorporated by a pressing process. This block element is produced under isostatic pressure from graphite matrix powder and coated particles in a rubber die and is subsequently subjected to heat treatment. The main component of the graphite matrix powder consists of natural graphite powder to which artificial graphite powder and a small amount of a phenol resin binding agent are added

  9. Analgesic effect of bilateral subcostal tap block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Karam, K.; Khan, B.I.

    2018-01-01

    Pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is mild to moderate in intensity. Several modalities are employed for achieving safe and effective postoperative analgesia, the benefits of which adds to the early recovery of the patients. As a part of multimodal analgesia, various approaches of Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used for management of parietal and incisional components of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy of two different approaches of ultrasound guided TAP block, i.e., Subcostal-TAP block technique with ultrasound guided Posterior-TAP block for post-operative pain management in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. Methods: In this double blinded randomized controlled study, consecutive nonprobability sampling was done and a total of 126 patients admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients were randomized through draw method and received either ultrasound guided posterior TAP block with 0.375% bupivacaine (20ml volume) on each side of the abdomen or subcostal TAP block bilaterally with the same. Up to 24 hours postoperatively, static and dynamic numeric rating pain scores were assessed. Results: We found statistically significant difference in mean static pain scores over 24 hours postoperatively in subcostal TAP group, suggesting improved analgesia. However, mean dynamic postoperative pain scores were comparable between the two groups. Whereas, patients in both groups were satisfied with pain management. Conclusions: Ultrasound guided subcostal TAP block provides better postoperative analgesia as compared to the Posterior TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Otherwise both of the approaches improve patient outcomes towards early recovery and discharge from hospital. (author)

  10. Asymmetric PS-block-(PS-co-PB)-block-PS block copolymers: morphology formation and deformation behaviour

    Adhikari, Rameshwar; Huy, Trinh An; Buschnakowski, Matthias; Michler, Goerg H; Knoll, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Morphology formation and deformation behaviour of asymmetric styrene/butadiene triblock copolymers (total polystyrene (PS) content ∼70%) consisting of PS outer blocks held apart by a styrene-co-butadiene random copolymer block (PS-co-PB) each were investigated. The techniques used were differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, uniaxial tensile testing and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A significant shift of the phase behaviour relative to that of a neat symmetric triblock copolymer was observed, which can be attributed to the asymmetric architecture and the presence of PS-co-PB as a soft block. The mechanical properties and the microdeformation phenomena were mainly controlled by the nature of their solid-state morphology. Independent of morphology type, the soft phase was found to deform to a significantly higher degree of orientation when compared with the hard phase

  11. Main-chain supramolecular block copolymers.

    Yang, Si Kyung; Ambade, Ashootosh V; Weck, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers are key building blocks for a variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to drug delivery. The material properties of block copolymers can be tuned and potentially improved by introducing noncovalent interactions in place of covalent linkages between polymeric blocks resulting in the formation of supramolecular block copolymers. Such materials combine the microphase separation behavior inherent to block copolymers with the responsiveness of supramolecular materials thereby affording dynamic and reversible materials. This tutorial review covers recent advances in main-chain supramolecular block copolymers and describes the design principles, synthetic approaches, advantages, and potential applications.

  12. Smart ampholytic ABC block copolypeptide

    Schlaad, H.; Sun, J.; Černoch, Peter; Ruokolainen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, 20 August (2017), s. 79 ISSN 0065-7727. [ACS National Meeting & Exposition /254./. 20.08.2017-24.08.2017, Washington] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : block copolypeptide * smart ampholytic Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  13. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  14. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  15. Thermo-responsive block copolymers

    Mocan Cetintas, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymers (BCPs) are remarkable materials because of their self-assembly behavior into nano-sized regular structures and high tunable properties. BCPs are in used various applications such as surfactants, nanolithography, biomedicine and nanoporous membranes. In these thesis, we aimed to

  16. Cervical plexus block for thyroidectomy

    Adele

    RESEARCH. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - November 2003 ... Cervical plexus block has also been found useful for thy- .... lar, transverse cervical and supraclavicular nerves. ... administration of midazolam and pentazocine as required. ... find out if there were postoperative complications specific to.

  17. Blocking sets in Desarguesian planes

    Blokhuis, A.; Miklós, D.; Sós, V.T.; Szönyi, T.

    1996-01-01

    We survey recent results concerning the size of blocking sets in desarguesian projective and affine planes, and implications of these results and the technique to prove them, to related problemis, such as the size of maximal partial spreads, small complete arcs, small strong representative systems

  18. Modeling the building blocks of biodiversity.

    Lucas N Joppa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Networks of single interaction types, such as plant-pollinator mutualisms, are biodiversity's "building blocks". Yet, the structure of mutualistic and antagonistic networks differs, leaving no unified modeling framework across biodiversity's component pieces. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use a one-dimensional "niche model" to predict antagonistic and mutualistic species interactions, finding that accuracy decreases with the size of the network. We show that properties of the modeled network structure closely approximate empirical properties even where individual interactions are poorly predicted. Further, some aspects of the structure of the niche space were consistently different between network classes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These novel results reveal fundamental differences between the ability to predict ecologically important features of the overall structure of a network and the ability to predict pair-wise species interactions.

  19. Cutaneous expressions of interleukin-6 and neutrophil elastase as well as levels of serum IgA antibodies to gliadin nonapeptides, tissue transglutaminase and epidermal transglutaminase: implications for both autoimmunity and autoinflammation involvement in dermatitis herpetiformis.

    Gornowicz-Porowska, Justyna; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Pietkiewicz, Paweł; Dmochowski, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) seems to be a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease of partially known origin. In light of its known biological functions and its involvement in tissue pathology in other disease states, particularly in nickel-induced allergic contact dermatitis coexisting with DH, it would appear that the central and peripheral response by neutrophils and their mediators (e.g. neutrophil elastase - NE) in DH may be partially mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6). The aim of the study was to assess the role of IL -6 in DH lesions by examining the relationships between IL -6/NE cutaneous expression and levels of serum anti-nonapeptides of gliadin (npG) IgA, anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) immunoglobulin A (IgA), anti-epidermal transglutaminase (eTG) IgA in DH. In total, 24 DH patients having IgA cutaneous deposition were studied. Immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections with quantitative digital morphometry was used to measure the intensity of IL -6 and NE cutaneous expressions. Levels of serum anti-npG IgA, anti-tTG IgA and anti-eTG IgA were evaluated with ELISA. We found no statistically significant correlation between the NE and IL -6 expression intensities. Our results revealed also a lack of correlations between NE/IL -6 expressions and levels of anti-npG IgA, anti-tTG IgA, anti-eTG IgA in DH. However, the IL -6 expression level was significantly lower than that of NE. The lack of correlations suggested no substantial interactions between IL -6, NE, IgA/npG, IgA/tTG or IgA/eTG in DH. Presented results might indicate the heterogenetic nature of DH pathogenesis suggesting further that both autoimmune and autoinflammatory phenomena may be involved in DH cutaneous pathology.

  20. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...... healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated...... into a medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block...

  1. Text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections

    Duan, Li-juan; Zhang, Xi-qun; Ma, Long-long; Wu, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Text extraction is an important initial step in digitizing the historical documents. In this paper, we present a text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections. The task of text extraction is considered as text area detection and location problem. The images are divided equally into blocks and the blocks are filtered by the information of the categories of connected components and corner point density. By analyzing the filtered blocks' projections, the approximate text areas can be located, and the text regions are extracted. Experiments on the dataset of historical Tibetan documents demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  3. Evaluation of Suitability of Non-Standardized Test Block for Ultrasonic Testing

    Kwon, Ho Young; Lim, Jong Ho; Kang, Sei Sun

    2000-01-01

    Standard Test Block(STB) for UT(Ultrasonic Testing) is a block approved by authoritative for material, shape and quality. STB is used for characteristic tests, sensitivity calibration and control of the time base range of UT inspection devices. The material, size and chemical components of STB should be strictly controlled to meet the related standards such as ASTM and JIS because it has an effect upon sensitivity, resolution and reproductivity of UT. The STBs which are not approved are sometimes used because the qualified STBs are very expensive. So, the purpose of this study is to survey the characteristics, quality and usability of Non-Standardized Test Blocks. Non-Standardized Test Blocks did not meet the standard requirements in size or chemical components, and ultrasonic characteristics. Therefore if the Non-Standardized Test Blocks are used without being tested, it's likely to cause errors in detecting the location and measuring the size of the defects

  4. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  5. KNBD: A Remote Kernel Block Server for Linux

    Becker, Jeff

    1999-01-01

    I am developing a prototype of a Linux remote disk block server whose purpose is to serve as a lower level component of a parallel file system. Parallel file systems are an important component of high performance supercomputers and clusters. Although supercomputer vendors such as SGI and IBM have their own custom solutions, there has been a void and hence a demand for such a system on Beowulf-type PC Clusters. Recently, the Parallel Virtual File System (PVFS) project at Clemson University has begun to address this need (1). Although their system provides much of the functionality of (and indeed was inspired by) the equivalent file systems in the commercial supercomputer market, their system is all in user-space. Migrating their 10 services to the kernel could provide a performance boost, by obviating the need for expensive system calls. Thanks to Pavel Machek, the Linux kernel has provided the network block device (2) with kernels 2.1.101 and later. You can configure this block device to redirect reads and writes to a remote machine's disk. This can be used as a building block for constructing a striped file system across several nodes.

  6. Stellate ganglion block for persistent idiopathic facial pain

    Poonam Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent idiopathic facial pain is a facial pain disorder without any identifiable cause. A patient has persistent facial pain without any objective sign on clinical examination or investigations. There are associated psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. This condition is poorly responsive to therapy with anticonvulsants or analgesics. Stellate ganglion block interrupts the sympathetic supply to head, neck, and upper extremities. This block can be used to alleviate pain of sympathetic origin in head and neck region as well as upper extremities. We report a case of a middle-aged female with persistent idiopathic facial pain on the right side of face with no response to analgesics and anticonvulsants. Her pain was provoked by exposure to cold weather or wind. Assuming a sympathetic component to her pain, we did a right-sided stellate ganglion block for her with local anesthetic and steroid. The patient had significant pain relief (>80% after the block. This indicates that the sympathetic nervous system plays a major role in initiation and perpetuation of this pain condition. Stellate ganglion block can be done early in such patients both as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality.

  7. Tertiary block rotations in the Fars Arc (Zagros, Iran)

    Aubourg, C.; Smith, B.; Bakhtari, H. R.; Guya, N.; Eshraghi, A.

    2008-05-01

    The Fars arc accommodates the oblique convergence between the Arabic plate and the Iran block. Many geological observations suggest block rotations from regional to local scales. We present palaeomagnetic investigations in the Fars arc and its eastern termination, the Zagros-Makran syntaxis. Sixty-four sites have been sampled covering the Palaeocene Pabdeh Fm. to Mio-Pliocene Agha-Jhari Fm., the latest being the most sampled formation. We document pre-tilting components in all formations. However, coarse fractions of Agha-Jhari clastics formation retain a post-tilting remagnetization. As a whole, block rotations rarely exceed 20°. In the western Fars arc, clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations of small amplitudes are consistent with the torsions observed near the strike slip Kazerun and Mangarak faults. In the Zagros Makran syntaxis, counter-clockwise and clockwise rotations are observed, respectively, in the western and eastern part. This pattern is consistent with an amplification of the shape of the syntaxis. Between Zagros and Makran, palaeomagnetic data support that the present-day arcuate shape of the arc is secondary. We assume that most of the block rotations took place during the Plio-Pleistocene, during a blocking stage of the Zagros-Makran syntaxis. We emphasize the role of Oman Peninsula which plays as an indenter for the propagation of the Fars thrust belt.

  8. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis.

  9. Current status on detail design and fabrication techniques development of ITER blanket shield block in Korea

    Kim, Duck Hoi; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Lee, Eun-Seok; Jung, Ki Jung

    2007-01-01

    The allocation of components and systems to be delivered to ITER on an in-kind basis, was agreed between the ITER Parties. Among parties, Korea agreed to procure inboard blanket modules 1, 2 and 6, which consists of FW and shield block. Regarding shield block the detail design and Fabrication techniques development have been undertaken in Korea. Especially manufacturing feasibility study on shield block had been performed and some technical issues for the fabrication were selected. Based on these results, fabrication techniques using EB welding are being developed. Meanwhile, the detail design of inboard standard module has been carried out. The optimization of flow driver design to improve the cooling performance was executed. And, thermo-hydraulic analysis on half block of inboard standard module was performed. In this study, current status and some results from Fabrication techniques development on ITER blanket shield block are described. The detail design activity and results on shield block are also introduced herein. (orig.)

  10. Minimum description length block finder, a method to identify haplotype blocks and to compare the strength of block boundaries.

    Mannila, H; Koivisto, M; Perola, M; Varilo, T; Hennah, W; Ekelund, J; Lukk, M; Peltonen, L; Ukkonen, E

    2003-07-01

    We describe a new probabilistic method for finding haplotype blocks that is based on the use of the minimum description length (MDL) principle. We give a rigorous definition of the quality of a segmentation of a genomic region into blocks and describe a dynamic programming algorithm for finding the optimal segmentation with respect to this measure. We also describe a method for finding the probability of a block boundary for each pair of adjacent markers: this gives a tool for evaluating the significance of each block boundary. We have applied the method to the published data of Daly and colleagues. The results expose some problems that exist in the current methods for the evaluation of the significance of predicted block boundaries. Our method, MDL block finder, can be used to compare block borders in different sample sets, and we demonstrate this by applying the MDL-based method to define the block structure in chromosomes from population isolates.

  11. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    Jaeger, Pia; Zaric, Dusanka; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm

    2013-01-01

    Femoral nerve block (FNB), a commonly used postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), reduces quadriceps muscle strength essential for mobilization. In contrast, adductor canal block (ACB) is predominately a sensory nerve block. We hypothesized that ACB preserves quadriceps...

  12. Comparison of extent of sensory block following posterior and subcostal approaches to ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block.

    Lee, T H W; Barrington, M J; Tran, T M N; Wong, D; Hebbard, P D

    2010-05-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block provides postoperative analgesia following abdominal surgery by targeting thoracolumbar nerves between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles. Posterior and subcostal approaches using ultrasound guidance have been described. However there have been inconsistent results in relation to the extent of the sensory block. This observational study evaluated the distributions of sensory block following either a posterior or subcostal approach and the quality of analgesia achieved. Following ethics committee approval, 50 patients undergoing minimally invasive and major abdominal surgery were recruited. A total of 81 transversus abdominis plane blocks were performed preoperatively under real-time ultrasound guidance. Postoperatively, patients received multimodal analgesia including morphine via patient-controlled pumps. Ninety-eight percent of patients had some degree of demonstrable sensory block and the dermatomal spread differed between posterior and subcostal approaches (P interquartile range 2 to 4), the most cephalad being T10 (interquartile range T9 to T10), while the subcostal approach blocked a median of four segments (interquartile range 3 to 5), the most cephalad being T8 (interquartile range T7 to T9, P interquartile range 17 to 50 mg) at 24 hours. Median pain scores at rest and with coughing were 20 (interquartile range 10 to 35) and 50 (interquartile range 29 to 67) respectively at 24 hours. The posterior approach appears to be more appropriate for lower abdominal surgery and the subcostal approach better suited to upper abdominal surgery. Whichever approach is used, transversus abdominis plane block is only one component of a multimodal analgesic technique.

  13. Blocking device especially for circulating pumps

    Susil, J.; Vychodil, V.; Lorenc, P.

    1976-01-01

    The claim of the invention is a blocking device which blocks reverse flow occurring after the shutdown of circulating pumps, namely in the operation of nuclear power plants or in pumps with a high delivery head. (F.M.)

  14. Reversible chronic acquired complete atrioventricular block.

    Rakovec, P; Milcinski, G; Voga, G; Korsic, L

    1982-01-01

    The return of atrioventricular conduction is reported in a case after nearly four years of complete acquired heart block. After recovery from atrioventricular block, right bundle branch block persisted, but P-R interval and H-V interval were normal. Three months later a relapse of second degree infranodal atrioventricular block was noted. A short review of similar cases from the literature is given.

  15. The glass block site radionuclide migration study

    Killey, R.W.D.; Champ, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    In 1960 25 nepheline syenite glass blocks containing 14 TBq of mixed fission products in 50 kg of glass were placed below the water table in a shallow sand aquifer at Chalk River Laboratories. Experimental studies undertaken at the site since 1960 have included detailed mapping of the plume of 90 Sr in 1963, 1966 and 1971. Mathematical modeling studies have employed the radiostrontium plume data in determining the split between ion exchange and chemisorption of 90 Sr, and in obtaining reaction rate data for chemisorption. The distribution of 137 Cs on downgradient soils was mapped in 1963 and 1979. An extended plume of low-level 137 Cs contamination observed in the 1979 study prompted an investigation of the role of particulate materials in radionuclide transport. IN 1983, large volume groundwater sampling and separation of cationic, anionic, and neutral dissolved species, as well as particulates, detected anionic and cationic dissolved europium isotopes (154 and 155), and again encountered particulate 137 Cs. A variety of investigations of cesium and strontium sorption have provided a data base on sediment mineralogy, particle surface features, and information on sorption sites and processes. The year 1990 saw the inauguration of a three-year program to update investigations of radionuclide release, transport, and sorption at the glass block site. The first stage of the program has been a detailed definition and simulation of the hydrogeologic setting. Plume mapping and aqueous speciation studies are in progress. This paper summarizes past investigations, reviews the status of the current program, and discusses components of future studies, including investigations of sediment sorption mechanisms. (Author) (17 refs., 8 figs.)

  16. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  17. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  18. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  19. 49 CFR 236.708 - Block.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block. 236.708 Section 236.708 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.708 Block. A length of track of defined limits, the use of which by trains is governed by block signals, cab signals, or both. ...

  20. 49 CFR 236.804 - Signal, block.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, block. 236.804 Section 236.804 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Signal, block. A roadway signal operated either automatically or manually at the entrance to a block. ...

  1. Block Play: Practical Suggestions for Common Dilemmas

    Tunks, Karyn Wellhousen

    2009-01-01

    Learning materials and teaching methods used in early childhood classrooms have fluctuated greatly over the past century. However, one learning tool has stood the test of time: Wood building blocks, often called unit blocks, continue to be a source of pleasure and learning for young children at play. Wood blocks have the unique capacity to engage…

  2. Naming Block Structures: A Multimodal Approach

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study describes symbolic representation in block play in a culturally diverse suburban preschool classroom. Block play is "multimodal" and can allow children to experiment with materials to represent the world in many forms of literacy. Combined qualitative and quantitative data from seventy-seven block structures were collected and analyzed.…

  3. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5070 Bite block. (a) Identification. A bite block...

  4. Large block test status report

    Wilder, D.G.; Lin, W.; Blair, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved

  5. Block-conjugate-gradient method

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that by using the block-conjugate-gradient method several, say s, columns of the inverse Kogut-Susskind fermion matrix can be found simultaneously, in less time than it would take to run the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm s times. The method improves in efficiency relative to the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm as the fermion mass is decreased and as the value of the coupling is pushed to its limit before the finite-size effects become important. Thus it is potentially useful for measuring propagators in large lattice-gauge-theory calculations of the particle spectrum

  6. Pepsin Digest of Wheat Gliadin Fraction Increases Production of IL-1β via TLR4/MyD88/TRIF/MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathway and an NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

    Palová-Jelínková, Lenka; Dáňová, Klára; Drašarová, Hana; Dvořák, Miloš; Funda, David P.; Fundová, Petra; Kotrbová-Kozak, Anna; Černá, Marie; Kamanová, Jana; Martin, Stefan F.; Freudenberg, Marina; Tučková, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-responsive, chronic inflammatory enteropathy. IL-1 cytokine family members IL-1β and IL-18 have been associated with the inflammatory conditions in CD patients. However, the mechanisms of IL-1 molecule activation in CD have not yet been elucidated. We show in this study that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocytes from celiac patients responded to pepsin digest of wheat gliadin fraction (PDWGF) by a robust secretion of IL-1β and IL-1α and a slightly elevated production of IL-18. The analysis of the upstream mechanisms underlying PDWGF-induced IL-1β production in celiac PBMC show that PDWGF-induced de novo pro-IL-1β synthesis, followed by a caspase-1 dependent processing and the secretion of mature IL-1β. This was promoted by K+ efflux and oxidative stress, and was independent of P2X7 receptor signaling. The PDWGF-induced IL-1β release was dependent on Nod-like receptor family containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) and apoptosis-associated speck like protein (ASC) as shown by stimulation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from NLRP3−/− and ASC−/− knockout mice. Moreover, treatment of human PBMC as well as MyD88−/− and Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)−/− BMDC illustrated that prior to the activation of caspase-1, the PDWGF-triggered signal constitutes the activation of the MyD88/TRIF/MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Moreover, our results indicate that the combined action of TLR2 and TLR4 may be required for optimal induction of IL-1β in response to PDWGF. Thus, innate immune pathways, such as TLR2/4/MyD88/TRIF/MAPK/NF-κB and an NLRP3 inflammasome activation are involved in wheat proteins signaling and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CD. PMID:23658628

  7. Coastal protection using topological interlocking blocks

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    The coastal protection systems mainly rely on the self-weight of armour blocks to ensure its stability. We propose a system of interlocking armour blocks, which form plate-shape assemblies. The shape and the position of the blocks are chosen in such a way as to impose kinematic constraints that prevent the blocks from being removed from the assembly. The topological interlocking shapes include simple convex blocks such as platonic solids, the most practical being tetrahedra, cubes and octahedra. Another class of topological interlocking blocks is so-called osteomorphic blocks, which form plate-like assemblies tolerant to random block removal (almost 25% of blocks need to be removed for the assembly to loose integrity). Both classes require peripheral constraint, which can be provided either by the weight of the blocks or post-tensioned internal cables. The interlocking assemblies provide increased stability because lifting one block involves lifting (and bending) the whole assembly. We model the effect of interlocking by introducing an equivalent additional self-weight of the armour blocks. This additional self-weight is proportional to the critical pressure needed to cause bending of the interlocking assembly when it loses stability. Using beam approximation we find an equivalent stability coefficient for interlocking. It is found to be greater than the stability coefficient of a structure with similar blocks without interlocking. In the case when the peripheral constraint is provided by the weight of the blocks and for the slope angle of 45o, the effective stability coefficient for a structure of 100 blocks is 33% higher than the one for a similar structure without interlocking. Further increase in the stability coefficient can be reached by a specially constructed peripheral constraint system, for instance by using post-tension cables.

  8. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    Rendl, J.; Reiners, C.

    1999-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Mitigating component performance variation

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  10. [Complete atrioventricular block in Duchenne muscular dystrophy].

    Kuru, Satoshi; Tanahashi, Tamotsu; Matsumoto, Shinjirou; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Konagaya, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of complete atrioventricular (AV) block in a 40-year-old patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). While he was bed-ridden and required mechanical ventilation, his cardiac involvement was mild. He had the deletion of exon 45-52 in the dystrophin gene. He underwent transient complete AV block and came to require pacemaker implantation due to recurrence of complete AV block ten days after the first attack. Electrophysiological study revealed mild prolonged AH and HV interval. Although DMD patients with AV block have been rarely reported so far, attention should be paid to AV block for patients who prolonged their lives.

  11. How to block and tackle the face.

    Zide, B M; Swift, R

    1998-03-01

    Regional blocking techniques as noted in dentistry, anesthesia, and anatomy texts may result in inconsistent and imperfect analgesia when needed for facial aesthetic surgery. The advent of laser facial surgery and more complicated aesthetic facial procedures has thus increased the demand for anesthesia support. Surgeons should know a fail-safe method of nerve blocks. Fresh cadaver dissections are used to demonstrate a series of eight regional nerve-blocking routes. This sequence of bilateral blocks will routinely provide profound full facial anesthesia. Certain groupings of blocks are effective for perioral or periorbital laser surgery.

  12. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.

    Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

    2009-08-01

    Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks.

  13. Influence of anchor block size on the thickness of adsorbed block copolymer layers

    Belder, G.F; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    We present surface force data on three different polystyrene/poly(2-vinylpyridine) block copolymers (PS/P2VP) with a fixed size of the nonadsorbing PS block but widely varying sizes of the adsorbing P2VP block. With respect to the sizes of the two blocks, they range from moderately to highly

  14. Backfilling of deposition tunnels, block alternative

    Keto, P.; Roennqvist, P.-E.

    2007-03-01

    This report presents a preliminary process description of backfilling the deposition tunnels with pre-compacted blocks consisting of a mixture of bentonite and ballast (30:70). The process was modified for the Finnish KBS-3V type repository assuming that the amount of spent fuel canisters disposed of yearly is 40. Backfilling blocks (400 x 300 x 300 mm) are prepared in a block production plant with a hydraulic press with an estimated production capacity of 840 blocks per day. Some of the blocks are modified further to fit the profile of the tunnel roof. Prior to the installation of the blocks, the deposition tunnel floor is levelled with a mixture of bentonite and ballast (15:85). The blocks are placed in the tunnel with a modified reach truck. Centrifugal pellet throwing equipment is used to fill the gap between the blocks and the rock surface with bentonite pellets. Based on a preliminary assessment, the average dry density achieved with block backfill is sufficient to fulfil the criteria set for the backfill in order to ensure long-term safety and radiation protection. However, there are uncertainties concerning saturation, homogenisation, erosion, piping and self-healing of the block backfill that need to be studied further with laboratory and field tests. In addition, development efforts and testing concerning block manufacturing and installation are required to verify the technical feasibility of the concept. (orig.)

  15. Exercising with blocked muscle glycogenolysis

    Nielsen, Tue L; Pinós, Tomàs; Brull, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V) is an inborn error of skeletal muscle metabolism, which affects glycogen phosphorylase (myophosphorylase) activity leading to an inability to break down glycogen. Patients with McArdle disease are exercise intolerant, as muscle glycogen......-derived glucose is unavailable during exercise. Metabolic adaptation to blocked muscle glycogenolysis occurs at rest in the McArdle mouse model, but only in highly glycolytic muscle. However, it is unknown what compensatory metabolic adaptations occur during exercise in McArdle disease. METHODS: In this study, 8......-week old McArdle and wild-type mice were exercised on a treadmill until exhausted. Dissected muscles were compared with non-exercised, age-matched McArdle and wild-type mice for histology and activation and expression of proteins involved in glucose uptake and glycogenolysis. RESULTS: Investigation...

  16. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs data from a large-scale survey (InnoS&T) of inventors in Europe, the USA, and Japan who were listed in patent applications filed at the European Patent Office with priority years between 2003 and 2005. We provide evidence regarding the reasons for patenting and the ways in which...... patents are being utilized. A substantial share of patents is neither used internally nor for market transactions, which confirms the importance of strategic patenting and inefficiency in the management of intellectual property. We investigate different types of unused patents—unused blocking patents...... and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  17. LARGE BLOCK TEST STATUS REPORT

    D.G. WILDER, W. LIN, S.C. BLAIR, T. BUSCHECK, R.C. CARLSON, K. LEE, A. MEIKE, A.L. RAMIREZ, J.L. WAGONER, AND J. WANG

    1997-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is investigatinq the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. As shown in Fig. 1-1, the site is located about 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in an area of uninhabited desert

  18. Vagal Blocking for Obesity Control

    Johannessen, Helene; Revesz, David; Kodama, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    : VBLOC reduced body weight and food intake, which was associated with increased satiety but not with decreased hunger. Brain activities in response to VBLOC included increased gene expression of leptin and CCKb receptors, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor, and transforming growth factor β1......BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device...... with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system. Brain-gut responses were analyzed physiologically. RESULTS...

  19. Analytical study of stress and deformation of HTR fuel blocks

    Tanaka, M.

    1982-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite element computer code named HANS-GR has been developed to predict the mechanical behavior of the graphite fuel blocks with realistic material properties and core environment. When graphite material is exposed to high temperature and fast neutron flux of high density, strains arise due to thermal expansion, irradiation-induced shrinkage and creep. Thus stresses and distortions are induced in the fuel block in which there are spatial variation of these strains. The analytical method used in the program to predcit these induced stresses and distortions by finite element method is discussed. In order to illustrate the versatility of the computer code, numerical results of two example analyses of the multi-hole type fuel elements in the VHTR Reactor are given. Two example analyses presented are those concerning the stresses in fuel blocks with control rod holes and distortions of the fuel blocks at the periphery of the reactor core. It is considered these phenomena should be carefully examined when the multi-hole type fuel elements are applied to VHTR. It is assured that the predicted mechanical behavior of the graphite components is strongly dependent on the material properties used and obtaining the reliable material property is important to make the analytical prediction a reliable one

  20. SANS and SAXS study of block copolymer/homopolymer mixtures

    Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Takeji; Han, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The lateral and vertical components of the radius of gyration for a single block copolymer chain and those of a single homopolymer chain in the lamellar microdomain space formed by a mixture of diblock copolymers and homopolymers were investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and the microdomain structures by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The homopolymers whose molecular weights are much smaller than that of the corresponding chains of the block copolymers were used so that the homopolymers were uniformly solubilized in the corresponding microdomains. The SANS result suggests that the homopolymer chains in the microdomain space as well as the block copolymer chains are more compressed in the direction parallel to the interface and more stretched in the direction perpendicular to the interface than the corresponding unperturbed polymer chains with the same molecular weight. On increasing the volume fraction of the homopolymers the thickness of the lamellar microdomains increases. The block copolymer chains were found to undergo an isochoric affine deformation on addition of the homopolymers or with the change of the thickness of the lamellar microdomains. (orig.)

  1. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India E-mail: debes.phys@gmail.com (India)

    2016-05-23

    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO{sub 26}PO{sub 39}EO{sub 26})] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle–surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  2. Initial Mechanical Testing of Superalloy Lattice Block Structures Conducted

    Krause, David L.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The first mechanical tests of superalloy lattice block structures produced promising results for this exciting new lightweight material system. The testing was performed in-house at NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Benchmark Test Facility, where small subelement-sized compression and beam specimens were loaded to observe elastic and plastic behavior, component strength levels, and fatigue resistance for hundreds of thousands of load cycles. Current lattice block construction produces a flat panel composed of thin ligaments arranged in a three-dimensional triangulated trusslike structure. Investment casting of lattice block panels has been developed and greatly expands opportunities for using this unique architecture in today's high-performance structures. In addition, advances made in NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program have extended the lattice block concept to superalloy materials. After a series of casting iterations, the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN 718, Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV) was successfully cast into lattice block panels; this combination offers light weight combined with high strength, high stiffness, and elevated-temperature durability. For tests to evaluate casting quality and configuration merit, small structural compression and bend test specimens were machined from the 5- by 12- by 0.5-in. panels. Linear elastic finite element analyses were completed for several specimen layouts to predict material stresses and deflections under proposed test conditions. The structural specimens were then subjected to room-temperature static and cyclic loads in Glenn's Life Prediction Branch's material test machine. Surprisingly, the test results exceeded analytical predictions: plastic strains greater than 5 percent were obtained, and fatigue lives did not depreciate relative to the base material. These assets were due to the formation of plastic hinges and the redundancies inherent in lattice block construction

  3. Minimum Description Length Block Finder, a Method to Identify Haplotype Blocks and to Compare the Strength of Block Boundaries

    Mannila, H.; Koivisto, M.; Perola, M.; Varilo, T.; Hennah, W.; Ekelund, J.; Lukk, M.; Peltonen, L.; Ukkonen, E.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new probabilistic method for finding haplotype blocks that is based on the use of the minimum description length (MDL) principle. We give a rigorous definition of the quality of a segmentation of a genomic region into blocks and describe a dynamic programming algorithm for finding the optimal segmentation with respect to this measure. We also describe a method for finding the probability of a block boundary for each pair of adjacent markers: this gives a tool for evaluating the ...

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STIFFNESS LOSSES AND LOSSES IN BEARINGS OF ROPE BLOCKS

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the efficiency of rope blocks, it is necessary to determine the stiffness coefficient of the ropes of blocks, taking into account the classification group of the mechanism and the wrapping angle of a block by a rope. At this one should use well-tested values of the efficiency coefficients of the rope blocks, taking into account the wrapping angle of a block by a rope and the analytically found friction coefficients of the rolling bearings given to the trunnion. Methodology. The work presents the analytical method of determining the coefficient of bearing resistance of the block when it is rotated by both the inner and outer cages, as well as the design scheme of the bearing of the block. Findings. The analysis of the lubrication method effect, the operating mode of the mechanism and the wrapping angle of a block by a rope on losses in bearings was carried out for rope blocks. The corresponding comparative tables of losses are given. Analysis of the obtained calculation results allows us to establish: 1 the main resistance affecting the cable blocks efficiency is the resistance in bearings; 2 the second largest component is the stiffness losses, depending on the operating mode, the wrapping angle of a block by a rope, the type of bearing lubrication; 3 the block efficiency when rotating the inner cage is higher than rotating the outer one by about 3% with thick lubrication and 1M mode; 4 in the sequential location of assemblies with a rolling bearing, it is necessary to strive for the design of the assembly in which the inner cage rotates; 5 with the number of blocks up to 5, one can use the recommended definitions of block bearings in the literature with an error in the efficiency value of up to 10%. Originality. The authors obtained values of resistances in the rolling bearings of the rope blocks and stiffness losses due to the girth of the block by the rope. In this case, dependences were used to determine the coefficient

  5. Reusable Component Services

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  6. Software component quality evaluation

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  7. A PMT-Block test bench

    Adragna, P.; Antonaki, A.

    2006-01-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported

  8. A PMT-Block test bench

    Adragna, P [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Fermi' , Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Universita degli studi di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Antonaki, A [Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications, P.O. Box 17214, Athens 10024 (Greece); National Capodistrian University of Athens, 30 Panepistimiou st., Athens 10679 (Greece)] (and others)

    2006-08-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported.

  9. Reactor component automatic grapple

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  10. Repurposing learning object components

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  11. Towards understanding the known-key security of block ciphers

    Andreeva, Elena; Bogdanov, Andrey; Mennink, Bart

    2014-01-01

    ciphers based on ideal components such as random permutations and random functions as well as propose new generic known-key attacks on generalized Feistel ciphers. We introduce the notion of known-key indifferentiability to capture the security of such block ciphers under a known key. To show its...... meaningfulness, we prove that the known-key attacks on block ciphers with ideal primitives to date violate security under known-key indifferentiability. On the other hand, to demonstrate its constructiveness, we prove the balanced Feistel cipher with random functions and the multiple Even-Mansour cipher...... with random permutations known-key indifferentiable for a sufficient number of rounds. We note that known-key indifferentiability is more quickly and tightly attained by multiple Even-Mansour which puts it forward as a construction provably secure against known-key attacks....

  12. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique

    Thangavelu, K.; Kannan, R.; Kumar, N. Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple techni...

  13. A MAC Mode for Lightweight Block Ciphers

    Luykx, Atul; Preneel, Bart; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight cryptography strives to protect communication in constrained environments without sacrificing security. However, security often conflicts with efficiency, shown by the fact that many new lightweight block cipher designs have block sizes as low as 64 or 32 bits. Such low block sizes lead...... no effect on the security bound, allowing an order of magnitude more data to be processed per key. Furthermore, LightMAC is incredibly simple, has almost no overhead over the block cipher, and is parallelizable. As a result, LightMAC not only offers compact authentication for resource-constrained platforms...

  14. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  15. CAPTURING REALITY AT CENTRE BLOCK

    C. Boulanger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Centre Block of Canada’s Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  16. Capturing Reality at Centre Block

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  17. Building blocks of the universe

    Malamud, E.; O'Connor, C.; Cooper, A.

    1990-01-01

    COSI [Ohio's Center for Science and Industry], a well established science center, and SciTech, an emerging one, have formed a collaboration to develop a group of original interactive exhibits conveying to a wide audience the nature of the most fundamental features of the Universe, as revealed in the fascinating world of nuclear and particle science. These new exhibits will add to, and be supported by, the basic science exhibits which have already attracted large numbers of visitors to both centers. The new project, called Building Blocks of the Universe, aims to foster an appreciation of the way all features of the Universe arise from simple, basic rules and to lead the visitor from the perceived complexities of our surroundings, to the unperceived, but simpler features of the sub-nuclear world. It has already become apparent from individual prototypes that these simple but immensely far-reaching ideas can indeed be conveyed by hands-on exhibits. These exhibits will be linked and enhanced by an effective museum environment, using pictorial diagrams, accurate non-technical text, and artistic displays to create an atmosphere in which visitors can learn about phenomena beyond the range of direct perception. This paper describes the goals, content and organization of the exhibition. The authors also outline their experience with prototype exhibits, and thereby invite additional input into the development process

  18. Comparative study between ultrasound guided tap block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries. Randomized controlled trial

    Ruqaya M. Elsayed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transversus abdominis block.

  19. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  20. Cationic PAMAM dendrimers as pore-blocking binary toxin inhibitors.

    Förstner, Philip; Bayer, Fabienne; Kalu, Nnanya; Felsen, Susanne; Förtsch, Christina; Aloufi, Abrar; Ng, David Y W; Weil, Tanja; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M; Barth, Holger

    2014-07-14

    Dendrimers are unique highly branched macromolecules with numerous groundbreaking biomedical applications under development. Here we identified poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as novel blockers for the pore-forming B components of the binary anthrax toxin (PA63) and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin (C2IIa). These pores are essential for delivery of the enzymatic A components of the internalized toxins from endosomes into the cytosol of target cells. We demonstrate that at low μM concentrations cationic PAMAM dendrimers block PA63 and C2IIa to inhibit channel-mediated transport of the A components, thereby protecting HeLa and Vero cells from intoxication. By channel reconstitution and high-resolution current recording, we show that the PAMAM dendrimers obstruct transmembrane PA63 and C2IIa pores in planar lipid bilayers at nM concentrations. These findings suggest a new potential role for the PAMAM dendrimers as effective polyvalent channel-blocking inhibitors, which can protect human target cells from intoxication with binary toxins from pathogenic bacteria.

  1. Micellar aggregates of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers in water and THF

    Loos, Katja; Böker, Alexander; Zettl, Heiko; Zhang, Mingfu; Krausch, Georg; Müller, Axel H.E.; Boker, A.; Zhang, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Amylose-block-polystyrenes with various block copolymer compositions were investigated in water and in THF solution. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, dynamic light, scattering (DLS), and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation with multiangle light scattering detection indicate the presence

  2. Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects

    Christof, Karin

    1985-01-01

    Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects / K. Christof ; F. Pukelsheim. - In: Linear statistical inference / ed. by T. Calinski ... - Berlin u. a. : Springer, 1985. - S. 20-28. - (Lecture notes in statistics ; 35)

  3. Distribution of short block copolymer chains in Binary Blends of Block Copolymers Having Hydrogen Bonding

    Kwak, Jongheon; Han, Sunghyun; Kim, Jin Kon

    2014-03-01

    A binary mixture of two block copolymers whose blocks are capable of forming the hydrogen bonding allows one to obtain various microdomains that could not be expected for neat block copolymer. For instance, the binary blend of symmetric polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and polystyrene-block-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer (PS-b-PHS) blends where the hydrogen bonding occurred between P2VP and PHS showed hexagonally packed (HEX) cylindrical and body centered cubic (BCC) spherical microdomains. To know the exact location of short block copolymer chains at the interface, we synthesized deuterated polystyrene-block-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer (dPS-b-PHS) and prepared a binary mixture with PS-b-P2VP. We investigate, via small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and neutron reflectivity (NR), the exact location of shorter dPS block chain near the interface of the microdomains.

  4. Block Gas Sol Unit in Haderslev

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark.......Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark....

  5. Ground reaction curve based upon block theory

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Goodman, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender

  6. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  7. On multiple blocking sets in Galois planes

    Blokhuis, A.; Lovász, L.; Storme, L.; Szönyi, T.

    2007-01-01

    This article continues the study of multiple blocking sets in PG(2, q). In [A. Blokhuis, L. Storme, T. Szonyi, Lacunary polynomials, multiple blocking sets and Baer subplanes. J. London Math. Soc. (2) 60 (1999), 321–332. MR1724814 (2000j:05025) Zbl 0940.51007], using lacunary polynomials, it was

  8. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  9. Programs for the calculi of blocks permeabilities

    Gomez Hernandez, J.J.; Sovero Sovero, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    This report studies the stochastic analysis of radionuclide transport. The permeability values of blocks are necessary to do a numeric model for the flux and transport problems in ground soils. The determination of block value by function on grill value is the objective of this program

  10. Substrate tolerant direct block copolymer nanolithography

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymer (BC) self-assembly constitutes a powerful platform for nanolithography. However, there is a need for a general approach to BC lithography that critically considers all the steps from substrate preparation to the final pattern transfer. We present a procedure that significantly sim...... plasma treatment enables formation of the oxidized PDMS hard mask, PS block removal and polymer or graphene substrate patterning....

  11. Benchmarking Block Ciphers for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2004-01-01

    Choosing the most storage- and energy-efficient block cipher specifically for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is not as straightforward as it seems. To our knowledge so far, there is no systematic evaluation framework for the purpose. We have identified the candidates of block ciphers suitable for

  12. Block Study: Learning About Your Local Community.

    Eckbreth, Catherine

    Designed for 7th- and 8th-grade students, five lessons using a block of houses in an urban neighborhood help students learn about the history of a neighborhood, the owners of the houses, and the style and architectural features of the homes. Although this unit has been developed for a specific neighborhood, a similar block study could be conducted…

  13. Metallo-supramolecular block copolymer micelles

    Gohy, J.M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Supramolecular copolymers have become of increasing interest in recent years in the search for new materials with tunable properties. In particular, metallo-supramolecular block copolymers in which metal-ligand complexes are introduced in block copolymer architectures, have known important progress,

  14. Block Empirical Likelihood for Longitudinal Single-Index Varying-Coefficient Model

    Yunquan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a single-index varying-coefficient model with application to longitudinal data. In order to accommodate the within-group correlation, we apply the block empirical likelihood procedure to longitudinal single-index varying-coefficient model, and prove a nonparametric version of Wilks’ theorem which can be used to construct the block empirical likelihood confidence region with asymptotically correct coverage probability for the parametric component. In comparison with normal approximations, the proposed method does not require a consistent estimator for the asymptotic covariance matrix, making it easier to conduct inference for the model's parametric component. Simulations demonstrate how the proposed method works.

  15. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  16. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    Guo, Fengxiao

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential...... functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed......, where living anionic polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are combined to synthesize a polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene (PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS) triblock copolymer precursor. By using either anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or trifluoroacetic acid, PtBA block...

  17. A flexible framework for sparse simultaneous component based data integration

    Van Deun Katrijn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 1 Background High throughput data are complex and methods that reveal structure underlying the data are most useful. Principal component analysis, frequently implemented as a singular value decomposition, is a popular technique in this respect. Nowadays often the challenge is to reveal structure in several sources of information (e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics that are available for the same biological entities under study. Simultaneous component methods are most promising in this respect. However, the interpretation of the principal and simultaneous components is often daunting because contributions of each of the biomolecules (transcripts, proteins have to be taken into account. 2 Results We propose a sparse simultaneous component method that makes many of the parameters redundant by shrinking them to zero. It includes principal component analysis, sparse principal component analysis, and ordinary simultaneous component analysis as special cases. Several penalties can be tuned that account in different ways for the block structure present in the integrated data. This yields known sparse approaches as the lasso, the ridge penalty, the elastic net, the group lasso, sparse group lasso, and elitist lasso. In addition, the algorithmic results can be easily transposed to the context of regression. Metabolomics data obtained with two measurement platforms for the same set of Escherichia coli samples are used to illustrate the proposed methodology and the properties of different penalties with respect to sparseness across and within data blocks. 3 Conclusion Sparse simultaneous component analysis is a useful method for data integration: First, simultaneous analyses of multiple blocks offer advantages over sequential and separate analyses and second, interpretation of the results is highly facilitated by their sparseness. The approach offered is flexible and allows to take the block structure in different ways into account. As such

  18. A flexible framework for sparse simultaneous component based data integration.

    Van Deun, Katrijn; Wilderjans, Tom F; van den Berg, Robert A; Antoniadis, Anestis; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2011-11-15

    High throughput data are complex and methods that reveal structure underlying the data are most useful. Principal component analysis, frequently implemented as a singular value decomposition, is a popular technique in this respect. Nowadays often the challenge is to reveal structure in several sources of information (e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics) that are available for the same biological entities under study. Simultaneous component methods are most promising in this respect. However, the interpretation of the principal and simultaneous components is often daunting because contributions of each of the biomolecules (transcripts, proteins) have to be taken into account. We propose a sparse simultaneous component method that makes many of the parameters redundant by shrinking them to zero. It includes principal component analysis, sparse principal component analysis, and ordinary simultaneous component analysis as special cases. Several penalties can be tuned that account in different ways for the block structure present in the integrated data. This yields known sparse approaches as the lasso, the ridge penalty, the elastic net, the group lasso, sparse group lasso, and elitist lasso. In addition, the algorithmic results can be easily transposed to the context of regression. Metabolomics data obtained with two measurement platforms for the same set of Escherichia coli samples are used to illustrate the proposed methodology and the properties of different penalties with respect to sparseness across and within data blocks. Sparse simultaneous component analysis is a useful method for data integration: First, simultaneous analyses of multiple blocks offer advantages over sequential and separate analyses and second, interpretation of the results is highly facilitated by their sparseness. The approach offered is flexible and allows to take the block structure in different ways into account. As such, structures can be found that are exclusively tied to one data platform

  19. Thinking Outside the Block: An Innovative Alternative to 4X4 Block Scheduling.

    Frank, Myra

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a 4x1 block scheduling method that was developed as an alternative to 4x4 block scheduling. Schedules Fridays for summer school, test preparation, and enrichment and elective courses. Includes suggestions on how to alleviate drawbacks of the 4x1 block schedule. (YDS)

  20. Supply chain components

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  1. Supply chain components

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  2. Control component retainer

    Walton, L.A.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  3. Component design for LMFBR's

    Fillnow, R.H.; France, L.L.; Zerinvary, M.C.; Fox, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Just as FFTF has prototype components to confirm their design, FFTF is serving as a prototype for the design of the commercial LMFBR's. Design and manufacture of critical components for the FFTF system have been accomplished primarily using vendors with little or no previous experience in supplying components for high temperature sodium systems. The exposure of these suppliers, and through them a multitude of subcontractors, to the requirements of this program has been a necessary and significant step in preparing American industry for the task of supplying the large mechanical components required for commercial LMFBR's

  4. Hot gas path component

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward

    2017-09-12

    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  5. Algorithmic fault tree construction by component-based system modeling

    Majdara, Aref; Wakabayashi, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Computer-aided fault tree generation can be easier, faster and less vulnerable to errors than the conventional manual fault tree construction. In this paper, a new approach for algorithmic fault tree generation is presented. The method mainly consists of a component-based system modeling procedure an a trace-back algorithm for fault tree synthesis. Components, as the building blocks of systems, are modeled using function tables and state transition tables. The proposed method can be used for a wide range of systems with various kinds of components, if an inclusive component database is developed. (author)

  6. Screening synteny blocks in pairwise genome comparisons through integer programming.

    Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Pedersen, Brent; Schnable, James C; Paterson, Andrew H; Freeling, Michael

    2011-04-18

    -based screening can eliminate ambiguous synteny blocks and focus on specific genomic evolutionary events, like the divergence of lineages (in cross-species comparisons) and the most recent WGD (in self comparisons). The QUOTA-ALIGN algorithm screens a set of synteny blocks to retain only those compatible with a user specified ploidy relationship between two genomes. These blocks, in turn, may be used for additional downstream analyses such as identifying true orthologous regions in interspecific comparisons. There are two major contributions of QUOTA-ALIGN: 1) reducing the block screening task to a BIP problem, which is novel; 2) providing an efficient software pipeline starting from all-against-all BLAST to the screened synteny blocks with dot plot visualizations. Python codes and full documentations are publicly available http://github.com/tanghaibao/quota-alignment. QUOTA-ALIGN program is also integrated as a major component in SynMap http://genomevolution.com/CoGe/SynMap.pl, offering easier access to thousands of genomes for non-programmers. © 2011 Tang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  7. Paravertebral Block Plus Thoracic Wall Block versus Paravertebral Block Alone for Analgesia of Modified Radical Mastectomy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Nai-Liang Li

    Full Text Available Paravertebral block placement was the main anesthetic technique for modified radical mastectomy in our hospital until February 2014, when its combination with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature was initiated. We compared the analgesic effects of paravertebral blocks with or without blocks targeting the pectoral musculature for modified radical mastectomy.We retrospectively collected data from a single surgeon and anesthesiologist from June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015. Intraoperative sedatives and analgesic requirements, time to the first analgesic request, postoperative analgesic doses, patient satisfaction, and complications were compared.Fifty-four patients received a paravertebral block alone (PECS 0, and 46 received a paravertebral block combined with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature (PECS 1. The highest intraoperative effect-site concentration of propofol was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group than in the PECS 0 group [2.3 (1.5, 2.8 vs 2.5 (1.5, 4 μg/mL, p = 0.0014]. The intraoperative rescue analgesic dose was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group [0 (0, 25 vs 0 (0, 75 mg of ketamine, p = 0.0384]. Furthermore, the PECS 1 group had a significantly longer time to the first analgesic request [636.5 (15, 720 vs 182.5 (14, 720 min, p = 0.0001]. After further adjustment for age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification, chronic pain history, incidence of a superficial cervical plexus block placement, and operation duration, blocks targeting the pectoral musculature were determined to be the only significant factor (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.58; p < 0.0001. Very few patients used potent analgesics including morphine and ketorolac; the cumulative use of morphine or ketorolac was similar in the study groups. However, the incidence of all analgesic use, namely morphine, ketorolac, acetaminophen, and celecoxib, was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group [3

  8. Block Copolymers: Synthesis and Applications in Nanotechnology

    Lou, Qin

    This study is focused on the synthesis and study of (block) copolymers using reversible deactivation radical polymerizations (RDRPs), including atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. In particular, two primary areas of study are undertaken: (1) a proof-of-concept application of lithographic block copolymers, and (2) the mechanistic study of the deposition of titania into block copolymer templates for the production of well-ordered titania nanostructures. Block copolymers have the ability to undergo microphase separation, with an average size of each microphase ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers. As such, block copolymers have been widely considered for nanotechnological applications over the past two decades. The development of materials for various nanotechnologies has become an increasingly studied area as improvements in many applications, such as those found in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries are constantly being sought. Significant growth in developments of new synthetic methods ( i.e. RDRPs) has allowed the production of block copolymers with molecular (and sometimes atomic) definition. In turn, this has greatly expanded the use of block copolymers in nanotechnology. Herein, we describe the synthesis of statistical and block copolymers of 193 nm photolithography methacrylate and acrylate resist monomers with norbornyl and adamantyl moieties using RAFT polymerization.. For these resist (block) copolymers, the phase separation behaviors were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). End groups were removed from the polymers to avoid complications during the photolithography since RAFT end groups absorb visible light. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-block-polystyrene) (PGMA-b-PS) was synthesize by ATRP and demonstrated that this block copolymer acts as both a lithographic UV (365 nm) photoresist and a self-assembly material. The PGMA segments can undergo cationic

  9. Assembling Components using SysML with Non-Functional Requirements

    Chouali , Samir; Hammad , Ahmed; Mountassir , Hassan

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Non-functional requirements of component based systems are important as their functional requirements, therefore they must be considered in components assembly. These properties are beforehand specified with SysML requirement diagram. We specify component based system architecture with SysML block definition diagram, and component behaviors with sequence diagrams. We propose to specify formally component interfaces with interface automata, obtained from requirement and...

  10. Masquerading bundle branch block as a presenting manifestation of complete atrioventricular block that caused syncope.

    Jiao, Zhenyu; Tian, Ying; Yang, Xinchun; Liu, Xingpeng

    2017-10-01

    A 59-year-old male patient was admitted with the main complaints of stuffiness and shortness of breath. An ECG from precordial leads on admission showed masquerading bundle branch block. Syncope frequently occurred after admission. During syncope episodes, ECG telemetry showed that the syncope was caused by intermittent complete atrioventricular block, with the longest RR interval lasting for 4.36 s. At the gap of syncope, ECG showed complete right bundle branch block accompanied by alternation of left anterior fascicular block and left posterior fascicular block. The patient was implanted with a dual-chamber permanent pacemaker. Follow-up of 9 months showed no reoccurrence of syncope.

  11. Erector spinae plane block for radical mastectomy: A new indication?

    Veiga, M; Costa, D; Brazão, I

    2018-02-01

    The erector spinae plane block is a technique recently described by Forero et al. in September 2016. It has applications in the control of chronic pain with neuropathic component of the chest wall, and for pain control in thoracoscopic surgery. In this article, we describe the use of this technique as part of a multimodal analgesic approach in a 40-year-old woman, who underwent radical mastectomy due to breast cancer. By performing this block before anesthetic induction, we have achieved an opioid sparing effect, avoiding a possible immunomodulatory effect, although not yet proven in humans. During hospitalization, the patient reported no pain (0/10 in numeric scale), without resorting to rescue analgesia. The easy, fast and safe execution of erector spinae plane block makes it a promising technique in the context of surgical pain during radical mastectomy. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Fast breeder reactor-block antiseismic design and verification

    Martelli, A.; Forni, M.

    1988-02-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Fast Breeder Reactor-Block Antiseismic Design and Verification'' was organized by the ENEA Fast Reactor Department in co-operation with the International Working Group (IWGFR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the recommendations of the 19th IAEA/IWGFR Meeting. It was held in Bologna, at the Headquarters of the ENEA Fast Reactor Department, on October 12-15, 1987, in the framework of the Celebrations for the Ninth Centenary of the Bologna University. The proceedings of the meeting consists of three parts. Part 1 contains the introduction and general comments, the agenda of the meeting, session summaries, conclusions and recommendations and the list of participants. Part 2 contains 8 status reports of Member States participating in the Working Group. Contributed papers were published in Part 3 and were further subdivided into 5 sessions as follows: whole reactor-block analysis (4 papers); whole reactor-block analysis (sloshing and buckling, seismic isolation effects) (8 papers); detailed core analysis (6 papers); shutdown systems and core structural and functional verifications (6 papers); component and piping analysis (7 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 8 status reports and 31 contributed papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. UV-blocking potential of oils and juices.

    Gause, S; Chauhan, A

    2016-08-01

    Sunscreens are commonly used to protect the body from damage caused by UV light. Some components of organic sunscreens have been shown to pass through the skin during wear which could raise toxicity concerns for these compounds. This study explores the potential for oils and fruit and vegetable juices to be substitutes for these compounds. The absorptivity of various oils (canola oil, citronella oil, coconut oil, olive oil, soya bean oil, vitamin E, as well as aloe vera) and fruit and vegetable juices (acerola, beet, grape, orange carrot, purple carrot and raspberry) was measured in vitro. The mean absorptivity was compared with FDA-approved UV absorbers to gauge the potential of the natural products. The most promising candidates were incorporated into formulations, and the UV transmittance of a 20-μm-thick film of the formulation was measured. The formulations were also imaged by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The absorptivity of oils was at least two orders of magnitude lower compared to the commercial UV blockers. The fruit juice powders were more effective at UV blocking but still showed an order of magnitude lower absorptivity compared to commercial UV blockers. The UV blocking from most natural oils is insufficient to obtain a significant UV protection. Formulations containing 50wt% purple carrot showed good UV-blocking capabilities and represent a promising ingredient for sunscreen and cosmetic applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Components of Sexual Identity

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  15. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  16. Toward Composable Hardware Agnostic Communications Blocks Lessons Learned

    2016-11-01

    block-by-block level or on a multi- block level. In the block-by-block pushback approach, queues between each block are small and blocks processing data...medium access, and physical layers of the waveform has limited our ability to take advantage of technology advances in signal processing , rate...pro- cessing functions, and application processing functions as shown in Figure 1 [1]. Transceiver functions are functions associated with transmitting

  17. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique.

    Thangavelu, K; Kannan, R; Kumar, N Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages.

  18. Composing simulations using persistent software components

    Holland, J.V.; Michelsen, R.E.; Powell, D.R.; Upton, S.C.; Thompson, D.R.

    1999-03-01

    The traditional process for developing large-scale simulations is cumbersome, time consuming, costly, and in some cases, inadequate. The topics of software components and component-based software engineering are being explored by software professionals in academic and industrial settings. A component is a well-delineated, relatively independent, and replaceable part of a software system that performs a specific function. Many researchers have addressed the potential to derive a component-based approach to simulations in general, and a few have focused on military simulations in particular. In a component-based approach, functional or logical blocks of the simulation entities are represented as coherent collections of components satisfying explicitly defined interface requirements. A simulation is a top-level aggregate comprised of a collection of components that interact with each other in the context of a simulated environment. A component may represent a simulation artifact, an agent, or any entity that can generated events affecting itself, other simulated entities, or the state of the system. The component-based approach promotes code reuse, contributes to reducing time spent validating or verifying models, and promises to reduce the cost of development while still delivering tailored simulations specific to analysis questions. The Integrated Virtual Environment for Simulation (IVES) is a composition-centered framework to achieve this potential. IVES is a Java implementation of simulation composition concepts developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in several application domains. In this paper, its use in the military domain is demonstrated via the simulation of dismounted infantry in an urban environment.

  19. Wrong-site nerve blocks: A systematic literature review to guide principles for prevention.

    Deutsch, Ellen S; Yonash, Robert A; Martin, Donald E; Atkins, Joshua H; Arnold, Theresa V; Hunt, Christina M

    2018-05-01

    Wrong-site nerve blocks (WSBs) are a significant, though rare, source of perioperative morbidity. WSBs constitute the most common type of perioperative wrong-site procedure reported to the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. This systematic literature review aggregates information about the incidence, patient consequences, and conditions that contribute to WSBs, as well as evidence-based methods to prevent them. A systematic search of English-language publications was performed, using the PRISMA process. Seventy English-language publications were identified. Analysis of four publications reporting on at least 10,000 blocks provides a rate of 0.52 to 5.07 WSB per 10,000 blocks, unilateral blocks, or "at risk" procedures. The most commonly mentioned potential consequence was local anesthetic toxicity. The most commonly mentioned contributory factors were time pressure, personnel factors, and lack of site-mark visibility (including no site mark placed). Components of the block process that were addressed include preoperative nerve-block verification, nerve-block site marking, time-outs, and the healthcare facility's structure and culture of safety. A lack of uniform reporting criteria and divergence in the data and theories presented may reflect the variety of circumstances affecting when and how nerve blocks are performed, as well as the infrequency of a WSB. However, multiple authors suggest three procedural steps that may help to prevent WSBs: (1) verify the nerve-block procedure using multiple sources of information, including the patient; (2) identify the nerve-block site with a visible mark; and (3) perform time-outs immediately prior to injection or instillation of the anesthetic. Hospitals, ambulatory surgical centers, and anesthesiology practices should consider creating site-verification processes with clinician input and support to develop sustainable WSB-prevention practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Conduction block: a notion to let through].

    Fournier, E

    2012-12-01

    Historical study of electrodiagnosis indicates that nerve conduction block is an old notion, used as early as the second century by Galien and then early in the 19th by physiologists such as Müller and Mateucci. Although introduced into the field of human pathology by Mitchell in 1872, who used it to study nerve injuries, and then by Erb in 1874 to study radial palsy, the contribution of nerve conduction blocks to electrodiagnosis was not exploited until the 1980s. At that time, attempts to improve early diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome showed that among the electrophysiological consequences of demyelination, conduction block was the most appropriate to account for the paralysis. At the same time, descriptions of neuropathies characterized by conduction blocks led to considering conduction block as a major electrophysiological sign. Why was it so difficult for this sign to be retained for electrodiagnosis? Since the notion is not always associated with anatomical lesions, it doesn't fit easily into anatomoclinical reasoning, but has to be thought of in functional terms. Understanding how an uninjured axon could fail to conduct action potentials leads to an examination of the intimate consequences of demyelinations and axonal dysfunctions. But some of the difficulty encountered in adding this new old sign to the armamentarium of electrophysiological diagnosis was related to the technical precautions required to individualize a block. Several pitfalls have to be avoided if a conduction block is to be afforded real diagnostic value. Similar precautions and discussions are also needed to establish an opposing sign, the "excitability block" or "inverse block". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. CT and fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block

    Lim, Sun Kyung; Kwon, Dae Ik; Ahn, Hyup; Kim, Jong Il; Kim, Byung Young; Lee, Jong Gil

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effects and usefulness of fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block after marking of needle path with CT scan. Celiac ganglion block with 100% ethyl alcohol was performed in 50 cancer patients who were inoperable and had intractable abdominal pain. Duration and degree of pain relief after the procedure and its complication were analyzed. Early pain relief was observed in 98% and long term relief in 68% without serious complication. Fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block after marking of needle path with CT scan was a safe and valuable procedure in relieving intractable pain in terminal cancer patients and reduced the time in the CT room

  2. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  3. Evaluative Conditioning is Insensitive to Blocking

    Tom Beckers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning has been claimed to have a number of functional characteristics that set it apart from other forms of associative learning in humans, such as insensitivity to extinction and contingency, independence of contingency awareness, and insensitivity to modulation. Despite its potential theoretical importance, until now few data are available concerning the susceptibility of evaluative conditioning to cue competition effects such as blocking. In the present study, we assessed the susceptibility of acquired preferences and evaluations to blocking in a candy game. Results suggest that evaluative conditioning is not susceptible to blocking. We discuss this observation in the light of theoretical accounts of evaluative conditioning and associative learning in humans.

  4. Blocks and families for cyclotomic Hecke algebras

    Chlouveraki, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The definition of Rouquier for the families of characters introduced by Lusztig for Weyl groups in terms of blocks of the Hecke algebras has made possible the generalization of this notion to the case of complex reflection groups. The aim of this book is to study the blocks and to determine the families of characters for all cyclotomic Hecke algebras associated to complex reflection groups. This volume offers a thorough study of symmetric algebras, covering topics such as block theory, representation theory and Clifford theory, and can also serve as an introduction to the Hecke algebras of complex reflection groups.

  5. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    S. Henzler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.

  6. Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks

    Isachenkov, Mikhail

    2016-02-01

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  7. Productivity assessment of Angola's oil blocks

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Managi, Shunsuke

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the change in productivity as a result of Angola oil policy from 2001 to 2007. Angola oil blocks are the main source of tax receipts and, therefore, strategically important for public finances. A Malmquist index with the input technological bias is applied to measure productivity change. Oil blocks on average became both more efficient and experienced technological progress. Our results indicate that the traditional growth accounting method, which assumes Hicks neutral technological change, is not appropriate for analyzing changes in productivity for Angola oil blocks. Policy implications are derived. (author)

  8. Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks

    Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astronomy; Schomerus, Volker [DESY Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  9. Round Gating for Low Energy Block Ciphers

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    design techniques for implementing block ciphers in a low energy fashion. We concentrate on round based implementation and we discuss how gating, applied at round level can affect and improve the energy consumption of the most common lightweight block cipher currently used in the internet of things....... Additionally, we discuss how to needed gating wave can be generated. Experimental results show that our technique is able to reduce the energy consumption in most block ciphers by over 60% while incurring only a minimal overhead in hardware....

  10. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems...... of such PEG-based block copolymers in aqueous suspensions are reviewed. Based on scattering experiments using either X-ray or neutrons, the phase behavior is characterized, showing that the thermo-reversible gelation is a result of micellar ordering into mesoscopic crystalline phases of cubic, hexagonal...

  11. Seismic proof test of shielding block walls

    Ohte, Yukio; Watanabe, Takahide; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Kazuhide

    1989-01-01

    Most of the shielding block walls used for building nuclear facilities are built by dry process. When a nuclear facility is designed, seismic waves specific at each site are set as input seismic motions and they are adopted in the design. Therefore, it is necessary to assure safety of the shielding block walls for earthquake by performing anti-seismic experiments under the conditions at each site. In order to establish the normal form that can be applied to various seismic conditions in various areas, Shimizu Corp. made an actual-size test samples for the shielding block wall and confirmed the safety for earthquake and validity of normalization. (author)

  12. Principle design and data of graphite components

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Oku, Tatsuo

    2004-01-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is a graphite-moderated and helium-gas-cooled reactor with prismatic fuel elements of hexagonal blocks. The reactor internal structures of the HTTR are mainly made up of graphite components. As well known, the graphite is a brittle material and there were no available design criteria for brittle materials. Therefore, JAERI had to develop the design criteria taking account of the brittle fracture behavior. In this paper, concept and key specification of the developed graphite design criteria is described, and also an outline of the quality control specified in the design criteria is mentioned

  13. GCS component development cycle

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  14. 2-component heating systems

    Radtke, W

    1987-03-01

    The knowledge accumulated only recently of the damage to buildings and the hazards of formaldehyde, radon and hydrocarbons has been inducing louder calls for ventilation, which, on their part, account for the fact that increasing importance is being attached to the controlled ventilation of buildings. Two-component heating systems provide for fresh air and thermal comfort in one. While the first component uses fresh air blown directly and controllably into the rooms, the second component is similar to the Roman hypocaustic heating systems, meaning that heated outer air is circulating under the floor, thus providing for hot surfaces and thermal comfort. Details concerning the two-component heating system are presented along with systems diagrams, diagrams of the heating system and tables identifying the respective costs. Descriptions are given of the two systems components, the fast heat-up, the two-component made, the change of air, heat recovery and control systems. Comparative evaluations determine the differences between two-component heating systems and other heating systems. Conclusive remarks are dedicated to energy conservation and comparative evaluations of costs. (HWJ).

  15. Two-component thermosensitive hydrogels : Phase separation affecting rheological behavior

    Abbadessa, Anna; Landín, Mariana; Oude Blenke, Erik; Hennink, Wim E.; Vermonden, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular matrices are mainly composed of a mixture of different biopolymers and therefore the use of two or more building blocks for the development of tissue-mimicking hydrogels is nowadays an attractive strategy in tissue-engineering. Multi-component hydrogel systems may undergo phase

  16. [Pharmacology of local anesthetics and clinical aspects of segmental blocking. II. Spinal anesthesia].

    Kozlov, S P; Svetlov, V A; Luk'ianov, M V

    1998-01-01

    Clinical picture of development of segmental blocking after subarachnoidal injection of hyperbaric solutions of 0.75% bupivacaine, 5% ultracaine, and isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine is studied. A total of 152 patients operated on the lower part of the body and the lower limbs were examined under conditions of single, prolonged subarachnoidal, and combined spinal epidural anesthesia. Ultracaine and bupivacaine in different concentrations with different barism provided anesthesia equivalent by the efficacy, depth, and dissemination of sensory block. Segmental blocking with 5% ultracaine was characterized by the shortest latent period (3.14 +/- 0.16 min, p anesthesia in comparison with a single injection, and combined spinal epidural anesthesia shortened the latent period of segmental blocking and ensured intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative analgesia at the expense of the epidural component.

  17. Synthesis and morphology of hydroxyapatite/polyethylene oxide nanocomposites with block copolymer compatibilized interfaces

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Shofner, Meisha

    2012-02-01

    In order to exploit the promise of polymer nanocomposites, special consideration should be given to component interfaces during synthesis and processing. Previous results from this group have shown that nanoparticles clustered into larger structures consistent with their native shape when the polymer matrix crystallinity was high. Therefore in this research, the nanoparticles are disguised from a highly-crystalline polymer matrix by cloaking them with a matrix-compatible block copolymer. Specifically, spherical and needle-shaped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized using a block copolymer templating method. The block copolymer used, polyethylene oxide-b-polymethacrylic acid, remained on the nanoparticle surface following synthesis with the polyethylene oxide block exposed. These nanoparticles were subsequently added to a polyethylene oxide matrix using solution processing. Characterization of the nanocomposites indicated that the copolymer coating prevented the nanoparticles from assembling into ordered clusters and that the matrix crystallinity was decreased at a nanoparticle spacing of approximately 100 nm.

  18. Self-Assembly of Block Copolymer Chains To Promote the Dispersion of Nanoparticles in Polymer Nanocomposites

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we adopt molecular dynamics simulations to study the amphiphilic AB block copolymer (BCP) mediated nanoparticle (NP) dispersion in polymer nanocomposites (PNCs), with the A-block being compatible with the NPs and the B-block being miscible with the polymer matrix. The effects of the number and components of BCP, as well as the interaction strength between A-block and NPs on the spatial organization of NPs, are explored. We find that the increase of the fraction of the A-block brings different dispersion effect to NPs than that of B-block. We also find that the best dispersion state of the NPs occurs in the case of a moderate interaction strength between the A-block and the NPs. Meanwhile, the stress–strain behavior is probed. Our simulation results verify that adopting BCP is an effective way to adjust the dispersion of NPs in the polymer matrix, further to manipulate the mechanical properties. PMID:28892620

  19. Modelling a multi-crystal detector block for PET

    Carroll, L.R.; Nutt, R.; Casey, M.

    1985-01-01

    A simple mathematical model describes the performance of a modular detector ''block'' which is a key component in an advanced, high-resolution PET Scanner. Each block contains 32 small bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals coupled to four photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) through a coded light pipe. AT each PMT cathode the charge released for 511 keV coincidence events may be characterized as Poisson random variables in which the variance grows as the mean of the observed current. Given the light from BGO, one must; arrange the best coding - the distribution of light to the four PMTs, specify an optimum decoding scheme for choosing the correct crystal location from a noisy ensemble of PMT currents, and estimate the average probability of error. The statistical fluctuation or ''noise'' becomes decoupled from the ''signal'' and can be regarded as independent, additive components with zero mean and unit variance. Moreover, the envelope of the transformed noise distribution approximates very closely a normal (Gaussian) distribution with variance = 1. Specifying the coding and decoding strategy becomes a problem of signalling through a channel corrupted by additive, white, Gaussian noise; a classic problem long since solved within the context of Communication Engineering using geometry: i.e. distance, volume, angle, inner product, etc., in a linear space of higher dimension

  20. Functionalization of Block Copolymer Vesicle Surfaces

    Wolfgang Meier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In dilute aqueous solutions certain amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into vesicles that enclose a small pool of water with a membrane. Such polymersomes have promising applications ranging from targeted drug-delivery devices, to biosensors, and nanoreactors. Interactions between block copolymer membranes and their surroundings are important factors that determine their potential biomedical applications. Such interactions are influenced predominantly by the membrane surface. We review methods to functionalize block copolymer vesicle surfaces by chemical means with ligands such as antibodies, adhesion moieties, enzymes, carbohydrates and fluorophores. Furthermore, surface-functionalization can be achieved by self-assembly of polymers that carry ligands at their chain ends or in their hydrophilic blocks. While this review focuses on the strategies to functionalize vesicle surfaces, the applications realized by, and envisioned for, such functional polymersomes are also highlighted.

  1. Secure Block Ciphers - Cryptanalysis and Design

    Tiessen, Tyge

    be applied to the AES can be transferred to this block cipher, albeit with a higher attack complexity. The second publication introduces a new block cipher family which is targeted for new applications in fully homomorphic encryption and multi-party computation. We demonstrate the soundness of the design...... is encrypted using so-called symmetric ciphers. The security of our digital infrastructure thus rests at its very base on their security. The central topic of this thesis is the security of block ciphers – the most prominent form of symmetric ciphers. This thesis is separated in two parts. The first part...... is an introduction to block ciphers and their cryptanalysis, the second part contains publications written and published during the PhD studies. The first publication evaluates the security of a modification of the AES in which the choice of S-box is unknown to the attacker. We find that some of the attacks that can...

  2. Dynamic code block size for JPEG 2000

    Tsai, Ping-Sing; LeCornec, Yann

    2008-02-01

    Since the standardization of the JPEG 2000, it has found its way into many different applications such as DICOM (digital imaging and communication in medicine), satellite photography, military surveillance, digital cinema initiative, professional video cameras, and so on. The unified framework of the JPEG 2000 architecture makes practical high quality real-time compression possible even in video mode, i.e. motion JPEG 2000. In this paper, we present a study of the compression impact using dynamic code block size instead of fixed code block size as specified in the JPEG 2000 standard. The simulation results show that there is no significant impact on compression if dynamic code block sizes are used. In this study, we also unveil the advantages of using dynamic code block sizes.

  3. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Block Groups

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Phoenix, AZ EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Block Groups

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Fresno, CA EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  5. Readiness for surgery after axillary block

    Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z J; Stens-Pedersen, H L; Lippert, F K

    1997-01-01

    required less time for block performance (mean 5.5 min) than multiple injections (mean 9.5 min), P requirement for supplemental nerve blocks was greater, after single injections (33 min and 57%) than after multiple injections (15.5 min and 7......We have assessed prospectively the time to readiness for surgery following axillary block (sum of block performance and latency times) in 80 patients. The brachial plexus was identified using a nerve stimulator, and anaesthetized with 45 mL of mepivacaine 1% with adrenaline 5 micrograms mL-1......%, respectively), P effectiveness was 100% in group 1 and 98% in group 2 (NS). The frequency of adverse effects (vessel puncture or paraesthesia) was similar...

  6. Scalable inference for stochastic block models

    Peng, Chengbin; Zhang, Zhihua; Wong, Ka-Chun; Zhang, Xiangliang; Keyes, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Community detection in graphs is widely used in social and biological networks, and the stochastic block model is a powerful probabilistic tool for describing graphs with community structures. However, in the era of "big data," traditional inference

  7. Second derivative parallel block backward differentiation type ...

    Second derivative parallel block backward differentiation type formulas for Stiff ODEs. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... and the methods are inherently parallel and can be distributed over parallel processors. They are ...

  8. Compressed normalized block difference for object tracking

    Gao, Yun; Zhang, Dengzhuo; Cai, Donglan; Zhou, Hao; Lan, Ge

    2018-04-01

    Feature extraction is very important for robust and real-time tracking. Compressive sensing provided a technical support for real-time feature extraction. However, all existing compressive tracking were based on compressed Haar-like feature, and how to compress many more excellent high-dimensional features is worth researching. In this paper, a novel compressed normalized block difference feature (CNBD) was proposed. For resisting noise effectively in a highdimensional normalized pixel difference feature (NPD), a normalized block difference feature extends two pixels in the original formula of NPD to two blocks. A CNBD feature can be obtained by compressing a normalized block difference feature based on compressive sensing theory, with the sparse random Gaussian matrix as the measurement matrix. The comparative experiments of 7 trackers on 20 challenging sequences showed that the tracker based on CNBD feature can perform better than other trackers, especially than FCT tracker based on compressed Haar-like feature, in terms of AUC, SR and Precision.

  9. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Block Groups

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Cleveland, OH EnviroAtlas community. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded...

  10. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    Snyder, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel, a reactor guard vessel, a thermal insulation shell and a horizontal seismic restraint, a restraint is described comprising: a. a first ring on the wall of the reactor vessel; b. a second ring on the wall of the reactor guard vessel in alignment with the first ring; c. a first block attached to the second ring proximate the first ring so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the first block and the first ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion; d. motion limit means extending through an aperture in the thermal insulation shell in alignment with the second ring and the first block; the e. a second block attached to the motion limit means proximate the second ring and in alignment the first block so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the second block and the second ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion

  11. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  12. Explosive Components Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  13. The diagnosis of blocked pulmonary abscess

    Vinner, M.G.; Khudyakov, L.M.; Mezentsev, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    Only spot bronchography, and if its results are negative, transthoracal puncture permit a correct diagnosis of blocked or partially blocked pulmonary abscess in 2/3 of cases. This result is of importance for the choice of the treatment strategy, in such patients. Use of thin or super-thin needles for puncture helped do without serious complications and obtain reliable diagnostic information in 90 % of cases

  14. Amphiphilic block copolymers for drug delivery.

    Adams, Monica L; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Kwon, Glen S

    2003-07-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) have been used extensively in pharmaceutical applications ranging from sustained-release technologies to gene delivery. The utility of ABCs for delivery of therapeutic agents results from their unique chemical composition, which is characterized by a hydrophilic block that is chemically tethered to a hydrophobic block. In aqueous solution, polymeric micelles are formed via the association of ABCs into nanoscopic core/shell structures at or above the critical micelle concentration. Upon micellization, the hydrophobic core regions serve as reservoirs for hydrophobic drugs, which may be loaded by chemical, physical, or electrostatic means, depending on the specific functionalities of the core-forming block and the solubilizate. Although the Pluronics, composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide), are the most widely studied ABC system, copolymers containing poly(L-amino acid) and poly(ester) hydrophobic blocks have also shown great promise in delivery applications. Because each ABC has unique advantages with respect to drug delivery, it may be possible to choose appropriate block copolymers for specific purposes, such as prolonging circulation time, introduction of targeting moieties, and modification of the drug-release profile. ABCs have been used for numerous pharmaceutical applications including drug solubilization/stabilization, alteration of the pharmacokinetic profile of encapsulated substances, and suppression of multidrug resistance. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a concise, yet detailed, introduction to the use of ABCs and polymeric micelles as delivery agents as well as to highlight current and past work in this area. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  15. Calibration of an experimental six component wind tunnel block balance using optical fibre sensors

    de Ponte, JD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the increasingly stringent requirements for wind tunnel balances, as expressed by the wind tunnel testing community, balance design philosophy needs to be further expanded to include alternative sensor, material, design...

  16. Design and development of an experimental six component wind tunnel block balance using optical fibre sensors.

    De Ponte, JD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the increasingly stringent requirements for wind tunnel balances, as expressed by the wind tunnel testing community, balance design philosophy needs to be further expanded to include alternative sensor, material, design...

  17. Component fragility research program

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  19. Impact test of components

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  20. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-03-22

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  1. Direct block scheduling technology: Analysis of Avidity

    Felipe Ribeiro Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is focused on Direct Block Scheduling testing (Direct Multi-Period Scheduling methodology which schedules mine production considering the correct discount factor of each mining block, resulting in the final pit. Each block is analyzed individually in order to define the best target period. This methodology presents an improvement of the classical methodology derived from Lerchs-Grossmann's initial proposition improved by Whittle. This paper presents the differences between these methodologies, specially focused on the algorithms' avidity. Avidity is classically defined by the voracious search algorithms, whereupon some of the most famous greedy algorithms are Branch and Bound, Brutal Force and Randomized. Strategies based on heuristics can accentuate the voracity of the optimizer system. The applied algorithm use simulated annealing combined with Tabu Search. The most avid algorithm can select the most profitable blocks in early periods, leading to higher present value in the first periods of mine operation. The application of discount factors to blocks on the Lerchs-Grossmann's final pit has an accentuated effect with time, and this effect may make blocks scheduled for the end of the mine life unfeasible, representing a trend to a decrease in reported reserves.

  2. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  3. Block (or Hamiltonian) Lie Symmetry of Dispersionless D-Type Drinfeld–Sokolov Hierarchy

    Li Chuan-Zhong; He Jing-Song; Su Yu-Cai

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the dispersionless D-type Drinfeld–Sokolov hierarchy, i.e. a reduction of the dispersionless two-component BKP hierarchy, is studied. The additional symmetry flows of this hierarchy are presented. These flows form an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra of Block type as well as a Lie algebra of Hamiltonian type

  4. A completely transparent, adhesively bonded soda-lime glass block masonry system

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; Baardolf, G.

    2014-01-01

    A pioneering, all transparent, self-supporting glass block facade is presented in this paper. Previously realized examples utilize embedded metal components in order to obtain the desired structural performance despite the fact that these elements greatly affect the facade’s overall transparency

  5. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 1000 - Indian Housing Block Grant Formula Mechanics

    2010-04-01

    ... Mechanics A Appendix A to Part 1000 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Housing Block Grant Formula Mechanics This appendix shows the different components of the IHBG formula... is the greater of a tribe's Allowable Expense Level (AEL) or Fair Market Rent (FMR) factor, where the...

  6. Supramolecular self-assembly and opto-electronic properties of semiconducting block copolymers

    Boer, Bert de; Stalmach, Ulf; Hutten, Paul F. van; Melzer, Christian; Krasnikov, Victor V.; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2001-01-01

    With continuous and nanometre-scale interpenetrating phases of electron donor and acceptor components, a novel diblock copolymer, in which one block is poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and the other is a C60-functionalized polystyrene, is designed to be an efficient photovoltaic material. The

  7. Combined KHFAC + DC nerve block without onset or reduced nerve conductivity after block

    Franke, Manfred; Vrabec, Tina; Wainright, Jesse; Bhadra, Niloy; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) waveforms have been shown to provide peripheral nerve conductivity block in many acute and chronic animal models. KHFAC nerve block could be used to address multiple disorders caused by neural over-activity, including blocking pain and spasticity. However, one drawback of KHFAC block is a transient activation of nerve fibers during the initiation of the nerve block, called the onset response. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using charge balanced direct current (CBDC) waveforms to temporarily block motor nerve conductivity distally to the KHFAC electrodes to mitigate the block onset-response. Approach. A total of eight animals were used in this study. A set of four animals were used to assess feasibility and reproducibility of a combined KHFAC + CBDC block. A following randomized study, conducted on a second set of four animals, compared the onset response resulting from KHFAC alone and combined KHFAC + CBDC waveforms. To quantify the onset, peak forces and the force-time integral were measured during KHFAC block initiation. Nerve conductivity was monitored throughout the study by comparing muscle twitch forces evoked by supra-maximal stimulation proximal and distal to the block electrodes. Each animal of the randomized study received at least 300 s (range: 318-1563 s) of cumulative dc to investigate the impact of combined KHFAC + CBDC on nerve viability. Main results. The peak onset force was reduced significantly from 20.73 N (range: 18.6-26.5 N) with KHFAC alone to 0.45 N (range: 0.2-0.7 N) with the combined CBDC and KHFAC block waveform (p conductivity was observed after application of the combined KHFAC + CBDC block relative to KHFAC waveforms. Significance. The distal application of CBDC can significantly reduce or even completely prevent the KHFAC onset response without a change in nerve conductivity.

  8. Pectoral nerve block (Pecs block) with sedation for breast conserving surgery without general anesthesia.

    Moon, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seung-Beom; Chung, Jun-Young; Song, Jeong-Yoon; Yi, Jae-Woo

    2017-09-01

    Most regional anesthesia in breast surgeries is performed as postoperative pain management under general anesthesia, and not as the primary anesthesia. Regional anesthesia has very few cardiovascular or pulmonary side-effects, as compared with general anesthesia. Pectoral nerve block is a relatively new technique, with fewer complications than other regional anesthesia. We performed Pecs I and Pec II block simultaneously as primary anesthesia under moderate sedation with dexmedetomidine for breast conserving surgery in a 49-year-old female patient with invasive ductal carcinoma. Block was uneventful and showed no complications. Thus, Pecs block with sedation could be an alternative to general anesthesia for breast surgeries.

  9. Multiscale principal component analysis

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  10. Integrated Nuclear and Conventional Theater Warfare Simulation (INWARS) Documentation. Part IV. User’s Manual Component. Volume III. EAD C2I Inputs.

    1980-02-08

    hours 0 Input Format: Integer b. Creatina Rescource Allocation Blocks The creation of a specific resource allocation block as a directive component is...is directed. 0 Range: N/A . Input Format: INT/NUC/CHM b. Creatina Employment Packages An employment package block has the structure portrayed in Figure

  11. Superalloy Lattice Block Developed for Use in Lightweight, High-Temperature Structures

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Krause, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Successful development of advanced gas turbine engines for aircraft will require lightweight, high-temperature components. Currently titanium-aluminum- (TiAl) based alloys are envisioned for such applications because of their lower density (4 g/cm3) in comparison to superalloys (8.5 g/cm3), which have been utilized for hot turbine engine parts for over 50 years. However, a recently developed concept (lattice block) by JAMCORP, Inc., of Willmington, Massachusetts, would allow lightweight, high-temperature structures to be directly fabricated from superalloys and, thus, take advantage of their well-known, characterized properties. In its simplest state, lattice block is composed of thin ligaments arranged in a three dimensional triangulated trusslike configuration that forms a structurally rigid panel. Because lattice block can be fabricated by casting, correctly sized hardware is produced with little or no machining; thus very low cost manufacturing is possible. Together, the NASA Glenn Research Center and JAMCORP have extended their lattice block methodology for lower melting materials, such as Al alloys, to demonstrate that investment casting of superalloy lattice block is possible. This effort required advances in lattice block pattern design and assembly, higher temperature mold materials and mold fabrication technology, and foundry practice suitable for superalloys (ref. 1). Lattice block panels have been cast from two different Ni-base superalloys: IN 718, which is the most commonly utilized superalloy and retains its strength up to 650 C; and MAR M247, which possesses excellent mechanical properties to at least 1100 C. In addition to the open-cell lattice block geometry, same-sized lattice block panels containing a thin (1-mm-thick) solid face on one side have also been cast from both superalloys. The elevated-temperature mechanical properties of the open cell and face-sheeted superalloy lattice block panels are currently being examined, and the

  12. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  13. Solid state lighting component

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor

    2017-10-17

    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  14. An integrated magnetics component

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics component comprising a magnetically permeable core comprising a base member extending in a horizontal plane and first, second, third and fourth legs protruding substantially perpendicularly from the base member. First, second, third...... and fourth output inductor windings are wound around the first, second, third and fourth legs, respectively. A first input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a first conductor axis and extends in-between the first, second, third and fourth legs to induce a first magnetic flux through a first...... flux path of the magnetically permeable core. A second input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a second coil axis extending substantially perpendicularly to the first conductor axis to induce a second magnetic flux through a second flux path of the magnetically permeable core...

  15. Cognitive Component Analysis

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  16. Ultrasound guided TAP block versus ultrasound guided caudal block for pain relief in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries

    Wafaa Mohamed Alsadek

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: TAP block and caudal block under ultrasound guidance proved to be safe with no recorded complications either intra or postoperatively. Patient and parent satisfaction was markedly observed in case of TAP block.

  17. Prolonged knee pain relief by saphenous block (new technique

    Rajeev Harshe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain in the knee joint can be from a variety of reasons. It can be either from the joint itself, it can be myofascial or it can be neuropathy, radicular pain. The myofascial component can be in different forms, namely, collateral ligament pain, bursitis, tendinitis, and so on. This responds well to local injections of steroids. Pain from the joint can be because of osteoarthritis (OA, rheumatoid arthritis or any other variety of arthritis. Among these osteoarthritis is the most common and naturally occurring pain. There are several modalities used for managing pain in the knee joint. They include medicines and physiotherapy, intra-articular steroid injection, intra-articular Hyalgan, Synvisc injection, prolotherapy, genicular nerve block, ablation, intra-articular pulsed radio frequency (PRF ablation, acupuncture, injection of platelet-rich plasma in the joint, total knee replacement, high tibial osteotomy, arthroscopy and lavage, and so on. All these modalities have their pros and cons. Literature and experience state that the pain relief provided may last for a few months with these modalities except in surgical interventions in advanced OA. The saphenous nerve is termination of femoral nerve and it is essentially sensory nerve. It supplies the medial compartment and some part of the anterior compartment of the knee joint. This nerve has been blocked near the knee joint by way of infiltration by surgeons and anesthetists, for relief of pain after knee surgery, with varying pain relief of postoperative pain. When we block the saphenous in the mid thigh in the sartorial canal, the fluid tends to block the medial branch of the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve also. It is hypothesized that this may give complete medial and anterior knee pain relief and as most of the knee OA patients have medial and anterior knee pain, this may prove useful. Use of ultrasonography helps to locate the nerve better, ensuring perfection. An effort has been made to

  18. Single-chain antibody-based gene therapy: Inhibition of tumor growth by in situ production of phage-derived antibodies blocking functionally active sites of cell-associated matrices

    Sanz, Laura; Kristensen, Peter; Blanco, Belén

    2002-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that blocking the interactions between endothelial cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components may provide a potent and general strategy to inhibit tumor neovascularization. Based on these considerations, we have focused our efforts on laminin, component of the ...

  19. Electronic components and systems

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  20. Photo-Induced Micellization of Block Copolymers

    Satoshi Kuwayama

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We found novel photo-induced micellizations through photolysis, photoelectron transfer, and photo-Claisen rearrangement. The photolysis-induced micellization was attained using poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PBSt-b-PSt. BSt-b-PSt showed no self-assembly in dichloromethane and existed as isolated copolymers. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that the copolymer produced spherical micelles in this solvent due to irradiation with a high-pressure mercury lamp in the presence of photo-acid generators, such as bis(alkylphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, and triphenylsulfonium triflate. The 1H NMR analysis confirmed that PBSt-b-PSt was converted into poly(4-vinylphenol-block-PSt by the irradiation, resulting in self-assembly into micelles. The irradiation in the presence of the photo-acid generator also induced the micellization of poly(4-pyridinemethoxymethylstyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PPySt-b-PSt. Micellization occurred by electron transfer from the pyridine to the photo-acid generator in their excited states and provided monodispersed spherical micelles with cores of PPySt blocks. Further, the photo-Claisen rearrangement caused the micellization of poly(4-allyloxystyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PASt-b-PSt. Micellization was promoted in cyclohexane at room temperature without a catalyst. During micellization, the elimination of the allyl groups competitively occurred along with the photorearrangement of the 4-allyloxystyrene units into the 3-allyl-4-hydroxystyrene units.

  1. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  2. Euler principal component analysis

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  3. Hybrid wars’ information component

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  4. ITER plasma facing components

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Spain's nuclear components industry

    Kaibel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  6. The market for components

    Simon, M.; Stoelzl, D.

    1986-01-01

    The offers of the German nuclear components industry are shown at the examples of some masterpieces of engineering and their delivery capacities. Then, the success achieved with exports up to now are referred to. The forecast includes the demand, the side conditions of the technical competition, and the pricing and financing situation. (UA) [de

  7. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  8. Component-oriented programming

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  9. Application of multi-block methods in cement production

    Svinning, K.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    distribution and the two last blocks the superficial microstructure analysed by differential thermo gravimetric analysis. The multi-block method is used to identify the role of each part. The score vectors of each block can be analysed separately or together with score vectors of other blocks. Stepwise......Compressive strength at 1 day of Portland cement as a function of the microstructure of cement was statistically modelled by application of multi-block regression method. The observation X-matrix was partitioned into four blocks, the first block representing the mineralogy, the second particle size...... regression is used to find minimum number of variables of each block. The multi-block method proved useful in determining the modelling strength of each data block and finding minimum number of variables within each data block....

  10. Radial expansion for spinning conformal blocks

    Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    This paper develops a method to compute any bosonic conformal block as a series expansion in the optimal radial coordinate introduced by Hogervorst and Rychkov. The method reduces to the known result when the external operators are all the same scalar operator, but it allows to compute conformal blocks for external operators with spin. Moreover, we explain how to write closed form recursion relations for the coefficients of the expansions. We study three examples of four point functions in detail: one vector and three scalars; two vectors and two scalars; two spin 2 tensors and two scalars. Finally, for the case of two external vectors, we also provide a more efficient way to generate the series expansion using the analytic structure of the blocks as a function of the scaling dimension of the exchanged operator.

  11. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films

    Majewski, Pawel W; Yager, Kevin G

    2016-01-01

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. We also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems. (topical review)

  12. Single molecule magnets from magnetic building blocks

    Kroener, W.; Paretzki, A.; Cervetti, C.; Hohloch, S.; Rauschenbach, S.; Kern, K.; Dressel, M.; Bogani, L.; M&üLler, P.

    2013-03-01

    We provide a basic set of magnetic building blocks that can be rationally assembled, similar to magnetic LEGO bricks, in order to create a huge variety of magnetic behavior. Using rare-earth centers and multipyridine ligands, fine-tuning of intra and intermolecular exchange interaction is demonstrated. We have investigated a series of molecules with monomeric, dimeric and trimeric lanthanide centers using SQUID susceptometry and Hall bar magnetometry. A home-made micro-Hall-probe magnetometer was used to measure magnetic hysteresis loops at mK temperatures and fields up to 17 T. All compounds show hysteresis below blocking temperatures of 3 to 4 K. The correlation of the assembly of the building blocks with the magnetic properties will be discussed.

  13. GEOMECHANICAL OBSERVATIONS DURING THE LARGE BLOCK TEST

    STEPHEN C. BLAIR AND STEPHANIE A. WOOD

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the geomechanical studies conducted at the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 3-dimensional geomechanical response of the rock to heating is being monitored using instrumentation mounted in boreholes and on the surface of the block. Results show that thermal expansion of the block began a few hours after the start of heating, and is closely correlated with the thermal history. Horizontal expansion increases as a linear function of height. Comparison of observed deformations with continuum simulations shows that below the heater plane deformation is smaller than predicted, while above the heater plane, observed deformation is larger than predicted, and is consistent with opening of vertical fractures. Fracture monitors indicate that movement on a large horizontal fracture is associated with hydrothermal behavior

  14. Developing a Model Component

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  15. Arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming or repair under nerve blocks: Which nerves should be blocked?

    Taha, AM; Abd-Elmaksoud, AM

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the role of the sciatic and obturator nerve blocks (in addition to femoral block) in providing painless arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming/repair. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with medial meniscus tear, who had been scheduled to knee arthroscopy, were planned to be included in this controlled prospective double-blind study. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups; FSO, FS, and FO. The femoral, sciatic, and obturator nerves were blocked in FSO groups. The femoral and sciatic nerves were blocked in FS group, while the femoral and obturator nerves were blocked in FO group. Intraoperative pain and its causative surgical maneuver were recorded. Results: All the patients (n = 7, 100%) in FO group had intraoperative pain. The research was terminated in this group but completed in FS and FSO groups (40 patients each). During valgus positioning of the knee for surgical management of the medial meniscus tear, the patients in FS group experienced pain more frequently than those in FSO group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Adding a sciatic nerve block to the femoral nerve block is important for painless knee arthroscopy. Further adding of an obturator nerve block may be needed when a valgus knee position is required to manage the medial meniscus tear. PMID:27375382

  16. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing

  17. Ipsilateral Brachial Plexus Block and Hemidiaphragmatic Paresis as Adverse Effect of a High Thoracic Paravertebral Block

    Renes, Steven H.; van Geffen, Geert J.; Snoeren, Miranda M.; Gielen, Matthieu J.; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    Background: Thoracic paravertebral block is regularly used for unilateral chest and abdominal surgery and is associated with a low complication rate. Case Reports: We describe 2 patients with an ipsilateral brachial plexus block with Horner syndrome after a high continuous thoracic paravertebral

  18. Synthesis of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers

    Loos, Katja; Stadler, Reimund

    1997-01-01

    In the present communication we demonstrate the synthesis of a hybrid block copolymer based on the combination of a biopolymer (amylose) with a synthetic block (polystyrene). To obtain such materials, amino-functionalized polymers were modified with maltoheptaose moieties that serve as initiators

  19. Estimating the intensity of ward admission and its effect on emergency department access block.

    Luo, Wei; Cao, Jiguo; Gallagher, Marcus; Wiles, Janet

    2013-07-10

    Emergency department access block is an urgent problem faced by many public hospitals today. When access block occurs, patients in need of acute care cannot access inpatient wards within an optimal time frame. A widely held belief is that access block is the end product of a long causal chain, which involves poor discharge planning, insufficient bed capacity, and inadequate admission intensity to the wards. This paper studies the last link of the causal chain-the effect of admission intensity on access block, using data from a metropolitan hospital in Australia. We applied several modern statistical methods to analyze the data. First, we modeled the admission events as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process and estimated time-varying admission intensity with penalized regression splines. Next, we established a functional linear model to investigate the effect of the time-varying admission intensity on emergency department access block. Finally, we used functional principal component analysis to explore the variation in the daily time-varying admission intensities. The analyses suggest that improving admission practice during off-peak hours may have most impact on reducing the number of ED access blocks. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Utilisation of Shredded PET as Aggregate Replacement for Interlocking Concrete Block

    Mokhtar, M.; Kaamin, M.; Sahat, S.; Hamid, N. B.

    2018-03-01

    The consumption of plastic has grown substantially all over the world in recent years and this has created huge quantities of plastic-based waste. Plastic waste is now a serious environmental threat to the modern way of living, although steps were taken to reduce its consumption. This creates substantial garbage every day, which is much unhealthy. Plastic bottles such as Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was use as the partially component in this making of interlocking blocks concrete. This project investigates the strength and workability of the interlocking block concrete by replacing course aggregate with % PET. The suitability of recycled plastics (PET) as course aggregate in interlocking block concrete and its advantages are discussed here. Moreover, there were more benefits when using interlocking block than using conventional block such as it easy for construction because they are aligning, easy to place, high speed stacking and they offer more resistance to shear and buildings would be even stronger. Based on the test perform, the failure parameter were discussed .From the compressive strength test result, it shows that the strength of concrete block decreased with increased of PET used. From the results, it shows that higher compressive strength was found with 5% natural course aggregate replaced with PET compared to other percentages.

  1. Thermal-structural analysis for ITER in-wall shielding block

    Hao Junchuan; Song Yuntao; Wu Weiyue; Du Shuangsong; Wang, X.; Ioki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► IWS blocks shall withstand various types of mechanical loads including EM loads, inertial loads and thermal loads. ► Due to the complicated geometry, the finite element method is the suitable tool to solve the problem. ► Contact element has been selected to simulate the friction between the different components. ► At baking phase, secondary stresses due to preloading and temperature difference predominate in the total stress. ► At plasma operation phase, secondary stresses due to preloading and thermal loads were deducted from the total stresses. - Abstract: In order to verify the design strength of the in-wall shielding (IWS) blocks of the ITER, thermal-structural analyses of one IWS block under vacuum vessel (VV) baking and plasma operation conditions have been respectively performed with finite element (FE) method. Among the complicated operation scenarios of the ITER, two critical types of combined loads required by the load specification of IWS were applied on the shielding block. The stress of the block is judged by American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) criterion. Results show that the structure of this block has enough safety margin, and it also supplies detailed information of the stress distribution in concerned region under certain loads.

  2. A completely transparent, adhesively bonded soda-lime glass block masonry system

    F. Oikonomopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pioneering, all transparent, self-supporting glass block facade is presented in this paper. Previously realized examples utilize embedded metal components in order to obtain the desired structural performance despite the fact that these elements greatly affect the facade’s overall transparency level. Undeniably, the oxymoron ‘transparency and strength’ remains the prime concern in such applications. In this paper, a new, innovative structural system for glass block facades is described, which demonstrably meets both criteria. The structure is exclusively constructed by monolithic glass blocks, bonded with a colourless, UV-curing adhesive, obtaining thus a maximum transparency. In addition, the desired structural performance is achieved solely through the masonry system, without any opaque substructure. Differing from previous realized projects, solid soda-lime glass blocks are used rather than borosilicate ones. This article provides an overview of the integrated architectural and structural design and discusses the choice of materials. The structural verification of the system is demonstrated. The results show that the adhesively bonded glass block structure has the required self-structural behaviour, but only if strict tolerances are met in the geometry of the glass blocks.

  3. Fabrication and handling of bentonite blocks

    1978-06-01

    In accordance with the project for the final storage of spent nuclear fuel, the waste will be encapsulated into copper canisters, which will be deposited in a final repository located in rock 500 m below ground level. The canisters will be placed in vertical holes in the bottoms of the tunnels, where the copper cylinders will be surrounded by blocks of highly compacted bentonite. When the blocks are saturated with water and expansion is essentially retained as in the actual case, a very high swelling pressure will arise. The bentonite will be extremely impermeable and thus it will form a barrier against transport of corrosive matters to the canister. The blocks are fabricated by means of cold isostatic pressing of bentonite powder. The base material in the form of powder is enclosed in flexible forms, which are introduced into pressure vessels where the forms are surrounded by oil or water. Thus the powder is compacted into rigid bodies with a bulk density of about 2.2 t/m 3 for ''air dry'' bentonite, which might be compared with a specific density of about 2.7 t/m 3 . The placing of a canister is preceded by piling up bentonite blocks to a level just below the canister lid position, after which the slot around the blocks is filled with bentonite powder. The rest of the blocks are mounted after filling bentonite powder into the inner slot around the canister as well. Finally the storage tunnels will be sealed by filling them with a mixture o02067NRM 0000181 45

  4. Peripheral nerve blocks in pediatric anesthesia

    Novaković Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Most children undergoing surgery can benefit from regional anesthetic techniques, either as the sole anesthetic regimen or, as usual in pediatric practice, in combination with general anesthesia. The use of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs in pediatric anesthesia is an effective way to decrease the side-effects and complications associated with central blocks. In spite of their many advantages, including easy performance end efficacy, peripheral nerve blocks are still underused. Objective This article discusses a general approach to PNBs in children and provides data concerning the practice of this regional technique in different age groups. Methods Data from 1,650 procedures were prospectively collected during the period from March 1, 2007 to February 29, 2008. The type of PNB, if any, as well as the patient age were noted. Our patients were divided into four groups: 0-3 years, 4-7 years, 8-12 years and 13-18 years. Results During the investigated period, PNBs as a sole technique or in anesthetized children were performed in 7.45% of cases. Ilioingunal/iliohypogastric nerve block and penile block were the most common (70% of all PNBs distributed mainly among the children between 4-7 years of age (p<0.05. In older children, extremity PNBs predominate in regard to other types of blocks. PNBs are most frequently performed under general anesthesia (85%, so the perineural approach requires a safe technique to avoid nerve damage. Conclusion The observed differences in PNB usage seem to be related to patient age and correlate with common pathology and also with technical availability of PNB performance.

  5. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    Palte HD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Howard D Palte Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it

  6. Identification of critical technology building blocks

    Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2017-01-01

    on competition, the challenge is to know how to identify and prioritize the development tasks. If possible, an effective strategy can be defined. This article suggests a framework for identification and analysis of a product portfolio, with special emphasis on identifying critical technology building blocks...... development steps. The framework is based on methods and theories in literature. The analysis of the portfolio is carried out through the framework in three steps: by creating an overview of the portfolio encompassing product and technology, assessing the elements in the overview with assessment metrics......, and using property chains to identify critical technology building blocks....

  7. Nanoscale freestanding gratings for ultraviolet blocking filters

    van Beek, J.T.; Fleming, R.C.; Hindle, P.S.; Prentiss, J.D.; Schattenburg, M.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ritzau, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) blocking filters are needed for atomic flux imaging in environments where high levels of ultraviolet radiation are present. Freestanding gratings are a promising candidate for UV filtering. They have a high aspect ratio ({approximately}13), narrow ({approximately}40 nm) slots, and effectively block UV radiation. The grating fabrication process makes use of several etching, electroplating, and lithographic steps and includes an optional step to plug pinholes induced by particles during processing. Gratings were successfully manufactured and tested. Measured UV transmissions of {approximately}10{sup {minus}5} and particle transmissions of {approximately}10{percent} are in agreement with theoretical predictions. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  8. Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman...... corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links...

  9. MECs: "Building Blocks" for Creating Biological and Chemical Instruments.

    Douglas A Hill

    Full Text Available The development of new biological and chemical instruments for research and diagnostic applications is often slowed by the cost, specialization, and custom nature of these instruments. New instruments are built from components that are drawn from a host of different disciplines and not designed to integrate together, and once built, an instrument typically performs a limited number of tasks and cannot be easily adapted for new applications. Consequently, the process of inventing new instruments is very inefficient, especially for researchers or clinicians in resource-limited settings. To improve this situation, we propose that a family of standardized multidisciplinary components is needed, a set of "building blocks" that perform a wide array of different tasks and are designed to integrate together. Using these components, scientists, engineers, and clinicians would be able to build custom instruments for their own unique needs quickly and easily. In this work we present the foundation of this set of components, a system we call Multifluidic Evolutionary Components (MECs. "Multifluidic" conveys the wide range of fluid volumes MECs operate upon (from nanoliters to milliliters and beyond; "multi" also reflects the multiple disciplines supported by the system (not only fluidics but also electronics, optics, and mechanics. "Evolutionary" refers to the design principles that enable the library of MEC parts to easily grow and adapt to new applications. Each MEC "building block" performs a fundamental function that is commonly found in biological or chemical instruments, functions like valving, pumping, mixing, controlling, and sensing. Each MEC also has a unique symbol linked to a physical definition, which enables instruments to be designed rapidly and efficiently using schematics. As a proof-of-concept, we use MECs to build a variety of instruments, including a fluidic routing and mixing system capable of manipulating fluid volumes over five orders

  10. Relativistic and Non-Relativistic Electronic Molecular-Structure Calculations for Dimers of 4p-, 5p-, and 6p-Block Elements

    Hofener, S.; Ahlrichs, R.; Knecht, S.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of non-relativistic and two-component relativistic single-reference coupled-cluster with single and double and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] treatments for the 4p-block dimers Ga2 to Br2, the 5p-block dimers In2 to I2, and their atoms. Extended basis sets up...

  11. Phrenic nerve block caused by interscalene brachial plexus block: breathing effects of different sites of injection.

    Bergmann, Lars; Martini, Stefan; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Armbruster, Wolf; Notheisen, Thomas; Adamzik, Michael; Eichholz, Rϋdiger

    2016-07-29

    Interscalene brachial plexus (ISB) block is often associated with phrenic nerve block and diaphragmatic paresis. The goal of our study was to test if the anterior or the posterior ultrasound guided approach of the ISB is associated with a lower incidence of phrenic nerve blocks and impaired lung function. This was a prospective, randomized and single-blinded study of 84 patients scheduled for elective shoulder surgery who fullfilled the inclusion and exclusion critereria. Patients were randomized in two groups to receive either the anterior (n = 42) or the posterior (n = 42) approach for ISB. Clinical data were recorded. In both groups patients received ISB with a total injection volume of 15 ml of ropivacaine 1 %. Spirometry was conducted at baseline (T0) and 30 min (T30) after accomplishing the block. Changes in spirometrical variables between T0 and T30 were investigated by Wilcoxon signed-rank test for each puncture approach. The temporal difference between the posterior and the anterior puncture approach groups were again analyzed by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. The spirometric results showed a significant decrease in vital capacity, forced expiratory volume per second, and maximum nasal inspiratory breathing after the Interscalene brachial plexus block; indicating a phrenic nerve block (p Wilcoxon signed-rank). A significant difference in the development of the spirometric parameters between the anterior and the posterior group could not be identified (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test). Despite the changes in spirometry, no cases of dyspnea were reported. A different site of injection (anterior or posterior) did not show an effect in reducing the cervical block spread of the local anesthetic and the incidence of phrenic nerve blocks during during ultrasound guided Interscalene brachial plexus block. Clinical breathing effects of phrenic nerve blocks are, however, usually well compensated, and subjective dyspnea did not occur in our patients. German

  12. Fabrication of gold nanoparticle arrays by block copolymer

    Chen, Xiao Ling

    2011-02-15

    Gold nanoparticle is one of the widely research objects in various fields including catalysis and biotechnology. Precise control of gold nanoparticles placement and their integration is essential to take full advantage of these unique properties for applications. An approach to self-assembling of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from reconstructed block copolymer was introduced. Highly ordered polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)(PS-b-P2VP) micellar arrays were obtained by solvent annealing. Subsequent immersion of the films in a preferential solvent for P2VP caused a reorganization of the film to generate a porous structure upon drying. PEG-coated AuNPs were spin-coated onto this reconstruction PS-b-P2VP template. When such films were exposed to toluene vapor-which is non-selective solvent for PEO and P2VP, AuNPs were drawn into those porous to form ordered arrays. Gold nanospheres with size 12±1.8 nm were synthesized by reducing HAuCl{sub 4} via sodium citrate. Gold nanorods (aspect ratio about 6) were prepared from seed-mediated surfactant capping wet chemical method and the aspect ratio is tunable by changing surfactant amount. PEG ligand is used to modify gold nanoparticle surface by removing the original surfactant (sodium citrate -gold nanospheres: CTAB-gold nanorods), which have affinity with certain block copolymer component. Once gold nanoparticle is modified with PEG thiol, they were spin coated onto PS-b-P2VP template, which was prepared by solvent annealing and surface reconstruction process. So gold nanoparticle array was fabricated by this self-assembling process. The same idea can be applied on other nanoparticles.

  13. Fabrication of gold nanoparticle arrays by block copolymer

    Chen, Xiao Ling

    2011-02-01

    Gold nanoparticle is one of the widely research objects in various fields including catalysis and biotechnology. Precise control of gold nanoparticles placement and their integration is essential to take full advantage of these unique properties for applications. An approach to self-assembling of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from reconstructed block copolymer was introduced. Highly ordered polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)(PS-b-P2VP) micellar arrays were obtained by solvent annealing. Subsequent immersion of the films in a preferential solvent for P2VP caused a reorganization of the film to generate a porous structure upon drying. PEG-coated AuNPs were spin-coated onto this reconstruction PS-b-P2VP template. When such films were exposed to toluene vapor-which is non-selective solvent for PEO and P2VP, AuNPs were drawn into those porous to form ordered arrays. Gold nanospheres with size 12±1.8 nm were synthesized by reducing HAuCl 4 via sodium citrate. Gold nanorods (aspect ratio about 6) were prepared from seed-mediated surfactant capping wet chemical method and the aspect ratio is tunable by changing surfactant amount. PEG ligand is used to modify gold nanoparticle surface by removing the original surfactant (sodium citrate -gold nanospheres: CTAB-gold nanorods), which have affinity with certain block copolymer component. Once gold nanoparticle is modified with PEG thiol, they were spin coated onto PS-b-P2VP template, which was prepared by solvent annealing and surface reconstruction process. So gold nanoparticle array was fabricated by this self-assembling process. The same idea can be applied on other nanoparticles

  14. Blocking temperature distribution in implanted Co-Ni nanoparticles obtained by magneto-optical measurements

    D' Orazio, F.; Lucari, F. E-mail: franco.lucari@aquila.infn.it; Melchiorri, M.; Julian Fernandez, C. de; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Sangregorio, C.; Gatteschi, D.; Fiorani, D

    2003-05-01

    Three samples of Co-Ni alloy nanoparticles with different compositions were prepared by sequential ion implantation in silica slides. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix. Magneto-optical Kerr effect analysis identified two magnetic components attributed to superparamagnetic particles in unblocked and blocked states, respectively. Magnetic field loops were measured as a function of temperature. Blocking temperature distributions were obtained; and their comparison with the size distributions derived from TEM provided the average magnetic anisotropy of the particles.

  15. Blocking temperature distribution in implanted Co-Ni nanoparticles obtained by magneto-optical measurements

    D'Orazio, F.; Lucari, F.; Melchiorri, M.; Julian Fernandez, C. de; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Sangregorio, C.; Gatteschi, D.; Fiorani, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three samples of Co-Ni alloy nanoparticles with different compositions were prepared by sequential ion implantation in silica slides. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix. Magneto-optical Kerr effect analysis identified two magnetic components attributed to superparamagnetic particles in unblocked and blocked states, respectively. Magnetic field loops were measured as a function of temperature. Blocking temperature distributions were obtained; and their comparison with the size distributions derived from TEM provided the average magnetic anisotropy of the particles

  16. Adaptable component frameworks

    Katajainen, Jyrki; Simonsen, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The CPH STL is a special edition of the STL, the containers and algorithms part of the C++ standard library. The specification of the generic components of the STL is given in the C++ standard. Any implementation of the STL, e.g. the one that ships with your standard-compliant C++ compiler, should...... for vector, which is undoubtedly the most used container of the C++ standard library. In particular, we specify the details of a vector implementation that is safe with respect to referential integrity and strong exception safety. Additionally, we report the experiences and lessons learnt from...... the development of component frameworks which we hope to be of benefit to persons engaged in the design and implementation of generic software libraries....

  17. Fabrication of metallized nanoporous films from the self-assembly of a block copolymer and homopolymer mixture.

    Li, Xue; Zhao, Shuying; Zhang, Shuxiang; Kim, Dong Ha; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2007-06-19

    Inorganic compound HAuCl4, which can form a complex with pyridine, is introduced into a poly(styrene-block-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) homopolymer mixture. The orientation of the cylindrical microdomains formed by the P2VP block, PMMA, and HAuCl4 normal to the substrate surface can be generated via cooperative self-assembly of the mixture. Selective removal of the homopolymer can lead to porous nanostructures containing metal components in P2VP domains, which have a novel photoluminescence property.

  18. Components of laboratory accreditation.

    Royal, P D

    1995-12-01

    Accreditation or certification is a recognition given to an operation or product that has been evaluated against a standard; be it regulatory or voluntary. The purpose of accreditation is to provide the consumer with a level of confidence in the quality of operation (process) and the product of an organization. Environmental Protection Agency/OCM has proposed the development of an accreditation program under National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program for Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratories as a supplement to the current program. This proposal was the result of the Inspector General Office reports that identified weaknesses in the current operation. Several accreditation programs can be evaluated and common components identified when proposing a structure for accrediting a GLP system. An understanding of these components is useful in building that structure. Internationally accepted accreditation programs provide a template for building a U.S. GLP accreditation program. This presentation will discuss the traditional structure of accreditation as presented in the Organization of Economic Cooperative Development/GLP program, ISO-9000 Accreditation and ISO/IEC Guide 25 Standard, and the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories, which has a biological component. Most accreditation programs are managed by a recognized third party, either privately or with government oversight. Common components often include a formal review of required credentials to evaluate organizational structure, a site visit to evaluate the facility, and a performance evaluation to assess technical competence. Laboratory performance is measured against written standards and scored. A formal report is then sent to the laboratory indicating accreditation status. Usually, there is a scheduled reevaluation built into the program. Fee structures vary considerably and will need to be examined closely when building a GLP program.

  19. Fabricating nuclear components

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  20. Components of the environment

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  1. Ionitriding of Weapon Components

    1974-01-01

    and documented tho production sequences required for the case- hardening of AISI 4140 and Nitralloy 13514 steels. Determination of processina...depths were established experimentally for Nitralloy 135M and for AISI 4140 steels. These steels are commonly used for the manufacture of nitrlded...weapons components. A temperature of 050F, upper limit for lonitrlding, was selected for the Nitralloy 135M to keep treatment times short. Since AISI 4140

  2. Components of QCD

    Sivers, D.

    1979-10-01

    Some aspects of a simple strategy for testing the validity of QCD perturbation theory are examined. The importance of explicit evaluation of higher-order contributions is illustrated by considering Z 0 decays. The recent progress toward understanding exclusive processes in QCD is discussed and some simple examples are given of how to isolate and test the separate components of the perturbation expansion in a hypothetical series of jet experiments

  3. 30 CFR 250.611 - Traveling-block safety device.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.611 Section... Traveling-block safety device. After May 31, 1989, all units being used for well-workover operations which have both a traveling block and a crown block shall be equipped with a safety device which is designed...

  4. 30 CFR 250.511 - Traveling-block safety device.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.511 Section... Traveling-block safety device. All units being used for well-completion operations that have both a traveling block and a crown block must be equipped with a safety device that is designed to prevent the...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1448a - Monensin blocks.

    2010-04-01

    ...) Limitations. Block to be fed free choice to pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, feeder, and dairy and beef.... Blocks to be fed free choice to pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, feeder, and dairy and beef.... Blocks to be fed free choice to pasture cattle (slaughter, stocker, and feeder). Provide at least 1 block...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known properties used to calibrate ultrasonic scanning devices (e.g., the...

  7. Relativistic and Non-Relativistic Electronic Molecular-Structure Calculations for Dimers of 4p-, 5p-, and 6p-Block Elements

    Hoefener, S.; Ahlrichs, R.; Knecht, S.; Visscher, L.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of non-relativistic and two-component relativistic single-reference coupled-cluster with single and double and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] treatments for the 4p-block dimers Ga

  8. The autoshaping procedure as a residual block clock

    Dinsmoor, James A.; Dougan, James D.; Pfister, John; Thiels, Edda

    1992-01-01

    In the first experiment, 4 pigeons were each presented with a recurring sequence of four key colors followed by the delivery of grain (block clock). Once the rate of pecking had stabilized, three of the colors were replaced, during different series of sessions, by a darkening of the key. The rate of pecking was reduced within those segments of the interval between deliveries of food during which the key was dark; when the key was dark during the final portion of the interval, rates were reduced throughout the entire interval. In the second experiment, 3 new pigeons were exposed to a different sequence of colors, and the final stimulus was replaced in successive conditions by a novel color, a darkened key, and a restoration of the original color. The data indicated that darkening the key had a more severe, more extensive, and more persistent effect than did a mere change in color. These results suggest that it may be fruitful to conceptualize the autoshaping procedure as a special version of the block clock in which pecking is suppressed throughout the greater part of the interval by darkening the key. In the final condition, the same stimulus appeared in each of the last three portions of the interval. The rate of pecking was lower during the last two portions than when distinctive colors were presented, with the peak rate now appearing in the fifth of seven equal temporal components. PMID:16812666

  9. Building blocks for a polarimeter-on-a-chip

    Stevenson, Thomas R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Schneider, Gideon; Travers, Douglas; Cao, Nga; Wollack, Edward; Limon, Michele; Kogut, Alan

    2006-01-01

    For the 'Primordial Anisotropy Polarization Pathfinder Array (PAPPA)' balloon flight project, we have designed and made thin-film niobium microstrip circuits as building blocks for a 'polarimeter-on-a-chip' in which superconducting transmission lines are used to couple millimeter wave signals from planar antennas to superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) detectors. Our goal is to demonstrate technology for precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. To enable characterization and verification of our microstrip components, we have incorporated waveguide probes on each chip that can bring millimeter wave signals from a room temperature vector network analyzer to the superconducting circuits on the chip and back again for S-parameter measurements. We have designed a planar antenna and RF choke on the probes to efficiently couple radiation between waveguide and thin-film microstrip. To support the probe antennas in waveguides, we sculpted thin silicon cantilevers that extend from an edge of each silicon chip into a pair of waveguides within a specially designed split-block mount. This technique will allow us to make calibrated measurements at low temperatures of the velocity, impedance, and loss properties of our niobium transmission lines, the frequency response of microstrip filters, hybrid couplers, or terminations, and the performance of integrated detectors

  10. Transport of Water in Semicrystalline Block Copolymer Membranes

    Hallinan, Daniel; Oparaji, Onyekachi

    Poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS- b-PEO) is a semicrystalline block copolymer (BCP) with interesting properties. It is mechanically tough, amphiphilic, and has a polar phase. The mechanical toughness is due to the crystallinity of PEO and the high glass transition temperature of PS, as well as the morphological structure of the BCP. The polymer has high CO2, water, and salt solubility that derive from the polar PEO component. Potential applications include CO2 separation, water purification, and lithium air batteries. In all of the aforementioned applications, water transport is an important parameter. The presence of water can also affect thermal and mechanical properties. Water transport and thermal and mechanical properties of a lamellar PS- b-PEO copolymer have been measured as a function of water activity. Water transport can be affected by the heterogeneous nature of a semicrystalline BCP. Therefore, Fourier transform infrared - attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy has been employed, because water transport and polymer swelling can be measured simultaneously. The effect of BCP structure on transport has been investigated by comparing water transport in PS- b-PEO to a PEO homopolymer. The crystalline content of the PEO and the presence of glassy PS lamellae will be used to explain the transport results.

  11. Development of CMOS Imager Block for Capsule Endoscope

    Shafie, S; Fodzi, F A M; Tung, L Q; Lioe, D X; Halin, I A; Hasan, W Z W; Jaafar, H

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development of imager block to be associated in a capsule endoscopy system. Since the capsule endoscope is used to diagnose gastrointestinal diseases, the imager block must be in small size which is comfortable for the patients to swallow. In this project, a small size 1.5 V button battery is used as the power supply while the voltage supply requirements for other components such as microcontroller and CMOS image sensor are higher. Therefore, a voltage booster circuit is proposed to boost up the voltage supply from 1.5 V to 3.3 V. A low power microcontroller is used to generate control pulses for the CMOS image sensor and to convert the 8-bits parallel data output to serial data to be transmitted to the display panel. The results show that the voltage booster circuit was able to boost the voltage supply from 1.5 V to 3.3 V. The microcontroller precisely controls the CMOS image sensor to produce parallel data which is then serialized again by the microcontroller. The serial data is then successfully translated to 2fps image and displayed on computer.

  12. Compaction of bentonite blocks. Development of techniques for production of blocks with different shapes and sizes

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Boergesson, Lennart

    1998-09-01

    In this report useful techniques for producing both smaller blocks manageable by man (10-15 kg) and larger blocks which need special equipment for handling (weight up to 600 kg) are described. Tests for producing blocks with a weight of approximately 10 kg were carried out at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB in Bjuv. This industry is normally producing refractory bricks and other refractory products. The plant has facilities for handling large volumes of clay. It also has machines suitable for producing uniaxially compacted blocks. Tests performed at the plant show that it is possible to compact blocks with good quality. The best quality was reached with a coarsely ground bentonite at a water ratio of 17 %. The compaction rate was high and performed with lubricated form and stepwise loading. Tests, in order to find a technique for producing larger blocks with a diameter of the same size as a deposition hole (about 1.65 m), were also made. The technique was developed in a smaller scale (250 mm). Ring-shaped blocks with the same outer diameter and with an inner diameter of about 156 mm were also compacted. The compaction was made with vacuum in the form. The outer surface of the form was conical and most of the tests were performed with a lubricated form. Tests were performed with different water ratios of the bentonite. All the blocks had a good quality. In consequence of the good test results a form with a 1000 mm diameter was constructed and a number of compaction tests were performed. The same technique was used as for the smaller blocks. The compaction pressure in most tests was 100 MPa (maximum compaction load 80.000 kN). The tests were performed at HYDROWELD in Ystad in a press with a maximum capacity of 300.000 kN. All tests were performed with MX-80. Most of the blocks had a good quality. A small damage close to the upper surface of all blocks was observed but is considered to be of no importance for the possibility to handle the blocks and is not affecting the properties

  13. Compaction of bentonite blocks. Development of techniques for production of blocks with different shapes and sizes

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    In this report useful techniques for producing both smaller blocks manageable by man (10-15 kg) and larger blocks which need special equipment for handling (weight up to 600 kg) are described. Tests for producing blocks with a weight of approximately 10 kg were carried out at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB in Bjuv. This industry is normally producing refractory bricks and other refractory products. The plant has facilities for handling large volumes of clay. It also has machines suitable for producing uniaxially compacted blocks. Tests performed at the plant show that it is possible to compact blocks with good quality. The best quality was reached with a coarsely ground bentonite at a water ratio of 17 %. The compaction rate was high and performed with lubricated form and stepwise loading. Tests, in order to find a technique for producing larger blocks with a diameter of the same size as a deposition hole (about 1.65 m), were also made. The technique was developed in a smaller scale (250 mm). Ring-shaped blocks with the same outer diameter and with an inner diameter of about 156 mm were also compacted. The compaction was made with vacuum in the form. The outer surface of the form was conical and most of the tests were performed with a lubricated form. Tests were performed with different water ratios of the bentonite. All the blocks had a good quality. In consequence of the good test results a form with a 1000 mm diameter was constructed and a number of compaction tests were performed. The same technique was used as for the smaller blocks. The compaction pressure in most tests was 100 MPa (maximum compaction load 80.000 kN). The tests were performed at HYDROWELD in Ystad in a press with a maximum capacity of 300.000 kN. All tests were performed with MX-80. Most of the blocks had a good quality. A small damage close to the upper surface of all blocks was observed but is considered to be of no importance for the possibility to handle the blocks and is not affecting the properties

  14. Optimized Kernel Entropy Components.

    Izquierdo-Verdiguier, Emma; Laparra, Valero; Jenssen, Robert; Gomez-Chova, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2017-06-01

    This brief addresses two main issues of the standard kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) algorithm: the optimization of the kernel decomposition and the optimization of the Gaussian kernel parameter. KECA roughly reduces to a sorting of the importance of kernel eigenvectors by entropy instead of variance, as in the kernel principal components analysis. In this brief, we propose an extension of the KECA method, named optimized KECA (OKECA), that directly extracts the optimal features retaining most of the data entropy by means of compacting the information in very few features (often in just one or two). The proposed method produces features which have higher expressive power. In particular, it is based on the independent component analysis framework, and introduces an extra rotation to the eigen decomposition, which is optimized via gradient-ascent search. This maximum entropy preservation suggests that OKECA features are more efficient than KECA features for density estimation. In addition, a critical issue in both the methods is the selection of the kernel parameter, since it critically affects the resulting performance. Here, we analyze the most common kernel length-scale selection criteria. The results of both the methods are illustrated in different synthetic and real problems. Results show that OKECA returns projections with more expressive power than KECA, the most successful rule for estimating the kernel parameter is based on maximum likelihood, and OKECA is more robust to the selection of the length-scale parameter in kernel density estimation.

  15. Exploring Energy Efficiency of Lightweight Block Ciphers

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    is the encryption of one plaintext. By studying the energy consumption model of a CMOS gate, we arrive at the conclusion that the energy consumed per cycle during the encryption operation of an r-round unrolled architecture of any block cipher is a quadratic function in r. We then apply our model to 9 well known...

  16. Block Grants: The View from the Dome.

    Shreve, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews characteristics and operations of state legislatures in the context of the current reforms proposed by the federal government and the devolution of authority to the states via block grants. Examines proposed changes related to welfare, Medicaid, workforce training, and taxation, highlighting the impact of these reforms on state…

  17. Block Tridiagonal Matrices in Electronic Structure Calculations

    Petersen, Dan Erik

    in the Landauer–Büttiker ballistic transport regime. These calculations concentrate on determining the so– called Green’s function matrix, or portions thereof, which is the inverse of a block tridiagonal general complex matrix. To this end, a sequential algorithm based on Gaussian elimination named Sweeps...

  18. Building blocks for modular data acquisition systems

    Hoffmann, B

    1996-12-31

    The principles of building blocks for modular data acquisition systems by means of the VIC bus are discussed. Real time operating systems based on the VME environment for program development drastically reducing the time needed to develop a working system. 4 figs.

  19. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  20. Iron Blocks of CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke.

    2000-01-01

    On the occasion of presenting the CMS Award 2000 to Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau GmbH the delivered blocks were inspected at CERN Point 5. From left to right: H. Gerwig (CERN, CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke Coordinator), G. Waurick (CERN), F. Leher (DWE, Project Engineer) and W. Schuster (DWE, Project Manager).

  1. Seismic analysis of fast breeder reactor block

    Gantenbein, F.

    1990-01-01

    Seismic analysis of LMFBR reactor block is complex due mainly to the fluid structure interaction and the 3D geometry of the structure. Analytical methods which have been developed for this analysis will be briefly described in the paper and applications to a geometry similar to SPX1 will be shown

  2. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Freeze block testing of buried waste lines

    Robbins, E.D.; Willi, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to demonstrate application of freeze blocking in waste transfer lines such that a hydrostatic pressure test can be applied. A shop test was conducted on a 20-foot length, 3-inch schedule 40, carbon steel pipe using a coolant of dry ice and Freon. The positive results from these tests prompted a similar employment of the freeze block method in hydrostatic pressure testing the feed inlet leading to 241-S-101 Waste Tank. This pipeline is a 3-inch schedule 10, stainless steel pipe approximately 800 feet long. The freeze block was formed near the lower end of the pipe as it entered the 101-S Waste Tank and a pressure hold test was applied to this pipeline. This test proved the integrity of the pipeline in question, and demonstrated the validity of freeze blocking an open-ended pipeline which could not be hydrotested in other conventional ways. The field demonstration facility, costing $30,200 was completed late in 1975

  4. Neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia

    Leslie, K; McIlroy, D; Kasza, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed associations between intraoperative neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia, and a composite primary outcome of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction, at 30 days post-randomization in POISE-2 Trial subjects. METHODS: 10 010 high-risk noncardiac surgical pat...

  5. Role of dexamethasone in brachial plexus block

    Dawood, M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to (lignocaine) on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from September 2009 to March 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients, who were scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were randomly allocated to group A in which patients received 40 ml 1.5% lidocaine with 2 ml of isotonic saline (0.9%) and group B in which patients received 40 ml 1.5% lidocaine with 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg). Nerve stimulator with insulated needle for multiple stimulations technique was used to locate the brachial plexus nerves. After the injection onset of action and duration of sensory blockade of brachial plexus were recorded at 5 minutes and 15 minutes interval. Results: Group A showed the onset of action of 21.64 ± 2.30 min and in group B it was 15.42 ± 1.44 min (p< 0.001). Duration of nerve block was 115.08 ± 10.92 min in group A and 265.42 ± 16.56 min in group B (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lignocaine solution in axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of sensory blockade significantly. (author)

  6. Box and block test in Beninese adults.

    Natta, Ditouah Didier Niama; Alagnidé, Etienne; Kpadonou, Toussaint Godonou; Detrembleur, Christine; Lejeune, Thierry M; Stoquart, Gaëtan G

    2015-11-01

    To determine the Box and Block Test norm in a sub-Saharan population and to compare these data with published norms for North American adults. A total of 692 healthy Beninese people, age range 20-85 years, were recruited. These subjects were asked to perform the Box and Block Test with both hands. Box and Block Test scores (mean and standard deviation (SD)) for women and men were, respectively, 81.3 (15.4) and 79 (16.6) for the dominant hand and 73.2 (13.7) and 72 (14.8) for the non-dominant hand. Mean Box and Block Test scores ranged from 89.1 (12.7) for people under the age of 25 years to 55.23 (10.5) for people over the age of 74 years. Manual dexterity was better for women than men, for dominant hand than non-dominant hand, and for younger subjects. In comparison with published results for US subjects, Beninese subjects had better dexterity below the age of 50 years in both sexes for the right hand and worse dexterity over 64 years of age in both sexes for the right hand. Developing and validating outcome scales in Africa will help to improve functional assessment of African populations in clinical practice and research.

  7. Colour Blocking: Disregarding Traditional Artistic Colour Harmonies ...

    A development in the world of design – costume, fashion, graphics, architecture and general decor whereby traditional colour harmonies are reengineered to suite the taste of the time engages the attention of the paper. The trending phenomenon popularly referred to as 'colour blocking' involves the use of bright ...

  8. SODART optical block of the SRG satellite

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Frederiksen, P.; Polny, Josef

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the successful integration of the optical block of the SODART telescopes to be flown on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma satellite. The integration involves both the integration of the two high throughput x-ray telescopes as well as the objective crystal spectrometer...

  9. Observations on the SIMON Block Cipher Family

    Kölbl, Stefan; Leander, Gregor; Tiessen, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the general class of functions underlying the Simon block cipher. In particular, we derive efficiently computable and easily implementable expressions for the exact differential and linear behaviour of Simon-like round functions. Following up on this, we use those...

  10. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices. Collagen as a protein. Collagen in tissues and organs. Stabilizing and cross linking agents. Immunogenicity. Hosts (drugs). Controlled release mechanisms of hosts. Biodegradability, workability into devices ...

  11. Seed conformal blocks in 4D CFT

    Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Elkhidir, Emtinan; Karateev, Denis [SISSA and INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Serone, Marco [SISSA and INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-02-29

    We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of “seed' conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation (ℓ,ℓ̄) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0,|ℓ−ℓ̄|) and one (|ℓ−ℓ̄|,0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any (ℓ,ℓ̄), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p=|ℓ−ℓ̄| and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal field theories.

  12. Robust block bootstrap panel predictability tests

    Westerlund, J.; Smeekes, S.

    2013-01-01

    Most panel data studies of the predictability of returns presume that the cross-sectional units are independent, an assumption that is not realistic. As a response to this, the current paper develops block bootstrap-based panel predictability tests that are valid under very general conditions. Some

  13. Ultraporous films with uniform nanochannels by block copolymer micelles assembly

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2010-10-12

    Films with high pore density and regularity that are easy to manufacture by conventional large-scale technology are key components aimed for fabrication of new generations of magnetic arrays for storage media, medical scaffolds, and artificial membranes. However, potential manufacture strategies like the self-assembly of block copolymers, which lead to amazing regular patterns, could be hardly reproduced up to now using commercially feasible methods. Here we report a unique production method of nanoporous films based on the self-assembly of copper(II) ion-polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) complexes and nonsolvent induced phase separation. Extremely high pore densities and uniformity were achieved. Water fluxes of 890 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 were obtained, which are at least 1 order of magnitude higher than those of commercially available membranes with comparable pore size. The pores are also stimuli (pH)-responsive. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. Cue-it? We say: Block-it!

    Cooreman, Bart; Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Petersen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A bilateral change detection paradigm is often used to measure lateralized ERP-components, such as the Contralateral Delay Activity (CDA), believed to be associated with visual short-term memory (e.g. Vogel and Machizawa, 2004; Alvarez and Cavanagh, 2004; McCollough et al., 2007 ). Recently......, Wiegand et al. (2014) developed a similar whole report paradigm in which participants reported the identity of four letters, presented in a pre-cued hemifield, showing a correlation between CDA amplitude and visual short-term memory capacity when modeled using Bundesen' s Theory of Visual Attention (TVA...... modelled by TVA, providing an estimate of perceptual threshold, processing speed, and visual short-term memory capacity for each participant. Our results show that the blocked design compared with the intermixed pre-cued design provided an equally good estimate of participants' TVA...

  15. Reversible conduction block in peripheral nerve using electrical waveforms.

    Bhadra, Niloy; Vrabec, Tina L; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin L

    2018-01-01

    Electrical nerve block uses electrical waveforms to block action potential propagation. Two key features that distinguish electrical nerve block from other nonelectrical means of nerve block: block occurs instantly, typically within 1 s; and block is fully and rapidly reversible (within seconds). Approaches for achieving electrical nerve block are reviewed, including kilohertz frequency alternating current and charge-balanced polarizing current. We conclude with a discussion of the future directions of electrical nerve block. Electrical nerve block is an emerging technique that has many significant advantages over other methods of nerve block. This field is still in its infancy, but a significant expansion in the clinical application of this technique is expected in the coming years.

  16. Blocking Losses With a Photon Counter

    Moision, Burce E.; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2012-01-01

    It was not known how to assess accurately losses in a communications link due to photodetector blocking, a phenomenon wherein a detector is rendered inactive for a short time after the detection of a photon. When used to detect a communications signal, blocking leads to losses relative to an ideal detector, which may be measured as a reduction in the communications rate for a given received signal power, or an increase in the signal power required to support the same communications rate. This work involved characterizing blocking losses for single detectors and arrays of detectors. Blocking may be mitigated by spreading the signal intensity over an array of detectors, reducing the count rate on any one detector. A simple approximation was made to the blocking loss as a function of the probability that a detector is unblocked at a given time, essentially treating the blocking probability as a scaling of the detection efficiency. An exact statistical characterization was derived for a single detector, and an approximation for multiple detectors. This allowed derivation of several accurate approximations to the loss. Methods were also derived to account for a rise time in recovery, and non-uniform illumination due to diffraction and atmospheric distortion of the phase front. It was assumed that the communications signal is intensity modulated and received by an array of photon-counting photodetectors. For the purpose of this analysis, it was assumed that the detectors are ideal, in that they produce a signal that allows one to reproduce the arrival times of electrons, produced either as photoelectrons or from dark noise, exactly. For single detectors, the performance of the maximum-likelihood (ML) receiver in blocking is illustrated, as well as a maximum-count (MC) receiver, that, when receiving a pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signal, selects the symbol corresponding to the slot with the largest electron count. Whereas the MC receiver saturates at high count rates

  17. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  18. Gnawing blocks as cage enrichment and dietary supplement for does and fatteners: intake, performance and behaviour

    Luc Maertens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different experimental gnawing blocks as cage enrichment in rabbits. One hundred and five pregnant rabbit does housed in conventional wire cages were distributed according to their parity number in 4 homogenous treatment groups. Throughout one complete reproductive cycle (from day 18 of pregnancy till weaning of the litter, does either received no enrichment (controls or a gnawing block hung from a wire on the cage wall. The 3 different blocks had the same basal components (wheat, molasses and oligoelements, but additionally wood mash (WM, wood mash+chicory pulp (ChP or wood mash and inulin syrup (I were respectively incorporated. After weaning, each litter continued to receive the same blocks as before and block consumption was measured as well as the performance of the fatteners. Weight development during the lactation was comparable except in does that received the wood powder blocks. These females had a significantly lower weight (P<0.05 at different time points compared to controls. Litter weight or kit weight was not significantly different at any of the time points measured, but again the treatment with wood powder blocks presented the lowest weight. The consumption of blocks during the whole reproduction cycle (42 d was 11.0±1.1; 6.8±1.0 and 4.4±0.7 g/d per cage for wood mash, chicory pulp or inulin enriched blocks, respectively. A very high variability in consumption of blocks was observed between females. This varied between 1 and 5 (I or ChP group or even 1 and 9 blocks (WM group per reproductive cycle. In fatteners, daily block consumption was significantly different (P<0.05 and reached on average 7.0±0.5; 3.9±0.5 and 2.2±0.2 g/d per fattener, respectively for WM, ChP and I. Five females with a block and 5 females without a block were observed for 1 h 3 d before the expected parturition and at 2 time points during lactation. Distinction was made between 15 different behaviours. Although the

  19. Strength and deformability of hollow concrete blocks: correlation of block and cylindrical sample test results

    Barbosa, C. S.; Hanai, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with correlations among mechanical properties of hollow blocks and those of concrete used to make them. Concrete hollow blocks and test samples were moulded with plastic consistency concrete, to assure the same material in all cases, in three diferente levels of strength (nominally 10 N/mm², 20 N/mm² and 30 N/mm²). The mechanical properties and structural behaviour in axial compression and tension tests were determined by standard tests in blocks and cylinders. Stress and str...

  20. New poly(dimethylsiloxane)/poly(perfluorooctylethyl acrylate) block copolymers: structure and order across multiple length scales in thin films

    Martinelli, Elisa; Galli, Giancarlo; Krishnan, Sitaraman; Paik, Marvin Y.; Ober, Christopher K.; Fischer, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Three sets of a new class of low surface tension block copolymers were synthesized consisting of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) block and a poly(perfluorooctylethyl acrylate) (AF8) block. The polymers were prepared using a bromo-terminated PDMS macroinitiator, to which was attached an AF8 block grown using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in such a designed way that the molecular weight and composition of the two polymer blocks were regularly varied. The interplay of both the phase separated microstructure and the mesomorphic character of the fluorinated domains with their effect on surface structure was evaluated using a suite of analytical tools. Surfaces of spin-coated and thermally annealed films were assessed using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) studies. Both atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) studies were carried out to evaluate the microstructure of the thin films. Even in block copolymers in which the PDMS block was the majority component, a significant presence of the lower surface energy AF8 block was detected at the film surface. Moreover, the perfluorooctyl helices of the AF8 repeat units were highly oriented at the surface in an ordered, tilted smectic structure, which was compared with those of the bulk powder samples using wide-angle X-ray powder diffraction (WAXD) studies. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.