Full Text Available This article explores the academic and social challenges experienced by students from the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (glbt community on campus at a South African university. A qualitative study to investigate some of these academic and social challenges experienced by glbt students at a university campus was conducted. The population of the study was all students from glbt community on campus and a purposive sample of twelve (12 respondents was constituted and a semi-structured interview guide was designed and administered to all twelve (12 participants. Data were audio recorded and transcribed. Content analysis which is a method used to systematically analyse the meaning of communications was used to analyse data. Of central interest were the core themes that speakers referred to, the information or messages that they wanted to pass on to their audience. The findings suggest that glbt students grapple with issues such as labelling, sexual abuse, discrimination/marginalisation and unfairness in the allocation of resources such as accommodation. In response to these cancerous societal ills, the helping professions exhort practitioners to empower vulnerable populations, promote social justice, support client self-determination and keep abreast of current knowledge relevant to professional practice. This article concludes with a set of recommendations on some of the strategies to address the identified socio-academic challenges.
Treat, Alena R.; Whittenburg, Becky
This bibliography makes available to educators and others a comprehensive resource for information regarding gifted youth who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender or questioning their sexual orientation and/or gender identity (G/GLBTQ). It includes articles, brochures, books, lesson plans, staff development, video media, and Web resources. As…
... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gay and Lesbian Parents Page Content Article Body I am gay. Should I worry how this will affect my children? Millions of children have one or more gay and/or lesbian parents. For some children, having ...
On July 17-18, 2008, the National Education Association hosted the NEA National Summit on gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) Issues in Education in Chicago, Illinois. The purpose of the Summit was to gather leading researchers, scholars, and practitioners on GLBT issues in education to assess the status of GLBT students in the United…
Newmanxy, Bernie Sue
SUMMARY This study measured the effects of religious affiliation and gender on attitudes about lesbians and gay men among 2,846 college graduates who were beginning graduate study in social work or counseling. Males were more negative than females in their attitudes toward both lesbians and gay men. Conservative Protestants were the most negative in their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, while those who were Atheist, Agnostic, Jewish or claimed no religion were most positive. Beliefs that the Bible forbids homosexuality are discussed and readings and arguments challenging this belief that can be used as class content are presented.
Levitt, Heidi M.; Ovrebo, Elin; Anderson-Cleveland, Mollie B.; Leone, Christina; Jeong, Jae Y.; Arm, Jennifer R.; Bonin, Beth P.; Cicala, John; Coleman, Rachel; Laurie, Anna; Vardaman, James M.; Horne, Sharon G.
In the past few years, 26 states have changed their constitutions to restrict marriage to one man and one woman. There has been little research on the psychological effects of this political process on gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people. In this qualitative project, 13 GLBT people were interviewed about their experience during…
Arm, Jennifer R.; Horne, Sharon G.; Levitt, Heidi M.
There have been numerous legislative initiatives to limit gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people's rights at local, state, and national levels (G. M. Herek, 2006). Although research has focused on how GLBT people are affected by these initiatives, to date no research has explored the impact of this legislation upon the families of…
Ciszek, Matthew P.
This article explores the relationship between the perceived campus environment for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) students at colleges and universities and how academic libraries have deployed GLBT-related resources on the Web. Recommendations are made for increasing GLBT-related materials and information in academic libraries.…
... Objectives » Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Overview (active tab) Objectives National Snapshots Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health View HP2020 Data for: ...
... men who have sex with men (MSM), including gay and bisexual men. GLMA President Jesse Joad, MD, ... to establish clear and comprehensive regulations ensuring lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people do not face discrimination ...
Zubernis, Lynn; Snyder, Matthew
At some point every college freshman asks "Am I okay?" or "Am I normal?" Helping students answer this question is a familiar part of college counseling. However, this task becomes more complicated when students who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender (GLBT), or questioning their sexuality seek counseling. The universal issues which all college…
Hyde, Margaret O.; Forsyth, Elizabeth H.
Homosexuality has emerged as a major issue making headlines across the country, including initiatives, which have been put on state and local ballots, that limit or guarantee the civil rights of gays and lesbians. This book, designed as a guide for juveniles, separates fact from fiction about gays and lesbians and explains homosexuality in clear,…
... Text Size Email Print Share Health Concerns for Gay and Lesbian Teens Page Content Article Body Sexual activity Most teens, whether they are gay, lesbian, bisexual , or straight, are not sexually active. ...
Chesebro, James W., Ed.
In a departure from previous statistical studies, this book focuses on the social responses to homosexuality rather than on homosexual behavior itself. The essays in the book maintain that communication--how gay men and lesbians relate to one another as well as to heterosexuals--is the major factor that determines public opinion about…
... Awards AGLP News Newsletter Archives Education Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health GAP LGBT Online Curriculum ... an End to Harmful ‘Religious Freedom’ Laws...> WPA: Gay “Cures” Are Harmful And Don’t Work See ...
Wright, Sara L.; Canetto, Silvia Sara
This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…
Full Text Available The article deals with the development of the gay and lesbian scene in ACC Metelkova, while specifying the preliminary aspects of establishing and building gay and lesbian activism associated with spatial issues. The struggle for space or occupying public space is vital for the gay and lesbian scene, as it provides not only the necessary socializing opportunities for gays and lesbians, but also does away with the historical hiding of homosexuality in the closet, in seclusion and silence. Because of their autonomy and long-term, continuous existence, homo-clubs at Metelkova contributed to the consolidation of the gay and lesbian scene in Slovenia and significantly improved the opportunities for cultural, social and political expression of gays and lesbians. Such a synthesis of the cultural, social and political, further intensified in Metelkova, and characterizes the gay and lesbian community in Slovenia from the very outset of gay and lesbian activism in 1984. It is this long-term synthesis that keeps this community in Slovenia so vital and politically resilient.
... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons and Tobacco Use Recommend ... and Influence Resources References People who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) include all races and ...
Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…
Meyer, Ilan H.; Wilson, Patrick A.
Sampling has been the single most influential component of conducting research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. Poor sampling designs can result in biased results that will mislead other researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. Investigators wishing to study LGB populations must therefore devote significant energy and…
Chonody, Jill M.; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Rutledge, Scott Edward
A variety of pedagogical techniques have shown promising results in promoting acceptance and affirmation of gays and lesbians among students in social work, allied health, and education professions. In this article we examine whether 211 students enrolled in a human sexuality course in a southeastern university changed their attitudes toward gays…
Kus, Robert J
.... Addiction and Recovery is a vital resourcefor anyone providing servicesfor gay, lesbian, and bisexualclients. Rik Isensee,LCSW Author, LOVE BEIWEEN MEN, and GROWING UP GAY IN A DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILYMore pre-publication REVIEWS,COMMENTARIES, EVALUATIONS . .. "A ddiction and Recovery in Gay and Lesbian Persons" is an excellentcollection of multifa...
... for Reproductive Medicine Counseling issues to discuss with gay men and lesbians seeking assisted reproductive technology (ART) More lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and couples are ...
Alexander, Christopher J
...: parenting, coming out processes of lesbians, gay men's self-image, adolescence as a homosexual, parental guidance of homosexual children, eating disorders, aging, dual needs of ethnic homosexuals...
Herbstrith, Julie C.; Tobin, Renée M.; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S.; Schneider, W. Joel
Gay and lesbian parents are raising an increasing number of children, but little is known about how these parents are viewed by school personnel. In this study, preservice teacher attitudes toward gay and lesbian parents were assessed using implicit, explicit, behavioral, and behavioroid measures. Implicit measures indicate that participants rated…
American Psychologist, 2012
The "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients" provide psychologists with (a) a frame of reference for the treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients and (b) basic information and further references in the areas of assessment, intervention, identity, relationships, diversity, education, training, and…
Maney, D W; Cain, R E
This preliminary investigation assessed preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward homosexual parents and their children. The study populations included 195 college students enrolled in an elementary school health methods course at a large northeastern university. A 51-item " and Lesbian Parenting Questionnaire" was used for data collection purposes. Reliability estimates for the scales were: attitudes toward lesbians and gay men (alpha = .90), comfort toward gay and lesbian families (alpha = .92), and knowledge about homosexuality (alpha = .52). Most respondents agreed gay men: were not disgusting, should be allowed to teach, were not perverted, and should not overcome their feelings of homosexuality. Most respondents disagreed lesbians cannot fit into society or were sick. Nearly all agreed female homosexuality should not be a basis for job discrimination. Females were significantly (p attitudes toward gay fathers than did male respondents. Respondents with stronger religious attitudes had significantly (p attitudes toward lesbian parents than respondents with weaker religious attitudes.
To discuss lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific survivorship issues including: integrating sexual and gender minority identities with cancer survivor identities; coordinating medical care and disclosing identities to health care providers; dealing with late effects of treatment; and addressing LGBT family and relationship issues. Published articles, quotes from an online survey of 311 LGBT survivors. The transition from active cancer treatment to survivorship presents challenges, and LGBT cancer survivors may face additional challenges as they enter the survivorship phase. Oncology nurses can improve the quality of survivorship care delivered to LGBT survivors and their caregivers by addressing the disparities and gaps in health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rowell, Elizabeth H.
Early childhood educators carefully reflect on the messages conveyed about family diversity in the materials they select to use. Picture books depicting gay and lesbian families can enhance the curriculum and make an important contribution to young children's development. Families comprised of same-sex parents or those who have gay and lesbian…
Clarke, V.; Kitzinger, C.; Potter, J.
Psychologists recognise homophobic bullying as a serious problem for young lesbians and gay men; however, when it comes to children in lesbian and gay households the issue is not so clear cut. Whereas some psychologists sympathetic to lesbian and gay parenting regard it as a problem, most do not. Despite this, the inevitability and severe psychological consequences of homophobic bullying is a prevalent theme in discussions of lesbian and gay parenting in contexts ranging from custody cases to...
Collier, Kate L.; Horn, Stacey S.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.
Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the U.S. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight schools. Findings indicated the Dutch participants were more tolerant of lesbians and gays, after adjusting for the gender, age, and racial/ethnic minority status of the participants. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes. American participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to social norms and religious opposition, while the Dutch participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to individual rights and the biological/genetic basis of homosexuality. The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context-dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. PMID:24512056
Liddle, Becky J; Stowe, Angela M
SUMMARY Advantages of a lesbian/heterosexual team approach to education on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender issues are examined and a case study is analyzed. A lesbian guest lecturer provided a contact experience, personal anecdotes, passion, and expertise. Facilitation of later class discussion by the heterosexual instructor allowed for frank discussion among students, processing of presentation content, and modeling of gay-affirmative attitudes by the instructor and other students. Summaries of the guest lecture (fantasy exercise and informational lecture) and later discussion are provided. Student comments during discussion demonstrated evidence of deep challenge, attitude change, and heightened understanding.
Samar, V J
This essay explores, in two parts, the problems of justifying civil rights legislation for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. Part I shows that discrimination against gays and lesbians at least in respect to employment, housing, and public accommodations is an evil unsupported by ethical traditions in utilitarianism, rights theory, and communitarianism. It also shows that two theories, Kantian theory and natural law theory, which do support such discrimination on the claim that homoerotic behavior is universally or objectively immoral only do so because of a failure to make precise the concept of "natural" which underlies those theories. Part II argues that anti-discrimination legislation is both an appropriate and effective means to promote the idea that discrimination against lesbians and gays in respect to most employment, housing, and public accommodations is sufficiently injurious to both individuals and society that it should not be tolerated. The section also explains how such legislation might succeed practically in eliminating discrimination in these areas.
Dibble, Suzanne; Eliason, Michele J; Dejoseph, Jeanne F; Chinn, Peggy
To provide an overview of health care needs and related sexuality issues of lesbian and gay patients. Research articles, books, clinical experience. Attitudes of health professionals as well as patients impact care in relation to sexuality and sexual issues. Oncology nurses using a framework of awareness, sensitivity, and knowledge can obtain and apply the essential information needed to provide culturally appropriate nursing care to this population. Lesbian and gay patients need nurses as allies in their fight with cancer. This is particularly true in assessment and managing concerns about sexuality and sexual issues.
Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…
Security for women and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people in the conflict-affected regions in Colombia. Colombia is currently in the process of concluding peace negotiations with the guerrilla group Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC). One of the principal expectations generated by the ...
Daugelli, Anthony R.; Grossman, Arnold H.; Starks, Michael T.
This study used a sample of 293 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth to examine factors that differentiated youth whose parents knew of their sexual orientation from youth whose parents did not know. Earlier awareness and disclosure of same-gender attractions, greater childhood gender atypicality, and less internalized homophobia were characteristic…
Hillman, Jennifer; Martin, Renee A.
We designed an active learning activity to allow students to experience stereotyping and consider the social stigma often directed toward gays and lesbians. We used an unusual fictional scenario to alleviate students' concerns about impression management and permit them to experience the role of someone faced with discrimination without the…
van Bergen, Diana; Bos, Henny M.W.; van Lisdonk, jantine; Keuzenkamp, S; Sandfort, T.G.M
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
Bayne, Hannah Barnhill
This article explores the impact of sexual and religious identity on college student development, examining developmental models and discussing how counselors can assist gay and lesbian students with integrating these 2 personal identities. Treatment approaches are presented, and the article concludes with an examination of ethical and…
Ferfolja, Tania; Hopkins, Lucy
Discrimination against lesbians and gay men has been endemic throughout Australia's history. However, in twenty-first century Australian society there are signs of growing sophistication and acceptance of sexual diversities. Despite this, schools continue to be organisations where sexual "difference" is marginalised and silenced, having…
Goldfried, Marvin R.
Illustrates how clinical and research writings on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues remain invisible to mainstream psychology in such areas as life span development and aging, teen suicide, substance abuse, victimization, and family and couple relationships, examining determinants of wellbeing among GLBs and discussing what mainstream…
Parnell, Martha Keeton; Lease, Suzanne H.; Green, Michael L.
This study examined career-related barriers that gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) individuals had encountered in the past and anticipated in the future and the degree of hindrance associated with future barriers. Two hundred forty-one GLB participants (126 women and 115 men) completed the Career Barriers Inventory-Revised and 11 additional items…
van Bergen, D.D.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Lisdonk, J.; Keuzenkamp, S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
van Bergen, D.D.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Lisdonk, J.; Keuzenkamp, S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer
Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth.
Mulcahy, Molly; Dalton, Sarah; Kolbert, Jered; Crothers, Laura
The authors identified the process that 10 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) high school students used to establish an informal adult-mentor relationship with a school personnel member. Five major themes emerged: (a) how LGBT students determined whether this person would be a safe mentor, (b) a listing of the important qualities of…
Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda; Neberich, Wiebke
There is currently little knowledge about what gay men and lesbians seek in a romantic relationship. This study extends the literature on gay men and lesbians' partnership preferences by engaging in the first large-scale empirical study of the long-term dating intentions and monogamy beliefs of gay
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A... live and love as we see fit. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community has written a... coverage to someone just because they are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Because we understand...
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... equality from founding promise into lasting reality. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT... Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim June 2013 as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and...
..., Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Pride Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of America's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) community is the story of..., Don't Tell'' policy. With this repeal, gay and lesbian Americans will be able to serve openly in our...
Hollekim, Ragnhild; Slaatten, Hilde; Anderssen, Norman
In Norway, a gender-neutral Marriage Law that secured equal marriage and parenting rights for lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples took effect in January 2009. The aim of the current study was to explore Norwegian beliefs about equal marriage and parenting rights for lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples and the welfare of children with lesbian and gay parents. A sample of 1,246 Norwegians participated in the study by filling out a questionnaire. The majority reported...
Since the 1973 decision to remove homosexuality from the list of mental disorders, most mental health practitioners have shifted their clinical focus from "the cure" of homosexuality to treating the concerns of gay and lesbian patients. Some clinicians, however, reject the mental health mainstream's view and continue to conceptualize homosexuality as a mental disorder. Their clinical theories have been incorporated into wider societal debates regarding the status of gay and lesbian people. The sexual conversion or reparative therapies they practice, however, may include routine ethical violations in the realm of improper pressure, confidentiality, informed consent, and fiduciary responsibility to the patient's best interest. On the other hand, a normal/identity approach to treatment, particularly in its most reductionistic forms, may involve ethical lapses in the areas of informed consent and fiduciary responsibility to the patient's best interests as well.
Kerr, Dianne L; Ding, Kele; Chaya, Julie
To compare self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students to heterosexual peers and to each other on alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) measures and alcohol use consequences. Preexisting data (Falls 2009-2011) from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA-II) were analyzed. Bisexual college students had greater odds of ATOD use than heterosexual and gay/lesbian students. Bisexual women had the highest levels of use. LGB students had more serious consequences due to alcohol use. ATOD use among LGB students was more prevalent than heterosexuals during the past 30 days, year, and life-time. LGB students report more negative alcohol consequences.
Fasoli, Fabio; Maass, Anne; Paladino, Maria Paola; Sulpizio, Simone
The growing body of literature on the recognition of sexual orientation from voice ("auditory gaydar") is silent on the cognitive and social consequences of having a gay-/lesbian- versus heterosexual-sounding voice. We investigated this issue in four studies (overall N = 276), conducted in Italian language, in which heterosexual listeners were exposed to single-sentence voice samples of gay/lesbian and heterosexual speakers. In all four studies, listeners were found to make gender-typical inferences about traits and preferences of heterosexual speakers, but gender-atypical inferences about those of gay or lesbian speakers. Behavioral intention measures showed that listeners considered lesbian and gay speakers as less suitable for a leadership position, and male (but not female) listeners took distance from gay speakers. Together, this research demonstrates that having a gay/lesbian rather than heterosexual-sounding voice has tangible consequences for stereotyping and discrimination.
Okutan, Nur; Buyuksahin Sunal, Ayda; Sakalli Ugurlu, Nuray
The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effects of sexual orientation (heterosexuals and gay men/lesbians) and gender difference on responses to romantic relationship problems (Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect [EVLN] responses) and of perceived partner's EVLN responses in Turkey, and (2) to examine whether internalized homophobia was associated with EVLN responses and perceived partner's EVLN responses for gay men and lesbians. Responses to Dissatisfaction Scale-Accommodation Instrument, Internalized Homophobia, and Demographics Information were administered to 187 participants (44 lesbians, 44 gay men, 53 heterosexual women, 46 heterosexual men).The MANCOVA results showed that men reported higher loyalty than women, whereas women presented more exit responses than men. Further, the interactions between gender and sexual orientation on the participants' EVLN responses and on the perceived partner's EVLN responses were significant. With respect to heterosexual women, heterosexual men displayed more loyalty responses. Lesbians had higher scores on loyalty than did heterosexual women. Lesbians also had higher scores on perceived partner's exit response than did heterosexual women and gay men. On the contrary, heterosexual women reported more perceived partner's voice response than lesbians. In addition, lesbians reported higher perceived partner's neglect responses than heterosexual women. Compared to heterosexual women, heterosexual men reported higher perceived partner's exit response. Finally, internalized homophobia was associated with destructive responses for both lesbians and gay men.
Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Samayoa, Andrés Castro; Gasman, Marybeth; Mobley, Steve, Jr.
Background: Researchers have tended to favor scholarship that looks at institutional forms of support for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students in the context of resource centers specifically tailored to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students. Our study makes two distinct contributions to the study of gay and lesbian students…
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8387 of June 1, 2009. Lesbian, Gay... Proclamation 8387 of June 1, 2009 Proc. 8387 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2009By the... lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Out of this resistance, the LGBT rights movement...
Herdt, Gilbert; Boxer, Andrew
This book confronts myths about gay and lesbian youth and explores their real experiences of coming out. The research for the book was conducted at the Horizons lesbian and gay social service agency in Chicago, Illinois. Chapter 1 takes a historical look at homosexuality and proposes a new theory of gay and lesbian development to explain a…
Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon
Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…
Choi, Hee-sook; Thul, Candrice A.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Norris, James L.
School psychologists' attitudes and feelings toward gay and lesbian parents were surveyed in relation to their training and exposure, and professional services offered to gay and lesbian parents and their children. The relationship between attitudes, feelings, training, exposure, and demographic characteristics was explored as well. A stratified…
Clarke, Victoria; Kitzinger, Celia; Potter, Jonathan
Psychologists recognize homophobic bullying as a serious problem for young lesbians and gay men; however, when it comes to children in lesbian and gay households the issue is not so clear cut. Some psychologists sympathetic to lesbian and gay parenting regard it as a problem, but most do not. Despite this, the inevitability and severe psychological consequences of homophobic bullying is a prevalent theme in discussions of lesbian and gay parenting in contexts ranging from custody cases to television talk shows, and is used to implicate lesbians and gay men as unfit to parent. This is the broader context in which lesbian and gay parents discuss their children's experiences of bullying. In this study, we provide a discursive psychological analysis of six lesbian and gay parents' accounts of bullying. We argue that these accounts are discursively and rhetorically designed to deal with a heterosexist social/political context. Lesbian and gay parents face a dilemma of stake and accountability: reports of no bullying risk being heard as implausible given the prevalence of the bullying theme; at the same time, reports of bullying are equally if not more risky, raising the possibility of charges of bad parenting. We explore the detail of the parents' accounts of bullying to illustrate how they are designed to negotiate this web of accountability, and we argue for the importance for critical social psychology of analysing the talk of socially/politically marginalized groups.
Maher, Michael J.
The Catholic Magisterium has made a distinction between homosexual orientation (disordered but not sinful), homosexual activity (sinful, but judged "with prudence"), rights of gay and lesbian people, and the Church's pastoral responsibilities to gay and lesbian people. Both the Vatican and the American bishops have clearly stated that the topic of…
Meerendonk, Bas van de; Eisinga, Rob; Felling, Albert
national sample of 921 respondents from the Dutch populadon completed the translated, slightly modified version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale, originally developed in the USA for the assessment of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The present study was the first attempt
Meerendonk, B. van de; Eisinga, R.N.; Felling, A.J.A.
A national sample of 921 respondents from the Dutch population completed the translated, slightly modified version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale, originally developed in the USA for the assessment of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The present study was the first
Vare, Jonatha W.; Norton, Terry L.
Gay and lesbian youth encounter most of the typical biological and cognitive changes of adolescence. However, cultural circumstances create differences in the social and emotional development of many gay and lesbian teens. In the United States, these teens often live within social environments characterized by a hostile fear and an active…
Kwok, Diana K.; Wu, Joseph; Shardlow, Steven M.
There is a dearth of research on social work students' attitudes toward lesbians and gays in East Asian countries where intolerance toward nonheterosexuality has been documented. This article presents findings from the first study in Hong Kong using a Chinese version of Herek's Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) to measure…
Ferfolja, Tania; Stavrou, Efty
Historically, lesbian and gay teachers working in schools have experienced silencing, invisibility, and discrimination. This paper reports on research that examined the experiences of self-identified lesbian and gay teachers working in a variety of school types and school systems across Australia. Specifically, it explores these teachers'…
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex Guidance Project AGENCY: National Institute of... result in a policy guide for corrections practitioners charged with the care and custody of lesbian, gay...
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Black, Kaitlin; Sweeney, Kristin; Moyer, April
Little research has examined the experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families in early childhood education settings. This study uses interview data to examine the perceptions and experiences of 45 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples (90 individuals) with 10 adopted children with respect to their (1) openness with…
Bullard, Eric A.
The purpose of this dissertation was to better understand the experiences of "out" gay and lesbian higher education presidents. Of the more than 4,500 institutions of higher education in the United States, only 30 presidents have identified themselves as gay or lesbian. As institutions of higher education face large scale retirements at…
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Derbyshire, Katherine
This study examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and their clinical correlates in a university sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) students.......This study examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and their clinical correlates in a university sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) students....
Czaja, Sara J; Sabbag, Samir; Lee, Chin Chin; Schulz, Richard; Lang, Samantha; Vlahovic, Tatiana; Jaret, Adrienne; Thurston, Catherine
Despite the increasing number of lesbian and gay older adults, research geared towards health and well-being of this population is limited. Many lesbian and gay seniors experience health disparities and are at risk for poor health outcomes. The aims of this study were to gather in-depth information on the concerns of lesbian and gay elders with respect to aging and care needs. The sample included 124 gay men and lesbian women aged 50+ years. Data were gathered via focus groups and questionnaires. The focus groups addressed: (1) concerns about aging in the LGBT community, (2) barriers to needed support and services, (3) concerns about caregiving and (4) needed programs for lesbian and gay seniors. Concerns expressed about aging included: lack of financial security, lack of family or social support, fears about the lack of someone to provide needed care, and discrimination in healthcare or service communities. Participants also indicated concerns about being alone and vulnerable and a need for resources and support programs, specifically for lesbian and gay older adults and for lesbian and gay caregivers. These findings suggest needed areas of support and programs for older gay men and lesbian women. They also suggest that healthcare professionals might need more training regarding the particular needs and concerns of this community.
Norton, Terry L.; Vare, Jonatha W.
Several books that provide guidance for the gay and lesbian teenagers, their friends and families are presented. The books depict the challenges faced by the gay and lesbian teenagers, conflicts among the young adults and parents or caretakers and the rejections faced by the heterosexual parents and friends.
In this paper, the author looks at how she attempted to teach her students--preservice teachers--to engage in dialogic conversation about gay and lesbian identity using children's literature with gay and lesbian characters as a jumping off point. Through her analysis, the author has identified two requirements for dialogic conversation among…
Discusses how for gay or lesbian youth, the issues of identity and acceptance that are ignored both in life and in literature are not only profound but also dangerous. Notes that books that include gay or lesbian characters usually elicit a strong negative reaction to their content by vocal conservative groups. (SG)
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Rothblum, Esther D.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.
Lifetime victimization was examined in a primarily European American sample that comprised 557 lesbian/gay, 163 bisexual, and 525 heterosexual adults. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants were recruited via LGB e-mail lists, periodicals, and organizations; these participants recruited 1 or more siblings for participation in the study (81%…
Kuhar, Roman; Svab, Alenka
The article deals with the comparison of the characteristics, experiences, and perceptions of everyday life of gays and lesbians living in rural and urban areas of Slovenia. We focus on the following thematic aspects: (1) coming out; (2) intimate partnerships; (3) the access and the use of gay infrastructure; and (4) violence against gays and lesbians. The article also addresses and discusses the urban/rural divide as a Western construct that might not be completely applicable to other social and cultural contexts. Taking Slovenia as an example, this article questions the self-evidence of rural/urban divide as an analytical concept. On the basis of our research, we conclude that this concept requires continuous revisions and reinterpretations in a concrete social and cultural context(s). The characteristics of gay and lesbian everyday life either in rural or in urban context in Slovenia lead to the conclusion that even within a specific social and cultural context, the concept of urban/rural divide should be used carefully, taking into account complexities of everyday lives and various factors that influence them.
Nordqvist, Petra; Smart, Carol
Legal and social attitudes towards gay men and lesbians have altered considerably in latter years and yet recent research suggests that â€˜coming outâ€™ as lesbian and gay may remain a troubled business, especially in oneâ€™s own family. Exploring this theme, we situate gay and lesbian identities in wider family networks and explore how gay men and women negotiate family relationships at particular and significant moments in their lives, such as weddings and child birth. In doing so, we draw ...
Savin-Williams, R C
Based on a population of 317 gay and lesbian youths, the current investigation explores the appropriateness of a reflected appraisals perspective in predicting the degree to which parental attitudes, as perceived by youth, affects their self-esteem and comfortableness being gay. A lesbian was most comfortable with her sexual orientation if she also reported that her parents accepted her homosexuality; these variables did not, however, predict her level of self-esteem. Among the gay males, parental acceptance predicted comfortable being gay if the parents were also perceived as important components of a youth's self-worth; a male most comfortable with his sexual orientation had the highest level of self-esteem. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) sex of parent, (b) sex-role development, (c) comparisons of gays and lesbians, and (d) research on gay and lesbian youth.
Emily K. Hobson
Full Text Available This article analyzes the radical imagination of lesbian and gay activism in solidarity with the Nicaraguan Revolution. It examines the reasons US lesbian and gay radicals supported that revolution and investigates the ways that homoerotic, especially lesbian, desire shaped their solidarity. Drawing on Herbert Marcuse and Michel Foucault, the article argues that lesbian and gay radicals viewed the Nicaraguan Revolution in erotic and heterotopic terms. Posters, fliers, and interviews reveal that US activists, people of color and white, represented the Revolution and solidarity through tropes of female masculinity and women’s affection. Many Nicaraguan lesbians and gay men shared these nonnormative images of socialist change. Yet while Nicaraguans claimed Sandinismo as their own, for US activists revolution remained a distant object of desire and solidarity a “seduction,” “crush,” or embrace. United States activists who embraced developmentalist views of Latin American sexualities remained unable to witness lesbian and gay life inside Nicaragua, while lesbian and gay Sandinistas kept silent about FSLN homophobia so as not to undermine solidarity against the Contra war. Desire served as a powerful tool for mobilizing transnational solidarity. By failing to examine desire critically, however, US activists limited their communications with Nicaraguan lesbians and gay men and weakened the relationship they sought with revolution itself.
Full Text Available There is an increasing body of research on ageing and end-of-life care (EOLC of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT older people in the UK, USA and Australia. In contrast, in South Africa, despite progressive legislation to protect LGBT rights, there has been minimal research in this area. This article reports on a critical review of literature on ageing of the LGBT community. Key themes identified include discrimination by health care workers and health risks for LGBT older people alongside the need for training of health professionals. The article concludes with consideration of the needs of LGBT persons in South Africa
Schneebaum, Alyssa; Badgett, M. V. Lee
Poverty is a widely researched topic in economics. However, despite growing research on the economic lives of lesbians and gay men in the United States since the mid 1990s, very little is known about poverty in same-sex couple households. This study uses American Community Survey data from 2010 to 2014 to calculate poverty rates for households headed by different-sex versus same-sex couples. Comparing households with similar characteristics, the results show that those headed by same-sex coup...
Earnshaw, Valerie A; Bogart, Laura M; Poteat, V Paul; Reisner, Sari L; Schuster, Mark A
Bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth is prevalent in the United States, and represents LGBT stigma when tied to sexual orientation and/or gender identity or expression. LGBT youth commonly report verbal, relational, and physical bullying, and damage to property. Bullying undermines the well-being of LGBT youth, with implications for risky health behaviors, poor mental health, and poor physical health that may last into adulthood. Pediatricians can play a vital role in preventing and identifying bullying, providing counseling to youth and their parents, and advocating for programs and policies to address LGBT bullying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kissen, Rita M.
This study explores issues of importance to gay and lesbian teachers. It seeks to answer questions and to dramatize the damaging effects of homophobia on the lives of gay teachers, as well as all teachers and students. The project was narrative and qualitative, consisting of informal and open ended interviews of 10 self-identifies gay or lesbian…
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... equality on behalf of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This month, as we.... That is why we must give committed gay couples the same rights and responsibilities afforded to any...
In this paper, I analyse the relationship between US high schools' organisational cultures and student perceptions of responses to anti-gay language in their school. Using data from 67 interviews with young people who identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual, I compare teachers' responses to anti-gay language in schools that do and schools that do…
Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina
Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
Families in which one or both parents are gay or lesbian are becoming increasingly common as social acceptance of this lifestyle increases and legal barriers slowly erode. Despite past concerns and occasional reports to the contrary, the bulk of research has shown no evidence that children of parents who are gay or lesbian suffer any greater physical or mental pathology than children of heterosexual parents. However, research does suggest that there may be ways in which health care providers can be more respectful and supportive of homosexual parents and their families. Health care providers should examine their own attitudes toward these families and consider how to provide a welcoming environment and presence. Using gender neutral language about spouses, displaying posters and publications related to varied family types, and acknowledging both parents as participants in care are some examples. Health care providers who are aware of the special concerns these parents and their children may have, including stigmatization, the issue of disclosure, teasing, feeling different, and the stress resulting from challenges faced due to anti-homosexual social attitudes, can demonstrate sensitivity to the involved children and provide families with anticipatory guidance, support, suggested reading material, and referrals to appropriate organizations.
Goldberg, Abbie E
Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families.
Ramos, M M; Téllez, C M; Palley, T B; Umland, B E; Skipper, B J
To examine the attitudes of physicians practicing in New Mexico toward gay and lesbian medical students, house officers, and physician colleagues. In May 1996, the authors mailed a questionnaire with demographic and attitude questions to 1,949 non-federally employed physicians practicing in New Mexico. The questionnaire consisted of questions dealing with medical school admission, residency training, and referrals to colleagues. The response rate was 53.6%. Of all the responding physicians, 4.3% would refuse medical school admission to applicants known to be gay or lesbian. Respondents were most opposed to gay and lesbian physicians' seeking residency training in obstetrics and gynecology (10.1%), and least opposed to their seeking residency training in radiology (4.3%). Disclosure of homosexual orientation would also threaten referrals to gay and lesbian obstetrician-gynecologists (11.4%) more than to gay or lesbian physicians in other specialties. Physicians' attitudes toward gay and lesbian medical students, house officers, and physician colleagues seem to have improved considerably from those reported previously in the literature. However, gay men and lesbians in medicine continue to face opposition in their medical training and in their pursuit of specialty practice.
Wald, Kenneth D; Rienzo, Barbara A; Button, James W
In what has sometimes provoked a "culture war" over America's schools, gays and lesbians have sought an expanded voice in the making of education policy. This paper explores the factors that promote gay representation on school boards, how this variable in turn influences gay representation in both administrative and teaching positions, and how all three forms of gay representation relate to school board policies regarding sexual orientation education. Three of the four models drawn from the social movement literature help to explain gay school board representation. In a manner similar to other minority groups, gay representation on school boards directly or indirectly promotes the appointment of gays to administrative and teaching positions and the adoption of policies that address the problems faced by gay and lesbian students in the public schools.
One of the most persistent popular notions of gay men and lesbians is that they either live in or move to larger cities. In this thesis, the geography and migration paths of gay men and lesbians are studied using the life course perspective to challenge this idea. It is argued that gay men and lesbians are affected by the time and place into which they are born. Like heterosexuals, they are subject to the normative conceptions of life paths that are present at a specific historical period and...
Kirby, Brenda J; Michaelson, Christina
The purpose of this study was to compare morality judgments of American Catholics and the general public about lesbians and gay men adopting and teaching children. The general sample endorsed higher agreement that lesbians and gay men should be allowed to adopt and to teach children compared to the Catholic only sample. Older participants were less accepting than all other age groups, and there was an interaction effect between education and political ideology such that those with less education and with more politically conservative beliefs were generally less accepting of lesbians and gay men adopting and teaching children.
Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Issues and Research Gaps and Opportunities; Board on the Health of Select Populations; Institute of Medicine
At a time when lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals--often referred to under the umbrella acronym LGBT--are becoming more visible in society and more socially acknowledged, clinicians...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND – Literature has studied the relation between youth alcohol consumption and sexual orientation, showing that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB young people are at increased risk to develop alcohol-related problems compared to heterosexuals.
Anderson, Mary Z.; Croteau, James M.; DiStefano, Teresa M.; Chung, Y. Barry
Psychometric properties of the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure were tested with 172 professionals. Results suggest it successfully assesses a continuum of lesbian and gay identity management strategies (passing, covering, implicitly out, explicitly out). (Contains 27 references.) (SK)
Russell, Stephen T.; Fish, Jessica N.
Today’s lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified. PMID:26772206
Erosheva, Elena A.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.
Purpose This study examines global social networks—including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks—of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Design and Methods Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Results Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. Implications According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. PMID:25882129
Erosheva, Elena A; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I
This study examines global social networks-including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks-of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.
Russell, Stephen T; Fish, Jessica N
Today's lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplac...
Buser, Thomas; Geijtenbeek, Lydia; Plug, Erik
It is an established fact that gay men earn less than other men and lesbian women earn more than other women. In this paper we study whether differences in competitive preferences, which have emerged as a likely determinant of labour market differences between men and women, can provide a plausible explanation. We conduct an experiment on a Dutch online survey panel to measure the competitiveness of gay, lesbian and straight panel members. For differences in competitiveness to partially expla...
Link Established Between LBGT-Friendly Campus Climate Index Scores and Web-Based Resources of Academic Libraries. A Review of: Ciszek, M. P. (2011. Out on the web: The relationship between campus climate and GLBT-related web-based resources in academic libraries. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(5, 430-436. doi: 10.1016/j.acalib.2011.06.007
Full Text Available Objective – To explore whether academic institutions that score highly on the LGBT Friendly Campus Climate Index also have well-developed Web-based library resources to support GLBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender students.Design – Website analysis, percentage, and binary logistic regression analysis.Setting – Library websites of colleges and universities in four American geographic regions: Northeast, Midwest, South, and West.Subjects – There were 259 colleges and universities that participated in the 2010 LGBT-Friendly Campus Climate Index.Methods – The author visited the library websites of all institutions and surveyed available GLBT-related resources. The criteria for online resources included: 1 A research guide for GLBT studies or geared toward GLBT students, 2 An individual identified within the research guide as a contact for GLBT-related resources, and 3 A subscription to EBSCO’s GLBT Life database. Whether or not the academic libraries had the above resources was then analyzed with each institution’s score on the climate survey scale. The author controlled for geographical location, religious affiliation, and campus setting of the college or university.Main Results – There is a positive direct relationship between whether a library makes GLBT resources available on the Web and campus climate. However, only 25% of libraries surveyed published a research guide, 18% named a contact individual, and 31% subscribed to GLBT Life.Conclusion – While parent institutions commit to GLBT students by taking the LBGT-Friendly Campus Climate Index survey, academic libraries lag behind providing online resources for this community.
Lingiardi, Vittorio; Nardelli, Nicola; Drescher, Jack
Although homosexuality was depathologized in the last century and the majority of mental health professionals consider it to be a normal variant of human sexuality, some psychologists and psychiatrists still have negative attitudes toward lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) clients. Sometimes they provide interventions aimed at changing sexual orientation through 'reparative' or 'conversion' therapies. At other times their interventions are influenced by anti-gay prejudices or simply by lack of knowledge about sexual minorities. This paper argues for the need for appropriate treatment guidelines aimed at providing bias-free, respectful, and effective interventions given that Italian health associations have delayed providing them. Some of the main guidelines recently approved by the Consiglio Nazionale dell'Ordine degli Psicologi (National Council of the Italian Association of Psychologists) are presented. Issues addressed include differences between gender and sexual orientation, minority stress, including perceived stigma and internalized stigma, homophobic bullying, coming out, and resilience. Respectful listening to LGB and questioning clients, affirming their identities and fostering a sense of resilience are essential requirements for all mental health professionals wishing to provide effective interventions in a society where sexual minorities are subjected to discrimination throughout their entire life cycle.
Farr, Rachel H.; Goldberg, Abbie E.
Despite growing visibility of lesbian- and gay-parent adoption, only one qualitative study has examined birth family contact among adoptive families with lesbian and gay parents (Goldberg, Kinkler, Richardson, & Downing, 2011). We studied adoptive parents’ (34 lesbian, 32 gay, and 37 heterosexual; N = 103 families) perspectives of birth family contact across the first year post-placement. Using questionnaire and interview data, we found few differences in openness dynamics by parental sexual ...
Bidell, Markus P.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) students often face considerable isolation, discrimination, and violence at school, which can exacerbate the acute psychosocial and academic problems they already encounter. The purpose of this article is to introduce gay-straight alliances (GSAs) as a social justice and advocacy approach…
Bariola, Emily; Lyons, Anthony; Leonard, William
Lesbians and gay men are exposed to unique minority stressors. We examined the health implications of one type of distal minority stressor (victimisation) and one type of proximal minority stressor (sexual identity concealment due to anticipated stigma) among lesbians and gay men. Gender-specific health implications were assessed. Data were collected via an online survey involving an Australian sample of 1,470 gay men and 1,264 lesbians. Survey questions assessed demographics, experiences of different forms of sexual identity-related victimisation and sexual identity concealment in a variety of contexts. Health outcomes included self-reported general health, illicit drug use, frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking status, and weight status. Gay men reported higher rates of victimisation and identity concealment than lesbians. Controlling for demographic differences, experiences of victimisation were associated with poorer self-rated health, illicit drug use, and smoking among both gay men and lesbians. In contrast, identity concealment was linked with poorer health outcomes among lesbians only. Our findings offer new insights into the potential antecedents of the health inequalities that have previously been reported for these populations. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.
Horton, Paul; Rydstrøm, Helle; Tonini, Maria
Recent public debates about sexuality in India and Vietnam have brought the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people sharply into focus. Drawing on legal documents, secondary sources and ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the urban centres of Delhi and Hanoi, this article shows how the efforts of civil society organisations dedicated to the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights have had different consequences in these two Asian contexts. The paper considers how these organisations navigated government regulations about their formation and activities, as well as the funding priorities of national and international agencies. The HIV epidemic has had devastating consequences for gay men and other men who have sex with men, and has been highly stigmatising. As a sad irony, the epidemic has provided at the same time a strategic entry point for organisations to struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition. This paper examines how the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition has been doubly framed through health-based and rights-based approaches and how the struggle for recognition has positioned lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in India and Vietnam differently.
Brennan, Ann Marie Walsh; Barnsteiner, Jane; Siantz, Mary Lou de Leon; Cotter, Valeri T; Everett, Janine
There has been limited identification of core lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, or intersexed (LGBTI) experience concepts that should be included in the nursing curricula. This article addresses the gap in the literature. To move nursing toward the goals of health equity and cultural humility in practice, education, and research, nursing curricula must integrate core LGBTI concepts, experiences, and needs related to health and illness. This article reviews LGBTI health care literature to address the attitudes, knowledge, and skills needed to address curricular gaps and provide content suggestions for inclusion in nursing curricula. Also considered is the need to expand nursing students' definition of diversity before discussing the interplay between nurses' attitudes and culturally competent care provided to persons who are LGBTI. Knowledge needed includes a life span perspective that addresses developmental needs and their impact on health concerns throughout the life course; health promotion and disease prevention with an articulation of unique health issues for this population; mental health concerns; specific health needs of transgender and intersex individuals; barriers to health care; interventions and resources including Internet sites; and legal and policy issues. Particular assessment and communication skills for LGBTI patients are identified. Finally, there is a discussion of didactic, simulation, and clinical strategies for incorporating this content into nursing curricula at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fassinger, Ruth E; Shullman, Sandra L; Stevenson, Michael R
This article presents an affirmative paradigm for understanding the leadership of sexual minorities-that is, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. Although research on LGBT issues in leadership to date is almost nonexistent, there are several bodies of literature that can contribute to an understanding of the unique leadership challenges faced by sexual minority people. These include the literatures on stigma and marginalization, leadership in particular status groups (e.g., college students, women), and LGBT vocational issues (especially workplace climate and identity disclosure). We propose a new, multidimensional model of LGBT leadership enactment that incorporates sexual orientation (particularly regarding identity disclosure), gender orientation (including leader gender), and the situation (conceptualized here as group composition); the model also is embedded in context, the most relevant factors that affect the enactment of leadership being stigma and marginalization. We explicate this model with findings and concepts from relevant literatures, and we conclude the article with recommendations for building a scholarly literature in LGBT leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Alessi, Edward J; Dillon, Frank R; Kim, Hillary Mi-Sung
The current study tested a conceptual model based on social-cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), highlighting the influence of attitudes toward sexual minority individuals, training hours, affirmative counseling self-efficacy, and beliefs about affirmative practice on therapist engagement in lesbian and gay affirmative practice. We recruited via the Internet 443 heterosexual psychologists (n = 270), clinical social workers (n = 110), and marriage and family therapists (n = 63) residing in various parts of the United States. The majority of participants identified as female (70%) and White (88%). A path analysis indicated that beliefs and affirmative counseling self-efficacy mediated associations between attitudes and therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Furthermore, self-efficacy mediated the relation between training hours and engagement in affirmative practice. Results suggest that more affirmative attitudes are linked with higher levels of affirmative counseling self-efficacy and more positive beliefs, which in turn positively influences therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Additionally, more hours of training influence affirmative counseling self-efficacy, which in turn correlates with higher levels of therapist engagement in affirmative practice. The discussion includes implications for affirmative practice training. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C
Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective-that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships-with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts.
Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C.
Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective—that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships—with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts. PMID:25814771
Full Text Available The article reports on an investigation of the provision of gay and lesbian literature and of information services to gays and lesbians in Cape Town’s public libraries. Although by definition public libraries serve all members of a community, the international literature suggests that they neglect the reading and information needs and interests of gays and lesbians. The progressive South African Constitution views the rights of gays and lesbians as human rights; yet homophobia is prevalent. Using a questionnaire, the study explored attitudes and practices of 69 senior librarians, responsible for collection development, across all six of Cape Town’s library districts. The situation was found to be “spotty” with only 26 respondents believing that their library service is meeting the needs of gays and lesbians. The survey found contradictions between stated beliefs and behaviours. Thus, although most agree that LGBT rights to information and equal services are human rights, only 55% consider LGBT people in their selection procedures and very little material is acquired. Information services are thin with, for example, only 10% of the libraries in the survey providing LGBT related information in their community information files.
Unlu, Hayriye; Beduk, Tülin; Duyan, Veli
This study was conducted to determine the attitudes of undergraduate nursing students towards lesbian women and gay men. Nursing education in Turkey is conducted holistically; in other words, it is an integration of the physical, spiritual, mental and social realms. Students are therefore expected to not express any discrimination due to factors such as religion, language, race and gender. However, some serious problems still exist in terms of the practical applications of that philosophy. This study was descriptive. This study included 964 students. The Attitudes towards Lesbian Women and Gay Men scale and a questionnaire were used to learn about the attitudes of undergraduate nursing students regarding gay men and lesbian women. Results of this study have indicated that the attitudes of religiously educated and/or conservative students towards lesbian women and gay men were negative. Female students from families with high incomes and highly educated families attended social activities and read more than other female students. The students with free life choice options expressed very positive attitudes towards gay men. The nursing education curriculum should cover information about patients with diverse sexual orientations and their absolute rights for equally optimal healthcare. Strategies to discourage traditional gender role stereotypes and educational and media experiences for better acceptance of sexual minorities need to be developed by educational policy makers. Antidiscrimination policies protecting lesbian women and gay men should be developed by the legislative authorities and then taught to students during their nursing education. Getting familiar with diverse sexual orientations might create awareness among nursing students and reduce their attitudinal and behavioural prejudices and biases. To provide equal healthcare services for all patients, nurses must have accurate information about lesbian women, gay men and modify their attitude and behaviour
Gorman-Murray, Andrew; Waitt, Gordon; Gibson, Chris
This paper advances scholarship on "lesbian and gay rural idylls". A growing literature examines how "lesbian and gay rural idylls" are not only produced in opposition to the urban, but are themselves urban constructs. We extend these contentions by exploring the processes of idyllisation suffusing lesbian and gay festival…
Anderson, Austin Robert
This study investigated attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among collegiate varsity athletes and recreational sport club participants, including an investigation of differences in attitudes across competitive levels, team and individual sport divisions, sport by sport comparisons, gender, grade level, race, contact with gay men and lesbians and…
Lineback, Sally; Allender, Molly; Gaines, Rachel; McCarthy, Christopher J.; Butler, Andrea
Qualitative methodologies were used to identify the demands and resources lesbian and gay (LG) teachers face in their schools. Data sources included 2 interviews each with 11 teachers who each identified as lesbian or gay. Analyses of interview data indicated 3 main findings. First, although all teachers experienced demands because of their sexual…
Taylor, Catherine G.
"Gallup's Guide to Modern Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Lifestyle" is a set of 15 volumes addressing lesbian, gay, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGTQ) topics of concern to young LGTQ readers. Each volume is attractively produced, is well presented, and answers questions systematically avoided in most school curricula. It would be a valuable…
The history of civil rights in Canada illustrates a growing trend by the government to support the physical, emotional, mental, legal, and financial needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered citizens. However, the education system presents a slightly different climate. Despite numerous policies and initiatives, gay and lesbian students…
The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force documented anecdotal evidence of homophobia in child care and school age communities, including: (1) refusal to accept children from lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families into child care; (2) biased attitudes expressed to children when they speak about their families; and (3) demonstrated…
Hooker, Steven D.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender school educators are practically invisible within the nature of heterosexist and homophobic education (Blount, 2005). "Openly gay and lesbian teachers were once thought of as immoral, and in some states coming out is still a risk to one's job" (McCarthy, 2003, p. 182). One's sexual orientation has nothing to…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.
In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.
For 20 years, GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network) has worked to ensure safe schools for all students, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. For 10 of those years, GLSEN has been documenting the school experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth: the prevalence of anti-LGBT…
Bradbury, Stacey L; Davis, Alan K; Leith, Jaclyn; Hinman, Nova; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Burmeister, Jacob M; Dworsky, Dryw
We evaluated the acceptability and justness of anti-lesbian and gay victimization among 473 undergraduates. Participants were assigned to one of four vignette conditions that described an individual being verbally victimized in a typical college setting. Each vignette varied by victim gender (male; female) and sexual orientation (lesbian/gay; heterosexual). Participants completed background questionnaires and a measure that assessed the acceptability of the actions described in the vignettes. Overall, victimization was rated as unacceptable regardless of the sexual orientation and gender of the victim. However, participants rated the victimization of lesbian and gay students as more harmful and unjust than victimization of heterosexual students. Although the acceptability of anti-lesbian and gay victimization was low, 3%-12% of participants rated anti-lesbian and gay victimization as slightly or completely acceptable and just. Given that victimization is associated with long-term negative outcomes, college administrators should consider interventions aimed at decreasing the acceptability of victimization among students.
Warriner, Katrina; Nagoshi, Craig T; Nagoshi, Julie L
This research assessed the correlates of homophobia and transphobia in heterosexual and homosexual individuals, based on a theory of different sources of perceived symbolic threat to social status. Compared to 310 heterosexual college students, a sample of 30 gay male and 30 lesbian college students scored lower on homophobia, transphobia, and religious fundamentalism. Mean gender differences were smaller for gay men and lesbians for homophobia, aggressiveness, benevolent sexism, masculinity, and femininity. Fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostile and benevolent sexism were correlated only with homophobia in lesbians, whereas fundamentalism and authoritarianism were correlated only with transphobia in gay men. Correlates of internalized homophobia were different than those found for homophobia and transphobia, which was discussed in terms of gender differences in threats to status based on sexual orientation versus gender identity.
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Nierula, Carina
Previous research has shown that acute alcohol consumption is associated with negative responses toward outgroup members such as sexual minorities. However, simple alcohol cue exposure without actually consuming alcohol also influences social behavior. Hence, it was reasoned that priming participants with words related to alcohol (relative to neutral words) would promote prejudiced attitudes toward sexual minorities. In fact, an experiment showed that alcohol cue exposure causally led to more negative implicit attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In contrast, participants' explicit attitudes were relatively unaffected by the priming manipulation. Moreover, participants' typical alcohol use was not related to their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In sum, it appears that not only acute alcohol consumption but also the simple exposure of alcohol cues may promote negative views toward lesbians and gay men.
Erin C Westgate
Full Text Available Legal rights and cultural attitudes towards lesbian women and gay men have shifted rapidly in the early 21st century. Using 683,976 visitors to Project Implicit from February 2006 to August 2013, we investigated whether shifts were also observable in implicit evaluations that occur outside of conscious awareness or control. Similar to public opinion polling, the estimated explicit preference for straight people over lesbian women and gay men was 26% weaker on the last day compared to the first. The estimated implicit preference for straight people declined by 13.4% over the same period. The largest shifts in implicit evaluations occurred among Hispanic, White, female, liberal, and young adult participants; the smallest shifts occurred among Black, Asian, male, conservative, and older adult participants. Societal change in evaluation of lesbian and gay people is not limited to what people are willing and able to report. However, change in implicit evaluation appears to be slower.
Raley, Amber B; Lucas, Jennifer L
The current content analysis of prime-time network television during the fall of 2001 seeks to identify the representation of Gay male, Lesbian, and Bisexual characters in shows known to have one reoccurring homosexual character based on the theories of Clark and Berry. Clark (1969) established four stages of media representation for minority groups: non-representation, ridicule, regulation, and respect. The findings of the study support the premise that Gay males and Lesbians have passed Clark's stage of non-representation and have progressed into the stage of ridicule and some are moving into the stages of regulation and respect. Berry (1980) devised three periods based on the television portrayal of Blacks: The Stereotypic Age, The New Awareness, and Stabilization. Results were mixed, with only a partial support of the hypothesis that Gay males and Lesbians had advanced beyond The Stereotypic Age.
Morgan, Meredith Leigh
Feminist scholars have theorized that the workplace is gendered and heteronormative1, but little research quantifies the economic consequences of those organizations. This study investigates income discrepancies between gay men and straight men and between lesbians and straight women, to quantify these consequences. Using the National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2010, and controlling for several correlates of income, I use ordinary least squares regression to test the hypothesis that lesbian...
Rich, Timothy S
Public support for gay and lesbian rights has increased in Western democracies, yet less is known regarding views in South Korea, or East Asia more broadly. Rather than broad cultural claims, this analysis asks to what extent religious identification explains perceptions of gays and lesbians. Public opinion survey data from South Korea finds that Protestants were consistently less supportive of homosexual issues compared to Catholics, Buddhists, and those without a religious identification. Furthermore, after controlling for religion, identification with the largest conservative party associated with less support.
Angie L. Dahl
Full Text Available The rural context at times is characterized by heteronormativity and conservatism. For individuals who identify as a sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and/or queer, the rural context may pose particular challenges to the development of a healthy, coherent sense of self. Seven young adults (18–24 who identified as gay or lesbian participated in in-depth interviews regarding their experiences coming out in a rural Appalachian context. Findings suggest sexual minority individuals experience both trials and triumphs coming out in the rural context. Two overarching themes and six subthemes are discussed with implications for supporting sexual minority youth in the rural context.
Donovan, J M
The lack of both specificity and consensus about definitions for homosexual, homosexuality, gay, and lesbian are first shown to confound comparative research and cumulative understanding because criteria for inclusion within the subject populations are often not consistent. The Description section examines sociolinguistic variables which determine patterns of preferred choice of terminology, and considers how these might impact gay and lesbian studies. Attitudes and style are found to influence word choice. These results are used in the second section to devise recommended definitional limits which would satisfy both communication needs and methodological purposes, especially those of sampling.
This article examines state legislators' public position on gay and lesbian rights by using responses to survey data on their positions toward civil unions and inclusion of sexual orientation in anti-job discrimination laws. The research finds that although state legislators are mixed on their positions, they are less supportive of gay and lesbian rights than is the general public. It also finds that their public positions are a product of both their personal beliefs and values as well as their political calculations. The implications of these findings are explored.
Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie J.; King, Brian A.
Background Menthol can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making menthol cigarettes easier to use and increasing their appeal among vulnerable populations. The tobacco industry has targeted youth, women, and racial minorities with menthol cigarettes, and these groups smoke menthol cigarettes at higher rates. The tobacco industry has also targeted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities with tobacco product marketing. Purpose To assess current menthol cigarette smoking by sexual orientation among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, to compare current menthol cigarette smoking between LGBT (n=2,431) and heterosexual/straight (n=110,841) adults. Data were analyzed during January–April 2014 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race, and educational attainment. Results Among all current cigarette smokers, 29.6% reported usually smoking menthol cigarettes in the past 30 days. Menthol use was significantly higher among LGBT smokers, with 36.3% reporting that the cigarettes they usually smoked were menthol compared to 29.3% of heterosexual/straight smokers (p<0.05); this difference was particularly prominent among LGBT females (42.9%) compared to heterosexual/straight women (32.4%) (p<0.05). Following adjustment, LGBT smokers had greater odds of usually smoking menthol cigarettes than heterosexual/straight smokers (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). Conclusions These findings suggest that efforts to reduce menthol cigarette use may have the potential to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among LGBT adults. PMID:25245795
Existing research indicates the rate of smoking among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths exceeds the general population's, possibly due to stress, habitual substance abuse, socializing in smoky venues, and tobacco marketing. The study's overall aim was to conduct qualitative research regarding tobacco use and avoidance by LGBT youths. This report focuses on identifying priority subpopulations and corresponding risk and resiliency factors. Purposive and maximum variation sampling were used to select 30 LGBT youths and 30 interactors for face-to-face interviews. Almost a third of participants said that all LGBT youths are at risk for smoking. Other respondents specified a range of high-risk groups, encompassing many subpopulations. Contributing factors for smoking included personal characteristics, interpersonal issues, environmental conditions, and structural issues. More than a third of young smokers were not acquainted with LGBT nonsmokers and could not imagine how they avoid using tobacco. Half of the interactors and four youths ascribed favorable qualities to nonsmokers--such as self-esteem, will power, and concern for personal health, appearance, and well-being. In conclusion, smoking is a pervasive problem among LGBT youths. The findings corroborate prior explanations and implicate new ones. Some risks (e.g., limited opportunities to socialize with LGBT peers outside of smoking venues, the desire to appear more masculine, and sexuality-related stress) and resiliency factors (e.g., positive sexual identity) are unique to LGBT populations, reinforcing the need for culturally specific approaches to prevention and cessation. Highlighting the positive attributes of nonsmokers and nonsmoking might prove useful in prevention campaigns.
Full Text Available This paper examines how stereotypes and media presentations related to gender norms influence public presentations of gay men and lesbian women. Using online profiles from the online dating website Match.com, this paper examines the body types daters use to describe themselves, their ideal date, and if the poster has a photograph of themselves on their profile. These profiles are used as a method of observing public presentations that are in a unique situation to be tailored towards notions of publically displayed social desirability. Findings indicate that gay men present their online bodies as stereotypically masculine and athletic, while lesbian women are willing to display a slightly broader range of body types. In addition, regardless of gender, both gay men and lesbian women present their ideal dates as stereotypically attractive, with gay men having a particular affinity for dating athletic men. Regression analysis suggests that intersectional variables such as race and age influence a person’s willingness to display a profile picture in the public arena. Overall, this study concludes that heteronormative standards of masculinity combined with structural influences from both the media and peer groups likely have an impact on gay men’s ideal gendered body, while the comparative exclusion of lesbian women from these media influences allow other experiences of gender norms slightly more freedom.
... their lives. The Effects of Negative Attitudes on Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Some people may have negative attitudes toward gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with ...
Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie
The present study seeks to ascertain the attitudes of Portuguese psychology students (future psychologists) toward the development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Each participant (N = 182) read a vignette describing an adoption of a child by lesbian and gay persons. After reading the vignette, participants rated four different aspects of the future development of the adopted child (psychosocial adjustment, victimization, psychological disturbance, and normative sexuality). Furthermore, participants were asked about their gender, interpersonal contact with lesbians and gay men, gender role attitudes, and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Future psychologists' attitudes toward the developmental outcomes of children adopted by lesbians and gay men were associated with negative attitudes toward non-heterosexuals, which in turn correlated to interpersonal contact with lesbians and gay men and adherence to gender conservative values. These results clearly highlight the central role of social attitudes and the need for cultural competence training of future psychologists that encourages interpersonal contact with non-heterosexuals and discourages traditional gender roles and negative attitudes toward lesbian and gay men.
Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.
This study examines how United States (US) teachers' experiences and beliefs may be predictive of their intervention in anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) bullying and harassment using a US national sample of teachers (N?=?726) who completed an online survey. Results from regression analysis indicated that knowing LGBT people,…
Kahn, Ellen; Sullivan, Tom
Many medical practices are looking at options to reach out to the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender community as a means of expanding business and improving quality of care. This article sets out steps that any practice can take to market to this community and improve its cultural competence.
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth with a history of homelessness (running away or being evicted from their homes by parents) report more psychological symptoms than homeless heterosexual peers, it is unclear whether symptoms are due to homelessness, given the absence of a non-homeless comparison group. This study longitudinally…
Cox, Nele; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Dewaele, Alexis; Vincke, John
In this article, we examine the impact of acculturation strategies on minority stress and mental health in lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) youth in Flanders, Belgium. Building on previous identity minority studies and on the social stress model, we investigate how LGB youth acculturate within both the LGB subculture and mainstream society and how…
Schwickrath, Heather M.
After an extensive literature review, results indicated research has been conducted examining the links between traditional bullying and suicide, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning (LGBTQ) identification and cyberbullying, as well as LGBTQ identification and suicide. However, it appears as though there is a dearth of studies…
Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.
The authors examined the associations between internalized homophobia, outness, community connectedness, depressive symptoms, and relationship quality among a diverse community sample of 396 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Structural equation models showed that internalized homophobia was associated with greater relationship problems…
Saskia Keuzenkamp; Lisette Kuyper
Original title: Acceptatie van homoseksuelen, biseksuelen en transgenders in Nederland 2013 The Dutch government is committed to equal rights for and social acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals, and also to securing their acceptance in Dutch society. Since
Fallon, Kathleen M.; Dobmeier, Robert A.; Reiner, Summer M.; Casquarelli, Elaine J.; Giglia, Lauren A.; Goodwin, Eric
Counselors and lesbian and gay clients experience parallel values conflicts between religious beliefs/spirituality and sexual orientation. This article uses critical thinking to assist counselors to integrate religious/spiritual beliefs with professional ethical codes. Clients are assisted to integrate religious/spiritual beliefs with sexual…
Wolowic, Jennifer M; Heston, Laura V; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Porta, Carolyn; Eisenberg, Marla E
While the pride rainbow has been part of political and social intervention for decades, few have researched how lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer young people perceive and use the symbol. How do lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth who experience greater feelings of isolation and discrimination than heterosexual youth recognise and deploy the symbol? As part of a larger study on supportive lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth environments, we conducted 66 go-along interviews with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth people from Massachusetts, Minnesota and British Columbia. During interviews, young people identified visible symbols of support, including recognition and the use of the pride rainbow. A semiotic analysis reveals that young people use the rainbow to construct meanings related to affiliation and positive feelings about themselves, different communities and their futures. Constructed and shared meanings help make the symbol a useful tool for navigating social and physical surroundings. As part of this process, however, young people also recognize that there are limits to the symbolism; it is useful for navigation but its display does not always guarantee supportive places and people. Thus, the pride rainbow connotes safety and support, but using it as a tool for navigation is a learned activity that requires caution.
Donaldson, Steven M.
Comments on R. Barret and R. Barzan (1996), who do well in exploring the spiritual experiences of gay men and lesbians but in the process set up a precedent of reverse discrimination against clients whose religious beliefs proscribe homosexual behavior. Suggestions are offered to sensitize counseling professionals to such bias. (Author/MKA)
There is growing media interest in how lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) Muslims negotiate their seemingly incompatible religious and sexual identities. Thus, there is a need to investigate how some LGBT Muslims utilise Islam as a resource for alternative pedagogical strategies to reconcile their personal beliefs and values. Their…
Bos, H.M.W.; Picavet, C.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
The aim of the present study was to assess whether children’s attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women differ in relation to their ethnic backgrounds and whether ethnic differences are a result of perceived differential gender socialization practices. Data were collected from children in eight
Grossman, Arnold H.; Foss, Alexander H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.
This study examined pubertal maturation, pubertal timing and outcomes, and the relationship of puberty and sexual identity developmental milestones among 507 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. The onset of menarche and spermarche occurred at the mean ages of 12.05 and 12.46, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in…
Shelton, Kimber; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
Psychological research has shown the detrimental effects that overt heterosexism have on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) clients and on the psychotherapeutic relationship. However, the effects of subtle forms of discrimination, specifically sexual orientation microaggressions, have on LGBQ clients and the therapeutic relationship have not…
Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.
Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual…
Fric, K. (Karel)
textabstractThis article reviews findings of scientific studies looking into the bias that gay men and lesbians face when accessing the labor market. Studies in this topic were scarce before year 2000, but a considerable body of literature appeared in the Western countries in the recent years. When
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental…
Croteau, James M.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Phillips, Julia C.; Lark, Julianne S.
States that the literature to date has broken the silence on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues and has affirmed the field of psychology as being affirmative toward these issues. Proposes that research should move toward a greater understanding of LGB affirmative professional training by focusing on training from theoretical and empirical…
Lick, David J.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Patterson, Charlotte J.
According to two decades of research, parental sexual orientation does not affect overall child development. Researchers have not found significant differences between offspring of heterosexual parents and those of lesbian and gay parents in terms of their cognitive, psychological, or emotional adjustment. Still, there are gaps in the literature…
Liddle, Becky J.; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony; Hauenstein, Anita L.; Schuck, Kelly
Workplace climate refers to formal and informal organizational characteristics contributing to employee welfare. Workplace climates for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) employees range from actively supportive to openly hostile. An instrument measuring LGBT workplace climate will enable research on vocational adjustment of LGBT…
Ploderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold
This is the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation (28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%),…
Breshears, Diana; Lubbe-De Beer, Carien
Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gay-parented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children's education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and…
Averett, Paige; Hegde, Archana; Smith, Justin
This article presents the first systematic review of all the existing peer-reviewed literature (n = 20) on gay and lesbian parents and their children in early childhood education settings. The review includes articles that were empirical or pedagogical practice oriented, focused exclusively on early childhood education (Birth to 5 years), and…
Johnson, Danielle Marie
Within higher education today, the student population in American colleges and universities is becoming increasingly diverse, relative to students' racial/ethnic, sexual, religion, and gender identities. Specifically, students who identify as Lesbian and gay are more often seeking personal authenticity and opportunities to make meaning of their…
Farr, Rachel H.; Patterson, Charlotte J.
Coparenting is associated with child behavior in families with heterosexual parents, but less is known about coparenting among lesbian- and gay-parent families. Associations were studied among self-reported divisions of labor, coparenting observations, and child adjustment ("M[subscript age]" = 3 years) among 104 adoptive families headed…
Hall, William J.; McDougald, Amanda M.; Kresica, Aimee M.
This study examined high school counselors' education and training, counseling competency, and supportive behavior regarding gay, lesbian, and bisexual students. Sexual minority students often face a range of school and mental health problems. Results show that participants' counseling competency skills, knowledge, and attitudes predict…
Olive, James L.
This qualitative study explores the past experiences of six post-secondary students who self-identified as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and/or Queer (LGBQ) and held leadership roles in student organizations at one large public institution. The purpose of this exploration was to better understand the impact of friendship on the development of a…
Buser, T.; Geijtenbeek, L.; Plug, E.
It is an established fact that gay men earn less than other men and lesbian women earn more than other women. In this paper we study whether differences in competitive preferences, which have emerged as a likely determinant of labour market differences between men and women, can provide a plausible
Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.
Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…
Iverson, Susan V.; Seher, Christin
Despite the proliferation of educational interventions and attitude change strategies, the prevalence of homophobia and widespread discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people on college campuses persists. This study investigates the impact of theatre on changes in college students' attitudes. Using a pre- and…
Meyer, Ilan H.
The author addresses two issues raised in Moradi, DeBlaere, and Huang's Major Contribution to this issue: the intersection of racial/ethnic and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identities and the question of stress and resilience. The author expands on Moradi et al.'s work, hoping to encourage further research. On the intersection of identities,…
Simons, Jack D.; Hutchison, Brian; Bahr, Michael W.
This study sought to understand school counselor advocacy for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 2015). The authors analyzed data from a non-random sample of 398 school counselors in the United States. Participants completed demographic items and the Attitudes subscale of the Sexual Orientation…
Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.
Ninety-six lesbians and gay men completed Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and modified version of Racial Identity Attitude Scale. Results indicated moderate inverse relationship between preencounter attitudes and self-esteem and positive relationship between internalization attitudes and self-esteem. Encounter and immersion-emersion attitudes were…
Dugan, John P.; Yurman, Lauren
This study explores the appropriateness of collapsing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students into a single category in quantitative research designs as well as the nature of their engagement with the collegiate environment. Data were collected as part of a national study and represent a total of 980 LGB self-identified college students…
Schall, Janine; Kauffmann, Gloria
Shares the responses of children to an initial exploration of books with gay and lesbian characters. Intends to learn from this experience in order to plan future curriculum engagements that encourage conversation around such a critical and controversial issue, and to use differences to take some sort of action against discrimination. (SG)
Rivera-Ramos, Zully A.; Oswald, Ramona F.; Buki, Lydia P.
In response to the call for new and innovative methods of assessing campus climate (Worthington, 2008), the current study is the first to examine the readiness of a Latina/o campus community to address lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) concerns. Using the Community Readiness Model, data were collected through individual interviews with a total of…
Rullo, Jordan E; Strassberg, Donald S; Israel, Esther
The present study assessed the category-specificity of sexual interest of gay men and lesbians toward an understanding of the possible interaction of sex and sexual orientation that may exist in this phenomenon. Utilizing viewing time as a measure of sexual interest, we had participants (N = 99) rate the sexual appeal of sexually provocative pictures while the amount of time spent viewing each picture was inconspicuously measured. As hypothesized, same-sex oriented individuals demonstrated a category-specific pattern of sexual interest. That is, gay men and lesbians (1) viewed preferred sex pictures (i.e., of same sex) significantly longer than nonpreferred sex pictures (i.e., of opposite sex) and (2) rated preferred sex pictures as significantly more sexually appealing than nonpreferred sex pictures. Additionally, the difference in viewing times between preferred and nonpreferred sexual stimuli was not significantly different for gay men and lesbians, suggesting that lesbians are as category-specific as gay men. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Craig, Shelley L.; McInroy, Lauren; McCready, Lance T.; Alaggia, Ramona
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth have the potential for considerable resilience. Positive media representations may mediate negative experiences and foster self-esteem, yet the relationship between resilience and both traditional offline and new online media remains underaddressed for this population. This…
Russell, Stephen T.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Lee, Sun-A; Larriva, Jacqueline C.; Laub, Carolyn
A growing body of research indicates that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students are often unsafe at school. Little research has examined school safety for students with LGBT parents. We examined adolescents' perceptions of school safety for students with LGBT parents using data from a survey of 2,302 California sixth through…
Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge
Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…
Sowden, Beth; Fleming, Julia; Savage, Todd A.; Woitaszewski, Scott A.
Despite recent socially positive progression in the view and treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in the USA, the LGBT population continues to face complicated circumstances and significant hindrances in many societal institutions. One of the most challenging and complex arena is the educational system (Biegel…
Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Watson, Laurel B.
Researchers suggest that supportive school personnel may decrease some of the challenges encountered by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools (Russell, Seif, & Truong, 2001); however, little is known about the approaches used by school-based advocates for LGBT youth. This exploratory study investigated the strategies used…
Bishop, Christa M.; Atlas, Jana G.
This study examined what elementary schools in New York State are doing to recognize lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families in terms of curriculum, policies, and practices. In all, 116 school psychologists completed an online survey regarding their districts. Findings indicated that even though most school districts serve…
Diaz, Elizabeth M.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students often face challenges that prevent them from developing a sense of connectedness to school. Many LGBT youth attend schools that are unwelcoming or even overtly hostile. For any student, being victimized at school can negatively impact their sense of school connectedness. This article discusses the…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen
Little research has investigated the division of child care and housework in adoptive or lesbian/gay parent families, yet these contexts "control for" family characteristics such as biological relatedness and parental gender differences known to be linked to family work. This study examined predictors (measured preadoption) of the division of…
Munoz-Plaza, Corrine; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Rounds, Kathleen A.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth (LGBT) continue to face extreme discrimination within the school environment. Existing literature suggests that LGBT youth are at high risk for a number of health problems, including suicide ideation and attempts, harassment, substance abuse, homelessness, and declining school performance. This…
Because of discrimination and secrecy, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have poorer health outcomes, which include an increased risk for certain cancers and additional challenges in cancer treatment and survivorship. The oncology nurse also should be aware of issues of LGBT sexuality and the impact that oncology treatment may have on the LGBT patient's immediate and long-term sexual functioning.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship among constructs related to spirituality (religious/spiritual practice, religious/spiritual belief, sense of purpose/connection, and sense of hope/control) and reported degree of likelihood to feel guilt and shame among individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer. If clear…
Hoffman, Neal D; Freeman, Katherine; Swann, Stephanie
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth appear to be at higher risk for certain adverse health outcomes, and to have several personal, cultural and structural barriers to accessing healthcare. Little is known, however, about the experiences of LGBTQ youth with healthcare providers and healthcare services. Our goal was to recruit a sample of LGBTQ youth and to determine their preferences regarding healthcare providers, healthcare settings and the health issues that they consider important to discuss with a healthcare provider. We conducted a cross-sectional Internet-based survey. Respondents ages 13-21 years and living in the U.S. or Canada were asked to review three lists of items pertaining to qualities of healthcare providers, qualities of offices or health centers, and concerns or problems to discuss with a healthcare provider, and then to assign for each item a relative importance. Items in each of the three lists were then ranked, and differences among ranks were assessed. Inter-group differences by age, gender, and race/ethnicity were also assessed. 733 youth met eligibility criteria. Youth indicated as most important competence overall and specifically in issues unique to taking care of youth and LGBTQ persons, as well as being respected and treated by providers the same as other youth. Notably, youth ranked as least important the provider's gender and sexual orientation. Youth ranked accessibility issues higher than specific services provided. As health concerns to discuss with a provider, youth ranked preventive healthcare, nutrition, safe sex, and family as important as common morbidities. Youth placed as much importance on provider qualities and interpersonal skills as provider knowledge and experience, and placed little importance on a provider's gender and sexual orientation. Youth indicated the importance of providers addressing not only health risks, but also wellness and health promotion, and to do so within the context of
Farr, Rachel H; Goldberg, Abbie E
Despite growing visibility of lesbian- and gay-parent adoption, only one qualitative study has examined birth family contact among adoptive families with lesbian and gay parents (Goldberg, Kinkler, Richardson, & Downing, 2011). We studied adoptive parents' (34 lesbian, 32 gay, and 37 heterosexual; N = 103 families) perspectives of birth family contact across the first year post-placement. Using questionnaire and interview data, we found few differences in openness dynamics by parental sexual orientation. Most reported some birth mother contact, most had legally finalized their adoption, and few described plans to withhold information from children. We discuss implications for clinical practice, policy, and research.
This article outlines the shared identity construction of five gay and lesbian members of an LGBT youth group, situated in a conservative, working-class, Northern English town. It is shown that the young people’s identity work emerges in response to the homophobia and ‘othering’ they have experienced from those in their local community. Through ethnography and discourse analysis, and using theoretical frameworks from interactional sociolinguistics, the strategies that the young people employ ...
Full Text Available Several studies have shown that internalized homophobia is a risk factor for mental health illness in homosexual individuals, whereas the perception of social support is a protective factor for their psychological well-being. In line with those studies, the present research has investigated the levels of internalized homophobia, anxiety, depression and social support, among two groups of gay men and lesbian individuals living in two European countries (N = 194: 86 Italian and 108 Belgian, where legislations grant different civil rights to lesbian and gay individuals (LG. The main goal of this research has been to verify the possible differences between the two groups. Results showed some significant differences in terms of observed levels of internalized homophobia, which was higher in the Belgian gay men’s group compared to the Italian one. Furthermore, path analysis emphasized the role of social support as a potential factor of mediation between internalized homophobia and mental health.
Internalized homophobia has been linked to depression among gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Relatively little research has investigated the link between internalized homophobia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The current research investigated the interrelations among internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation by testing additive, mediation, and moderation models. Self-identified Australian gay men (n = 360), lesbians (n = 444), and bisexual women (n = 114) completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the suicide subscale of the General Health Questionnaire. Results supported the additive and partial mediation models for gay men and the mediation and moderation models for lesbians. None of the models were supported for bisexual women. The findings imply that clinicians should focus on reducing internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men and lesbians, and depressive symptoms among bisexual women, to reduce suicidal ideation.
la Roi, Chaïm; Kretschmer, Tina; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth experience elevated levels of depressive symptoms compared to heterosexual youth. This study examined how differences in depressive symptoms between heterosexual and LGB youth developed from late childhood to early adulthood. The association between sexual
McCormick, Adam; Schmidt, Kathryn; Clifton, Emily
Few studies have examined the effectiveness of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on the social and academic experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youths. The limited research on GSAs suggests that they are associated with positive youth development and increased safety; however, little qualitative information…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi L.
The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual two-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children’s gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at three time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents’ gender and sexual orientation; children’s gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys’ behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by two mothers or two fathers. PMID:27416364
Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M; Cady, Elizabeth T; Schlegel, Rebecca; Harris, Richard J; Firebaugh, Lindsey
The purpose of the current research was twofold. First, a pilot study was conducted in which participants were asked to recall any memorable gay or lesbian television or film character and complete a survey about their perceptions of the character. Results indicated that over two-thirds of heterosexual participants recalled either Ellen or Will, and evaluative ratings for these characters were generally positive. The second purpose of this research was to examine the priming effects of remembering portrayals of homosexual characters in the media. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to directly assess the effects of thinking about either a positive or negative homosexual character on general heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Results indicated that those recalling a positive portrayal later showed a more positive attitude toward gay men than those recalling a negative portrayal, and women had a more positive attitude overall than men toward gay men and lesbians. Such findings illustrate the importance of positive role models in entertainment media as potential primes of social attitudes.
Mapping the contours of homophobia and heterosexism is a key concern for lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) psychology. In this paper, I present a discursive analysis of the construction of heterosexism in student focus group discussions about lesbian and gay parenting. My analysis (empirically) develops Kitzinger’s (1987) theoretical and political argument that the concept of homophobia is embedded in a liberal framework and requires people to endorse a liberal construction of homosexua...
Rubio, B; Vecho, O; Gross, M; Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, H; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Lamb, ME
Little research has focused on the emotions felt during pregnancy and early parenthood as well as the initial quality of parenting displayed by first-time parents who conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (surrogacy, donor insemination, and in vitro fertilization). Research on primary and secondary caregivers in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual families is especially sparse. The current study examined 35 gay-father families, 58 lesbian-mother families and 41 heterosexual-parent fam...
Rodriguez, Eric M; Etengoff, Chana; Vaughan, Michelle D
Much of the religious/spiritual development of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals (GLBs) has focused on experiences of conflict and distress, providing little insight into how these identities can be integrated. The present study explored the religious and spiritual lives of GLBs with a specific focus on the integration of these identities. We conducted a retrospective secondary data analysis of 750 GLB individuals from the Northern California Health Study to quantitatively assess sexual orientation and religion/spirituality integration using hierarchical cluster analysis. Resulting MANCOVA analyses of the five revealed groupings (integrated, gay identity struggle, anti-religious/spiritual, secular, and low gay salience) present numerous statistically significant differences between these integration clusters and a variety of dependent variables including measures of demographics, religiosity/spirituality, gay identity, and multiple mental health outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings while also making suggestions for future research.
Bilgic, Dilek; Daglar, Gulseren; Sabanciogullari, Selma; Ozkan, Semiha Aydin
Lesbians and gay men are subjected to negative attitudes and poor quality health care by midwives in the process of having children and by nurses in the process of receiving general health care services. Our aim was to investigate midwifery and nursing students' attitudes towards lesbians and gay men and their opinions about health care approaches displayed towards them. The study was designed as a cross-sectional and descriptive one and conducted in one midwifery and two nursing schools in a city in Turkey and comprised 1321 students. To assess the participants' attitudes, the Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gays (ATLG) Scale was used. To assess opinions about health care approaches, the students were asked open-ended questions. All the participating students' attitude scores were below the average and they exhibited negative attitudes towards lesbians and gays. While very few of the participants had positive views about health care given to, most of them either had negative views or did not have any opinions. The midwifery students' attitudes were more positive than were those of the nursing students. Students' health care approaches towards lesbians and gay men were insufficient and negative. Educators need to develop training programs, which can help students gain cultural awareness of the health care needs of lesbians and gay men in different cultures before they graduate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gayparented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children’s education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and administrators wishing better to support lesbian/ gay-parented families. The results of our study offer an understanding of the challenges and needs of this diverse family in the school system, as well as a starting point for administrators and teachers wanting to create inclusive environments for all family types.
This article begins from imagining what it would be like to target recruitment for teachers at lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual (LGBT) people, and then examines in some detail two kinds of discrimination (or pathology) which makes life in the world of education problematic. It then turns to why, in spite of these difficulties, lesbian and gay…
Herek, Gregory M.; Capitanio, John P.
In a 2-wave national telephone survey, a probability sample of English-speaking adults indicated their attitudes toward gay men at Wave 1 (n=538) and toward both gay men and lesbians approximately 1 year later (n=382). Discusses findings of the study and theoretical and policy implications of the results. (KW)
Johnson, Michael; Smyer, Tish; Yucha, Carolyn
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the methodological quality of quantitative lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender nursing research from 2000 to 2010. Using a key word search in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 188 studies were identified and 40 met the criteria, which included descriptive, experimental, quasi-experimental, or observational (case control, cohort, and cross-sectional) design. The methodological quality of these studies was similar to that reported for medical and nursing educational research. The foci of these lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender studies were biased toward human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and sexually transmitted diseases, and 58.5% of the funded research was related to human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To provide evidence-based health care to these populations, an understanding of the current state of research is crucial.
Lim, Fidelindo A; Hsu, Richard
The aim of this study was to critically appraise and synthesize findings from studies on the attitudes of nursing students toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. There is paucity of research to assess the attitudes of nursing students toward LGBT persons. An electronic search was conducted using PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, EbscoHost, PsycInfo, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature using medical subject headings terminologies. Search terms used included gay, lesbian, transgender, bisexual, LGBT, nursing students, baccalaureate nursing, undergraduate nursing, homophobia, homosexuality, sexual minority, attitudes, discrimination, and prejudice. Less than 50 percent of the studies (5 out of 12) suggested positively leaning attitudes of nursing students toward LGBT persons; six studies reported negative attitudes, and one study reported neutral attitudes. There are some indications that student attitudes may be moving toward positively leaning. Studies published before 2000 reported a preponderance of negative attitudes.
Balsam, Kimberly F; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Mickey, Ruth M; Rothblum, Esther D
Self-identified lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) individuals were recruited via convenience sampling, and they in turn recruited their siblings (79% heterosexual, 19% LGB). The resulting sample of 533 heterosexual, 558 lesbian or gay male, and 163 bisexual participants was compared on mental health variables and their use of mental health services. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that sexual orientation predicted suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, self-injurious behavior, use of psychotherapy, and use of psychiatric medications over and above the effects of family adjustment. Sexual orientation was unrelated to current psychological distress, psychiatric hospitalizations, and self-esteem. This is the 1st study to model family effects on the mental health of LGB participants and their siblings. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Sanchez, Julian A.; Sutton, Steven K.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Nguyen, Giang T.; Green, B. Lee; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Schabath, Matthew B.
This article provides an overview of the current literature on seven cancer sites that may disproportionately affect lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) populations. For each cancer site we present and discuss the descriptive statistics, primary prevention, secondary prevention and preclinical disease, tertiary prevention and late stage disease, and clinical implications. Finally, an overview of psychosocial factors related to cancer survivorship is offered as well as strategies for improving access to care. PMID:26186412
Bregman, Hallie R.; Malik, Neena M.; Page, Matthew J. L.; Makynen, Emily; Lindahl, Kristin M.
Sexual identity development is a central task of adolescence and young adulthood and can be especially challenging for sexual minority youth. Recent research has moved from a stage model of identity development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth to examining identity in a non-linear, multidimensional manner. In addition, although families have been identified as important to youth's identity development, limited research has examined the influence of parental responses to youth's discl...
Bostwick, Wendy B.; Boyd, Carol J.; Hughes, Tonda L.; West, Brady
Health disparities among sexual minority groups, particularly mental health disparities, are well-documented. Numerous studies have demonstrated heightened prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups as compared to heterosexuals. Some authors posit that these disparities are the result of the stress that prejudice and perceived discrimination can cause. The current study extends previous research by examining the associations between multiple types o...
This article discusses whether lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people are protected against discrimination and hate crime in Georgia. Georgia is dominated by deeply rooted traditions, history and religion which promote stigmatisation and enhance existing negative stereotypes of the LGBT community. This is aggravated by state practice and poor legislation which fail to ensure adequate protection of LGBT individuals against discrimination and hate crime. Even though homosexuality ...
Full Text Available (English In this article I aim to explore conflicts among the variety of political projects in the lesbian and gay movement.I base the article on Alberto Mira’s (2004 proposed models for the expression of homosexuality: decadentist, homophile and camp. I discuss the main theoretical and political debates that arise from these models. Firstly, I ask whether life on the margins of mainstream social rules allows gays and lesbians to live a freer existence or merely means internalised homophobia (using Jean Genet’s and Michel Foucault’s approaches as examples. Secondly, I question whether the demand for “normality” entails the creation of new exclusions (following Judith Butler’s approach to normality: Finally, I consider whether camp culture reproduces and/or subverts gender rules (introducing a discussion between Sheila Jeffreys and Judith Butler’s positions. On the basis of this exploration of Mira's three cultural models, I develop a typology of political positions ('normalization of homosexuality', 'transformation' and 'queer', which I apply to the case study of the Catalan lesbian and gay movement.
Full Text Available In this article I aim to explore conflicts among the variety of political projects in the lesbian and gay movement.I base the article on Alberto Mira’s (2004 proposed models for the expression of homosexuality: decadentist, homophile and camp. I discuss the main theoretical and political debates that arise from these models. Firstly, I ask whether life on the margins of mainstream social rules allows gays and lesbians to live a freer existence or merely means internalised homophobia (using Jean Genet’s and Michel Foucault’s approaches as examples. Secondly, I question whether the demand for “normality” entails the creation of new exclusions (following Judith Butler’s approach to normality: Finally, I consider whether camp culture reproduces and/or subverts gender rules (introducing a discussion between Sheila Jeffreys and Judith Butler’s positions. On the basis of this exploration of Mira's three cultural models, I develop a typology of political positions ('normalization of homosexuality', 'transformation' and 'queer', which I apply to the case study of the Catalan lesbian and gay movement.
Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage-such as in gay and lesbian cohabiting relationships. The present study analyzes the mechanisms through which gay, lesbian, and straight long-term partners (N = 120) contribute to one another's unhealthy habits. Three distinct mechanisms emerge. First, respondents identify a process of unilateral health habit diffusion wherein one partner's health habits directly influence the other partners' habits. Second, respondents describe bilateral unhealthy habit diffusion, wherein both partner's unhealthy habits are reinforced via mutual pleasure seeking or mutual failed motivation. Third, respondents describe a discourse of personal responsibility, wherein both partners purposefully fail to deter one another's unhealthy habits. Analysis further illustrates how these mechanisms operate differently for men and women in gay, lesbian, and straight relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article reports on findings from a qualitative study, undertaken in England that explored the experiences of 21 gay men and lesbian women who care, or cared, for a person with dementia. The aim of the study was to explore how a person's gay or lesbian sexuality might impact upon their experience of providing care in this context. This paper reports on one theme that emerged from the wider study--carers' experiences of 'coming out' to service providers. Respondents were recruited using 'snowballing' methods and the study employed semi-structured interviewing techniques. Data collection occurred over a protracted period (2003-2007), the time scale being determined by (the well documented) difficulties in recruiting respondents from this group of people. Data analysis was undertaken with the intent of developing common and contrary themes using a constant thematic comparative method. The results reported here demonstrate the ways in which carers mediated disclosures of their sexualities to health and social care service providers and, for some, their wider support network. For many carers, responses to these disclosures proved to be a critical issue and one that coloured their experience of providing care. Service providers' reactions are demonstrated as being characterised by, at best, a broad acceptance of gay and lesbian people's circumstances, through to a pervasive disregard of their needs.
Adams, T D
Although Willa Cather's lesbianism has recently been publicly acknowledged, her personal and artistic political decisions about the revelation of her sexual preference have not been explored. Most critics who acknowledge Cather's homosexuality see no traces in her fiction of what Lillian Faderman calls "same-sex love." Because of the political consequences of writing openly about lesbianism in the time that Cather came of age, according to Faderman, "perhaps she felt the need to be more reticent about love between women than even some of her patently heterosexual contemporaries because she bore a burden of guilt for what came to be labeled perversion." While it would certainly have been possible for Cather to live a discreet lesbian life without showing traces of her sexuality in her writing, it is more likely that her sexual preferences are present in her works, particularly in her most autobiographical book, My Antonia, in the character who represents Cather, Jim Burden. The "emptiness where the strongest emotion might have been expected," the relationship between Antonia and Jim, is more understandable when we realize that both Jim Burden and Antonia Shimerda were imagined by Cather as homosexuals whose deep friendship was based on mutual understanding of their oddness in the heterosexual world of 1918.
Andersen, Anna-Eva; Moberg, Catherine; Bengtsson Tops, Anita; Garmy, Pernilla
To describe lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of nurses' attitudes in child healthcare. Lesbian, gay and bisexual people are often reluctant to disclose their gender identity for fear of discrimination. This fear may lead to avoidance of healthcare for themselves or their children and may negatively affect families' health and well-being. A qualitative inductive design was employed. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 lesbian, gay or bisexual parents (11 mothers and three fathers) with child health care experiences in southern Sweden. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes were identified. One, a "sense of marginalisation," included lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of heteronormative attitudes among child healthcare nurses which led them to feel alienated and questioned as parents. Another, "being respected for who you are," included experiences of being respected and included at child healthcare appointments. Findings paint a complex picture of lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' interactions with child healthcare nurses in that they experienced both positive and negative attitudes. Knowledge gaps about lesbian, gay and bisexual families within the child healthcare field must be filled. Child health care nurses should work with the entire family to provide the best care for the child; however, discrimination in health care is common and often caused by a lack of knowledge. The number of children living with same-sex parents has increased more than ten-fold since the end of the 1990s. It is therefore important to explore lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences with child healthcare nurses' attitudes to improve quality of care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood. PMID:21171740
Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood.
Concetta P Pelullo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of discrimination, harassment, and violence and the associated factors among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men recruited from randomly selected public venues in Italy. METHODS: A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographics, frequency of discrimination, verbal harassment, and physical and sexual violence because of their sexual orientation, and their fear of suffering each types of victimization. RESULTS: In the whole sample, 28.3% and 11.9% self-reported at least one episode of victimization because of the sexual orientation in their lifetime and in the last year. Those unmarried, compared to the others, and with a college degree or higher, compared to less educated respondents, were more likely to have experienced an episode of victimization in their lifetime. Lesbians, compared to bisexual, had almost twice the odds of experiencing an episode of victimization. The most commonly reported experiences across the lifetime were verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical or sexual violence. Among those who had experienced one episode of victimization in their lifetime, 42.1% self-reported one episode in the last year. Perceived fear of suffering violence because of their sexual orientation, measured on a 10-point Likert scale with a higher score indicative of greater fear, ranges from 5.7 for verbal harassment to 6.4 for discrimination. Participants were more likely to have fear of suffering victimization because of their sexual orientation if they were female (compared to male, lesbian and gay men (compared to bisexual women and men, unmarried (compared to the others, and if they have already suffered an episode of victimization (compared to those who have not suffered an episode. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides important insights into the violence experiences of lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men and the results
Pelullo, Concetta P; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo F
This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of discrimination, harassment, and violence and the associated factors among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men recruited from randomly selected public venues in Italy. A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographics, frequency of discrimination, verbal harassment, and physical and sexual violence because of their sexual orientation, and their fear of suffering each types of victimization. In the whole sample, 28.3% and 11.9% self-reported at least one episode of victimization because of the sexual orientation in their lifetime and in the last year. Those unmarried, compared to the others, and with a college degree or higher, compared to less educated respondents, were more likely to have experienced an episode of victimization in their lifetime. Lesbians, compared to bisexual, had almost twice the odds of experiencing an episode of victimization. The most commonly reported experiences across the lifetime were verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical or sexual violence. Among those who had experienced one episode of victimization in their lifetime, 42.1% self-reported one episode in the last year. Perceived fear of suffering violence because of their sexual orientation, measured on a 10-point Likert scale with a higher score indicative of greater fear, ranges from 5.7 for verbal harassment to 6.4 for discrimination. Participants were more likely to have fear of suffering victimization because of their sexual orientation if they were female (compared to male), lesbian and gay men (compared to bisexual women and men), unmarried (compared to the others), and if they have already suffered an episode of victimization (compared to those who have not suffered an episode). The study provides important insights into the violence experiences of lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men and the results may serve for improving policy initiatives to reduce such
Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi L
The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual 2-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children's gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at 3 time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents' gender and sexual orientation; children's gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys' behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by 2 mothers or 2 fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Christine M. Robinson
Full Text Available The transnational ex-gay movement is an important context affecting lesbians and sexual minority women around the world. In 2015, the UN Human Rights Commissioner called for all nations to ban conversion therapies. This research investigates a neglected area of scholarship on the ex-gay movement by deconstructing and analyzing the implications of ex-gay discourses of female homosexuality in a global context. The ex-gay movement originated in the United States and has proliferated to nearly every continent. We argue that it is the main purveyor of public, anti-lesbian rhetoric today, constructing lesbianism as sinful and sick to control women’s sexuality, enforce rigid gender roles and inequality, and oppress sexual minority women. Guided by Adrienne Rich’s theory of compulsory heterosexuality and Barbara Risman’s gender structure theory, we analyze how, in ex-gay discourse, lesbianism is demeaned and demonized in the individual, interactional, and institutional dimensions of the gender structure. Finally, we examine the impact of ex-gay discourse on sexual minority women in global context.
Savin-Williams, Ritch C.
Reviews verbal and physical abuse that threatens well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. Notes that this response to gay male, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several problematic outcomes, including school-related problems, running away,…
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012
In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2010
For 20 years, GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network) has worked to ensure safe schools for all students, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. For 10 of those years, GLSEN has been documenting the school experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth: the prevalence of anti-LGBT…
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2009
In 2007, Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) conducted the fifth National School Climate Survey (NSCS), a biennial survey of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) secondary school students. The NSCS examines the experiences of LGBT youth in U.S. middle and high schools, documenting bias and behaviors that make schools…
de Graaf, Hanneke; Picavet, Charles
Studies on sexual trajectories of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people generally focus on the first same-sex attraction and sexual experience, and their relation to self-identification and coming out as LGB. Relational and opposite-sex experiences are generally not taken into account. The aim of this study was to provide a more comprehensive overview of LGBs' sexual trajectories and to distinguish subsamples with different trajectories. A sample of same-sex attracted members of an online research panel (N = 3054) completed a sexual health questionnaire, including items about the timing of sexual and relational milestones. Results showed that the majority of gay men and lesbian women had same-sex sexual and relational experiences, whereas most bisexual men and women had had experiences with the opposite sex. Among gay men and lesbian women, two trajectories emerged, differing mainly on whether people had been sexually or romantically involved with opposite-sex partners, and on age of first same-sex attraction. Among those who were not exclusively attracted to the same sex, six patterns emerged, which differed especially with regard to the nature and comprehensiveness of their same-sex experiences. Within the exclusively same-sex attracted group, the trajectory with no heterosexual experiences related to higher levels of psychological adjustment. For non-exclusive sexually attracted people, trajectories including experience of same-sex relationships seem to be most beneficial. In conclusion, both relational and opposite-sex experiences proved to be important elements of LGB men and women's sexual trajectories.
Alencar Albuquerque, Grayce; de Lima Garcia, Cintia; da Silva Quirino, Glauberto; Alves, Maria Juscinaide Henrique; Belém, Jameson Moreira; dos Santos Figueiredo, Francisco Winter; da Silva Paiva, Laércio; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Adami, Fernando
The relationship between users and health services is considered essential to strengthen the quality of care. However, the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender population suffer from prejudice and discrimination in access and use of these services. This study aimed to identify the difficulties associated with homosexuality in access and utilization of health services. A systematic review conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO, and LILACS, considering the period from 2004 to 2014. The studies were evaluated according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criterias. Were included manuscripts written in English or Portuguese, articles examining the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender population's access to health services and original articles with full text available online. The electronic databases search resulted in 667 studies, of which 14 met all inclusion criteria. Quantitative articles were predominant, showing the country of United States of America to be the largest producer of research on the topic. The studies reveal that the homosexual population have difficulties of access to health services as a result of heteronormative attitudes imposed by health professionals. The discriminatory attendance implies in human rights violations in access to health services. The non-heterosexual orientation was a determinant factor in the difficulties of accessing health care. A lot must still be achieved to ensure access to health services for sexual minorities, through the adoption of holistic and welcoming attitudes. The results of this study highlight the need for larger discussions about the theme, through new research and debates, with the aim of enhancing professionals and services for the health care of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons.
Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Vélez-Vega, Carmen M; Ortiz-Sánchez, Edgardo J; Santiago-Rodríguez, Edda I; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L; Rodríguez Madera, Sheilla L; Mulinelli-Rodríguez, José J
To identify the experiences of discrimination among and the perceived priorities for the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) people in Puerto Rico (PR). Data were collected during the 2013 LGBT Pride Parade in San Juan, using a brief self-administered survey that included questions on sociodemographic characteristics, the disclosure of sexual orientation/gender identity, experiences of discrimination, experiences while receiving social and health services, and perceived healthcare priorities and needs. Most participants reported that they had disclosed their sexual orientation to at least one person. Discrimination due to sexual orientation/gender identity was most frequently reported to have occurred in school settings. At least 25% of the sample reported regular or negative experiences based on sexual orientation/gender identity when receiving government services and when looking for support from relatives. HIV/AIDS, mental health, and sexual health were identified as healthcare priorities. In bivariate analyses, mental health services and aging were the priorities most frequently reported among older participants. HIV/AIDS was the main priority only for gay men; sexual health was the main priority for bisexuals; and mental health was the main priority for lesbians. Most participants reported that their preferred modalities for health service provision were support groups and health education. The experiences of discrimination among LGBT people in PR were consistent across age groups and sexual orientation/gender identity. Policies and interventions to address discrimination in different settings are necessary. The findings also suggest the need to prioritize HIV services among gay men and to address mental and sexual health needs among lesbian and bisexual people.
Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti
Aims: Epidemiological research on lesbian, gay and bisexual populations raises concerns regarding self-selection and group sizes. The aim of this research was to present strategies used to overcome these challenges in a national population-based web survey of self-reported sexual orientation...... and living conditions—exemplified with a case of daily tobacco smoking. Methods: The sample was extracted from pre-established national web panels. Utilizing an oversampling strategy, we established a sample including 315 gay men, 217 bisexual men, 789 heterosexual men, 197 lesbian women, 405 bisexual women...
Graziano, Kevin J
Guided by photovoice, a form of participatory action research that uses documentary photography and storytelling, this study examines how Black gay men and lesbians view themselves in relation to White gay men and lesbians in South Africa. Participants were from 4 South African townships and included 4 women, and 3 men. Participants discussed interracial dating, a lack of education, and information regarding differing sexualities and health care. They reported being sexually and physically assaulted for challenging the heterosexual status quo. Other themes that emerged from this study were classism, cultural traditions of visiting African healers, and segregated social spaces. Amidst oppression and despair, participants showed signs of strength, hope, and optimism.
Goodrich, Kristopher M; Buser, Juleen K; Luke, Melissa; Buser, Trevor J
Although religious and spiritual issues have emerged as areas of focus in counseling, very few scholars have explored the meaning and experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients who addressed their sexual and religious/spiritual identities in counseling. Using consensual qualitative research (CQR; Hill, 2012), the current study explores the perspectives of 12 LGB persons who sought counseling that involved religious/spiritual concerns. Four themes in participant interviews are identified, including (a) self-acceptance, (b) goals of counseling, (c) identification with counselor, and (d) counseling environment and relationship. Implications of findings for the counseling field are discussed.
McClain, Zachary; Peebles, Rebecka
Adolescence is a crucial period for emerging sexual orientation and gender identity and also body image disturbance and disordered eating. Body image distortion and disordered eating are important pediatric problems affecting individuals along the sexual orientation and gender identity spectrum. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for eating disorders and body dissatisfaction. Disordered eating in LGBT and gender variant youth may be associated with poorer quality of life and mental health outcomes. Pediatricians should know that these problems occur more frequently in LGBT youth. There is evidence that newer treatment paradigms involving family support are more effective than individual models of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
Many studies focus on health behavior within the context of intimate ties. However, this literature is limited by reliance on gender socialization theory and a focus on straight (i.e., heterosexual) marriage. We extend this work with an analysis of relationship dynamics around health behavior in 20 long-term straight marriages as well as 15 gay and 15 lesbian long-term cohabiting partnerships in the United States (N=100 individual in-depth interviews). We develop the concept of “health behavi...
Chonody, Jill M
The presence of bias against gay men and lesbian women remains an ongoing issue, and accurate measurement is essential to targeted intervention. A validation study of a new instrument, the Sexual Prejudice Scale, is reported. Students (N = 851) from 4 different universities participated in this study. An exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted, and results of these analyses indicated a 3-factor solution (affective - valuation, stereotyping, and social equality beliefs) for each of the sex-specific scales. Evidence of validity and the results of the reliability analysis are reported. Implications for future research are discussed.
Haas, Ann P.; Eliason, Mickey; Mays, Vickie M.; Mathy, Robin M.; Cochran, Susan D.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.; Silverman, Morton M.; Fisher, Prudence W.; Hughes, Tonda; Rosario, Margaret; Russell, Stephen T.; Malley, Effie; Reed, Jerry; Litts, David A.; Haller, Ellen; Sell, Randall L.; Remafedi, Gary; Bradford, Judith; Beautrais, Annette L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Diamond, Gary M.; Friedman, Mark S.; Garofalo, Robert; Turner, Mason S.; Hollibaugh, Amber; Clayton, Paula J.
Despite strong indications of elevated risk of suicidal behavior in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, limited attention has been given to research, interventions or suicide prevention programs targeting these populations. This article is a culmination of a three-year effort by an expert panel to address the need for better understanding of suicidal behavior and suicide risk in sexual minority populations, and stimulate the development of needed prevention strategies, interventions and policy changes. This article summarizes existing research findings, and makes recommendations for addressing knowledge gaps and applying current knowledge to relevant areas of suicide prevention practice. PMID:21213174
Almost two decades after the American Psychiatric Association acknowledged that homosexuality should no longer be considered a pathological condition, studies continue to show significantly higher rates of suicide, depression, substance abuse, and other indicators of psychological distress among lesbians and gay men than among heterosexuals in the United States. If homosexuality is not, in fact, pathological, then what accounts for such self-destructive behavior? This article examines contending causal theories of homosexual suicide and psychological distress ranging from religious and medical-psychiatric theories that problematize individual behavior to societal explanations that locate the cause in social intolerance and internalized oppression. Illuminating the origins of myths that persist today, it demonstrates how historical, social, and political forces have been instrumental in shaping the scientific and medical response to gay and lesbian psychological distress. Emphasis is on the need to question the "objective validity" of scientific theories in order to develop more effective responses to gay and lesbian mental health problems. Finally, this article considers alternative views of sexuality that are emerging from such sources as feminists and gay Native Americans, and proposes new directions for mental health research that encompass issues of diversity within the gay and lesbian population.
Internalized homophobia is a risk factor for depression among gay men and lesbians. The aim of the study was to test whether the internalized homophobia-depression relation was moderated by gender (stronger among gay men compared with lesbians), age (stronger among younger compared with older gay men and lesbians), and place of residence (stronger among gay men and lesbians who live in rural areas compared with those who live in urban areas). An Australian sample of 311 self-identified gay men and 570 self-identified lesbians, aged 18 to 70 years, completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that age and gender did not moderate the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation. Place of residence was a significant moderator for gay men but not lesbians. In contrast to the hypothesis, the internalized homophobia-depression relation was significant only among gay men who resided in urban areas. Those who work with gay men should be particularly aware of the significant relationship between internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men who reside in urban areas.
Grabovac, Igor; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Milošević, Milan
Discrimination and harassment of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) physicians from their colleagues and superiors are known. However there is little knowledge about the patients’ attitudes and discrimination toward physicians. A cross sectional Internet survey was conducted in urban Croatian regions. The participants were asked to answer questions regarding their socio-demographic status, the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG), and whether they would refuse to see a LGB physician and, if so, why. Of the 1004 participants, 8.8% said they would refuse a male GB physician while 7.9% would refuse a female LB physician, and 7.3% would refuse both. The two most common reasons for discriminating were: “disaccord with political or religious beliefs” and “fear of being sexually harassed”. A logistical regression model showed that male sex, higher ATLG score and higher age were associated with more refusals of male GB physicians. Also higher age, higher ATLG score were associated with more refusals of female LB physicians, while personal contact with LGB people was associated with less refusals of both groups. The observed prevalence of discrimination is significant. The results suggest that discrimination is based on emotional reasons and stereotypical beliefs. Educational efforts should be directed towards changing misconceptions about LGB people.
Martos, Alexander; Nezhad, Sheila; Meyer, Ilan H.
Despite a large body of literature covering sexual identity development milestones, we know little about differences or similarities in patterns of identity development among subgroups of the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population. For this study, we assessed identity milestones for 396 LGB New Yorkers, ages 18–59. Sexual identity and disclosure milestones, were measured across gender, sexual identity, race/ethnicity, and age cohort subgroups of the LGB sample. Men experienced most sexual identity milestones earlier than women, but they tended to take more time between milestones. LGBs in younger age cohorts experienced sexual identity milestones and disclosure milestones earlier than the older cohorts. Bisexual people experienced sexual identity and disclosure milestones later than gay and lesbian people. Timing of coming out milestones did not differ by race/ethnicity. By comparing differences within subpopulations, the results of this study help build understanding of the varied identity development experiences of people who are often referred to collectively as “the LGB community.” LGB people face unique health and social challenges; a more complete understanding of variations among LGB people allows health professionals and social service providers to provide services that better fit the needs of LGB communities. PMID:27695579
Bregman, Hallie R.; Malik, Neena M.; Page, Matthew J. L.; Makynen, Emily; Lindahl, Kristin M.
Sexual identity development is a central task of adolescence and young adulthood and can be especially challenging for sexual minority youth. Recent research has moved from a stage model of identity development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth to examining identity in a non-linear, multidimensional manner. In addition, although families have been identified as important to youth's identity development, limited research has examined the influence of parental responses to youth's disclosure of their LGB sexual orientation on LGB identity. The current study examined a multidimensional model of LGB identity and its links with parental support and rejection. One hundred and sixty-nine LGB adolescents and young adults (ages 14–24, 56% male, 48% gay, 31% lesbian, 21% bisexual) described themselves on dimensions of LGB identity and reported on parental rejection, sexuality-specific social support, and non-sexuality-specific social support. Using latent profile analysis (LPA), two profiles were identified, indicating that youth experience both affirmed and struggling identities. Results indicated that parental rejection and sexuality-specific social support from families were salient links to LGB identity profile classification, while non-sexuality specific social support was unrelated. Parental rejection and sexuality-specific social support may be important to target in interventions for families to foster affirmed LGB identity development in youth. PMID:22847752
Bolderston, A.; Ralph, S.
Systematic discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT) persists across most contemporary societies and institutions such as health care despite increasing social tolerance and legislative progress. This article explores discrimination against LGBT people, and examines LGBT health and social issues. The implications this has for health care access and quality of care delivered by patient-facing health care professionals such as radiographers are explored. Finally, three categories of suggestions to improve the care of LGBT patients are suggested; changes to the physical environment, improvement in health forms and awareness training. Some of these suggestions can be taken up directly by radiographers, particular accessing training. Others (such as positive changes in the physical space) could be championed by department managers. There is a need to promote better culturally competent training for radiographers to be able to sensitively respond to their LGBT patients' specific health and social needs. - Highlights: • Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans people can encounter health care discrimination. • Patient-facing professionals like radiographers routinely work with LGBT patients. • Positive changes can be made to improve patient care and access. • These include changes to the environment, health form improvement and training.
Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
Many studies focus on health behavior within the context of intimate ties. However, this literature is limited by reliance on gender socialization theory and a focus on straight (i.e., heterosexual) marriage. We extend this work with an analysis of relationship dynamics around health behavior in 20 long-term straight marriages as well as 15 gay and 15 lesbian long-term cohabiting partnerships in the United States (N = 100 individual in-depth interviews). We develop the concept of "health behavior work" to align activities done to promote health behavior with theories on unpaid work in the home. Respondents in all couple types describe specialized health behavior work, wherein one partner works to shape the other partner's health behavior. In straight couples, women perform the bulk of specialized health behavior work. Most gay and lesbian respondents-but few straight respondents--also describe cooperative health behavior work, wherein partners mutually influence one another's health behaviors. Findings suggest that the gendered relational context of an intimate partnership shapes the dynamics of and explanations for health behavior work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
Little work has examined parenting stress in adoptive parents, particularly lesbian and gay adoptive parents. The current longitudinal study examined parent-reported child characteristics (measured post-placement) and parent and family characteristics (measured pre-placement) as predictors of post-placement parenting stress and change in parenting stress across three time points during the first 2 years of adoptive parenthood, among 148 couples (50 lesbian, 40 gay, and 58 heterosexual) who were first-time parents. Children in the sample were, on average, 5.61 months (SD = 10.26) when placed, and 2.49 years (SD = .85) at the 2 year post-placement follow-up. Findings revealed that parents who had been placed with older children, and parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, reported more post-placement stress. In addition, parents who reported fewer depressive symptoms, more love for their partners, and more family and friend support during the pre-placement period, had less post-placement stress. Parenting stress decreased for parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, while it increased somewhat for those who reported developmental problems in their children. Findings highlight vulnerabilities and resources that may shape adoptive parents’ experiences of stress in early parenthood, and have implications for both researchers and professionals who wish to support adoptive family adjustment. PMID:24611690
Bostwick, Wendy B; Boyd, Carol J; Hughes, Tonda L; West, Brady T; McCabe, Sean Esteban
Health disparities among sexual minority groups, particularly mental health disparities, are well-documented. Numerous studies have demonstrated heightened prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups as compared with heterosexuals. Some authors posit that these disparities are the result of the stress that prejudice and perceived discrimination can cause. The current study extends previous research by examining the associations between multiple types of discrimination, based on race or ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation, and past-year mental health disorders in a national sample of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual women and men (n = 577). Findings suggest that different types of discrimination may be differentially associated with past-year mental health disorders. Notably, sexual orientation discrimination was associated with higher odds of a past-year disorder only in combination with other types of discrimination. These findings point to the complexity of the relationship between discrimination experiences and mental health, and suggest that further work is needed to better explicate the interplay among multiple marginalized identities, discrimination, and mental health. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi
Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a non-infant (i.e., older) child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, three months post-adoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low, or very high, pre-adoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. PMID:26053348
Kitts, Robert Li
The objective of this article was to identify barriers to optimal care between physicians and LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning) adolescents. To this end, 464 anonymous, self-administered surveys were distributed in 2003 to residents and attending physicians in pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, emergency medicine, and family practice at Upstate Medical University. The survey included questions pertaining to practice, knowledge, and attitude pertaining to lesbian, gay, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) adolescents. One hundred eight four surveys were returned. The majority of physicians would not regularly discuss sexual orientation, sexual attraction, or gender identity while taking a sexual history from a sexually active adolescent. As well, the majority of physicians would not ask patients about sexual orientation if an adolescent presented with depression, suicidal thoughts, or had attempted suicide. If an adolescent stated that he or she was not sexually active, 41% of physicians reported that they would not ask additional sexual health-related questions. Only 57% agreed to an association between being a LGBTQ adolescent and suicide. The majority of physicians did not believe that they had all the skills they needed to address issues of sexual orientation with adolescents, and that sexual orientation should be addressed more often with these patients and in the course of training. This study concludes that barriers in providing optimal care for LGBTQ adolescents can be found with regard to practice, knowledge, and attitude regardless of medical field and other demographics collected. Opportunities exist to enhance care for LGBTQ adolescents.
Higa, Darrel; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Lindhorst, Taryn; Mincer, Shawn; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Todd, Avry; Mountz, Sarah
Factors associated with the well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth were qualitatively examined to better understand how these factors are experienced from the youths' perspectives. Largely recruited from LGBTQ youth groups, 68 youth participated in focus groups (n = 63) or individual interviews (n =…
Fisher, Emily S.; Komosa-Hawkins, Karen; Saldana, Enrique; Thomas, Genevieve M.; Hsiao, Cyndi; Rauld, Michelle; Miller, Dorian
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning (LGBTQ) students are likely to be in every classroom in every secondary school in the United States; yet, their needs are often overlooked. LGBTQ students are at risk for developing academic, social, and emotional problems due to harassment and bullying experienced at school. Although schools…
Bidell, Markus P.
Clinical training and counselor competency are essential for ethical practice when working with multiethnic, lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), and transgender clients. In this study, the author examined how multicultural courses related to students' (N = 286) LGB and multicultural competencies. Self-reported multicultural and LGB competencies…
Datti, Paul A.
Incorporating J. D. Krumboltz's (1979) social learning theory of career decision making, the author explores career development issues for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLBTQ) adolescents and young adults. Unique challenges for the GLBTQ population are discussed, specific recommendations for effective career counseling with…
Meyer, Elizabeth J.; Taylor, Catherine; Peter, Tracey
This paper presents findings from a national study on the beliefs and practices of K-12 educators regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues in schools. Over 3400 Canadian educators participated in the study, which took the form of a bilingual (English/French) online survey. Respondents answered questions about their…
Fokkema, C.M.; Kuyper, L.
Research has shown that aging lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) often experience feelings of loneliness. The main aim of this study was to examine whether older LGB adults in the Netherlands are lonelier than their heterosexual counterparts and, if so, whether the higher levels of loneliness
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Giga, Noreen M.; Villenas, Christian; Danischewski, David J.
The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) "National School Climate Survey" is our flagship report on the school experiences of LGBTQ youth in schools, including the extent of the challenges that they face at school and the school-based resources that support LGBTQ students' well-being. The survey has consistently indicated…
Do "out" lesbian and gay faculty influence the inclusion of sexual orientation as a form of diversity in their teacher preparation programmes? Data gathered from 142 teacher preparation programmes across the USA (representing the preparation of 23,000-30,000 new teachers annually) suggest they do not. Likewise, the priority placed upon…
Children and adolescents who are growing up gay, lesbian, bisexual, gender nonconforming, or gender discordant experience unique developmental challenges. They are at risk for certain mental health problems, many of which are significantly correlated with stigma and prejudice. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in fostering…
Significant progress has been made in equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) individuals, yet schools remain institutions where sexual and gender diversity are marginalized and/or silenced. Queer theory, a non-linear theory that disrupts dominant beliefs about gender and sexuality and what…
Casquarelli, Elaine J.; Fallon, Kathleen M.
Research shows that premarital counseling programs help engaged couples develop interpersonal and problem-solving skills that enhance their marital relationships. Yet, there are limited services for same-sex couples. This article assumes an integrated humanistic and social justice advocacy stance to explore the needs of lesbian, gay, and bisexual…
Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network, New York, NY.
This workbook provides an instrument to objectively analyze a school's current climate with regard to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) people and the steps needed to move that school toward a more inclusive environment. It provides a detailed assessment survey (to be completed by key school stakeholders), descriptive data, and…
Snow, Kevin C.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning or queer (LGBTQ) students at evangelical Christian colleges are a population frequently overlooked in the literature on the spiritual lives of college students. The author used qualitative content analysis within a phenomenological tradition to examine blog posts by such students, who face…
Bryan, Vanessa Roberts
Despite recent scholarly interest in college students' spirituality and spiritual development, as well as research indicating that students are interested in spirituality and have a strong desire to integrate spirituality into their lives, few researchers have addressed the spiritual experiences of gay and lesbian college students. Utilizing a…
Cramer, Robert J.; Burks, Alixandra C.; Golom, Frank D.; Stroud, Caroline H.; Graham, James L.
We tested the psychometric properties of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale. Findings included (1) a three-factor structure (i.e., Negative Identity, Identity Uncertainty, Identity Superiority); (2) less positive identities among HIV-positive persons, African Americans, males, and bisexuals; and (3) convergent patterns with subjective…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. METHODS The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women. RESULTS Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.
Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Di Pomponio, Ileana; Nigito, Concetta Simona
This study is the first contribution to the understanding of gender differences in best friendship patterns of adolescents sexual minorities. We explored friendship patterns, self-disclosure, and internalized sexual stigma in an Italian sample of lesbian (N = 202) and gay (N = 201) adolescents (aged 14-22 years). We found gender differences in…
Yi, Horim; Lee, Hyemin; Park, Jooyoung; Choi, Bokyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup
This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women). Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.
Church, Julie; Hegde, Archana V.; Averett, Paige; Ballard, Sharon M.
This study examined the attitudes, preparation, and comfort of early childhood administrators in working with gay and lesbian (GL) parented families and the use of GL inclusive practices within centers. Data were gathered from 203 participants in the state of North Carolina using an online survey. Overall, administrators held a positive attitude…
The purpose of the report is to inform students, parents, school personnel, and officials of the legal issues related to harassment, bullying, and discrimination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. This report describes existing research on the current school climate for LGBT youth as well as the harmful effects of…
Watson, Lori Anne
Schools contribute heavily to the feelings of isolation and stigmatization that many gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth experience. Research demonstrates that the climate of US middle and high schools are generally unsupportive and unsafe for many of these youth who are often susceptible to harassment, discrimination, and other negative events,…
Burke, Sara E; Dovidio, John F; LaFrance, Marianne; Przedworski, Julia M; Perry, Sylvia P; Phelan, Sean M; Burgess, Diana J; Hardeman, Rachel R; Yeazel, Mark W; van Ryn, Michelle
Increasing evidence suggests that bisexual people are sometimes evaluated more negatively than heterosexual and gay/lesbian people. A common theoretical account for this discrepancy argues that bisexuality is perceived by some as introducing ambiguity into a binary model of sexuality. The present brief report tests a single key prediction of this theory, that evaluations of bisexual people have a unique relationship with Need for Closure (NFC), a dispositional preference for simple ways of structuring information. Participants ( n =3406) were heterosexual medical students from a stratified random sample of 49 U.S. medical schools. As in prior research, bisexual targets were evaluated slightly more negatively than gay/lesbian targets overall. More importantly for the present investigation, higher levels of NFC predicted negative evaluations of bisexual people after accounting for negative evaluations of gay/lesbian people, and higher levels of NFC also predicted an explicit evaluative preference for gay/lesbian people over bisexual people. These results suggest that differences in evaluations of sexual minority groups partially reflect different psychological processes, and that NFC may have a special relevance for bisexual targets even beyond its general association with prejudice. The practical value of testing this theory on new physicians is also discussed.
Dewaele, Alexis; Van Houtte, Mieke; Vincke, John
The role of visibility management strategies, as an extended measure of outness related to sexual orientation, has been rarely studied with the aim of explaining the experience of external stressors (i.e., experiences of everyday discrimination and perceived sanctioning of cross-gender behavior) and internal stressors (i.e., internalized homonegativity and general mental distress). In this study, we examined gender differences within these relationships. A non-representative sample of 2,378 lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals was recruited. We found that lesbian and bisexual women scored significantly higher on perceived cross-gender sanctioning and general mental distress compared to gay and bisexual men. Multivariate analysis showed that visibility management was significantly related to the experience of internalized homonegativity in both men and women. Visibility management mediated the relationship between experiences of every day discrimination on the one hand and internalized homonegativity and general mental distress on the other. Finally, we found that compared to gay and bisexual men, lesbian and bisexual women who maintained relatively closed visibility management strategies, reported lower scores on internalized homonegativity but higher scores on general mental distress. We found fewer gender differences related to visibility management than expected and those that we did find were relatively small. Flemish lesbian and bisexual women and gay and bisexual men appear to more alike than different.
Padilla, Yolanda C.; Crisp, Catherine; Rew, Donna Lynn
Although gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) adolescents face many of the same developmental challenges as do heterosexual adolescents, they must also deal with the stress of being part of a stigmatized group. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which family support and involvement with the queer community may buffer the effects of…
Smith, Nathan Grant
This study examined individual and institutional productivity in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) scholarship published in counseling psychology--oriented journals for the years 1990 through 2008. Eight journals were included in the analyses. An author-weighted score was calculated for each scholar, using a formula developed by…
Baams, Laura; Grossman, Arnold H.; Russell, Stephen T.
The experience of minority stress is often named as a cause for mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, including higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The processes or mechanisms through which these disparities occur are understudied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits 2 key…
Bishop, Christa M.
This study examined what elementary schools in New York State are doing to recognize lesbian gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families in terms of curriculum, policies, and practices. One hundred and sixteen participants were recruited through the New York Association of School Psychologists email listserve and completed a brief online…
Schools are quasi-public/private organisations and being a teacher involves negotiating personal and professional boundaries. These boundaries have posed particular challenges for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBT-Q) teachers whose everyday lives are complicated by legislative, religious and cultural constraints, moral panics…
Grossman, Arnold H.; Haney, Adam P.; Edwards, Perry; Alessi, Edward J.; Ardon, Maya; Howell, Tamika Jarrett
This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.
The debate over whether same-sex couples should be allowed to enter into civil marriages continues in the United States. Forty-nine adolescents and emerging adults (ages 14-29) with lesbian, gay, and bisexual parents were interviewed for the current exploratory study, which examined how individuals perceived themselves and their families as being…
Discovering that an adolescent is lesbian or gay is often experienced as a family crisis. Feeling bereft of social support during times of such emotional upheaval and transition may precipitate states of despondency for parents, placing both children and parents at risk. While social support has been discussed as a key mediating agent for…
Conley, Cynthia L
This article reports the results of a study examining heterosexual parents' concerns upon learning about their children's gay or lesbian sexual orientations. Three areas of parental concern are noted: (a) those about what society thinks of them because they have gay or lesbian children, (b) those about being rejected by loved ones, and (c) concerns for their child's physical and psychological well being. Results indicate that parents' concerns about having gay or lesbian children differ depending on the gender of the parent, gender of the child, awareness of stigma, and perceptions of parents' own gender role attributes.
Tan, Tony Xing; Jordan-Arthur, Brittany; Garafano, Jeffrey S; Curran, Laura
We investigated 109 (79.8% female; 76% White, and 83.5% Heterosexual) mental health trainees' explicit and implicit attitudes toward heterosexual, lesbian, and gay White couples adopting and raising Black children. To determine explicit attitudes, we used a vignette depicting a Black child ready for adoption and three types of equally qualified White families who were headed by a heterosexual couple, gay couple, or lesbian couple. The trainees were asked to indicate which type of family they preferred to adopt the child. To determine implicit attitudes, we used the computer programed latency-based multifactor implicit association test (IAT) protocol. The IAT data were collected from each participant individually. Explicit data showed that over 80% of the participants indicated no strong preference in terms of which type of family should adopted the child. However, IAT data showed that the trainees implicitly preferred lesbian couples. Overall, the degree of congruence between explicit and implicit was very low. Implications for training were discussed.
Steffens, Melanie C; Jonas, Kai J; Denger, Lisa
Anti-gay attitudes vary across cultures because the larger social context plays a role in attitude formation. Psychological correlates of these attitudes have been investigated in the United States and Europe. Endorsement of traditional gender roles has emerged from that research as a central correlate, next to religiosity and personal contact with lesbians/gay men. In a cross-sectional study, we tested whether these correlates are relevant in Mexico, characterized as an androcentric culture in which both gender-role traditionalism and religiosity are high, using a college-age student sample (N = 63). Because we relied on self-reports, the motivation to appear nonprejudiced was also assessed. We found typical gender differences in attitudes toward gay men. In bivariate tests, anti-gay attitudes were related to male role endorsement, contact with lesbians/gay men, and religiosity. In a multivariate analysis, variance in attitudes was explained by male role endorsement; personal contact or religiosity did not explain additional variance. In a German comparison sample (N = 112), male role endorsement played a smaller role. Variance in anti-gay attitudes in the German sample was also related to personal contact, religiosity, and the motivation to appear nonprejudiced. We discuss the centrality of (male) gender-role endorsement in cultures with high gender-role traditionalism.
Comstock, G D
The following article is a condensed version of the keynote address given at the 1986 National Gathering of the Lesbian/Gay Coalition of the United Church of Christ (UCC). Problems encountered by lesbians and gay men in organized religion, especially within the liberal tradition, are identified by a method of inquiry developed by Christian educator John Westerhoff for assessing egalitarianism within institutions. The story of Queen Vashti from the Book of Esther in Hebrew scripture, and the emerging tradition of coming-out experiences by lesbians and gay men; provide the norm and model for declaring independence from denominations that neglect the concerns of lesbians and gay men and for constructing religious alternatives.
Ceres, Marc; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Loscalzo, Matthew; Rice, David
To describe the current state of cancer screening and uptake for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and to propose cancer screening considerations for LGBT persons. Current and historic published literature on cancer screening and LGBT cancer screening; published national guidelines. Despite known cancer risks for members of the LGBT community, cancer screening rates are often low, and there are gaps in screening recommendations for LGBT persons. We propose evidence-based cancer screening considerations derived from the current literature and extant cancer screening recommendations. The oncology nurse plays a key role in supporting patient preventive care and screening uptake through assessment, counseling, education, advocacy, and intervention. As oncology nurses become expert in the culturally competent care of LGBT persons, they can contribute to the improvement of quality of care and overall well-being of this health care disparity population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vaughn, Allison A; Teeters, Stacy A; Sadler, Melody S; Cronan, Sierra B
The utility of the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) and the Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes map (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2007) were examined in the context of heterosexuals' attitudes toward sexual minorities. Heterosexual adults completed a survey measuring stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral tendencies toward lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men. Stereotype content differed across groups and showed "gendered" and "valenced" effects on emotions and behavioral tendencies. Competence predicted behaviors for men, whereas warmth and competence predicted behaviors for women, and, for the most part, more was better. Admiration and contempt mediated most of these relationships across most subgroups, but pity and envy played smaller roles for some subgroups. Across all groups, competence played a more predictive role than warmth.
Halbrook, Meghan K; Watson, Jack C; Voelker, Dana K
Despite reports that there has been a positive trend in perception and treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals in recent years (Griffin, 2012 ; Loftus, 2001 ), sport, in general, is still an uncertain, and sometimes even hostile, environment for LGB athletes (Anderson, 2005 ; Waldron & Krane, 2005 ). To gain more information on coach understanding and perceptions of the team environment, 10 high school head coaches in the United States were interviewed to explore their experiences coaching openly LGB athletes. Qualitative analyses revealed four primary themes associated with coach experiences: team environment dogmas and observations, fundamental beliefs contributing to perceptions of LGB athletes, types and timing of sexual orientation disclosure, and differential LGB athlete characteristics. Future research should examine these primary themes in more detail through interviews with LGB athletes, as well as high school coaches in more traditionally masculine sports, such as football, men's basketball, and wrestling.
Hartwell, Erica E; Serovich, Julianne M; Reed, Sandra J; Boisvert, Danielle; Falbo, Teresa
The purpose of this study is to review samples from research on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues and to evaluate the suitability of this body of research to support affirmative and evidence-based practice with GLB clients. The authors systematically reviewed the sampling methodology and sample composition of GLB-related research. All original, quantitative articles focusing on GLB issues published in couple and family therapy (CFT)-related journals since 1975 were coded (n = 153). Results suggest that within the GLB literature base there is some evidence of heterocentrism as well as neglect of issues of class, race, and gender. Suggestions to improve the diversity and representativeness of samples-and, thus, clinical implications-of GLB-related research in CFT literature are provided. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S; Woodford, Michael R
Research suggests that contact with sexual minorities and etiology beliefs regarding the origins of homosexuality are associated with antigay bias; however, factors related to etiology beliefs have received little empirical attention. Our primary research question is: Does closeness to someone who is gay, lesbian, or bisexual influence etiology beliefs? Students (n = 851) from four U.S. universities completed an anonymous survey, and regression results indicated that contact and closeness were not significantly associated with etiology beliefs. Because both contact and relationship closeness were associated with antigay attitudes, and closeness demonstrated the largest effect, we tested three alternative structural equation models to determine if contact and closeness mediated etiology beliefs. Results suggested that contact and the degree of closeness are indirectly associated with students' etiology beliefs through antigay bias.
Martos, Alexander J; Wilson, Patrick A; Gordon, Allegra R; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Meyer, Ilan H
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) peoples' healthcare preferences are often developed in response to social and institutional factors that can ultimately deter them from care. Prior qualitative explorations of LGB healthcare preferences have been limited in their ability to identify and compare patterns across age cohort, gender, and race/ethnicity. The current study examines qualitative data from 186 modified Life Story Interviews with three age cohorts of LGB people from New York City, NY, San Francisco, CA, Tucson, AZ, and Austin, TX to understand the factors influencing LGB people's healthcare preferences. Data are analyzed using a directed content analysis approach. Five key themes emerged regarding influences on healthcare preferences: Stigma, provider expertise, identity, service type, and access. Findings suggest that healthcare preferences among LGB people are both complex and closely linked to social changes over time. Healthcare preferences among LGB people are both complex and closely linked to social changes over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Margolies, Liz; Brown, Carlton G
To review the current state of knowledge about cancer in lesbians, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people by focusing on four major issues across the cancer continuum including: 1) lack of data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity; 2) need for a culturally competent workforce; 3) the need for a culturally competent health care system; and 4) creating LGBT tailored patient/client information and education. Published literature. Oncology nurses and health care providers can work to improve the care of LGBT patients with cancer by following suggestions in this article. Oncology nurses and other health care providers have many distinct occasions to improve overall cancer care for LGBT patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
One of the principal aims of queer theory has been to challenge heteronormative constructions of sexuality and to work the hetero/homosexual structure to the point of critical collapse. Despite an epistemic location within this very structure, however, the category of bisexuality has been largely marginalized and even erased from the deconstructive field of queer theory. This article explores some of the factors behind this treatment of bisexuality and suggests that bisexuality's marginalization and erasure brings into relief the strained relationship between the fields of gay/lesbian history, feminism, and queer theory. In exploring some early influential queer deconstructionist texts, it argues that in overlooking the role the category of bisexuality has played in the formation of the hetero/homosexual structure, the project of queer deconstruction has in important ways fallen short of its goals. The author concludes with a call to rethink conventional deconstructive reading practices.
Eckstrand, Kristen L; Lunn, Mitchell R; Yehia, Baligh R
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations face numerous barriers when accessing and receiving healthcare, which amplify specific LGBT health disparities. An effective strategic approach is necessary for academic health centers to meet the growing needs of LGBT populations. Although effective organizational change models have been proposed for other minority populations, the authors are not aware of any organizational change models that specifically promote LGBT inclusion and mitigate access barriers to reduce LGBT health disparities. With decades of combined experience, we identify elements and processes necessary to accelerate LGBT organizational change and reduce LGBT health disparities. This framework may assist health organizations in initiating and sustaining meaningful organizational change to improve the health and healthcare of the LGBT communities.
Cornelius, Judith B; Enweana, Ijeoma; Alston, Celeste Kaysha; Baldwin, Dee M
Nursing students require academic and clinical training in preparation for the increased demand for culturally competent care. One group that is in need of culturally knowledgeable health care providers is lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine how LGBT health care content is integrated into North Carolina schools of nursing curricula and to examine the existence of specific LGBT policies. A survey was mailed to 70 deans and directors of RN programs in North Carolina. Over 90% of the schools indicated that LGBT health care issues were taught in the curricula. The majority of the content was taught as an "other" course (37%). More than two thirds of the schools devoted less than 5 hours teaching LGBT content. LGBT health care content is being taught, yet the presence of specific LGBT practice policies is basically nonexistent. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(4):223-226.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Nagata, Jason M
In this commentary, I reflect on challenges with conducting global health research internationally as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) person, grapple with decisions related to coming out in regions with anti-LGBT laws, and outline the risks and benefits of different advocacy options related to the promotion of LGBT health globally. Despite significant advances in LGBT rights in many countries, homosexuality remains illegal in many others. Using a critical medical anthropology framework, I argue that anti-LGBT laws constitute structural violence and have many detrimental consequences including discrimination and violence; poorer mental and physical health outcomes; and risky sexual behaviors. As a global health provider, there are many options for the promotion of LGBT health worldwide.
Barrientos, Jaime; Silva, Jimena; Catalan, Susan; Gomez, Fabiola; Longueira, Jimena
This article describes the population participating in the LGBT Pride Parade in Santiago, Chile, from discrimination and victimization standpoints. The sample consisted of 488 subjects older than 18 years (M = 25.1), who were interviewed during the 2007 event. For this purpose, a questionnaire from the Latin American Centre of Sexuality and Human Rights (CLAM) was adapted and administered. Approximately 35% of respondents reported having experimented school, religious, or neighborhood discrimination. The more discriminated are transgender people. Approximately three fourths of respondents reported experiencing ridicule and almost 60% reported experiencing insults or threats. Transgender were significantly more likely than gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals to experience discrimination or victimization events. Finally, the parade acquired an important social and political character in the context of a clearly homophobic society.
Wu, Harold Y; Yin, Ophelia; Monseur, Brent; Selter, Jessica; Collins, Lillian J; Lau, Brandyn D; Christianson, Mindy S
To assess geographical distribution and practice characteristics of fertility clinics inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients. Cross-sectional analysis. Not applicable. None. None. Prevalence and geographical distribution of fertility clinic websites with LGBT-specific content, indicated by keywords and home page cues specific to the LGBT patient population. Assessment of relationship between LGBT-specific content and clinic characteristics, including U.S. region, clinic size, private versus academic setting, and state-mandated fertility insurance coverage. Of 379 websites analyzed, 201 (53%) contained LGBT content. Clinics with the highest proportion of LGBT website content were in the Northeast (59/82, 72%) and West (63/96, 66%), while the lowest proportion was in the Midwest (29/74, 39%) and South (50/127, 39%). Most frequently used terms included lesbian (72%), LGBT/LGBTQ (69%), and gay (68%), while less used terms included trans/transgender (32%) and bisexual (15%). Larger clinic size was associated with LGBT-specific website content (odds ratio, 4.42; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-9.67). Practice type and state-mandated fertility insurance coverage were not associated with a clinic website having LGBT content. Over half of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member fertility clinics included LGBT content on their websites, yet those in the Midwest and South were significantly less likely to do so. Predictive factors for having LGBT website content included location in northeastern and western regions and increasing clinic size. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether inclusion of LGBT content on clinic websites impacts use of reproductive services by the LGBT patient population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Mallinas, Stephanie R
Two recent experiments found evidence for what we term the social category label (SCL) effect-that the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and prejudice against gay men and lesbians can be reduced or even eliminated when the target group is labeled "gay men and lesbians" rather than "homosexuals" (Rios, 2013). Although this appears a promising approach to reduce self-reported sexual prejudice, with both theoretical implications for the meaning of RWA itself and practical implications for question wording for assessing these attitudes, there are several reasons to further examine these findings, including (a) inconsistencies with extant evidence, (b) small sample sizes in the original 2 experiments, and (c) concerns with the RWA measures used in the 2 experiments. We tested the SCL hypothesis with a nationally representative sample (Study 1) and close and conceptual replications of Rios' (2013) 2 studies (Studies 2-5) using multiple measures of RWA and prejudice. Across 23 tests of the SCL hypothesis, we obtained 1 statistically significant and 1 marginally significant effect consistent with the hypothesis, 2 significant effects opposite the hypothesis, and 19 nonsignificant effects. A meta-analysis of evidence reported here and in Rios (2013) indicates that RWA strongly predicts antigay prejudice, with no significant variation by label. This confirms the typically robust association between RWA and antigay prejudice and confirms that the SCL effect is not robust. We discuss potential limitations of these studies, theoretical, methodological, and practical implications for our failures to replicate the original SCL studies, and future directions for examining social category label effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R
One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals.
Purpose : The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence demographic factors have on the way lesbians and gay men manage their sexual orientation at work. Design/methodology/approach : Based on data taken from a cross-sectional survey of 1308 gay and lesbian employees working in Germany, four regression models are proposed. The means of managing one's homosexuality at work was measured by the 31 items containing WSIMM from Anderson et al. (2001). Findings : Results indicate that bei...
Rozbroj, Tomas; Lyons, Anthony; Pitts, Marian; Mitchell, Anne; Christensen, Helen
E-therapies for depression and anxiety rarely account for lesbian and gay users. This is despite lesbians and gay men being at heightened risk of mood disorders and likely to benefit from having access to tailored self-help resources. We sought to determine how e-therapies for depression and anxiety could be improved to address the therapeutic needs of lesbians and gay men. We conducted eight focus groups with lesbians and gay men aged 18 years and older. Focus groups were presented with key modules from the popular e-therapy "MoodGYM". They were asked to evaluate the inclusiveness and relevance of these modules for lesbians and gay men and to think about ways that e-therapies in general could be modified. The focus groups were analyzed qualitatively using a thematic analysis approach to identify major themes. The focus groups indicated that some but not all aspects of MoodGYM were suitable, and suggested ways of improving e-therapies for lesbian and gay users. Suggestions included avoiding language or examples that assumed or implied users were heterosexual, improving inclusiveness by representing non-heterosexual relationships, providing referrals to specialized support services and addressing stigma-related stress, such as "coming out" and experiences of discrimination and harassment. Focus group participants suggested that dedicated e-therapies for lesbians and gay men should be developed or general e-therapies be made more inclusive by using adaptive logic to deliver content appropriate for a user's sexual identity. Findings from this study offer in-depth guidance for developing e-therapies that more effectively address mental health problems among lesbians and gay men.
Isadora Lins França
A presente dissertação é um estudo sobre o movimento GLBT (Gays, Lésbicas, Bissexuais e Transgêneros) e as relações desenvolvidas por esse movimento com um mercado segmentado destinado a homossexuais, ou mercado GLS (Gays, Lésbicas e Simpatizantes). O trabalho procura compreender essas relações a partir da pesquisa de campo realizada com foco na Associação da Parada do Orgulho GLBT de São Paulo (APOGLBT). Além disso, há um esforço no sentido de entender as dinâmicas do mercado GLS e do movime...
The practice of drinking ayahuasca-a psychoactive brew indigenous to the Amazon-has been investigated in several studies and shown to have positive long-term effects on mental states, and a particularly strong positive effect on perceptions of identity. This article discusses if these previous findings can be found in the experience of gay people, who are often taught by their culture and religion that their lifestyles, values, and sexual orientation are unacceptable. The qualitative study examined the interview responses of 17 self-identified gay and lesbian participants who had drunk ayahuasca in a ceremonial context within the past three years, regarding their self-perceptions and integration of group beliefs. Participants drank either in shamanic or Santo Daime ceremonies or, in the case of one participant, with an Afro-Brazilian group that used ayahuasca. Participants reported affirmation of their sexual orientation, and no participants reported negative effects on perception of identity. Additional positive effects in other areas of their lives, which they attributed to ayahuasca sessions, contributed to the overall positive outcomes that were reported by this group as a result of their ritual participation.
Lunn, Mitchell R; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M; Thompson, William W; Blank, Michael B; Yehia, Baligh R
This study aimed to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual) adults and compare sexual minority and heterosexual populations on nine Healthy People 2020 leading health indicators (LHIs). Using a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (National Health Interview Survey 2013-2015) of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population (228,893,944 adults), nine Healthy People 2020 LHIs addressing health behaviors and access to care, stratified using a composite variable of sex (female, male) and sexual orientation (gay or lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual), were analyzed individually and in aggregate. In 2013-2015, sexual minority adults represented 2.4% of the U.S. Compared to heterosexuals, sexual minorities were more likely to be younger and to have never married. Gays and lesbians were more likely to have earned a graduate degree. Gay males were more likely to have a usual primary care provider, but gay/lesbian females were less likely than heterosexuals to have a usual primary care provider and health insurance. Gay males received more colorectal cancer screening than heterosexual males. Gay males, gay/lesbian females, and bisexual females were more likely to be current smokers than their sex-matched, heterosexual counterparts. Binge drinking was more common in bisexuals compared to heterosexuals. Sexual minority females were more likely to be obese than heterosexual females; the converse was true for gay males. Sexual minorities underwent more HIV testing than their heterosexual peers, but bisexual males were less likely than gay males to be tested. Gay males were more likely to meet all eligible LHIs than heterosexual males. Overall, more sexual minority adults met all eligible LHIs compared to heterosexual adults. Similar results were found regardless of HIV testing LHI inclusion. Differences between sexual minorities and heterosexuals suggest the need for targeted health assessments and public
D'haese, Lies; Dewaele, Alexis; Houtte, Mieke Van
The understanding of how lesbians, gays, and bisexuals cope with homophobic violence is limited. Therefore, on the one hand, this study focuses on avoidance, problem-oriented, and emotion-oriented coping as general coping styles. On the other hand, special attention is paid to visibility management as a coping strategy that can be applied in a heteronormative context. Moreover, the moderating role of general coping styles and visibility management in the relationship between homophobic violence and negative mental health outcomes is studied. Data were collected from 1,402 Flemish lesbians, gays, and bisexuals. Stepwise regression analyses shows that coping styles and visibility management have a direct effect on mental health; however, no evidence for a moderating effect is found. Additionally, visibility management and emotion-oriented coping are found to exert a combined effect on mental health.
Goldbach, Jeremy T; Castro, Carl Andrew
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual service members can serve openly in the military with the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. The fate of transgender service members remains uncertain as the policy preventing them from serving in the military remains under review. The health care needs of these populations remain for the most part unknown, with total acceptance and integration in the military yet to be achieved. In this paper, we review the literature on the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members, relying heavily on what is known about LGBT civilian and veteran populations. Significant research gaps about the health care needs of LGBT service members are identified, along with recommendations for closing those gaps. In addition, recommendations for improving LGBT acceptance and integration within the military are provided.
Strong, Kristy L; Folse, Victoria N
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients experience barriers to health care that include fear of discrimination, as well as insensitivity and lack of knowledge about LGBT-specific health needs among providers. This study examined the effectiveness of an educational intervention designed to improve knowledge and attitudes of baccalaureate nursing students regarding LGBT patient care. Education focused on key terminology, health disparities, medical needs of transgender patients, and culturally sensitive communication skills for competent LGBT patient care. Knowledge level and attitudes were evaluated before and after the intervention using a survey based on a modified Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale and two assessment tools developed for this study. A statistically significant increase in positive attitudes and knowledge level was found immediately after the intervention. Findings from this study support the inclusion of education related to LGBT patient health care in undergraduate nursing curricula to promote cultural competence and sensitivity. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Green, Michael; Bobrowicz, Ania; Ang, Chee Siang
Computer-mediated communication has become a popular platform for identity construction and experimentation as well as social interaction for those who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT). The creation of user-generated videos has allowed content creators to share experiences on LGBT topics. With bullying becoming more common amongst LGBT youth, it is important to obtain a greater understanding of this phenomenon. In our study, we report on the analysis of 151 YouTube vid...
Baams, Laura; Grossman, Arnold H.; Russell, Stephen T.
The experience of minority stress is often named as a cause for mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, including higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The processes or mechanisms through which these disparities occur are understudied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits two key mechanisms for suicidal ideation: perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness (Joiner, 2009). The aim of the current study is to assess the men...
Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, HWM; Joregnsen, TD; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Rubio, B; Gross, M; Vecho, O; Lamb, ME
Study question:\\ud Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment, and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF?\\ud \\ud Summary answer:\\ud There were no differences in parental wellbeing.\\ud \\ud What is known already: \\ud The only other study of parental ...
Cunningham, George B; Melton, E Nicole
The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which contact with lesbian and gay friends moderated the effects of religious fundamentalism and sexism on sexual prejudice. The authors gathered data from 269 heterosexual adults living in Texas. Results indicate that the effects of religious fundamentalism on sexual prejudice were reduced when contact was high. However, the positive association between modern sexism and sexual prejudice was not moderated by contact. The authors discuss theoretical and practical implications.
Roch� F. Vermaak
Full Text Available The paper summarises the formation process of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.�s (PC(USA polity regarding the ordination and/or installation of partnered gays and lesbians as officers, i.e. deacons, elders and ministers of the Word and Sacrament, in light of General Assemblies� decisions and General Assembly Permanent Judicial Commissions� ecclesiastical rulings since the 1970's.
Sell, Randall L; Dunn, Patricia M
Researchers and public health advocates have long recognized the importance of demographic characteristics such as sex, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status in their efforts to understand and control the use of tobacco among population groups. Targeting prevention and cessation efforts based upon such characteristics has consistently been demonstrated to be both efficient and effective. In recent years, attention has modestly turned to how two additional demographic variables, sexual orientation and gender identity, can add to our understanding of how to reduce tobacco use. Research of tobacco industry papers has clearly documented targeted media campaigns to encourage smoking among lesbians and gays in the marketplace. The tobacco industry has long understood the role that sexual orientation can play in the uptake of smoking and the targeted marketing of brands. Those concerned with tobacco use prevention and cessation research have consequently responded to address tobacco use by lesbians and gays, and bisexuals and transgender people as well, but even more can be done. This article reviews what is known about smoking in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations and then reviews recommendations from four panels created to examine this topic. In conclusion, we recommend that sexual orientation and gender identity be considered for inclusion as variables in all major research and epidemiological studies of tobacco use. Just as such studies, without hesitation, measure sex, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, they need to also include questions assessing sexual orientation and gender identity. Although these new variables need not be the primary focus of these studies, at a minimum, considering their use as controlling variables should be explored. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people can benefit from being openly included in the work researchers conduct to inform the design of tobacco control programs and policies.
Tu, Jia-Wei; Lee, Tien-Tsung
Relatively little research has investigated the association of information sources and the stereotyping of homosexuals in other cultures. This study is a survey of 226 Chinese college students about their stereotypes of homosexuals and their sources of information on gays and lesbians. The stereotyping of homosexuals is predicted by the size of community, interest in knowing homosexuals, and in-person contacts. A higher level of negative stereotypes is associated with frequent usage of Chinese media.
A significant number of YouTube celebrity video bloggers (vloggers) have used the platform to come out publicly as lesbian or gay. This article interrogates the cultural work of YouTube celebrity coming outs, through the case studies of two of the most prominent gay vloggers: Ingrid Nilsen and Connor Franta. This article explores how the coming out moments of these vloggers, as articulated in their coming out vlogs and the wider media discourses surrounding these, make legible a normative gay...
International evidence suggests that young people are less likely to seek help for mental health problems in comparison with adults. This study focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans young people who are a population group with an elevated risk of suicide and self-harm, and little is known about their help-seeking behaviour. Utilising qualitative virtual methods, lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth web-based discussions about seeking help for suicidal feelings and self-harming were investigated. Findings from a thematic analysis indicate that these young people wanted assistance but found it difficult to (1) ask for help, (2) articulate emotional distress and (3) 'tell' their selves as 'failed'. This analysis suggests that key to understanding these problems are emotions such as shame which arise from negotiating norms connected to heterosexuality, adolescence and rationality. I argue that these norms act to regulate what emotions it is possible to feel, what emotions it is possible to articulate and what type of young lives that can be told. The future development of health and social care interventions which aim to reduce lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth suicide and self-harm need to work with a nuanced understanding of the emotional life of young people if they are to be effective. © The Author(s) 2014.
Javaherian, Heather; Christy, Amanda B; Boehringer, Molly
Occupational therapists and other allied health professionals face diversity with their clients, including sexual orientation. The purpose of this study was to determine the preparedness and comfort level of occupational therapy practitioners in working with gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. A 23-item survey was mailed to 1,051 practitioners in a midwestern state. Eighty-eight were undeliverable and 373 usable surveys were returned, yielding a 39% response rate. Most respondents felt prepared and comfortable to work with clients who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual, and 48% agreed that sexuality influences occupational choices. Twenty-nine percent agreed that sexual orientation influences occupational therapy treatment. Less than 20% of the respondents, however, received education and used inclusive language in their documentation, and only 14% reported having resources and support services for clients who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Effective education and policy-making strategies are necessary to ensure an accepting therapeutic environment and respect for the role of sexual orientation in the intervention process.
Full Text Available What can the spectacle of gay nationalism tell us about the reality of our cosmopolitan dream? My suggestion in this paper is that it challenges the assumption that simply invoking cosmopolitanism, or indeed embodying it as a style and a politics, is enough to secure the rights and recognition that were previously obtained by means of territorial claims and independent flag waving. It teaches us in order to reach an end – that of cosmopolitanism - it may be necessary to recommence at the beginning. The Gay & Lesbian Kingdom (GLK seceded from Australia in 2004. Emperor Dale Parker Anderson declared independence upon raising the rainbow pride flag on the Coral Sea Island of Cato. The decision to secede was made as a response to the Australian government’s 2004 action in presenting the Amendment of the Marriage Act 1969. In giving my account I draw on a 2007 interview, correspondence with Emperor Dale and other ethnographic material concerning the GLK. Among other articulations, I consider its secessionist move in light of Linda Bishai’s critique in Forgetting Ourselves (2004. This is that for all its liberationist motivation, secession is essentialist in its conception, and inherently anti-democratic; her prediction is that its preoccupation with state formation is making it irrelevant in the age of “rhizomatic” community networks. In its micronationalist “queering,” however, I find secessionist politics more relevant in late modernity, not less, as the pluralising democratic politics of identity and representation are increasingly unable to contest key outcomes of “family values” and “national values” rhetoric in the 21st C. While Bishai calls for an end to secession, my suggestion is that it is precisely in the secessionist moves of contemporary micronationalism that the “new cosmopolitics,” a politics aimed at the “renewal of international law” (Derrida, On Cosmopolitanism, 2002, p3 might be witnessed.
Paget, L-M; Chan Chee, C; Sauvage, C; Saboni, L; Beltzer, N; Velter, A
Since the 1990s, several studies have found higher rates of suicide attempts in homosexuals and bisexuals than in heterosexuals. The current challenge is to identify risk factors for targeting prevention. The aim of this paper was to determine, for the first time in France, the prevalence of suicide attempts over a 12-month period and associated factors in a population of men and women who self-identified as homosexuals or bisexuals. A convenience sample cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire made available in the gay press, and Internet sites targeting the gay or lesbian community. Among the persons completing the questionnaire, 10,100 men and 2963 women residing in France answered the questions on suicide attempts. The factors associated with suicide attempts during the previous 12 months were identified by logistic regression. Lifetime prevalence for suicide attempts was 16% in men and 18% in women; 12-month prevalence was 1.6% in men and 1.9% in women. Factors independently associated with suicide attempts in the past 12 months in men and women were lack of occupational activity, victim of sexual abuse, termination of a long-term relationship, excessive alcohol consumption in the past 12 months, depression, and in addition, in men, living in a small locality, victim of verbal or physical aggression and use of anxiolytics. According to our results, the fight against homophobia is an important element for the prevention of suicide attempts among homosexual and bisexual men. Indeed, in addition to traditional risk factors for suicide attempt, a significant association was also found with homophobic aggression in the past year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hancock, Adrienne; Haskin, Gregory
The cultures and service needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) minority groups are relevant to speech-language pathologists (SLPs). In particular, transgender individuals seeking communication services from SLPs in order to improve quality of life require culturally and clinically competent clinicians. Knowledge and attitudes regarding a population are foundational stages toward cultural competency (Turner, Wilson, & Shirah, 2006). The purpose of this research is to assess LGBTQ knowledge and attitudes among aspiring and practicing SLPs. An online survey was completed by 279 SLPs from 4 countries. Mean accuracy scores on LGBTQ culture questions were near 50%. Self-ratings indicated more comfort than knowledge, with generally positive feelings toward LGBTQ subgroups. Transgender communication is within SLPs' scope of practice, yet 47% indicated such services were not addressed in their master's curriculum, and 51% did not know how to describe transgender communication therapy. When respondents were asked to indicate priority of 10 LGBTQ topics for a continuing education seminar, communication masculinization/feminization best practice and case examples had the highest mean priority scores. There is a need to promote LGBTQ cultural competence within speech-language pathology. This study provides direction for improving LGBTQ cultural competence among SLPs.
Blake W. Hawkins
Full Text Available In recent years, librarians in various sectors have been moving forward a conversation on the distinct information needs and information-seeking behavior of our lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ patrons and how well the profession recognizes and meets those needs. Health sciences librarianship has been slower than other areas of the profession in creating an evidence base covering the needs of its LGBTQ patrons, with, until recently, only very limited literature on this subject. LGBTQ health sciences librarianship is now starting to attract new interest, with librarians working together to bring this emerging specialization to the attention of the broader professional community. In this paper, the authors report on a dedicated panel discussion that took place at the 2016 joint annual meeting of the Medical Library Association and Canadian Health Libraries Association/Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; discuss subsequent reflections; and highlight the emerging role for health sciences librarians in providing culturally competent services to the LGBTQ population. Recommendations are also provided for establishing a tool kit for LGBTQ health sciences librarianship from which librarians can draw. We conclude by highlighting the importance of critically reflective practice in health sciences librarianship in the context of LGBTQ health information.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A number of studies have identified that gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (GLBTI people have poorer mental health than the general population. This article describes current mental health promotion and service provision for GLBTI people in New Zealand, and the views of stakeholders on current service delivery and concerns facing the sector. METHODS: An email survey of service providers gathered descriptive data about mental health promotion and services provided for GLBTI people. Data obtained from interviews with key informants and online submissions completed by GLBTI individuals were analysed thematically. FINDINGS: Five organisations provide clear, specific and utilised services and programmes to some or all of the GLBTI populations. Twelve GLBTI-focused mental health promotion resources are identified. The analysis of data from key informants and GLBTI respondents identified factors affecting mental health for these populations occurring at three levels-macro-social environment, social acceptance and connection, and services and support. CONCLUSION: While GLBTI individuals have the same basic mental health promotion and service provision needs as members of the general population, they have additional unique issues. To enhance the mental health of GLBTI New Zealanders, a number of actions are recommended, including building sector capacity, allocating sufficient funding, ensuring adequate research and information is available, and reducing stigma, enhancing young people's safety, and supporting practitioners through training and resources. An important role for government, alongside GLBTI input, for improving mental health is noted.
Aguilar, Elizabeth; Fried, Jacquelyn
Although cultural competence education is being incorporated into most health care curricula, content addressing sexual minorities is lacking or, if present, inadequate. This void can result in compromised health care and can contribute to the social stigma surrounding the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community. Increasing the knowledge and demystifying sexual minority issues can enhance the confidence and attitudes of health care workers when treating LGBT individuals. Suggestions for creating a more welcoming health care environment for LGBT individuals in different health care settings such as private clinics, public health settings and school based programs are offered. The purpose of this literature review was to systematically review available literature on health care providers' delivery of culturally competent care to the LGBT community. The investigators searched electronic databases that included Medline (Ovid), Eric and PubMed with consultation from information specialists at the Health Sciences and Human Services Library at the University of Maryland. The information was categorized into content areas. Discussion of the findings and future directions regarding health care delivery for the LGBT community are provided. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Lee, Joseph G L
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are more likely to use tobacco products than heterosexual people. This results in disproportionate death and disability for LGBT communities. Yet, addressing the tobacco epidemic is generally low on the agenda of LGBT community organizations, and LGBT individuals report lower levels of support for some evidence-based tobacco prevention and control policies than heterosexuals. Informed by agenda-setting theory, this study investigated coverage of the tobacco epidemic in LGBT news blogs. Sixteen blogs and 105 tobacco-related posts from 2003 to March 9, 2013, were identified, and a quantitative content analysis was conducted. Coverage of the tobacco epidemic was primarily concentrated in four blogs and focused on the epidemiology of the epidemic and on tobacco-related policies. Little coverage focused on the tobacco industry, addiction, or health effects. A substantial minority of coverage focused on socially conservative arguments comparing smoking to homosexuality as a lifestyle choice. Thirty-three organizations working on LGBT tobacco prevention and control were present in blog posts. LGBT news blogs have a potentially important and mostly untapped role in tobacco-related media advocacy. LGBT health advocates would do well to cultivate relationships with LGBT bloggers as well as include bloggers in dissemination and media strategy efforts.
Rostosky, Sharon S; Black, Whitney W; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rosenkrantz, Dani
Research on heterosexual allies has focused on heterosexual identity development models and pathways to ally activism. The positive aspects or positive experiences of identifying as an ally to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identified individuals and communities have received little attention. Using an online survey of participants recruited from LGBT ally related social media, we collected open-ended responses to a question about the positive aspects of self-identifying as a heterosexual ally. A final analytic sample of 292 self-identified male and female heterosexual adults (age 18-71, M = 33.47, SD = 13.32) provided responses that generated 8 themes. Positive aspects of being a heterosexual ally were: (a) increased knowledge and awareness, (b) upholding values of justice, (c) beneficial individual relationships, (d) community belonging, (e) educating others, (f) being a role model, (g) using social privilege, and (h) speaking out and taking a stand. The findings suggest that being a heterosexual ally is rewarding and may enhance individual well-being. These findings provide information that may contribute to effective ally development efforts. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Barnes, David M; Meyer, Ilan H
Most religious environments in the United States do not affirm homosexuality. The authors investigated the relationship between exposure to nonaffirming religious environments and internalized homophobia and mental health in a sample of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) in New York City. Guided by minority stress theory, the authors hypothesized that exposure to nonaffirming religious settings would lead to higher internalized homophobia, more depressive symptoms, and less psychological well-being. The authors hypothesized that Black and Latino LGBs would be more likely than White LGBs to participate in nonaffirming religious settings and would therefore have higher internalized homophobia than White LGBs. Participants were 355 LGBs recruited through community-based venue sampling and evenly divided among Black, Latino, and White race or ethnic groups and among age groups within each race or ethnic group, as well as between women and men. Results supported the general hypothesis that nonaffirming religion was associated with higher internalized homophobia. There was no main effect of nonaffirming religion on mental health, an unexpected finding discussed in this article. Latinos, but not Blacks, had higher internalized homophobia than Whites, and as predicted, this was mediated by their greater exposure to nonaffirming religion. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Stanley, Ian H; Duong, Jeffrey
Empirical efforts to measure use of mental health services among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) older adults have been notably lacking. Thus this study assessed associations between sexual orientation and mental health service use among older adults and determined the mediating role of nonspecific psychological distress, excessive alcohol use, and self-perceived poor general medical health. Data from the 2011 New York City Community Health Survey were analyzed. The analytic sample comprised 5,138 adults ages 50 and over. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between sexual orientation (LGB versus heterosexual) and past-year mental health service use (counseling or medication), adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping were conducted. Among LGB older adults, 23.9% reported receiving counseling, and 23.4% reported taking psychiatric medication in the past year. LGB respondents were significantly more likely than heterosexuals to have received counseling (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.49-3.13) and psychiatric medication (AOR=1.97, CI=1.36-2.86). Psychological distress, excessive alcohol use, and self-perceived poor general medical health did not mediate the association between sexual orientation and mental health service use. LGB older adults were more likely than heterosexuals to utilize mental health services, and this association was not explained by indicators of general medical, mental, or behavioral health.
Melissa M. Barnhill
Full Text Available Inequalities in health have been identified for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB populations nationally. Policies in the U.S. South offer fewer protections for LGB people than in other regions, yet, limited data exist for this region. North Carolina (NC BRFSS data from 2011 to 2014 were combined (LGB n = 604; heterosexual n = 33,170 and analyzed using SAS survey procedures to estimate health characteristics by sexual orientation within gender. Many examined indicators were not different by sexual orientation, however, other results were significant and consistent with findings from state population surveys in other regions of the country. Both genders showed inequities in mental health, having over twice the odds of five or more poor mental health days in the past month and of having ever been diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Sexual minority women had higher odds compared with heterosexual women for ever having smoked cigarettes, current smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke both in the workplace and at home, and both alcohol risk factors, binge and heavy drinking. Being part of the LGB population in NC is associated with worse health. The implementation of anti-LGB policies in the NC warrants ongoing monitoring of LGB health inequities in NC and in other southeastern states for potential effects on the health and well-being of sexual minorities.
Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J
Research demonstrates that young people involved in bullying are at greater risk for poor emotional health outcomes, but this association may not be consistent for youth of different sexual orientations. Understanding the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) youth may suggest important opportunities for intervention and prevention. This study, therefore, examines whether involvement with bullying is differentially associated with emotional well-being across sexual orientation. Survey data were collected from a large statewide sample of 9th and 11th grade students in 2013 (N = 79,039, 49.8% female, 74.6% white). Logistic regression tested associations between sexual orientation, physical or relational bullying perpetration and five measures of emotional health. In the full sample, those reporting bullying perpetration had significantly elevated odds of emotional health problems. However, interaction terms and stratified models indicated that in nine out of ten physical bullying models and two out of ten relational bullying models, perpetration was not as strongly associated with poor emotional health among LGBQ adolescents as it was among heterosexual youth. Possible explanations for this finding include unhealthy coping strategies or masking one's own vulnerable status as LGBQ. Continued efforts to prevent bullying are needed for all youth.
Plöderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold
The role of childhood gender role nonconformity (CGNC) and childhood harassment (CH) in explaining suicidality (suicide ideation, aborted suicide attempts, and suicide attempts) was examined in a sample of 142 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and 148 heterosexual adults in Austria. Current and previous suicidality, CGNC, and CH were significantly greater in LGB participants compared to heterosexual participants. After controlling for CGNC, the effect of sexual orientation on CH diminished. CGNC correlated significantly with current suicidality in the LGB but not in the heterosexual group, and only non-significant correlations were found for CGNC with previous suicidality. Controlling for CH and CGNC diminished the effect of sexual orientation on current suicidality. Bayesian multivariate analysis indicated that current suicidality, but not previous suicidality, depended directly on CGNC. CH and CGNC are likely implicated in the elevated levels of current suicidality among adult LGB participants. As for previous suicidality, the negative impact of CGNC on suicidality might be overshadowed by stress issues affecting sexual minorities around coming out. The association of CGNC with current suicidality suggests an enduring effect of CGNC on the mental health and suicide risk of LGB individuals.
Carter, Larry W; Mollen, Debra; Smith, Nathan Grant
Within the framework of minority stress theory, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are conceptualized as members of a minority group defined by sexual orientation. Two of the component processes of minority stress hypothesized by Meyer (2003), internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events, were examined in the current study. Both internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events have been associated with increased psychological distress in LGB populations. Researchers have also observed a relationship between external locus of control and increased psychological distress in general population samples. The current study explored whether locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between the overall psychological distress of LGB individuals and both internalized heterosexism and the experience of workplace-based prejudice events (n = 165). Results indicated that locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between experience of workplace-based prejudice events and overall psychological distress but not for the relationship between internalized heterosexism and distress. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.
Introduction: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are more likely to smoke than the general population. This study evaluated a Social Branding intervention, CRUSH, which included an aspirational brand, social events, and targeted media to discourage smoking among LGBT young adults in Las Vegas, NV. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys (N = 2,395) were collected in Las Vegas LGBT bars at 2 time points 1 year apart. Multivariate logistic regressions examined associations between campaign exposure, message understanding, and current (past 30 days) smoking, controlling for demographics. Results: LGBT individuals were significantly more likely to report current (past 30 day) smoking than heterosexual/straight, gender-conforming participants. Overall, 53% of respondents reported exposure to CRUSH; of those exposed, 60% liked the campaign, 60.3% reported they would attend a CRUSH event on a night when they usually went somewhere else, and 86.3% correctly identified that the campaign was about “partying fresh and smokefree.” Current smoking was reported by 47% of respondents at Time 1 and 39.6% at Time 2. There were significant interactions between time and campaign exposure and campaign exposure and understanding the message. Among those who understood the CRUSH smokefree message, the highest level of campaign exposure was significantly associated with 37%–48% lower odds for current smoking. Conclusions: While longitudinal studies would better assess the impact of this intervention, CRUSH shows promise to reduce tobacco use among LGBT bar patrons. PMID:26180223
Gowen, L Kris; Winges-Yanez, Nichole
Sexuality education is perceived as one way to prevent unhealthy sexual behaviors. However, current sexuality education materials are not tailored to fit the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth, and many have been critiqued for disenfranchising these populations. This study solicited the perspectives of LGBTQ youth on their experiences with school-based sexuality education in order to create a framework of LGBTQ-inclusive sexuality education. Five semistructured focus groups (N = 30 LGBTQ participants) were conducted to investigate the sexuality education experiences of LGBTQ youth and to solicit youth suggestions for improving the inclusiveness of sexuality education curricula. Results indicate that LGBTQ youth perceive current sexuality education as primarily "exclusive," although examples of "inclusive" sexuality education were provided. In addition, participants provided suggestions for creating a more inclusive experience, such as directly discussing LGBTQ issues, emphasizing sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention over pregnancy prevention, and addressing healthy relationships. Educators and policymakers can use these ideas to help improve the quality of sexuality education-not only to make it more inclusive for LGBTQ youth but to make sexuality education more inclusive for all young people.
Very little is known about the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in relation to mental health services. Therefore, the overall aim of the current research was to explore LGBT people\\'s experiences of mental health service provision in Ireland. The objectives were to identify barriers and opportunities, to highlight service gaps, and to identify good practice in addressing the mental health and well-being of LGBT people. A mixed methods research design using quantitative and qualitative approaches was deployed. A multipronged sampling strategy was used and 125 respondents responded to the questionnaire. A subset of phase 1 (n = 20) were interviewed in the qualitative phase. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. The sample consisted of LGBT people (n = 125) over 18 years of age living in Ireland. Over three-quarters (77%) had received a psychiatric diagnosis. Findings include that whilst 63% of respondents were able to be \\'out\\' to practitioners, 64% felt that mental health professionals lacked knowledge about LGBT issues and 43% felt practitioners were unresponsive to their needs. Finally, respondent recommendations about how mental health services may be more responsive to LGBT people\\'s needs are presented.
Lee, Joseph G. L.; Matthews, Alicia K.; McCullen, Cramer A.; Melvin, Cathy L.
Context Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are at increased risk for the adverse effects of tobacco use given their high prevalence of use, especially smoking. Evidence regarding cessation is limited. To determine if efficacious interventions are available and to aid the development of interventions, a systematic review was conducted of gray and peer-reviewed literature describing clinical, community, and policy interventions as well as knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding tobacco use cessation among LGBT people. Evidence acquisition Eight databases for articles from 1987 to April 23, 2014 were searched. In February–November 2013, authors and researchers were contacted to identify gray literature. Evidence synthesis The search identified 57 records, of which 51 were relevant and 22 were from the gray literature; these were abstracted into evidence tables, and a narrative synthesis was conducted in October–May 2014. Group cessation curricula tailored for LGBT populations were found feasible to implement and show evidence of effectiveness. Community interventions have been implemented by and for LGBT communities; although these interventions showed feasibility, no rigorous outcome evaluations exist. Clinical interventions show little difference between LGBT and heterosexual people. Focus groups suggest that care is needed in selecting messaging used in media campaigns. Conclusions LGBT-serving organizations should implement existing evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment and clinical systems to support treatment of tobacco use. A clear commitment from government and funders is needed to investigate whether sexual orientation and gender identity moderate the impacts of policy interventions, media campaigns, and clinical interventions. PMID:25455123
Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Riggle, Ellen D B; Horne, Sharon G; Denton, F Nicholas; Huellemeier, Julia Darnell
Political campaigns to deny same-sex couples the right to civil marriage have been demonstrated to increase minority stress and psychological distress in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals (S. S. Rostosky, E. D. B. Riggle, S. G. Horne, & A. D. Miller, 2009). To further explicate the psychological reactions of LGB individuals to marriage amendment campaigns, a content analysis was conducted of open-ended responses from 300 participants in a national online survey that was conducted immediately following the November 2006 election. LGB individuals indicated that they felt indignant about discrimination; distressed by the negative rhetoric surrounding the campaigns; fearful and anxious about protecting their relationships and families; blaming of institutionalized religion, ignorance, conservative politicians, and the ineffective political strategies used by LGBT organizers; hopeless and resigned; and, finally, hopeful, optimistic, and determined to keep fighting for justice and equal rights. These 7 themes are illustrated and discussed in light of their implications for conceptualizing and intervening to address discrimination and its negative psychological effects.
Huebner, David M; Thoma, Brian C; Neilands, Torsten B
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, relative to their heterosexual counterparts. Although previous research has demonstrated that experiences of anti-LGBT harassment, discrimination, and victimization may explain some of this disparity, little is known about the mechanisms whereby such mistreatment leads to substance abuse. This study aimed to examine whether mechanisms suggested by the Social Development Model might explain the links between school-based victimization and substance use in this population. Five hundred and four ethnically diverse LGBT adolescents ages 14-19 reported their experiences with school victimization, substance abuse, school bonding, and deviant peer group affiliation. Anti-LGBT victimization in school was associated with substance abuse, and although causality cannot be established, structural equation modeling confirmed that the data are consistent with a theoretical model in which this association was mediated by increased affiliation with deviant peers. Preventive interventions for LGBT adolescents must not only attempt to make schools safer for these youth, but also help keep them engaged in healthy peer groups when they are confronted with mistreatment in school.
McLaughlin, Katie A; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M
We examined associations between perceived discrimination due to race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, or gender; responses to discrimination experiences; and psychiatric disorders. The sample included respondents in the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34 653). We analyzed the associations between self-reported past-year discrimination and past-year psychiatric disorders as assessed with structured diagnostic interviews among Black (n = 6587); Hispanic (n = 6359); lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB; n = 577); and female (n = 20 089) respondents. Black respondents reported the highest levels of past-year discrimination, followed by LGB, Hispanic, and female respondents. Across groups, discrimination was associated with 12-month mood (odds ratio [ORs] = 2.1-3.1), anxiety (ORs = 1.8-3.3), and substance use (ORs = 1.6-3.5) disorders. Respondents who reported not accepting discrimination and not discussing it with others had higher odds of psychiatric disorders (ORs = 2.9-3.9) than did those who did not accept discrimination but did discuss it with others. Black respondents and women who accepted discrimination and did not talk about it with others had elevated rates of mood and anxiety disorders, respectively. Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among individuals reporting past-year discrimination experiences. Certain responses to discrimination, particularly not disclosing it, are associated with psychiatric morbidity.
Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I
This study aims to: (1) test whether the minority stressors disclosure of sexual orientation; and (2) internalized heterosexism are predictive of chronic physical health conditions; and (3) depression; (4) to test direct and indirect relationships between these variables; and (5) whether chronic physical health conditions are further predictive of depression, net of disclosure of sexual orientation and internalized heterosexism. Secondary analysis of national, community-based surveys of 2349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 and older residing in the US utilizing structural equation modeling. Congruent with minority stress theory, disclosure of sexual orientation is indirectly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, mediated by internalized heterosexism with a suppressor effect. Internalized heterosexism is directly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, and further indirectly associated with depression mediated by chronic physical health conditions. Finally, chronic physical health conditions have an additional direct relationship with depression, net of other predictor variables. Minority stressors and chronic physical health conditions independently and collectively predict depression, possibly a synergistic effect. Implications for depression among older sexual minority adults are discussed.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Simoni, Jane M.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L.; Yang, Joyce; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.
National health initiatives emphasize the importance of eliminating health disparities among historically disadvantaged populations. Yet, few studies have examined the range of health outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. To stimulate more inclusive research in the area, we present the Health Equity Promotion Model—a framework oriented toward LGBT people reaching their full mental and physical health potential that considers both positive and adverse health-related circumstances. The model highlights (a) heterogeneity and intersectionality within LGBT communities; (b) the influence of structural and environmental context; and (c) both health-promoting and adverse pathways that encompass behavioral, social, psychological, and biological processes. It also expands upon earlier conceptualizations of sexual minority health by integrating a life course development perspective within the health-promotion model. By explicating the important role of agency and resilience as well as the deleterious effect of social structures on health outcomes, it supports policy and social justice to advance health and well-being in these communities. Important directions for future research as well as implications for health-promotion interventions and policies are offered. PMID:25545433
Joseph G. L. Lee
Full Text Available With no information on tobacco use for lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB populations in West Virginia (WV, it is unclear if nationally-identified LGB tobacco disparities also exist in this State. To address this data gap, we conducted a community tobacco survey in bars and events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. Trained community surveyors used electronic and paper survey instruments in bars (n = 6 in three WV cities and community events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. We analyzed results from 386 completed surveys from self-identified LGB individuals. Tobacco use among LGB bar patrons and LGB attendees at Pride-affiliated events was elevated (45%, as was current cigarette use (41%. Users of cigars and chewing tobacco were frequently dual users of cigarettes, with 80% and 60% reporting dual use, respectively. A substantial disparity likely exists in tobacco use among LGB West Virginians. Targeted interventions addressing tobacco use among LGB West Virginians are warranted in these venues, and the addition of a demographic question on sexual orientation would improve data collection and monitoring of this disparity.
Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.
Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are “coming out” at younger ages, few studies have examined if early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyze retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years identified three trajectories of development: Early (n = 951, milestones spanning ages 12 to 20), Middle (n = 239, milestones spanning ages 18 to 31), and Late (n = 70, milestones spanning ages 32 to 43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, post-hoc analyses of the Early Profile group identified two sub-groups: Child-Onset (n = 284, milestones spanning ages 8 to 18), and Teen-Onset (n = 667, milestones spanning ages 14 to 22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity-centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the Early Profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research. PMID:21942662
Hawkins, Blake W; Morris, Martin; Nguyen, Tony; Siegel, John; Vardell, Emily
In recent years, librarians in various sectors have been moving forward a conversation on the distinct information needs and information-seeking behavior of our lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) patrons and how well the profession recognizes and meets those needs. Health sciences librarianship has been slower than other areas of the profession in creating an evidence base covering the needs of its LGBTQ patrons, with, until recently, only very limited literature on this subject. LGBTQ health sciences librarianship is now starting to attract new interest, with librarians working together to bring this emerging specialization to the attention of the broader professional community. In this paper, the authors report on a dedicated panel discussion that took place at the 2016 joint annual meeting of the Medical Library Association and Canadian Health Libraries Association/Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; discuss subsequent reflections; and highlight the emerging role for health sciences librarians in providing culturally competent services to the LGBTQ population. Recommendations are also provided for establishing a tool kit for LGBTQ health sciences librarianship from which librarians can draw. We conclude by highlighting the importance of critically reflective practice in health sciences librarianship in the context of LGBTQ health information.
Anderson, Joan I; Patterson, April N; Temple, Henry J; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
The objectives of the study reported in this article were to assess dental student leaders' perceptions of educational efforts concerning lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics and the cultural climate concerning LGBT issues in dental schools in the United States and Canada. In addition, the perceptions of student leaders who self-identified as belonging to the LGBT community and of students with a heterosexual orientation were compared. Data were collected from 113 dental student leaders from twenty-seven dental schools in the United States and three in Canada. Fifty student leaders were females, and sixty-two were males. Only 13.3 percent of the respondents agreed that their dental education prepared them well to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds. The more the student leaders believed that their university has an honest interest in diversity, the better they felt prepared by their dental school program to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds (r=.327; pschools' administrations create a positive environment for students with LGBT orientations, the more they agreed that persons can feel comfortable regardless of their sexual orientation (r=.585; pschool administrators play an important role in ensuring that future care providers are well prepared to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds and that staff, faculty, students, and patients from these backgrounds are not discriminated against.
Sequeira, Gina M; Chakraborti, Chayan; Panunti, Brandy A
The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is a diverse, underserved, and often stigmatized group that faces many barriers to accessing quality healthcare. Not only are few practicing physicians knowledgeable about and sensitive to the needs of LGBT patients, but medical school curricula include limited LGBT-related content. Our goals were to use LGBT-related educational sessions to gauge undergraduate medical students' interest and their perceptions of relevance and to eventually incorporate this topic into the curriculum. We provided 4 educational sessions to preclinical medical students at the Tulane University School of Medicine: 3 optional, 1-hour didactic sessions and 1 standardized patient encounter. Following sessions 1-3, students completed electronic feedback forms; we then analyzed their responses thematically. THE THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF STUDENT RESPONSES IDENTIFIED KEY THEMES: a current lack of exposure to LGBT content, agreement that LGBT material is applicable to students' work as future physicians, and the relevance of including such information in the medical school curriculum. The study validated the underlying assumption that LGBT educational sessions are meaningful to and valued by medical students.
Eliason, Michele J; Dibble, Suzanne L; Robertson, Patricia A
Little is known about the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) physicians in the workplace. There is little formal education in medical school about LGBT issues, and some heterosexual physicians have negative attitudes about caring for LGBT patients or working with LGBT coworkers, setting the stage for an exclusive and unwelcoming workplace. The current study used an online survey to assess a convenience sample of 427 LGBT physicians from a database of a national LGBT healthcare organization, as well as a snowball sample generated from the members of the database. Although rates of discriminatory behaviors had decreased since earlier reports, 10% reported that they were denied referrals from heterosexual colleagues, 15% had been harassed by a colleague, 22% had been socially ostracized, 65% had heard derogatory comments about LGBT individuals, 34% had witnessed discriminatory care of an LGBT patient, 36% had witnessed disrespect toward an LGBT patient's partner, and 27% had witnessed discriminatory treatment of an LGBT coworker. Few had received any formal education on LGBT issues in medical school or residency. It appears that medical schools and health care workplaces continue to ignore LGBT issues and operate in discriminatory fashion far too often.
Huebner, David M.; Thoma, Brian C.; Neilands, Torsten B.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, relative to their heterosexual counterparts. Although previous research has demonstrated that experiences of anti-LGBT harassment, discrimination, and victimization may explain some of this disparity, little is known about the mechanisms whereby such mistreatment leads to substance abuse. This study aimed to examine whether mechanisms suggested by the Social Development Model might explain the links between school-based victimization and substance use in this population. Five hundred and four ethnically diverse LGBT adolescents ages 14–19 reported their experiences with school victimization, substance abuse, school bonding, and deviant peer group affiliation. Anti-LGBT victimization in school was associated with substance abuse, and although causality cannot be established, structural equation modeling confirmed that the data are consistent with a theoretical model in which this association was mediated by increased affiliation with deviant peers. Preventive interventions for LGBT adolescents must not only attempt to make schools safer for these youth, but also help keep them engaged in healthy peer groups when they are confronted with mistreatment in school. PMID:25529390
Ash, Marcia; Mackereth, Catherine
Health needs assessment is a fundamental tool in public health practice. It entails the identification of needs from a range of perspectives, including epidemiological data, the views of local and professional people, and the comparative needs of the group under consideration. This paper describes the process undertaken with the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) population of an area in the north-east of England. The findings were used to inform and influence commissioners and service providers about services and interventions that will address these needs, and bring about better emotional and mental health and wellbeing as identified by LGBT people themselves. Research shows that there are great inequalities in the experience of these groups when compared with the heterosexual population. This was confirmed by the local LGBT communities. Consultation with the LGBT population showed that they experience ongoing stigma and discrimination, despite the greater apparent acceptance of diversity within the community. Recommendations were identified, which particularly focus on increasing the visibility of these groups, highlighting training issues and addressing generic or specialist services, in order to reduce discrimination.
Zelle, Andraya; Arms, Tamatha
The 1.5 million older adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) are expected to double in number by 2030. Research suggests that health disparities are closely linked with societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of civil and human rights. More LGBT older adults struggle with depression, substance abuse, social isolation, and acceptance compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Despite individual preferences, most health care providers recognize the right of any individual to have access to basic medical services. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requires that all hospitals receiving funds from Medicare and Medicaid respect visitation and medical decision-making rights to all individuals identifying as LGBT. The Joint Commission also requires a non-discrimination statement for accreditation. The current literature review examines LGBT health disparities and the consequential psychosocial impact on LGBT older adults as well as brings awareness to the needs of this underserved and underrepresented population. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Baughman, Allyson; Clark, Melissa A; Boehmer, Ulrike
To identify the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC) and to expand the current understanding of LGB survivorship by obtaining in-depth knowledge of survivorship among individuals with a cancer other than breast or prostate. . Qualitative, semistructured individual interviews via telephone. . Participants were recruited using social media, flyers, word of mouth, and contact with LGB and cancer organizations during a four-month period. . Eight LGB individuals with a diagnosis of stage III CRC from 2009-2014. . All interviews were audio recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis performed by more than one analyst was used for the interview transcripts. . Participants described experiences with social support and isolation, cancer care from an LGB perspective, and substantial economic impacts of their cancer diagnosis. In addition, they reported struggles with health insurance coverage, employment, and housing during and after their treatment for CRC. . In addition to issues regarding sexual identity disclosure and social support, economic impacts of CRC exist; these are likely critical to healthy survivorship in LGB men and women. . Attention should be paid to the economic impact of CRC on LGB individuals, along with issues of social support and sexual identity disclosure. Oncology nurses could play an important role in determining the economic and social needs of patients with CRC, accepting the often nontraditional support networks of LGB individuals, and facilitating disclosure of an LGB identity.
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Longitudinal relations between past suicidality and subsequent changes in psychological distress at follow-up were examined among gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youths, as were psychosocial factors (e.g., self-esteem, social support, negative social relationships) that might mediate or moderate this relation. Past suicide attempters were found to have higher levels of depressive symptoms, anxious symptoms, and conduct problems at a later time than youths who neither attempted nor ideated. Psychosocial factors failed to mediate this relation. The interaction among past suicidality, social support, and negative relationships was associated with subsequent changes in all three psychological distress indicators six months later. Specifically, high levels of support (either from family or friends) or negative relationships were found to predict increased psychological distress among those with a history of suicide attempts, but not among youths without a history of suicidality. The findings suggest that GLB youths who attempt suicide continue to have elevated levels of psychological distress long after their attempt and they highlight the importance of social relationships in the youths’ psychological distress at follow-up. PMID:22162620
Mavhandu-Mudzusi, Azwihangwisi Helen; Sandy, Peter Thomas
This paper reports on the stigma and discrimination experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students at a rural university in South Africa. Twenty lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students recruited through snowball sampling participated in this study. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used as a framework for data analysis. Findings indicate that religion-related stigma and discrimination are common at a rural-based university in South Africa. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students are typically ascribed a range of labels, including 'sinners', 'devils' and 'demon possessed'. They are also exposed to a number of discriminatory acts, such as the denial of financial and healthcare services and threats of and/or actual rape. Study participants reported attempts to convert lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students' sexual orientation which involved the use of intervention in the form of prayers. Derogatory labelling and associated discriminatory acts, for example the threat of rape, led many students to conceal their sexual identity, not attend specific classes, terminate their studies and even attempt suicide. Universities should develop policies to promote greater social inclusion and the acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students. Policies should also specify the steps or approaches to be taken in addressing discriminatory practices.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB people may be at higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual people. Method We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of mental disorder, substance misuse, suicide, suicidal ideation and deliberate self harm in LGB people. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library Database, the Web of Knowledge, the Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Sociological Abstracts, the Campbell Collaboration and grey literature databases for articles published January 1966 to April 2005. We also used Google and Google Scholar and contacted authors where necessary. We searched all terms related to homosexual, lesbian and bisexual people and all terms related to mental disorders, suicide, and deliberate self harm. We included papers on population based studies which contained concurrent heterosexual comparison groups and valid definition of sexual orientation and mental health outcomes. Results Of 13706 papers identified, 476 were initially selected and 28 (25 studies met inclusion criteria. Only one study met all our four quality criteria and seven met three of these criteria. Data was extracted on 214,344 heterosexual and 11,971 non heterosexual people. Meta-analyses revealed a two fold excess in suicide attempts in lesbian, gay and bisexual people [pooled risk ratio for lifetime risk 2.47 (CI 1.87, 3.28]. The risk for depression and anxiety disorders (over a period of 12 months or a lifetime on meta-analyses were at least 1.5 times higher in lesbian, gay and bisexual people (RR range 1.54–2.58 and alcohol and other substance dependence over 12 months was also 1.5 times higher (RR range 1.51–4.00. Results were similar in both sexes but meta analyses revealed that lesbian and bisexual women were particularly at risk of substance dependence (alcohol 12 months: RR 4.00, CI 2.85, 5.61; drug
Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti
Epidemiological research on lesbian, gay and bisexual populations raises concerns regarding self-selection and group sizes. The aim of this research was to present strategies used to overcome these challenges in a national population-based web survey of self-reported sexual orientation and living conditions-exemplified with a case of daily tobacco smoking. The sample was extracted from pre-established national web panels. Utilizing an oversampling strategy, we established a sample including 315 gay men, 217 bisexual men, 789 heterosexual men, 197 lesbian women, 405 bisexual women and 979 heterosexual women. We compared daily smoking, representing three levels of differentiation of sexual orientation for each gender. The aggregation of all non-heterosexuals into one group yielded a higher odds ratio (OR) for non-heterosexuals being a daily smoker. The aggregation of lesbian and bisexual women indicated higher OR between this group and heterosexual women. The full differentiation yielded no differences between groups except for bisexual compared with heterosexual women. The analyses demonstrated the advantage of differentiation of sexual orientation and gender, in this case bisexual women were the main source of group differences. We recommend an oversampling procedure, making it possible to avoid self-recruitment and to increase the transferability of findings.
Otis, Melanie D; Skinner, William F
An exploratory study of lesbians (70) and gay men (118) from a rural state in the mid-South was conducted using a self-administered, mail-out survey. The nonrandom sample was drawn from organizational mailing lists, snowball sampling, and a convenience sample at a community event. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of the following affected sexual orientation: genetics, relationship between parents, relationship with parents, birth order, peers, growing up in a dysfunctional family, growing up in a single-parent family, negative experiences with the opposite sex, and positive experiences with the same sex. Similar to studies of heterosexual men and women, these gay men were more likely to view sexual orientation as a result of genetics than the lesbian respondents. Further, the lesbian group were more likely to view positive relationships with the same sex to have a great influence on sexual orientation. These data indicate there are sex differences in views on factors that affect sexual orientation.
Butler, Allister H; Astbury, Gaynor
This article comprises one facet of a larger, three-year phenomenological study (1997-2000) of gay and lesbian youth coming out in post-apartheid South Africa. A nonprobability sample of 18 young people, aged between 16 and 21 years, was interviewed. The resultant data was content analyzed, and the trustworthiness of the information was ensured via member checking and utilizing an independent coder. Results consistently revealed that gay and lesbian youth use defense mechanisms, such as denial, avoidance, compartmentalization, suppression, compensation, sublimation, undoing, displacement, rationalization, and intellectualization, in a conscious manner during their coming out process. The young people in this study demonstrated resilience despite the prejudice and inner turmoil that they had experienced. Practice guidelines are suggested in terms of how health and social care practitioners can support gay and lesbian youth in coping with their coming out process.
Papadaki, Vasileia; Plotnikof, Kyriaki; Gioumidou, Meropi; Zisimou, Vasiliki; Papadaki, Eleni
This study investigated the attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among social work, psychology, medical, and nursing students in Crete, Greece, using Herek's ATLG scale. No respondents held completely heterosexist attitudes; only 1.6% held completely non-heterosexist attitudes. The 44.96 total ATLG score indicates a slightly positive attitude toward lesbians and gay men. Psychology students scored higher than all others on positive attitudes, followed by social work students, medical students, and nursing students. Gender, having lesbian or gay acquaintances or friends, and religiosity were significant factors influencing students' attitudes, while no impact on attitudes due to the effects of higher education could be discerned. Implications for curriculum design and teaching methods are discussed.
Klotzbaugh, Ralph; Glover, Eileen
To develop an understanding of lesbian-, gay-, bisexual-, transgender-specific mental health and substance abuse needs in rural populations and to improve data about sexual orientation and gender identity. Existing literature on mental health needs for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations has continued to reveal higher levels of need. Research has also demonstrated that few mental health providers have expertise or comfort in treating lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender clients. Descriptive correlational study. A sample (n = 456) of patient records admitted to a rural lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender inpatient psychiatric clinic over 12 months were examined using descriptive statistics. Patient zip code information was used to determine the levels of rurality. Chi-square analysis was used to determine relationships between sexual orientation, rural/urban distinctions and concomitant drug use. Unexpectedly, those who identified as heterosexual were significantly more likely to concomitantly abuse alcohol and heroin than those who identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. Patients residing in small or isolated rural areas were more likely to abuse alcohol or synthetics than those residing in urban or micropolitan areas. Results of this study concerning substance abuse among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals are not reflective of prior studies. LGBT patients did not demonstrate a higher proportion of substance abuse compared with those identifying as heterosexual. Increased substance abuse among those from rural isolated areas does support prior studies. The context of gathering demographic information on sexual orientation was thought by staff to increase the number of those identifying as heterosexual. Context in which sensitive questions are asked may affect the accuracy of demographic data. Lack of information regarding patients' sexual orientation or gender identity may impact perceived need for
Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
Sexual orientation is seldom recorded at death in Australia, and to date there have been no studies on the relationship between those that have died by suicide and sexuality or minority gender identity in Australia. The aim of the present study is to determine whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex individuals who die by suicide constitute a unique subpopulation of those who die by suicide, when compared with non-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex suicide deaths. The Queensland Suicide Register holds records of all suicides in Queensland since 1990. All cases from 2000 to 2009 (inclusive; a total of 5,966 cases) were checked for potential indicators of individuals' sexual orientation and gender identification. A total of 35 lesbian (n = 10), gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 2), and transgender (n = 1) suicide cases were identified. Three comparison cases of non-LGBT suicides for each LGBT suicide were then located, matched by age and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. It was significantly more likely that depression was mentioned in the cases of LGBT suicides than in non-LGBT cases. While 12.4% of the comparison group had been diagnosed with psychotic disorders, there were no such diagnoses among LGBT individuals. LGBT individuals experienced relationship problems more often, with relationship conflict also being more frequent than in non-LGBT cases. Despite its limitations, this study - the first of its kind in Australia - seems to indicate that LGBT people would require targeted approaches in mental and general health services. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available This article takes an anthropological approach to examine how laws governing family formation in Spain affect same-sex couples seeking to become parents, in particular the cultural causes and implications of such laws. It highlights how the same laws are has a different impact on gay couples and lesbian couples. Legislation combines with other factors to favour and expand the possibilities of accessing motherhood for women in lesbian couples while limiting the possibilities of parenthood for men in gay couples. Moreover, the persistence of certain cultural models of fatherhood and motherhood can be observed, which further constrain parenthood access options and the forming of new family models.
Ewton, Tiffany A; Lingas, Elena O
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) medical providers in the United States have historically faced discrimination from their peers. To assess current workplace culture and attitudes, and to evaluate awareness of workplace and professional policies regarding LGBT discrimination, we sent a cross-sectional survey to 163 PAs (Physician Assistants). Respondents had an overall positive attitude towards LGBT providers, yet the majority was not aware of relevant policy statements (>60%). A significant association existed between policy awareness and LGBT inclusivity (Pharassment (P=.017). Despite improved societal attitudes toward LGBT providers, non-discriminatory work environments for LGBT physician assistants may relate to greater awareness of specific workplace policy standards.
Van Beusekom, Gabriël; Bos, Henny Mw; Kuyper, Lisette; Overbeek, Geertjan; Sandfort, Theo Gm
We assessed among a sample of 724 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual-identified adults ( M age = 31.42) whether experiences with homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia simultaneously mediated the relation of gender nonconformity with mental health. Results indicated that homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia partially mediated the relation between gender nonconformity and mental health. Gender nonconformity was related to more mental health problems via increased experiences with homophobic stigmatization and to less mental health problems because of reduced levels of internalized homophobia. However, the mediated relation of gender nonconformity with mental health via homophobic stigmatization was only significant for men.
Sullivan, Kathleen M
The social environment impacts the ability of older adults to interact successfully with their community and age-in-place. This study asked, for the first time, residents of existing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) senior living communities to explain why they chose to live in those communities and what, if any, benefit the community afforded them. Focus groups were conducted at 3 retirement communities. Analysis found common categories across focus groups that explain the phenomenon of LGBT senior housing. Acceptance is paramount for LGBT seniors and social networks expanded, contrary to socioemotional selectivity theory. Providers are encouraged to develop safe spaces for LGBT seniors.
Jaime Eduardo Barrientos Delgado
Full Text Available This paper intends to validate the Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (Herek, 1988. The starting point is the five dimensions reported in previous studies (Cárdenas & Barrientos, 2008. No research has confirmed the hypothesized ATLG factor structure with a Spanish-language sample. This study tested three factor structures, results indicating that the two- factor second-order model provides the best description of ATLG items. Additionally, psychometric properties were examined using a sample of 518 college students. ATLG proved reliable (α = 0.93 and valid for Chilean population.
Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Poon, Colleen S.; Homma, Yuko; Skay, Carol L.
Over the past decade, several large-scale school-based studies of adolescents in Canada and the U.S. have documented health disparities for lesbian, gay and bisexual teens compared to their heterosexual peers, such as higher rates of suicide attempts, homelessness, and substance use. Many of these disparities have been linked to “enacted stigma,” or the higher rates of harassment, discrimination, and sexual or physical violence that sexual minority youth experience at home, at school, and in ...
Cloyes, Kristin G; Hull, William; Davis, Andra
To identify the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) cancer patients and caregivers, and review recommendations supporting more effective and inclusive palliative and end-of-life care. Published research and clinical guidelines. Transitions in care raise particular challenges for LGBT patients, including provider communication, perceptions of safety and acceptance, and assessing and respecting patients' definitions of family and spirituality. LGBT patients and their caregivers need competent nurses to support them, especially during transitions. Implementing LGBT-inclusive education, training, and practice will improve outcomes for LGBT cancer patients and their caregivers - and potentially all patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Online and in-person sexual behaviors of cisgender lesbian, gay, queer, bisexual, heterosexual, questioning, unsure, and youth of other sexual identities were examined using data from the Teen Health and Technology study. Data were collected online between August 2010 and January 2011 from 5,078 youth 13–18 years old. Results suggested, depending on sexual identity, between 4–35% of youth had sexual conversations and 2–24% shared sexual photos with someone online in the past year. Among the 2...
Lennon-Dearing, Robin; Delavega, Elena
Across the United States there has been a spate of legislative bills and initiatives that blatantly stigmatize and discriminate against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This study was a cross-sectional, exploratory survey designed to measure the attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of Tennessee social workers and future social workers toward the LGBT population and toward proposed discriminatory legislation. A 3-way factorial ANOVA investigated the effects of political affiliation, religious affiliation, and social contact on the dependent measures. Significant main effects were found. Self-reported political affiliation was found to be the most important factor predicting LGBT acceptance and LGBT respect among this sample.
Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Ling, Pamela M
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are more likely to smoke than the general population. This study evaluated a Social Branding intervention, CRUSH, which included an aspirational brand, social events, and targeted media to discourage smoking among LGBT young adults in Las Vegas, NV. Cross-sectional surveys (N = 2,395) were collected in Las Vegas LGBT bars at 2 time points 1 year apart. Multivariate logistic regressions examined associations between campaign exposure, message understanding, and current (past 30 days) smoking, controlling for demographics. LGBT individuals were significantly more likely to report current (past 30 day) smoking than heterosexual/straight, gender-conforming participants. Overall, 53% of respondents reported exposure to CRUSH; of those exposed, 60% liked the campaign, 60.3% reported they would attend a CRUSH event on a night when they usually went somewhere else, and 86.3% correctly identified that the campaign was about "partying fresh and smokefree." Current smoking was reported by 47% of respondents at Time 1 and 39.6% at Time 2. There were significant interactions between time and campaign exposure and campaign exposure and understanding the message. Among those who understood the CRUSH smokefree message, the highest level of campaign exposure was significantly associated with 37%-48% lower odds for current smoking. While longitudinal studies would better assess the impact of this intervention, CRUSH shows promise to reduce tobacco use among LGBT bar patrons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Synnes, Oddgeir; Malterud, Kirsti
This study aims to explore how minority stress related to sexual orientation is reflected in narratives from lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals in Norway, with an impact for national public health policy. Arthur Frank's dialogical narrative analysis was applied to personal stories from 65 persons self-referring to different categories of queer identities, submitted online anonymously to a Norwegian national archive for queer history. A purposive sample of three different stories were selected due to their capacity to illuminate how various aspects of minority stress are narrated in diverse interplays between individual voices and resources, and cultural scripts and societal influences. Our analysis highlighted how stories may offer significant glimpses into the dynamic and complex fashioning of sexual identities, giving precious clues to the vulnerabilities and strengths of the narrator. Contemporary queer narratives from Norway reflect meaning-making related to sexual orientation that are influenced by, and expand upon, the classical scripts dominated by tragedy and tristesse, personal progress or simply no particular tension. LGB individuals of different ages and backgrounds had experienced aspects of minority stress related to their sexual orientation, with a substantial impact on identity, even when significant others were encouraging. The stories indicate that positive proximal processes, such as personal resilience and sympathetic environments, can support mental health and counteract negative effects of distal processes contributing to minority stress, such as heteronormativity and subtle microaggression. Public health strategies addressing attitudes to sexual orientation among the general population may contribute to diverse affirmative cultural scripts about queer lives, thereby enhancing queer mental health.
To promote optimal health and well-being of all children, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports access for all children to (1) civil marriage rights for their parents and (2) willing and capable foster and adoptive parents, regardless of the parents' sexual orientation. The AAP has always been an advocate for, and has developed policies to support, the optimal physical, mental, and social health and well-being of all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. In so doing, the AAP has supported families in all their diversity, because the family has always been the basic social unit in which children develop the supporting and nurturing relationships with adults that they need to thrive. Children may be born to, adopted by, or cared for temporarily by married couples, nonmarried couples, single parents, grandparents, or legal guardians, and any of these may be heterosexual, gay or lesbian, or of another orientation. Children need secure and enduring relationships with committed and nurturing adults to enhance their life experiences for optimal social-emotional and cognitive development. Scientific evidence affirms that children have similar developmental and emotional needs and receive similar parenting whether they are raised by parents of the same or different genders. If a child has 2 living and capable parents who choose to create a permanent bond by way of civil marriage, it is in the best interests of their child(ren) that legal and social institutions allow and support them to do so, irrespective of their sexual orientation. If 2 parents are not available to the child, adoption or foster parenting remain acceptable options to provide a loving home for a child and should be available without regard to the sexual orientation of the parent(s).
Lee, Joseph G L; Matthews, Alicia K; McCullen, Cramer A; Melvin, Cathy L
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are at increased risk for the adverse effects of tobacco use, given their high prevalence of use, especially smoking. Evidence regarding cessation is limited. To determine if efficacious interventions are available and to aid the development of interventions, a systematic review was conducted of grey and peer-reviewed literature describing clinical, community, and policy interventions, as well as knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding tobacco use cessation among LGBT people. Eight databases for articles from 1987 to April 23, 2014, were searched. In February-November 2013, authors and researchers were contacted to identify grey literature. The search identified 57 records, of which 51 were included and 22 were from the grey literature; these were abstracted into evidence tables, and a narrative synthesis was conducted in October 2013-May 2014. Group cessation curricula tailored for LGBT populations were found feasible to implement and show evidence of effectiveness. Community interventions have been implemented by and for LGBT communities, although these interventions showed feasibility, no rigorous outcome evaluations exist. Clinical interventions show little difference between LGBT and heterosexual people. Focus groups suggest that care is needed in selecting the messaging used in media campaigns. LGBT-serving organizations should implement existing evidence-based tobacco-dependence treatment and clinical systems to support treatment of tobacco use. A clear commitment from government and funders is needed to investigate whether sexual orientation and gender identity moderate the impacts of policy interventions, media campaigns, and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shiu, Chengshi; Muraco, Anna; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adult caregivers may encounter obstacles in obtaining health and aging services due to discrimination in service and legal systems. The caregiving relationships in LGBT communities also differ from the general population in that friends are providing a large portion of informal care. This article examines how the relational context of caregiving relates to caregiving demands and resources, which in turn, influence perceived stress and depressive symptomatology among older LGBT caregivers. Using data from the National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study: Caring and Aging with Pride, this study examines 451 participants who are providing caregiving to partners and friends. Structural equation modeling was applied to estimate the associations among the caregiver-care recipient relationship and caregiving demands, resources, perceived stress, and depressive symptomatology. On average, as compared with those caring for partners, those who provided care to friends reported experiencing lower levels of caregiving demands and lower levels of social support. The lower caregiving demands correlated positively with both lower perceived stress and less severe depressive symptomatology; however, the lower levels of social support were related to higher perceived stress and higher depressive symptomatology. Caregiving provided by friends, which has long been under recognized, plays an important role in the LGBT community. Because lower levels of caregiving demands are offset by less social support, LGBT friend-caregivers experience similar levels of perceived stress and depressive symptomatology to those providing care to spouses and partners. Policy and service reforms are needed to better acknowledge the continuum of informal caregiving relationships.
Joseph G L Lee
Full Text Available Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.
De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Esqueda, Monica Christina; Gilreath, Tamika D
The majority of studies examining substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth have focused on a wide array of risk factors (e.g., victimization). Few studies have explored the protective role of schools. This study aims to fill this gap in the literature and inform programs aimed at reducing substance use among LGB youth. More specifically, this study explores the extent to which school connectedness and support from teachers and other adults at school are associated with substance use among LGB youth in school and within the past 30 days. A secondary analysis of the 2013-2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) was conducted to examine associations between school protective factors (i.e., school connectedness and adult support) and substance use among LGB youth, above and beyond a key risk factor, school victimization. The study outcomes were past 30-day and in-school use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, inhalants, prescription pain medication, and other illegal drugs. Overall, school connectedness and school adult support were associated with lower odds of substance use. For example, higher levels of school connectedness were associated with 22% decreased odds of past 30-day inhalant use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72-0.86), and 25% decreased odds of past 30-day prescription pain medication use (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.69-0.82). Higher levels of adult support in school were also associated with 17% decreased odds of marijuana use on school property in the past 30 days (AOR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.77-0.91). The results indicate a need for substance use prevention programs that integrate school connectedness and adult support in school.
Graybill, Emily C; Proctor, Sherrie L
Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience harassment and discrimination in schools and these experiences lead to increased negative social-emotional outcomes. Youth who can identify at least one supportive adult at school report better outcomes than youth who cannot identify a safe adult. Yet, many educators report feeling uncomfortable or unprepared to support LGBT youth. One reason for educators' discomfort may be that content related to issues unique to LGBT youth is sometimes missing or covered minimally in university training programs. We hypothesized that LGBT content may be covered minimally in school support personnel journals, as well. This study analyzed eight school support personnel journals across the disciplines of school counseling, school nursing, school psychology, and school social work for LGBT content published between 2000 and 2014 to gain a better understanding of the visibility of LGBT issues in the research. Results suggested that there has been a lack of presence of LGBT issues in journals across disciplines. These results also suggest a need for an intentional focus on issues relevant to LGBT youth in school support personnel journals. Thus, the article concludes with an introduction to two articles in this special topic section, including Russell, Day, Ioverno, and Toomey's (in this issue) study on teacher perceptions of bullying in the context of enumerated school policies and other supportive sexual orientation and gender identity related practices and Poteat and Vecho's (in this issue) study on characteristics of bystanders in homophobic bullying situations. The broad goal of these three studies is to increase visibility of critical LGBT issues in school support personnel journals. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
White, William; Brenman, Stephanie; Paradis, Elise; Goldsmith, Elizabeth S; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Fetterman, David M; Garcia, Gabriel
Phenomenon: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face significant barriers in accessing appropriate and comprehensive medical care. Medical students' level of preparedness and comfort caring for LGBT patients is unknown. An online questionnaire (2009-2010) was distributed to students (n = 9,522) at 176 allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in Canada and the United States, followed by focus groups (2010) with students (n = 35) at five medical schools. The objective of this study was to characterize LGBT-related medical curricula, to determine medical students' assessments of their institutions' LGBT-related curricular content, and to evaluate their comfort and preparedness in caring for LGBT patients. Of 9,522 survey respondents, 4,262 from 170 schools were included in the final analysis. Most medical students (2,866/4,262; 67.3%) evaluated their LGBT-related curriculum as "fair" or worse. Students most often felt prepared addressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; 3,254/4,147; 78.5%) and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (2,851/4,136; 68.9%). They felt least prepared discussing sex reassignment surgery (1,061/4,070; 26.1%) and gender transitioning (1,141/4,068; 28.0%). Medical education helped 62.6% (2,669/4,262) of students feel "more prepared" and 46.3% (1,972/4,262) of students feel "more comfortable" to care for LGBT patients. Four focus group sessions with 29 students were transcribed and analyzed. Qualitative analysis suggested students have significant concerns in addressing certain aspects of LGBT health, specifically with transgender patients. Insights: Medical students thought LGBT-specific curricula could be improved, consistent with the findings from a survey of deans of medical education. They felt comfortable, but not fully prepared, to care for LGBT patients. Increasing curricular coverage of LGBT-related topics is indicated with emphasis on exposing students to LGBT patients in clinical settings.
Ng, Cara Ky; Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Knight, Rodney E; Shoveller, Jean A; Johnson, Joy L
In Canada, the issue of creating safe and inclusive school environments for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer students has been in the spotlight. Several researchers and advocates have pointed out the positive effects of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-positive policy frameworks on the health and wellbeing of all young people. In this article, we take a critical approach to analyzing narrative findings from qualitative interviews conducted with youth in three communities in British Columbia, Canada: "the North," Vancouver, and Abbotsford. Using a Foucauldian Discourse Analytic Approach and Butler's concept of Citationality, our analysis suggested that although explicit homophobia was largely absent from youth discussions, young people discursively constructed lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer identities and "communities" in ways that reified heteronormativity. Youth made references to sociopolitical discourses of libertarianism and liberalism and to homonormative stereotypes regarding gay masculinity. A few young people also alluded to egalitarian, queer-positive discourses, which appeared to interrogate structures of heteronormativity. Since studies suggest a connection between the existence of institutional supports for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer students in schools and their mental and physical wellbeing, we conclude by considering the limitations and possibilities of these sociopolitical discourses in the struggle for sexual and gender equity, and how they might help frame future health-related, anti-homophobia policy frameworks in educational settings.
Jered B. Kolbert
Full Text Available This study was designed to ascertain teachers’ perceptions of bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ youth. In a sample of 200 educators (61.0% female; 96.5% White from a county in southwestern Pennsylvania, there was a significant positive relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the supportiveness of school staff towards students regardless of sexual orientation and those teachers’ reports of the frequency of bullying victimization experienced by LGBTQ students. Teachers’ perceptions of a higher level of staff and student support was associated with higher reported frequencies of students’ use of derogatory language about LGBTQ individuals and various types of bullying of LGBTQ students. Teachers with a lesbian, gay, or bisexual orientation were found to rate the school staff and students as significantly less supportive of students regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression in comparison to heterosexual teachers. Finally, teachers who either were unaware of or believed that their school lacked an anti-bullying policy reported significantly higher rates of physical bullying victimization of LGBTQ students when compared to the rates observed by teachers who reported knowledge of their schools’ anti-bullying policies.
Kolbert, Jered B.; Crothers, Laura M.; Bundick, Matthew J.; Wells, Daniel S.; Buzgon, Julie; Berbary, Cassandra; Simpson, Jordan; Senko, Katherine
This study was designed to ascertain teachers’ perceptions of bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) youth. In a sample of 200 educators (61.0% female; 96.5% White) from a county in southwestern Pennsylvania, there was a significant positive relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the supportiveness of school staff towards students regardless of sexual orientation and those teachers’ reports of the frequency of bullying victimization experienced by LGBTQ students. Teachers’ perceptions of a higher level of staff and student support was associated with higher reported frequencies of students’ use of derogatory language about LGBTQ individuals and various types of bullying of LGBTQ students. Teachers with a lesbian, gay, or bisexual orientation were found to rate the school staff and students as significantly less supportive of students regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression in comparison to heterosexual teachers. Finally, teachers who either were unaware of or believed that their school lacked an anti-bullying policy reported significantly higher rates of physical bullying victimization of LGBTQ students when compared to the rates observed by teachers who reported knowledge of their schools’ anti-bullying policies. PMID:26030341
Kolbert, Jered B; Crothers, Laura M; Bundick, Matthew J; Wells, Daniel S; Buzgon, Julie; Berbary, Cassandra; Simpson, Jordan; Senko, Katherine
This study was designed to ascertain teachers' perceptions of bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) youth. In a sample of 200 educators (61.0% female; 96.5% White) from a county in southwestern Pennsylvania, there was a significant positive relationship between the teachers' perceptions of the supportiveness of school staff towards students regardless of sexual orientation and those teachers' reports of the frequency of bullying victimization experienced by LGBTQ students. Teachers' perceptions of a higher level of staff and student support was associated with higher reported frequencies of students' use of derogatory language about LGBTQ individuals and various types of bullying of LGBTQ students. Teachers with a lesbian, gay, or bisexual orientation were found to rate the school staff and students as significantly less supportive of students regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression in comparison to heterosexual teachers. Finally, teachers who either were unaware of or believed that their school lacked an anti-bullying policy reported significantly higher rates of physical bullying victimization of LGBTQ students when compared to the rates observed by teachers who reported knowledge of their schools' anti-bullying policies.
Chomsky, Daniel; Barclay, Scott
The attention and prominence given to issues in media outlets may affect the importance citizens attribute to them, so the actors who influence mass media coverage decisions may have political power in society generally. This article seeks to measure the relative influence of journalists, social trends, events, government officials, editors, and owners on the New York Times coverage of lesbians and gays from 1960 to 1995. Although many factors affected the nature and frequency of such coverage, the findings of this article show that the owners of the Times exerted decisive influence. Documentary evidence reveals that the Times' owners actively intervened to suppress coverage of lesbians and gays until 1987, even as reporters and editors recognized that increased social visibility made them newsworthy. Statistical analysis confirms that, although some actual events and statements of officials attracted attention from the newspaper throughout the period, they were more likely to generate prominent coverage after 1987 when the stories were consistent with the enthusiasms of the owners.
Full Text Available This work aims to analyse LGBT discourse in Russia conducted by human rights non-governmental organisations concerned with the protection of gay and lesbian rights in the country. The main emphasis is given to deconstruction of subjectivities of the discourse with tools of Foucaultian and critical discourse-analyses. One of the most evident examples is provided in the last section of the work. It is concerned with strategies employed by the organisations under research to guarantee marriage opportunities to homosexuals in Russia. It was also important for the purposes of the research to uncover the meanings of discursive practices employed by the officials in their discussion of gay and lesbian issues. In this regard, a brief analysis of relevant legal norms and public policies is included in the work. The attitude of state power towards LGBT problems is described in the terms of environment where the human rights organisations have to perform their activities. The role of state power turns out to be important in organising and correcting the strategies of the organisations so long as the strategies are influenced by governmentality of the discourses. It results into a situation where the non-governmental organisations are to some extent governed through workings of political discourses where the power of the authorities sets the scene.
Kamen, Charles S; Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Heckler, Charles E; Flannery, Marie; Margolies, Liz
To describe factors related to diagnosis, identity disclosure, and social support among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients with cancer, and to explore associations between these factors and self-rated health. Cross-sectional self-report survey design using descriptive and exploratory multivariate statistical approaches. Online, Internet-based. 291 LGBT patients (89% Caucasian; 50% gay, 36% lesbian, 7% bisexual, 3% transgender) with mixed cancers. Participants completed a researcher-designed online survey assessing experiences of cancer diagnosis among LGBT patients at a single time point. Demographics, which provider(s) delivered the patients' cancer diagnoses, to whom patients had disclosed their LGBT identity, how they disclosed, who was on their social support team at the time of diagnosis, and current self-rated health. 79% of participants reported disclosing their identities to more than one cancer care provider. Participants most commonly introduced the topic of LGBT identity themselves, sometimes as a way to correct heterosexual assumptions (34%). Friends were the most common members of LGBT patients' support teams (79%). Four disclosure and support factors were consistently associated with better self-rated health. Disclosure of LGBT identity is a common experience in the context of cancer care, and disclosure and support factors are associated with better self-reported health among LGBT patients. Creating safe environments for LGBT patients to disclose could improve cancer care delivery to this underserved population. Nurses and other providers should acknowledge and include diverse support team members in LGBT patients' care.
Tallentire, Liz; Smith, Matthew; David, Lee; Roberts, Adam; Bruce; Morrow, Sarah; Withers, Paul; Smith, Ian
This research is about people who have intellectual disabilities and live in a secure hospital. It is about a group of people who meet at a support group. The support group is for people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender. These people with intellectual disabilities helped with planning, doing, and telling other people about the research. They told their stories about going to the support group. Their stories were joined together into a group story. The story said that the group helped people in lots of different ways. For some people going to the group was difficult at first because it was ?coming out'. This means telling other people you are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Then it got easier and people started to feel better about themselves. Then they wanted to help others and this was important in their lives. This group seemed to help people get better. We have given some ideas for setting up other groups and doing more research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Donnelly, Rachel; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
Two key components of end-of-life planning are (1) informal discussions about future care and other end-of-life preferences and (2) formal planning via living wills and other legal documents. We leverage previous work on the institutional aspects of marriage and on sexual-minority discrimination to theorize why and how heterosexual, gay, and lesbian married couples engage in informal and formal end-of-life planning. We analyze qualitative dyadic in-depth interviews with 45 midlife gay, lesbian, and heterosexual married couples ( N = 90 spouses). Findings suggest that same-sex spouses devote considerable attention to informal planning conversations and formal end-of-life plans, while heterosexual spouses report minimal formal or informal planning. The primary reasons same-sex spouses give for making end-of-life preparations are related to the absence of legal protections and concerns about discrimination from families. These findings raise questions about future end-of-life planning for same- and different-sex couples given a rapidly shifting legal and social landscape.
Andrew H. Rogers
Full Text Available Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB individuals report higher levels of problematic alcohol and substance use than their heterosexual peers. This disparity is linked to the experience of LGB-specific stressors, termed minority stress. Additionally, bisexual individuals show increased rates of psychopathology, including problematic alcohol and substance use, above and beyond lesbian and gay individuals. However, not everyone experiencing minority stress reports increased rates of alcohol and substance misuse. Emotion regulation (ER, which plays a critical role in psychopathology in general, is theorized to modulate the link between minority stress and psychopathology. However, it remains largely unknown whether ER plays a role in linking instances of minority stress with substance and alcohol use outcomes. To address the gap, the current study assessed 305 LGB individuals’ instances of minority stress, ER, and substance and alcohol use outcomes. We assessed the role of ER in problematic alcohol and substance use among LGB individuals using moderated mediation, where sexual minority status was entered as the moderator, and ER difficulties was entered as the mediator. The results indicated significant indirect effects of minority stress, through ER difficulties, on both problematic alcohol and substance use. However, there was no significant interaction with sexual orientation status, suggesting that ER may be important for all LGB individuals in predicting problematic alcohol and substance use. These results highlight the important role that ER plays between instances of minority stress and substance and alcohol use in LGB individuals, suggesting that ER skills may serve as a novel target for intervention.
Berger, Israel; Mooney-Somers, Julie
Tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people is double the general population. Limited evidence suggests high smoking rates among intersex people. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) people are a priority population in Australian health policy, particularly mental health and aging. Despite associations between smoking and noncommunicable diseases relevant to aging and mental health, LGBTI-targeted smoking cessation interventions in Australia have been limited to people living with HIV. Applying existing interventions to marginalized populations without modification and evaluation may fail and exacerbate inequities. To assess outcomes and characterize the populations served, cultural modifications, and behavior change techniques (BCTs) of interventions to reduce LGBTI smoking. We searched MEDLINE, six additional databases, and contacted authors to retrieve published and unpublished program evaluations. We retrieved 19 studies (3663 participants). None used control groups. Overall quit rate was 61.0% at the end of interventions and stabilized at 38.6% at 3-6 months. All studies included gay men, 13 included lesbians, 13 "LGBT," 12 bisexual people, five transgender people, and none included intersex people. Transgender people comprised 3% of participants. Of programs open to women, 27.8% of participants were women. Cultural modifications were used by 17 (89.5%) studies, commonly meeting in LGBT spaces, discussing social justice, and discussing LGBT-specific triggers. Common BCTs included providing normative information, boosting motivation/self-efficacy, relapse prevention, social support, action planning, and discussing consequences. Quit rates were high; using control groups would improve evaluation. Existing programs may fail to reach groups other than gay men. This review examines the evidence for LGBTI-targeted smoking cessation interventions. Populations within LGBTI are not proportionally represented in smoking
McKenna-Buchanan, Tim; Munz, Stevie; Rudnick, Justin
Lesbian, gay, and queer (LGQ) teachers often deal with the tension between disclosing and concealing their sexual orientations in the college classroom. This article presents the results of a qualitative interview study with 29 self-identified LGQ college teachers about their choices to disclose or conceal their sexual identities. Using…
Riggs, Angela D.; Rosenthal, Amy R.; Smith-Bonahue, Tina
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive-affective intervention the attitudes, knowledge, and anticipated professional behaviors regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues of pre-service teachers in the United States. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned either to a control group (n=34) or an…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Giga, Noreen M.; Villenas, Christian; Danischewski, David J.
The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) "National School Climate Survey" is our flagship report on the school experiences of LGBTQ youth in schools, including the extent of the challenges that they face at school and the school-based resources that support LGBTQ students' well-being. The survey has consistently indicated…
Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.
This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…
Hartwell, Erica E.; Serovich, Julianne M.; Grafsky, Erika L.; Kerr, Zachary Y.
The present study seeks to extend previous research regarding literature related to gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues published in couple and family therapy (CFT)-related journals by presenting the results from a content analysis of GLB studies in CFT-related journals from 1996 to 2010. Results of the analysis revealed a 238.8% increase in…
This article is an analysis of picture books and chapter books involving lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender characters. Over 30 picture and chapter books were reviewed, each of which would be appropriate for use in elementary classrooms. For grades K-2, several picture books highlight different types of families, including families that…
This article draws on the experience of the charity Educational Action Challenging Homophobia (EACH) to explore the limitations of current practice around homophobic and transphobic bullying. Since 2002, EACH has worked to affirm the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) people and reduce discrimination experienced due to sexuality or…
Szymanski, Dawn M.; Gupta, Arpana
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) persons come from diverse cultural groups with diverse racial and ethnic identities. However, most research on LGBQ persons has used primarily White samples, and most research on African Americans has used largely heterosexual samples. Thus, research has largely failed to attend to and investigate the…
Feinstein, Brian A.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Davila, Joanne
Objective: The current study used path analysis to examine potential mechanisms through which experiences of discrimination influence depressive and social anxiety symptoms. Method: The sample included 218 lesbians and 249 gay men (total N = 467) who participated in an online survey about minority stress and mental health. The proposed model…
For many years, educational practitioners have been implementing multicultural literature about African-American, Asian, and Latino families. Teachers have also presented literature about great leaders, such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Helen Keller. However, the same cannot be said about literature depicting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.
This study examines how locational (region and locale), community-level (school district poverty and adult educational attainment), and school district-level (district size and ratios of students to key school personnel) variables are related to indicators of hostile school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth.…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.
Current estimates indicate that there are more than 7 million lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) parents with school-age children in the United States, yet little is known about the experiences of this growing number of LGBT-headed families in schools across the country. In order to fill this crucial gap in our knowledge of LGBT issues…
Ploskonka, Rachel Ann
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students are among the most vulnerable to suicidal ideation and behaviors when compared to both heterosexual college students and other, generally older, members of the LGB community (Oswalt & Wyatt, 2011). Joiner's (2005) interpersonal psychological theory of suicide seems to be a possible framework…
Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pachankis, John E.
Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in Romania encounter pervasive stigma and discrimination and there is a high need for LGBT-competent mental health professionals (MHPs). We tested the impact of a pilot LGBT-affirmative training for MHPs in Romania on these professionals' LGBT-relevant attitudes, knowledge, and perception of clinical skills.
This article shares the findings from a qualitative study of 49 lesbian, gay, and bisexual people from three generations: Baby Boomer, Generation X, and Millennial. Baby Boomer and Generation X perceptions of Millennials are compared to the lived experiences as told by the youth themselves. While there were more intergenerational similarities than…
Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Goldsmith, Elizabeth S; Stewart, Leslie; White, William; Tran, Eric; Brenman, Stephanie; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David M; Garcia, Gabriel; Lunn, Mitchell R
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals experience health and health care disparities and have specific health care needs. Medical education organizations have called for LGBT-sensitive training, but how and to what extent schools educate students to deliver comprehensive LGBT patient care is unknown. To characterize LGBT-related medical curricula and associated curricular development practices and to determine deans' assessments of their institutions' LGBT-related curricular content. Deans of medical education (or equivalent) at 176 allopathic or osteopathic medical schools in Canada and the United States were surveyed to complete a 13-question, Web-based questionnaire between May 2009 and March 2010. Reported hours of LGBT-related curricular content. Of 176 schools, 150 (85.2%) responded, and 132 (75.0%) fully completed the questionnaire. The median reported time dedicated to teaching LGBT-related content in the entire curriculum was 5 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 3-8 hours). Of the 132 respondents, 9 (6.8%; 95% CI, 2.5%-11.1%) reported 0 hours taught during preclinical years and 44 (33.3%; 95% CI, 25.3%-41.4%) reported 0 hours during clinical years. Median US allopathic clinical hours were significantly different from US osteopathic clinical hours (2 hours [IQR, 0-4 hours] vs 0 hours [IQR, 0-2 hours]; P = .008). Although 128 of the schools (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.0%-99.9%) taught students to ask patients if they "have sex with men, women, or both" when obtaining a sexual history, the reported teaching frequency of 16 LGBT-specific topic areas in the required curriculum was lower: at least 8 topics at 83 schools (62.9%; 95% CI, 54.6%-71.1%) and all topics at 11 schools (8.3%; 95% CI, 3.6%-13.0%). The institutions' LGBT content was rated as "fair" at 58 schools (43.9%; 95% CI, 35.5%-52.4%). Suggested successful strategies to increase content included curricular material focusing on LGBT-related health and health disparities at 77 schools (58
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
Online and in-person sexual behaviors of cisgender lesbian, gay, queer, bisexual, heterosexual, questioning, unsure, and youth of other sexual identities were examined using data from the Teen Health and Technology study. Data were collected online between August 2010 and January 2011 from 5,078 youth 13-18 years old. Results suggested that, depending on sexual identity, between 4-35 % of youth had sexual conversations and 2-24 % shared sexual photos with someone online in the past year. Among the 22 % of youth who had oral, vaginal, and/or anal sex, between 5-30 % met one of their two most recent sexual partners online. Inconsistent condom use was associated with increased odds of meeting one's most recent partner online for heterosexual adolescent men. For gay and queer adolescent men, having an older partner, a partner with a lifetime history of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and concurrent sex partners were each significantly associated with increased odds of having met one's most recent sex partner online. None of the examined characteristics significantly predicted meeting one's most recent sexual partner online versus in-person for heterosexual; bisexual; or gay, lesbian, and queer women. The Internet is not replacing in-person exploration and expression of one's sexuality and meeting sexual partners online appears to be uncommon in adolescence across sexual identities. Healthy sexuality programming that acknowledges some youth are meeting partners online is warranted, but this should not be a main focal point. Instead, inclusive STI prevention programming that provides skills to reduce risk when engaging in all types of sex is critical.
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Online and in-person sexual behaviors of cisgender lesbian, gay, queer, bisexual, heterosexual, questioning, unsure, and youth of other sexual identities were examined using data from the Teen Health and Technology study. Data were collected online between August 2010 and January 2011 from 5,078 youth 13–18 years old. Results suggested, depending on sexual identity, between 4–35% of youth had sexual conversations and 2–24% shared sexual photos with someone online in the past year. Among the 22% of youth who had oral, vaginal, and/or anal sex, between 5–30% met one of their two most recent sexual partners online. Inconsistent condom use was associated with increased odds of meeting one’s most recent partner online for heterosexual adolescent men. For gay and queer adolescent men, having an older partner, a partner with a lifetime history of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and concurrent sex partners were each significantly associated with increased odds of having met one’s most recent sex partner online. None of the examined characteristics significantly predicted meeting one’s most recent sexual partner online versus in-person for heterosexual; bisexual; or gay, lesbian, and queer women. The Internet is not replacing in-person exploration and expression of one’s sexuality and meeting sexual partners online appears to be uncommon in adolescence across sexual identities. Healthy sexuality programming that acknowledges some youth are meeting partners online is warranted, but this should not be a main focal point. Instead, inclusive STI prevention programming that provides skills to reduce risk when engaging in all types of sex and is critical. PMID:25894645
Rio, Chelsea Del
A closer look at the rich world of California feminisms demonstrates how Judy Grahn served as a central figure in bay area feminism, working to establish and support lesbian activist organizations, feminist publications, women's cultural events, and more. Two of Grahn's early political writings consider how lesbians sat at the nexus of homophobia and sexism. These writings demonstrate the formative role played by San Francisco lesbians in reframing ideas about "women-loving women" and the intersections of gender and sexuality in creating the oppressions faced by all women.
Full Text Available To date there has been minimal empirical inquiry on what may constitute inclusive learning environments for older (50+ years lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT adults. This paper draws upon a recent life-histories study with older LGBT adults in Scotland to consider how such environments can be developed. To do so, intersectional analysis is applied to interrogate how participants' lived realities and sense of self are enabled and constrained by the interactions between their diverse ageing, LGBT and other identities in the particular contexts of later life, post work. The paper argues that by adopting this approach to intersectional analysis, critical educational gerontology (CEG is equipped to more effectively realise inclusive, meaningful and potentially empowering learning environments for older LGBT adults. These will be more attuned to their later life realities, enabling them to reflect on the changing significance of being LGBT as they age, while allowing potential for personal growth and renewed sense of self.
Pomeranz, Jennifer L
Discrimination causes health inequities for stigmatized groups. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals, in particular, are at significantly increased risk for disparate health outcomes when they reside in states that fail to extend equal protections to them or that actively deprive equal rights to them. Several states and the federal government have proposed or enacted laws that permit residents to discriminate against LGBTQ individuals. One such law, Arkansas's Intrastate Commerce Improvement Act of 2015, preempts or prohibits local governments from enacting civil rights protections for LGBTQ individuals that are also lacking at the state level. State laws such as Arkansas's undermine local control, damage the economy, and create injustices that harm LGBTQ people. I set forth 2 constitutional arguments to challenge such laws, and I provide information to help advocates support evidence-based policymaking and prevent the passage of similar laws in their states.
Trevino, Kelly M; Desai, Kavita; Lauricella, Shauna; Pargament, Kenneth I; Mahoney, Annette
This study applied religious coping theory to examine the relationship between participants' perceptions that lesbian and gay (LG) individuals desecrate Christian values (the stressor) and anti-LG attitudes (the response) and whether religious coping influences the relationship between these variables. Greater agreement with desecration messages was associated with higher levels of anti-LG attitudes. Positive religious coping was associated with lower levels of anti-LG attitudes while negative religious coping was associated with higher levels. Greater exposure to messages that LG individuals desecrate Christian values was associated with greater agreement with those messages. Longitudinal studies with more diverse samples are needed to examine causality and the generalizability of the findings. However, these results have implications for preventing and mitigating anti-LG attitudes.
Keuroghlian, Alex S.; Shtasel, Derri; Bassuk, Ellen L.
A disproportionate number of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth experience homelessness each year in the United States. LGBT youth who are homeless have particularly high rates of mental health and substance use problems, suicidal acts, violent victimization, and a range of HIV risk behaviors. Given the intense needs of LGBT youth experiencing homelessness, it is imperative that we understand their unique experiences and develop responsive practices and policies. The range and severity of health risks vary across subgroups of all homeless LGBT youth, and since the population is nonhomogeneous their particular needs must be identified and addressed. Thus the purpose of this article is to review the causes of homelessness among LGBT youth, discuss the mental health and victimization risks faced by this population, address differences among homeless LGBT subgoups, and recommend effective interventions and best practices. We conclude by discussing promising future research and public policy directions. PMID:24826829
Julien, Danielle; Chartrand, Elise; Simard, Marie-Claude; Bouthillier, Donald; Bégin, Jean
Data from 42 heterosexual, 46 gay male, and 33 lesbian couples were used to assess the contribution of conflict and support discussions to relationship quality. Couples completed questionnaires, and videotaped discussions were coded for levels of negative and positive behaviors. Correlations showed that behaviors were associated with relationship quality in the expected directions. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses assessed the unique contributions of individual and dyadic behaviors to the variability of relationship quality. The findings indicated that, beyond the contribution of individual negative behaviors in the conflict task, the variables of dyadic positive behaviors in the conflict task, individual positive behaviors in the support task, and perceived help accounted for unexplained variance in relationship quality. There were no differences between types of couples on levels of behaviors or on their contributions to relationship quality.
Shilo, Guy; Mor, Zohar
Research relating to minority stressors generally explores mental health outcomes, with limited focus on the physical dimension. In addition, minority stress research is conducted mainly in Christian-oriented societies. To address these pitfalls we used Web sampling targeting Israeli participants ages 12 to 30 (N = 952; 28 percent heterosexuals, 78 percent lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] adolescents and young adults) to assess their mental health, physical and sexual risk behaviors, minority stressors, and coping resources. Results indicate that young LGBs had lower levels of mental and physical health than heterosexuals. Among LGB participants, high levels of minority stressors and low levels of coping resources predicted lower levels of mental health, and lower levels of mental health predicted lower levels of physical health. These results emphasize that minority stressors should be recognized as risk factors for poorer mental health, as well as for physical and sexual risk behaviors.
Levy, Brian L.; Levy, Denise L.
Do public policies on gay and lesbian rights affect the incidence of hate crimes based on sexual orientation? We propose that legal inequalities increase hate crimes because they provide discursive opportunities for bias, discrimination, and violence. Legal equality, however, will reduce violence. Using annual panel data from 2000 to 2012, a period of substantial policy change, we analyze how three state policies affect reported hate crimes: same-sex partnerships, employment non-discrimination, and hate crime laws. Hate crime and employment non-discrimination laws that include sexual orientation reduce hate crime incidence. Partnership recognition increases reported hate crimes, though it may not increase actual crime incidence. Because incidence is spatially correlated, policy changes in one state yield spillover benefits in other states. These results provide some of the first quantitative evidence that public policies affect hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Findings confirm the roles of institutional heterosexism and discursive opportunities in producing hate crimes. PMID:27886725
McClain, Zachary; Hawkins, Linda A; Yehia, Baligh R
Health outcomes are affected by patient, provider, and environmental factors. Previous studies have evaluated patient-level factors; few focusing on environment. Safe clinical spaces are important for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities. This study evaluates current models of LGBT health care delivery, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and makes recommendations for LGBT spaces. Models are divided into LGBT-specific and LGBT-embedded care delivery. Advantages to both models exist, and they provide LGBT patients different options of healthcare. Yet certain commonalities must be met: a clean and confidential system. Once met, LGBT-competent environments and providers can advocate for appropriate care for LGBT communities, creating environments where they would want to seek care.
McCabe, Sean Esteban; Bostwick, Wendy B; Hughes, Tonda L; West, Brady T; Boyd, Carol J
We examined the associations between 3 types of discrimination (sexual orientation, race, and gender) and substance use disorders in a large national sample in the United States that included 577 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Data were collected from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, which used structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews. More than two thirds of LGB adults reported at least 1 type of discrimination in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses indicated that the odds of past-year substance use disorders were nearly 4 times greater among LGB adults who reported all 3 types of discrimination prior to the past year than for LGB adults who did not report discrimination (adjusted odds ratio = 3.85; 95% confidence interval = 1.71, 8.66). Health professionals should consider the role multiple types of discrimination plays in the development and treatment of substance use disorders among LGB adults.
Rerucha, Caitlyn M; Runser, Lloyd A; Ee, Juliana S; Hersey, Elizabeth G
This study assessed military healthcare providers' knowledge, clinical practice, and comfort in caring for active duty (AD) lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) patients. Primary care providers at Fort Bragg, North Carolina were surveyed anonymously. The response rate was 28% (n = 40). Almost two-thirds of the respondents felt comfortable discussing sexual health with AD patients, but only 5% inquired about same-sex sexual activity. Slightly less than one-third reported prior training in LGB healthcare topics and nearly four-fifths desired clear guidance from the Department of Defense regarding the process for screening and documentation of AD same-sex sexual activity. The findings highlight providers' need and desire for training in LGB patient care.
Barrett, Catherine; Crameri, Pauline; Lambourne, Sally; Latham, J R; Whyte, Carolyn
To outline the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) Australians living with dementia - and their partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with LGBT people, their partners and service providers. LGBT people living with dementia experience unique challenges including the failure of some families of origin and service providers to understand and value their sexual orientation or gender identity. The fear of discrimination by service providers results in greater reliance on intimate partners for care and compounds social isolation. The unique experiences of LGBT people with dementia are not well understood. There is a need to recognise historical experiences, including familial relationships, and provide advocacy to ensure sexual and gender rights are not violated. There is also a need to ensure that the experiences and perspectives of LGBT people living with dementia inform the development of services. © 2015 AJA Inc.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Conservative and dysfunctional sexual beliefs are commonly associated with sexual problems among heterosexual men and women. However, little is known about the role of sexual beliefs in sexual problems in gay men and lesbians. The present study aimed at analyzing the role of sexual beliefs in sexual dysfunction in a sample of heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Participants answered questions about self-perceived sexual problems and completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire. Two hundred twelve men (106 gay) and 192 women (96 lesbian) completed a Web survey. Findings indicated that men with sexual dysfunction (regardless of sexual orientation) reported significantly more conservative beliefs and more erroneous beliefs related to partner's sexual satisfaction compared with sexually healthy men. Also, gay men with sexual dysfunction (but not heterosexual men) scored higher on belief in sex as an abuse of men's power compared with healthy controls. In addition, heterosexual men scored higher on "macho" beliefs, beliefs regarding partner's sexual satisfaction, and partner's power, compared with gay men. For women, a main effect was found for sexual orientation, with lesbian women scoring higher on sexual desire as a sin, age-related beliefs, and affection primacy and lower on beliefs related to motherhood primacy. Overall, findings suggest that dysfunctional sexual beliefs may play a role as vulnerability factors for sexual dysfunction regardless of sexual orientation, particularly in men. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Mitchell, Rebecca J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of health risk factors by sexual orientation over a 4-year period within a sample of employees from a large firm. Propensity score-weighted generalized linear regression models were used to estimate the proportion of employees at high risk for health problems in each year and over time, controlling for many factors. Analyses were conducted with 6 study samples based on sex and sexual orientation. Rates of smoking, stress, and certain other health risk factors were higher for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) employees compared with rates of these risks among straight employees. Lesbian, gay, and straight employees successfully reduced risk levels in many areas. Significant reductions were realized for the proportion at risk for high stress and low life satisfaction among gay and lesbian employees, and for the proportion of smokers among gay males. Comparing changes over time for sexual orientation groups versus other employee groups showed that improvements and reductions in risk levels for most health risk factors examined occurred at similar rates among individuals employed by this firm, regardless of sexual orientation. These results can help improve understanding of LGB health and provide information on where to focus workplace health promotion efforts to meet the health needs of LGB employees.
Frederick, David A; John, H Kate St; Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A
There is a notable gap between heterosexual men and women in frequency of orgasm during sex. Little is known, however, about sexual orientation differences in orgasm frequency. We examined how over 30 different traits or behaviors were associated with frequency of orgasm when sexually intimate during the past month. We analyzed a large US sample of adults (N = 52,588) who identified as heterosexual men (n = 26,032), gay men (n = 452), bisexual men (n = 550), lesbian women (n = 340), bisexual women (n = 1112), and heterosexual women (n = 24,102). Heterosexual men were most likely to say they usually-always orgasmed when sexually intimate (95%), followed by gay men (89%), bisexual men (88%), lesbian women (86%), bisexual women (66%), and heterosexual women (65%). Compared to women who orgasmed less frequently, women who orgasmed more frequently were more likely to: receive more oral sex, have longer duration of last sex, be more satisfied with their relationship, ask for what they want in bed, praise their partner for something they did in bed, call/email to tease about doing something sexual, wear sexy lingerie, try new sexual positions, anal stimulation, act out fantasies, incorporate sexy talk, and express love during sex. Women were more likely to orgasm if their last sexual encounter included deep kissing, manual genital stimulation, and/or oral sex in addition to vaginal intercourse. We consider sociocultural and evolutionary explanations for these orgasm gaps. The results suggest a variety of behaviors couples can try to increase orgasm frequency.
Baams, Laura; Grossman, Arnold H; Russell, Stephen T
The experience of minority stress is often named as a cause for mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, including higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The processes or mechanisms through which these disparities occur are understudied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits 2 key mechanisms for suicidal ideation: perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness (Joiner et al., 2009). The aim of the current study is to assess the mental health and adjustment among LGB youth emphasizing the minority stress model (Meyer, 2003) and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (Joiner et al., 2009). With a survey of 876 LGB self-identified youth, levels of coming-out stress, sexual orientation victimization, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, depression, and suicidal ideation were examined. The results of a multigroup mediation model show that for all gender and sexual identity groups, the association of sexual orientation victimization with depression and suicidal ideation was mediated by perceived burdensomeness. For gay, lesbian, and bisexual girls coming-out stress was also found to be related to depression and suicidal ideation, mediated by perceived burdensomeness. The results suggest that feeling like a burden to "people in their lives" is a critical mechanism in explaining higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation among LGB youth. These results have implications for community and social support groups, many of which base their interventions on decreasing social isolation rather than addressing youths' beliefs of burdensomeness. Implications for future research, clinical and community settings are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
H Logie, Carmen; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Jenkinson, Jesse; Madau, Veli; Nhlengethwa, Winnie; Baral, Stefan
Swaziland has among the highest national adult HIV prevalence globally. There is limited knowledge of HIV vulnerabilities and prevention engagement among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons in the context of Swaziland's criminalization of consensual same-sex practices. This study explored social processes of marginalization to assess how they could potentiate HIV vulnerabilities and limit engagement in HIV prevention services. Additionally, we assessed positive change to better understand existing strategies employed by LGBT persons to challenge these HIV prevention barriers. Guided by community-based research methodology and conducted in Mbabane and Manzini, Swaziland, data were collected by LGBT peer-research assistants (PRA) in collaboration with an LGBT community organization in Manzini. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by trained PRAs and explored HIV prevention, including experiences of stigma and coping. Audio files were transcribed verbatim, translated to English, and analyzed using thematic techniques. Among participants (n = 51; mean age: 26.47, SD: 4.68), 40 self-identifed as gay or lesbian (78.4%), 11 bisexual (22.6%), and 12 (23.5%) identified as transgender. Findings highlighted three primary processes of marginalization and positive change in structural, community, and internal domains. First, structural marginalization, which included criminalization, healthcare discrimination, and a scarcity of LGBT tailored HIV prevention resources was challenged by grassroots networks created to access and share specific HIV resources with LGBT persons and the Ministry of Health. Second, community marginalization included stigma and multi-dimensional forms of violence, however, this was met with LGBT persons providing mutual peer support, including for accessing HIV testing services. Thirdly, internal marginalization comprised of self-stigma and associated sexual risk practices was contrasted with coping strategies focused on self
Coulter, Robert W S; Bersamin, Melina; Russell, Stephen T; Mair, Christina
We tested three competing models about whether gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school have nonindependent, additive, or interactive effects on adolescents' electronic cigarette use (i.e., vaping), cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking (HED). We also tested whether harassment mediated substance use disparities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) adolescents and their cisgender heterosexual peers. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey, including 316,766 students in grades 7, 9, and 11 from more than 1,500 middle and high schools. We used logistic regression models and interaction terms to estimate associations of past-year gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school on past-month substance use, and the Karlson-Holm-Breen method to test whether harassment mediated LGBT disparities in substance use. Vaping, smoking, drinking, HED, and gender- and sexuality-based harassment were higher for transgender adolescents than for cisgender males and females, and for adolescents who were lesbian, gay, or bisexual only versus heterosexual only. Gender- and sexuality-based harassments were independently associated with greater odds of using each substance in every grade. These two types of harassment had positive interactions with each other for vaping in grade 11, smoking in grade 11, and HED in grades 9 and 11. Gender- and sexuality-based harassment significantly mediated many of the LGBT disparities in substance use. Gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school independently or interactively produced LGBT disparities in substance use. Reducing these types of discrimination in schools will likely mitigate these disparities. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bennett, Elaine; Berry, Karen; Emeto, Theophilus I; Burmeister, Oliver K; Young, Jeanine; Shields, Linda
To examine the attitudes to and knowledge and beliefs about homosexuality of nurses and allied professionals in two early parenting services in Australia. Early parenting services employ nurses and allied professionals. Access and inclusion policies are important in community health and early childhood service settings. However, little is known about the perceptions of professionals who work within early parenting services in relation to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender families. This is the final in a series of studies and was undertaken in two early parenting services in two states in Australia using a cross-sectional design with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Validated questionnaires were completed by 51 nurses and allied professionals and tested with chi-squared test of independence (or Fisher's exact test), Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance or Spearman's rank correlation. Thematic analysis examined qualitative data collected in a box for free comments. Of the constructs measured by the questionnaires, no significant relationships were found in knowledge, attitude and gay affirmative practice scores by sociodemographic variables or professional group. However, attitude scores towards lesbians and gay men were significantly negatively affected by conservative political affiliation (p = 0·038), held religious beliefs (p = 0·011) and frequency of praying (p = 0·018). Six overall themes were found as follows: respect, parenting role, implications for the child, management, disclosure, resources and training. The study provided an in-depth analysis of the attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of professionals in two early parenting services, showing that work is needed to promote acceptance of diversity and the inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender families in planning, developing, evaluating and accessing early parenting services. Access and inclusion plans for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender
Smith, E.; Offen, N.; Malone, R.
Objectives: To determine the extent of commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) press. Methods: Content analysis of all advertising containing tobacco related text or imagery in 20 LGB community periodicals, published between January 1990 and December 2000. Results: 3428 ads were found: 689 tobacco product ads, 1607 ads for cessation products or services, 99 ads with a political message about tobacco, and 1033 non-tobacco ads that showed tobacco (NAST). Although cessation ads were numerically dominant, tobacco product ads and NAST occupied more space and were more likely to use images. NAST almost never had an anti-tobacco message. Formal sponsorship between tobacco and other companies was very rare. Lesbian periodicals had proportionally more NAST and fewer cessation ads. Conclusions: Cigarette ads were outnumbered by NAST. Although these ads do not usually show brands, and are unlikely to be the result of formal sponsorship agreements, they may be "selling" smoking. Tobacco control advocates should persuade editors to refuse tobacco product ads and those with gratuitous tobacco imagery. PMID:16286500
Full Text Available The government is obliged and responsible to respect, protect, enforce, promote and meets Human Rights stipulated in this Act, other legislation, and the international law on human rights ratified by the Republic of Indonesia, thus the sound is mandated by Article 71 Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 39 of 1999 on Human Rights. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT lately is still a hot debate in our society. Of course we do not want this polemic causes trouble, inconvenience, and mutual mistrust one another. Upheaval of thought between the pros and cons ensued about the issue. The pros were claimed, that the state and society should campaign for the principle of non-discrimination between men, women, transgender, lovers of the opposite sex (heterosexual or same sex lovers (gay people. Instead, the cons are counter stated that the State and society must strive to carry out preventive measures against LGBT symptoms that will harm Indonesian next generations. For that reason, the strategic position of the government in this situation is needed to deal with LGBT polemic directly so there are no national disintegration.
Mattingly, Doreen J; Boyd, Ashley
In March 1977, President Carter's Assistant Margaret "Midge" Costanza made history by meeting with representatives from the National Gay Task Force (NGTF) to hear their grievances about discriminatory federal policies. The effects of the meeting were many, including changes in policies of the Bureau of Prisons and the Public Health Service. It also initiated policy discussions that would continue for decades and contributed to the incorporation of gay rights within the Democratic Party. Midge Costanza was fundamental to the process. It was her decision to hold the meeting and to advocate on behalf of the NGTF, and she bore many of the meeting's political costs. In this article we make use of Costanza's own papers and multiple interviews with her to closely analyze Costanza's role in the historic meeting. In addition to adding detail to its politics and policy impacts of the meeting, we also look at her complex motivations for holding such a controversial meeting. Costanza maintained until her death in 2010 that she was motivated by her feminism and overall commitment to social justice, rather than her own identity or experiences.
Heck, Nicholas C; Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa; Oost, Kathryn; Stewart, Brandon T; Cochran, Bryan N
Previous research suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at elevated risk for using illicit drugs and misusing prescription drugs relative to heterosexual youth. Previous research also indicates that LGBT youth who attend high schools with a gay-straight alliance (GSA) report having fewer alcohol problems and lower levels of cigarette smoking. The present study investigates whether the absence of a GSA is associated with risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse in a sample of 475 LGBT high school students (M age=16.79) who completed an online survey. After controlling for demographic variables and risk factors associated with illicit drug use, the results of 12 logistic regression analyses revealed that LGBT youth attending a high school without a GSA evidenced increased risk for using cocaine (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR]=3.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.23-7.86), hallucinogens (adjOR=2.59; 95% CI=1.18-5.70), and marijuana (adjOR=2.22; 95% CI=1.37-3.59) relative to peers attending a high school with a GSA. Youth without a GSA also evidenced increased risk for the misuse of ADHD medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.02-3.92) and prescription pain medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.10-3.65). These findings extend the research base related to GSAs and further demonstrate the importance of providing LGBT youth with opportunities for socialization and support within the school setting. Important limitations of the present study are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Willis, Danny G; Amar, Angela F
Bullying has been long seen as a natural part of childhood and adolescence. However, a growing body of evidence suggests bullying and now cyberbullying may inflict harm or distress on targeted youth including physical, psychological, social, or educational harm. The purpose of this paper is to endorse the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine statement, summarize the report, and apply the recommendations to two focus areas: screening and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth as they relate to bullying and cyberbullying. Screening for bullying against youth; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth as a high-risk group for bullying victimization; and implications to address bullying against youth are exemplified. Nurses need to promote policies that foster inclusive, supportive, safe, and healthy schools and environments for youth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Giunti, Daniel; Fioravanti, Giulia
In Italy, homosexual people are not allowed to perform donor insemination/surrogacy or adoption, thus they become parents mainly in the context of previous heterosexual relationships. The current study examines the experiences of 34 gay fathers and 32 lesbian mothers with children from a heterosexual relationship. Data on homosexuality awareness, reasons for marriage and parenthood, and the coming-out process to children were collected. Most participants reported not being aware of their homosexuality when they married and became parents. The most common reasons for marriage were "love" and "social expectancy," whereas parenthood was motivated mainly by the "desire for children and family." Most participants came out to at least one child and reported a positive reaction. The most cited benefit of coming out was "openness/not hiding anymore." The results suggest that the lives of gay and lesbian parents are shaped by their sexual minority status as well as by societal heterosexism.
In 2005, the American Psychological Association (APA) issued an official brief on lesbian and gay parenting. This brief included the assertion: "Not a single study has found children of lesbian or gay parents to be disadvantaged in any significant respect relative to children of heterosexual parents" (p. 15). The present article closely examines this assertion and the 59 published studies cited by the APA to support it. Seven central questions address: (1) homogeneous sampling, (2) absence of comparison groups, (3) comparison group characteristics, (4) contradictory data, (5) the limited scope of children's outcomes studied, (6) paucity of long-term outcome data, and (7) lack of APA-urged statistical power. The conclusion is that strong assertions, including those made by the APA, were not empirically warranted. Recommendations for future research are offered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buhrke, Robin A.
Presents a limited list of strategies and resources so as to better prepare counselors for dealing with lesbian and homosexual clients. Topics covered include introduction to counseling; counseling theories and practice/practicum; personality and human development; marriage/family/couples counseling; career counseling; multicultural counseling;…
Stotzer, Rebecca L; Ka‘opua, Lana Sue I; Diaz, Tressa P
This paper presents findings from a statewide needs assessment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) people in Hawai‘i that relate to health status and health-related risk factors such as having health insurance coverage, having a regular doctor, experiencing sexual orientation (SO) or gender identity/expression (GI/E) discrimination in health/mental health care settings, and delaying care due to concerns about SO and GIE discrimination in Hawai‘i, Honolul...
Patterson Thomas L; Shoveller Jean A; Wood Evan; Marshall Brandon DL; Montaner Julio SG; Kerr Thomas
Abstract Background Methamphetamine (MA) use continues to be a major public health concern in many urban settings. We sought to assess potential relationships between MA use and individual, social, and structural HIV vulnerabilities among sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered) drug users. Methods Beginning in 2005 and ending in 2008, 2109 drug users were enroled into one of three cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada. We analysed longitudinal data from all self-identified sex...
Schumm, Walter R
Academic and policy effects of eight early dissertations on gay and lesbian parenting are discussed with a focus on their having been cited at least 234 times in over 50 literature reviews, beginning with Gottman in 1989 and 1990. Most literature reviews, referencing these eight early dissertations and agreeing with Gottman's early conclusions, have reiterated the theme that parenting by gay men or lesbians has outcomes no different than parenting by heterosexual parents. Here it is proposed that certain potential adverse findings may have been obscured by suppressor effects which could have been evaluated had multivariate analyses been implemented. Further, several adverse findings were detected by reanalyzing data where sufficient information was yet available. Some of the dissertations' results (absent controls for social desirability and other differences between homosexual and heterosexual parents) supported the 2001 "no differences" hypothesis discussed by Stacey and Biblarz. Yet, differences were also observed, including some evidence in more recent dissertations, suggesting that parental sexual orientation might be associated with children's later sexual orientation and adult attachment style, among other outcomes. Odds ratios associated with some of the apparent effects were substantial in magnitude as well as statistically significant. Also, more recent research on gay and lesbian parenting continues to be flawed by many of the same limitations as previous research in this area of study, including overlooked suppressor effects.
Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Chu, Tsz Hang
This study examined attitudes about social acceptance, discrimination protection, and marriage equality for gay/lesbian people with a representative sample of 1,008 Hong Kong Chinese adults via a telephone survey. Despite majority endorsement of homosexuality (52.29% positive vs. 34.12% negative) and discrimination protection (50.72% favorable vs. 14.64% opposed), attitudes toward same-sex marriage diverged (32.79% favorable vs. 39.41% opposed). There was a sharp distinction in accepting gay/lesbian people as co-workers (83.57%) and friends (76.92%) versus relatives (40.19%). Having more homosexual/bisexual friends or co-workers contributed to greater endorsement of social acceptance and discrimination protection but not same-sex marriage. Age, religion, political orientation, and homonegativity consistently predicted attitudes toward social acceptance, discrimination protection, and same-sex marriage, whereas gender-role beliefs, conformity to norms, and cultural orientations had varying impacts. This article informs theory and advocacy by disentangling homonegativity from attitudes about gay/lesbian issues and highlighting the centrality of family-kinship and relative-outsider delineation in Chinese societies.
Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759
Lloren, Anouk; Parini, Lorena
Support for lesbians’, gay men’s, bisexuals’, and transgender people’s (LGBT) rights has increased over the last two decades. However, these recent trends hide existing disparities between and within countries. In particular, workplace discrimination is still a relatively widespread phenomenon. Although many countries lack legal provision protecting LGBT employees, numerous organizations have adopted LGBT-supportive policies over the last two decades. Many studies have investigated the busine...
Phelan, Sean M; Burke, Sara E; Hardeman, Rachel R; White, Richard O; Przedworski, Julia; Dovidio, John F; Perry, Sylvia P; Plankey, Michael; A Cunningham, Brooke; Finstad, Deborah; W Yeazel, Mark; van Ryn, Michelle
Implicit and explicit bias among providers can influence the quality of healthcare. Efforts to address sexual orientation bias in new physicians are hampered by a lack of knowledge of school factors that influence bias among students. To determine whether medical school curriculum, role modeling, diversity climate, and contact with sexual minorities predict bias among graduating students against gay and lesbian people. Prospective cohort study. A sample of 4732 first-year medical students was recruited from a stratified random sample of 49 US medical schools in the fall of 2010 (81% response; 55% of eligible), of which 94.5% (4473) identified as heterosexual. Seventy-eight percent of baseline respondents (3492) completed a follow-up survey in their final semester (spring 2014). Medical school predictors included formal curriculum, role modeling, diversity climate, and contact with sexual minorities. Outcomes were year 4 implicit and explicit bias against gay men and lesbian women, adjusted for bias at year 1. In multivariate models, lower explicit bias against gay men and lesbian women was associated with more favorable contact with LGBT faculty, residents, students, and patients, and perceived skill and preparedness for providing care to LGBT patients. Greater explicit bias against lesbian women was associated with discrimination reported by sexual minority students (b = 1.43 [0.16, 2.71]; p = 0.03). Lower implicit sexual orientation bias was associated with more frequent contact with LGBT faculty, residents, students, and patients (b = -0.04 [-0.07, -0.01); p = 0.008). Greater implicit bias was associated with more faculty role modeling of discriminatory behavior (b = 0.34 [0.11, 0.57); p = 0.004). Medical schools may reduce bias against sexual minority patients by reducing negative role modeling, improving the diversity climate, and improving student preparedness to care for this population.
Kenst, Karey S.; Bowen, Deborah J.; Scout
Objectives. We examined the proportion of studies funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, along with investigated health topics. Methods. We used the NIH RePORTER system to search for LGBT-related terms in NIH-funded research from 1989 through 2011. We coded abstracts for LGBT inclusion, subpopulations studied, health foci, and whether studies involved interventions. Results. NIH funded 628 studies concerning LGBT health. Excluding projects about HIV/AIDS and other sexual health matters, only 0.1% (n = 113) of all NIH-funded studies concerned LGBT health. Among the LGBT-related projects, 86.1% studied sexual minority men, 13.5% studied sexual minority women, and 6.8% studied transgender populations. Overall, 79.1% of LGBT-related projects focused on HIV/AIDS and substantially fewer on illicit drug use (30.9%), mental health (23.2%), other sexual health matters (16.4%), and alcohol use (12.9%). Only 202 studies examined LGBT health–related interventions. Over time, the number of LGBT-related projects per year increased. Conclusions. The lack of NIH-funded research about LGBT health contributes to the perpetuation of health inequities. Here we recommend ways for NIH to stimulate LGBT-related research. PMID:24328665
Dickenson, Janna A; Huebner, David M
There is considerable debate over whether adolescent sexual activity is maladaptive and associated with worse mental health outcomes versus a positive developmental milestone that is associated with better mental health outcomes. Although these perspectives are often pitted against one another, the current study employed a more integrative perspective: adolescent sexual activity may be maladaptive in certain contexts, but healthy in other contexts. We investigated whether family support and gender moderated the relation between sexual activity and mental health outcomes in a diverse sample of 519 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth. Specifically, we examined whether youth who engaged in more sexual activity would have fewer depressive symptoms in the context of a more supportive family environment, but more depressive symptoms in the context of a less supportive family environment and whether this effect was stronger for sexual minority girls. Consistent with the sexual health perspective, we found that among girls with more family support, those who engaged in more frequent same-sex sexual contact had lower levels of depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, we found that among boys with more family support, those who engaged in more frequent same-sex sexual contact had higher levels of depressive symptoms. In contrast, girls and boys with less family support showed no relation between sexual activity and depressive symptoms. Overall, results suggest that context is critical when determining whether same-sex sexual contact among LGB youth should be considered maladaptive or beneficial.
Sharon G. Horne
Full Text Available Background. Negative attitudes toward Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual people in Russia are common, and may have become more prevalent due to recent policy changes. Objective. This study explored whether interpersonal contact and personality characteristics predicted Hateful Attitudes Toward GLB people and Endorsement of GLB Rights. Design. The design of the study included 154 heterosexual undergraduate students in Moscow and Volgodonsk who were surveyed about their attitudes toward GLB people as well as their personality characteristics assessed with the NEO-FFI. Results. Results suggested that Moscow students held less hateful attitudes and endorsed greater GLB Rights than Volgodonsk students. Women were also more favorable toward GLB Rights than men. In terms of Hateful Attitudes, having GLB friends or acquaintances was a negative predictor of Hateful Attitudes, while neuroticism and conscientiousness were positive predictors. In conclusion, living in a large urban area, knowing GLB individuals, and low levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness appear to be associated with positive attitudes toward GLB people in Russia, however, personality characteristics and knowing GLB people did not appear to relate to endorsement of GLB Civil Rights. Conclusion. Current sociopolitical policies such as the propaganda ban, and historical censure of GLB rights during the Soviet era, may impact how “out” GLB Russian people can be, particularly outside of large urban centers, and may reinforce general lack of support for GLB Civil Rights in the Russian population.
Birkett, Michelle; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian
The mental health and victimization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth have garnered media attention with the "It Gets Better Project." Despite this popular interest, there is an absence of empirical evidence evaluating a possible developmental trajectory in LGBTQ distress and the factors that might influence distress over time. This study used an accelerated longitudinal design and multilevel modeling to examine a racially/ethnically diverse analytic sample of 231 LGBTQ adolescents aged 16-20 years at baseline, across six time points, and over 3.5 years. Results indicated that both psychological distress and victimization decreased across adolescence and into early adulthood. Furthermore, time-lagged analyses and mediation analyses suggested that distress was related to prior experiences of victimization, with greater victimization leading to greater distress. Support received from parents, peers, and significant others was negatively correlated with psychological distress in the cross-sectional model but did not reach significance in the time-lagged model. Analyses suggest that psychological distress might "get better" when adolescents encounter less victimization and adds to a growing literature indicating that early experiences of stress impact the mental health of LGBTQ youth. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Griebling, Tomas L
Sex and sexuality are core components of the human experience. Many older adults and people with terminal illness still consider sexuality important in their lives. The palliative care experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons are unique in a number of important ways with regard to sexuality and sexual expression. To date, there has been relatively limited scholarly research on sexual health needs of people in palliative care and near end of life, and an even greater paucity of data specifically about sexual minorities. Forms of sexual expression may change with advancing age and illness. Physical intimacy and emotional connection may take on greater roles compared with more traditional concepts of sexual activity. Several recent studies have examined sexual health in palliative care and a few have examined LGBT cohorts. Advances in public policy, including the recent US Supreme Court decision regarding marriage equality, have continued to shape the cultural landscape for LGBT people. This article reviews recent literature with considerations for future research. Sexuality and intimacy remain important for many people facing terminal illness. LGBT people face unique challenges with regard to sexuality during palliative care. Clinicians should work to avoid heteronormative stereotypes and focus on goals of care to enhance quality of life for all patients.
Jannat-Khah, Deanna P; Dill, LeConté J; Reynolds, Simone A; Joseph, Michael A
This study contributes to the emerging literature on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer (LGBTQ) health disparities and tobacco use by examining the motivations for smoking among the New York City (NYC) LGBTQ population. We used grounded theory and blended methods from 3 grounded theorists-Strauss, Corbin, and Charmaz-for data collection, coding, and analysis. NYC has extensive legislation to prevent smoking; however, the current smoking prevalence of homosexuals is double that of heterosexuals. Study participants were leaders from 23 NYC LGBTQ organizations. Leaders were chosen to establish a relationship with community and to ensure cultural sensitivity. Eligibility criteria required holding a leadership position in an organization serving the NYC LGBTQ community. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and uploaded into Dedoose for analysis. An initial code list was developed from the interview guide. Key themes were identified as the themes with the most number of quotes. Three key themes emerged from our interviews: image, socializing, and stress. Smoking was reported to be a socialization aid and a maladaptive coping technique for stress arising from interactions of conflicting identities. Future smoking cessation interventions among the LGBTQ community should equip smokers with healthy coping mechanisms that address the stressors that arise from the intersections of smokers' many identities.
Levy, Brian L; Levy, Denise L
Do public policies on gay and lesbian rights affect the incidence of hate crimes based on sexual orientation? We propose that legal inequalities increase hate crimes because they provide discursive opportunities for bias, discrimination, and violence. Legal equality, however, will reduce violence. Using annual panel data from 2000 to 2012, a period of substantial policy change, we analyze how three state policies affect reported hate crimes: same-sex partnerships, employment non-discrimination, and hate crime laws. Hate crime and employment non-discrimination laws that include sexual orientation reduce hate crime incidence. Partnership recognition increases reported hate crimes, though it may not increase actual crime incidence. Because incidence is spatially correlated, policy changes in one state yield spillover benefits in other states. These results provide some of the first quantitative evidence that public policies affect hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Findings confirm the roles of institutional heterosexism and discursive opportunities in producing hate crimes. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wu, Li-Tzy
Sex with multiple partners (SMP) is one of the important contributing factors for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and young adults, especially among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB) youth. Past studies mainly focus on examining associations of alcohol or club drugs use with unprotected sexual behaviors among adult homo/bisexual men, while little is known about the temporal association between marijuana use (MU) and SMP among LGB youth. This study examined the relationship between MU and SMP among LGB adolescents and young adults. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression analyses were utilized to analyze four waves' public-use Add Health data (N = 694, youth who reported a homo/bisexual status at any wave; Wave 1: aged 11-21; Wave 4: aged 24-32). After adjusting for other substance use, current depression, mother-child relationship quality at Wave 1, and socioeconomic variables, past-year MU was both concurrently and prospectively associated with past-year SMP. The moderating effect of age was not found. MU is concurrently and prospectively associated with increased odds of SMP in the adolescent sample and in the young adult sample. Findings imply that prevention/intervention on HIV risk behaviors may benefit from MU reduction not only in LGB adolescents but also in young adults.
Cramer, Robert J; Golom, Frank D; Gemberling, Tess M; Trost, Kristen; Lewis, Robin; Wright, Susan
The present study contributes to a growing body of literature developing psychometrically and theoretically grounded measures of sexual orientation minority identity. We tested psychometric properties and construct validity of a 27-item measure, the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS). The sample consisted of 475 adult (178 male, 237 female, 16 male-to-female, 14 female-to-male, and 30 gender queer persons) members of a special interest group, the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. Participants completed a health needs questionnaire. Prominent findings included (1) confirmatory factor-analytic, internal consistency, and inter-correlation patterns support two LGBIS factor structures; (2) men, compared primarily to women, reported elevated scores on Acceptance Concerns, Concealment Motivation, Difficulty Process, and Negative Identity; (3) queer-identifying persons tended to report low Concealment Motivation, and high Identity Affirmation and Identity Centrality scores; (4) experimenting/fluid-identifying individuals tended toward higher Identity Uncertainty and Negative Identity, and lower Identity Centrality scores; (5) LGB community involvement was negatively associated with Concealment Motivation, Identity Uncertainty, and Negative Identity, and positively associated with Identity Superiority, Identity Affirmation, and Identity Centrality scores; and (6) Acceptance Concerns, Identity Uncertainty, and Internalized Homonegativity displayed significant positive associations with such mental health symptoms as general anxiety and posttraumatic stress. The LGBIS represents a useful approach to evaluating sexual orientation minority identity. Implications for identity theory, research, and practice are provided.
Sewell, Kelsey K; McGarrity, Larissa A; Strassberg, Donald S
Prior research has examined how heterosexual individuals define sex; however, these studies have rarely focused on sexual minority individuals or included a full range of applicable sexual behaviors. Participants were recruited from a local Pride Festival across two years. Study 1 (N = 329) was primarily descriptive and examined which physically intimate behaviors lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants included in their definitions of sex and the behaviors in which they had previously engaged. Study 2 (N = 393) utilized a between-subjects design to assess differences in definitions of sex when judging one's own behavior compared with that of a partner outside of the relationship. The behaviors in which participants were most likely to have engaged were manual-genital (82%) and oral-genital stimulation (79%). Regarding definitions of sex, a clear "gold standard" emerged for men, with 90% endorsing penile-anal intercourse as sex. No equally clear standard existed for women. Participants who were asked to consider their partner's behavior outside of their relationship were more likely to endorse the behavior as "having sex" than participants asked to consider their own behavior. This study addressed a major limitation of prior research by investigating definitions of sex among a community sample of LGB adults, with implications for provision of health care and sexual agreements between same-sex couples.
Denton, F Nicholas; Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Danner, Fred
Understanding and intervening to address health disparities is part of the expanding role of psychologists (Johnson, 2013). We drew on Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework and Lick, Durso, and Johnson's (2013) conceptual pathways to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) physical health disparities to test a serial mediation model in which 2 types of cognitive appraisals (proximal minority stressors and coping self-efficacy) partially account for the association between perceived discrimination and prejudice (distal minority stressor) and self-reported physical health symptoms in a nationally recruited sample of 564 LGB individuals (270 women, 294 men) who participated in a web-based survey. Results indicated that perceived experiences of discrimination and prejudice were associated with expectations of rejection and internalized homonegativity. These 2 proximal stressors were associated with lower coping self-efficacy, and the combined cognitive appraisal pathways were associated with higher levels of self-reported physical symptom severity. The pathway through emotion-focused coping self-efficacy was particularly salient in accounting for the overall mediation. Interventions to address distal and proximal minority stressors and improve emotion-focused coping self-efficacy may be particularly helpful in reducing the negative effects of stigma on physical health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Schmitz, Rachel M; Tyler, Kimberly A
Familial responses to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) young people's identities range on a spectrum from rejection to acceptance and these reactions strongly impact family relationships and young adult well-being. Less is known, however, about how family members' reactions may differ based on young people's contexts of socioeconomic status. Through a qualitative, life course analysis of in-depth interview data from 46 LGBTQ college students and LGBTQ homeless young adults, our study highlights the diverse, contextual nuances of young people's "linked lives" within their families. We find that the context of socioeconomic status influenced how a young person managed family rejection. Conversely, processes of familial acceptance were also connected to life course transitions that worked in some cases to enhance LGBTQ young adults' family relationships. Finally, the intricacy of familial reactions to a young person's LGBTQ identity transcended socioeconomic contexts as many respondents shared similar experiences of rejection and acceptance. These findings have implications for understanding how young people manage family relationships across different contexts of socioeconomic status and how these experiences can shape their life course trajectories. Results from this study can inform LGBTQ youth service providers by tailoring intervention programs that account for contextual social diversity.
Burgess, Diana; Tran, Alisia; Lee, Richard; van Ryn, Michelle
Previous research has found that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals are at risk for a variety of mental health disorders. We examined the extent to which a recent experience of a major discriminatory event may contribute to poor mental health among LGBT persons. Data were derived from a cross-sectional strata-cluster survey of adults in Hennepin County, Minnesota, who identified as LGBT (n=472) or heterosexual (n=7,412). Compared to heterosexuals, LGBT individuals had poorer mental health (higher levels of psychological distress, greater likelihood of having a diagnosis of depression or anxiety, greater perceived mental health needs, and greater use of mental health services), more substance use (higher levels of binge drinking, greater likelihood of being a smoker and greater number of cigarettes smoked per day), and were more likely to report unmet mental healthcare needs. LGBT individuals were also more likely to report having experienced a major incident of discrimination over the past year than heterosexual individuals. Although perceived discrimination was associated with almost all of the indicators of mental health and utilization of mental health care that we examined, adjusting for discrimination did not significantly reduce mental health disparities between heterosexual and LGBT persons. LGBT individuals experienced more major discrimination and reported worse mental health than heterosexuals, but discrimination did not account for this disparity. Future research should explore additional forms of discrimination and additional stressors associated with minority sexual orientation that may account for these disparities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex with multiple partners (SMP is one of the important contributing factors for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs among adolescents and young adults, especially among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB youth. Past studies mainly focus on examining associations of alcohol or club drugs use with unprotected sexual behaviors among adult homo/bisexual men, while little is known about the temporal association between marijuana use (MU and SMP among LGB youth. Methods This study examined the relationship between MU and SMP among LGB adolescents and young adults. Generalized estimating equations (GEE logistic regression analyses were utilized to analyze four waves’ public-use Add Health data (N = 694, youth who reported a homo/bisexual status at any wave; Wave 1: aged 11–21; Wave 4: aged 24–32. Results After adjusting for other substance use, current depression, mother-child relationship quality at Wave 1, and socioeconomic variables, past-year MU was both concurrently and prospectively associated with past-year SMP. The moderating effect of age was not found. Conclusion MU is concurrently and prospectively associated with increased odds of SMP in the adolescent sample and in the young adult sample. Findings imply that prevention/intervention on HIV risk behaviors may benefit from MU reduction not only in LGB adolescents but also in young adults.
Jones, K Nicole; Brewster, Melanie E
In recent history, heterosexual allies have played an integral role in promoting change for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the United States; however, questions have been raised as to what drives heterosexual allies to promote change via activism. To delineate factors important in engagement in activism, 207 self-identified heterosexual allies completed an online survey measuring components associated with LGBT activism using Bandura's (1986) model of triadic reciprocal determinism: personal factors (ally identity, social justice self-efficacy and outcome expectations, empathetic perspective taking, and gender) and environmental factors (social justice related supports and barriers, positive marginality, and education level) to predict behaviors (LGBT activism). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed a model accounting for 62% of the variance in LGBT activism, with dimensions of ally identification, social justice self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and education level emerging as significant predictors of engagement in activism behaviors. Empathetic perspective taking and social justice related barriers predicted lack of engagement in LGBT activism, however. Supporting the notion that personal and environmental factors simultaneously impact engagement in LGBT activism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Gurung, Sitaji; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Savarese, Elizabeth; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Despite the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Don't Pursue (DADT) and the update to the Transgender Policy, there remain concerns about the persistence of military sexual trauma (MST) and sexual orientation discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members. A sample of 253 participants (89 women, 164 men) completed an Internet-based survey that assessed the prevalence of sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., offensive speech, physical or discriminatory behaviors) and MST (e.g., sexual harassment and sexual assault). The survey was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Women and men reported similar levels of sexual orientation discrimination in the military. Participants reported experiencing more threats and intimation, vandalism, and physical assault outside of the military than inside the military ( p sexual harassment and sexual assault) in the military was high among both genders, women were more likely to report experiences of sexual harassment compared to men ( p sexual orientation discrimination among LGBT service members in the military and point to the need for strong accountability and oversight to protect sexual minority persons while they are serving their country.
Pedro, Kris Tunac De; Esqueda, Monica Christina
Military-connected youth often experience daily stressors that affect their academic success and social and emotional development. Stressors such as multiple deployments and frequent school transitions may weaken the social ties that military-connected youth have with school communities, placing them at risk of social alienation and victimization. Within this youth population, military-connected lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth may be especially at risk of school victimization. However, to the authors' knowledge, no empirical studies have been conducted on the school experiences of military-connected LGBT youth. Drawing from the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS; n = 634,978), this study explored school victimization and weapon carrying among military-connected LGBT youth and their peers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that military connection, LGB identity, and transgender identity were associated with an increased odds of nonphysical victimization, physical violence, and weapon carrying. Military transgender youth were at an increased risk of weapon carrying (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.23, 2.16]). Future research is needed to explore risk and protective factors influencing school victimization and weapon carrying among military-connected LGBT youth.
Bailey, John; Wallace, Michael; Wright, Bradley
An Internet-based field experiment was conducted to examine potential hiring discrimination based on sexual orientation; specifically, the "first contact" between job applicants and employers was looked at. In response to Internet job postings on CareerBuilder.com®, more than 4,600 resumes were sent to employers in 4 U.S. cities: Philadelphia, Chicago, Dallas, and San Francisco. The resumes varied randomly with regard to gender, implied sexual orientation, and other characteristics. Two hypotheses were tested: first, that employers' response rates vary by the applicants' assumed sexuality; and second, that employers' Response Rates by Sexuality vary by city. Effects of city were controlled for to hold constant any variation in labor market conditions in the 4 cities. Based on employer responses to the applications, it was concluded that there is no evidence that gay men or lesbians are discriminated against in their first encounter with employers, and no significant variation across cities in these encounters was found. Implications of these results for the literature on hiring discrimination based on sexual orientation, the strengths and limitations of the research, and the potential for the Internet-based field experiment design in future studies of discrimination are discussed.
Harper, Gary W; Schneider, Margaret
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) people continue to experience various forms of oppression and discrimination in North America and throughout the world, despite the social, legal, and political advances that have been launched in an attempt to grant LGBT people basic human rights. Even though LGBT people and communities have been actively engaged in community organizing and social action efforts since the early twentieth century, research on LGBT issues has been, for the most part, conspicuously absent within the very field of psychology that is explicitly focused on community research and action--Community Psychology. The psychological and social impact of oppression, rejection, discrimination, harassment, and violence on LGBT people is reviewed, and recent advances in the areas of LGBT health, public policy, and research are detailed. Recent advances within the field of Community Psychology with regard to LGBT research and action are highlighted, and a call to action is offered to integrate the knowledge and skills within LGBT communities with Community Psychology's models of intervention, prevention, and social change in order to build better theory and intervention for LGBT people and communities.
Shields, Linda; Zappia, Tess; Blackwood, Diana; Watkins, Rochelle; Wardrop, Joan; Chapman, Rose
Few studies have examined the issues faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-parented families in relation to their access to and satisfaction with healthcare services for their children. It is thought that LGBT individuals have experienced negative interactions with the healthcare environment. To systematically review the literature investigating the experience of LGBT parents seeking health care for their children. A search of the following databases: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, Google Scholar, Medline, PsychInfo, Science Direct, Sociological Abstracts, Proquest, Scopus, and Web of Science was conducted. Using the PRISMA flow chart and processes of the United Kingdom Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, we selected and analysed relevant studies. Four studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. Studies showed that while the experience of LGBT parents seeking health care was largely positive, strategies need to be implemented to improve the quality of healthcare services for LGBT families and ensure that their needs are met. Although many LGBT parents have positive experiences of health care, some still experience discrimination and prejudice. Specific educational interventions are needed to support LGBT parents seeking health care for their children. Further research is required to explore LGBT-parented families' experiences of healthcare services, and this should include children's experiences. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Pelts, Michael D; Galambos, Colleen
Due to societally imposed stigmatization, lesbian and gay (LG) older adults fear and prolong accessing long-term care (LTC) even though they need LTC at higher rates. Interventions that decrease negative attitudes toward LG older adults among LTC staff are a first step in addressing this problem. In this study, the influence of intergroup contact (IGC) on LTC staff members' attitudes toward LG was explored through the use of storytelling as a training mechanism. An embedded mixed-method approach was employed to collect and analyze responses of 60 LTC staff who participated in a storytelling event. Participants completed pretests, posttests, and participated in audio-recorded group discussions. The findings showed that storytelling had a significant (p =0.001) and positive effect (d =0.57) on participants attitudes toward LG. Qualitative analysis revealed 90 codes, 13 process codes, and 4 themes: making meaning of stories, seeking understanding, application to LTC setting, and debating. When guided by IGC theory, storytelling has potential for positively influencing attitudes of LTC staff members toward LG older adults. There is a need for longitudinal work to further test this model.
Que direito à saúde para a população GLBT? Considerando direitos humanos, sexuais e reprodutivos em busca da integralidade e da eqüidade What do health rights mean for the GLBT population?Considering human, sexual and reproductive rights in the search for equity and integrality in the health system
Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo problematizar a pertinência de uma política de saúde para a população de Gays, Lésbicas, Bissexuais, Travestis e Transexuais - GLBT. A partir da consideração dos processos de violação de seus direitos humanos, sistematicamente comprometidos devido a estigmas e processos discriminatórios, busca-se evidenciar a necessidade de uma política de saúde específica a esta população, na perspectiva da integralidade da atenção e da eqüidade no sistema de saúde. O desafio da construção de uma política de atenção integral à saúde dessa população, tal como prevista no programa de governo federal Brasil sem Homofobia, implica a complexificação e alargamento do que se compreende por direitos sexuais e reprodutivos para a efetiva promoção da eqüidade e universalidade do acesso aos bens e serviços.This paper discusses whether a specific health policy for Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals, Transvestites and Transsexuals is a good way to improve their lives and health situation, recognizing that their human rights are systematically violated by prejudice and discrimination processes. A health policy could be a strong political and technical instrument for achieving integrality in health care and equity in the health system. Building a health policy according to the constitutional right of universality and integrality in health care is proposed by the Federal Government's program called No Homophobia in Brazil. For its consolidation, we need to broaden what we understand by sexual and reproductive rights.
Brian Joseph Gillespie
Full Text Available Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185 completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people's friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender.
Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Frederick, David; Harari, Lexi; Grov, Christian
Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185) completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people’s friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender. PMID:26087008
The goal of the study is to investigate whether positive mental health complements mental illness within a theoretically informed (the dual-continua model) and psychometrically tested (the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form) framework. National-level, population-based data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey on Mental Health (CCHS-MH) was used, with comparisons between sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Results show that gay, lesbian, and bisexual Canadians have substantially lower rates of positive mental health and are more likely to have been diagnosed with a mental illness, with the disparities between health and illness being the most pronounced among lesbians and bisexual females. Results show considerable support for the dual-continua model, which posits that the absence of health does not automatically translate into the presence of illness, and vice versa. Suggestions are made for practitioners and researchers toward the use of the dual-continua model as a surveillance tool, especially among sexual minority individuals.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Pachankis, John E
In this article, we review theory and evidence on stigma and minority stress as social/structural determinants of health among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. We discuss different forms of stigma at individual (eg, identity concealment), interpersonal (eg, victimization), and structural (eg, laws and social norms) levels, as well as the mechanisms linking stigma to adverse health outcomes among LGBT youth. Finally, we discuss clinical (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) and public health (eg, antibullying policies) interventions that effectively target stigma-inducing mechanisms to improve the health of LGBT youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Driskell, Jeff; Bradford, Judith
While we know that minority status differentiates the experience of aging, little research has been done to examine the ways in which patterns of successful aging may differ in diverse subgroups of older adults. In this exploratory study, we investigated and described experiences of successful aging in a sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Directed by a community-based participatory research process, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 22 LGBT adults, age 60 and older. We took an inductive, grounded theory approach to analyze the taped and transcribed interviews. We coded respondent experiences in four domains: physical health, mental health, emotional state and social engagement. Four gradations of successful aging emerged. Very few in our sample met the bar for “traditional success” characterized by the absence of problems in all four domains of health. Most of the sample was coping to a degree with problems and were categorized in one of two gradations on a continuum of successful aging: “surviving and thriving” and “working at it.” A small number was “ailing”: not coping well with problems. Some of the experiences that respondents described were related to LGBT status; others were related to more general processes of aging. The research suggests that a successful aging framework that is modified to include coping can better describe the experiences of LGBT older adults. The modified conceptual model outlined here may be useful in future research on this population, as well as more broadly for diverse populations of adults, and may be adapted for use in practice to assess and improve health and well-being. PMID:23273552
Lytle, Megan C; De Luca, Susan M; Blosnich, John R; Brownson, Chris
Our aim was to examine the associations of racial/ethnic identity and religious affiliation with suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) and heterosexual college students. An additional aim was to determine the prevalence of passive suicidal ideation (i.e., death ideation) and active suicidal ideation among culturally diverse LGBQ individuals. Data from the National Research Consortium probability-based sample of college students from 70 postsecondary institutions (n=24,626) were used to examine active and passive suicidal ideation in the past 12-months and lifetime active suicidal ideation among students by sexual orientation, racial/ethnic identity, and religious affiliation. Across most racial/ethnic groups and religious affiliations, LGBQ students were more likely to report active suicidal ideation than non-LGBQ individuals. Among LGBQ students, Latino individuals had lower odds of reporting both past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation than their non-Hispanic white LGBQ counterparts. Compared to Christian LGBQ students, Agnostic/Atheist LGBQ individuals had greater odds of reporting past 12-month passive suicidal ideation, and Jewish LGBQ students were less likely to endorse past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation. Cross-sectional design and self-reported data. Results corroborate previous research showing elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation among LGBQ individuals in comparison to their heterosexual counterparts. These findings are among the first to document prevalence differences within the LGBQ population based on intersectional identities (race/ethnicity and religious affiliation). Providers should recognize that LGBQ individuals might need support in negotiating the complex relationship between multiple identities, especially due to their elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bridges, F Stephen; Anzalone, Debra A; Ryan, Stuart W; Anzalone, Fanancy L
Two field studies using 1,004 "lost letters" were designed to test the hypotheses that returned responses would be greater in small towns than from a city, that addressees' affiliation with a group either (1) opposed to physical education in schools, (2) supporting gay and lesbian teachers, or (3) advocating Creationism or Darwinism would reduce the return rate. Of 504 letters "lost" in Study A, 163 (32.3%) were returned in the mail from residents of southeast Louisiana and indicated across 3 addressees and 2 sizes of community, addressees' affiLiations were not associated with returned responses. Community size and addressees' affiliations were associated with significantly different rates of return in the city. Return rates from sites within a city were lower when letters were addressed to an organization which opposed (teaching) health education in the schools than to one supporting daily health education. Of 500 letters "lost" in Study B, 95 (19.0%) were returned from residents of northwest Florida and indicated across 5 addressees and 2 sizes of community, addressees' affiliations were significantly associated with returned responses overall (5 addressees) and in small towns (control, Creationism, Darwinism addressees), but not with community size. Community size and addressees' affiliations were associated with significantly different rates of return in small towns, with returns greater than or equal to those in the city (except for the addressee advocating teaching Darwinism in public schools). The present findings appear to show that applications of the lost letter technique to other divisive social issues are useful in assessing public opinion.
People who identity as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have specific health needs. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health, as homophobia and heteronormativity persist as prejudices in society. LGBT patients often experience discrimination and prejudice in health care settings. While recent South African policies recognise the need for providing LGBT specific health care, no curricula for teaching about LGBT health related issues exist in South African health sciences faculties. This study aimed to determine the extent to which LGBT health related content is taught in the University of Cape Town's medical curriculum. A curriculum mapping exercise was conducted through an online survey of all academic staff at the UCT health sciences faculty, determining LGBT health related content, pedagogical methodology and assessment. 127 academics, across 31 divisions and research units in the Faculty of Health Sciences, responded to the survey, of which 93 completed the questionnaire. Ten taught some content related to LGBT health in the MBChB curriculum. No LGBT health related content was taught in the allied health sciences curricula. The MBChB curriculum provided no opportunity for students to challenge their own attitudes towards LGBT patients, and key LGBT health topics such as safer sex, mental health, substance abuse and adolescent health were not addressed. At present, UCTs health sciences curricula do not adequately address LGBT specific health issues. Where LGBT health related content is taught in the MBChB curriculum, it is largely discretionary, unsystematic and not incorporated into the overarching structure. Coordinated initiatives to integrate LGBT health related content into all health sciences curricula should be supported, and follow an approach that challenges students to develop professional attitudes and behaviour concerning care for patients from LGBT backgrounds, as well as providing them with specific LGBT
Lytle, Megan C.; De Luca, Susan M.; Blosnich, John R.; Brownson, Christopher
Background Our aim was to examine the associations of racial/ethnic identity and religious affiliation with suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) and heterosexual college students. An additional aim was to determine the prevalence of passive suicidal ideation (i.e., death ideation) and active suicidal ideation among culturally diverse LGBQ individuals. Methods Data from the National Research Consortium probability-based sample of college students from 70 postsecondary institutions (n=24,626) were used to examine active and passive suicidal ideation in the past 12-months and lifetime active suicidal ideation among students by sexual orientation, racial/ethnic identity, and religious affiliation. Results Across most racial/ethnic groups and religious affiliations, LGBQ students were more likely to report active suicidal ideation than non-LGBQ individuals. Among LGBQ students, Latino individuals had lower odds of reporting both past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation than their non-Hispanic white LGBQ counterparts. Compared to Christian LGBQ students, Agnostic/Atheist LGBQ individuals had greater odds of reporting past 12-month passive suicidal ideation, and Jewish LGBQ students were less likely to endorse past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation. Limitations Cross-sectional design and self-reported data. Conclusions Results corroborate previous research showing elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation among LGBQ individuals in comparison to their heterosexual counterparts. These findings are among the first to document prevalence differences within the LGBQ population based on intersectional identities (race/ethnicity and religious affiliation). Providers should recognize that LGBQ individuals might need support in negotiating the complex relationship between multiple identities, especially due to their elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation. PMID:25795534
Smith, Elizabeth A; Thomson, Katherine; Offen, Naphtali; Malone, Ruth E
In the public health literature, it is generally assumed that the perception of "targeting" as positive or negative by the targeted audience depends on the product or message being promoted. Smoking prevalence rates are high among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, but little is known about how they perceive tobacco industry targeting. We conducted focus groups with LGBT individuals in 4 US cities to explore their perceptions. Our findings indicated that focus group participants often responded positively to tobacco company targeting. Targeting connoted community visibility, legitimacy, and economic viability. Participants did not view tobacco as a gay health issue. Targeting is a key aspect of corporate-community interaction. A better understanding of targeting may aid public health efforts to counter corporate disease promotion.
Munson, Benjamin; Deboe, Nancy
A recent study (Pierrehumbert, Bent, Munson, and Bailey, submitted) found differences in vowel production between people who are lesbian, bisexual, or gay (LBG) and people who are not. The specific differences (more fronted /u/ and /a/ in the non-LB women; an overall more-contracted vowel space in the non-gay men) were not amenable to an interpretation based on simple group differences in vocal-tract geometry. Rather, they suggested that differences were either due to group differences in some other skill, such as motor control or phonological encoding, or learned. This paper expands on this research by examining vowel production, speech-motor control (measured by diadochokinetic rates), and phonological encoding (measured by error rates in a tongue-twister task) in people who are LBG and people who are not. Analyses focus on whether the findings of Pierrehumbert et al. (submitted) are replicable, and whether group differences in vowel production are related to group differences in speech-motor control or phonological encoding. To date, 20 LB women, 20 non-LB women, 7 gay men, and 7 non-gay men have participated. Preliminary analyses suggest that there are no group differences in speech motor control or phonological encoding, suggesting that the earlier findings of Pierrehumbert et al. reflected learned behaviors.
Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M
The purpose of this study was to examine lesbian and gay (LG) young adults' reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) and minority stress research using a mixed methodological design. Participants were 277 U.S. college students currently involved in same-sex relationships and self-identified cisgender LG who completed an online questionnaire that included closed- and open-ended questions. Results suggested that IPV research was well tolerated by the vast majority of participants; close to one in 10 participants reported being upset by the study questions, yet 75% of upset individuals reported some level of personal benefit. Reasons for upset as identified in the open-ended responses included thinking about personal experiences with IPV, as the perpetrator or friend of a victim, as well as thinking about the uncertainty of their future with their current partner. The correlates of emotional reactions and personal benefits to research participation were also examined, and these varied among gay men and lesbian women. Implications of these findings underscore the importance of accurate reflection of risk and benefits in informed consent documents as well as systematic evaluation of sexual minority participants' reactions to research participation in an effort to conduct ethically sound sexual science research.
Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, H W M; Jorgensen, T D; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Rubio, B; Gross, M; Vecho, O; Lamb, M E
Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF? There were no differences in parental wellbeing. The only other study of parental wellbeing in gay-father families formed through surrogacy (mean age children: 4 years old) found no difference in couple relationship satisfaction between these families and lesbian-mother families formed through donor insemination and heterosexual-parent families formed without assisted reproductive technologies. This cross-sectional study is part of an international research project involving 38 gay-father families, 61 lesbian-mother families and 41 heterosexual-parent families with 4-month-olds. In each country (the UK, the Netherlands and France), participants were recruited through several sources, such as specialist lawyers with expertise in surrogacy (for the recruitment of gay fathers), lesbian and gay parenting support groups, fertility clinics (for the recruitment of lesbian and heterosexual parents), and/or online forums and magazines. During a home visit when their infants were between 3.5 and 4.5 months old, participants completed standardized measures of parental stress, parental psychological adjustment (anxiety and depression) and partner relationship satisfaction. All parents reported relatively low levels of parental stress, anxiety and depression, and were all relatively satisfied with their intimate relationships. After controlling for caregiver role (primary or secondary caregiver role), there were no significant family type differences in parental stress, P = 0.949, depression, P = 0.089, anxiety, P = 0.117, or relationship satisfaction, P = 0.354. The findings cannot be generalized to all first-time ART parents with infants because
Correction to “Advancing the Conversation: Next Steps for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer (LGBTQ Health Sciences Librarianship” on 105(4 October, page 325. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2017.206
Katherine G. Akers
Full Text Available Corrects author name in reference #11 of “Advancing the Conversation: Next Steps For Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer (LGBTQ Health Sciences Librarianship” on 105(4 October, page 325. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2017.206.
Bouris, Alida; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Pickard, Angela; Shiu, Chengshi; Loosier, Penny S.; Dittus, Patricia; Gloppen, Kari; Waldmiller, J. Michael
Relatively little is known about how parents influence the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents and young adults. This gap has led to a paucity of parent-based interventions for LGB young people. A systematic literature review on parental influences on the health of LGB youth was conducted to better understand how…
Perspective on Out & Equal Workplace Advocates Building Bridges Model: A Retrospect of the Past, Present, and Future of Training Impacting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Employees in the Workplace
Baillie, Pat; Gedro, Julie
As early as 1983, a group of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgenders (LGBTs) in the San Francisco Bay Area met with the United Way to discuss the needs of the community in the workplace. In 1986, the United Way authorized a board-level task force on LGBT issues, which looked at health and human care concerns. In 1990, Building Bridges was formed…
Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health for people identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT), and health disparities among sexual and gender minority populations are increasingly well understood. Although the South African constitution guarantees sexual and gender minority people the right to non-discrimination and the right to access to healthcare, homo- and transphobia in society abound. Little is known about LGBT people's healthcare experiences in South Africa, but anecdotal evidence suggests significant barriers to accessing care. Using the framework of the UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights General Comment 14, this study analyses the experiences of LGBT health service users using South African public sector healthcare, including access to HIV counselling, testing and treatment. A qualitative study comprised of 16 semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions with LGBT health service users, and 14 individual interviews with representatives of LGBT organisations. Data were thematically analysed within the framework of the UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights General Comment 14, focusing on availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care. All interviewees reported experiences of discrimination by healthcare providers based on their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Participants recounted violations of all four elements of the UN General Comment 14: 1) Availability: Lack of public health facilities and services, both for general and LGBT-specific concerns; 2) Accessibility: Healthcare providers' refusal to provide care to LGBT patients; 3) Acceptability: Articulation of moral judgment and disapproval of LGBT patients' identity, and forced subjection of patients to religious practices; 4) Quality: Lack of knowledge about LGBT identities and health needs, leading to poor-quality care. Participants had delayed or
Valdiney V. Gouveia
Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou conhecer evidências psicométricas da Escala de Motivações Externa e Interna para Responder sem Preconceito ([EMEI], Plant & Devine, 1998, considerando dois grupos-alvo: gays e lésbicas. Realizaram-se dois estudos. No Estudo 1 participaram 234 pessoas da população geral de João Pessoa (PB, com média de idade de 26 anos, a maioria do sexo feminino (54,3% e heterossexual (95%. Eles responderam a versão da EMEI para gays. Análises fatoriais confirmatórias revelaram como mais adequado o modelo bifatorial (AGFI = 0,94, CFI = 0,98 e RMSEA = 0,05. Os Alfas de Cronbach dos fatores foram 0,74 (motivação interna e 0,76 (motivação externa. No Estudo 2 participaram 202 pessoas da população geral da mesma cidade, com idade média de 25 anos, a maioria do sexo feminino (60,9% e heterossexual (95%. Eles responderam a versão da EMEI para lésbicas. Corroborando o estudo anterior, uma estrutura bifatorial se mostrou mais adequada (AGFI = 0,90, CFI = 0,95 e RMSEA = 0,08. Os Alfas de Cronbach para os dois fatores foram 0,71 (motivação interna e 0,84 (motivação externa. Reuniram-se evidências complementares de validade de construto destas versões. Concluindo, os resultados apoiaram a adequação psicométrica (validade fatorial, validade convergente-discriminante e consistência interna da EMEI, que poderá ser empregada em pesquisas futuras sobre preconceito frente a gays e lésbicas.The current article aimed to find psychometric evidences in the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice Scale (Plant & Devine, 1998 taking into account two target-groups: gays and lesbians. Two studies were carried out. In Study 1 participants were 234 subjects from the general population of João Pessoa-PB, with mean age of 26 years old, most of them female (54.3% and heterosexual (95%. They answered the gay version of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice Scale (IEM Scale. Confirmatory
Malterud, Kirsti; Bjorkman, Mari
The last decades have offered substantial improvement regarding human rights for lesbian and gay (LG) persons. Yet LG persons are often in the closet, concealing their sexual orientation. We present a qualitative study based on 182 histories submitted from 161 LG individuals to a Web site. The aim was to explore experiences of closeting among LG persons in Norway. A broad range of strategies was used for closeting, even among individuals who generally considered themselves to be out of the closet. Concealment was enacted by blunt denial, clever avoidance, or subtle vagueness. Other strategies included changing or eliminating the pronoun or name of the partner in ongoing conversations. Context-dependent concealment, differentiating between persons, situations, or arenas, was repeatedly applied for security or convenience. We propose a shift from "being in the closet" to "situated concealment of sexual orientation."
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Jen, Sarah; Bryan, Amanda E. B.; Goldsen, Jayn
Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and other dementias are important health concerns for older adults. As a marginalized and growing segment of the older adult population, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults face distinct risk factors related to cognitive impairment and dementias, including social isolation, discrimination, barriers to health care access, limited availability of and support for caregivers, and higher rates of certain chronic illnesses. We examine cognitive impairment and dementias among LGBT older adults, describe their unique risk factors, and outline key competencies for health care and human service providers to ensure culturally relevant care for LGBT older adults experiencing cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, or other dementias, as well as their caregivers, families, and communities. Implications include developing an awareness of the context of LGBT older adults’ lives and relationships, the importance of early detection and support, and the development of policies and practices that promote community-level advocacy and education. PMID:27729400
Keuroghlian, Alex S; Ard, Kevin L; Makadon, Harvey J
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people face pervasive health disparities and barriers to high-quality care. Adequate LGBT sexual health education for emerging health professionals is currently lacking. Clinical training programs and healthcare organisations are well poised to start addressing these disparities and affirming LGBT patients through curricula designed to cultivate core competencies in LBGT health as well as health care environments that welcome, include and protect LGBT patients, students and staff. Health education programs can emphasise mastery of basic LGBT concepts and terminology, as well as openness towards and acceptance of LGBT people. Core concepts, language and positive attitudes can be instilled alongside clinical skill in delivering inclusive sexual health care, through novel educational strategies and paradigms for clinical implementation. Caring for the health needs of LGBT patients also involves the creation of health care settings that affirm LGBT communities in a manner that is responsive to culturally specific needs, sensitivities and challenges that vary across the globe.
Full Text Available This article provides a theoretical contemplation on how reciprocation of an assimilationist, liberationist and/or transgressive approach by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer and/or questioning (LGBTIQ+ individuals on university campuses may encourage transformation initiatives in South African universities. The author ascribe to the contributions of previous research studies on a social constructionist approach to resilience to debate how individuals potentially navigate the disparity between sexual structure and agency within their ideological and physical construction and enactment of their academic and student persona. A theoretical basis is provided for the influence of social resilience to emphasise the localised, intersectional and plural experiences of LGBTIQ+ individuals as opposed to a monolithic and universal ‘either/or’ account of their being solely docile victims or free agents in a heteronormative context.
Fongkaew, Kangwan; Khruataeng, Anoporn; Unsathit, Sumon; Khamphiirathasana, Matawii; Jongwisan, Nisarat; Arlunaek, Oranong; Byrne, Jensen
This article presents an analysis of news reports containing information or opinions about lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and queer (LGBTIQ) people taken from six Thai media outlets over a period of one year. The aim was to explore how LGBTIQ people are portrayed in news media narratives. LGBTIQ identities were found to be vastly underrepresented and, when represented, were often represented inaccurately, stereotypically, harmfully, or without a clear understanding of the diversity of sexual orientations, gender identities, and gender expressions. (Hetero-)sexist narratives, negative portrayals, harmful stereotypes, and discriminatory speech were also widely found, fueling a climate of stigmatization and discrimination of LGBTIQ people in Thai society. This article suggests that key stakeholders in Thai news media should be sensitized on the human rights of LGBTIQ people and on basic professional ethics in journalism.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Jen, Sarah; Bryan, Amanda E B; Goldsen, Jayn
Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias are important health concerns for older adults. As a marginalized and growing segment of the older adult population, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults face distinct risk factors related to cognitive impairment and dementias, including social isolation, discrimination, barriers to health care access, limited availability of and support for caregivers, and higher rates of certain chronic illnesses. We examine cognitive impairment and dementias among LGBT older adults, describe their unique risk factors, and outline key competencies for health care and human service providers to ensure culturally relevant care for LGBT older adults experiencing cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, or other dementias, as well as their caregivers, families, and communities. Implications include developing an awareness of the context of LGBT older adults' lives and relationships, the importance of early detection and support, and the development of policies and practices that promote community-level advocacy and education.
Strayhorn, Terrell L.
Scholars have examined the experiences of GLBT students in college and found that gay students often report encountering unwelcoming campus environments, physical or verbal assault, and homophobia. Rarely, however, have the experiences of Asian Pacific Islander (API) or more specifically South Korean gay men been accounted for in the literature. A…
Brandão, Ana Maria; Machado, Tânia Cristina
Organa magazine (1990-1992) is the first known lesbian publication in Portugal and exemplifies the distinct course of lesbian activism in Portugal, namely the late emergence and consolidation of a national lesbian community and subculture. Organa also bears similarities with the international gay and lesbian press regarding its alternative character, objectives, editorial contents, and trajectory. Despite having adopted an assimilationist strategy during most of its existence, it is argued that Organa fostered the political mobilization of Portuguese lesbians.
This thesis investigates the black lesbian, gay, transgender representations in three US-American films. Using feminist film theory and intersectionality theory, the thesis analyzes the films Set It Off, Tangerine and Moonlight. This analysis includes three themes: 1) Stereotypes including drugs, violence and low socioeconomic status 2) Power relations including white and/or heterosexual supremacy 3) Representation of gender. Overall the study seeks to understand and explore the ways of how i...
Medical students’ perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study
Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J.
ABSTRACT Background: Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. Objective: The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Design: Medical students ...
Steffens, M.C.; Jonas, K.J.; Denger, L.
Anti-gay attitudes vary across cultures because the larger social context plays a role in attitude formation. Psychological correlates of these attitudes have been investigated in the United States and Europe. Endorsement of traditional gender roles has emerged from that research as a central
Wingo, Erin; Ingraham, Natalie; Roberts, Sarah C M
Little research documents the self-identified reproductive health priorities and health care experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (LGBTQ)-identified individuals who may be in need of services. We conducted in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of 39 female-assigned-at-birth individuals (ages 18-44) who also identified as lesbian, bisexual, queer, and/or genderqueer, or transmasculine. Interviews were primarily conducted in person in the Bay Area of California, and Baltimore, Maryland, with 11 conducted remotely with participants in other U.S. We asked participants about their current reproductive health care needs, topics they felt researchers should pursue, and past reproductive health care experiences. Data were analyzed using a framework method, incorporating deductive and inductive thematic analysis techniques. Reproductive health care needs among participants varied widely and included treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome and irregular menses, gender-affirming hysterectomies, and fertility assistance. Many faced challenges getting their needs met. Themes related to these challenges cross-cutting across identity groups included primary focus on fertility, provider lack of LGBTQ health competency relevant to reproductive health priorities and treatment, and discriminatory comments and treatment. Across themes and identity groups, participants highlighted that sexual activity and reproduction were central topics in reproductive health care settings. These topics facilitated identity disclosures to providers, but also enhanced vulnerability to discrimination. Reproductive health priorities of LGBTQ individuals include needs similar to cisgender and heterosexual groups (e.g., abortion, contraception, PCOS) as well as unique needs (e.g., gender affirming hysterectomies, inclusive safer sex guidance) and challenges in pursuing care. Future reproductive health research should pursue health care concerns prioritized by LGBTQ populations
Brewer, Paul R; Wilson, David C; Habegger, Michael
This study uses an experiment embedded in a large, nationally representative survey to test whether exposure to imagery of a gay or lesbian couple's wedding influences support for gay marriage. It also tests whether any such effects depend on the nature of the image (gay or lesbian couple, kissing or not) and viewer characteristics (sex, age, race, education, religion, and ideology). Results show that exposure to imagery of a gay couple kissing reduced support for gay marriage relative to the baseline. Other image treatments (gay couple not kissing, lesbian couple kissing, lesbian couple not kissing) did not significantly influence opinion.
The present research draws from literature relating to gay identity in psychology and sociology and feminist theory to consider the effect of gay identity and gender on gays' and lesbians' attitudes toward various types of advertising content that are most commonly used to target gay consumers. As such, this study empirically tests whether gay males' and lesbians' responses to gay-oriented advertising content are moderated by individual characteristics: (1) the degree to which they identify as gay, and (2) their gender, and by the explicitness and gender of the gay-oriented advertising imagery.
Logie, Carmen H; Lys, Candice
Youth in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) experience sexual and mental health disparities. Higher rates of sexual and mental health concerns among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth in comparison with heterosexual and cisgender peers have been associated with stigma and discrimination. Although LGBTQ youth in the NWT are situated at the nexus of Northern and LGBTQ health disparities, there is little known about their health, well-being and experiences of stigma. This short communication discusses the process of developing a LGBTQ youth community-based research programme in the NWT. We developed an interdisciplinary research team of LGBTQ and allied young adults, including indigenous and non-indigenous researchers, community organisers and service providers in the NWT. We conducted meetings in Yellowknife with LGBTQ youth (n=12) and key stakeholders (n=15), including faculty, students, community groups and health and social service providers. Both meetings included LGBTQ and allied participants who were LGBTQ, indigenous, youth and persons at the intersection of these identities. LGBTQ youth participants discussed community norms that devalued same sex identities and stigma surrounding LGBTQ-specific services and agencies. Stigma among LGBT youth was exacerbated for youth in secondary schools, gender non-conforming and transgender youth and young gay men. In the stakeholder meeting, service providers discussed the importance of integrating LGBTQ issues in youth programmes, and LGBTQ community groups expressed the need for flexibility in service delivery to LGBTQ youth. Stakeholders identified the need to better understand the needs of indigenous LGBTQ youth in the NWT. Community-based LGBTQ groups, researchers and health and social service providers are interested in addressing LGBTQ youth issues in the NWT. The emergence of LGBTQ community building, support groups and activism in Northern Canada suggests that this is an opportune time
Carmen H. Logie
Full Text Available Background: Youth in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT experience sexual and mental health disparities. Higher rates of sexual and mental health concerns among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ youth in comparison with heterosexual and cisgender peers have been associated with stigma and discrimination. Although LGBTQ youth in the NWT are situated at the nexus of Northern and LGBTQ health disparities, there is little known about their health, well-being and experiences of stigma. This short communication discusses the process of developing a LGBTQ youth community-based research programme in the NWT. Methods: We developed an interdisciplinary research team of LGBTQ and allied young adults, including indigenous and non-indigenous researchers, community organisers and service providers in the NWT. We conducted meetings in Yellowknife with LGBTQ youth (n=12 and key stakeholders (n=15, including faculty, students, community groups and health and social service providers. Both meetings included LGBTQ and allied participants who were LGBTQ, indigenous, youth and persons at the intersection of these identities. Results: LGBTQ youth participants discussed community norms that devalued same sex identities and stigma surrounding LGBTQ-specific services and agencies. Stigma among LGBT youth was exacerbated for youth in secondary schools, gender non-conforming and transgender youth and young gay men. In the stakeholder meeting, service providers discussed the importance of integrating LGBTQ issues in youth programmes, and LGBTQ community groups expressed the need for flexibility in service delivery to LGBTQ youth. Stakeholders identified the need to better understand the needs of indigenous LGBTQ youth in the NWT. Conclusions: Community-based LGBTQ groups, researchers and health and social service providers are interested in addressing LGBTQ youth issues in the NWT. The emergence of LGBTQ community building, support groups and activism
Stotzer, Rebecca L; Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Diaz, Tressa P
This paper presents findings from a statewide needs assessment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) people in Hawai'i that relate to health status and health-related risk factors such as having health insurance coverage, having a regular doctor, experiencing sexual orientation (SO) or gender identity/expression (GI/E) discrimination in health/mental health care settings, and delaying care due to concerns about SO and GIE discrimination in Hawai'i, Honolulu, Kaua'i, and Maui counties. Results suggest that LGBTQI people in these counties generally rated their self-assessed health as "very good" or "excellent," but had slightly higher rates of smoking and less health insurance coverage than the general population of Hawai'i. Many respondents reported challenges to their health, and negative experiences with healthcare. Unlike prior studies that have shown no difference or a rural disadvantage in care, compared to urban locations, Hawai'i's counties did not have a clear rural disadvantage. Honolulu and Kaua'i Counties demonstrated better health indicators and lower percentages of people who had delayed care due to gender identity concerns. Findings suggest that health/mental health care providers should address potential bias in the workplace to be able to provide more culturally competent practice to LGBTQI people in Hawai'i.
Siobhán C Daly
Full Text Available The experiences of Irish sons and daughters born into heterosexually-organised parental partnerships/unions whose parents have separated and one has come out as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual (LGB were explored through a grounded theory approach. 15 adult children (over the age of 18 years, who varied in age when their parents separated and one disclosed as LGB, were interviewed. The primary concern that emerged centred on participants having to adjust to their parents' being separated, as opposed to their parent being LGB. This involved engaging with the tension that arose from the loss of the parental union, which involved changes to the home environment and adapting to new parental partners and family units. Heightened reflection on sexual orientation and an increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice were specifically associated with a parent coming out as LGB. How parents negotiated disclosing the changes to others, the level of support available to parents, and how capable parents were at maintaining the parent-child relationship had an impact on the tension experienced by sons and daughters. Participants moved from initially avoiding and resisting the family changes that were occurring to gradual consonance with their altered family environments. Concluding directions for research and clinical considerations are suggested.
Starks, Tyrel J.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Mustanski, Brian
The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:26108898
Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Simpson, Paul; Willis, Paul B; Almack, Kathryn
There have been substantial achievements in legislative and human rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) older people and their visibility in health and social care has equally increased. These appear to have surpassed the ability of care services to meet their needs given documented concerns about the accessibility, inclusiveness and safety of care services particularly institutionalised care. This requires systemic change not easy to operationalise. This paper describes an action research initiative where six care homes belonging to a national care provider, collaborated to assess and develop their services with the support of local LGBT "Community Advisors" and academic partners. Framed within Rogers' (2003) change management framework and combined with a participatory leadership approach, a programme of intervention was implemented comprising structured activities around seven key areas thought to promote LGBT inclusion. A formal evaluation was conducted involving 35 pre- and post-intervention qualitative interviews with 18 people (community advisors; care home managers and senior managers). The findings are presented across three key themes (1) starting points on the journey; (2) challenges encountered along the journey (organisational and interpersonal); and (3) making change happen; opportunities, initiatives and gains. We make recommendations on the value of a programme approach for achieving tangible outcomes that demonstrate increased inclusion for older LGBT people living in long-term care settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Banerjee, Smita C; Walters, Chasity B; Staley, Jessica M; Alexander, Koshy; Parker, Patricia A
Delivery of culturally competent care toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients depends on how health-care providers (HCPs) communicate with them; however, research about knowledge, attitude, and behavior of HCPs toward LGBT patients is scant. The objectives of our study were to describe oncology HCPs' knowledge and examine if beliefs about LGB and transgender patients mediate the effects of LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with LGB and transgender patients, respectively. A total of 1253 HCPs (187 physicians, 153 advance practice professionals (APPs), 828 nurses, and 41 others) at a Comprehensive Cancer Center completed an online survey that included the following measures: LGBT health-care knowledge, beliefs, communication behaviors, willingness to treat LGBT patients, encouraging LGBT disclosure, and perceived importance of LGBT sensitivity training. Only 50 participants (5%) correctly answered all 7 knowledge items, and about half the respondents answered 3 (out of 7) items correctly. Favorable beliefs about LGBT health care mediated the effect of higher LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with transgender patients, controlling for effects of type of profession, religious orientation, gender identity, sexual orientation, and having LGBT friends/family. The results of this study demonstrated an overall lack of medical knowledge and the need for more education about LGBT health care among oncology HCPs.