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Sample records for glazed ceramic tiles

  1. Surface Abrasion of Glazed Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito, L.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the proper surface of glazed ceramic tiles have a considerable influence on their mechanical response to the various stresses coming from the environment. In this regard, one of the most important parameters to define the correct use of these products is the wear behaviour of the proper surface. Since the glaze layer is the physical interface between the environment and ceramic body, its characteristics also determine the service life of the tile. The objective of the research reported here was to assess the influence of hardness, fracture toughness and porosity of the glaze layer on the wear behaviour of the proper surface of glazed ceramic tiles. The results obtained show a clear relationship between the characteristics of the glaze layer and the material removal in the form of normalised weight loss, which can be considered a useful tool to predict the wear behaviour of these products.

    Las características de la propia superficie de los azulejos cerámicos esmaltados tiene una influencia considerable en la respuesta mecánica de éstos a las distintas tensiones provenientes del entorno. De acuerdo con esto, uno de los parámetros más importantes que definen la correcta utilización de estos productos es el comportamiento ante el desgaste de la propia superficie. Debido a que la capa de esmalte es la conexión física entre el entorno y el cuerpo cerámico, sus características también determinan vida útil del azulejo. El objetivo de la investigación de la que damos cuenta aquí fue calcular la influencia de la dureza, resistencia a la fractura y porosidad de la capa de esmalte en el comportamiento ante el desgaste de la propia superficie de los azulejos cerámicos esmaltados. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una clara relación entre las características de la capa de esmalte y la eliminación del material en forma de pérdida de peso normalizada, que puede ser considerada como una herramienta útil para

  2. Electrokinetic desalination of glazed ceramic tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Celia; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination is a method where an applied electric DC field is the driving force for removal of salts from porous building materials. In the present paper, the method is tested in laboratory scale for desalination of single ceramic tiles. In a model system, where a tile...... was contaminated with NaCl during submersion and subsequently desalinated by the method, the desalination was completed in that the high and problematic initial Cl(-) concentration was reduced to an unproblematic concentration. Further conductivity measurements showed a very low conductivity in the tile after...... treatment, indicating that supply of ions from the poultice at the electrodes into the tile was limited. Electroosmotic transport of water was seen when low ionic content was reached. Experiments were also conducted with XVIII-century tiles, which had been removed from Palacio Centeno (Lisbon) during...

  3. Ancient Wall Tiles – The Importance of the Glaze/Ceramic Interface in Glaze Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa COSTA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pathologies suffered by early industrially produced tiles in Portugal in late nineteenth century is glaze detachment in wall tiles placed in the lower part of the façade. It is known that salts crystallize provoking the glaze detachment, destroying the waterproofing and the beauty of the wall tile and this is one of the crucial factors towards this occurrence. The present work questions the importance of the thickness of glaze/ceramic body interface, in what concerns glaze detachment provoked by salt crystallization. SEM-EDS was used to perform all the observations that lead to the conclusion that the exuberance of the interface between glaze and ceramic body has no influence in the resistance of the glaze to salt crystallization though time, being the porous network more determinant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3815

  4. Basaltic scorias from Romania - complex building material us for concrete, glazing tiles, ceramic glazes, glass ceramics, mineral wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marica, S.; Cetean, V. [PROCEMA S.A., Bucharest (Romania)

    2002-07-01

    The most spectacular deposit of basaltic scoria from Romania is the Heghes Hill from Racos, locality situated in the central part of country. This deposit emerged as grains of various dimensions, as volcanic ash with specific porosity up to 30% and vacuolar basaltic rocks. All types of basaltic scorias have specific vacuolar appearance, red- brick or blackish - grey coloured, scoria textures and similar chemical composition with others basalts of the world. The physical and mechanical characteristics determined included the scorias in the Heghes Hill in the following categories : light rocks (2,98 g/ dmc), porous(11,04%), similar to expanded slag, slightly absorbing rocks (3,86%), with low compression strengths (1700 daN/cmp). Basaltic scoria from Heghes is a very good row material for the manufacture of concrete, for obtain decorative cutting tiles glazing with ceramic and basaltic glazes (up to 40%) varied the range of colours and for obtaining glass ceramic, mineral wool, crushing sand for road maintenance, heat -insulating bricks and shid -proof material. (orig.)

  5. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajek, M; Lis, J; Partyka, J; Wojczyk, M, E-mail: mgajek@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramic, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-10-29

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6{approx}8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm{sup 2} (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5{approx}6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  6. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  7. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, M; Lis, J; Partyka, J; Wojczyk, M

    2011-01-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , V 2 O 5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6∼8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm 2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5∼6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 , were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  8. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  9. Micro-XRF for characterization of Moroccan glazed ceramics and Portuguese tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, A; Manso, M; Pessanha, S; Carvalho, M L; Zegzouti, A; Elaatmani, M; Bendaoud, R; Coroado, J; Santos, J M F dos

    2013-01-01

    A set of enamelled terracotta samples (Zellij) collected from five different monuments in Morocco were object of study. With the aim of characterizing these typically Moroccan artistic objects, X-ray spectroscopic techniques were used as analytical tool to provide elemental and compound information. A lack of information about these types of artistic ceramics is found by the research through international scientific journals, so this investigation is an opportunity to fulfill this gap. For this purpose, micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were the chosen methods. As complementary information, a comparison with other sort of artistic pottery objects is given, more precisely with Portuguese glazed wall tiles (Azulejos), based in the Islamic pottery traditions. Differences between these two types of decorative pottery were found and presented in this manuscript.

  10. Micro-XRF for characterization of Moroccan glazed ceramics and Portuguese tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, A.; Manso, M.; Pessanha, S.; Zegzouti, A.; Elaatmani, M.; Bendaoud, R.; Coroado, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2013-02-01

    A set of enamelled terracotta samples (Zellij) collected from five different monuments in Morocco were object of study. With the aim of characterizing these typically Moroccan artistic objects, X-ray spectroscopic techniques were used as analytical tool to provide elemental and compound information. A lack of information about these types of artistic ceramics is found by the research through international scientific journals, so this investigation is an opportunity to fulfill this gap. For this purpose, micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were the chosen methods. As complementary information, a comparison with other sort of artistic pottery objects is given, more precisely with Portuguese glazed wall tiles (Azulejos), based in the Islamic pottery traditions. Differences between these two types of decorative pottery were found and presented in this manuscript.

  11. Studies on Various Functional Properties of Titania Thin Film Developed on Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Asha; Darshana R, Bangoria; Misra, S. N.

    A sol-gel based TiO2 thin film was applied on glazed wall tiles for studying its various functional properties. Thin film was deposited by spin coating on the substrate and subjected to curing at different temperatures such as 600°C, 650, 700°C, 750°C and 800°C with 10 minutes soaking. The gel powder was characterized by FTIR, DTA/TG and XRD. Microstructure of thin film was analyzed by FESEM and EDX. Surface properties of the coatings such as gloss, colour difference, stain resistance, mineral hardness and wettability were extensively studied. The antibacterial activity of the surface of coated substrate against E. coli was also examined. The durability of the coated substrate in comparison to the uncoated was tested against alkali in accordance with ISO: 10545 (Part 13):1995 standard. FESEM images showed that thin films are dense and homogeneous. Coated substrates after firing results in lustre with high gloss, which increased from 330 to 420 GU as the curing temperature increases compared to that of uncoated one (72 GU). Coated substrate cured at 800°C shows higher mineral hardness (5 Mohs’) compared to uncoated one (4 Mohs’) and films cured at all temperatures showed stain resistance. The experimental results showed that the resistance towards alkali attack increase with increase in curing temperature and alkali resistance of sample cured at 800 °C was found to be superior compared to uncoated substrate. Contact angle of water on coated surface of substrates decreased with increase in temperature. Bacterial reduction percentages of the coated surface was 97% for sample cured at 700°C and it decreased from 97% to 87% as the curing temperature increased to 800 °C when treated with E. coli bacteria.

  12. Development of ceramic glaze with photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezza, V.B.; Uggioni, E.; Carrera, A.A. Duran; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Glazes were developed by adding anatase in commercial ceramic plates as an agent of photocatalysis. The glazes were coated on ceramic tiles, which were fired between 800 and 1000°C. The formulations were characterized (SEM, XRD), and the wettability was determined by measuring the water contact angle. The microstructural analysis (SEM) showed that the anatase particles can disperse properly in the glaze matrix. The X-ray diffraction shows that from 1000°C, the glaze becomes very reactive, and particles of anatase are transformed into titanite or rutile, depending on the glaze used. The determination of the contact angle shows the clear influence of the glaze type and sintering temperature on the wettability characteristics of the obtained layer. (author)

  13. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index; Influencia das caracteristicas da superficie no indice de refletancia solar de telhas ceramicas esmaltadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M., E-mail: luciana.maccarini@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  14. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  15. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T G

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near background to about four orders of magnitude higher. Almost every nuclide identification test demonstrated some radioactivity content from one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclide series of thorium or uranium. The glazes seemed to contribute most of the activity, although a sample of unglazed pottery greenware showed some activity. Samples of glazing paints and samples of deliberately doped glass from the World War II era were included in the test, as was a section of foam filled poster board. A glass disc with known (232)Th radioactivity concentration was cast for use as a calibration source. The results from the two assay methods are compared, and a projection of sensitivity from larger electret ion chamber devices is presented.

  16. Radioactivity level in Chinese building ceramic tile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinwei, L.

    2004-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K have been determined by gamma ray spectrometry. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K range from 158.3 to 1087.6, 91.7 to 1218.4, and 473.8 to 1031.3 Bq kg -1 for glaze, and from 63.5 to 131.4, 55.4 to 106.5, and 386.7 to 866.8 Bq kg -1 for ceramic tile, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the typical world values. The radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ) and internal hazard index (H in ) associated with the radionuclides were calculated. The Ra eq values of all ceramic tiles are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg -1 . The values of Hex and H in calculated according to the Chinese criterion for ceramic tiles are less than unity. The Ra eq value for the glaze of glazed tile collected from some areas are >370 Bq kg -1 . (authors)

  17. Zirconia-based colors for ceramic glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppler, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The history of color development for use in ceramic glazes is outlined. The most significant modern development is based on zirconia and zircon. These materials have gained increasing acceptance in the industry since their introduction in the late 1950's and early 1960's, due to their superior stability during firing of the glaze

  18. Electro-desalination of glazed tile panels - discussion of possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Célia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    . In the few experiments conducted on tiles with attached mortar, the mortar was desalinated to a higher degree than the biscuit and successful desalination of the biscuit through the mortar requires further research. In-situ pilot scale tests were performed on highly salt-contaminated walls without tiles...... by placing electrodes at the same side of the wall. Thus it may be possible to desalinate tile panels, without any physical damage of the fragile glaze, by placing electrodes on the back of the wall or by removing some tiles, placing electrodes in their spaces, and extracting the salts from there before...... the tiles are placed back again....

  19. PIXE analysis of Moroccan architectural glazed ceramics of 14th-18th centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Azzou, A.; El Amraoui, M.; Haddad, M.; Bejjit, L.; Ait Lyazidi, S.

    2009-01-01

    The PIXE analysis of glazes and ceramic bodies of a set of architectural glazed ceramics (mostly the zellige mosaics), sampled from seven Moroccan monuments from the 14th to the 18th century AD, has been performed. We have identified high lead glazes, opacified with tin-oxide, laid over a calciferous body to produce hard tiles easy to chisel as required by the zellige technique. The analysis has revealed significant differences between the monuments examined: in particular in the formulation of the base glass and in the use of stains to produce coloured glazes. We observed the peculiarity of materials used in Marrakech and we could distinguish, both in terms of glazes and ceramic bodies, the two almost contemporary Madersas dedicated to the sultan Bou Inan, one in Meknes the other in Fez. The PIXE measurements integrate a broad range of spectrometric investigations performed in the past few years. (author)

  20. Study of the composition and viscosity of engobe and glazed from dimension stones wastes for application in red tile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastenreiter, L.L. G.; Santos, J.C.; Taguchi, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    The dimension stones wastes has some constituents that may be employed in the ceramic. This work is about the production of engobe and glaze for ceramic coating. Chemical characterization of the residue and Clay (XRF) was performed. Several compositions were tested in order to decrease the melting temperature of the glaze to 980°C, enabling to produce the ceramic at 1100°C for 15 to 60 minutes, it presenting more uniform and better technological properties of the surface. The viscosities of some compositions of glaze and engobe were studied, to be applied on the red tile (100x100mm) to obtain the ceramic coating. These were analyzed for resistance to abrasion, according to NBR 13 818/1997 and it was found that the ceramic was classified as PEI 1 and may be used, eg in residential bathrooms and dormitories with no doors to the outside. (author)

  1. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near backgr...

  2. Dolomite addition effects on the thermal expansion of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Luis Fernando Bruno; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega

    1997-01-01

    The thermal expansion of ceramic tiles is of greater importance in engineering applications because the ceramics are relatively brittle and cannot tolerate large internal strain imposed by thermal expansion. When ceramic bodies are produced for glazed ties the compatibility of this property of the components should be considered to avoid damage in the final products. Carbonates are an important constituent of ceramic wall-title bodies and its presence in formulations and the reactions that occur between them and other components modify body properties. The influence in expansivity by additions of calcium magnesium carbonate in a composition of wall tile bodies has been investigated. The relative content of mineralogical components was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermal expansion by dilatometric measurements. The results was indicated that with the effect of calcium-magnesium phases and porosity on thermal expansion of wall tile bodies. (author)

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN GLAZES AND CERAMIC BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kavanova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of stress relations of ceramic body - glaze systems of model and real, both historical and contemporary ceramics. The systems were characterized in terms of chemical composition, linear thermal coefficients and degradation effects. The results show that calculation of stress relations between ceramic body and glaze is affected predominantly by the difference in values of thermal expansion coefficients. Calculated results provide relevant information about the accordance of the glaze - ceramic body and for the characterization of surface defects.

  4. Study on 95 alumina ceramic metallizing and glazing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qun; Wang Wei

    2007-12-01

    Electric heater is a component of pressurizer in NPP. So the connector of heater must suit for special requirement with high reliability. It need join 95% alumina ceramic and special metal together. Traditional technique is to glazing ceramic at first, then sintering metal powder on ceramic. It result in melting glaze when metallizing at high temperature. The research on high temperature glaze hasn't got ideal result. In another way, the experiments prove low temperature metallizing couldn't get enough strength. Base on present conditions, a new technique is introduced. It is first metallizing then glazing. It can not only provide high strength with high temperature metallizing , but also avoid melting glaze at high temperature. Compared with other ways, the experiments prove it is feasible. The test data can satisfy requirement. This research has been put into production. (authors)

  5. Gothic green glazed tile from Malbork Castle: Multi-analytical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svorová Pawełkowicz, S.; Rohanová, D.; Svora, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 27. ISSN 2050-7445 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) * Green glazed tile * Malbork Castle * Medieval technology * Opacifiers * Silica-lead glaze Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry

  6. Characterization of the interaction between glazes and ceramic bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavanová, M.; Kloužková, A.; Kloužek, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2017), s. 267-275 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glazes * ceramic s * thermal analysis * coefficients of the thermal expansion * dilatometry Subject RIV: JH - Ceramic s, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramic s Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2016

  7. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  8. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  9. Consolidation treatments applied to ceramic tiles: are they homogeneous?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.; Leal, A.S.; Mimoso, J.M; Pereira, S.M.R.

    2017-01-01

    The mass consolidation treatment of azulejos is necessary when ceramic biscuits show signs of disaggregation. Such treatment is often used as a complementary conservation technique to the reestablishment of weakened glaze-ceramic bonds. In this research, two commonly used consolidants (ethyl silicate and acrylic resin) were tested on artisanal ceramic tiles via mass consolidation and the resulting impregnation profiles were evaluated. The results indicated that after consolidation, hard zones frequently formed due to localized consolidant concentration after the polymerization and curing processes. These inhomogeneous hard zones subsequently influenced the results obtained through conventional mechanical strength testing (i.e. flexural and compression), creating a false impression of success. This research demonstrated that by using the Drilling Resistance Measuring System, impregnation characteristics such as penetration depth and distribution of consolidant could be observed that otherwise could not be discerned through the more common testing methods. As such, a more extensive evaluation of consolidation effects was achieved. [es

  10. Consolidation treatments applied to ceramic tiles: are they homogeneous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass consolidation treatment of azulejos is necessary when ceramic biscuits show signs of disaggregation. Such treatment is often used as a complementary conservation technique to the reestablishment of weakened glaze-ceramic bonds. In this research, two commonly used consolidants (ethyl silicate and acrylic resin were tested on artisanal ceramic tiles via mass consolidation and the resulting impregnation profiles were evaluated. The results indicated that after consolidation, hard zones frequently formed due to localized consolidant concentration after the polymerization and curing processes. These inhomogeneous hard zones subsequently influenced the results obtained through conventional mechanical strength testing (i.e. flexural and compression, creating a false impression of success. This research demonstrated that by using the Drilling Resistance Measuring System, impregnation characteristics such as penetration depth and distribution of consolidant could be observed that otherwise could not be discerned through the more common testing methods. As such, a more extensive evaluation of consolidation effects was achieved.

  11. A portable high-power diode laser-based single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J.; Schmidt, M. J. J.; Li, L.; Edwards, R. E.; Gale, A. W.

    2002-02-01

    By means of a 60 W high-power diode laser (HPDL) and a specially developed grout material the void between adjoining ceramic tiles has been successfully sealed. A single-stage process has been developed which uses a crushed ceramic tile mix to act as a tough, inexpensive bulk substrate and a glazed enamel surface to provide an impervious surface glaze. The single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process yielded seals produced in normal atmospheric conditions that displayed no discernible cracks and porosities. The single-stage grout is simple to formulate and easy to apply. Tiles were successfully sealed with power densities as low as 200 kW/ mm2 and at rates of up to 600 mm/ min. Bonding of the enamel to the crushed ceramic tile mix was identified as being primarily due to van der Waals forces and, on a very small scale, some of the crushed ceramic tile mix material dissolving into the glaze. In terms of mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics, the single-stage ceramic tile grout was found to be far superior to the conventional epoxy tile grout and, in many instances, matched and occasionally surpassed that of the ceramic tiles themselves. What is more, the development of a hand-held HPDL beam delivery unit and the related procedures necessary to lead to the commercialisation of the single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process are presented. Further, an appraisal of the potential hazards associated with the use of the HPDL in an industrial environment and the solutions implemented to ensure that the system complies with the relevant safety standards are given.

  12. Dose rate measurements in the beta-photon radiation field from UO2 pellets and glazed ceramics containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Burgkhardt, B.

    1986-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, the handling of UO 2 pellets results in a significant exposure, mainly due to beta rays. Depth dose distributions have been investigated at source-to-detector distances of 5 to 80 cm using LiF detectors of different thicknesses. Detailed data for the dose equivalent quantities H(0.07), H(3) and H(10) are presented. These data are compared with those found for the use of glazed tiles and ceramics containing natural uranium. (author)

  13. Glass-ceramics frits for high mechanical resistance glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wojczyk, M.

    2004-01-01

    The obtaining and application of glass-ceramics frits for glazes were discussed by many authors. This glazes are characterized by raised mechanical parameters and chemical resistance. Factors, that determines crystallization process are initial composition, heat treatment and nucleation agents. The kind of crystalline phases, crystal habit and the content of residual glass phase play the decisive role in the strengthening of the glaze. In this paper are shown results of investigation over controlled crystallization in the ternary systems; Li 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , ZnO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , MgO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , with or without nucleation agents. (author)

  14. Microstructural characterization of ceramic floor tiles with the incorporation of wastes from ceramic tile industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic floor tiles are widely used in buildings. In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic floor tiles interfere in the contact temperature and also it can be an strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. In this work, porous ceramic tiles were obtained by pressing an industrial atomized ceramic powder incorporated with refractory raw material (residue from porcelainized stoneware tile polishing and changing firing temperature. Raw materials and obtained compacted samples were evaluated by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential thermal analysis (DTA. Thermal (thermal conductivity and effusivity and physical (porosity measurements were also evaluated.

  15. Testing method for ceramic armour and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    TNO developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this alternative test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armour are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  16. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  17. Induced superhydrophobic and antimicrobial character of zinc metal modified ceramic wall tile surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Selçuk; Açıkbaş, Gökhan; Çalış Açıkbaş, Nurcan

    2018-04-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces are also known to have antimicrobial effect by restricting the adherence of microorganisms. However, ceramic products are produced by high temperature processes resulting in a hydrophilic surface. In this study, an industrial ceramic wall tile glaze composition was modified by the inclusion of metallic zinc powder in the glaze suspension applied on the pre-sintered wall tile bodies by spraying. The glazed tiles were gloss fired at industrially applicable peak temperatures ranging from 980 °C to 1100 °C. The fired tile surfaces were coated with a commercial fluoropolymer avoiding water absorption. The surfaces were characterized with SEM, EDS, XRD techniques, roughness, sessile water drop contact angle, surface energy measurements, and standard antimicrobial tests. The surface hydrophobicity and the antimicrobial activity results were compared with that of unmodified, uncoated gloss fired wall tiles. A superhydrophobic contact angle of 150° was achieved at 1000 °C peak temperature due to the formation of micro-structured nanocrystalline zinc oxide granules providing a specific surface topography. At higher peak temperatures the hydrophobicity was lost as the specific granular surface topography deteriorated with the conversion of zinc oxide granules to the ubiquitous willemite crystals embedded in the glassy matrix. The antimicrobial efficacy also correlated with the hydrophobic character.

  18. TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF CERAMIC TILES BASED ON DOLERITE AND FUSIBLE CLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleshko Marianna Viktorovna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a completely new composition of the ceramic mass for production of ceramic tiles for interior lining of walls, on the basis of fusible clay. The optimal compositions of jade engobe and glossy glaze, the most suitable for this composition, are determined. A new technological scheme is developed for production of ceramic tiles for interior lining based on dolerite and fusible clay. The curve of firing, which is the most suitable for charge masses and decorative coating compositions being used, has been constructed. Subject: ceramic mass for the production of ceramic facing tiles. Ceramic tiles are the most popular building material in Russia. The most promising technology for its production from the standpoint of technical and economic efficiency is the technology of rapid single firing, which is rarely used at the plants of our country. In this regard, the development and implementation of new effective compositions of ceramic masses and decorative coatings that are the most compatible with the specifics of rapid single firing technology, based on new unconventional raw materials, are very relevant and promising. Research objectives: development of technological parameters, compositions of ceramic masses and decorative coatings of ceramic tiles for the internal wall lining that provide an increase in tiles production efficiency using the technology of rapid single firing through the use of non-traditional plagioclase-pyroxene raw materials: dolerites, loam and technogenic raw materials. Materials and methods: technological, numerical and experimental studies were conducted. To select the optimal composition of the ceramic mass, the method of mathematical planning was used, namely the simplex-centroid design of Scheffe. To identify the scientific foundations of the energy-efficient production technology being developed, differential thermal and X-ray phase, optical, electron microscopic and dilatometric studies were applied

  19. Standard Test Method for Bond Strength of Ceramic Tile to Portland Cement Paste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the ability of glazed ceramic wall tile, ceramic mosaic tile, quarry tile, and pavers to be bonded to portland cement paste. This test method includes both face-mounted and back-mounted tile. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Air quality comparison between two European ceramic tile clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Guerra, L.; Busani, G.; Sterni, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-08-01

    The European ceramic tile industry is mostly concentrated in two clusters, one in Castelló (Spain) and another one in Modena (Italy). Industrial clusters may have problems to accomplish the EU air quality regulations because of the concentration of some specific pollutants and, hence, the feasibility of the industrial clusters can be jeopardised. The present work assesses the air quality in these ceramic clusters in 2008, when the new EU emission regulations where put into force. PM10 samples were collected at two sampling sites in the Modena ceramic cluster and one sampling site in the Castelló ceramic cluster. PM10 annual average concentrations were 12-14 μg m-3 higher in Modena than in Castelló, and were close to or exceeded the European limit. Air quality in Modena was mainly influenced by road traffic and, in a lower degree, the metalmechanical industry, as evidenced by the high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb registered. The stagnant weather conditions from Modena hindering dispersion of pollutants also contributed to the relatively high pollution levels. In Castelló, the influence of the ceramic industry is evidenced by the high concentrations of Ti, Se, Tl and Pb, whereas this influence is not seen in Modena. The difference in the impact of the ceramic industry on the air quality in the two areas was attributed to: better abatement systems in the spray-drier facilities in Modena, higher coverage of the areas for storage and handling of dusty raw materials in Modena, presence of two open air quarries in the Castelló region, low degree of abatement systems in the ceramic tile kilns in Castelló, and abundance of ceramic frit, glaze and pigment manufacture in Castelló as opposed to scarce manufacture of these products in Modena. The necessity of additional measures to fulfil the EU air quality requirements in the Modena region is evidenced, despite the high degree of environmental measures implemented in the ceramic industry. The Principal

  1. Wear characteristics of polished and glazed lithium disilicate ceramics opposed to three ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Kodaira, Akihisa; Okamura, Kentaro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the wear characteristics of a heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic material opposed to feldspathic porcelain, a lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and zirconia materials. Ceramic plate specimens were prepared from feldspathic porcelain (EX-3 nA1B), lithium disilicate glass ceramics (e.max CAD MO1/C14), and zirconia (Katana KT 10) and then ground or polished. Rounded rod specimens were fabricated from heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramic (e.max press LT A3) and then glazed or polished. A sliding wear testing apparatus was used for wear testing. Wear of glazed rods was greater than that of polished rods when they were abraded with ground zirconia, ground porcelain, polished porcelain, or polished lithium disilicate ceramics. For both glazed and polished rods, wear was greater when the rods were abraded with ground plates. The findings indicate that application of a polished surface rather than a glazed surface is recommended for single restorations made of heat-pressed lithium disilicate material. In addition, care must be taken when polishing opposing materials, especially those used in occlusal contact areas. (J Oral Sci 58, 117-123, 2016).

  2. Nondestructive determination of lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes by radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitation capabilities of radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (RXRFS) for determining lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes were investigated. Twenty-one air-dried glazes and 85 fired glazes on test tiles were analyzed by using 109 Cd and 57 Co excitation sources. Accurate Pb determinations, with limits of detection (LODs) of about 0.3 mg/cm 2 for 5 min counting times, were achieved by using the 75 keV Κ α1 X-ray photopeak and a Pb foil calibration procedure. Cd, Sn, Sb, and Ba concentrations were determined with LODs from about 0.5 to 1.5 mg/cm 2 . For Pb and Ba, results obtained by using absorption corrections based only on element concentrations determined by RXRFS and an iterative approach led to analytical biases of ≤4% relative to results obtained by using corrections based on known total element compositions. Biases were more severe for Cd, Sn, and Sb because lower X-ray energies were involved and sensitivities varied as a function of matrix Pb content. Pb concentrations were above LODs (1.3-40 mg/cm 2 ) in 39 of 47 fired open-quotes food-safeclose quotes glazes and in 33 of the other 38 fired glazes (0.4-39 mg/cm 2 ). 15 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Cleanability evaluation of ceramic glazes with nanometer far-infrared materials using contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Liang, Jinsheng; Di, Xingfu; Tang, Qingguo

    2014-05-01

    The cleanability of easy-to-clean ceramic glazes doped with nanometer far-infrared materials was compared with that of some high-quality household ceramic glazes from the market. The cleanability was evaluated by the contact angle measurement using a sessile drop method with a Dataphysics OCA-30 contact angle analyzer. The results showed that the difference of contact angles of water on the glazes before soiling and after cleaning could be used as a parameter for evaluating the cleanability of the glazes. The relationship between cleanability and surface properties, such as surface free energy and surface topography, was investigated. The surface free energy of the samples and their components were calculated using van Oss acid-base approach. By measuring advancing and receding contact angles, the contact angle hysteresis of the ceramic glazes due to the surface topography was investigated. It was shown that the cleanability of ceramic glazes containing nanometer far-infrared materials (NFIM) is better than that of household ceramic glazes from market, due to a higher ratio of electron-acceptor parameter to electron-donor parameter, which led to the effect of water hydration as well as better hydrophilic property and increased smoothness. The contact angle measurement not only accurately evaluates the cleanability of the ceramic glazes, but also has a contribution to the study of cleanability theory. Moreover, this method is simple, convenient and less sample-consumption.

  4. Development of lime based mortars for repairing glazed tile coatings of historic buildings in the city of Ovar, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Portugal is one of the European countries in which built heritage is a testimony of its history. In this context, the legacy of the decorative glazed tile coatings of facades must be preserved and restored. This research is dedicated to the conservation of such facades in the city of Ovar, considered an example due to its rich heritage in glazed tiles, a high percentage of which requires a deep intervention. Therefore, this work is focused on the study of lime renders serving as a support for this type of tile facades. For this, samples were collected from several buildings in the city, targeting their mechanical and physical study with the aim of producing compatible mortars to be used for application of detached tiles in these buildings and generally for the repair of the facades with glazed tile coatings. For this purpose, four lime mortar formulations with different volumetric ratios were composed. The aggregates used were: ordinary river sand and local gravel. In three of the mixtures, metakaolin was added, with the intention of acting as an artificial pozzolan and thus improving the performance of these mortars. The use of a pozzolanic addition promotes hardening of lime mortars in cases when the ingression of carbon dioxide is low as is the case of mortars placed below glazed tile coatings. These mortars were also tested in the laboratory taking into account their physical and mechanical characteristics. The mechanical characteristics determined were: modulus of elasticity by two different methods, compressive strength and flexural strength. In turn, the physical characteristics determined were: water vapour permeability and water absorption by total immersion and capillary action. The best mechanical behaviour (compressive and flexural was observed in the mortar with pozzolanic additions. Similarly, the value of the modulus of elasticity was better in mortars with pozzolanic additions. The performance of these mortars was also adequate

  5. Characterization of ancient ceramic tiles using XRF = = = =

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdelwahed, Haifa

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of energies and intensities of fluorescent X-rays emitted from a given material when atoms are bombarded with suitable projectiles like electrons, protons, particles or photons has been successfully used for non-destructive elemental analysis in many applications, especially in the analysis of ceramic glasses. Use of radioisotopes as a source of excitation radiation in combination with high resolution semiconductor detectors in x-ray fluorescence has found wide applications in elemental analysis. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometer consisting of a standard 5.45mm Si(Li) detector having a resolution of 200 eV at 5.9 keV coupled to a TRUMP-8K multichannel analyzer has been used. Tow sources of annular geometry using 10 mCi 109Cd and 10 mCi 55Fe together with PC AXIL software have been used for this study of tile-pavement glasses of ''Ksar Said'' in Tunisia. Analytical data shows that those tile pavement witch are broken in the 19th century from France (Marseille) have not the same composition of Tunisian tile pavement. Referring to our data, The kind of that analyzed glasses is of alkaline lead. we found also, through this study, the elemental compositions of different pigments (green, blue, brownish, yellow, white and red) used to color that tile-pavement glasses. (author). 21 refs

  6. Ceramic tiles: above and beyond traditional applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno, A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available At present ceramic tiles are already being marketed with characteristics and performance features that make them products whose applications go far beyond traditional tile uses. These are not just future possibilities: their industrial and commercial reality already makes them immediately serviceable in multiple environments. And this is precisely the key concept in these new tile applications: their features make them useable for wholly different functions – functions till now reserved for other products – or, in certain cases, for entirely novel functions. In addition, the functionalities involved are destined to improve aspects directly related to the quality of life, conditions of habitability or, for instance, to using such a vital natural source of energy as solar radiation. It should, therefore, be stressed that these new generations of ceramic tiles are to be considered part of the range of architectural elements for both external and internal uses, since, as the following will show, they provide the surfaces they clad with a broad spectrum of properties and functions without detriment to the aesthetic qualities, always so characteristic, of ceramic tile. To illustrate the above, the present paper describes three new families of ceramic products. These groups of products are conceptually different and many-sided, which makes them serviceable as functional elements in different contexts.

    En estos momentos, ya hay en el mercado baldosas cerámicas dotadas de características y prestaciones que hacen de ellas productos con aplicaciones que van mucho más allá de los usos a que tradicionalmente han estado asociadas. No se trata tan sólo de posibilidades futuras, sino de productos con una realidad industrial y comercial, que permite su implantación inmediata en los diferentes ámbitos en los que pueden desarrollar su funcionalidad. Y este es precisamente el concepto clave de estas nuevas aplicaciones de las baldosas cer

  7. Soft tissue adhesion of polished versus glazed lithium disilicate ceramic for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunot-Gohin, C; Duval, J-L; Azogui, E-E; Jannetta, R; Pezron, I; Laurent-Maquin, D; Gangloff, S C; Egles, C

    2013-09-01

    Ceramics are widely used materials for prosthesis, especially in dental fields. Despite multiple biomedical applications, little is known about ceramic surface modifications and the resulting cell behavior at its contact. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biological response of polished versus glazed surface treatments on lithium disilicate dental ceramic. We studied a lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max(®) Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) with 3 different surface treatments: raw surface treatment, hand polished surface treatment, and glazed surface treatment (control samples are Thermanox(®), Nunc). In order to evaluate the possible modulation of cell response at the surface of ceramic, we compared polished versus glazed ceramics using an organotypic culture model of chicken epithelium. Our results show that the surface roughness is not modified as demonstrated by equivalent Ra measurements. On the contrary, the contact angle θ in water is very different between polished (84°) and glazed (33°) samples. The culture of epithelial tissues allowed a very precise assessment of histocompatibility of these interfaces and showed that polished samples increased cell adhesion and proliferation as compared to glazed samples. Lithium disilicate polished ceramic provided better adhesion and proliferation than lithium disilicate glazed ceramic. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time, how it is possible to use simple surface modifications to finely modulate the adhesion of tissues. Our results will help dental surgeons to choose the most appropriate surface treatment for a specific clinical application, in particular for the ceramic implant collar. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reusing Ceramic Tile Polishing Waste In Paving Block Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Penteado; Carmenlucia Santos; de Carvalho; Eduardo Viviani; Cecche Lintz; Rosa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic companies worldwide produce large amounts of polishing tile waste, which are piled up in the open air or disposed of in landfills. These wastes have such characteristics that make them potential substitutes for cement and sand in the manufacturing of concrete products. This paper investigates the use of ceramic tile polishing waste as a partial substitute for cement and sand in the manufacturer of concrete paving blocks. A concrete mix design was defined and then the sand was replaced...

  9. Characterization of double face adhesive sheets for ceramic tile installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Otavio L.; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Mansur, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this work was the characterization of an innovative ceramic tile installation product based on double face adhesive sheets. Density, hardness, tensile strength, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with spectroscopy of dispersive energy assays were conducted. The results are in agreement with some manufacture specifications and the obtained information will be crucial in the analysis of durability and stability of the ceramic tile system installed with this new product. (author)

  10. Standard test method for measurement of light reflectance value and small color differences between pieces of ceramic tile

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of Light Reflectance Value (LRV) and visually small color difference between pieces of glazed or unglazed ceramic tile, using any spectrophotometer that meets the requirements specified in the test method. LRV and the magnitude and direction of the color difference are expressed numerically, with sufficient accuracy for use in product specification. 1.2 LRV may be measured for either solid-colored tile or tile having a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface. For tile that are not solid-colored, an average reading should be obtained from multiple measurements taken in a pattern representative of the overall sample as described in 9.2 of this test method. Small color difference between tiles should only be measured for solid-color tiles. Small color difference between tile that have a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface, are not valid. 1.3 For solid colored tile, a comparison of the test specimen and reference specimen should be made under incandescent, f...

  11. Changes to Glazed Dental Ceramic Shade, Roughness, and Microhardness after Bleaching and Simulated Brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carlos Roberto Teixeira; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2017-09-05

    To evaluate shade stability, surface roughness, microhardness, and compressive strength of a glazed feldspathic ceramic subjected to bleaching and simulated brushing. Eighty-eight glazed feldspathic ceramic specimens were made from microparticulate leucite and divided into eight groups (n = 10). The whitening products used were: Opalescence Trèswhite Supreme (Ultradent), Opalescence®\\ PF 15% (Ultradent), and Oral-B 3D White Whitestrips. All substances for whitening were used for 4 hours/day for a period of 14 days; the control group was not bleached. Next, half of the specimens were individually brushed. Microhardness and surface roughness data were subjected to three-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The diametrical tensile strength data were subjected to two-way ANOVA. The shade change data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. The significance level was set at 5%. Glazed feldspathic ceramic surface microhardness was significantly affected by bleaching agents (p = 0.007). Initially, glazed ceramic microhardness was significantly higher than that observed after contact with the bleaching agents, whether or not brushing was performed. The specimens submitted to bleaching in preloaded trays presented lower surface roughness values after brushing (p = 0.037). The surface roughness was significantly lower in the brushed specimens (p = 0.044). The diametrical tensile strength was not significantly affected by the application of bleaching agents (p = 0.563) or by brushing (p = 0.477). When the specimens were brushed, however, shade change was significantly influenced by the bleaching agent used (p = 0.041). Bleaching agents associated with brushing cycles can alter surface properties and shade stability of glazed feldspathic ceramics, though such findings may not reflect the performance of unglazed feldspathic ceramics. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. Childhood Blood Lead Reductions Following Removal of Leaded Ceramic Glazes in Artisanal Pottery Production: A Success Story

    OpenAIRE

    Donald E. Jones, MS; Mario Covarrubias Pérez; Bret Ericson; Daniel Estrada Sánchez; Sandra Gualtero; Andrea Smith-Jones, MS; Jack Caravanos, DrPH, CIH

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lead exposure within artisanal ceramics workshop communities in Mexico continues to be a major source of childhood lead poisoning. Artisanal ceramics workshops expose children through direct ingestion, contaminated soil, and food prepared in lead-glazed pottery. Conversion to non-lead glazes alone may not effectively reduce exposure. This paper describes a model comprehensive intervention and environmental remediation of an artisanal ceramics workshop in the state of Hidalgo, Mexi...

  13. Characteristics of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic objects from Fatimid and Mamluk periods as revealed by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, Hamada; Abd El Hady M M

    2012-01-01

    Ion beam analysis (PIXE, μPIXE) has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic from 10th to the 16th centuries (Fatimid and Mamluk periods). Glazed ceramic samples from Al-Fustat Excavation store have been chosen to represent different colours (green, blue, brown, black ...etc), the colours of glaze depend on many factors such as oxides present in the glaze layer, fluxes and the conditions in which objects had been manufactured in the past. Ion Beam allows the identification of elemental composition of the glaze layer i.e., the information about colorants used in glaze, which is of great importance for compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship between ancient cultures with the environment.

  14. Synthetic flux as a whitening agent for ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Geocris, E-mail: geocris.rodrigues@gmail.com [INNOVARE Inteligência Em Cerâmica, 13566-420 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Salvetti, Alfredo Roque [Departamento De Física, Universidade Federal De Mato Grosso Do Sul (Brazil); Cabrelon, Marcelo Dezena [INNOVARE Inteligência Em Cerâmica, 13566-420 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Morelli, Márcio Raymundo [Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The synthetic flux acts as a whitening agent of firing color in raw material ceramics. • The raw material ceramics have high levels of the iron oxides and red color. • The different process obtained red color clays with hematite and illite phases. • The whiteness ceramic obtained herein can be used in a porcelain tile industry. - Abstract: A synthetic flux is proposed as a whitening agent of firing color in tile ceramic paste during the sinterization process, thus turning the red firing color into whiteness. By using this mechanism in the ceramic substrates, the stoneware tiles can be manufactured using low cost clays with high levels of iron oxides. This method proved to be an economical as well as commercial strategy for the ceramic tile industries because, in Brazil, the deposits have iron compounds as mineral component (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in most of the raw materials. Therefore, several compositions of tile ceramic paste make use of natural raw materials, and a synthetic flux in order to understand how the interaction of the iron element, in the mechanism of firing color ceramic, occurs in this system. The bodies obtained were fired at 1100 °C for 5 min in air atmosphere to promote the color change. After the heating, the samples were submitted to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses. The results showed that the change of firing color occurs because the iron element, which is initially in the crystal structure of the hematite phase, is transformed into a new crystal (clinopyroxenes phase) formed during the firing, so as to make the final firing color lighter.

  15. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Builders School, Ceramic Tile Setting 3-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, for individualized or group instruction on ceramic tile setting, was developed from military sources for use in vocational education. The course provides students with skills in mortar preparation, surface preparation, tile layout planning, tile setting, tile cutting, and the grouting of tile joints. Both theory and shop assignments…

  16. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wu, Bolin, E-mail: wubolin3211@gmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) are obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The self-glazing phenomenon in red mud system was first discovered in our research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation levels of red mud can be reduced efficiently by self-glazing layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red mud based ceramic materials will not cause harm to environment and humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research possesses important economic significances to aluminum companies. - Abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation

  17. Study parameters process for production of red glazed ceramic plates with waste of stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.C.; Taguchi, S.P.; Silva, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The volume of fine waste's solid dimension stone industry has required a destination appropriate for them due to environmental and economic issues. The main goal of this work was to study the produce plates of glazed pottery with dimension stone waste. For analyzing the crystal structure, the test was conducted X-ray and X-ray fluorescence to determine the chemical composition of clay and the waste. Particle size was analysed too. Ceramic duo type (120x30x10mm) were sintered at 1280° C for 15 and 60 minutes. Characterized the samples for water absorption. The glaze had a strong anchorage in the ceramic base, but the high melting temperature caused cracks in the ceramic base, increasing the water absorption values. Thus, flux was added, based on the phase diagram Na_2O: CaO: SiO_2, which reduced the melting temperature of the glaze to 980 °C, enabling to produce the ceramic at 1100°C for 30 minutes, more uniform surface and best technological properties. (author)

  18. The energy consumption in the ceramic tile industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciacco, Eduardo F.S.; Rocha, Jose R.; Coutinho, Aparecido R.

    2017-01-01

    The ceramic industry occupies a prominent place in the Brazilian industrial context, representing about 1.0% in the GDP composition. On the other hand, it represent about 1.9% of all energy consumed in the country, and 5.8% of the energy consumed in the Brazilian industrial sector in 2014. Regarding the power consumption by the ceramic industry, most is derived from renewable sources (firewood), followed by use of fossil fuels, mainly natural gas (NG). This study was conducted to quantify the energy consumption in the production of ceramic tiles (CT), by means of experimental data obtained directly in the industry and at every step of the manufacturing process. The step of firing and sintering has the highest energy consumption, with approximately 56% of the total energy consumed. In sequence, have the atomization steps with 30% and the drying with 14%, of total energy consumption in the production of ceramic tiles, arising from the use of NG. In addition, it showed that the production of ceramic tiles by wet process has energy consumption four times the dry production process, due to the atomization step.

  19. Study of the effect of nano surface morphology on the stain-resistant property of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, S P; Hung, J K; Liu, Y T

    2014-01-01

    In this study, six types of commercially available ceramic tiles, including nano-structured ceramic tiles and regular ceramic tiles, were selected to investigate the effect of surface morphology on their stain-resistant property. The stain-resistant efficiencies of various ceramic tiles with nano-size surface were measured in order to determine the appropriate method for testing ceramic tiles with nano-structure surface

  20. A two-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process using a high power diode laser—Grout development and materials characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J.; Li, L.; Spencer, J. T.

    1998-04-01

    Work has been conducted using a 60 Wcw high power diode laser (HPDL) in order to determine the feasibility and characteristics of sealing the void between adjoining ceramic tiles with a specially developed grout material having an impermeable enamel surface glaze. A two-stage process has been developed using a new grout material which consists of two distinct components: an amalgamated compound substrate and a glazed enamel surface; the amalgamated compound seal providing a tough, heat resistant bulk substrate, whilst the enamel provides an impervious surface. HPDL processing has resulted in crack free seals produced in normal atmospheric conditions. The basic process phenomena are investigated and the laser effects in terms of seal morphology, composition and microstructure are presented. Also, the resultant heat affects are analysed and described, as well as the effects of the shield gases, O 2 and Ar, during laser processing. Tiles were successfully sealed with power densities as low as 500 W/cm 2 and at rates up to 600 mm/min. Contact angle measurements revealed that due to the wettability characteristics of the amalgamated oxide compound grout (AOCG), laser surface treatment was necessary in order to alter the surface from a polycrystalline to a semi-amorphous structure, thus allowing the enamel to adhere. Bonding of the enamel to the AOCG and the ceramic tiles was identified as being principally due to van der Waals forces, and on a very small scale, some of the base AOCG material dissolving into the glaze.

  1. Tensile Bond Strength of Metal Bracket Bonding to Glazed Ceramic Surfaces With Different Surface Conditionings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments.Materials and Methods: Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA. Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid followed by ceramic primerand adhesive application. Brackets were bonded with light cure composites. The specimens were stored in distilled water in the room temperature for 24 hours and thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile bond strength and the adhesive remenant index scores between three groups was evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively.Results: The tensile bond strength was 3.69±0.52 MPa forfirst group, 2.69±0.91 MPa for second group and 3.60±0.41 MPa for third group. Group II specimens showed tensile strength values significantly different from other groups (P<0.01.Conclusion: In spite of limitations in laboratory studies it may be concluded that in application of Scotch bond multipurpose plus adhesive, phosphoric acid can be used instead of HFA for bonding brackets to the glazed ceramic restorations with enough tensile bond strength.

  2. Moisture expansion of ceramic tiles produced using kaolin and granite wastes; Expansao por umidade de revestimentos ceramicos incorporados com residuos de granito e caulim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, A.M.G.D.; Cartaxo, J.M.; Santana, L.N.L; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C., E-mail: ana.duartemendonca@gmail.com, E-mail: gelmires@dema.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: lisiane@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande,Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R.R. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Moisture expansion (ME) is the term used to describe the expansion of ceramic materials due to the adsorption of water. ME usually occurs slowly and is relatively small, but, it can damage the ceramic tiles adhesion to the underlayment, craze the glaze and lead to the development of cracks on ceramics bricks. In this work kaolin and granite wastes were incorporated in ceramic compositions aiming study their influence on the ME of ceramic tiles. Raw materials were processed and submitted to characterization: physical and mineralogical by laser diffraction particle size analysis, chemical analysis, thermo differential and thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that kaolin and granite wastes can be incorporated in ceramic composition because display characteristics similar to conventional not plastic ceramic materials, providing satisfactory ME results when compared to the ME limit value of 0.6 mm/m (0.06%) indicated by the ABNT for ceramic tiles. Compositions containing up to 20% of waste can be produced when firing above 1000 deg C. (author)

  3. Tensile bond strength of metal bracket bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces with different surface conditionings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Ms Ahmad; Kamel, M Rahmati; Hashemi, Sh Mahmood; Imani, M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments. Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA). Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid followed by ceramic primer and adhesive application. Brackets were bonded with light cure composites. The specimens were stored in distilled water in the room temperature for 24 hours and thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile bond strength and the adhesive remenant index scores between three groups was evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively. The tensile bond strength was 3.69±0.52 MPa forfirst group, 2.69±0.91 MPa for second group and 3.60±0.41 MPa for third group. Group II specimens showed tensile strength values significantly different from other groups (Ptensile bond strength.

  4. Color features for quality control in ceramic tile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Saku; Kaelviaeinen, Heikki; Parkkinen, Jussi P.

    2001-02-01

    We study visual quality control in the ceramics industry. In the manufacturing, it is important that in each set of tiles, every single tile looks similar. Currently, the estimation is usually done by human vision. Our goal is to design a machine vision system that can estimate the sufficient similarity, or same appearance, to the human eye. Our main approach is to use accurate spectral representation of color, and compare spectral features to the RGB color features. A laboratory system for color measurements is built. Experimentations with five classes of brown tiles are presented and discussed. In addition to the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier, a neural network called the self-organizing map (SOM) is used to provide understanding of the spectral features. Every single spectrum in each tile of a training set is used as input to a 2D SOM. The SOM is analyzed to understand how spectra are clustered. As a result, tiles are classified using a trained 2D SOM. It is also of interest to know whether the order of spectral colors can be determined. In our approach, all spectra are clustered in a 1D SOM, and each pixel spectrum) is presented by pseudocolors according to the trained nodes. Finally, the results are compared to experiments with human vision.

  5. Elimination of the dirty crust of white alterated glaze from excavated ceramics using the laser cleaning alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Castro, Elvira; Saiz Mauleón, María Begoña; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The laser technique has been applied to the cleaning process of glazed decorated ceramics from excavation sites. The use of this method arises as the only possible alternative in the process of cleaning pieces with crusts of dirt that are extremely hard and strongly stuck over altered and friable white glaze layers. The study carried out has allowed to fix the optimal laser parameters in the elimination of the dark dirty layer found on several fragments from different periods. The study has b...

  6. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    OF SELECTED EXISTING BUILDINGS IN AND AROUND COPENHAGEN COVERED WITH MOSAIC TILES, UNGLAZED OR GLAZED CLAY TILES. ITS BUILDINGS WHICH HAVE QUALITIES THAT I WOULD LIKE APPLIED, PERHAPS TRANSFORMED OR MOST PREFERABLY, INTERPRETED ANEW, FOR THE LARGE GLAZED CONCRETE PANELS I AM DEVELOPING. KEYWORDS: COLOR, LIGHT...

  7. Radon exhalation rates corrected for leakage and back diffusion – Evaluation of radon chambers and radon sources with application to ceramic tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abo-Elmagd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural radon decay, leakage and back diffusion are the main removal processes of radon from its container. Ignoring these processes leads to underestimate the measured value of radon related parameters like exhalation rate and radium content. This work is aimed to evaluate two different radon chambers through determining their leakage rate λv and evaluation of radon source by determine its back diffusion rate λb inside the evaluated radon chambers as well as a small sealed cup. Two different methods are adapted for measuring both the leakage rate and the back diffusion rate. The leakage rate can be determined from the initial slope of the radon decay curve or from the exponential fitting of the whole decay curve. This can be achieved if a continuous monitoring of radon concentration inside the chamber is available. Also, the back diffusion rate is measured by sealing the radon source in the chamber and used the initial slope of the buildup curve to determine λb and therefore the exhalation rate of the source. This method was compared with simple equation for λb based on the ratio of the source to the chamber volume. The obtained results are applied to ceramic tile as an important radon source in homes. The measurement is targeted the ceramic glaze before and after firing as well as the obtained tile after adhere the glaze on the tile main body. Also, six different tile brands from Egyptian market are subjected to the study for comparison.

  8. Radioactivity measurement of primordial radionuclides in and dose evaluation from marble and glazed tiles used as covering building materials in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, S.; Varinlioglu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the natural radioactivity arising from primordial radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) in marble and glazed tile samples used covering building materials in Turkey were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometer with a high purity germanium detector. The mean activity concentrations of the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in marble and glazed tile samples were found as 8.2, 5.5 and 58.1 Bq kg -1 and 81.2, 65.4 and 450.1 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The radiation doses received by occupants of buildings in which the sample marble and glazed tiles might be used are estimated using measured activity concentrations of constituent primordial radionuclides and dose conversion factors evaluated by the European Commission from models of tile use. Results obtained are presented for each radionuclide, analysed and compared with relevant national and international legislation, guidance and report, and with the results obtained from other studies. Results show that the use of such decorative building materials in the construction of domestic homes or workplaces in Turkey is unlikely to lead to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. (authors)

  9. FORMATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT ON CERAMIC TILE SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk ÖZCAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocidal antimicrobial molecular barrier (BAMB solutions are known to provide antimicrobial effect on the surfaces in industrial applications. However, there has been a lack of scientific reports about the subject in the literature. In this study, in order to impart an antimicrobial surface property on ceramic surfaces, a BAMB solution was applied on gloss fired ceramic wall tile substrates and the surface antimicrobial activity results were compared with that of plain wall tiles (without BAMB application. The ceramic surfaces were cleaned, and stove dried at120°C prior to spray coating with a BAMB solution. The coated substrates were dried in the ambient. The intactness of the coatings was checked with the bromophenol blue test. The microstructural and molecular characterization of the BAMB coated surfaces were carried out with SEM imaging and surface FTIR, respectively. The antimicrobial activity tests of the surfaces were conducted according to ASTM E2180-07 (Standard Test Method for Determining the Activity of Incorporated Antimicrobial Agent in Polymeric or Hydrophobic Materials. The microorganisms used were Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442 bacteria. The BAMB coated surfaces showed less flocculent bacterial growth in comparison to uncoated ceramic surfaces leading to the conclusion that the BAMB improved the antimicrobial property.

  10. Evaluation of the thermal comfort of ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The uncomforting can be characterized by heated floor surfaces in external environments which are exposed to sun radiation (swimming polls areas or by cold floor surfaces in internal environments (bed rooms, path rooms. The property named thermal effusivity which defines the interface temperature when two semi-infinite solids are putted in perfect contact. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic tiles interferes in the contact temperature and also it can be a strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. Materials with low conductivities and densities can be obtained by porous inclusion are due particularly to the processing conditions usually employed. However, the presence of pores generally involves low mechanical strength. This work has the objective to evaluate the thermal comfort of ceramics floor obtained by incorporation of refractory raw materials (residue of the polishing of the porcelanato in industrial atomized ceramic powder, through the thermal and mechanical properties. The theoretical and experimental results show that the porosity and crustiness surface increases; there is sensitive improvement in the comfort by contact.

  11. Preparation and characterization of photochromic effect for ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atay, B.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic tile industry is developing due to the technological researches in scientific area and new tiles which are not only a traditional ceramic also have many multiple functionalities have been marketed nowadays. These tiles like photocatalytic, photovoltaic, antibacterial and etc. improve the quality of life and provide lots of benefits such as self cleaning, energy production, climate control. The goal of this study was to enhance the photochromic function on ceramic tiles which is the attitude of changing color in a reversible way by electromagnetic radiation and widely used in many areas because of its aesthetic and also functional properties. High response time of photochromic features of ceramic tiles have been achieved by employing of polymeric gel with additives of photoactive dye onto the ceramic surface. Photochromic layer with a thickness of approximately 45- 50 µm was performed by using spray coating technique which provided homogeneous deposition on surface. Photochromic ceramic tiles with high photochromic activity such as reversibly color change between ΔE= 0.29 and 26.31 were obtained successfully. The photochromic performance properties and coloring-bleaching mechanisms were analyzed by spectrophotometer. The microstructures of coatings were investigated both by stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

    La industria de baldosa cerámica se está desarrollando debido a las investigaciones tecnológicas en el área científica y los nuevos azulejos no son sólo de cerámica tradicional, sino que también tienen múltiples funcionalidades que son valiosas en el mercado hoy en día. Estos azulejos tipo fotocatalítico, fotovoltáico, anti-bacteriano, entre otros, mejoran la calidad de vida y proporcionan muchos beneficios como la limpieza fácil o de uno mismo, la producción energética y el control del clima. La meta de este estudio es realzar la función fotocrómatica en las baldosas cerámicas y la

  12. Adjusting dental ceramics: An in vitro evaluation of the ability of various ceramic polishing kits to mimic glazed dental ceramic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, René; Beier, Ulrike S; Heiss-Kisielewsky, Irene; Engelmeier, Robert; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Dhima, Matilda

    2015-06-01

    During the insertion appointment, the practitioner is often faced with the need to adjust ceramic surfaces to fit a restoration to the adjacent or opposing dentition and soft tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess the ceramic surface smoothness achieved with various commercially available ceramic polishing kits on different commonly used ceramic systems. The reliability of the cost of a polishing kit as an indicator of improved surface smoothness was assessed. A total of 350 ceramic surfaces representing 5 commonly available ceramic systems (IPS Empress Esthetic, IPS e.max Press, Cergo Kiss, Vita PM 9, Imagine PressX) were treated with 5 types of ceramic polishing systems (Cerapreshine, 94006C, Ceramiste, Optrafine, Zenostar) by following the manufacturers' guidelines. The surface roughness was measured with a profilometer (Taylor Hobson; Precision Taylor Hobson Ltd). The effects of ceramic systems and polishing kits of interest on surface roughness were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, paired t test, and Bonferroni corrected significance level. The ceramic systems and polishing kits statistically affected surface roughness (Pceramic surface. No correlation could be established between the high cost of the polishing kit and low surface roughness. None of the commonly used ceramic polishing kits could create a surface smoother than that of glazed ceramic (Pceramic polishing kits is not recommended as a reliable indicator of better performance of ceramic polishing kits (P>.30). Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate on the dispersion stability of ceramic glaze suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchawan, Suphapan; Naksata, Wimol; Rattanakawin, Chairoj; Thiansem, Sakdiphon; Arqueropanyo, Orn-anong [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Panya, Preecha [Kamphaengphet Rajabhat University, Kamphaengphet (Thailand); Sooksamiti, Ponlayuth [The Office of Primary Industries and Mines Region 3, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Scales, Peter J. [The University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used to render the stability of ceramic glaze dispersion which is composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, kaolin and ferric oxide. The measured zeta potential showed negative values for the systems in deionized water and 0.001 M MgCl{sub 2} media at pH above 2, but a positive value was observed in 0.1M MgCl{sub 2} at pH higher than 6.7. Adsorption of SDBS in aqueous suspensions of ceramic glaze in deionized water and in 0.001 M MgCl{sub 2}, within the concentration range studied, followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, but the Freundlich isotherm was more favored. Adsorption of SDBS in 0.1M MgCl{sub 2} corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm. From dispersion stability investigation, SDBS could render the suspension in deionized water and in 0.001 mM MgCl{sub 2} more than in 0.1 mM MgCl{sub 2}.

  14. Effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate on the dispersion stability of ceramic glaze suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchawan, Suphapan; Naksata, Wimol; Rattanakawin, Chairoj; Thiansem, Sakdiphon; Arqueropanyo, Orn-anong; Panya, Preecha; Sooksamiti, Ponlayuth; Scales, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used to render the stability of ceramic glaze dispersion which is composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, kaolin and ferric oxide. The measured zeta potential showed negative values for the systems in deionized water and 0.001 M MgCl 2 media at pH above 2, but a positive value was observed in 0.1M MgCl 2 at pH higher than 6.7. Adsorption of SDBS in aqueous suspensions of ceramic glaze in deionized water and in 0.001 M MgCl 2 , within the concentration range studied, followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, but the Freundlich isotherm was more favored. Adsorption of SDBS in 0.1M MgCl 2 corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm. From dispersion stability investigation, SDBS could render the suspension in deionized water and in 0.001 mM MgCl 2 more than in 0.1 mM MgCl 2

  15. Thermoluminescence study of materials (natural minerals) used in ceramic tiles industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, K V R, E-mail: drmurthykvr@yahoo.com [Display Materials Laboratory Applied Physics Department Faculty of Technology and Engineering M.S. University of Baroda, Baroda-390 001 (India)

    2009-07-15

    Mother earth is giving many materials in the natural form as well as in mineral form. Among them the marbles, granites and other variety of slabs for house hold flooring purposes. The people demand for variety of flooring materials leads to develop various types of ceramic tile. In India ceramic tiles industry is one of the fast growing one. More than two hundred units are manufacturing the ceramic tiles situated around Morbi, Rajkot, Gujarat, India. The basic raw materials required for manufacturing the various types of ceramic tiles are natural minerals. The following are the minerals used to manufacture the ceramic tiles i.e. quartz, feldspar, zircon, china clay, talc, grok, Aluminum oxide etc.,

  16. Thermoluminescence study of materials (natural minerals) used in ceramic tiles industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K V R

    2009-01-01

    Mother earth is giving many materials in the natural form as well as in mineral form. Among them the marbles, granites and other variety of slabs for house hold flooring purposes. The people demand for variety of flooring materials leads to develop various types of ceramic tile. In India ceramic tiles industry is one of the fast growing one. More than two hundred units are manufacturing the ceramic tiles situated around Morbi, Rajkot, Gujarat, India. The basic raw materials required for manufacturing the various types of ceramic tiles are natural minerals. The following are the minerals used to manufacture the ceramic tiles i.e. quartz, feldspar, zircon, china clay, talc, grok, Aluminum oxide etc.,

  17. Microchemical and microstructural characterisation of medieval and post-medieval ceramic glaze coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, R.; Bultrini, G.; Fragalà, I.; Giarrusso, R.; Montana, G.

    A large number of ceramic samples (from the 10th to the 19th century), found during the excavation of Sicilian archaeological sites (Syracuse, Caltagirone, Sciacca and Piazza Armerina), have been studied by combining scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and optical microscopy. Attention has been focused on the microchemical and microstructural properties of the painted surfaces to investigate the nature of the enamels and pigments in the decorative layers. The general perspective has been the identification of consistent archeometric criteria, other than the standard stylistic considerations, which can be used for a reliable recognition of the production sites. The results collected for each ceramic typology were used to cluster the different ceramic reference groups in a wide database suitable for a reliable discrimination of the provenance of artefacts. Moreover, the same compositional and microstructural data allow the identification of the raw materials used for pigments. There is evidence of some differences with existing information found in the literature concerning the formulas used in ancient times. Finally, attention has also been devoted to identify the technological aspects of the manufacturing techniques and firing conditions adopted for each typology of glaze coating depending on different ceramic materials .

  18. Influence of gypsum on efflorescence in ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, C.M.O.L.; Nascimento, R.M.; Martinelli, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The red ceramic industry is recognized as of major importance in Piaui State. The State capital, Teresina, is the greatest producer of this material, which is used mainly for masonry sealing blocks. One of the most frequent problems in this kind of products is the efflorescence.This paper has the main objective of studying the influence of gypsum on tiles, using the local industry production standards. The raw materials were characterized by FRX, DRX, thermal analysis and sulfates. Extruded test specimens were made with the addition of 1%, 3% and 5% of gypsum in the ceramic paste, burned at 850 deg C, 950 deg C and 1050 deg C and submitted to further technological and analysis for MEV. The reference ceramic paste did not show tendency to efflorescence formation after burning for samples with 1% gypsum added to the paste. The reference ceramic paste showed tendency to efflorescence formation after drying and consolidated efflorescence after burning for samples with 5% gypsum added to the paste. (author)

  19. Utilisation of different types of coal fly ash in the production of ceramic tiles

    OpenAIRE

    KocKal, N. U.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of varying proportions of different types of fly ash (used in place of feldspar) and different sintering temperatures on the sintered properties of ceramic tile bodies was evaluated. The results indicated that sintering ceramic tiles with a high fly ash content at a high temperature caused a decrease in the properties because of bloating. The ceramic samples containing a higher amount of fly ash that were sintered at low temperature exhibited lower water absorption, larger shrin...

  20. Chemical functionalization of ceramic tile surfaces by silane coupling agents: polymer modified mortar adhesion mechanism implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli Mansur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion between tiles and mortars are crucial to the stability of ceramic tile systems. From the chemical point of view, weak forces such as van der Waals forces and hydrophilic interactions are expected to be developed preferably at the tiles and polymer modified Portland cement mortar interface. The main goal of this paper was to use organosilanes as primers to modify ceramic tile hydrophilic properties to improve adhesion between ceramic tiles and polymer modified mortars. Glass tile surfaces were treated with several silane derivatives bearing specific functionalities. Contact angle measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were used for evaluating the chemical changes on the tile surface. In addition, pull-off tests were conducted to assess the effect on adhesion properties between tile and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate, EVA, modified mortar. The bond strength results have clearly shown the improvement of adherence at the tile-polymer modified mortar interface, reflecting the overall balance of silane, cement and polymer interactions.

  1. Characterization of the raw-materials used in ceramic tiles in the state of Paraiba - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, Rosa Maria; Pontes, Luiz Renato de; Lira, Belarmino B.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of ceramics basic materials may provide valuable information for their proper application. This work searches for characterization of basic materials (plastic and not plastic) used for optimization of ceramic tiles, classified as monoporosa production in Paraiba State. The further study will be conducted on basis of ceramic material characterization in order to develop a new mass for production of ceramic tiles. The study will be done on basis of X-ray diffraction, chemical, physical and mineralogical analysis. (author)

  2. Synthesis, deposition and crystal growth of CZTS nanoparticles onto ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Calvet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a simple solvothermal method for CZTS nanoparticles preparation using hexadecylamine (HDA as a capping agent. The as-prepared CZTS powder was deposited as ink using Doctor Blade technique onto ceramic tile, as a substrate substituting the typical soda-lime glass. The as-prepared film was thermal treated at different temperatures in order to enhance the thin film crystallinity. CZTS crystal growth onto ceramic tile was obtained successfully for the first time.

  3. Standard test method for linear thermal expansion of glaze frits and ceramic whiteware materials by the interferometric method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the interferometric determination of linear thermal expansion of premelted glaze frits and fired ceramic whiteware materials at temperatures lower than 1000°C (1830°F). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Assessment of Bond Strength between Metal Brackets and Non-Glazed Ceramic in Different Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Harririan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength between metal brackets and non-glazed ceramic with three different surface treatment methods.Materials and Methods: Forty-two non-glazed ceramic disks were assigned into three groups. Group I and II specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid. Subsequently in group I, silane and adhesive were applied and in group II, bonding agent was used only.In group III, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid and then silane and adhesive were applied. Brackets were bonded with light-cured composites. The specimens were stored in water in room temperature for 24 hours and then thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C.Results: The difference of tensile bond strength between groups I and III was not significant(P=0.999. However, the tensile bond strength of group II was significantly lower than groups I, and III (P<0.001. The adhesive remnant index scores between the threegroups had statistically significant differences (P<0.001.Conclusion: With the application of scotch bond multi-purpose plus adhesive, we can use phosphoric acid instead of hydrofluoric acid for bonding brackets to non-glazed ceramic restorations.

  5. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polvorinos del Rio, A.; Castaing, J.; Aucouturier, M.

    2006-01-01

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics

  6. ASSESSMENT OF CERAMIC TILE FROST RESISTANCE BY MEANS OF THE FREQUENCY INSPECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAL MATYSÍK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of our experimental analysis of ceramic cladding element frost resistance, particular attention being paid to the application of the frequency inspection method. Three different sets of ceramic tiles of the Ia class to EN 14 411 B standard made by various manufacturers have been analyzed. The ceramic tiles under investigation have been subjected to freeze-thaw-cycle-based degradation in compliance with the relevant ČSN EN ISO 10545-12 standard. Furthermore, accelerated degradation procedure has been applied to selected test specimens, consisting in reducing the temperature of water soaked ceramic tiles in the course of the degradation cycles down –70°C. To verify the correctness of the frequency inspection results, additional physical properties of the ceramic tiles under test have been measured, such as, the ceramic tile strength limit, modulus of elasticity and modulus of deformability, resulting from the flexural tensile strength tests, integrity defect and surface micro-geometry tracking. It has been proved that the acoustic method of frequency inspection is a sensitive indicator of the structure condition and can be applied to the ceramic cladding element frost resistance and service life prediction assessment.

  7. Comparative study of ceramic tiles produced in the Town of Goytacazes / RJ (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.L.P. de; Pacheco, A.T.; Carreiro, R.S; Petrucci, L.J.T.

    2011-01-01

    The city of the Campos dos Goytacazes, situated in the region north of the state of Rio de Janeiro, presents characteristics place that it enter the producing greater of blocks and ceramic roofing tiles for the domestic market. This work makes a study enters four manufacturers of ceramic roofing tiles of the city of the Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ, to analysis comparatively its results according to in agreement the characterization submitted to dilatometry, Thermogravimetry, Differential Thermal Analysis and X-ray diffraction for the physical tests the tiles were collected after burning and the tests under Bylaw NBR 15310. The results had indicated a significant variation in the values of water absorption of each manufacturer. The same ones demonstrate that the ceramic roofing tiles of Campos of the Goytacazes present a uniformity in the results, being that it needs technological accompaniment during the manufacture process, to improve its properties and its quality for adequacy to the normative parameters of the ABNT. (author)

  8. Dispersion stability of a ceramic glaze achieved through ionic surfactant adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panya, Preecha; Arquero, Orn-anong; Franks, George V; Wanless, Erica J

    2004-11-01

    The adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) onto a ceramic glaze mixture composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, and kaolin has been investigated. Both adsorption isotherms and the average particle zeta potential have been studied in order to understand the suspension stability as a function of pH, ionic strength, and surfactant concentration. The adsorption of small amounts of cationic CPC onto the primarily negatively charged surfaces of the particles at pH 7 and 9 results in strong attraction and flocculation due to hydrophobic interactions. At higher surfactant concentrations a zeta potential of more than +60 mV results from the bilayered adsorbed surfactant, providing stability at salt concentrations dispersion or hydrophobic interactions, the magnitude of the negative zeta potential increases slightly. At pH 9 this increase is enough to promote stability with an average zeta potential of more than -55 mV, whereas at pH 7 the zeta potential is lower at about -45 mV. The stability of suspensions at pH 7 is additionally due to steric repulsion caused by the adsorption of thick layers of neutrally charged Ca(DBS)2 complexes created when the surfactant interacts with dissolved calcium ions from the calcium carbonate component.

  9. Methodology for automatic process of the fired ceramic tile's internal defect using IR images and artificial neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Roberto Márcio de; Eduardo, Alexandre Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In the ceramic industry, rarely testing systems were employed to on-line detect the presence of defects in ceramic tiles. This paper is concerned with the problem of automatic inspection of ceramic tiles using Infrared Images and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The performance of the technique has been evaluated theoretically and experimentally from laboratory and on line tile samples. It has been performed system for IR image processing and, utilizing an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), det...

  10. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest

  11. Contact pressure distribution during the polishing process of ceramic tiles: A laboratory investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, A S A; Hamedon, Z; Azhari, A; Sousa, F J P

    2016-01-01

    During the polishing process of porcelain tiles the difference in scratching speed between innermost and peripheral abrasives leads to pressure gradients linearly distributed along the radial direction of the abrasive tool. The aim of this paper is to investigate such pressure gradient in laboratory scale. For this purpose polishing tests were performed on ceramic tiles according to the industrial practices using a custom-made CNC tribometer. Gradual wear on both abrasives and machined surface of the floor tile were measured. The experimental results suggested that the pressure gradient tends to cause an inclination of the abraded surfaces, which becomes stable after a given polishing period. In addition to the wear depth of the machined surface, the highest value of gloss and finest surface finish were observed at the lowest point of the worn out surface of the ceramic floor tile corresponding to the point of highest pressure and lowest scratching speed. (paper)

  12. X-ray fluorescence (conventional and 3D) and scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of Portuguese polychrome glazed ceramics: Advances in the knowledge of the manufacturing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme, A. [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Coroado, J. [Instituto Politecnico Tomar, Dep. Arte Conservacao and Restauro, P-2300313 Tomar (Portugal); Santos, J.M.F. dos [GIAN, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Luehl, L.; Wolff, T.; Kanngiesser, B. [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36 D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Carvalho, M.L., E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.pt [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    This work shows the first analytical results obtained by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) (conventional and 3D) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive System (SEM-EDS) on original Portuguese ceramic pieces produced between the 16th and 18th centuries in Coimbra and Lisbon. Experts distinguished these productions based only on the color, texture and brightness, which originates mislabeling in some cases. Thanks to lateral and spatial resolution in the micrometer regime, the results obtained with {mu}-XRF were essential in determining the glaze and pigment thicknesses by monitoring the profile of the most abundant element in each 'layer'. Furthermore, the dissemination of these elements throughout the glaze is different depending on the glaze composition, firing temperature and on the pigment itself. Hence, the crucial point of this investigation was to analyze and understand the interfaces color/glaze and glaze/ceramic support. Together with the XRF results, images captured by SEM and the corresponding semi-quantitative EDS data revealed different manufacturing processes used by the two production centers. Different capture modes were suitable to distinguish different crystals from the minerals that confer the color of the pigments used and to enhance the fact that some of them are very well spread through the glassy matrix, sustaining the theory of an evolved and careful procedure in the manufacturing process of the glaze.

  13. Ceramic glaze analysis by simultaneous in-beam PGAA and XRFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-one ready-to-use hobby glazes, of which 18 were labeled 'safe for food containers' (SFFC), were analyzed for Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Gd, Hf, K, Mn, Na, Pb, Si, Sm, Sr, Ti, Zn, and Zr by neutron capture prompt γ-ray activation analysis (PGAA). Simultaneously, Pb was also determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) using Pb K X-rays induced by the γ-ray component of the neutron beam. The XRFS limits of detection were 200-400 μg Pb x g -1 (dry weight), a factor of ∼100 better than those for PGAA. Pb concentrations (by dry weight: with weight losses ranging from 28 to 49% after air-drying) found were 0.16-27.2% in the SFFC glazes and 0.86-32% in the other glazes. The SFFC glazes contained from -1 , and Co, Cr and Cu (elements which may enhance Pb leaching from fired glazes) were found in concentrations up to 1.2, 2.7, and 5.6%, respectively. Method accuracy was demonstrated with the analysis of soil, fly ash, and glass standard reference materials. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Calcium in ancient glazes and glasses: a XAFS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, J.P. [New University of Lisbon, CENIMAT, Materials Science Dept., Caparica (Portugal); Figueiredo, M.O. [New University of Lisbon, CENIMAT, Materials Science Dept., Caparica (Portugal); Crystallography and Mineralogy Centre, IICT, and INETI/IGM, Dept. Min. Resources, Alfragide (Portugal)

    2008-07-15

    Ceramic tiles used to manufacture artistic panels during the XVI to the XVIII centuries were decorated with high-lead soda-lime glazes, incorporating a diversity of chromophore cations, as ascertained by SRXRF (synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence). Previous X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies have shown that sodium and lead are hosted by the glassy matrix in those glazes. However, the possible role of calcium as a modifier of the tetrahedral silica network is not fully clarified, despite being recognized that calcium cations alter some fundamental properties of glazes, namely transparency. An X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) study of glazes with varied colorings was therefore undertaken at Ca K- and L-edges. Well crystallized oxide minerals were used to model distinct coordination environments by oxygen atoms - close to octahedral geometry in calcite and dodecahedral in gypsum - while fluorite was chosen to mimic ideal cubic coordination. A first XAS approach suggested a minor variation in the energy separation between L{sub 2}-L{sub 3} absorption edges when comparing blue and yellow glazes, irrespective of the period of manufacture. A further study on the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) carried out at the K-edge corroborated this difference and, along with the theoretical spectra modeling performed with the FEFF code, allowed interpreting of the Ca 1s absorption spectra of glazes as arising from a non-regular high-coordination environment within the silica matrix. (orig.)

  15. Comparing Titanium Release from Ceramic Tiles using a waste material characterization test - Influence of Calcium and Organic Matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are beneficial in the building industry to enhance or add certain features to commonly used materials. One example is the use of nano-titanium dioxide in the surface coating of ceramic tiles, to make the tiles surface self-cleaning. At the end of life stage, ceramic tiles might...... to assess if nano-titanium dioxide coated ceramic tiles are suitable for depositing in a landfill or not. Specifically, we used compliance batch test method, which is a simple test evaluating the release from a solid material to an aqueous media during 24 hrs. If nano-Ti particles are released from solid...... immediately after the 24 hrs. test using single particle ICPMS and Transmission Electron Microscopy imaging. The preliminary results suggest that nanoparticulate titanium is released from both tiles – with and without nano-titanium dioxide coating. The size distributions of the released particles are similar...

  16. Use of the extraction residue of emeralds in a formulation mass of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, R. F.; Nascimento, R.M.; Paskocimas, C.A.; Dutra, R.P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Companies involved in mining and beneficiation of emerald represent an important area of industrial development in Brazil, with a significant contribution to world production of this ore. As a result, large volumes of waste generated and emerald are constantly abandoned in the environment, contributing negatively to their preservation. On the other hand the interest in the use of mining waste as an additive in production of ceramic materials has grown among researchers in recent years. The ceramic industry is constantly seeking to expand the market for the sector and trying to improve product quality and increase the variety of applications. The technology of obtaining ceramic coating that uses waste from mining is still a largely unexplored market. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the waste generated from mining emerald as well as to evaluate its potential use as raw material for production melting of ceramic tiles. Ceramic mixtures were prepared from raw materials characterized by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Five compositions were prepared using the waste codes of emeralds from 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Samples were prepared by pressing, sintered at 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C and characterized to establish their mineralogical composition, water absorption, linear shrinkage and modulus of rupture. The results showed that the residue of emeralds studied can be embedded in the mass of ceramic tiles up to 20% in replacement of feldspar without compromising the end product properties. (author)

  17. A 2-year follow-up of spirometric parameters in workers of a tile and ceramic industry, Yazd, southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrparvar, A H; Mirmohammadi, S J; Mostaghaci, M; Davari, M H; Hashemi, S H

    2013-04-01

    Respiratory diseases cause a considerable amount of morbidity and mortality in the world. Pulmonary function tests are important measures for the diagnosis and management of respiratory disorders. Workers in tile and ceramic industry are exposed to high amounts of respiratory pollutants. To identify the changes in spirometric parameters in a 2-year period among tile and ceramic workers in Yazd and compare it with a control group. The study was conducted in 5 tile and ceramic factories selected by cluster sampling between 2009 and 2011 in Yazd, southeastern Iran. Demographic data and spirometric parameters of participants were recorded. Spirometric parameters were significantly reduced during the 2 years. The largest decrease was observed in FVC (≈500 mL) in ball-mill and grinding after 2 years. Decrease in all spirometric parameters was significantly higher in industrial workers than office workers. Respiratory exposure in tile and ceramic industry can significantly affect pulmonary function tests.

  18. LSA glass-ceramic tiles made by powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, F.C.; Bertan, F.M.; Riella, H.G.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A low cost alternative for the production of glass-ceramic materials is the pressing of the matrix glass powders and its consolidation simultaneously with crystallization in a single stage of sintering. The main objective of this work was to obtain LSA glass ceramics with low thermal expansion, processed by pressing and sintering a ceramic frit powder. The raw materials were homogenized and melted (1480 deg C, 80min), and the melt was poured in water. The glass was chemically (XRF and AAS) and thermally (DTA, 10 deg C/min, air) characterized, and then ground (60min and 120min). The ground powders were characterized (laser diffraction) and compressed (35MPa and 45MPa), thus forming four systems. The compacts were dried (150 deg C, 24h) and sintered (1175 deg C and 1185 deg C, 10 deg C/min). Finally, the glass-ceramics were characterized by microstructural analysis (SEM and XRD), mechanical behavior (σbending) and thermal analysis (α). The best results for thermal expansion were those for the glass-ceramics processed with smaller particle size and greater compaction pressure. (author)

  19. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-01-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  20. Standard test method for determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Measurement of Gross Alpha and Beta Emission Rates from Ceramic Tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wudthicharoonpun, Piyasak; Chankow, Nares

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Ceramic tiles normally used to cover floors and walls contain naturally occurring radioactive elements i.e. potassium-40, uranium, thorium and their daughters from raw materials. Thus, radioactivity was dependent upon source of raw materials and the amount used. The objective of this research was to measure gross alpha and beta emission rates to be used as a database for safety assessment and for selection of rooms to measure radioactive radon-222 gas

  2. Detection of ionizing radiations by studying ceramic tiles materials using thermoluminescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, H. C.; Murthy, K. V. R.; Purohit, R. U.

    2017-05-01

    Natural background radiation comes from two primary sources: cosmic radiation and terrestrial sources. Our natural environment has both livings and non-livings like - Sun, Moon, Sky, Air, Water, Soil, Rivers, Mountains, Forests, besides plants and animals. The worldwide average background dose for a human being is about 2.4 millisievert (mSv) per year. This exposure is mostly from cosmic radiation and natural radionuclides in the environment. The Earth, and all living things on it, are constantly bombarded by radiation from outer space. This radiation primarily consists of positively charged ions from protons to iron and larger nuclei derived sources outside our solar system. This radiation interacts with atoms in the atmosphere to create secondary radiation, including X-rays, muons, protons, alpha particles, pions, electrons, and neutrons. The present study discusses the utility of ceramic tiles as radiation dosimeters in case of nuclear fallout. Many flooring materials most of them are in natural form are used to manufacture floor tiles for household flooring purpose. Many natural minerals are used as the raw materials required for the manufacturing ceramic ware. The following minerals are used to manufacturing the ceramic tiles i.e. Quartz, Feldspar, Zircon, Talc, Grog, Alumina oxide, etc. Most of the minerals are from Indian mines of Gujarat and Rajasthan states, some of are imported from Russian subcontinent. The present paper reports the thermoluminescence dosimetry Study of Feldspar and Quartz minerals collected from the ceramic tiles manufacturing unit, Morbi. The main basis in the Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) is that TL output is directly proportional to the radiation dose received by the phosphor and hence provides the means of estimating unknown radiations from environment.

  3. Analysis of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in ceramic tile manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Granel, R.; Vaquer, E.; Escrig, A.; Miralles, A.; Zaera, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ceramic tile manufacturing process is energy intensive since it contains several stages in which the product is subject to thermal treatment. The thermal energy used in the process is usually obtained by combustion of natural gas, which is a fossil fuel whose oxidation produces emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Energy costs account for 15% of the average direct manufacturing costs, and are strongly influenced by the price of natural gas, which has increased significantly in the last few years. Carbon dioxide emissions are internationally monitored and controlled in the frame of the Kyoto Protocol. Applicable Spanish law is based on the European Directive on emissions trading, and the assignment of emissions rights is based on historical values in the sectors involved. Legislation is scheduled to change in 2013, and the resulting changes will directly affect the Spanish ceramic tile manufacturing industry, since many facilities will become part of the emissions trading system. The purpose of this study is to determine current thermal energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the ceramic tile manufacturing process. A comprehensive sectoral study has been carried out for this purpose on several levels: the first analyses energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the entire industry; the second determines energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in industrial facilities over a long period of time (several months); while the third level breaks down these values, determining energy consumption and emissions in terms of the product made and the manufacturing stage. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Tile and Ceramic Workers in Yazd, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Bahaloo, Maryam; Heydari, Mohammad; Samimi, Ehsan; Zohal, Mahnaz; Davari, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) are among the most important diseases in the world and determination of their risk factors is essential for primary and secondary prevention. This study aimed to evaluate these risk factors in workers of tile and ceramic industry, a main industry in Yazd. Materials and Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 1075 tile and ceramic workers were selected by simple sampling method. BMI, blood pressure, FBS, and lipid profile were measured and compared to international standards. Results. 731 individuals (68%) had at least one risk factor, and 52%, 12%, 3%, and 0.7% had one, two, three, and four risk factors, respectively. The most common risk factor was abnormal BMI (49.6%); low HDL (48.4%) and high TG (14.1%) were in the second and third orders. Conclusion. This study showed a relatively high prevalence for CVD risk factors among tile and ceramic workers. Low HDL, high TG, and overweight were the most frequent risk factors in this population.

  5. Relationship between meanings, emotions, product preferences and personal values. Application to ceramic tile floorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agost, María-Jesús; Vergara, Margarita

    2014-07-01

    This work aims to validate a conceptual framework which establishes the main relationships between subjective elements in human-product interaction, such as meanings, emotions, product preferences, and personal values. The study analyzes the relationships between meanings and emotions, and between these and preferences, as well as the influence of personal values on such relationships. The study was applied to ceramic tile floorings. A questionnaire with images of a neutral room with different ceramic tile floorings was designed and distributed via the web. Results from the study suggest that both meanings and emotions must be taken into account in the generation of product preferences. The meanings given to the product can cause the generation of emotions, and both types of subjective impressions give rise to product preferences. Personal reference values influence these relationships between subjective impressions and product preferences. As a consequence, not only target customers' demographic data but specifically their values and criteria must be taken into account from the beginning of the development process. The specific results of this paper can be used directly by ceramic tile designers, who can better adjust product design (and the subjective impressions elicited) to the target market. Consequently, the chance of product success is reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser ultrasonics for bulk-density distribution measurement on green ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, G. M.; Cavuto, A.; Pandarese, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a Laser Ultrasonics (LUT) system is developed and applied to measure bulk density distribution of green ceramic tiles, which are porous materials with low heat conductivity. Bulk density of green ceramic bodies is a fundamental parameter to be kept under control in the industrial production of ceramic tiles. The LUT system proposed is based on a Nd:YAG pulsed laser for excitation and an air-coupled electro-capacitive transducer for detection. The paper reports experimental apparent bulk-density measurements on white ceramic bodies after a calibration procedures. The performances observed are better than those previously achieved by authors using air-coupled ultrasonic probes for both emission and detection, allowing to reduce average uncertainty down to about ±6 kg/m3 (±0.3%), thanks to the increase in excitation efficiency and lateral resolution, while maintaining potential flexibility for on-line application. The laser ultrasonic procedure proposed is available for both on-line and off-line application. In this last case it is possible to obtain bulk density maps with high spatial resolution by a 2D scan without interrupting the production process.

  7. Nano-oxides to improve the surface properties of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambaldi, E.; Tucci, A.; Esposito, L.; Naldi, D.; Timellini, G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to realise ceramic tiles with superior surface mechanical characteristics and chemical resistance, by the addition of nano-oxides, such as zirconia and alumina, since such advanced ceramics oxides are well known for their excellent mechanical properties and good resistance to chemical etching. In order to avoid any dangerousness, the nanoparticles were used in form of aqueous suspension and they were sprayed, by airbrush, directly onto the dried ceramic support, before firing. To observe the distribution of the nanoparticles and to optimise the surface treatment, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the fired samples. XRD analysis was conducted to assess the phases evolution of the different materials during the firing step. The surface mechanical characteristics of the samples have been evaluated by Vickers hardness and scratch test. In addition, also chemical resistance tests were performed. Microstructural observations allowed to understand how alumina and zirconia nanoparticles acted to improve the surface performances of the modified ceramic tiles. (Author) 20 refs.

  8. Process-generated nanoparticles from ceramic tile sintering: Emissions, exposure and environmental release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A S; Maragkidou, A; Viana, M; Querol, X; Hämeri, K; de Francisco, I; Estepa, C; Borrell, C; Lennikov, V; de la Fuente, G F

    2016-09-15

    The ceramic industry is an industrial sector in need of significant process changes, which may benefit from innovative technologies such as laser sintering of ceramic tiles. Such innovations result in a considerable research gap within exposure assessment studies for process-generated ultrafine and nanoparticles. This study addresses this issue aiming to characterise particle formation, release mechanisms and their impact on personal exposure during a tile sintering activity in an industrial-scale pilot plant, as a follow-up of a previous study in a laboratory-scale plant. In addition, possible particle transformations in the exhaust system, the potential for particle release to the outdoor environment, and the effectiveness of the filtration system were also assessed. For this purpose, a tiered measurement strategy was conducted. The main findings evidence that nanoparticle emission patterns were strongly linked to temperature and tile chemical composition, and mainly independent of the laser treatment. Also, new particle formation (from gaseous precursors) events were detected, with nanoparticles efficiency of the filtration system was successfully tested and evidenced a >87% efficiency in particle number concentrations removal. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Acid emissions monitoring needs in ceramic tile industry: challenges derived from new policy trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celades, Irina; Gomar, Salvador; Romero, Fernando; Chauhan, Amisha; Delpech, Bertrand; Jouhara, Hussam

    2017-11-01

    The emission of acid compounds during the manufacture of ceramic tiles is strongly related to the presence of precursors in the raw materials and/or fuels used, with some exceptions such as the production of thermal NOX. The stages with the potential to produce significant emissions of these compounds have been identified as the suspension spray drying and tile firing stages. The monitoring of emission levels of acid pollutants in these stages has turned in a great importance issue from a regulatory and industrial aspect. The DREAM project (https://www.spire2030.eu/dream) will tackle the regulation of acidic emissions focusing in the firing stage. The initial stages of the project have made it possible to identify the design requirements for the monitoring system. This will allow the control of acid pollutants emissions and other key parameters such as pressure, flow, temperature and humidity. One of the tasks developed has been the review and compilation of current emissions monitoring systems detailing technical specifications such as: position (in situ or extractive), measurement principle and frequency. The future policy trends in air pollution are encouraging the continuous monitoring across the European industry. The present document assesses the advantages regarding environmental impact control, highlighting the main challenges for the ceramic tile industry.

  10. Characterisation of acid pollutant emissions in ceramic tile manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monfort, E.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the environmental impacts associated with ceramics manufacture is the air emission of acid compounds stem from the presence of impurities in the raw materials and/or fuels. The present study was undertaken to identify the significant gaseous pollutants of an acid nature, to determine their concentrations, and to obtain the characteristic emission factors in spray dryers and firing kilns. The results show that, in spray dryers, the emission levels of the different acid pollutants are far below the current emission limit values applied in the European Union (EU. In firing kilns, the most significant acid pollutant emissions, compared with the recommended EU emission limit values (ELV-BAT, correspond to HF and HCl emissions, indicating that these emissions need to be corrected by appropriate cleaning systems before such emissions are released into the air. On the other hand, the results indicate that SO2 and NOx emissions in the Castellón industrial ceramic sector lie below the ELV–BAT proposed in the European ceramic industry BREF, owing to the widespread use of natural gas as fuel and of raw materials with reduced sulphur contents.

    Uno de los impactos medioambientales asociado a la fabricación de productos cerámicos es la emisión a la atmósfera de compuestos ácidos debido a la presencia de impurezas en las materias primas y/o combustibles. Los objetivos del presente estudio son: identificar los contaminantes gaseosos de naturaleza ácida significativos, determinar su concentración y obtener factores de emisión de los secaderos por atomización y los hornos de cocción. Los resultados obtenidos, en el caso de los secaderos por atomización, muestran que los niveles de emisión de los diferentes contaminantes ácidos se encuentran alejados de los valores límite de emisiones aplicados actualmente en la Unión Europea (UE. En cuanto a los hornos de cocción, la emisión más significativa de

  11. Utilisation of different types of coal fly ash in the production of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kockal, N. U.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of varying proportions of different types of fly ash (used in place of feldspar and different sintering temperatures on the sintered properties of ceramic tile bodies was evaluated. The results indicated that sintering ceramic tiles with a high fly ash content at a high temperature caused a decrease in the properties because of bloating. The ceramic samples containing a higher amount of fly ash that were sintered at low temperature exhibited lower water absorption, larger shrinkage and strength because of the densification observed also in microstructural investigation.

    Se ha evaluado la influencia de la proporción de diferentes tipos de cenizas volantes (en lugar de feldespato y diferentes temperaturas de sinterización en las propiedades de soportes cerámicos. Los resultados indicaron que las composiciones con un alto contenido de cenizas volantes provocaron una disminución en las propiedades de las piczas cocidas a alta temperatura como consecuencia del hinchamiento. Las composiciones con una mayor cantidad de cenizas sinterizadas a baja temperatura mostraron una menor absorción de agua, mayor contracción y resistencia mecánica debido a la densificación como también se observó en la investigación microestructural.

  12. Effects of body formulation and firing temperature to properties of ceramic tile incorporated with electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Nurulakmal Mohd; Lim, Chi Yang; Teo, Pao Ter; Seman, Anasyida Abu

    2017-07-01

    Significant quantities of sludge and slag are generated as waste materials or by-products from steel industries. One of the by-products is Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steel slag which consists of oxides such as CaO, Al2O3 and FeO. This makes it possible for slag to partially replace the raw materials in ceramic tile production. In our preliminary assessment of incorporating the EAF slag into ceramic tile, it was revealed that at fixed firing temperature of 1150°C, the tile of composition 40 wt.% EAF slag - 60 wt.% ball clay has comparable properties with commercial ceramic tile. Thus, this current study would focus on effects of body formulation (different weight percentages of K-feldspar and silica) and different firing temperatures to properties of EAF slag added ceramic tile. EAF slag from Southern Steel Berhad (SSB) was crushed into micron size (EAF slag content was 40 wt.%) and milled with ball clay, K-feldspar and silica before compacted and fired at 1125°C and 1150°C. The EAF slag added tile was characterized in terms of water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density, modulus of rupture (MOR) and phase analysis via X-ray diffraction (XRD). The composition of 40 wt.% EAF slag - 30 wt.% ball clay - 10 wt.% K-feldspar - 20 wt.% silica (10F_20S), fired at 1150°C showed the lowest water absorption, apparent porosity and highest bulk density due to enhancement of densification process during firing. However, the same composition of ceramic tile (10F_20S) had the highest MOR at lower firing temperature of 1125°C, contributed by presence of the highest total amount of anorthite and wollastonite reinforcement crystalline phases (78.40 wt.%) in the tile. Overall, both the water absorption and MOR of all ceramic tiles surpassed the requirement regulated by MS ISO 13006:2014 Standard (Annex G: Dry-pressed ceramic tile with low water absorption, Eb ≤ 0.50 % and minimum MOR of 35 MPa).

  13. Photocatalytic Removal of Azo Dye and Anthraquinone DyeUsing TiO2 Immobilised on Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Palanisamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 immobilized on different supports; cement and ceramic tile, was studied to decolorize two commercial dyes. The catalyst was immobilised by two different techniques, namely, slurry method on ceramic tile and powder scattering on cement. The degradation of the dyes was carried out using UV and solar irradiation. The comparative efficiency of the catalyst immobilised on two different supports was determined. The photodegradation process was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The catalyst immobilised on ceramic tile was found to be better than the catalyst immobilised on cement. Experimental results showed that both illumination and the catalyst were necessary for the degradation of the dyes and UV irradiation is more efficient compared to solar irradiation.

  14. Formulations development for improving the classification of ceramic tile manufactured in the Sergipe state - part one: mineralogical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, J.R.; Azevedo, T.F.; Barreto, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    The ceramic tiles manufactured in Sergipe State are classified in Absorption 'BIIb' Group. Studies have been developed to obtain the classification 'BIIa' Group. This first part is about the mineralogical characterization of raw materials used for ceramics tiles, collected for three different fields. The mineralogical characterization was made with: X-ray Diffraction, Infrared, Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis, and was also obtained clays plasticity indices. The samples were heated up to 500 deg C, 900° C and 1100° C. Clays were classified as highly plastics and moderately plastics with a large number of grain with size order smaller than 0,074 mm. The main minerals identified were: kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, quartz, feldspar and calcite. Two of the three studied fields had high calcite content. The Calcite retards the sintering process causing higher porosity to the ceramic tiles. (author)

  15. Chemical characterization of tin-lead glazed ceramics from Aragon (Spain) by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inanez, J.G.; Barcelona Univ.; Speakman, R.J.; Buxeda i Garrigos, J.; Glascock, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Majolica pottery was the most characteristic tableware produced in Spain during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. A study of the three main production centers in the historical region of Aragon during Middle Ages and Renaissance was conducted on a set of 71 samples. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and the resulting data were interpreted using an array of multivariate statistical procedures. Our results show a clear discrimination among different production centers allowing a reliable provenance attribution of ceramic sherds from the Aragonese workshops. (orig.)

  16. Thermal energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in ceramic tile manufacture - Analysis of the Spanish and Brazilian industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Vaquer, E.; Mallol, G.; Alves, H. J.; Boschi, A. O.

    2012-01-01

    Spain and Brazil are two of the world's biggest ceramic tile producers. The tile manufacturing process consumes a great quantity of thermal energy that, in these two countries, is mainly obtained from natural gas combustion, which entails CO 2 emission, a greenhouse gas. This study presents a comparative analysis of the thermal energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the ceramic tile manufacturing process in Spain and Brazil, in terms of the different production technologies and different products made. The energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in ceramic tile manufacture by the wet process are very similar in both countries. In the dry process used in Brazil, less thermal energy is consumed and less CO 2 is emitted than in the wet process, but it is a process that is only used in manufacturing one particular type of product, which exhibits certain technical limitations. While in Spain the use of cogeneration systems in spray-dryers improves significantly the global energy efficiency. The average energy consumption in the different process stages, in both countries, lies within the range indicated in the Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry (BREF of the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry) of the European Union. (Author) 14 refs.

  17. Radioactivity reference levels in ceramics tiles as building materials for different countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Josefina; Ballesteros, Luisa; Serradell, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Measurements campaigns of ceramic tiles and raw materials used in them, shows that natural radionuclides of uranium ( 238 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) series, together with the radioactive isotope of potassium ( 40 K ), are presents. Uranium series contain radium, which decays to radon ( 222 Rn), an inert gas that can be released from materials and inhaled by individuals. Limits of 226 Ra concentrations are established by different countries in order to control Radon levels (200 Bq.m -3 in European Union). Potassium -40 and others gamma emitters of 226 Ra and 232 Th descendent, can cause an external dose. Therefore, with the purpose that individual doses due to building materials doesn't exceed a certain level recommendations or regulations have been established. A maximum value of 1 mSv.y -1 is recommended in European Union. In practice an easy way to avoid ceramic tiles provide doses to individuals over the reference level is to introduce an index, depending on activities concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, defined so that the dose limits due, exclusively, to building materials, will never be exceeded. These limits and indexes present differences between countries. In this paper indexes are compared and differences are discussed. (author)

  18. Fabrication of unglazed ceramic tile using dense structured sago waste and clay composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aripin; S Tani; S Mitsudo; T Saito; T Idehara

    2010-01-01

    In Indonesia, the sago processing industry generates every year huge amount of sago waste, and converting this waste into a useful material is possible. In the present study, physical properties of dense structured sago waste and clay composite were investigated in order to study the feasibility of reuse this sample as raw material in the producing of ceramics. Firstly, the chemical composition of ash (obtained from the sago waste) and clay was characterized. The prepared sample was sintered at the temperature range from 800 to 1,200 °C using electric furnace. The density, linear shrinkage and water absorption of the sintered sample were determined by using the Archimedes' method. The experimental result indicated that the density of the sintered sample increased with increasing sintering temperature up to 1100°C and then slightly decreased afterward. The water absorption of the products decreased with an increase in sintering temperature. In the sintered sample at 1,100 °C, the water absorption decreased rapidly and water adsorption of less than 1 % was achieved. This water absorption was less than 5 % which was needed for unglazed floor tile. The result of water adsorption suggest that it is possible to use this sample as a raw material for producing the ceramic floor tile. (author)

  19. Optimal Non-Invasive Fault Classification Model for Packaged Ceramic Tile Quality Monitoring Using MMW Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smriti; Singh, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) frequency has emerged as an efficient tool for different stand-off imaging applications. In this paper, we have dealt with a novel MMW imaging application, i.e., non-invasive packaged goods quality estimation for industrial quality monitoring applications. An active MMW imaging radar operating at 60 GHz has been ingeniously designed for concealed fault estimation. Ceramic tiles covered with commonly used packaging cardboard were used as concealed targets for undercover fault classification. A comparison of computer vision-based state-of-the-art feature extraction techniques, viz, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), gray level co-occurrence texture (GLCM), and histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) has been done with respect to their efficient and differentiable feature vector generation capability for undercover target fault classification. An extensive number of experiments were performed with different ceramic tile fault configurations, viz., vertical crack, horizontal crack, random crack, diagonal crack along with the non-faulty tiles. Further, an independent algorithm validation was done demonstrating classification accuracy: 80, 86.67, 73.33, and 93.33 % for DFT, WT, PCA, GLCM, and HOG feature-based artificial neural network (ANN) classifier models, respectively. Classification results show good capability for HOG feature extraction technique towards non-destructive quality inspection with appreciably low false alarm as compared to other techniques. Thereby, a robust and optimal image feature-based neural network classification model has been proposed for non-invasive, automatic fault monitoring for a financially and commercially competent industrial growth.

  20. Path-dependency and path-making in the energy system in the spanish ceramic tile cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Vaquer, E.; Mallol, G.; Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses how energy consumption and energy efficiency evolved in the Spanish ceramic tile industry in the 20th century and explores the emerging possibilities in the 21st century. In the last century, the tile industry undertook three radical transitions by switching from traditional biomass fuels to liquid hydrocarbon fuels (fuel oil and gas oil), and subsequently to gas fuels, mainly involving natural gas. Although it is difficult to obtain the information that enable the real energy efficiency in manufacturing plants to be reliably evaluated, the available data indicate that a high degree of efficiency has been achieved with current manufacturing technologies. Consequently, significant developments in this sense are not expected, even though efforts are still being made to reduce energy consumption in the production process. However, environmental regulations and impacts, and the emerging new energy sources based on agricultural biomass could open up new avenues for energy supply in the Spanish ceramic tile cluster. (Author)

  1. FLEXURAL TESTING MACHINE AS AN OFF-LINE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR QUALITY MONITORING IN THE PRODUCTION OF BENDED CERAMIC TILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capability to bend in a controlled manner Gres Porcelain stoneware tiles passing by a very exclusive process of pyroplastic deformation opens up entirely new opportunities in utilisation of this important family of ceramics. A bended tile can be exploited in innovative applications, such as stairs, shelves, benches and even radiators, turning this element from a simple piece of furnishing in a modern functional component. But this change in functionality also requires a different approach in the quality control, both at the product and process levels, that can no longer be limited to the use of tests specified in the regulations for traditional ceramics (e.g. colour, porosity, hygroscopic .... This article describes the first device so far devised for the verification of resistance to bending of curved tiles, discussing the correct way of use. The adoption of this particular equipment as an off-line control device can represent a valid strategy for monitoring the product and process quality.

  2. Comparison of slime-producing coagulase-negative Staphylococcus colonization rates on vinyl and ceramic tile flooring materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazgi, H; Uyanik, M H; Ayyildiz, A

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the colonization of slime-producing coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) in 80 patient wards in Turkey (40 vinyl and 40 ceramic tile floors). A total of 480 samples that included 557 CoNS isolates were obtained. Slime production was investigated with the Christensen method and methicillin-susceptibility was tested by the disk-diffusion method. There was a significant difference in the percentage of slime-producing CoNS isolates on vinyl (12.4%) versus ceramic tile flooring (4.4%). From vinyl flooring, the percentage of slime producing methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) (8.9%) was significantly higher than for methicillin-sensitive CoNS (MSCoNS) (3.6%), whereas there was no difference from ceramic tile flooring (2.5% MRCoNS versus 1.8% MSCoNS). The most commonly isolated slime-producing CoNS species was S. epidermidis on both types of flooring. It is concluded that vinyl flooring seems to be a more suitable colonization surface for slime-producing CoNS than ceramic tile floors. Further studies are needed to investigate bacterial strains colonized on flooring materials, which are potential pathogens for nosocomial infections.

  3. The Effect of Exposure to Respirable Dust on Blood Parameters of Workers in a Tile and Ceramic Industryin, Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnoosh Sanei

    2017-12-01

    0.05-82.84 mg/m3 has been followed by elevated WBC. As a significant number of people work in tile and ceramic industry and are exposed to high levels of pollutants and are also susceptible to different diseases, change to improve the work and preventive measures are essential.

  4. Radiological characterization of ceramic tiles made in the community of Valencia and its use as a construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, J.; Ballesteros, L.; Gallardo, S.; Martorell, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, radiological characterization is done by gamma spectrometry various types of ceramic tiles and use as building material in relation to the potential radiological risk deriving from this use are discussed. The discussion includes both the rules of the countries being targeted as the new basic security policy (BSS) issued by the EU 2014. (Author)

  5. Investigation by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction of the chemical composition of white clay ceramic tiles from Veliki Preslav

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagoev, K.; Grozeva, M.; Malcheva, G.; Neykova, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray powder diffraction in assessing the chemical and phase composition of white clay decorative ceramic tiles from the medieval archaeological site of Veliki Preslav, a Bulgarian capital in the period 893–972 AC, well-known for its original ceramic production. Numerous white clay ceramic tiles with highly varied decoration, produced for wall decoration of city's churches and palaces, were found during the archaeological excavations in the old capital. The examination of fourteen ceramic tiles discovered in one of the city's monasteries is aimed at characterization of the chemical profile of the white-clay decorative ceramics produced in Veliki Preslav. Combining different methods and comparing the obtained results provides complementary information regarding the white-clay ceramic production in Veliki Preslav and complete chemical characterization of the examined artefacts. - Highlights: ► LIBS, XRF and XRD analyses of medieval white-clay ceramic tiles fragments are done. ► Different elements and phases, presented in the ceramics fragments were determined. ► Differences in the tiles' raw material mineral composition are found. ► Information of the tiles' production process and the raw clay deposits is obtained

  6. Investigation by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction of the chemical composition of white clay ceramic tiles from Veliki Preslav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagoev, K., E-mail: kblagoev@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grozeva, M., E-mail: margo@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Malcheva, G., E-mail: bobcheva@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Neykova, S., E-mail: sevdalinaneikova@abv.bg [National Institute of Archaeology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Saborna, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray powder diffraction in assessing the chemical and phase composition of white clay decorative ceramic tiles from the medieval archaeological site of Veliki Preslav, a Bulgarian capital in the period 893–972 AC, well-known for its original ceramic production. Numerous white clay ceramic tiles with highly varied decoration, produced for wall decoration of city's churches and palaces, were found during the archaeological excavations in the old capital. The examination of fourteen ceramic tiles discovered in one of the city's monasteries is aimed at characterization of the chemical profile of the white-clay decorative ceramics produced in Veliki Preslav. Combining different methods and comparing the obtained results provides complementary information regarding the white-clay ceramic production in Veliki Preslav and complete chemical characterization of the examined artefacts. - Highlights: ► LIBS, XRF and XRD analyses of medieval white-clay ceramic tiles fragments are done. ► Different elements and phases, presented in the ceramics fragments were determined. ► Differences in the tiles' raw material mineral composition are found. ► Information of the tiles' production process and the raw clay deposits is obtained.

  7. Evaluation of the incorporation of Cariri stone in masses of ceramics tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, M.D.B.; Pereira, F.M.; Santos, I.S.; Melo, P.S.; Vieira, F.M.; Marinho, R.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mining and laminated limestone processing operations called Cariri stone, located in the Sedimentary Basin of Araripe, in the southern state is an important economic sector of the State of Ceara. As a result of this operation produces a large amount of waste. This study aims to evaluate the effect of incorporation of this residue in the red ceramic as an alternative raw material for the production of tiles. The compositions were formulated and prepared specimens with 0% content 5%, 10%, 12%, 15% and 20% by weight of residue. The determination of physical and mechanical properties such as loss on ignition, linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength was carried out on specimens uniaxially pressed at 27 MPa and sintered at 900 ° C. The results indicated that for a content to 10% by weight of waste there is an improvement of physical and mechanical properties. On the other hand higher amounts of residue compromise its mechanical properties. (author)

  8. Modelling runoff on ceramic tile roofs using the kinematic wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Alexandre; Abrantes, João; de Lima, João; Lira, Lincoln

    2016-04-01

    Rainwater harvesting is a water saving alternative strategy that presents many advantages and can provide solutions to address major water resources problems, such as fresh water scarcity, urban stream degradation and flooding. In recent years, these problems have become global challenges, due to climatic change, population growth and increasing urbanisation. Generally, roofs are the first to come into contact with rainwater; thus, they are the best candidates for rainwater harvesting. In this context, the correct evaluation of roof runoff quantity and quality is essential to effectively design rainwater harvesting systems. Despite this, many studies usually focus on the qualitative aspects in detriment of the quantitative aspects. Laboratory studies using rainfall simulators have been widely used to investigate rainfall-runoff processes. These studies enabled a detailed exploration and systematic replication of a large range of hydrologic conditions, such as rainfall spatial and temporal characteristics, providing for a fast way to obtain precise and consistent data that can be used to calibrate and validate numerical models. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a kinematic wave based numerical model in simulating runoff on sloping roofs, by comparing the numerical results with the ones obtained from laboratory rainfall simulations on a real-scale ceramic tile roof (Lusa tiles). For all studied slopes, simulated discharge hydrographs had a good adjust to observed ones. Coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values were close to 1.0. Particularly, peak discharges, times to peak and peak durations were very well simulated.

  9. Byzantine Glazed Ceramics in the Cities of the Northern Black Sea Region in the Golden Horde Period (Second Half of the 13th to the Late 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharov Sergei G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glazed ceramics of Byzantine origin, which came has been found on town sites of the Northern Black Sea region referring to the Golden Horde period (second half of the 13th – late 14th cc., is characterized in the article. Materials from the urban centers of the Crimea (Solkhat, Sudak, Kaffa, Chersonese, Cembalo, the Azov Sea region (Azaq, and the lower reaches of the Don and Kuban rivers are discussed. The applied principles of ceramics classification have been formulated. On their basis, six major groups of Byzantine ceramic imports have been identified. For each group, a description of morphological and technological features, ornamentation methods and motifs has been provided; chronological framework of their arrival in the region has been specified. Conclusions have been offered as to the extent of distribution and the role played by diverse groups of Byzantine glazed ceramics in the cities of the Northern Black Sea region.

  10. Characterization of double face adhesive sheets for ceramic tile installation; Caracterizacao de sistema de colagem dupla-face para assentamento de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Otavio L.; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The main goal of this work was the characterization of an innovative ceramic tile installation product based on double face adhesive sheets. Density, hardness, tensile strength, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with spectroscopy of dispersive energy assays were conducted. The results are in agreement with some manufacture specifications and the obtained information will be crucial in the analysis of durability and stability of the ceramic tile system installed with this new product. (author)

  11. Use of solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the ceramic tile industry and its influence on the physical properties of the ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biff, Sergio; Silva, Manoel Ribeiro da

    2016-01-01

    The current paper had as main aim characterize and assess the use viability of a solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the production of ceramic tiles. To determine the main components the solid waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence and the main crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. To evaluate the addition effects of the solid waste over the solid waste was introduced into a ceramic composition in proportions of 5% and 10%. The ceramics materials obtained were subjected to the linear retraction, water absorption and flexural strength analysis according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). Additionally, the solid waste and the ceramic materials obtained in this study were classified according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004) to assess the potential environmental impact. The main solid waste constituents identified were silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide, respectively 50.2% e 19.2%, distributed in the crystal forms of quartz and kaolinite. The ceramic materials obtained after firing at 1100 deg C, without and with 10% of solid waste presented respectively flexural strength of 13.86 MPa and 14,52Mpa. The results of water absorption without and with addition of 10% of solid waste were respectively 16.96% and 16.63%, both appropriate performances for use in ceramic tiles according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). On the other hand, the ceramic materials obtained with the addition of 10% of solid waste were classified as inert materials according to Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004), showing the capability of incorporating solid waste in ceramic materials. (author)

  12. Nano-oxides to improve the surface properties of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timellini, G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to realise ceramic tiles with superior surface mechanical characteristics and chemical resistance, by the addition of nano-oxides, such as zirconia and alumina, since such advanced ceramics oxides are well known for their excellent mechanical properties and good resistance to chemical etching. In order to avoid any dangerousness, the nanoparticles were used in form of aqueous suspension and they were sprayed, by airbrush, directly onto the dried ceramic support, before firing. To observe the distribution of the nanoparticles and to optimise the surface treatment, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the fired samples. XRD analysis was conducted to assess the phases evolution of the different materials during the firing step. The surface mechanical characteristics of the samples have been evaluated by Vickers’ hardness and scratch test. In addition, also chemical resistance tests were performed. Microstructural observations allowed to understand how alumina and zirconia nanoparticles acted to improve the surface performances of the modified ceramic tiles.

    La finalidad de este trabajo es la de realizar baldosas con mejores características mecánicas superficiales, al incorporar óxidos de partículas nanométricas, como la circona y la alúmina, ya que se sabe que estos óxidos confieren unas propiedades mecánicas excelentes además de una buena resistencia al ataque químico. Para evitar cualquier peligro, las partículas nanométricas se usaron en forma de suspensión acuosa y se pulverizaron, por medio de un aerógrafo, directamente sobre el soporte cerámico seco, antes de la cocción. Para observar la distribución de las partículas nanométricas y para optimizar el tratamiento de la superficie, se realizó unos análisis por MEB-EDS sobre las muestras cocidas. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de difracción de rayos X (DRX para evaluar la evolución de las fases de los distintos materiales durante

  13. Glazed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Why glazed concrete? Concrete hardens and finds its strength at room temperature whereas clay products must first be fired before they achieve this strength. They are stronger and three times as durable as clay products, which is a weighty reason for choosing concrete.5 Another reason, which....... If this succeeds, it will be possible to manufacture thin, large-scale glazed concrete panels comparable in size to concrete sandwich construction and larger which, with or without back-casting, can work as load-bearing construction elements....

  14. Preparation and characterization of novel glass–ceramic tile with microwave absorption properties from iron ore tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Rui; Liao, SongYi; Dai, ChangLu; Liu, YuChen; Chen, XiaoYu; Zheng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A novel glass–ceramic tile consisting of one glass–ceramic layer (GC) attaining microwave absorption properties atop ceramic substrate was prepared through quench-heat treatment route derived from iron ore tailings (IOTs) and commercial raw materials (purity range 73–99%). X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Physical property measurement system (PPMS) and Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements were carried out to investigate phase, microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorption aspects of the glass–ceramic layer. Roughly 80.6±1.7 wt% borosilicate glass and 19.4±1.7 wt% spinel ferrite with chemical formula of (Zn 2+ 0.17 Fe 3+ 0.83 )[Fe 3+ 1.17 Fe 2+ 0.06 Ni 2+ 0.77 ]O 4 were found among the tested samples. Absorption of Electromagnetic wave by 3 mm thick glass–ceramic layer at frequency of 2–18 GHz reached peak reflection loss (RL) of −17.61 dB (98.27% microwave absorption) at 10.31 GHz. Altering the thickness of the glass–ceramic layer can meet the requirements of different level of microwave absorption. - Highlights: • Iron ore tailings (IOTs) have been used as one of the main raw materials. • Glass–ceramic tile contains spinel ferrite has been prepared. • The cation distribution of the spinel ferrite has been calculated. • The intrinsic complex permeability and permittivity have been evaluated

  15. Preparation and characterization of novel glass–ceramic tile with microwave absorption properties from iron ore tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Rui; Liao, SongYi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Dai, ChangLu [Guangdong Bode Fine Building Material Co. Ltd., Foshan 528000 (China); Liu, YuChen; Chen, XiaoYu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zheng, Feng, E-mail: fzheng@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Phase diagrams and materials design center, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2015-03-15

    A novel glass–ceramic tile consisting of one glass–ceramic layer (GC) attaining microwave absorption properties atop ceramic substrate was prepared through quench-heat treatment route derived from iron ore tailings (IOTs) and commercial raw materials (purity range 73–99%). X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Physical property measurement system (PPMS) and Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements were carried out to investigate phase, microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorption aspects of the glass–ceramic layer. Roughly 80.6±1.7 wt% borosilicate glass and 19.4±1.7 wt% spinel ferrite with chemical formula of (Zn{sup 2+}{sub 0.17}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 0.83})[Fe{sup 3+}{sub 1.17}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 0.06}Ni{sup 2+}{sub 0.77}]O{sub 4} were found among the tested samples. Absorption of Electromagnetic wave by 3 mm thick glass–ceramic layer at frequency of 2–18 GHz reached peak reflection loss (RL) of −17.61 dB (98.27% microwave absorption) at 10.31 GHz. Altering the thickness of the glass–ceramic layer can meet the requirements of different level of microwave absorption. - Highlights: • Iron ore tailings (IOTs) have been used as one of the main raw materials. • Glass–ceramic tile contains spinel ferrite has been prepared. • The cation distribution of the spinel ferrite has been calculated. • The intrinsic complex permeability and permittivity have been evaluated.

  16. Environmental development of the Spanish ceramic tile manufacturing sector over the period 1992–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaera, V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish tile manufacturing sector has grown steadily over the years covered by the three benchmark studies, carried out in 1992, 2001, and 2007, from which data are compared in this paper. In that period, production output doubled, although since the last study was published, the situation has undergone a radical change and current production output stands at a level similar to that of 1995. Nevertheless, despite the world economic crisis, which has also severely impacted the ceramic wall and floor tile sector, it is worth noting that the sector’s environmental parameters have demonstrated a constant and positive trend, both in companies’ individual environmental performance and in the actual manufacturing processes itself. To a large extent, this situation was forced upon the sector as it had to adapt to numerous environmental regulations, which in general terms call for harsher and more stringent conditions than before. In this sense, the adoption of IPPC regulations, which affect practically the entire ceramic tile sector, and the approval of EU Directive 2003/87 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading were significant factors.

    El sector de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas ha crecido de forma continuada durante los años que abarcan los tres estudios cuyos datos son comparados en este informe, 1992-2001-2007, ya que la producción se ha duplicado desde el primer al último estudio, aunque si se considera el periodo del último estudio hasta la actualidad, la situación ha sufrido un cambio radical estando ahora mismo en niveles de producción similares al año 1995. No obstante, a pesar de esta crisis económica mundial en la que se ha visto arrastrado el sector cerámico, merece la pena destacar una constante evolución positiva en todos los aspectos relacionados con los temas medioambientales, tanto en aquellos aspectos relacionados con el comportamiento ambiental de las empresas como en los

  17. Energy efficient process for making pyrophyllite-based ceramic tiles using phosphoric acid and mineralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amritphale, S.S.; Sanjeev Bhasin; Navin Chandra [Habib Ganj Naka, Pradesh (India). Regional Research Laboratory

    2006-07-01

    The processing parameters for making ceramic tiles in the pyrophyllite-phosphoric acid binder (P-PA) system have been optimized. The optimized raw material composition requires sintering at a lower temperature of 950{sup o}C. The X-ray powder diffraction studies on the powdered sample of optimized composition have confirmed the presence of dehydroxylate pyrophyllite, tridymite (T-AlPO{sub 4}), cristyoballite (C-AlPO{sub 4}) forms of aluminium phosphate and formation of silico-phosphate (SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and alkali aluminium silicates (NaAlSiO{sub 4}, KAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}). The IR studies of the sample show Al-O, Si-O.P-O and Na/K-O linkages. The thermal analysis shows the formation of dehydroxylate pyrophyllite and different forms of AlPO{sub 4}. Scanning electron microphotograph reveals the chunky morphology of the dehydroxylate pyrophyllite, the rhombohedral morphology of T-AlPO{sub 4} and spherical C-AlPO{sub 4} and silico-phosphate particles. (author)

  18. Development of new functional properties in traditional ceramics field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carda, J.B.; Pedra, J.M.; Nunez, I.; Peiro, N.C.; Gil, C.; Navarro, E.; Gomez, J.J.; Chiva, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the present communication, several ways to obtain functional properties in ceramic tiles will be exposed, developed by the research group in Solid State Chemistry of Jaume I University from Castellon, in close collaboration with the ceramic industry set in Castellon (Spain). Then, searching for a new properties, those that involve advanced fields in ceramics, such as mechanical, electrical or optical properties have been chosen, transferring their application to traditional products, selecting for it the development of this properties in surface (as the obtaining if glass-ceramic glazes) or in the ceramic body (increasing its mechanical resistance, more dense and with less thickness of layer). Related to the surface properties interesting in traditional ceramics field, glass-ceramic glazes have been designed, presenting high resistance to abrasion and chemical agents attack, formulating systems of devitrification of α-SiO 2 crystallization (cristobalite), anoritite and zircon. Systems that reduce resistivity of glazes have been developed too, causing the discharge to the ground of the static charge, designing a semiconductor system SnO 2 -Sb 2 O 3 . o finish with surface properties, bactericidal properties glazes have been originated, working with CeO 2 -ZrO 2 and TiO 2 (anatase) systems. According to ceramic bodies, highly gressificated systems have been developed, with an open porosity lower than 0.5% of water absorption and with high mechanical resistance, aspects that open ways to develop multilayer systems allowing the reduction of body thickness without a decrease of its technical features. (author)

  19. Solar Photocatalytic Removal of Chemical and Bacterial Pollutants from Water Using Pt/TiO2-Coated Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Devipriya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor photocatalysis has become an increasingly promising technology in environmental wastewater treatment. The present work reports a simple technique for the preparation of platinum-deposited TiO2 catalysts and its immobilization on ordinary ceramic tiles. The Pt/TiO2 is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. Deposition of Pt on TiO2 extends the optical absorption of the latter to the visible region which makes it attractive for solar energy application. Optimum loading of Pt on TiO2 was found to be 0.5%. The Pt/TiO2 is coated on ceramic tiles and immobilized. This catalyst was found effective for the solar photocatalytic removal of chemical and bacterial pollutants from water. Once the parameters are optimized, the Pt/TiO2/tile can find application in swimming pools, hospitals, water theme parks, and even industries for the decontamination of water.

  20. The glass-like glazed coating made of cathode-ray tube faceplates cullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.І. Zavgorodnya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of the current time is to find ways of expedient municipal solid waste recycling as a secondary raw material with similar physicochemical and mechanical characteristics for the purpose of efficient use of resources and reduction of harmful impact on the environment. Due to the termination the production of monitors and television sets with cathode-ray tubes, a significant part of them is grow out of use in the form of dimensional waste. Kinescopes of these electric devices contain valuable components including the screen and conical glass and cathode-luminophors. Existing trends in the world of CRT faceplates cullet recycling argue for reasonability of recycling ways of this valuable secondary raw materials. Aim: The aim of researches is to determine the impact of the full replacement of quartz sand by faceplates cullet and using the zinc sulfide, reconstituted of used cathode-luminophors, as a secondary raw material in the production of glass-like glaze on the basic properties of color glaze. Materials and Methods: Cathode-ray tube faceplates are cut off during removal process, washed from dirt, dried, crushed by press, milled in a cheek grinder and finally crushed in a barrel mill. The slurried impurity (clay, dyes of desired color, including ZnS, water are added to this powder. The received mix is processed of wet grinding for slip production. Slip is surfaced on glass-ceramic tile, dried up, burned at maximum temperature of 900ºС. Results: Experimental research has shown that glass-forming, modifying and intermediate oxides of inorganic substances are added to the glaze with the CRT faceplates cullet. The Chasiv Yar clay belongs to the group with significant gas emission. The water vapor arising during the clay dehydration plays role of the "carrier" of heavy non-volatile components, considerably accelerates gas processes and increases activity of gas components. Zinc sulphide, dissolved in the silicate glaze melts when heated

  1. THE EFFECT OF OPACIFIERS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OFCERAMIC GLAZES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sarjahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface smoothness of ceramic glazes is always an important characteristic of ceramic glazes as a point of surface engineering studies. Surface roughness affects chemical resistivity, glossiness and stainabiliy of glazes. In fact, less surface roughness improves cleanability of the surface by the least usage amount of detergents. In this investigation, surface topography of two common opaque glazes, zirconia and titania-based, has been investigated. Crystallinity of the surface has been studied from SEM images, and comparison of EDS elemental results with phase analysis results of XRD. Surface roughness profile measured by Marsurf M300, shows that titania-based glaze is almost 24% percentage more smooth than zirconia based glaze. Surface smoothness is in relation with crystallinity of glaze surface, crystal type and crystal distribution in amorphous matrix phase

  2. Recycling Roof Tile Waste Material for Wall Cover Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on roof tile waste treatment has attempted to find the appropriate technology to reuse old roof tile waste by  create  wall  cladding  materials  from  it.  Through  exploration  and  experimentation,  a  treatment  method  has  been discovered  to  transform  the  tile  fragments  into  artificial  stone  that  resembles  the  shape  of  coral.  This  baked  clay artificial stone material is then processed as a decorative element for vertical surfaces that are not load-bearing, such as on the interior and exterior walls of a building. Before applying the fragments as wall tiles, several steps must be taken: 1  Blunting,  which  changes  the  look  of  tile  fragments  using  a  machine  created  specifically  to  blunt  the  roof-tile fragment  edges,  2  Closing  the  pores  of  the  blunted  fragments  as  a  finishing  step  that  can  be  done  with  a  transparent coat or a solid color of paint, 3 Planting the transformed roof-tile fragments on a prepared tile body made of concrete. In this study, the second phase is done using the method of ceramics glazing at a temperature of 700 °C. The finishing step is the strength of this product because it produces a rich color artificial pebble.

  3. Expansão por umidade de revestimentos cerâmicos incorporados com residuos de granito e caulim Moisture expansion of ceramic tiles produced using kaolin and granite wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. G. D. Mendonça

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Expansão por umidade (EPU é o aumento das dimensões dos materiais cerâmicos em virtude da adsorção de água. A EPU geralmente ocorre lentamente e é relativamente pequena, mas, mesmo assim, pode comprometer a aderência das placas cerâmicas ao contrapiso, levar ao gretamento do vidrado e conduzir ao aparecimento de trincas em tijolos. Neste trabalho empregaram-se massas incorporadas com resíduos de caulim e de granito objetivando estudar a EPU de revestimentos cerâmicos. As matérias-primas foram beneficiadas e submetidas às caracterizações físicas e mineralógicas através de ensaios de análise granulométrica por difração a laser, análise química, análise termodiferencial, termogravimétrica e difração de raios X. Os resultados mostraram que os resíduos de caulim e de granito podem ser utilizados como matéria-prima cerâmica alternativa, pois apresentam características similares às matérias-primas cerâmicas convencionais, permitindo a obtenção de peças com resultados de EPU satisfatórios quando comparado ao valor limite de 0,6 mm/m (0,06% proposto pela ABNT para revestimentos cerâmicos, notadamente em composições com teores de até 20% de resíduos, a temperaturas superiores a 1000 ºC.Moisture expansion (ME is the term used to describe the expansion of ceramic materials due to the adsorption of water. ME usually occurs slowly and is relatively small, but, it can damage the ceramic tiles adhesion to the underlayment, craze the glaze and lead to the development of cracks on ceramics bricks. In this work kaolin and granite wastes were incorporated in ceramic compositions aiming study their influence on the ME of ceramic tiles. Raw materials were processed and submitted to characterization: physical and mineralogical by laser diffraction particle size analysis, chemical analysis, thermodifferential and thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that kaolin and granite wastes can be

  4. Quality and seasonal variation of rainwater harvested from concrete, asphalt, ceramic tile and green roofs in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Xiaoke; Hou, Peiqiang; Wan, Wuxing; Li, Ruida; Ren, Yufen; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent requirement to examine the quality of harvested rainwater for potable and non-potable purposes, based on the type of roofing material. In this study, we examined the effect on the quality of harvested rainwater of conventional roofing materials (concrete, asphalt and ceramic tile roofs) compared with alternative roofing materials (green roof). The results showed that the ceramic tile roof was the most suitable for rainwater-harvesting applications because of the lower concentrations of leachable pollutants. However, in this study, the green roof was not suitable for rainwater harvesting applications. In addition, seasonal trends in water quality parameters showed that pollutants in roof runoff in summer and autumn were lower than those in winter and spring. This study revealed that the quality of harvested rainwater was significantly affected by the roofing material; therefore, local government and urban planners should develop stricter testing programs and produce more weathering resistant roofing materials to allow the harvesting of rainwater for domestic and public uses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of gypsum on efflorescence in ceramic tiles; Influence da gipsita no surgimento de eflorescencia em telhas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.M.O.L. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Nascimento, R.M.; Martinelli, A.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPgCEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The red ceramic industry is recognized as of major importance in Piaui State. The State capital, Teresina, is the greatest producer of this material, which is used mainly for masonry sealing blocks. One of the most frequent problems in this kind of products is the efflorescence.This paper has the main objective of studying the influence of gypsum on tiles, using the local industry production standards. The raw materials were characterized by FRX, DRX, thermal analysis and sulfates. Extruded test specimens were made with the addition of 1%, 3% and 5% of gypsum in the ceramic paste, burned at 850 deg C, 950 deg C and 1050 deg C and submitted to further technological and analysis for MEV. The reference ceramic paste did not show tendency to efflorescence formation after burning for samples with 1% gypsum added to the paste. The reference ceramic paste showed tendency to efflorescence formation after drying and consolidated efflorescence after burning for samples with 5% gypsum added to the paste. (author)

  6. Modeling and simulation of the atomization process in the ceramic tile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favalli, Renata Cristina

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to numerically simulate the behaviour of the drying system for several sets of operating conditions in order to improve and optimize this process. However, the mathematical modeling adopted here can be employed to simulate other systems such as the processes that occur in liquid-fueled engines with direct spray injection and ceramic spraying for hard surfacing. Then, mathematical and physical models were established to simulate the interaction of continuous and disperse phases in drying processes of ceramic slurries. Solving the set of governing coupled partial differential equations, it is possible to study the influence of drying air on the atomized droplets of alumina slurry, and vice-versa. The materials used as continuous and disperse phase, air and alumina slurry respectively, are representative since any kind of gas and slurry can be used if its thermodynamic and transport properties are known. Several experimental tests were carried out in a spray dryer in the 'Laboratorio de Insumos', at IPEN - Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares for different sets of operating conditions: initial temperature of the drying air, the gas flow rate, the slurry feed rate and atomiser configuration among others. Measurements of the wet and the dry bulb temperatures were made in some experimental tests to allow the calculations of the air humidity. The dynamic pressure were also measured in order to determine the gas flow rate. Some samples of the material used in the tile industry and of the one produced at IPEN were analysed to determine: the morphology of the atomized material and the range of granules diameter through scanning electron microscopy; the amount of pores and the bulk density through porosimetry; the residual moisture of the material through thermogravimetry; and the granulometric distribution of granules and particles through laser diffraction. Important information about the process and the final material are given by

  7. Physical-optical effects obtention for the ceramic tiles decoration; Obtencion de efectos fisico-opticos para la decoracion de baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, M J; Montins, V; Solsona, D; Sala, J M

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a range of products for the ceramic tiles decoration, characterized for a microcracks structure after its application on a ceramic substrate and subsequent firing. This structure origins a multicoloured iridescent effect that confers to the ceramic tile differential aesthetics characteristics, with a final aspect similar to the rainbow quartz or iris quartz. An analysis of the state of the art is made as well as a deepening in the study and characterization of the physical optical phenomena responsible of that kind of effects in these minerals, with the aim of determining and modelling the multicoloured effect or iridescent effect, the cause of this effect, the physical-optical phenomenon that produces it, and the analysis and knowledge of the phenomenological mechanisms that origins it, so that we can try the extrapolation of that effects wit our ceramic materials. (Author)

  8. Analytical investigations of glazed Islamic pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, E.; Krejsa, P.

    1977-11-01

    The composition of the glazes of 14 fragments of medieval ceramics from Sistan in the south-west of Afghanistan has been determined quantitatively by means of electron probe microanalysis. The results were compared with materials and recipes, which are described in a Persian treatise on the manufacutre of glazed ceramic objects dated 1300 A.D. The mineral ''muzzarad'' which was used for the black underglaze painting, could be identified as chromite. The light blue colouring of the glaze was accomplished by admixtue of Cu, while Co was used for the dark blue painting. Most probably the Co pigment originated from Kashan in Persia. Only two glazes Pb was found, one of which contained also Sn. Based on the results of the quantitative analyses, a frit composition was calculated, which agrees with the medieval description of one identifies another so far unknown material mentioned in the treatise (qamsari) as dolomitic sandstone. (author)

  9. Radon-222 Study in Ceramics and Indoor Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, N.L.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    A total 50 samples of 13 different ceramic tiles companies collected from the Egyptian market for the measurements of radon exhalation rate. Three homes include twenty rooms were selected. The period of the survey was in range 2-3 months for homes for each season while it was about 15 days for ceramic tiles. The radon exhalation rate of ceramic tiles (clay and glaze) and indoor radon activity concentration were measured by alpha tracks technique. The average radon exhalation rate in three homes was observed to be in the range 2.2-5.2 mBq.m -2 .h -1 . The average of Ra-226 activity for all ceramic tiles either the floor or wall tile is in the range 16-64 Bq.kg -1 . The porosity of ceramic tiles is found in the range 0.19-0.29. The effective dose in all rooms is found in the range 0.9- 1.3 mSv.y -1 .

  10. VIDRIADO CON LÁSER DE Nd: YAG SOBRE AZULEJOS RECUBIERTOS DE BARNICES DE COBALTO CON FRITA BORÁCICA Y SIN FRITA VIDRADO COM Laser De Nd: YAG SOBRE AZULEJOS RECOBERTOS DE VERNIZES DE COBALTO COM FRITA BORÁCICA E SEM FRITA Nd: YAG LASER ENAMELING ON GLAZED TILES COATED WITH COBALT VARNISHES WITH AND WITHOUT BORAX FRIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryory Astrid Gómez

    2010-07-01

    ças durante o processo sem requerer longas paradas, e a geração de resíduos é mínima ou quase nula. Neste estudo se apresentam os resultados obtidos no vidrado com laser Nd:YAG (l=1064 nm, sobre as superfícies esmaltadas de azulejos, as quais foram previamente recobertas com pigmento preto de cobalto e um verniz constituído com este mesmo pigmento e frita borácica. Com o laser operando em modo contínuo (CW, marcaram-se uma série de linhas, cujo largo e profundidade evidenciaram uma dependência direta com a variação da potência e velocidade de deslocamento do feixe laser sobre a superfície do azulejo. Finalmente, estas linhas vidradas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica, espectroscopia de dispersão de energia (EDS e difração de raios X.Ceramic and architectonic materials industries employ different marking techniques with two classical applications, identification and decoration of manufactured objects. Laser techniques using for these proposes are been implemented in growing way, due to theirs advantages with regard to the conventional baking such as: heat is concentrated only on the radiated zone which involves a smaller energy consumption without affecting significantly the rest of the piece; graphic patterns with of highly spatial resolution are obtained; it permits to introduce changes during the process no requiring long stops and low or almost none generation of residues. In this study the results obtained from Nd:YAG (l=1064 nm laser glazing on the enameled surfaces of glazed tiles, which were previously covered with cobalt black pigment and an enamel constituted with this same pigment and borax frit, are presented. With the laser operating in continuous wave (CW, a series of lines were marked, whose width and depth showed a direct dependence with the variation in the power and scan speed of the laser beam on the glazed tile surface. Finally, these glazed lines were characterized by optical microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS, and X

  11. Use of ornamental rock waste to fabricate rustic ceramic tile: industrial test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.T.; Monteiro, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This work has as its objective to produce rustic wall tiles with the use of a waste from the sawing of gnaisse rock mixed with kaolinitic replacing sand. Compositions were prepared using clay, sand and waste, The wall tiles were fire in a industrial dome type furnace at 850 deg C.The physical and mechanical properties determined were water absorption and flexural rupture strength. The results indicated that the waste did not improve the evaluated properties by replacing sand. This is mainly due to the low temperature used in the experiment. (author)

  12. Lessons learned from the development and manufacture of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials for the space shuttle orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, R. P.; Elgin, D. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Nickel, K. N.; Gzowski, E. R.; Aguiler, L.

    1983-01-01

    Three ceramic, reusable surface insulation materials and two borosilicate glass coatings were used in the fabrication of tiles for the Space Shuttle orbiters. Approximately 77,000 tiles were made from these materials for the first three orbiters, Columbia, Challenger, and Discovery. Lessons learned in the development, scale up to production and manufacturing phases of these materials will benefit future production of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials. Processing of raw materials into tile blanks and coating slurries; programming and machining of tiles using numerical controlled milling machines; preparing and spraying tiles with the two coatings; and controlling material shrinkage during the high temperature (2100-2275 F) coating glazing cycles are among the topics discussed.

  13. How Does the Innovation System in the Spanish Ceramic Tile Sector Function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.; Hekkert, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143777629

    2013-01-01

    In this article we apply the functions of innovation systems framework to assess its appropriateness to characterise the innovation activity of the tile industry in Castellón. This framework is based on idea that a well functioning innovation system requires that a number of key activities take

  14. Reassessing Roman ceramic building materials: economics, logistics and social factors in the supply of tile to Dorchester on Thames, Oxfordshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Peveler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the supply of Roman ceramic building materials to Dorchester on Thames, Oxfordshire. Mineralogy and bulk chemistry of tile fabrics were analysed by thin-section and scanning electron microscopy. The assemblage from this Roman ‘small town’ has shown, besides the existence of local manufacture, that tegulae were on occasion transported c. 50 km by road to the site. The ‘pink grog-tempered ware’ fabric in which some tegulae were made is analogous to a fabric used to produce large storage jars in the vicinity of Stowe Park, Buckinghamshire. Analysis and discussion of the mechanisms and logistics which facilitated the production and long-distance transport of these tiles and jars is undertaken. Social and economic factors involved in their production and purchase are proposed. This study demonstrates the importance of greater levels of analysis of building materials, with the potential to inform us about social strata beneath those most visible in the historical and archaeological record, and a significant, often neglected aspect of the Roman economy.

  15. Use of sodium carbonate as a binder in ceramic tile compositions; Uso del carbonato sodico como ligante en composiciones de baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quereda, F.; Sanchez, E.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Gozalbo, A.; Beltran, V.; Sanchez, J.; Sales, J.

    2010-07-01

    This study analyses, first, the influence of sodium carbonate content on the behaviour of the ceramic tile body composition during the different manufacturing process stages (preparation of the suspension, pressing, and firing), as well as on unfired tile mechanical strength. It has been verified that sodium carbonate can be used as a binder in ceramic tile compositions, since small percentages considerably enhance dry tile mechanical strength. It has furthermore been determined that for each composition there is an optimum addition content, with high increased mechanical strength (up to 70%), without this noticeably affecting the rheological behaviour of the suspension to be spray dried. These results are currently being patented (patent application P200930148). Once the binding effect of sodium carbonate had been verified, it was sought to establish its action mechanism. For this purpose, drops of mixtures of a standard ceramic composition and increasing quantities of sodium carbonate were prepared. The drops were rapidly dried and the granules were characterised by scanning electron microscopy. It was thus verified that the most likely sodium carbonate action mechanism was formation of solid bridges by crystallisation. (Author)

  16. How Does the Innovation System in the Spanish Ceramic Tile Sector Function?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.; Hekkert, M. P.

    2013-06-01

    In this article we apply the functions of innovation systems framework to assess its appropriateness to characterise the innovation activity of the tile industry in Castellon. This framework is based on idea that a well functioning innovation system requires that a number of key activities take place. If this occurs innovative output is higher. Our analysis provides a deeper understanding of the role of innovation as a strategic option in a mature industry in the context of globalisation. By applying this new theoretical approach to study innovation and highlighting the functions that the system requires, we shown the constraints, inertias, challenges and opportunities that the innovation system of the tile industry in Castellon faces. The results also show that the functional approach allows higher flexibility in order to recognise and analyse the opportunities and constraints that a given innovation system presents. (Author) 20 refs.

  17. How Does the Innovation System in the Spanish Ceramic Tile Sector Function?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.; Hekkert, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we apply the functions of innovation systems framework to assess its appropriateness to characterise the innovation activity of the tile industry in Castellon. This framework is based on idea that a well functioning innovation system requires that a number of key activities take place. If this occurs innovative output is higher. Our analysis provides a deeper understanding of the role of innovation as a strategic option in a mature industry in the context of globalisation. By applying this new theoretical approach to study innovation and highlighting the functions that the system requires, we shown the constraints, inertias, challenges and opportunities that the innovation system of the tile industry in Castellon faces. The results also show that the functional approach allows higher flexibility in order to recognise and analyse the opportunities and constraints that a given innovation system presents. (Author)

  18. Optimal inventory reallocation to customer orders in ceramic tile companies characterized by the lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemany, M. M. E.; Alarcon, F.; Oltra, R. F.; Lario, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP) is defined as the lack of uniformity required by the customer in the products. The LHP appears in companies where the final products obtained are not homogeneous, leading to the existence of different references (subtypes) of the same product. This lack of homogeneity is a problem when the client needs to be served through homogeneous units of a product and commit orders are based on planned quantities, whose final homogeneity characteristics are unknown at the time of acquiring the customer commitments. The frequent discrepancies caused by the LHP between planned homogeneous amounts and those actually obtained and available, can prevent the delivery of committed orders. To solve this problem, we propose a mathematical programming model for the reallocation of inventory in Make to Stock (MTS) ceramic tile companies characterized by the LHP that combines multiple objectives. The proposed mathematical model has been validated by its application to a real case of a ceramic company. The analysis of the obtained results indicates significant improvements in the number of orders completed on time and in sales revenue achieved. (Author) 33 refs.

  19. Development of dense glass-ceramic from recycled soda-lime-silicate glass and fly ash for tiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffar, Mohd Idham; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza; Hassan, Mahadi Abu

    2017-12-01

    Dense glass-ceramics were prepared by sinter-crystallization process from a combination of soda-lime-silicate glass waste and fly ash. Bentonite clay that acted as a binder was also added in a prepared formulation. The powder mixture of soda-lime glass, fly ash and bentonite clay were compacted by using uniaxial hydraulic press machine and sintered at six (6) various temperatures namely 750, 800, 850, 900, 950 and 1000 °C. The heating rate and sintering time were set at 5 °C/min and 30 minutes respectively. The results revealed that modulus of rupture (MOR), density and linear shrinkage increase first from 750 to 800 °C but decrease later after 800 to 1000 °C. In the meantime, water absorption was showing completely an opposite trend. The glass-ceramic sintered at 800 °C was found to have the best combination of physical-mechanical properties and has the potential to be applied in the construction industry particularly as floor and wall tiles because of the simple manufacturing process at low temperature.

  20. Cellular ceramics made from porcelain tile polishing wastes: influence of sintering time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.F.; Zanelatto, C.C.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the physical, microstructural and mechanical characterization of cellular ceramics made from porcelain polishing wastes, which were expanded by the bubble formation technique during the sintering process. The microstructure, linear expansion, bulk density (mercury immersion) and mechanical behavior (compressive strength) were determined to characterize the glass foam obtained. Moreover, the porcellaneous residue was characterized by chemical and phase analyses, particle size (laser diffraction) and thermal behavior. As a result, the higher the soaking time during heat treatment at 1200 deg C the lower the density obtained for the cellular ceramic due to CO 2 expansion, and lower the mechanical strength of the samples. The microstructure shows spherical cells and completely closed pores, resulting in a cheap way to obtain low density material with adequate mechanical strength, avoiding the disposal of wastes from the ceramic industry. (author)

  1. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing; Diseno decorativo de pavimentos ceramicos adaptado a inyeccion de tinta mediante tratamiento digital de imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-09-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  2. Combustion gas cleaning in the ceramic tile industry: technical guide; Nettoyage des fumees de combustion dans l'industrie ceramique: guide technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezaun, F.J. [ENAGAS-Grupo Gas Natural (Spain); Mallol, G.; Monfort, E. [instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC (Spain); Busani, G. [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l' Amiente, ARPA (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This document presents a summary of a technical guide drawn up on combustion gas cleaning systems in ceramic frit and tile production. The guide describes the method to be followed for selecting the best possible solutions for reducing pollutant concentrations in different emission sources, in accordance with current regulatory requirements and the CET recommendation. There are three sources of combustion gas air emissions that need to be cleaned in ceramic tile and frit production and they are usually related to the following process stages: slip spray drying, tile firing and frit melting. The different nature of the emissions means that different substances will need to be cleaned in each emission. Thus, in spray drying and frit melting, the only species to be cleaned are suspended particles, while in tile firing, it is also necessary to reduce the fluorine concentration. The systems analysed in this guide are mainly wet cleaning systems, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. In the study, the efficiency of these cleaning systems is compared at each emission source from a technical and economic point of view, and concrete solutions are put forward in each case, together with a list of suppliers of the technologies involved. (authors)

  3. Evacuated aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space ......) combined with a solar energy transmittance above 0.75.......This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space...... between the glass panes is filled with monolithic silica aerogel evacuated to a rough vacuum of approximately 1-10 hPa. The aerogel glazing does not depend on use of low emissive coatings that have the drawback of absorbing a relatively large part of the solar radiation that otherwise could reduce...

  4. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Bahaloo, Maryam; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Davari, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears). Subjects were divided into four groups according t...

  5. Compaction and Plasticity Comparative Behaviour of Soft Clay Treated with Coarse and Fine Sizes of Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bared, Mohammed Ali Mohammed; Marto, Aminaton; Sati Hamonangan Harahap, Indra; Kasim, Fauziah

    2018-03-01

    Recycled blended ceramic tiles (RBT) is a waste material produced from ceramic tile factories and construction activities. RBT is found to be cost effective, sustainable, environmental-friendly and has the potential to be used as an additive in soft soil stabilization. Recent reports show that massive amounts of RBT are dumped into legal or illegal landfills every year consuming very large spaces and creating major environmental problems. On the other hand, dredged marine clay obtained from Nusajaya, Johor, Malaysia has weak physical and engineering characteristics to be considered as unsuitable soft soil that is usually excavated, dumped into landfills and replaced by stiff soil. Hence, this study investigates the suitability of possible uses of RBT to treat marine clay. Laboratory tests included Standard proctor tests and Atterberg limits tests. The plasticity of marine clay was evaluated by adding 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 0.3 mm RBT. In addition, the compaction behaviour of treated marine clay was compared by adding two different sizes (0.3 mm and 1.18 mm diameter) of RBT. For both coarse and fine sizes of RBT, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of the dry weight of the soft clay were added. The mixture of each combination was examined in order to evaluate the Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and the optimum moisture content (OMC) for the treated soft clay. MDD and OMC for soft untreated samples were 1.59 Mg/m3 and 22%, respectively. Treated samples with 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 0.30 mm size RBT resulted in a significant reduction of OMC ranged from 19 to 15% while MDD resulted in increment ranged from 1.69 to 1.77 Mg/m3. In addition, samples treated with 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 1.18 mm size RBT resulted in major reduction of OMC ranged from 15 to 13.5% while MDD increased effectively from 1.75 to 1.82 Mg/m3. For all mix designs of soft clay-RBT, MDD was gradually increasing and OMC was sharply reducing with further increments of both sizes of RBT.

  6. Compaction and Plasticity Comparative Behaviour of Soft Clay Treated with Coarse and Fine Sizes of Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bared Mohammed Ali Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycled blended ceramic tiles (RBT is a waste material produced from ceramic tile factories and construction activities. RBT is found to be cost effective, sustainable, environmental-friendly and has the potential to be used as an additive in soft soil stabilization. Recent reports show that massive amounts of RBT are dumped into legal or illegal landfills every year consuming very large spaces and creating major environmental problems. On the other hand, dredged marine clay obtained from Nusajaya, Johor, Malaysia has weak physical and engineering characteristics to be considered as unsuitable soft soil that is usually excavated, dumped into landfills and replaced by stiff soil. Hence, this study investigates the suitability of possible uses of RBT to treat marine clay. Laboratory tests included Standard proctor tests and Atterberg limits tests. The plasticity of marine clay was evaluated by adding 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 0.3 mm RBT. In addition, the compaction behaviour of treated marine clay was compared by adding two different sizes (0.3 mm and 1.18 mm diameter of RBT. For both coarse and fine sizes of RBT, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of the dry weight of the soft clay were added. The mixture of each combination was examined in order to evaluate the Maximum Dry Density (MDD and the optimum moisture content (OMC for the treated soft clay. MDD and OMC for soft untreated samples were 1.59 Mg/m3 and 22%, respectively. Treated samples with 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 0.30 mm size RBT resulted in a significant reduction of OMC ranged from 19 to 15% while MDD resulted in increment ranged from 1.69 to 1.77 Mg/m3. In addition, samples treated with 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of 1.18 mm size RBT resulted in major reduction of OMC ranged from 15 to 13.5% while MDD increased effectively from 1.75 to 1.82 Mg/m3. For all mix designs of soft clay-RBT, MDD was gradually increasing and OMC was sharply reducing with further increments of both sizes of RBT.

  7. Large Area Active Brazing of Multi-tile Ceramic-Metal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    metallurgical bonds. The major disadvantage of using active brazing for metals and ceramics is the high processing temperature required that results in...steels) and form strong, metallurgical bonds. However, the high processing temperatures result in large strain (stress) build-up from the inherent...metals such as titanium alloys and stainless steels) and form strong, metallurgical bonds. However, the high processing temperatures result in large

  8. Consolidation treatments applied to ceramic tiles: are they homogeneous?; Tratamientos de consolidación aplicados en materiales cerámicos: ¿Son homogéneos?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D.; Leal, A.S.; Mimoso, J.M; Pereira, S.M.R.

    2017-07-01

    The mass consolidation treatment of azulejos is necessary when ceramic biscuits show signs of disaggregation. Such treatment is often used as a complementary conservation technique to the reestablishment of weakened glaze-ceramic bonds. In this research, two commonly used consolidants (ethyl silicate and acrylic resin) were tested on artisanal ceramic tiles via mass consolidation and the resulting impregnation profiles were evaluated. The results indicated that after consolidation, hard zones frequently formed due to localized consolidant concentration after the polymerization and curing processes. These inhomogeneous hard zones subsequently influenced the results obtained through conventional mechanical strength testing (i.e. flexural and compression), creating a false impression of success. This research demonstrated that by using the Drilling Resistance Measuring System, impregnation characteristics such as penetration depth and distribution of consolidant could be observed that otherwise could not be discerned through the more common testing methods. As such, a more extensive evaluation of consolidation effects was achieved. [Spanish] En la conservación de los azulejos alterados se utilizan productos con acción consolidante a fin de recuperar la cohesión del cuerpo cerámico disgregado. En este trabajo se investiga el efecto de la consolidación de dos productos muy utilizados en la práctica de la conservación de los azulejos (un silicato de etilo comercial y una resina acrílica), aplicados en un material cerámico artesanal. Los resultados obtenidos indican que pueden producirse zonas con resistencias mayores debido a la concentración local del producto y, a la vez de un material consolidado homogéneo, resulta un material heterogéneo. Por otro lado, la existencia de estas zonas puede conducir a falsos resultados en los ensayos destructivos (resistencia mecánica a la flexión y compresión) utilizados frecuentemente en la evaluación de la acción de

  9. Analysis of the impact of ISO 14001 in the economic variables of the Spanish ceramic tile industry's companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiro-Signes, A.; Segarra-Ona, M.; Mondejar-Jimenez, J.; Vargas-Vargas, M.

    2013-01-01

    The increased in the adoption of formally environmental certified practices through environmental management systems is a provable fact. Its implementation, which has a high cost for the companies, is expected to generate benefits, although the relation between the implementation of ISO 14001 and its influence on the improvement of economic indicators over time has not been documented. This paper analyzes the relation between the implementation of an environmental management system, the ISO 14001, and economic performance in the short, medium and long term for the companies of the Spanish ceramic tile industry. It explores the economic indicators for each of the 66 manufacturing companies which have implemented the aforementioned standard from 1996 until 2009 through a comparison with a control group. Results show that ISO 14001 does not affect the economic results of the studied companies. We have not found significant differences in the operating income values, neither in the increase in revenues in the long term in any of the three analyzed periods, contrary to the expected results. (Author) 60 refs.

  10. Analysis and Monitoring Results of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic Façade Using PV Ceramic Tiles in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal silicon-based solar cells laminated with tempered-glass and ceramic tiles for use in a building’s façade have been developed. The optical, thermal, and electrical properties of the proposed PV module are first evaluated, and then a wind-resistance test is carried out to evaluate the feasibility of installing it in Taiwan. The electrical and deflection characteristics of the proposed PV module did not change significantly after a 50 thermal cycling test and a 200-hour humidity-freeze test, based on IEC 61215 and a wind-resistance test. Finally, the electrical power generation ability of the proposed BIPV system with 1 kWp electrical power capacity was examined. Building information modeling software tools were used to simulate the BIPV system and carry out the energy analysis. The simulation results show a very consistent trend with regard to the actual monthly electricity production of the BIPV system designed in this work. The BIPV system was able to produce an accumulative electrical power of 185 kWh during the 6-month experimental period. In addition, the exterior temperature of the demonstration house was about 10°C lower than the surface of the BIPV system, which could reduce indoor temperature.

  11. PGAA, INAA and luminescence to trace the 'history' of 'The Panoramic View of Lisbon'. Lisbon before the earthquake of 1755 in painted tiles (Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudencio, M.I.; Dias, M.I.; Burbidge, Ch.I.; Marques, Rosa; Marques, J.G.; Cardoso, G.J.O.; Trindade, M.J.; Kasztovszky, Zsolt; Maroti, Boglarka; Ruiz, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    'The Panoramic View of Lisbon' is a unique masterpiece of Portuguese glazed tiles which depicts the city before the earthquake of 1755. Compositional analysis was done by PGAA, INAA and XRD. The first absolute dating by luminescence was done, including a reconstruction of the history of radiation exposure of the pieces. Compositional patterns of the tiles suggest the use of carbonated clays from downtown Lisbon to manufacture the ceramic bodies at high firing temperatures (900-1100 deg C). Luminescence dating results point to the manufacture of 'The Panoramic View of Lisbon' in the late 17th-early 18th centuries. (author)

  12. Use of a new borate raw material for glaze formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Tena, M. P.; Moreno, A.; Bou, E.; Cook, S.; Galindo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Tinto Minerals company has developed a new borate (E-4972), which can be used in glaze formulation (patent WO 2007/148101). This new borate, synthesised by low-temperature calcination, fundamentally contributes five oxides: silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), boron oxide (B 2 O 3 ), calcium oxide (CaO), and sodium oxide (Na 2 O), its content in B 2 O 3 being between 10 and 11% by weight. It is largely amorphous, and quartz is the major crystalline phase present. The characteristics of this new borate, such as its low solubility and ability readily to form glassy phase, enable it to be used as a raw material in glaze compositions. Its suitability for glaze formulation has been the result of several years research in collaboration with the Instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica. In this paper, the feasibility has been studied of fabricating ceramic glazes by using a new synthetic borate raw material that contributes boron to the glaze composition without this needing to be done in fritted form. It has been possible to obtain fired glazes with similar technical and aesthetics characteristics to those obtained from industrial glaze compositions that contain typical frits in their compositions, thus enabling glazes to be formulated by using the new synthetic boron raw material. The results obtained show that this new raw material (E-4972) is particularly appropriate for use in producing glazes with low gloss at high temperature. (Author) 15 refs.

  13. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  14. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  15. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%, 49 (8.83%, 22 (3.96%, and 63 (11.35% subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices.

  16. Effect of workplace noise on hearing ability in tile and ceramic industry workers in Iran: a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Bahaloo, Maryam; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Davari, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%), 49 (8.83%), 22 (3.96%), and 63 (11.35%) subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices.

  17. VOCs monitoring of new materials for ceramic tiles decoration: GC–MS analysis of emissions from common vehicles and inkjet inks during firing in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, G.; Zannini, P.

    2017-01-01

    The decoration of ceramic tiles “ink-jet revolution” has brought significant advantages to tiles manufacturing, but the explosive diffusion, until 4–5 years ago, of this technique has not been accomplished by an adequate scientific research. Among all the features that have to be studied yet, one of the most important is the influence of the new generation inks on the total emission at ceramic chimneys. In this paper, we present a first characterization of emissions from a set of commercial inks and vehicles: they were collected by propter firing of samples in an electric kiln and analyzed by GC–MS. This study is part of a larger research project, which includes the chemical characterization and the evaluation of thermal behavior of inks and vehicles by TG-DTA and other techniques. The obtained results permit to divide common vehicles into 3 classes, depending on their thermal behavior and emissions pattern. Inks, most of which present an ester based formulation, sometimes mixed with glycols or paraffins, follow the behavior of their single components. The most common formulation leads to the presence in the emission pattern of evaporation products (2-ethylhexyl esters of lauric, myristic, decanoic and octanoic acids) and decomposition products (mainly aldehydes and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol). [es

  18. VOCs monitoring of new materials for ceramic tiles decoration: GC–MS analysis of emissions from common vehicles and inkjet inks during firing in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Ferrari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The decoration of ceramic tiles “ink-jet revolution” has brought significant advantages to tiles manufacturing, but the explosive diffusion, until 4–5 years ago, of this technique has not been accomplished by an adequate scientific research. Among all the features that have to be studied yet, one of the most important is the influence of the new generation inks on the total emission at ceramic chimneys. In this paper, we present a first characterization of emissions from a set of commercial inks and vehicles: they were collected by propter firing of samples in an electric kiln and analyzed by GC–MS. This study is part of a larger research project, which includes the chemical characterization and the evaluation of thermal behavior of inks and vehicles by TG-DTA and other techniques. The obtained results permit to divide common vehicles into 3 classes, depending on their thermal behavior and emissions pattern. Inks, most of which present an ester based formulation, sometimes mixed with glycols or paraffins, follow the behavior of their single components. The most common formulation leads to the presence in the emission pattern of evaporation products (2-ethylhexyl esters of lauric, myristic, decanoic and octanoic acids and decomposition products (mainly aldehydes and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol.

  19. Influence de la nature chimique et minéralogique des argiles et du processus de fabrication sur la qualité des carreaux céramiques Influence of chemical and mineralogical nature of clay and manufacturing process on the quality of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik C.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude correspond à une approche pluridisciplinaire menée en étroite collaboration entre des géologues, des chimistes et des industriels de la céramique. Les résultats confirment l’étroite relation existante entre la composition des argiles et la qualité du produit céramique final. Les briquettes obtenues, dans les mêmes conditions, à partir de deux argiles marocaines assez différentes du point de vue chimique et minéralogique, présentent des caractéristiques technologiques bien distinctes. l’utilisation d’adjuvants minéraux, bien sélectionnés, contribue à l’équilibrage des argiles brutes et conduit à une nette amélioration de la qualité du produit céramique, notamment une réduction de leur retrait à la cuisson et une augmentation de leur résistance à la flexion. Concernant l’effet du processus de fabrication, l’application de l’engobe et de l’émail, s’avère être à l’origine de bombement des carreaux lors de la cuisson, en raison vraisemblablement de la différence des coefficients de dilatation des deux milieux argile et émail. This study is conducted in a multidisciplinary collaboration between geologists, chemists and industrial ceramics. The results confirm the close ralatioship existing between the composition of clays and quality of the finished ceramic pieces. The obtained specimens, under the same conditions, from two moroccan clays that are different on the chimico-mineralogical point of view, present distinct technological characteristics. The use of well selected mineral adjuvants, contributes to the balancing of raw clays and leads to a marked improvement in the quality of the ceramic product, including a reduction on their firing shrinkage and an increase of flexural strength. Concerning the effect of the manufacturing process, the application of the glaze, turns out to be the cause of bulging tiles during firing, probably because of the difference in thermal

  20. Topographic characterization of glazed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeberg, Linda; Hupa, Leena

    2008-01-01

    Detailed characterization of surface microstructure, i.e. phase composition and surface geometry, has become an important criterion of glazed ceramics. Topographic characterization is an important parameter in, e.g. estimating the influence of additional films on the average roughness of a surface. Also, the microscaled and nanoscaled roughnesses correlate with the cleanability and the self-cleaning properties of the surfaces. In this work the surface geometry of several matte glazes were described by topography and roughness as given by whitelight confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Different measuring parameters were compared to justify the usefulness of the techniques in giving a comprehensive description of the surface microstructure. The results suggest that confocal microscopy is well suited for giving reliable topographical parameters for matte surfaces with microscaled crystals in the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was better suited for smooth surfaces or for describing the local topographic parameters of closely limited areas, e.g. the surroundings of separate crystals in the surface

  1. Topographic characterization of glazed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeberg, Linda [Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: lfroberg@abo.fi; Hupa, Leena [Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2008-01-15

    Detailed characterization of surface microstructure, i.e. phase composition and surface geometry, has become an important criterion of glazed ceramics. Topographic characterization is an important parameter in, e.g. estimating the influence of additional films on the average roughness of a surface. Also, the microscaled and nanoscaled roughnesses correlate with the cleanability and the self-cleaning properties of the surfaces. In this work the surface geometry of several matte glazes were described by topography and roughness as given by whitelight confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Different measuring parameters were compared to justify the usefulness of the techniques in giving a comprehensive description of the surface microstructure. The results suggest that confocal microscopy is well suited for giving reliable topographical parameters for matte surfaces with microscaled crystals in the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was better suited for smooth surfaces or for describing the local topographic parameters of closely limited areas, e.g. the surroundings of separate crystals in the surface.

  2. Water saving techniques in the spanish tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique, J. E.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the use of water in the ceramic tile manufacturing process, focussing on water requirements in body and glaze preparation and in washing production equipment and facilities. Water consumption and wastewater reuse systems in ceramic tile manufacture were reviewed. An in-depth, industrial scale study was performed of wastewater reuse in the manufacturing process, examining how wastewater reuse affected pollutant contents in gas emissions and solid waste.

    Se ha estudiado el uso del agua en el proceso de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas y en particular, en las etapas de preparación de la pasta de los esmaltes y limpieza del equipo industrial y de la propia planta.Se ha realizado una revisión del consumo de agua y de los sistemas de reutilización de la misma en el proceso de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas y se ha estudiado con profundidad, a escala industrial, la reutilización del agua residual en el proceso y en particular el efecto de su reutilización sobre la emisión de contaminantes en las emisiones gaseosas y en los residuos sólidos.

  3. Radiological characterization of ceramic tiles made in the community of Valencia and its use as a construction material; Caracterizacion radiologica de baldosas ceramicas fabricas en la comunidad Valenciana y su uso como material de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J.; Ballesteros, L.; Gallardo, S.; Martorell, S.

    2014-07-01

    In this presentation, radiological characterization is done by gamma spectrometry various types of ceramic tiles and use as building material in relation to the potential radiological risk deriving from this use are discussed. The discussion includes both the rules of the countries being targeted as the new basic security policy (BSS) issued by the EU 2014. (Author)

  4. Influence of use of quartzite waste in moisture expansion of masses for ceramic tiles; Influencia do uso de residuo de quartzito na expansao por umidade de massas de revestimentos ceramicos planos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, R.R.; Goncalves, W. P.; Cartaxo, J.M.; Ferreira, H.S.; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C., E-mail: rosinaldo.medeiros@ufrr.br, E-mail: wherllyson@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: julianamelo25@gmail.com, E-mail: hebersivini@gmail.com, E-mail: gelmires.neves@ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: heber.carlos@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-04-15

    The moisture expansion (ME) is characterized as an increase in physical dimensions of ceramic body when in contact with water (liquid or vapor). The ME phenomenon may contribute to the appearance of serious pathology in ceramic tiles such as cracks, detachment or more severe damages. This work aimed to study the problem of ME in ceramic masses added with quartzite waste for use in tiles using the dilatometry and three-point flexural strength methods. The raw materials were processed and characterized by laser diffraction particle size analysis, plasticity, chemical analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the addition of quartzite waste generally elevated ME values for bodies fired at temperatures below 1100 °C. For bodies fired at 1200 °C the results indicated high mechanical performance and ME decrease, and the best results for additive formulations was 15% of quartzite. (author)

  5. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    of buildings, the window area is the weakest part with respect to the heat loss, but at the same time, it also provides e.g. solar energy gain. Glazing prototypes have been made of aerogel tiles of about 55 cm sq. (elaborated within the projects). Those tiles are quickly evacuated and easily sealed between two...... glass panes and a specific rim seal. A heat treatment phase (after the supercritical CO2 drying) of the aerogel is currently being developed in order to improve its optical quality. This step increases the solar transmittance about 6 percent points. For glazing prototypes with an aerogel thickness...... of approx. 15 mm, a centre heat loss coefficient of below 0.7 W/m² K and a solar transmittance of 76% have been obtained. The research is funded in part by the European Commission within the frameworks of the Non-Nuclear Energy Programme – JOULE III and the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development...

  6. Fabrication of ceramic wall tiles and their use in the uptake of radioactive 137Cs, 90Sr and 57Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, T.K.; El-Gammal, B.; Abou El-Nour, F.; Bossert, J.

    2003-01-01

    Egyptian waste materials as air cooled blast furanace slag's were added in different quantities to mixtures of egyptian raw materials applying the single fast firing technique for producing wall tiles. The physico-chemical characteristics of the waste materials as well as the raw materials were studied before and after the thermal treatment. The reactions occurred during the firing procces and the formation of the end phases were followed using DTA-TG, X-ray diffractometry and heating microscopy. The effect of composition on bend strength, water absorption and firing shrinkage was studied. As a result, promising wall tiles with high bend strength, low water absorption and low firing shrinkage, containing high percentage of waste materials (50 wt% of the slag) and fired at 1100degree C for 30 minures were fabricated

  7. Development and characterisation of a new anti-slip glaze with smooth texture and easy-cleaning for porcelain stoneware; Desarrollo y caracterizacion de un nuevo esmalte antideslizante de textura lisa y de facil limpieza para baldosas de gres porcelanico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina Albert, E.; Martin Nunez, J. A.; Fraga Chiva, D.; Calvet Roures, I.; Cada Castello, J. B.

    2016-05-01

    Since conventional anti-slip enamels show some disadvantages, directly related to the surface roughness which prevents the adequate surface cleaning of tile, an anti-slip enamel exhibiting glass-ceramic nature has been designed, characterized by being stain-resistant and presenting a smooth texture and touch soft. To do this, new matte frits and raw materials with similar nature have been used, refractory enough to be suitable in enamel compositions for porcelain stoneware. The glass-ceramic glaze thus prepared was characterized by various instrumental techniques (X-ray fluorescence [XRF], scanning electron microscopy [SEM], X-ray diffraction [XRD], mechanical profilometry and microhardness measurements), in order to check the nature of crystallized phases, their morphology, surface roughness and microhardness of the finished tile. In addition, the quality of the glazed piece has been evaluated by the regulations of chemical resistance, stain-resistance and slipperiness. The enamel obtained has devitrified in crystals of silicoaluminates of calcium and barium and complies with standards of anti-slip and stain-resistence, as it has a surface roughness similar to a non-slip enamel. (Author)

  8. Characterization of glazes, enamels and oxides by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbarek, Iheb

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to control the technique of X-ray fluorescence, both in qualitative and quantitative characterization for ceramic glazes, enamels and oxides. it's a recent subject of investigation, its purpose is to discover the presence of toxic substances (Pb, Cd, Sn, As ..) and their quantities if it exists in the manufacturing materials.

  9. Use of the extraction residue of emeralds in a formulation mass of ceramic tiles; Utilizacao do residuo da extracao de esmeraldas em uma formulacao de massa de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, R. F., E-mail: ronaldofcavalcante@gmail.com [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica - PPgEM - UFRN, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil); Nascimento, R.M.; Paskocimas, C.A., E-mail: rmaribondo@ufrnet.br, E-mail: paskocimas_ca@hotmail.com [Departamento de Engenharia Materiais - DEMAT - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil); Dutra, R.P.S., E-mail: ricardodutra@ct.ufpb.br [Departamento de Engenharia Materiais - DEMAT - UFPB - Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Companies involved in mining and beneficiation of emerald represent an important area of industrial development in Brazil, with a significant contribution to world production of this ore. As a result, large volumes of waste generated and emerald are constantly abandoned in the environment, contributing negatively to their preservation. On the other hand the interest in the use of mining waste as an additive in production of ceramic materials has grown among researchers in recent years. The ceramic industry is constantly seeking to expand the market for the sector and trying to improve product quality and increase the variety of applications. The technology of obtaining ceramic coating that uses waste from mining is still a largely unexplored market. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the waste generated from mining emerald as well as to evaluate its potential use as raw material for production melting of ceramic tiles. Ceramic mixtures were prepared from raw materials characterized by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Five compositions were prepared using the waste codes of emeralds from 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Samples were prepared by pressing, sintered at 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C and characterized to establish their mineralogical composition, water absorption, linear shrinkage and modulus of rupture. The results showed that the residue of emeralds studied can be embedded in the mass of ceramic tiles up to 20% in replacement of feldspar without compromising the end product properties. (author)

  10. Antibacterial Functionalization of PVD Coatings on Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Osés

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of surface treatments that incorporate silver or copper as antibacterial elements has become a common practice for a wide variety of medical devices and materials because of their effective activity against nosocomial infections. Ceramic tiles are choice materials for cladding the floors and walls of operation rooms and other hospital spaces. This study is focused on the deposition of biocide physical vapor deposition (PVD coatings on glazed ceramic tiles. The objective was to provide antibacterial activity to the surfaces without worsening their mechanical properties. Silver and copper-doped chromium nitride (CrN and titanium nitride (TiN coatings were deposited on samples of tiles. A complete characterization was carried out in order to determine the composition and structure of the coatings, as well as their topographical and mechanical properties. The distribution of Ag and Cu within the coating was analyzed using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. Roughness, microhardness, and scratch resistance were measured for all of the combinations of coatings and dopants, as well as their wettability. Finally, tests of antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were carried out, showing that all of the doped coatings had pronounced biocide activity.

  11. A preliminary study on Fe valence of porcelain glaze by XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Maolin; Wang Changsui; Jin Pujun; Wei Shiqiang; Xu Wei; Chen Dongliang; Wu Ziyu

    2008-01-01

    Ru ware was a famous celadon in Song dynasty, whose structure analysis of glaze had always been a difficulty in scientifically analysis of ancient porcelains. The X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum (XAFS) of Fe element in glaze of Ru ware excavated in Qingliang temple was obtained. Fe valence state in porcelain glaze samples was stud/ed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) along with linear combination fitting method. The main wavelength of the samples was also obtained by color/meter. The results show that the cyan glaze samples have great Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ , while the yellow glaze samples have small Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ . The work also showed that X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum was very suitable in nondestructive analysis of ancient ceramics. (authors)

  12. The Sad Case of the Columbine Tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes free-speech challenge to school district's guidelines for acceptable expressions on ceramic tiles painted by Columbine High School students to express their feelings about the massacre. Tenth Circuit found that tile painting constituted school-sponsored speech and thus district had the constitutional authority under "Hazelwood School…

  13. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties......Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  14. Mill Glaze: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a condition called “mill glaze” (also called planer’s glaze) has sometimes been blamed for the failure of a coating on smooth flat-grained siding and some other wood products. The exact cause of this problem has been a subject of controversy. Many people believe that the coating fails as a result of the planing and/or drying processes. They...

  15. Moessbauer studies of Inca ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.; Wagner, F.E.; Marticorena, B.; Salazar, R.; Schwabe, R.; Riederer, J.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain information on the firing of Inca ceramics, 7 samples from different locations were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy including a detailed laboratory refiring procedure. The glaze typical for the surface of this ware was studied by Moessbauer scattering. (Auth.)

  16. ZI-annual 1991. Annual for the brick and tile, structural ceramics and clay pipe industries. ZI-Jahrbuch 1991. Jahrbuch fuer die Ziegel-, Baukeramik- und Steinzeugroehren-Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellbach, G [ed.

    1991-01-01

    This annual appearing in German and English gives information on important results of research development projects in Germany and the rest of Europe, and reports on technical innovations in plant and machinery for these industries. The content of the technical articles is concentrated on following main subjects: Drying of ceramic products, testing and improving the frost resistance of clay roofing tiles, improved static design and thermal insulation of brick structures. Subjects also dealt with in the field of environmental protection are fluorine binding and changes in the salts content of the brick/mortar system. (BWI).

  17. Self Cleanable Tile Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet CANBAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, In this study, self-cleaning tile grout and white cement specimens are produced and the effect of self-cleaning mechanism of TiO2 is tested. Effects of TiO2 amount and TiO2 type are tested and compared. Anatase form and rutile TiO2 additive are used in the study. In addition, effects of silicate additives on the self-cleaning mechanism is determined. Studies are conducted with respect to Italian UNI code. This study presents a method for solving rust between the tiles of ceramic wet floor coverings with photocatalysis method and then removing the dirt with secondary effects such as water, wind etc.

  18. Use of solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the ceramic tile industry and its influence on the physical properties of the ceramic products; Uso do residuo solido proveniente do processo de beneficiamento de areia na industria de revestimentos ceramicos e sua influencia nas propriedades fisicas dos produtos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biff, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.biff@sc.senai.br [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Criciuma, SC (Brazil); Silva, Manoel Ribeiro da, E-mail: mrsilva@unifei.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    The current paper had as main aim characterize and assess the use viability of a solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the production of ceramic tiles. To determine the main components the solid waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence and the main crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. To evaluate the addition effects of the solid waste over the solid waste was introduced into a ceramic composition in proportions of 5% and 10%. The ceramics materials obtained were subjected to the linear retraction, water absorption and flexural strength analysis according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). Additionally, the solid waste and the ceramic materials obtained in this study were classified according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004) to assess the potential environmental impact. The main solid waste constituents identified were silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide, respectively 50.2% e 19.2%, distributed in the crystal forms of quartz and kaolinite. The ceramic materials obtained after firing at 1100 deg C, without and with 10% of solid waste presented respectively flexural strength of 13.86 MPa and 14,52Mpa. The results of water absorption without and with addition of 10% of solid waste were respectively 16.96% and 16.63%, both appropriate performances for use in ceramic tiles according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). On the other hand, the ceramic materials obtained with the addition of 10% of solid waste were classified as inert materials according to Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004), showing the capability of incorporating solid waste in ceramic materials. (author)

  19. Study and automatic control of the ceramic tile extrusion operation; Estudio y control automatico de la operacion de extrusion de baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilella, M.; Foucard, L.; Mallol, G.; Sanchez, M. J.; Lopez, M.; Benasges, R.

    2012-07-01

    The ever-larger tile sizes demanded by the market, the higher quality requirements, and the increasingly similar installation to that of pressed products make it necessary to narrow the tolerance limits of final extruded tile size in order to maintain the products competitiveness. The results of this study show that, though mixing water has a great influence on drying shrinkage, it hardly affects extruded tile firing shrinkage. This indicates that control of the water added in the extrusion process is indispensable in order avoid variations in drying shrinkage and, thus, to assure good dimensional stability of the end product. (Author)

  20. Modeling and simulation of the atomization process in the ceramic tile industry; Modelagem e simulacao do processo de atomizacao na industria de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, Renata Cristina

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to numerically simulate the behaviour of the drying system for several sets of operating conditions in order to improve and optimize this process. However, the mathematical modeling adopted here can be employed to simulate other systems such as the processes that occur in liquid-fueled engines with direct spray injection and ceramic spraying for hard surfacing. Then, mathematical and physical models were established to simulate the interaction of continuous and disperse phases in drying processes of ceramic slurries. Solving the set of governing coupled partial differential equations, it is possible to study the influence of drying air on the atomized droplets of alumina slurry, and vice-versa. The materials used as continuous and disperse phase, air and alumina slurry respectively, are representative since any kind of gas and slurry can be used if its thermodynamic and transport properties are known. Several experimental tests were carried out in a spray dryer in the 'Laboratorio de Insumos', at IPEN - Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares for different sets of operating conditions: initial temperature of the drying air, the gas flow rate, the slurry feed rate and atomiser configuration among others. Measurements of the wet and the dry bulb temperatures were made in some experimental tests to allow the calculations of the air humidity. The dynamic pressure were also measured in order to determine the gas flow rate. Some samples of the material used in the tile industry and of the one produced at IPEN were analysed to determine: the morphology of the atomized material and the range of granules diameter through scanning electron microscopy; the amount of pores and the bulk density through porosimetry; the residual moisture of the material through thermogravimetry; and the granulometric distribution of granules and particles through laser diffraction. Important information about the process and the final material are

  1. Modeling and simulation of the atomization process in the ceramic tile industry; Modelagem e simulacao do processo de atomizacao na industria de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, Renata Cristina

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to numerically simulate the behaviour of the drying system for several sets of operating conditions in order to improve and optimize this process. However, the mathematical modeling adopted here can be employed to simulate other systems such as the processes that occur in liquid-fueled engines with direct spray injection and ceramic spraying for hard surfacing. Then, mathematical and physical models were established to simulate the interaction of continuous and disperse phases in drying processes of ceramic slurries. Solving the set of governing coupled partial differential equations, it is possible to study the influence of drying air on the atomized droplets of alumina slurry, and vice-versa. The materials used as continuous and disperse phase, air and alumina slurry respectively, are representative since any kind of gas and slurry can be used if its thermodynamic and transport properties are known. Several experimental tests were carried out in a spray dryer in the 'Laboratorio de Insumos', at IPEN - Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares for different sets of operating conditions: initial temperature of the drying air, the gas flow rate, the slurry feed rate and atomiser configuration among others. Measurements of the wet and the dry bulb temperatures were made in some experimental tests to allow the calculations of the air humidity. The dynamic pressure were also measured in order to determine the gas flow rate. Some samples of the material used in the tile industry and of the one produced at IPEN were analysed to determine: the morphology of the atomized material and the range of granules diameter through scanning electron microscopy; the amount of pores and the bulk density through porosimetry; the residual moisture of the material through thermogravimetry; and the granulometric distribution of granules and particles through laser diffraction. Important information about the process and the final material are given by

  2. Quality control in tile production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalviainen, Heikki A.; Kukkonen, Saku; Hyvarinen, Timo S.; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1998-10-01

    This work studies visual quality control in ceramics industry. In tile manufacturing, it is important that in each set of tiles, every single tile looks similar. For example, the tiles should have similar color and texture. Our goal is to design a machine vision system that can estimate the sufficient similarity or same appearance to the human eye. Currently, the estimation is usually done by human vision. Differing from other approaches our aim is to use accurate spectral representation of color, and we are comparing spectral features to the RGB color features. A laboratory system for color measurement is built. Experimentations with five classes of brown tiles are presented. We use chromaticity RGB features and several spectral features for classification with the k-NN classifier and with a neural network, called Self-Organizing Map. We can classify many of the tiles but there are several problems that need further investigations: larger training and test sets are needed, illuminations effects must be studied further, and more suitable spectral features are needed with more sophisticated classifiers. It is also interesting to develop further the neural approach.

  3. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchiades, F. G.; Daros, M. T.; Boschi, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

  5. Influência da distribuição granulométrica na estabilidade dimensional de placas cerâmicas de base vermelha Influence of particle size distribution on the dimensional stability of red ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. A. Prado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades do revestimento cerâmico queimado estão intrinsecamente ligadas às características da massa, dentre estas se encontram o tamanho, a distribuição, o formato e o arranjo das partículas. O efeito da distribuição granulométrica de partículas sobre a estabilidade dimensional de placas cerâmicas para revestimentos de base vermelha foi estudado em três massas, todas continham no mínimo 57% de material advindo da Formação Corumbataí. Foram estudadas duas distribuições granulométricas - uma parecida com aquelas usadas no Pólo Cerâmico de Santa Gertrudes e, outra, com uma massa de grés. De uma maneira geral, granulações mais grossas, semelhantes à massa de Santa Gertrudes, variaram menos dimensionalmente quando as placas apresentaram médias e altas porosidades (absorção de água entre 3,0 e 10,0%. Já, granulações mais finas, similares a massas de grés, foram necessárias para a produção de placas de baixa absorção (menor que 3,0%.The properties of final ceramic tiles are related with the mass characteristics, among them the size, shape, distribution and arrange of particles. The effect of particle size distribution on dimensional stability of red ceramic tiles was studied in three masses; all of them composed with, at minimum, 57% of Corumbataí Formation's materials. Two particle size distributions were investigated: the first was similar to the masses that are used in the Santa Gertrudes Ceramic Pole's factories and the other was similar to the stoneware mass. In general, masses with larger particle sizes, similar to that of Santa Gertrudes, had greater dimensional stability in the products with 3 to 10% of water absorption. On the other hand, in the manufacture of low porosity tiles (water absorption capacity < 3% it is recommended the use of smaller grain size.

  6. Climate and energy use in glazed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, M.

    1996-11-01

    One objective of the thesis has been to elucidate the relationship between building design and the climate, thermal comfort and energy requirements in different types of glazed spaces. Another object has been to study the effect of the glazed spaces on energy requirements in adjacent buildings. It has also been the object to develop a simple calculation method for the assessment of temperatures and energy requirements in glazed spaces. The research work has mainly comprised case studies of existing buildings with glazed spaces and energy balance calculations using both the developed steady-state method and a dynamic building energy simulation program. Parameters such as the geometry of the building, type of glazing, orientation, thermal inertia, airtightness, ventilation system and sunshades have been studied. These parameters are of different importance for each specific type of glazed space. In addition, the significance of each of these parameters varies for different types of glazed spaces. The developed calculation method estimates the minimum and mean temperature in glazed spaces and the energy requirements for heating and cooling. The effect of the glazed space on the energy requirement of the surrounding buildings can also be estimated. It is intended that the method should be applied during the preliminary design stage so that the effect which the design of the building will have on climate and energy requirement may be determined. The method may provide an insight into how glazed spaces behave with regard to climate and energy. 99 refs

  7. Design and testing of a roller kiln for ceramic tile manufacturing with lower environmental impact and higher performance; Conception et essai d'un four a rouleaux pour carreaux a impact environnemental faible et performances elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, A. [DPD-TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Bresciani, A.; Pifferi, G. [SACMI, Savoyarde de Construction de Materiel Industriel, 73 - Montmelian (France)

    1999-09-01

    Motivated by the need to improve firing processes of ceramic tiles with regard to either the homogeneity of the heat distribution in the kiln section or the harmful emissions (particularly fluoride), TNO and the Dutch tile industry, in cooperation with SACMI, have developed a new kiln concept. The study has led to designing and manufacturing a prototype roller kiln, that will be started up and tested at the MOSA facilities in Maastricht. Other partners include SPHINX GUSTAVSBERG, GASUNIE, GOUDA VUURVAST and the Dutch government as sponsor. Great attention has been devoted to control the temperature distribution inside the kiln as well as to manage the fast firing cycles currently used. Burner power, positions, flow, emission level have been calculated using the TNO kiln simulation models. New, but commercially available technologies have been integrated into the new kiln engineering, thus to improve the firing process, reduce emissions and minimize energy consumption. The main technological solutions applied are: (1)radiant tube burners in the firing zone (2)new convective burners in the heating zone (3)convection enhancement in the pre-heating zone by adopting adequate systems for the recirculation of fumes.

  8. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  9. Establishing the value of advanced glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E; Selkowitz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous glazing technologies are under development worldwide to improve the performance of building facades. High-performance glazings can provide substantial energy and related environmental benefits, but often at greatly increased first cost when compared to conventional design solutions. To increase market viability, we discuss strategies to reduce the actual and owner-perceived costs associated with developing and producing advanced window systems, specifically switchable electrochromic glazings, and we also suggest marketing strategies designed to appeal to early adopter and mainstream purchasers. These strategies may be applicable to a broad range of advanced glazing materials.

  10. Optimal inventory reallocation to customer orders in ceramic tile companies characterized by the lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP); Reasignacion optima del inventario a pedidos en empresas ceramicas caracterizadas por la falta de homogeneidad en el producto (FHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemany, M. M. E.; Alarcon, F.; Oltra, R. F.; Lario, B. C.

    2013-02-01

    The lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP) is defined as the lack of uniformity required by the customer in the products. The LHP appears in companies where the final products obtained are not homogeneous, leading to the existence of different references (subtypes) of the same product. This lack of homogeneity is a problem when the client needs to be served through homogeneous units of a product and commit orders are based on planned quantities, whose final homogeneity characteristics are unknown at the time of acquiring the customer commitments. The frequent discrepancies caused by the LHP between planned homogeneous amounts and those actually obtained and available, can prevent the delivery of committed orders. To solve this problem, we propose a mathematical programming model for the reallocation of inventory in Make to Stock (MTS) ceramic tile companies characterized by the LHP that combines multiple objectives. The proposed mathematical model has been validated by its application to a real case of a ceramic company. The analysis of the obtained results indicates significant improvements in the number of orders completed on time and in sales revenue achieved. (Author) 33 refs.

  11. LSA glass-ceramic tiles made by powder pressing; Obtencao de placas vitroceramicas do sistema LSA utilizando a prensagem de pos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, F.C.; Bertan, F.M. [Colorminas Colorificio e Mineracao, Icara, SC (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduaco em Engenharia Quimica; Uggioni, E. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Materiais; Bernardin, A.M., E-mail: amb@unesc.ne [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Tijucas, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia em Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    A low cost alternative for the production of glass-ceramic materials is the pressing of the matrix glass powders and its consolidation simultaneously with crystallization in a single stage of sintering. The main objective of this work was to obtain LSA glass ceramics with low thermal expansion, processed by pressing and sintering a ceramic frit powder. The raw materials were homogenized and melted (1480 deg C, 80min), and the melt was poured in water. The glass was chemically (XRF and AAS) and thermally (DTA, 10 deg C/min, air) characterized, and then ground (60min and 120min). The ground powders were characterized (laser diffraction) and compressed (35MPa and 45MPa), thus forming four systems. The compacts were dried (150 deg C, 24h) and sintered (1175 deg C and 1185 deg C, 10 deg C/min). Finally, the glass-ceramics were characterized by microstructural analysis (SEM and XRD), mechanical behavior ({sigma}bending) and thermal analysis ({alpha}). The best results for thermal expansion were those for the glass-ceramics processed with smaller particle size and greater compaction pressure. (author)

  12. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Pevenage, J.; Verhaeven, E.; Vekemans, B.; Lauwers, D.; Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661–1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735–1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated. - Highlights: • Fully described methodology for the analysis of silicate glazes of Chinese porcelain samples • The combination of a semi-quantitative analysis of silicate glazes, multi-variate data and statistical analysis. • The use of Seger formula to understand better the composition of the glazes. • New insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain glazes of different time periods

  13. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Pevenage, J., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Verhaeven, E. [Department of Conservation and Restoration, University College Antwerp, Blindestraat 9, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Vekemans, B. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lauwers, D., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W. [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vincze, L. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Moens, L., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandenabeele, P. [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661–1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735–1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated. - Highlights: • Fully described methodology for the analysis of silicate glazes of Chinese porcelain samples • The combination of a semi-quantitative analysis of silicate glazes, multi-variate data and statistical analysis. • The use of Seger formula to understand better the composition of the glazes. • New insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain glazes of different time periods.

  14. Monolithic Silica aerogel in superinsulating glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1988-01-01

    . This phenomenon is considered being the main obstacle to incorporate the material in clear glazings but a significant improvement of the optical quality of aerogel has been observed during the last five years. A number of prototypical evacuated 500x500x28 mm aerogel double glazed units employing a new edge seal...... competetion in heating dominated climates....

  15. Mathematical modeling of optical glazing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Wittwer, V.; Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical modelling can be a powerful tool in the design and optimalization of glazing. By calculation, the specifications of a glazing design and the optimal design parameters can be predicted without building costly prototypes first. Furthermore, properties which are difficult to measure, like

  16. Cellular ceramics made from porcelain tile polishing wastes: influence of sintering time; Ceramicas cellulares obtidas a partir de residuo de polimento de porcelanato: influencia do tempo de sinterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.F.; Zanelatto, C.C.; Uggioni, E. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Bernardin, A.M., E-mail: amb@unesc.ne [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial, Tijucas, SC (Brazil). Tecnologia em Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with the physical, microstructural and mechanical characterization of cellular ceramics made from porcelain polishing wastes, which were expanded by the bubble formation technique during the sintering process. The microstructure, linear expansion, bulk density (mercury immersion) and mechanical behavior (compressive strength) were determined to characterize the glass foam obtained. Moreover, the porcellaneous residue was characterized by chemical and phase analyses, particle size (laser diffraction) and thermal behavior. As a result, the higher the soaking time during heat treatment at 1200 deg C the lower the density obtained for the cellular ceramic due to CO{sub 2} expansion, and lower the mechanical strength of the samples. The microstructure shows spherical cells and completely closed pores, resulting in a cheap way to obtain low density material with adequate mechanical strength, avoiding the disposal of wastes from the ceramic industry. (author)

  17. Topology of tiling spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Sadun, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Aperiodic tilings are interesting to mathematicians and scientists for both theoretical and practical reasons. The serious study of aperiodic tilings began as a solution to a problem in logic. Simpler aperiodic tilings eventually revealed hidden "symmetries" that were previously considered impossible, while the tilings themselves were quite striking. The discovery of quasicrystals showed that such aperiodicity actually occurs in nature and led to advances in materials science. Many properties of aperiodic tilings can be discerned by studying one tiling at a time. However, by studying families of tilings, further properties are revealed. This broader study naturally leads to the topology of tiling spaces. This book is an introduction to the topology of tiling spaces, with a target audience of graduate students who wish to learn about the interface of topology with aperiodic order. It isn't a comprehensive and cross-referenced tome about everything having to do with tilings, which would be too big, too hard to ...

  18. The use of micro-XRD for the study of glaze color decorations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradell, T.; Molina, G. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Castelldefels (Spain); Molera, J.; Pla, J. [Universitat de Vic, GRTD, Escola Politecnica Superior, Vic (Spain); Labrador, A. [BM16-ESRF, LLS, BP 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Lund University, MAX IV Laboratory, Lund (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    The compounds responsible for the colors and decorations in glass and glazed ceramics include: coloring agents (transition-metal ions), pigments (micro- and nanoprecipitates of compounds that either do not dissolve or recrystallize in the glassy matrix) and opacifiers (microcrystalline compounds with high light scattering capability). Their composition, structure and range of stability are highly dependent not only on the composition but also on the procedures followed to obtain them. Chemical composition of the colorants and crystallites may be obtained by means of SEM-EDX and WDX. Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray diffraction (SR-micro-XRD) has a small beam size adequate (10 to 50 microns footprint size) to obtain the structural information of crystalline compounds and high brilliance, optimal for determining the crystallites even when present in low amounts. In addition, in glass decorations the crystallites often appear forming thin layers (from 10 to 100 micrometers thick) and they show a depth-dependent composition and crystal structure. Their nature and distribution across the glass/glaze decorations gives direct information on the technology of production and stability and may be related to the color and appearance. A selection of glass and glaze coloring agents and decorations are studied by means of SR-micro-XRD and SEM-EDX including: manganese brown, antimony yellow, red copper lusters and cobalt blue. The selection includes Medieval (Islamic, and Hispano Moresque) and Renaissance tin-glazed ceramics from the 10th to the 17th century AD. (orig.)

  19. Geopolymers as potential repair material in tiles conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Catarina F. M.; Lima, Augusta M.; Delgado-Rodrigues, José; Mimoso, João Manuel; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-03-01

    The restoration materials currently used to fill gaps in historical architectural tiles (e.g. lime or organic resin pastes) usually show serious drawbacks in terms of compatibility, effectiveness or durability. The existing solutions do not fully protect Portuguese faïence tiles ( azulejos) in outdoor conditions and frequently result in further deterioration. Geopolymers can be a potential solution for tile lacunae infill, given the chemical-mineralogical similitude to the ceramic body, and also the durability and versatile range of physical properties that can be obtained through the manipulation of their formulation and curing conditions. This work presents and discusses the viability of the use of geopolymeric pastes to fill lacunae in tiles or to act as "cold" cast ceramic tile surrogates reproducing missing tile fragments. The formulation of geopolymers, namely the type of activators, the alumino-silicate source, the quantity of water required for adequate workability and curing conditions, was studied. The need for post-curing desalination was also considered envisaging their application in the restoration of outdoor historical architectural tiles frequently exposed to adverse environmental conditions. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the use of geopolymers in the conservation of tiles are also discussed. The results obtained reveal that geopolymers pastes are a promising material for the restoration of tiles, when compared to other solutions currently in use.

  20. Effects of using kaolin waste and granite waste as raw materials for the production of low-water absorption ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freires, H.P.; Argonz, R.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q.; Sasaki, J.M.; Sales, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of co-use of granite waste (Rain Forest) and kaolin waste as raw material for the manufacture of ceramic coating of low water absorption. Raw materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Kaolin residue was added to the residue of granite in the following proportions (in wt%): 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. Specimens were fabricated by uniaxial pressing and fired at 1175,1200 and 1225 deg C. Studies of firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent density and tensile bending test (or rupture modulus) were conducted. The temperature of 1225 deg C allowed the use of a mixture of 50% granite residue and 50% kaolin residue. Ceramic parts made from that mixture exhibited the maximum values required by the Brazilian Standard NBR 13818 for water absorption, shrinkage and density. (author)

  1. Industrial ceramics in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regueiro, M.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish ceramic industry has experienced a amazing growth in the last four years. Such expansion has affected all sector, but has been particularly noteworthy in those directly related to construction: tiles. glazes, bricks and roof tiles. A combination of an extraordinary exporting effort, together with a record figure in new housing projects (415 000 houses in 1999, are responsible for such outburst. Other sectors, such as refractories have undergone significant growths due to the high rate of steel production increase, also in historical record figures (15m t in 1999. All this sectors doubled altogether the growing rate of their main European competitors. Raw material production has had an even more effervescent trend, almost doubling 1995 production. Such dynamic growth has been associated to a remarkable quality increase and to an unparalleled technological innovation process.

    La industria española de la cerámica ha experimentado un notable crecimiento en los últimos cuatro años; expansión que ha alcanzado a todos los sectores, pero que ha sido especialmente notable en los mas directamente asociados a la construcción: revestimientos, esmaltes, tejas y ladrillos. La combinación de un extraordinario esfuerzo exportador unido a las cifras récord en la viviendas iniciadas, 415 000 en 1999, justifican este auge. Otros sectores como refractarios han experimentado crecimientos significativos ante el ritmo elevado en la producción de acero, que alcanzó asimismo un récord histórico, 15 Mt en 1999. Para el conjunto de estos sectores el ritmo de crecimiento ha duplicado el de los principales competidores europeos. La producción de materias primas han experimentado un dinamismo aún mas elevado duplicándose prácticamente las cifras respecto a 1995. Este crecimiento ha estado asociado a un notable incremento en la calidad y en los procesos de innovación tecnológica.

  2. Radiometric analysis of raw materials and end products in the Turkish ceramics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Ş.; Arıkan, İ. H.; Demirel, H.; Güngör, N.

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the findings of radiometric analysis carried out to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (clay, kaolin, quartz, feldspar, dolomite, alumina, bauxite, zirconium minerals, red mud and frit) and end products (glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) in the Turkish ceramics industry. Hundred forty-six samples were obtained from various manufacturers and suppliers throughout the country and analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detectors. Radiological parameters such as radium equivalent activity, activity concentration index and alpha index were calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant national and international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplaces and industrial buildings in Turkey is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  3. Radiometric analysis of raw materials and end products in the Turkish ceramics industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, S.; Arikan, I.H.; Demirel, H.; Guengoer, N.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the findings of radiometric analysis carried out to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (clay, kaolin, quartz, feldspar, dolomite, alumina, bauxite, zirconium minerals, red mud and frit) and end products (glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) in the Turkish ceramics industry. Hundred forty-six samples were obtained from various manufacturers and suppliers throughout the country and analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detectors. Radiological parameters such as radium equivalent activity, activity concentration index and alpha index were calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant national and international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplaces and industrial buildings in Turkey is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  4. Analysis of the impact of ISO 14001 in the economic variables of the Spanish ceramic tile industry's companies; ISO 14001 y variables economicas, hay alguna relacion? Analisis de las empresas certificadas del sector ceramico espanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiro-Signes, A.; Segarra-Ona, M.; Mondejar-Jimenez, J.; Vargas-Vargas, M.

    2013-02-01

    The increased in the adoption of formally environmental certified practices through environmental management systems is a provable fact. Its implementation, which has a high cost for the companies, is expected to generate benefits, although the relation between the implementation of ISO 14001 and its influence on the improvement of economic indicators over time has not been documented. This paper analyzes the relation between the implementation of an environmental management system, the ISO 14001, and economic performance in the short, medium and long term for the companies of the Spanish ceramic tile industry. It explores the economic indicators for each of the 66 manufacturing companies which have implemented the aforementioned standard from 1996 until 2009 through a comparison with a control group. Results show that ISO 14001 does not affect the economic results of the studied companies. We have not found significant differences in the operating income values, neither in the increase in revenues in the long term in any of the three analyzed periods, contrary to the expected results. (Author) 60 refs.

  5. Advanced connection systems for architectural glazing

    CERN Document Server

    Afghani Khoraskani, Roham

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the findings of a detailed study to explore the behavior of architectural glazing systems during and after an earthquake and to develop design proposals that will mitigate or even eliminate the damage inflicted on these systems. The seismic behavior of common types of architectural glazing systems are investigated and causes of damage to each system, identified. Furthermore, depending on the geometrical and structural characteristics, the ultimate horizontal load capacity of glass curtain wall systems is defined based on the stability of the glass components. Detailed attention is devoted to the incorporation of advanced connection devices between the structure of the building and the building envelope system in order to minimize the damage to glazed components. An innovative new connection device is introduced that results in a delicate and functional system easily incorporated into different architectural glazing systems, including those demanding maximum transparency.

  6. The lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP) in the ceramic tile industry and its impact on the reallocation of inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon, F.; Alemany, M. M. E.; Lario, F. C.; Oltra, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The allocation of the product available- to-promise (ATP) in make-to-stock (MTS) contexts is of the utmost importance as it can influence customer satisfaction and profits of the company. However, a proper initial allocation may become inadequate for several reasons. In these case, it is necessary the reallocation of inventory, which will be more complex the more ambitious goals to achieve with it and increased the amount of information to use. In this regard, it is noteworthy that the lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP), present in different industrial sectors, causes the atomization of the inventory and increases the complexity of the reallocation, difficult to obtain optimal solutions. This paper describes the problems of the LHP, first under a generic perspective and then, particularized to MTS ceramic companies. Subsequently, situations in which a specific allocation of ATP can no longer be appropriate in this context are identified and the reassignment, as a way to search for new valid assignments, is proposed. Finally, through a case study of a ceramic company, the impact of the LHP in each of the situations identified is analyzed, noting that the LHP causes some of these situations and in all of them, complicates the reallocation of inventory to orders. (Authors) 31 refs.

  7. Photoactive glazed polymer-cement composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Liana; Patachia, Silvia; Tierean, Mircea; Ekincioglu, Ozgur; Ozkul, Hulusi M.

    2018-04-01

    Macro defect free cements (MDF), a kind of polymer-cement composites, are characterized by remarkably high mechanical properties. Their flexural strengths are 20-30 times higher than those of conventional cement pastes, nearly equal to that of an ordinary steel. The main drawback of MDF cements is their sensitivity to water. This paper presents a method to both diminish the negative impact of water on MDF cements mechanical properties and to enlarge their application by conferring photoactivity. These tasks were solved by glazing MDF cement with an ecological glaze containing nano-particles of TiO2. Efficiency of photocatalytic activity of this material was tested against methylene blue aqueous solution (4.4 mg/L). Influence of the photocatalyst concentration in the glaze paste and of the contact time on the photocatalysis process (efficiency and kinetic) was studied. The best obtained photocatalysis yield was of 97.35%, after 8 h of exposure to 254 nm UV radiation when used an MDF glazed with 10% TiO2 in the enamel paste. Surface of glazed material was characterized by optic microscopy, scratch test, SEM, XRD, and EDS. All these properties were correlated with the aesthetic aspect of the glazed surface aiming to propose using of this material for sustainable construction development.

  8. Real-time biscuit tile image segmentation method based on edge detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Tomislav; Aleksi, Ivan; Hocenski, Željko; Kraus, Dieter

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we propose a novel real-time Biscuit Tile Segmentation (BTS) method for images from ceramic tile production line. BTS method is based on signal change detection and contour tracing with a main goal of separating tile pixels from background in images captured on the production line. Usually, human operators are visually inspecting and classifying produced ceramic tiles. Computer vision and image processing techniques can automate visual inspection process if they fulfill real-time requirements. Important step in this process is a real-time tile pixels segmentation. BTS method is implemented for parallel execution on a GPU device to satisfy the real-time constraints of tile production line. BTS method outperforms 2D threshold-based methods, 1D edge detection methods and contour-based methods. Proposed BTS method is in use in the biscuit tile production line. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Salt Removal from Azulejo Tiles and Mortars using Electrodesalination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2011-01-01

    Azulejo tiles are part of the Portuguese cultural heritage and are worldwide appreciated. The durability of this building material is affected by the accumulation of salts, causing fractures and peeling of the glazing and ultimately leading to the degradation of the tile panels and the irremediable...... loss of historic value. In this work preliminary studies with single tiles presenting an underlying layer of mortar have been conducted to assess the amount of salts that can be removed from the building material using a new technique called “electrodesalination”, in which the salt’s ions...... are transported out from the tiles by applying an electric current on the backside. Results shown here include an assessment of how much of the salts did come out in comparison to what was originally there, and additionally if the electrodesalination succeeded in removing salts down to a point where the tile...

  10. THz imaging of majolica tiles and biological attached marble fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Devices exploiting waves in the frequency range from 0.1 THz to 10 THz (corresponding to a free-space wavelength ranging from 30 μm to 3 mm) deserve attention as diagnostic technologies for cultural heritage. THz waves are, indeed, non-ionizing radiations capable of penetrating into non-metallic materials, which are opaque to both visible and infrared waves, without implying long term risks to the molecular stability of the exposed objects and humans. Moreover, THz surveys involve low poewr probing waves, are performed without contact with the object and, thanks to the recent developments, which have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems, maybe performed in loco (i.e. in the place where the artworks are usually located). On the other hand, THz devices can be considered as the youngest among the sensing and imaging electromagnetic techniques and their actual potentialities in terms of characterization of artworks is an ongoing research activity. As a contribution within this context, we have performed time of flight THz imaging [1,2] on ceramic and marble objects. In particular, we surveyed majolica tiles produced by Neapolitan ceramists in the 18th and 19th centuries with the aim to gather information on their structure, constructive technique and conservation state. Moreover, we investigated a Marmo di Candoglia fragment in order to characterize the biological attach affecting it. All the surveys were carried out by using the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) developed by Z-Omega and available at the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA). This system is equipped with fiber optic coupled transmitting and receiving probes and with an automatic positioning system enabling to scan a 150 mm x 150 mm area under a reflection measurement configuration. Based on the obtained results we can state that the use of THz waves allows: - the reconstruction of the object topography; - the geometrical

  11. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  12. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruthagiri, G.; Rajamannan, B.; Suresh Jawahar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. (authors)

  13. Large Scale Glazed Concrete Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Today, there is a lot of focus on concrete surface’s aesthitic potential, both globally and locally. World famous architects such as Herzog De Meuron, Zaha Hadid, Richard Meyer and David Chippenfield challenge the exposure of concrete in their architecture. At home, this trend can be seen...... in the crinkly façade of DR-Byen (the domicile of the Danish Broadcasting Company) by architect Jean Nouvel and Zaha Hadid’s Ordrupgård’s black curved smooth concrete surfaces. Furthermore, one can point to initiatives such as “Synlig beton” (visible concrete) that can be seen on the website www.......synligbeton.dk and spæncom’s aesthetic relief effects by the designer Line Kramhøft (www.spaencom.com). It is my hope that the research-development project “Lasting large scale glazed concrete formwork,” I am working on at DTU, department of Architectural Engineering will be able to complement these. It is a project where I...

  14. Consumo de gás natural na indústria de revestimentos cerâmicos brasileira Consumption of natural gas in Brazilian ceramic tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Alves

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O gás natural, atualmente, é a principal fonte de geração de energia térmica utilizada pelas indústrias de revestimentos cerâmicos no mundo e também é um dos itens que tem maior participação sobre o custo do produto acabado. Neste trabalho é apresentado um levantamento do consumo de gás natural realizado em uma indústria de via seca do pólo produtivo de Santa Gertrudes - SP, de modo que foi possível determinar o consumo específico de cada equipamento consumidor, bem como, identificar os "gargalos energéticos" do processo produtivo.The natural gas is the main source of thermic energy generation used by ceramic covering industries around the world and it is also one of the itens which has the biggest weight over the finished product. In this work, it is presented a survey of the consumption of natural gas done in a factory of the productive pole of Santa Gertrudes-SP, which processes its products through a dry way, so that it was possible to determine the specific consumption of each consumer equipment, and also identify the "energetic necks" presented by the same.

  15. Next generation structural silicone glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Clift

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced engineering evaluation, using nonlinear analysis of hyper elastic material that provides significant improvement to structural silicone glazing (SSG design in high performance curtain wall systems. Very high cladding wind pressures required in hurricane zones often result in bulky SSG profile dimensions. Architectural desire for aesthetically slender curtain wall framing sight-lines in combination with a desire to reduce aluminium usage led to optimization of silicone material geometry for better stress distribution.To accomplish accurate simulation of predicted behaviour under structural load, robust stress-strain curves of the silicone material are essential. The silicone manufacturer provided physical property testing via a specialized laboratory protocol. A series of rigorous curve fit techniques were then made to closely model test data in the finite element computer analysis that accounts for nonlinear strain of hyper elastic silicone.Comparison of this advanced design technique to traditional SSG design highlights differences in stress distribution contours in the silicone material. Simplified structural engineering per the traditional SSG design method does not provide accurate forecasting of material and stress optimization as shown in the advanced design.Full-scale specimens subject to structural load testing were performed to verify the design capacity, not only for high wind pressure values, but also for debris impact per ASTM E1886 and ASTM E1996. Also, construction of the test specimens allowed development of SSG installation techniques necessitated by the unique geometry of the silicone profile. Finally, correlation of physical test results with theoretical simulations is made, so evaluation of design confidence is possible. This design technique will introduce significant engineering advancement to the curtain wall industry.

  16. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pevenage, J.; Verhaeven, E.; Vekemans, B.; Lauwers, D.; Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661-1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735-1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated.

  17. Miles of tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Radin, Charles

    1999-01-01

    "In this book, we try to display the value (and joy!) of starting from a mathematically amorphous problem and combining ideas from diverse sources to produce new and significant mathematics--mathematics unforeseen from the motivating problem ..." --from the Preface The common thread throughout this book is aperiodic tilings; the best-known example is the "kite and dart" tiling. This tiling has been widely discussed, particularly since 1984 when it was adopted to model quasicrystals. The presentation uses many different areas of mathematics and physics to analyze the new features of such tilings. Although many people are aware of the existence of aperiodic tilings, and maybe even their origin in a question in logic, not everyone is familiar with their subtleties and the underlying rich mathematical theory. For the interested reader, this book fills that gap. Understanding this new type of tiling requires an unusual variety of specialties, including ergodic theory, functional analysis, group theory and ring the...

  18. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C.; Silvestre, D.; Piquer, J.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Quereda, E.; Vicente, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flow ability to that of spray dried powders). The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,) changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs. (Author)

  19. Wear Potential of Dental Ceramics and its Relationship with Microhardness and Coefficient of Friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddo, Rafael Augusto; Kapczinski, Myriam Pereira; Kinast, Eder Julio; de Souza Junior, Oswaldo Baptista; Rivaldo, Elken Gomes; da Fontoura Frasca, Luis Carlos

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate, by means of pin-on-disk testing, the wear potential of different dental ceramic systems as it relates to friction parameters, surface finish, and microhardness. Three groups of different ceramic systems (Noritake EX3, Eris, Empress II) with 20 disks each (10 glazed, 10 polished) were used. Vickers microhardness (Hv) was determined with a 200-g load for 30 seconds. Friction coefficients (μ) were determined by pin-on-disk testing (5 N load, 600 seconds, and 120 rpm). Wear patterns were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test, with the significance level set at α = 0.05. The coefficients of friction were as follows: Noritake EX3 0.28 ± 0.12 (polished), 0.33 ± 0.08 (glazed); Empress II 0.38 ± 0.08 (polished), 0.45 ± 0.05 (glazed); Eris 0.49 ± 0.05 (polished), 0.49 ± 0.06 (glazed). Microhardness measurements were as follows: Noritake EX3 530.7 ± 8.7 (polished), 525.9 ± 6.2 (glazed); Empress II 534.1 ± 8 (polished), 534.7 ± 4.5 (glazed); Eris, 511.7 ± 6.5 (polished), 519.5 ± 4.1 (glazed). The polished and glazed Noritake EX3 and polished and glazed Eris specimens showed statistically different friction coefficients. SEM image analysis revealed more surface changes, such as small cracks and grains peeling off, in glazed ceramics. Wear potential may be related to the coefficient of friction in Noritake ceramics, which had a lower coefficient than Eris ceramics. Within-group analysis showed no differences in polished or glazed specimens. The differences observed were not associated with microhardness. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    1999-01-01

    The application of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation material for windows has been investigated for some years. It has been realised that a major problem of an industrial production of aerogel glazings will be the time for evacuation of the aerogel material. However, in a previous...... process, it can be considered as semi-online, and especially the capital cost is significantly lower for this method in comparison with a true online process. So hereby, a major obstacle is overcome with respect to a first industrial production of aerogel glazings.The apparatus has been constructed...

  1. Effect of window glazing on colour quality of transmitted daylight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangol, R.; Kruisselbrink, T.W.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The

  2. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi, A. O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality.

    En Brasil, en este momento segundo productor mundial, el 70% de los pavimentos cerámicos se obtiene por vía seca. Una de las razones fundamentales se debe a que esta vía supone un consumo energético inferior, en un 30%, a la via húmeda tradicional. La creciente preocupación mundial sobre los problemas medioambientales y el reconocimiento del papel central que juega el agua en este proceso han favorecido el desarrollo de la vía seca. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar la viabilidad de la producción de pavimentos porcelánicos de alta calidad por vía seca. Una breve comparación entre ambas vías, en las condiciones standard de producción vigentes para producciones que no son de porcelánico, indican que existen dos diferencias substanciales; el tamaño de

  3. Use of a new borate raw material for glaze formulation; Utilizacion de una nueva materia prima boracica para la formulacion de esmaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Tena, M. P.; Moreno, A.; Bou, E.; Cook, S.; Galindo, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Rio Tinto Minerals company has developed a new borate (E-4972), which can be used in glaze formulation (patent WO 2007/148101). This new borate, synthesised by low-temperature calcination, fundamentally contributes five oxides: silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}), aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calcium oxide (CaO), and sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O), its content in B{sub 2}O{sub 3} being between 10 and 11% by weight. It is largely amorphous, and quartz is the major crystalline phase present. The characteristics of this new borate, such as its low solubility and ability readily to form glassy phase, enable it to be used as a raw material in glaze compositions. Its suitability for glaze formulation has been the result of several years research in collaboration with the Instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica. In this paper, the feasibility has been studied of fabricating ceramic glazes by using a new synthetic borate raw material that contributes boron to the glaze composition without this needing to be done in fritted form. It has been possible to obtain fired glazes with similar technical and aesthetics characteristics to those obtained from industrial glaze compositions that contain typical frits in their compositions, thus enabling glazes to be formulated by using the new synthetic boron raw material. The results obtained show that this new raw material (E-4972) is particularly appropriate for use in producing glazes with low gloss at high temperature. (Author) 15 refs.

  4. SiC Armor Tiles via Magnetic Compaction and Pressureless Sintering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chelluri, Bhanu; Knoth, Ed A; Franks, L. P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the SBIR, entitled "Continuous Dynamic Processing of Ceramic Tiles for Ground Vehicle Protection", was to create a high rate, cost effective manufacturing method for producing silicon carbide (SiC...

  5. Wang Tiles in Computer Graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Lagae, Ares

    2009-01-01

    Many complex signals in computer graphics, such as point distributions and textures, cannot be efficiently synthesized and stored. This book presents tile-based methods based on Wang tiles and corner tiles to solve both these problems. Instead of synthesizing a complex signal when needed, the signal is synthesized beforehand over a small set of Wang tiles or corner tiles. Arbitrary large amounts of that signal can then efficiently be generated when needed by generating a stochastic tiling, and storing only a small set of tiles reduces storage requirements. A tile-based method for generating a

  6. Triangular spiral tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushida, Takamichi; Hizume, Akio; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The topology of spiral tilings is intimately related to phyllotaxis theory and continued fractions. A quadrilateral spiral tiling is determined by a suitable chosen triple (ζ, m, n), where ζ element of D/R, and m and n are relatively prime integers. We give a simple characterization when (ζ, m, n) produce a triangular spiral tiling. When m and n are fixed, the admissible generators ζ form a curve in the unit disk. The family of triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs (m, n) is parameterized by the divergence angle arg (ζ), while triangular spiral tilings with non-opposed parastichy pairs are parameterized by the plastochrone ratio 1/|ζ|. The generators for triangular spiral tilings with opposed parastichy pairs are not dense in the complex parameter space, while those with non-opposed parastichy pairs are dense. The proofs will be given in a general setting of spiral multiple tilings. We present paper-folding (origami) sheets that build spiral towers whose top-down views are triangular tilings. (paper)

  7. A systematization of glaze spalling in azulejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Mimoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detachment of the glaze in azulejos is the ultimate form of decay, since it leads to the loss of the pictorial content. The detachment is usually considered in a diffuse way, however a close observation allows recognizing several types, often related to crazing, which this paper proposes to systematize.

  8. 49 CFR 238.421 - Glazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in this paragraph; (ii) The name of the manufacturer; and (iii) The type or brand identification of...; and (C) The type or brand identification of the material. (d) Glazing securement. Each exterior window... words conveying that meaning, in letters at least 3/8 of an inch high. [64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as...

  9. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...... was based on a polynomial regression predicting yearly tile drain discharge values using site specific parameters such as soil type, catchment topography, etc. as predictors. Values of calibrated model parameters from the dynamic modelling were compared to the same site specific parameter as used...

  10. Indoor Climate of Large Glazed Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Ole Juhl; Madsen, Christina E.; Heiselberg, Per

    In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate it is crui...... it is cruicial at the design stage to be able to predict the performance regarding thermal comfort and energy consumption. This paper focus on the practical implementation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the relation to other simulation tools regarding indoor climate.......In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate...

  11. Fabricate-On-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamy, James W. [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-09-19

    PPG proposed to design a fabricate-on-demand manufacturing process to overcome the cost and supply chain issues preventing widespread adoption of vacuum insulated glazing (VIG) units. To do so, we focused on improving three areas of VIG manufacturing that drive high costs and limit the ability for smaller manufacturers to enter the market: edge sealing, pillar design/placement, and evacuating the VIG.

  12. Samanid ceramics and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarpay, G.; Frierman, J.D.; Asaro, F.

    1977-01-01

    Glazed pottery known as ''Afrasiyab'' and ''Nishapur'' wares (early Islamic ceramics) are generally attributed to the Samanid dynasty (819-1005). The clay composition of Samanid wares and discarded kiln items found in situ were analyzed by NAA and the elemental composition compared with that of other sherds. 7 figures, 1 table

  13. Tratabilidade de solos tropicais contaminados por resíduos da indústria de revestimentos cerâmicos Treatability of tropical soils contaminated by solid wastes from ceramic tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pena de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho de pesquisa buscou investigar a eficácia da remoção de chumbo (Pb e zinco (Zn de uma área contaminada pelo depósito inadequado de resíduos de indústrias de revestimentos cerâmicos do pólo de Santa Gertrudes (São Paulo, Brasil, ocorrido há cerca de trinta anos atrás. Foram avaliados três processos de lixiviação: lavagem com ácido sulfúrico concentrado e por soluções de peróxido de hidrogênio a 30% e de ácido clorídrico 0,1 M. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o tratamento com peróxido de hidrogênio não removeu Pb e Zn; que a lavagem com ácido sulfúrico concentrado promoveu a redução de 50% dos teores de Zn e a solução de ácido clorídrico 0,1 M reduziu os teores de Pb e Zn em 15% e 10%, respectivamente. O teor remanescente de Zn no solo tratado com ácido sulfúrico concentrado foi de 117 mg/kg e os de Pb e Zn no solo lavado com a solução de ácido clorídrico 0,1 M, de 806 mg/kg e 213 mg/kg, respectivamente, valores estes inferiores aos de intervenção estabelecidos pelo órgão de controle ambiental paulista.The aim of this research was to evaluate different leaching processes to the removal of lead (Pb and zinc (Zn from tropical soil contaminated by inappropriate past deposition of wastes from ceramic tile industries of Santa Gertrudes (São Paulo, Brazil. Three soil washing processes were investigated: with concentrated sulphuric acid, with a 30% solution of hydrogen peroxide and with 0.1M solution of hydrochloric acid. The results indicated that the treatment with hydrogen peroxide did not remove Pb and Zn significantly; the washing with concentrated sulphuric acid caused a 50% reduction of Zn contents and the 0.1M solution of hydrochloric acid reduced Pb and Zn contents in 15% and 10%, respectively. The Zn content remaining in the soil processed with concentrated sulphuric acid was 117 mg/kg and the Pb and Zn contents remaining in the soil processed with 0.1M solution of hydrochloric acid

  14. Low-cost solar collectors using thin-film plastics absorbers and glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, performance, cost, and marketing of flat plate solar collectors using plastic absorbers and glazings are described. Manufacturing cost breakdowns are given for single-glazed and double-glazed collectors. (WHK)

  15. Influence of alumina characteristics on glaze properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrufat, S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium oxide is a synthetic raw material manufactured from bauxite by the Bayer process, whose Al2O3 content typically exceeds 99%. Four main types of alumina can be defined, depending on the processing used: hydrargillite Al(OH3, boehmite AlOOH, transition aluminas (calcined at low temperatures, 1000 °C, with an intermediary crystallographic structure between hydrates and alpha alumina, and α-Al2O3 (calcined at high temperatures, >1100 °C. In glaze manufacturing, α-Al2O3 is the main type of alumina used. This raw material acts as a matting agent: the matt effect depends on alumina particle size and content in the glaze. This study examines the effect of the degree of alumina calcination on glaze technical and aesthetic properties. For this purpose, aluminas with different degrees of calcination were added to a glaze formulated with a transparent frit and kaolin, in order to simplify the system to be studied. The results show that, depending on the degree of calcination, alumina particles can react with the glaze components (SiO2, CaO, and ZnO to form new crystalline phases (anorthite and gahnite. Both crystallisations extract CaO and ZnO from the glassy phase, increasing glassy phase viscosity. The variation in crystalline phases and glassy phase viscosity yields glazes with different technical and aesthetic properties.

    El óxido de aluminio es una materia prima sintética fabricada a partir de la bauxita por medio del proceso Bayer, cuyo contenido de Al2O3 supera, por regla general, el 99%. Se pueden definir cuatro tipos de alúmina, en función del tipo de proceso usado: hidrargilita Al(OH3, boehmita AlOOH, alúminas de transición (calcinadas a bajas temperaturas, 1000 °C, con una estructura cristalográfica intermedia entre los hidratos y la alfa alúmina, y la α-Al2O3 (calcinada a

  16. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Henriques Correia, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics.

  17. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, A.

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics. (authors)

  18. Glazed pottery of the South-Eastern Crimea from the excavations of the Tsarev settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudin Nikita I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings of glazed ceramics produced in the South-Eastern Crimea, and then excavated at the Tsarev settlement. Their typology, chronology and topography are being introduced by the author. On the basis of the 165 analyzed fragments and whole vessels the author suggests a 4-level classification scheme, which includes the production center, functional purpose of the items, morphological characteristics and ornamentation of the vessels. Basic types and variations of vessels’ shapes are being described according to three major chronological periods: 1. Early 1300s, 2. 1330s, 3. The second half of the 14th century. Notably, the earliest findings of ceramics dated by the first two periods were located on the South-Eastern part of the Tsarev settlement. Most of all, its are the bowls on a circular underpan lacking ornamentation and covered with green transparent glazing. Since the second half of the 14th century the vessels from the South-Eastern Crimea had been widely spread on the entire area of the settlement. The assortment of vessels’ shapes used at this time along with jars and bowls, was now widened by aftobes and apothecary amphoras.

  19. Photovoltaic roofing tile systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, B.

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in architecture is discussed. A PV-solar roofing tile system with polymer concrete base; PV-roofing tile with elastomer frame profiles and aluminum profile frames; contact technique; and solar cell modules measuring technique are described. Field tests at several places were conducted on the solar generator, electric current behavior, battery station, electric installation, power conditioner, solar measuring system with magnetic bubble memory technique, data transmission via telephone modems, and data processing system. The very favorable response to the PV-compact system proves the commercial possibilities of photovoltaic integration in architecture.

  20. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... items of glazing are also defined according to their construction characteristics. For example, item 1... a boil and a bake test to determine whether safety glazing can withstand exposure to high... (150[emsp14][deg]F) water for three minutes and then placed in boiling water for three hours. The bake...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... glazing material is considered to be any glazing material capable of passing the requirements of Safety... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.113... shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used in...

  2. The mineralogy and chemistry of the German and Portuguese tiles used to face a historic building in the Amazon region and their natural susceptibility to tropical weathering Mineralogia e química de azulejos Alemães e Portugueses de prédios históricos na região Amazônica e sua susceptibilidade natural à degradação tropical (intemperismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes L. da Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th century, the most prominent buildings of the city of Belém were faced entirely with tiles manufactured in Portugal and Germany, which now exhibit distinct degrees of degradation. The Pinho mansion is one of the most important of these buildings and was selected for the investigation of the action of the tropical Amazonian climate on the degradation of the tiles. To achieve this objective, the tiles were mapped for organic and inorganic degradation, and samples were collected for analysis. The minerals were determined by XRD, the chemical composition by classical wet methods and SEM/EDS, and the microorganisms under the microscope. The results show that the German and Portuguese tiles are quite different in their composition. While both ceramic bodies are composed of SiO2 and Al2O3, CaO was found only in the Portuguese tile. The low Na2O and K2O contents indicate the addition of materials to reduce the fusion temperature. SiO2 and PbO are the main constituents of the glaze, with CoO and FeO being added as pigment. The ceramic body of the German tiles is constituted of quartz, mullite, and cristobalite, in contrast with the Portuguese tiles, which are made of quartz, gehlenite, diopside, calcite, and feldspars. The glazes are XRD-amorphous. The chemical and mineralogical differences between the German and Portuguese tiles indicate that they were produced from different raw materials under distinct thermal processes. The most prominent weathering-related modifications are the thin layers (German tiles, oxidation stains, dark stains, the detachment of the tile (Portuguese tiles, loss of the glaze and powdering of the ceramic body (Portuguese tiles through the establishment of Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta.. The distinct degradation patterns of the tiles exposed to the tropical Amazon climate are a consequence of their distinct mineralogy and chemistry.As proeminentes edificações da cidade de Belém foram revestidas durante o s

  3. Environmental assessment of electrochromic glazing production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrrakou, E.; Papaefthimiou, S.; Yianoulis, P.

    2005-01-01

    The life cycle analysis method was used to determine the environmental impacts associated with the production of an electrochromic (EC) glazing (called ECD). This paper describes the inventory analysis for all the basic materials used during the manufacture of the ECD, i.e. K-Glass, tungsten oxide (WO 3 ), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), propylene carbonate (PC), lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ) and acetic silicone sealant. K-Glass, PC and PMMA account for the 98% of the total device mass and the CO 2 emissions during their production processes are 810 g. The total embodied energy was estimated to be 49 MJ/ECD, with 32.1 MJ/unit of them derived from the K-Glass. The comparison of the total embodied energies of the ECD and various insulating glass units concluded that mass-produced EC glazings could easily compete with them in terms of environmental performance, anticipating cost attenuation and overall thermal and optical behavior. The above analysis could be implemented for the reduction of the embodied energy of the ECD life cycle, since it is proposed as an energy saving device. (Author)

  4. Analytical investigations of glazed Islamic pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, E.; Krejsa, P.

    1978-08-01

    42 fragments of medieval glazed pottery from seven sites in Iran, Afghanistan and India were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In addition a secondary clay standard and some samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for their main components. The results of the trace analysis formed the basis for cluster analysis using the graphtheoretical method of the minimum spanning tree. The samples were partitioned into five clusters, which were compared with the provenance of their respective members. Preliminary results indicate that pottery from the north of Afganistan can be differentiated from the southern one, while the southern ware seems to be homogeneous over a large area from Herat to Ghazni. Some of the pottery samples from Sistan have a different composition, which is due to a different production technique. The mass probably consisted of a 4 : 1 mixture of quartz and clay or a 15 : 4 : 1 mixture of quartz, clay and frit for the glaze. A similar recipe is described by Abu'l-Quasim, a medieval Persian potter. (author)

  5. Extended DNA Tile Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Martin; Kryger, Mille; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic linear DNA tile actuator is expanded to three new structures of higher complexity. The original DNA actuator was constructed from a central roller strand which hybridizes with two piston strands by forming two half-crossover junctions. A linear expansion of the actuator is obtained...

  6. Analysis of Chinese porcelains and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gihwala, D.; Vos, H.N.

    1985-01-01

    Trace and minor components in fragments of northern Chinese porselains and the poorly-known southern Chinese porcellaneous ware from excavations in the south-western Cape were determined non-destructively by PIXE in the glazes and in the body material. Correspondence analysis of the analytical data showed that the Chinese glazes, though different from that of English specimens, could not be differentiated. The analysis of the body material enabled the northern porcelains and some of the southern ceramics to be distinguished, but some southern porcellaneous ware could not be grouped separately

  7. Evaluation of the effect of polishing on flexural strength of feldspathic porcelain and its comparison with autoglazing and over glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali H.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Ceramic restorations are popular because they can provide the most natural replacement for teeth. However, the brittleness of ceramics is a primary disadvantage. There are various methods for strengthening ceramics such as metal framework, ceramic cores, and surface strengthening mechanisms through glazing, work hardening and ion exchange. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of polish on flexural strength of feldspathic porcelain and to compare it with overglaze and autoglaze. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, one brand of feldspathic porcelain (colorlogic, Ceramco was used and forty bars (25×6×3 mm were prepared according to ISO 6872 and ADA No. 69. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups: overglazed, auto glazed, fine polish and coarse polish (clinic polish. Flexural strength of each specimen was determined by three point bending test (Universal Testing Machine, Zwick 1494, Germany. Collected data was analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: A significant difference was observed among the studied groups (P<0.0001. According to post-hoc test, flexural strength in overglaze and fine polish group were significantly stronger than clinic polish and autoglaze group (P<0.001. Although the mean value for overglazed group was higher than fine polish group, this was not statistically significant (P=0.9. Also no statistical difference was seen between autoglazed and coarse polish group (P=0.2. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, flexural strength achieved by fine polish (used in this study can compete with overglazing the feldespathic porcelains. It also can be concluded that a final finishing procedure that involves fine polishing may be preferred to simple staining followed by self-glazing.

  8. Brane tilings and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, M.

    2008-01-01

    We review recent developments in the theory of brane tilings and four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric quiver gauge theories. This review consists of two parts. In part I, we describe foundations of brane tilings, emphasizing the physical interpretation of brane tilings as fivebrane systems. In part II, we discuss application of brane tilings to AdS/CFT correspondence and homological mirror symmetry. More topics, such as orientifold of brane tilings, phenomenological model building, similarities with BPS solitons in supersymmetric gauge theories, are also briefly discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. A multiproxy approach to evaluate biocidal treatm entson biodeteri orated majolica glazed tiles

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, M. L.; Miller, A. Z.; Jurado, Valme; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo; Macedo, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    23 páginas.-- 10 figuras.-- 6 tablas.-- 88 referencias.-- Supporting information Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article at the publisher’s web-site: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13380

  10. Sintered gahnite–cordierite glass-ceramic based on raw materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zn and Mg may replace each other in gahnite and cordierite structure. Densities of the ... glaze layers for floor tile and dental applications. In the crys- tallization of .... X-ray diffraction analysis of the present glass samples treated at 1250.

  11. Triple vacuum glazing: Heat transfer and basic mechanical design constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, H.; Brunner, S.; Wullschleger, L. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Laboratory for Applied Physics in Building, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2006-12-15

    Given the major role played by windows with regard to energy losses from buildings in cold climates, low thermal transmittance is an indispensable property of glazing in low-energy buildings. Evacuation offers the only means of achieving negligible gaseous conduction in glazing cavities. Application of low-emittance coatings to glass sheet surfaces inside the cavity reduces the radiative heat transfer. The feasibility of double vacuum glazing using arrays of support pillars between the glass sheets has been shown by other authors. This type of glazing is commercially manufactured today. Based on these achievements, our study set out to investigate heat transfer in triple vacuum glazing by means of (i) an analytical thermal network model and (ii) a numerical finite difference model. The study focused on the impact of the following parameters on thermal transmittance: emittances of glass sheet surfaces inside the cavity, support pillar radius, support pillar separation and thermal conductivity of support pillar material. The design procedure for triple vacuum glazing taking into account not only thermal but also mechanical stresses due to atmospheric pressure, i.e., to enable identification of favourable parameter sets, is presented. Our findings suggest that use of the triple vacuum glazing concept can significantly reduce the thermal transmittances achieved by the best insulation glazing units currently on the market. E.g., a centre-of-glazing thermal transmittance of less than 0.2Wm{sup -2}K{sup -1} is achievable using stainless steel support pillars, 6mm/4mm/6mm sheets of untempered soda-lime glass and four low-emittance coatings ({epsilon}=0.03). (author)

  12. Utilização do resíduo da extração de esmeraldas em uma formulação de massa de revestimento cerâmico Use of the extraction residue of emeralds in a formulation mass of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Cavalcante

    2012-06-01

    volumes of waste generated and emerald are constantly abandoned in the environment, contributing negatively to their preservation. On the other hand the interest in the use of mining waste as an additive in production of ceramic materials has grown among researchers in recent years. The ceramic industry is constantly seeking to expand the market for the sector and trying to improve product quality and increase the variety of applications. The technology of obtaining ceramic coating that uses waste from mining is still a largely unexplored market. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the waste generated from mining emerald as well as to evaluate its potential use as raw material for production melting of ceramic tiles. Ceramic mixtures were prepared from raw materials characterized by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Five compositions were prepared using the waste codes of emeralds from 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Samples were prepared by pressing, sintered at 1000, 1100 and 1200 ºC and characterized to establish their mineralogical composition, water absorption, linear shrinkage and modulus of rupture. The results showed that the residue of emeralds studied can be embedded in the mass of ceramic tiles up to 20% in replacement of feldspar without compromising the end product properties.

  13. Optical And Environmental Properties Of NCAP Glazing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Konynenburg, Peter; Wipfler, Richard T.; Smith, Jerry L.

    1989-07-01

    The first large area, commercially available, electrically-controllable glazing products sold under the tradename VARILITETM are based on a new liquid crystal film technology called NCAP. The glazing products can be switched in milliseconds between a highly translucent state (for privacy and glare control) to a transparent state (for high visibility) with the application of an AC voltage. The optical and environmental properties are demonstrated to meet the general requirements for architectural glazing use. The first qualified indoor product is described in detail.

  14. A new liquid-phase-separation glaze containing neodymium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, S.; Xianque, C.; Luxing, K.; Pentecost, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    A color-changeable opaque glaze containing neodymium oxide was investigated. Results show that the glaze is a new example of the liquid-phase-separation type. The discrete phase droplets are from 50 to 500 nm in size. They are rich in Nd, Zn, Ca, and Mg and the continuous phase is rich in Si, Al, and K. The concentration of the discrete phase is approx. =45%. The large number of discrete droplets and the zinc oxide in the glaze increase its opacity to cover the selective light absorption and scattering of the neodymium ion and reduce the opalescence effect

  15. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  16. Bonding polycarbonate brackets to ceramic: : Effects of substrate treatment on bond strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu; Vallittu, Pekka K.; Peltomäki, Timo; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Kalk, Warner

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 5 different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of polycarbonate brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces with resin based cement. Six disc-shaped ceramic specimens (feldspathic porcelain) with glazed surfaces were used for each group. The specimens were

  17. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  18. Eco-innovation an evolution of innovation? Empirical analysis at the Spanish tile ceramic industry; Eco-innovacion, una evolucion de la innovacion? Analisis empirico en la industria ceramica espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segarra-Ona, M.; Peiro-Signes, A.; Miret-Pastor, L.; Albors-Garrigos, J.

    2011-07-01

    Innovation and sustainable development are considered to be economic drivers and crucial in fixing competitive position of companies. Eco-innovation, known as a synergic relation among both concepts must be an element to consider when designing the company's strategy. The objective of this paper is to analyze which are the variables that determine that innovative companies go beyond and consider the improvement of their environmental impact as an output when developing innovating activities. This research considers firms belonging to the Spanish tile industry. Data has been provided by PITEC Database. The paper identifies the moderating factors that influence the eco-innovative behavior of firms. (Author)

  19. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  20. Study of the pressing operation of large-sized tiles using X-ray absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoros, J. L.; Mallol, G.; Llorens, D.; Boix, J.; Arnau, J. M.; Feliu, C.; Cerisuelo, J. A.; Gargallo, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus for X-Ray non destructive inspection of bulk density distribution in large ceramic tiles has been designed, built and patented. This technique has many advantages compared with other methods: it allows tile bulk density distribution to be mapped and is neither destructive nor toxic, provided the X-ray tube and detector area are shielded to prevent leakage. In the present study, this technique, whose technical feasibility and accuracy had been verified in previous studies, has been used to scan ceramic tiles formed under different industrial conditions, modifying press working parameters. The use of high-precision laser telemeters allows tile thicknesses to be mapped, facilitating the interpretation of manufacturing defects produced in pressing, which cannot be interpreted by just measuring bulk density. The bulk density distributions obtained in the same unfired and fired tiles are also compared, a possibility afforded only by this measurement method, since it is non-destructive. The comparison of both unfired and fired tile bulk density distributions allows the influence of the pressing and firing stages on tile end porosity to be individually identified. (Author) 12 refs.

  1. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Bilayer Ceramic and Metal-Ceramic Crown Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine; Rose, William; Oliveira, Erica; Yang, Mark; Clark, Arthur E.; Anusavice, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Analyzing the clinical performance of restorative materials is important, as there is an expectation that these materials and procedures will restore teeth and do no harm. The objective of this research study was to characterize the clinical performance of metal-ceramic crowns, core ceramic crowns, and core ceramic/veneer ceramic crowns based on 11 clinical criteria. Materials and Methods An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study. The following three types of full crowns were fabricated: (1) metal-ceramic crown (MC) made from a Pd-Au-Ag-Sn-In alloy (Argedent 62) and a glass-ceramic veneer (IPS d.SIGN veneer); (2) non-veneered (glazed) lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC) (IPS e.max Press core and e.max Ceram Glaze); and (3) veneered lithia disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC/V) with glass-ceramic veneer (IPS Empress 2 core and IPS Eris). Single-unit crowns were randomly assigned. Patients were recalled for each of 3 years and were evaluated by two calibrated clinicians. Thirty-six crowns were placed in 31 patients. A total of 12 crowns of each of the three crown types were studied. Eleven criteria were evaluated: tissue health, marginal integrity, secondary caries, proximal contact, anatomic contour, occlusion, surface texture, cracks/chips (fractures), color match, tooth sensitivity, and wear (of crowns and opposing enamel). Numerical rankings ranged from 1 to 4, with 4 being excellent, and 1 indicating a need for immediate replacement. Statistical analysis of the numerical rankings was performed using a Fisher’s exact test. Results There was no statistically significant difference between performance of the core ceramic crowns and the two veneered crowns at year 1 and year 2 (p > 0.05). All crowns were rated either as excellent or good for each of the clinical criteria; however, between years 2 and 3, gradual roughening of the occlusal surface occurred in some of the ceramic-ceramic crowns

  2. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  3. Efeito da adição de resíduo de rocha ornamental nas propriedades tecnológicas e microestrutura de piso cerâmico vitrificado Effect of the addition of ornamental rock waste on the technological properties and microstructure of vitrified ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de rochas ornamentais gera grandes quantidades de resíduos sólidos na forma de pós finos. Estes resíduos, quando descartados no ambiente, provocam impacto ambiental negativo. Foi feito um estudo sobre a influência de um resíduo de rocha ornamental nas propriedades e microestrutura de piso cerâmico vitrificado. Foi preparada uma série de massas cerâmicas contendo até 30% em peso de resíduo de rocha ornamental. Peças cerâmicas foram preparadas por prensagem uniaxial e sinterizadas entre 1190 e 1250 ºC em um ciclo de queima rápida. As seguintes propriedades tecnológicas foram determinadas: retração linear, absorção de água, massa específica aparente, e tensão de ruptura a flexão. A evolução da microestrutura e a análise de fases foram acompanhadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e difração de raios X. Os resultados mostraram que adições de até 30% em peso de resíduo de rocha ornamental causaram variações significativas na generalidade das propriedades tecnológicas da massa cerâmica de referência. A microestrutura das peças cerâmicas também foi influenciada com a incorporação do resíduo estudado. Os resultados também mostram que a substituição de feldspato sódico por resíduo de rocha ornamental nas massas cerâmicas tende a melhorar a qualidade do piso cerâmico.The ornamental rock industries generate huge amounts of solid wastes (fine powders. These wastes as disposed in the environment generate negative environmental impacts. In this work a study was done on the influence of an ornamental rock waste in the technological properties and microstructure of vitrified floor tile. A series of ceramic pastes were prepared with additions of up to 30 wt% of waste. Ceramic pieces were prepared by uniaxial pressing and sintered between 1190 and 1250 ºC using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density

  4. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C.; Hyde, Trevor J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, N. Ireland BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5m by 0.5m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32mm diameter pillars spaced 25mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  5. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueping Fang; Eames, P.C.; Hyde, T.J. [University of Ulster, Newtonabbey (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies; Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5 m by 0.5 m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32 mm diameter pillars spaced 25 mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10 mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  6. Development of vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Manz, H.

    2009-03-15

    Windows constitute a weak link in the building envelope and hence contribute significantly to the total heating energy demand in buildings. By evacuating the glazing cavity a vacuum glazing is created and heat transfer can be significantly reduced. This project was designed to build knowledge and technology necessary to fabricate vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties. More specifically, various strategies for improvement of conventional technology were investigated. Of central importance was the development of a novel edge sealing approach which can in theory circumvent the main limitation of conventional glass soldering technology. This approach which is rapid, low temperature, low cost and completely vacuum compatible was filed for patenting in 2008. With regards to thermal insulation performance and glazing deflection, numerical studies were performed demonstrating the importance of nonlinear behavior with glazing size and the results published. A detailed service life prediction model was elaborated which defines a set of parameters necessary to keep the expected pressure increase below a threshold value of 0.1 Pa after 30 years. The model takes into account four possible sources of pressure increase and a getter material which acts as a sink. For the production of 0.5 m by 0.5 m glazing assembly prototypes, a high vacuum chamber was constructed and a first sealing prototype realized therein. The manufacture of improved prototypes and optimization of the anodic bonding edge sealing technology with emphasis on process relevant aspects is the goal of a follow-up project. (authors)

  7. Effect of Window Glazing on Colour Quality of Transmitted Daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The spectral transmittance data of different window glazing types are taken from the International Glazing Data Base (IGDB, which is maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL. The study showed that the CIE CRI does not always seem to be the suitable method to predict the colour quality of daylight in building for particular situations. However, in the context of this study, the prediction of colour rendering properties of window glazing by other metrics such as Colour Quality Scale (version 9, Memory CRI, Ra,D65 (adjusted CRI metric with D65 as the reference illuminant performed better. For most of the daylit situations inside the building, the chromaticity difference criterion was not met. Judging the colour quality of such situations requires different method.

  8. Determination of elastic modulus of ceramics using ultrasonic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmita, Firmansyah; Wibisono, Gatot; Judawisastra, Hermawan; Priambodo, Toni Agung

    2018-04-01

    Elastic modulus is important material property on structural ceramics application. However, bending test as a common method for determining this property require particular specimen preparation. Furthermore, elastic modulus of ceramics could vary because it depends on porosity content. For structural ceramics industry, such as ceramic tiles, this property is very important. This drives the development of new method to improve effectivity or verification method as well. In this research, ultrasonic testing was conducted to determine elastic modulus of soda lime glass and ceramic tiles. The experiment parameter was frequency of probe (1, 2, 4 MHz). Characterization of density and porosity were also done for analysis. Results from ultrasonic testing were compared with elastic modulus resulted from bending test. Elastic modulus of soda-lime glass based on ultrasonic testing showed excellent result with error 2.69% for 2 MHz probe relative to bending test result. Testing on red and white ceramic tiles were still contained error up to 41% and 158%, respectively. The results for red ceramic tile showed trend that 1 MHz probe gave better accuracy in determining elastic modulus. However, testing on white ceramic tile showed different trend. It was due to the presence of porosity and near field effect.

  9. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... injuries resulting from impact to glazing surfaces, to ensure a necessary degree of transparency in motor... material that will minimize the loss of transparency, and instructions for removing frost and ice, and, at...

  10. Tile-in-ONE

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Sivolella, A; Ferreira, F; Maidantchik, C

    2013-01-01

    The Tile calorimeter is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS. In order to ensure its proper operation and assess the quality of data, many tasks are to be performed by means of many tools which were developed independently to satisfy different needs. Thus, these systems are commonly implemented without a global perspective of the detector and lack basic software features. Besides, in some cases they overlap in the objectives and resources with another one. It is therefore evident the necessity of an infrastructure to allow the implementation of any functionality without having to duplicate the effort while being possible to integrate with an overall view of the detector status.\

  11. The exploitation of glaze waste slurries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoklasa, Jaroslav; Pechoč, Jiří

    10(117) (2000), s. 45-52 ISSN 1211-1929 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3046004; GA AV ČR KSK1067601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  12. Kinetics of DNA tile dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuoxing; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-24

    Investigating how individual molecular components interact with one another within DNA nanoarchitectures, both in terms of their spatial and temporal interactions, is fundamentally important for a better understanding of their physical behaviors. This will provide researchers with valuable insight for designing more complex higher-order structures that can be assembled more efficiently. In this report, we examined several spatial factors that affect the kinetics of bivalent, double-helical (DH) tile dimerization, including the orientation and number of sticky ends (SEs), the flexibility of the double helical domains, and the size of the tiles. The rate constants we obtained confirm our hypothesis that increased nucleation opportunities and well-aligned SEs accelerate tile-tile dimerization. Increased flexibility in the tiles causes slower dimerization rates, an effect that can be reversed by introducing restrictions to the tile flexibility. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles results from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. We believe that the results presented here will assist in improved implementation of DNA tile based algorithmic self-assembly, DNA based molecular robotics, and other specific nucleic acid systems, and will provide guidance to design and assembly processes to improve overall yield and efficiency.

  13. Determination of critical breakage conditions for double glazing in fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Ke; Su, Yanfei; Lu, Wei; Wang, Qingsong; Sun, Jinhua; He, Linghui; Liew, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical heat fluxes of exposed and ambient panes are 6 kW/m"2 and 25 kW/m"2. • Critical temperature difference of fire side pane is around 60 °C. • The ambient pane survives three times longer due to radiation filter and air gap. • Heat transfer in double glazing is revealed by a heat flux based theoretical model. - Abstract: Double glazing unit normally demonstrates better fire resistance than single glazing, but the knowledge on its thermal behavior and heat transfer mechanism during fire is limited. In this work, nine double glazing units were heated by a 500 × 500 mm"2 pool fire. The incident heat flux, temperature on four surfaces, breakage time and cracking behavior were obtained. The critical breakage conditions for interior and exterior panes were determined through gradually decreasing the glass-burner distance from 750 mm to 450 mm. It is established that in double glazing the pane at ambient side can withstand significantly more time than the pane exposed to fire. The critical temperature difference for interior pane is 60 °C; the critical temperature of exterior pane breakage is much higher due to no frame-covered area. In addition, the heat flux at the time of crack initiation is 6 kW/m"2 for the pane at fire side, while more than 25 kW/m"2 for ambient side pane. To reveal the heat transfer mechanism in glazing-air-glazing, theoretical and numerical investigations are also performed, which agrees well with the experimental results.

  14. Thin Films for Advanced Glazing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional thin films provide many opportunities for advanced glazing systems. This can be achieved by adding additional functionalities such as self-cleaning or power generation, or alternately by providing energy demand reduction through the management or modulation of solar heat gain or blackbody radiation using spectrally selective films or chromogenic materials. Self-cleaning materials have been generating increasing interest for the past two decades. They may be based on hydrophobic or hydrophilic systems and are often inspired by nature, for example hydrophobic systems based on mimicking the lotus leaf. These materials help to maintain the aesthetic properties of the building, help to maintain a comfortable working environment and in the case of photocatalytic materials, may provide external pollutant remediation. Power generation through window coatings is a relatively new idea and is based around the use of semi-transparent solar cells as windows. In this fashion, energy can be generated whilst also absorbing some solar heat. There is also the possibility, in the case of dye sensitized solar cells, to tune the coloration of the window that provides unheralded external aesthetic possibilities. Materials and coatings for energy demand reduction is highly desirable in an increasingly energy intensive world. We discuss new developments with low emissivity coatings as the need to replace scarce indium becomes more apparent. We go on to discuss thermochromic systems based on vanadium dioxide films. Such systems are dynamic in nature and present a more sophisticated and potentially more beneficial approach to reducing energy demand than static systems such as low emissivity and solar control coatings. The ability to be able to tune some of the material parameters in order to optimize the film performance for a given climate provides exciting opportunities for future technologies. In this article, we review recent progress and challenges in

  15. Characterization of avian eggshell waste aiming its use in a ceramic wall tile paste Caracterização de resíduo de casca de ovo visando seu aproveitamento em revestimento cerâmico poroso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Freire

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the food industry generates every year huge amounts of avian eggshell waste, and a critical question is to find an adequate use for this waste. The aim of this work is to determine the chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics of a nonprocessed avian eggshell waste sample, as well as to investigate its use in wall tile paste. The sample was analyzed regarding to chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, morphology, particle size analysis, density, organic matter, soluble salts, and thermal analysis. The results indicated that the eggshell waste sample rich in CaCO3 can be used as an alternative raw material in the production of wall tile materials.No Brasil a indústria alimentícia gera enormes quantidades de resíduo de casca de ovo galináceo todo ano, e uma questão crítica é estabelecer um uso adequado para este resíduo. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar as características química, mineralógica e física de uma amostra de resíduo de casca de ovo natural, bem como avaliar sua utilização em revestimento cerâmico poroso. A amostra de resíduo de casca de ovo foi caracterizada com relação à composição química, difração de raios X, morfologia, análise de tamanho de partícula, massa específica, matéria orgânica, sais solúveis e análise térmica. Os resultados mostraram que o resíduo de casca de ovo rico em CaCO3 pode ser usado como uma matéria-prima alternativa na produção de revestimento cerâmico poroso (azulejo.

  16. Fluorescence of ceramic color standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Annette; Clare, John F.; Nield, Kathryn M.; Deadman, Andrew; Usadi, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence has been found in color standards available for use in calibration and verification of color measuring instruments. The fluorescence is excited at wavelengths below about 600 nm and emitted above 700 nm, within the response range of silicon photodiodes, but at the edge of the response of most photomultipliers and outside the range commonly scanned in commercial colorimeters. The degree of fluorescence on two of a set of 12 glossy ceramic tiles is enough to introduce significant error when those tiles have been calibrated in one mode of measurement and are used in another. We report the nature of the fluorescence and the implications for color measurement.

  17. Study on the energy performance of glazing surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia MOGA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A proper thermal design of the building envelope represents an important factor for the energy economics. Glazing surfaces represent one of the important elements in the hygrothermal design activity of a building envelope. The window’s thermal performance has also a strong influence on the thermal performance of the opaque area of the wall. This fact imposed the research of the real interaction, of cooperation and of mutual influences of the characteristics between the two components of the wall of the building envelope, respectively the opaque and the glazing area. Optimal constructive details for the opaque and glazing area of the wall need to be properly designed in order to achieve the required thermal and energy performances imposed for new types of buildings, e.g. passive houses, zero energy buildings.

  18. Solar distillation between a simple and double-glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane KHECHEKHOUCHE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The south-east region of Algeria suffers from a great socio-economic problem that affects a large population. Faced with the unavailability of drinking water, solar distillation; which appears to be a suitable and inexpensive solution; was adopted by local researchers. Improving the productivity of a solar greenhouse distiller is the subject of several researches in the world. As it is well known, distiller with simple glazing is wildly studied but unfortunately has feeble efficiency. Double glazing is a method that increases the efficiency of a flat solar collector. The idea is to use the same technique on a single-slope solar distiller (50 x 50 cm. Two glass plates separated by 1 cm between them air is trapped. Experience shows that this technique has a negative effect on the productivity of the distiller with a rate of 88.63%; it means 9 times. So double glazing is not recommended in the single slope solar distiller.

  19. The lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP) in the ceramic tile industry and its impact on the reallocation of inventories; La falta de homogeneidad del producto (FHP) en las empresas ceramicas y su impacto en la reasignacion del inventario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, F.; Alemany, M. M. E.; Lario, F. C.; Oltra, R. F.

    2011-07-01

    The allocation of the product available- to-promise (ATP) in make-to-stock (MTS) contexts is of the utmost importance as it can influence customer satisfaction and profits of the company. However, a proper initial allocation may become inadequate for several reasons. In these case, it is necessary the reallocation of inventory, which will be more complex the more ambitious goals to achieve with it and increased the amount of information to use. In this regard, it is noteworthy that the lack of homogeneity in the product (LHP), present in different industrial sectors, causes the atomization of the inventory and increases the complexity of the reallocation, difficult to obtain optimal solutions. This paper describes the problems of the LHP, first under a generic perspective and then, particularized to MTS ceramic companies. Subsequently, situations in which a specific allocation of ATP can no longer be appropriate in this context are identified and the reassignment, as a way to search for new valid assignments, is proposed. Finally, through a case study of a ceramic company, the impact of the LHP in each of the situations identified is analyzed, noting that the LHP causes some of these situations and in all of them, complicates the reallocation of inventory to orders. (Authors) 31 refs.

  20. Design and evaluation of daylighting applications of holographic glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, K.; Ehrlich, C.; Ward, G.

    1996-12-01

    According to the contractual agreement, BTP would develop a computer model of the POC holographic structures and then simulate the performance of alternative designs using the RADIANCE lighting and rendering computer program [Ward 1990]. The RADIANCE model would then be used to evaluate the daylight performance of alternative designs of holographic glazings in a prototypical office space. The simulation process would be validated against actual photometric measurements of holographic glazing samples developed by POC. The results would be used to evaluate the potential for increased electric lighting savings through increased daylight illuminance levels at distances more than 15 ft--20 ft (4.6 m--6.1 m ) from the window wall.

  1. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin; Li Rongwu; Lue Zhirong; Li Guoxia

    2008-01-01

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper

  2. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.cn; Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Rongwu [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100049 (China); Lue Zhirong [Shan' xi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Li Guoxia [Institute of Physical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper.

  3. Ceramics as nuclear reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    Ceramics are widely accepted as nuclear reactor fuel materials, for both metal clad ceramic and all-ceramic fuel designs. Metal clad UO 2 is used commercially in large tonnages in five different power reactor designs. UO 2 pellets are made by familiar ceramic techniques but in a reactor they undergo complex thermal and chemical changes which must be thoroughly understood. Metal clad uranium-plutonium dioxide is used in present day fast breeder reactors, but may eventually be replaced by uranium-plutonium carbide or nitride. All-ceramic fuels, which are necessary for reactors operating above about 750 0 C, must incorporate one or more fission product retentive ceramic coatings. BeO-coated BeO matrix dispersion fuels and silicate glaze coated UO 2 -SiO 2 have been studied for specialised applications, but the only commercial high temperature fuel is based on graphite in which small fuel particles, each coated with vapour deposited carbon and silicon carbide, are dispersed. Ceramists have much to contribute to many aspects of fuel science and technology. (author)

  4. Effects of waste glass and waste foundry sand additions on reclaimed tiles containing sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Lin, Kuo-Liang; Liu, Zhe-Kun

    2017-07-01

    Applying sewage sludge ash (SSA) to produce reclaimed tiles is a promising recycling technology in resolving the increasing sludge wastes from wastewater treatment. However, performance of such reclaimed tiles is inferior to that of original ceramic tiles. Many researchers have therefore tried adding various industrial by-products to improve reclaimed tile properties. In this study, multiple materials including waste glass and waste foundry sand (WFS) were added in an attempt to improve physical and mechanical properties of reclaimed tiles with SSA. Samples with various combinations of clay, WFS, waste glass and SSA were made with three kiln temperatures of 1000°C, 1050°C, and 1100°C. A series of tests on the samples were next conducted. Test results showed that waste glass had positive effects on bending strength, water absorption and weight loss on ignition, while WFS contributed the most in reducing shrinkage, but could decrease the tile bending strength when large amount was added at a high kiln temperature. This study suggested that a combination of WFS from 10% to 15%, waste glass from 15% to 20%, SSA at 10% at a kiln temperature between 1000°C and 1050°C could result in quality reclaimed tiles with a balanced performance.

  5. Characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash for use in ceramic bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: katiacpf@terra.com.br, E-mail: rfguenf2009@hotmail.com, E-mail: holanda@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/GMCer/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work is to characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash waste aiming the use it in red ceramic industry. The characterization was done in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, morphology, and plasticity. The results show that the cane bagasse ash waste is a non plastic material, which contains high content of silica and minor amounts of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and K oxides. Thus, the sugar cane bagasse ash waste presents high potential for application in the manufacture of ceramic products such as bricks, roofing tiles, and ceramic tiles. (author)

  6. Ceramic Prototypes – Design, Computation, and Digital Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bechthold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in ceramic material systems at Harvard University has introduced a range of novel applications which combine digital manufacturing technologies and robotics with imaginative design and engineering methods. Prototypes showcase the new performative qualities of ceramics and the integration of this material in today’s construction culture. Work ranges from daylight control systems to structural applications and a robotic tile placement system. Emphasis is on integrating novel technologies with tried and true manufacturing methods. The paper describes two distinct studies – one on 3D print-ing of ceramics, the other on structural use of large format thin tiles.

  7. Characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash for use in ceramic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash waste aiming the use it in red ceramic industry. The characterization was done in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, morphology, and plasticity. The results show that the cane bagasse ash waste is a non plastic material, which contains high content of silica and minor amounts of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and K oxides. Thus, the sugar cane bagasse ash waste presents high potential for application in the manufacture of ceramic products such as bricks, roofing tiles, and ceramic tiles. (author)

  8. Bibliography of ceramic extrusion and plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A.; Vance, M.C.; Jordan, A.C.; Kertesz, M.P.

    1987-03-01

    A comprehensive bibliography of ceramic extrusion and plasticity has been compiled. Over 670 abstracts are included covering the period 1932 to 1984. Citations cover a wide range of interests from basic science investigations to engineering ''tips'' and include references to brick and tile, whitewares, technical ceramics, theoretical models, engineering analyses, forming, drying, and raw materials. In addition to the citations, there are numerous indices to make the bibliography easy to use.

  9. Hierarchical Self Assembly of Patterns from the Robinson Tilings: DNA Tile Design in an Enhanced Tile Assembly Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Jennifer E; Liu, Wenyan; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a hierarchical self assembly algorithm that produces the quasiperiodic patterns found in the Robinson tilings and suggest a practical implementation of this algorithm using DNA origami tiles. We modify the abstract Tile Assembly Model, (aTAM), to include active signaling and glue activation in response to signals to coordinate the hierarchical assembly of Robinson patterns of arbitrary size from a small set of tiles according to the tile substitution algorithm that generates them. Enabling coordinated hierarchical assembly in the aTAM makes possible the efficient encoding of the recursive process of tile substitution.

  10. Microscopic observation of laser glazed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morks, M. F.; Berndt, C. C.; Durandet, Y.; Brandt, M.; Wang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are frequently used as insulation system for hot components in gas-turbine, combustors and power plant industries. The corrosive gases which come from combustion of low grade fuels can penetrate into the TBCs and reach the metallic components and bond coat and cause hot corrosion and erosion damage. Glazing the top coat by laser beam is advanced approach to seal TBCs surface. The laser beam has the advantage of forming a dense thin layer composed of micrograins. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating was glazed with Nd-YAG laser at different operating conditions. The surface morphologies, before and after laser treatment, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Laser beam assisted the densification of the surface by remelting a thin layer of the exposed surface. The laser glazing converted the rough surface of TBCs into smooth micron-size grains with size of 2-9 μm and narrow grain boundaries. The glazed surfaces showed higher Vickers hardness compared to as-sprayed coatings. The results revealed that the hardness increases as the grain size decreases.

  11. [Adhesion of oral microorganisms on dental porcelain polished and glazed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-ning; Wen, Guo-jiang; Shi, Bin; Pan, Xin-hua

    2003-09-01

    This study compared the roughness of porcelain polished or glazed surfaces and the adhesion of oral streptococcus mutans to them in vitro. 30 porcelain samples were made. Porcelain samples in group A were polished with diamond paste. Porcelain samples were glazed in group B and were polished with Al2O3 (240#) bur in group C. Their roughness values were measured by profilometer. Standardized cell suspensions were incubated with test samples for one hour at 37 degrees C, then retained cells were counted by image analysis (percentage area of a microscopic field covered by cells). Roughness values of group A, B, C were respectively (0.1987 +/- 0.057) microm, (0.1990 +/- 0.091) microm, (0.4260 +/- 0.174) microm. There was no significantly difference between group A and group B. The roughness samples in group C were significantly rougher than that in the other groups. The amount of retained cells in group A, group B, group C was respectively (15.92 +/- 4.37)%, (16.39 +/- 6.31)% and (41.48 +/- 12.1)%. There was no significant difference between the cell adhesion on porcelain surface glazed and polished, but more bacteria adhered on the porcelain surface in group C. Porcelain surface polished treatment was clinically acceptable compared with its glazed. They all exhibited the least amount of bacteria adhesion. The more porcelain surface was rough, the more bacteria adhered on it.

  12. Micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of polychrome lead-glazed Portuguese faiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, A.; Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M.L.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Coroado, J.

    2010-01-01

    Several glazed ceramic pieces, originally produced in Coimbra (Portugal), were submitted to elemental analysis, having as premise the pigment manufacture production recognition. Although having been produced in Coimbra, their location changed as time passed due to historical reasons. A recent exhibition in Coimbra brought together a great number of these pieces and in situ micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF) analyses were performed in order to achieve some chemical and physical data on the manufacture of faiences in Coimbra. A non-commercial μ-EDXRF equipment for in situ analysis was employed in this work, carrying some important improvements when compared to the conventional ones, namely, analyzing spot sizes of about 100 μm diameter. The combination of a capillary X-ray lens with a new generation of low power microfocus X-ray tube and a drift chamber detector enabled a portable unit for micro-XRF with a few tens of μm lateral resolution. The advantages in using a portable system emphasized with polycapillary optics enabled to distinguish proximal different pigmented areas, as well as the glaze itself. These first scientific results on the pigment analysis of the collection of faiences seem to point to a unique production center with own techniques and raw materials. This conclusion arose with identification of the blue pigments having in its constitution Mn, Fe Co and As and the yellows as a result of the combination between Pb and Sb. A statistical treatment was used to reveal groups of similarities on the pigments elemental profile.

  13. The influence of coal bottom ash and tincal (boron mineral) additions on the physical and microstructures of ceramic bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayca, S.U.; Batar, T.; Sayin, E.; Solak, O.; Kahraman, B. [Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey). Soma Vocational School

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of coal bottom ash and tincal additions on the physical properties and microstructures of the standard wall tile body composition was investigated. Water absorption, fang strength, dry and fired shrinkage tests of the incorporated ceramic bodies and reference body were done. Microstructures of sintered tiles were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that tincal additions to the ceramic body improved the physical properties of the tiles. As a result, tincal can be used as a flux material in the ceramic bodies due to its favorable effects on the water absorption and fired strength. The results revealed that bottom ash can be used in the ceramic tile body composition. When bottom ash was used in the ceramic industry, environmental hazards of bottom ash are inhibited. Furthermore, bottom ash is transformed to an economic product.

  14. Conceptual design for a bulk tungsten divertor tile in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Ph.; Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Neubauer, O.; Pintsuk, G.; Philipps, V.; Sadakov, S.; Samm, U.; Schweer, B.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER-like Wall project (ILW) for JET aims at providing the plasma chamber of the tokamak with an environment of mixed materials which will be relevant for the actual first wall construction on ITER. Tungsten plays a key role in the divertor cladding. For the central tile, also called LB-SRP for 'load-bearing septum replacement plate', bulk tungsten is envisaged in order to cope with the high heat loads expected (up to 10 MW/m 2 for 10 s). The outer strike-point in the divertor will be positioned on this tile for the most relevant configurations. Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) has developed a conceptual design based on an assembly of tungsten blades or lamellae. An appropriate interface with the base carrier of JET, on which modules of two tiles are positioned and fixed by remote handling procedures, is a substantial part of the integral design. Important issues are the electromagnetic forces and expected temperature distributions. Material choices combine tungsten, TZM TM , Inconel and ceramic parts. The completed design has been finalised in a proposal to the ILW project, with utmost ITER-relevance

  15. Fireplace insert and its parameters depend on the used glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papučík, Štefan; Čaja, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The contribution deals with the analysis of the impact of using double glass to change the performance and emission parameters of the fireplace insert. Conventional fireplace inserts are equipped with heat-resistant glass, which is resistant to high temperatures. For this type of inserts are required to be radiant constituent maximized. Prevailing part of heat is into the interior gets just by radiation through the glazed part. The hot water fireplace inserts is the requirement that the radiant constituent to the environment to a minimum. Therefore, instead of a single glass using double glazing which is intended to reduce this part of heat transfer. The temperature in the furnace is increased, and transmitted most of the heat into the water.

  16. Lava ultimate resin nano ceramic for CAD/ CAM: customization case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, M; Arnetzl, G V; Holly, L; Arnetzl, G

    2012-01-01

    Lava Ultimate Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) blocks are innovative new CAD/CAM materials that make it possible to achieve superior esthetic results in easy steps. The blocks are made of nano ceramic particles embedded in a highly cured resin matrix. Therefore, composite materials can be used to characterize and adjust resin nano ceramic restorations after milling. The milled RNC restorations can be individualized intra-orally or extra-orally, either before or after insertion. Unlike conventional ceramic restorations, customization and glaze firing is neither necessary nor possible with RNC restorations. This opens up the opportunity for intraoral individualization and adaptation of the restorations.

  17. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, Nor Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  18. Development of high-density ceramic composites for ballistic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupert, N.L.; Burkins, M.S.; Gooch, W.A.; Walz, M.J.; Levoy, N.F.; Washchilla, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    The application of ceramic composites for ballistic application has been generally developed with ceramics of low density, between 2.5 and 4.5 g/cm 2 . These materials have offered good performance in defeating small-caliber penetrators, but can suffer time-dependent degradation effects when thicker ceramic tiles are needed to defeat modem, longer, heavy metal penetrators that erode rather than break up. This paper addresses the ongoing development, fabrication procedures, analysis, and ballistic evaluation of thinner, denser ceramics for use in armor applications. Nuclear Metals Incorporated (NMI) developed a process for the manufacture of depleted uranium (DU) ceramics. Samples of the ceramics have been supplied to the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) as part of an unfunded cooperative study agreement. The fabrication processes used, characterization of the ceramic, and a ballistic comparison between the DU-based ceramic with baseline Al 2 O 3 will be presented

  19. TileDCS web system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maidantchik, C; Ferreira, F; Grael, F

    2010-01-01

    The web system described here provides features to monitor the ATLAS Detector Control System (DCS) acquired data. The DCS is responsible for overseeing the coherent and safe operation of the ATLAS experiment hardware. In the context of the Hadronic Tile Calorimeter Detector (TileCal), it controls the power supplies of the readout electronics acquiring voltages, currents, temperatures and coolant pressure measurements. The physics data taking requires the stable operation of the power sources. The TileDCS Web System retrieves automatically data and extracts the statistics for given periods of time. The mean and standard deviation outcomes are stored as XML files and are compared to preset thresholds. Further, a graphical representation of the TileCal cylinders indicates the state of the supply system of each detector drawer. Colors are designated for each kind of state. In this way problems are easier to find and the collaboration members can focus on them. The user selects a module and the system presents detailed information. It is possible to verify the statistics and generate charts of the parameters over the time. The TileDCS Web System also presents information about the power supplies latest status. One wedge is colored green whenever the system is on. Otherwise it is colored red. Furthermore, it is possible to perform customized analysis. It provides search interfaces where the user can set the module, parameters, and the time period of interest. The system also produces the output of the retrieved data as charts, XML files, CSV and ROOT files according to the user's choice.

  20. Lead poisoning from drinking Kombucha tea brewed in a ceramic pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T G; Estell, J; Duggin, G; Beer, I; Smith, D; Ferson, M J

    Kombucha tea is an alternative therapy that is gaining popularity as a remedy for a diverse range of ailments. We report two cases of symptomatic lead poisoning requiring chelation therapy in a married couple who had been drinking Kombucha tea for six months, brewing the tea in a ceramic pot. We postulate that acids in the tea eluted lead from the glaze pigment used in the ceramic pot, in a manner analogous to elution of lead from crystal decanters by wine and spirits.

  1. Relative translucency of six all-ceramic systems. Part II: core and veneer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Michael J; Aquilino, Steven A; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Haselton, Debra R; Stanford, Clark M; Vargas, Marcos A

    2002-07-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM All-ceramic core materials with various strengthening compositions have a range of translucencies. It is unknown whether translucency differs when all-ceramic materials are fabricated similarly to the clinical restoration with a veneered core material. This study compared the translucency of 6 all-ceramic materials veneered and glazed at clinically appropriate thicknesses. Core specimens (n = 5 per group) of Empress dentin, Empress 2 dentin, In-Ceram Alumina, In-Ceram Spinell, In-Ceram Zirconia, and Procera AllCeram were fabricated as described in Part I of this study and veneered with their corresponding dentin porcelain to a final thickness of 1.47 +/- 0.01 mm. These specimens were compared with veneered Vitadur Alpha opaque dentin (as a standard), a clear glass disc (positive control), and a high-noble metal-ceramic alloy (Porc. 52 SF) veneered with Vitadur Omega dentin (negative control). Specimen reflectance was measured with an integrating sphere attached to a spectrophotometer across the visible spectrum (380 to 700 nm); 0-degree illumination and diffuse viewing geometry were used. Measurements were repeated after a glazing cycle. Contrast ratios were calculated from the luminous reflectance (Y) of the specimens with a black (Yb) and a white backing (Yw) to give Yb/Yw with CIE illuminant D65 and a 2-degree observer function (0.0 = transparent, 1.0 = opaque). One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple-comparison test were used to analyze the data (P<.05). Significant differences in contrast ratios were found among the ceramic systems tested when they were veneered (P<.0001) and after the glazing cycle (P<.0001). Significant changes in contrast ratios (P<.0001) also were identified when the veneered specimens were glazed. Within the limitations of this study, a range of translucency was identified in the veneered all-ceramic systems tested. Such variability may affect their ability to match natural teeth. The glazing cycle resulted

  2. The effects of different polishing techniques on the staining resistance of CAD/CAM resin-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Tevfik; Demirci, Gamze; Sagsoz, Nurdan Polat; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purposes of this study were to evaluate the staining resistance of CAD/CAM resin-ceramics polished with different techniques and to determine the effectiveness of the polishing techniques on resin-ceramics, comparing it with that of a glazed glass-ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four different CAD/CAM ceramics (feldspathic ceramic: C-CEREC Blocs, (SIRONA) and three resin-ceramics: L-Lava Ultimate, (3M ESPE), E-Enamic, (VITA) and CS-CeraSmart, (GC)) and one light cure composite resin: ME-Clearfil Majesty Esthetic (Kuraray) were used. Only C samples were glazed (gl). Other restorations were divided into four groups according to the polishing technique: nonpolished control group (c), a group polished with light cure liquid polish (Biscover LV BISCO) (bb), a group polished with ceramic polishing kit (Diapol, EVE) (cd), and a group polished with composite polishing kit (Clearfil Twist Dia, Kuraray) (kc). Glazed C samples and the polished samples were further divided into four subgroups and immersed into different solutions: distilled water, tea, coffee, and fermented black carrot juice. Eight samples (8 × 8 × 1 mm) were prepared for each subgroup. According to CIELab system, four color measurements were made: before immersion, immersion after 1 day, after 1 week, and after 1 month. Data were analyzed with repeated measures of ANOVA (α=.05). RESULTS The highest staining resistance was found in gl samples. There was no difference among gl, kc and cd (P>.05). Staining resistance of gl was significantly higher than that of bb (PCeramic and composite polishing kits can be used for resin ceramics as a counterpart of glazing procedure used for full ceramic materials. Liquid polish has limited indications for resin ceramics. PMID:28018558

  3. Comparative Study of Single-glazed and Double-glazed Windows in Terms of Energy Efficiency and Economic Expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Forughian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saving fossil fuels and the use of clean sources of energy lead to reduce in building operating costs, protect the environment and people's health. Windows are the most vulnerable part of building where energy loss occurs. Double-glazed windows are very effective in keeping inside temperature isolated from outside; thereby, saving electrical and thermal energy. The current study estimates the numerical changes in cooling and heating load in case of replacement double-glazed window with single-glazed window and calculates saving level for this replacement. In this context, this paper presents a model of real samples taken in Mashhad climate. To ensure the accuracy of the simulation results, real results were compared with electricity and gas bills. To calculate energy related parameters such as cooling load, heating load, the consumption of gas and electricity, the energy simulation software (Design Builder was used. The research method was a quantitative analysis based on energy consumption modeling, associated with building windows which comes in four sections. The field study was also used to compare with real electricity and gas bills. As the first stage, samples of the plan were identified, based on the observation of climate models and library studies. Then, simulation parameters such as window materials and internal and external walls were considered. The simulation was performed based software’s parameters and model limitations were determined based on thermal, lighting, climatic and architectural parameters. Finally, the experimental and practical data were used to determine the validity of the model under Mashhad climate conditions. Overall, the results indicated that double-glazed windows could save 50% of entire building loads, 0.2% on power consumption, 16.2% on gas and 12.4% on overall households’ energy consumption.

  4. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Pottery, Ceramic and Glasswares Produced in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M.I.; Reaz, Rafia; Kamal, M.; Alam, M.N.; Mustafa, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured using gamma spectrometry in the finished products of pottery, glass, ceramic and tiles. Ceramic and pottery utensils, tiles, basin and glassware contained naturally occurring radionuclides. Pottery is produced from local clay materials, but ceramic, tiles, basin and glassware's are made from both local and imported raw materials. Radium and thorium radionuclides are concentrated during the making of pottery from the clay materials due to calcination. Radionuclides concentrated more in the highly calcined pottery products than the low calcined products. Glassware products contained very low quantities of radionuclides comparing with the ceramic and pottery products. Study on radioactivity in the pottery, ceramic and glassware products is important in the assessment of possible radiological hazards to human health. The knowledge is essential for the development of standards and guidelines for the use and management of these materials. (author)

  5. Characterization and evaluation of ceramic properties of clay used in structural ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, A.S.; Oliveira, J.N.; Della-Sagrillo, V.P.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    The clay used in the manufacture of structural ceramic products must meet quality requirements that are influenced by their chemical, physical, mineralogical and microstructural characteristics, which control the ceramic properties of the final products. This paper aims to characterize the clay used in the manufacture of ceramic roof tiles and bricks. The clay was characterized through XRF, XRD, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Atterberg limits and particle size distribution. Specimens were shaped, dried at 110°C, and burned at 900 deg C in an industrial kiln. After that, they were submitted to tests of water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density and flexural strength. The results show that the chemical composition of clay has significant amount of silica and alumina and adequate levels of kaolinite for use in structural ceramic. The ceramic properties evaluated in the specimens partially meet the requirements of the Brazilian standard-clays for structural ceramics. (author)

  6. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's outermost radial layer can assist in muon tagging in the Level-1 Muon Trigger by rejecting fake muon triggers due to slow charged particles (typically protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The main activity of the Tile-Muon Trigger in the ATLAS Phase-0 upgrade program was to install and to activate the TileCal signal processor module for providing trigger inputs to the Level-1 Muon Trigger. This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger, focusing on the new detector electronics such as the Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) that receives, digitizes and then provides the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap Sector-Logic Boards.

  7. Programmable DNA tile self-assembly using a hierarchical sub-tile strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolong; Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhiyu; Pan, Linqiang; Cui, Guangzhao; Xu, Jin; LaBean, Thomas H

    2014-02-21

    DNA tile based self-assembly provides a bottom-up approach to construct desired nanostructures. DNA tiles have been directly constructed from ssDNA and readily self-assembled into 2D lattices and 3D superstructures. However, for more complex lattice designs including algorithmic assemblies requiring larger tile sets, a more modular approach could prove useful. This paper reports a new DNA 'sub-tile' strategy to easily create whole families of programmable tiles. Here, we demonstrate the stability and flexibility of our sub-tile structures by constructing 3-, 4- and 6-arm DNA tiles that are subsequently assembled into 2D lattices and 3D nanotubes according to a hierarchical design. Assembly of sub-tiles, tiles, and superstructures was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. DNA tile self-assembly methods provide a bottom-up approach to create desired nanostructures; the sub-tile strategy adds a useful new layer to this technique. Complex units can be made from simple parts. The sub-tile approach enables the rapid redesign and prototyping of complex DNA tile sets and tiles with asymmetric designs.

  8. Thermal performance of a room with a double glazing window using glazing available in Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.O.; Xamán, J.; Olazo-Gómez, Y.; Hernández-López, I.; Becerra, G.; Jaramillo, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal evaluation of a Room coupled with different types of Double Glazing Window (DGW) is analyzed. • Four cases were simulated: Case 1: DGW (clear); Case 2: DGW (absorbent), Case 3: DGW (Low-e) and Case 4: DGW (reflective). • Case 4 presents the better energy saving of all cases analyzed, ∼73% lower than Case 1. • Cases 2 and 3 have a similar thermal behavior, almost 34% less than Case 1. • The global balance costs indicate that Case 4 is the better option for energy saving in warm climate. • Case 4 allows us to save up to $20.29 USD per kW h in a year in comparison to Case 1. - Abstract: A thermal evaluation of a four configurations of double glass window (DGW) coupling to a room is presented. The DGW consists of two vertical semitransparent walls separated by a 12 mm air gap. The effect of varying the ambient temperature and the incident solar radiation in the warm climate conditions in México is analyzed. Numerical simulations were conducted for four configurations; Case 1: clear glass + air gap + clear glass (Reference); Case 2: clear glass + air gap + absorbent glass; Case 3: clear glass + air gap + Low-e glass; and Case 4: clear glass + air gap + reflective glass. Optical transmittance and specular reflectance were measured individually and in one sample piece for each case. The results showed that Case 4 reduces the heat flux to the indoors by up to 73%, with respect to Case 1. Moreover, Cases 2 and 3 had a similar behavior, obtaining a reduction of indoor heat flow close to 33.5% with respect to Case 1. Case 4 is the best option for energy savings in a warm climate, where it is possible to save up to $20.29 USD per kW h per year, in comparison to Case 1. In addition, the payback period for Case 4 is 3.7 years. Therefore, the use of reflective double pane window is highly recommended in Mexican warm climates.

  9. Glazed clay pottery and lead exposure in Mexico: Current experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristán-López, Luis Antonio; Medrano-Gómez, Karen Itzel; Torres-Domínguez, Juan Alejandro; Ríos, Camilo; Montes, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Lead exposure remains a significant environmental problem; lead is neurotoxic, especially in developing humans. In Mexico, lead in human blood is still a concern. Historically, much of the lead exposure is attributed to the use of handcrafted clay pottery for cooking, storing and serving food. However, experimental cause-and-effect demonstration is lacking. The present study explores this issue with a prospective experimental approach. We used handcrafted clay containers to prepare and store lemonade, which was supplied as drinking water to pregnant rats throughout the gestational period. We found that clay pots, jars, and mugs leached on average 200 µg/l lead, and exposure to the lemonade resulted in 2.5 µg/dl of lead in the pregnant rats' blood. Neonates also showed increased lead content in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Caspase-3 activity was found to be statistically increased in the hippocampus in prenatally exposed neonates, suggesting increased apoptosis in that brain region. Glazed ceramics are still an important source of lead exposure in Mexico, and our results confirm that pregnancy is a vulnerable period for brain development.

  10. A Novel Electro-Thermal Laminated Ceramic with Carbon-Based Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel electro-thermal laminated ceramic composed of ceramic tile, carbon-based layer, dielectric layer, and foaming ceramic layer was designed and prepared by tape casting. The surface temperature achieved at an applied voltage of 10 V by the laminated ceramics was 40.3 °C when the thickness of carbon-based suspension was 1.0 mm and the adhesive strength between ceramic tile and carbon-based layer was 1.02 ± 0.06 MPa. In addition, the thermal aging results at 100 °C up to 192 h confirmed the high thermal stability and reliability of the electro-thermal laminated ceramics. The development of this laminated ceramic with excellent electro-thermal properties and safety provides a new individual heating device which is highly expected to be widely applied in the field of indoor heat supply.

  11. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; Valero, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor (TilePPr) demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Demonstrator Project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived for receiving and processing the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as for configur...

  12. OPTIMIZATION-BASED APPROACH TO TILING OF FINITE AREAS WITH ARBITRARY SETS OF WANG TILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tyburec

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wang tiles proved to be a convenient tool for the design of aperiodic tilings in computer graphics and in materials engineering. While there are several algorithms for generation of finite-sized tilings, they exploit the specific structure of individual tile sets, which prevents their general usage. In this contribution, we reformulate the NP-complete tiling generation problem as a binary linear program, together with its linear and semidefinite relaxations suitable for the branch and bound method. Finally, we assess the performance of the established formulations on generations of several aperiodic tilings reported in the literature, and conclude that the linear relaxation is better suited for the problem.

  13. Uranium compounds in ceramic enamels-radioactivity analysis and use hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchi, G.; Amadesi, P.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was made of the radioactivity of enamel samples, containing depleted Uranium and Uranium ore, such as employed by the ceramic industry to produce paving and lining tiles. An investigation was also made of various types of tiles with depleted Uranium containing enamels, in order to evaluate the use hazard for dwelling houses, in particular in regard to the wear of tiled floors by children as a critical group. The risk to the population due to the use of tiles dyed with enamel containing depleted Uranium was considered an undue risk and as such not permissible. (U.K.)

  14. Study of the adherence between polymer-modified mortars and porcelain stoneware tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Etuko Feuzicana de Souza Almeida

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the excellent characteristics of porcelain tiles, their application on building facades requires special attention, since this material differs from conventional ceramics and because facades are exposed to weathering that can damage ceramic revetments. The combination of polymer and silica fume to produce mortars results in excellent properties, which are ideal for repairs and revetments requiring high performance. Such improvements justify its study for the installation of porcelain tiles. This article presents bond strength results for mortars containing different amounts of polymer and silica indicating the applicability of these mortars as a construction material. To complement this study, the interface between the porcelain and the mortars was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  15. Determination of radon exhalation rates from tiles using active and passive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation rates for selected samples of tiles used in Saudi Arabia were carried out using active and passive measuring techniques. These samples were granite, marble and ceramic. In the active method, a PC-based radon gas analyzer with emanation container was used, while, in the passive method, PM-355 nuclear track detectors with the 'can technique' were applied for 180 days. A comparison of the exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a good linear correlation coefficient of 0.7. The granite samples showed an average radon exhalation rate of 0.7 Bq m -2 h -1 , which was higher than that of marble and ceramic by more than twofold. The radon exhalation rates measured by the 'can technique' showed a non-uniform exhalation from the surface of the same tile

  16. Determination of radon exhalation rates from tiles using active and passive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2001-06-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation rates for selected samples of tiles used in Saudi Arabia were carried out using active and passive measuring techniques. These samples were granite, marble and ceramic. In the active method, a PC-based radon gas analyzer with emanation container was used, while, in the passive method, PM-355 nuclear track detectors with the 'can technique' were applied for 180 days. A comparison of the exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a good linear correlation coefficient of 0.7. The granite samples showed an average radon exhalation rate of 0.7 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, which was higher than that of marble and ceramic by more than twofold. The radon exhalation rates measured by the 'can technique' showed a non-uniform exhalation from the surface of the same tile.

  17. Geometrical tile design for complex neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizler, Eugen; Kari, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has showed that tile systems are one of the most suitable theoretical frameworks for the spatial study and modeling of self-assembly processes, such as the formation of DNA and protein oligomeric structures. A Wang tile is a unit square, with glues on its edges, attaching to other tiles and forming larger and larger structures. Although quite intuitive, the idea of glues placed on the edges of a tile is not always natural for simulating the interactions occurring in some real systems. For example, when considering protein self-assembly, the shape of a protein is the main determinant of its functions and its interactions with other proteins. Our goal is to use geometric tiles, i.e., square tiles with geometrical protrusions on their edges, for simulating tiled paths (zippers) with complex neighborhoods, by ribbons of geometric tiles with simple, local neighborhoods. This paper is a step toward solving the general case of an arbitrary neighborhood, by proposing geometric tile designs that solve the case of a "tall" von Neumann neighborhood, the case of the f-shaped neighborhood, and the case of a 3 x 5 "filled" rectangular neighborhood. The techniques can be combined and generalized to solve the problem in the case of any neighborhood, centered at the tile of reference, and included in a 3 x (2k + 1) rectangle.

  18. Principal minors and rhombus tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, Richard; Pemantle, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic relations between the principal minors of a generic n × n matrix are somewhat mysterious, see e.g. Lin and Sturmfels (2009 J. Algebra 322 4121–31). We show, however, that by adding in certain almost principal minors, the ideal of relations is generated by translations of a single relation, the so-called hexahedron relation, which is a composition of six cluster mutations. We give in particular a Laurent-polynomial parameterization of the space of n × n matrices, whose parameters consist of certain principal and almost principal minors. The parameters naturally live on vertices and faces of the tiles in a rhombus tiling of a convex 2n-gon. A matrix is associated to an equivalence class of tilings, all related to each other by Yang–Baxter-like transformations. By specializing the initial data we can similarly parameterize the space of Hermitian symmetric matrices over R,C or H the quaternions. Moreover by further specialization we can parametrize the space of positive definite matrices over these rings. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras mathematical physics’. (paper)

  19. Ceramic applications in the advanced Stirling automotive engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.; Cairelli, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements of the ideal Stirling cycle, as well as basic types of practical engines are described. Advantages, disadvantages, and problem areas of these Stirling engines are discussed. The potential for ceramic components is also considered. Currently ceramics are used in only two areas, the air preheater and insulating tiles between the burner and the heater head. For the advanced Stirling engine to achieve high efficiency and low cost, the principal components are expected to be made from ceramic materials, including the heater head, air preheater, regenerator, the burner and the power piston. Supporting research and technology programs for ceramic component development are briefly described.

  20. Functionally Graded Materials using Plasma Spray with Nano Structured Ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioh, E L; Tok, A I Y

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, nano structured FGM was fabricated using DC plasma spray technique. Nano structured and micro structured powder were used as the feeding powder with steel substrate. The spray parameters was optimized and characterisation of nano-ceramic FGM and micro-ceramic FGM were done using bending test and micro-hardness test. Experimental results have shown that the nano-structured FGM exhibit 20% improvement flexure strength and 10% in hardness. A comparison was made between sintered micro ceramic tile and nano ceramic FGM using simple drop test method.

  1. Programmable DNA tile self-assembly using a hierarchical sub-tile strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xiaolong; Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhiyu; Pan, Linqiang; Cui, Guangzhao; Xu, Jin; LaBean, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    DNA tile based self-assembly provides a bottom-up approach to construct desired nanostructures. DNA tiles have been directly constructed from ssDNA and readily self-assembled into 2D lattices and 3D superstructures. However, for more complex lattice designs including algorithmic assemblies requiring larger tile sets, a more modular approach could prove useful. This paper reports a new DNA ‘sub-tile’ strategy to easily create whole families of programmable tiles. Here, we demonstrate the stability and flexibility of our sub-tile structures by constructing 3-, 4- and 6-arm DNA tiles that are subsequently assembled into 2D lattices and 3D nanotubes according to a hierarchical design. Assembly of sub-tiles, tiles, and superstructures was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. DNA tile self-assembly methods provide a bottom-up approach to create desired nanostructures; the sub-tile strategy adds a useful new layer to this technique. Complex units can be made from simple parts. The sub-tile approach enables the rapid redesign and prototyping of complex DNA tile sets and tiles with asymmetric designs. (paper)

  2. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ten, J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flowability to that of spraydried powders. The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,… changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la viabilidad de fabricar gres porcelánico esmaltado utilizando un sistema de preparación de la composición del soporte más respetuoso con el medio ambiente, lo que implica una reducción importante de los consumos de agua y de energía térmica. El proceso que se estudia en el presente trabajo es el consistente en la molienda vía seca en molino pendular y en la posterior granulación (para obtener un polvo de prensas con fluidez similar a la de los polvos atomizados. La distinta morfología de los nuevos gránulos obtenidos respecto al polvo atomizado actual, modifica la microestuctura en crudo de las piezas y, con ello, el comportamiento y propiedades finales de las baldosas obtenidas. Por ello, ha sido necesario

  3. High level leaching of heavy metals from colorful ceramic foodwares: a potential risk to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderemi, Taiwo Adedoyin; Adenuga, Adeniyi Abiodun; Oyekunle, John Adekunle Oyedele; Ogunfowokan, Aderemi Okunola

    2017-07-01

    Ceramic foodwares are among the products used by people on daily basis without being cautious of exposures to heavy metals through possible leaching from the glaze ceramics. This study investigated the levels of heavy metals found in some commonly used ceramic foodwares in Nigeria with the aim of determining levels of human exposures through the use of the ceramics. To achieve this, acid digestion was carried out for the total metal concentrations and leaching tests were done using 4% acetic acid as a leaching agent. Metal concentrations were quantified using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXES) analysis. All the ceramic foodwares studied were found to contain varied amounts of heavy metals in their glazes, with concentrations in the range of 26.45-2071.46, 5.20-547.00, 1.24-2681.02, 2590.00-8848.40, 6.42-654.66, 112.69-649.95, 63.38-2518.51, and 3786.51-8249.44 μg g -1 for Pb, Cd, Zn, As, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Fe, respectively. Concentrations of the metals leached from the ceramics were in the range of 0.11-0.97, 0.01-0.28, 0.00-4.19, 1.93-15.00, 0.01-0.41, 0.09-0.60, 0.01-2.14, and 0.01-11.53 mgL -1 for Pb, Cd, Zn, As, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Fe, respectively. Comparing the ratio of the metals leached from the ceramic wares with those of the metal oxides in the ceramics, it was noticeable that not all the metals detected in the ceramic samples were domiciled in the glaze but in the clay materials used for the ceramics.

  4. What makes environmental performance differ between firms? Empirical evidence from the Spanish tile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés J Picazo-Tadeo; Andrés García-Reche

    2007-01-01

    Environmental performance is a matter of major concern both for policy makers and for firm managers. In this paper we interpret firms’ environmental performance as their ability to reduce polluting wastes while maintaining observed levels of inputs and desirable outputs. Making use of data envelopment analysis techniques, we compute waste-specific environmental efficiency measures for a sample of ceramic-tile producers located in the eastern Spanish region of Valencia. Our results show that t...

  5. Orthodontic bracket bonding to glazed full-contour zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Kwak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the effects of different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to glazed full-zirconia surfaces. Materials and Methods Glazed zirconia (except for the control, Zirkonzahn Prettau disc surfaces were pre-treated: PO (control, polishing; BR, bur roughening; PP, cleaning with a prophy cup and pumice; HF, hydrofluoric acid etching; AA, air abrasion with aluminum oxide; CJ, CoJet-Sand. The surfaces were examined using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, and electron dispersive spectroscopy. A zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus, Z or a silane primer (Monobond-S, S was then applied to the surfaces, yielding 7 groups (PO-Z, BR-Z, PP-S, HF-S, AA-S, AA-Z, and CJ-S. Metal bracket-bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 hr at 37℃, and thermocycled for 1,000 cycles. Their bond strengths were measured using the wire loop method (n = 10. Results Except for BR, the surface pre-treatments failed to expose the zirconia substructure. A significant difference in bond strengths was found between AA-Z (4.60 ± 1.08 MPa and all other groups (13.38 ± 2.57 - 15.78 ± 2.39 MPa, p < 0.05. For AA-Z, most of the adhesive remained on the bracket. Conclusions For bracket bonding to glazed zirconia, a simple application of silane to the cleaned surface is recommended. A zirconia primer should be used only when the zirconia substructure is definitely exposed.

  6. Análise da expansão por umidade e absorção de água de pisos cerâmicos comerciais em relação à composição química e à quantidade estimada de fase vítrea Analysis of moisture expansion and water absorption of commercial ceramic tiles in relation with chemical composition and estimated glassy phase content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Expansão por umidade (EPU é o aumento das dimensões do corpo cerâmico devido à adsorção de água, podendo ter grande influência na vida útil dos materiais cerâmicos. Este trabalho tem por objetivo relacionar a EPU e a absorção de água de pisos cerâmicos comerciais, com a sua composição química e a quantidade estimada de fase vítrea, calculada utilizando-se o diagrama de equilíbrio de fases do sistema SiO2.Al2O3.K2 O e a regra da alavanca. Foram estudadas amostras de vinte e três tipos de pisos cerâmicos comerciais. Foi realizada a análise química das amostras (via úmida e determinada a sua EPU e absorção de água (ensaios realizados de acordo com a norma Brasileira NBR 13818. Foi também determinada a área superficial específica de algumas amostras por adsorção de nitrogênio (BET. Os resultados obtidos mostram genericamente uma proporcionalidade inversa entre a EPU e a absorção de água, para a maioria das amostras, e a análise utilizando o diagrama de fases sugere uma relação decrescente entre a absorção de água e a quantidade estimada de fase vítrea, e uma relação crescente entre a EPU e a quantidade estimada de fase vítrea.Moisture expansion is the size increase of the ceramic body due to water adsorption and can have a great influence in the ceramic material service life. This work aims to relate the moisture expansion and water absorption of commercial ceramic tiles with their chemical composition and estimated glassy phase content, calculated from the phase equilibrium diagram of the system SiO2.Al2O3.K2 O using the lever rule. Samples of twenty three commercial ceramic tiles were studied. The chemical composition of the samples was obtained (wet route and their moisture expansion and water absorption were determined (according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818. The specific surface area of some samples was also determined, using the nitrogen adsorption methodology (BET. The results obtained

  7. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  8. Intelligent Glazed Facades for Fulfilment of Future Energy Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2010-01-01

    This project aims at testing technologies for control of heat transfer, irradiation, mass transport and energy storage in order to investigate the potential of a intelligent dynamic glazed facade. Furthermore a development of algorithms for control of the technologies included in the facade......, for use in the design phase, is done. The methods used are initially based on thermal building calculations. This analysis shows that a dynamic adaptive facade is the only way in which future office buildings can fulfil the energy regulations. By designing the facade according to the usage...

  9. Tile Patterns with Logo--Part I: Laying Tile with Logo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clason, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a method for drawing periodic tile patterns using LOGO. Squares, triangles, hexagons, shape filling, and random tile laying are included. These activities incorporate problem solving, programing methods, and the geometry of angles and polygons. (KR)

  10. Fractal analysis of mandibular trabecular bone: optimal tile sizes for the tile counting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Baik, Jee-Seon; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sun-Bok; Lee, Seung-Pyo

    2011-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the optimal tile size for the fractal dimension of the mandibular trabecular bone using a tile counting method. Digital intraoral radiographic images were obtained at the mandibular angle, molar, premolar, and incisor regions of 29 human dry mandibles. After preprocessing, the parameters representing morphometric characteristics of the trabecular bone were calculated. The fractal dimensions of the processed images were analyzed in various tile sizes by the tile counting method. The optimal range of tile size was 0.132 mm to 0.396 mm for the fractal dimension using the tile counting method. The sizes were closely related to the morphometric parameters. The fractal dimension of mandibular trabecular bone, as calculated with the tile counting method, can be best characterized with a range of tile sizes from 0.132 to 0.396 mm.

  11. Utilization of Construction Waste Tiles as a Replacement for Fine Aggregates in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Adekunle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic wastes are found to be suitable for usage as substitution for fine and coarse aggregates in concrete production. This study is an investigation into the utilization of waste tiles as partial replacement for fine and coarse aggregates in concrete. The control mix and other mixes containing cement, water, granite and partial replacement for sand with crushed tiles (in 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% proportions were cast, cubed, cured and crushed. Also, another mix containing cement, water, sand and partial replacement of granite with crushed tiles (in 25%, 50% and 75% proportions were cast, cubed, cured and crushed. The specimens were tested for their respective compressive strengths using the Universal Testing Machine (UTM on the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days of curing. At 28 days, the compressive strength value of 5% of fine-waste tiles replacement was 20.12 N/mm2 while that of 10%, 15% and 20% were 14.24 N/mm2, 11.04 N/mm2 and 10.12 N/mm2 respectively. Moreover, at 28 days, the compressive strength of 25% of coarse-waste tiles replacement shows an increase to 22.45 N/mm2 while that of 50% and 75% were 18.4 N/mm2 and 12.2 N/mm2 respectively. Thus it can be concluded that fine aggregates can be substituted at 5% waste tiles while coarse aggregates can be substituted at 25% waste tiles.>/p>

  12. Experimental investigation of flame impingement on vertical and inclined glazing facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Michael

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Breakage and fallout of glazing systems create openings in an enclosure that affect the fire growth and the development of post flashover flames emerging outside of the openings. The behaviour of glazing is the result of its thermally induced stress response to the heat fluxes from the fire in an enclosure. In recent times building façade designs have evolved and now incorporate many different shapes, orientations and materials. The conventional single and double glazing panels have been surpassed by composite type glazing systems which include glazing and transparent resins. This paper presents experimental testing of these composite glazing panels subjected to localized fires, which have the same fire load. The effect of localized fire on the materials tested as seen in the final char patterns on both glazing systems is note-worthy. The paper also includes details of comparative calculations with EN 1991-1-2. Furthermore, results of detailed material analysis testing of the intermediate transparent resin within the glazing sandwich panels are included.

  13. TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

  14. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F.; Ferreira Machado, I.; Ferraria, A.M.; Casimiro, T.M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO 2 . All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  15. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F., E-mail: LuisFilipeVF@ist.utl.pt [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira Machado, I. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Technology and Design, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, P-7300-110 Portalegre (Portugal); Ferraria, A.M. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Casimiro, T.M. [Instituto de Arqueologia e Paleociências da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de História, Avenida de Berna 26-C, 1069-061 Lisboa (Portugal); Colomban, Ph. [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interaction et Réactivité, UMR7075 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie-Curie, Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, C49 batF, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-11-15

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO{sub 2}. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  16. [Chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of Jilan glaze of Ming and Qing official kilns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-ming; Zhang, Mao-lin; Li, Qi-jiang; Wu, Juan; Quan, Kui-shan; Cao, Jian-wen

    2012-08-01

    Color glazes of Ming and Qing official kilns are excellent representatives of the famous ancient Chinese porcelains. The study of official ware with Jilan glaze has been an important topic. But it made slow progress due to the rarity of samples with strict production management and using system. The recipes, chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of the Jilan samples excavated from official kilns in the Ming and Qing dynasties were first discussed by systematical testing with the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and color difference meter. The results showed that the porcelain stone content in Jilan bodies of official kiln in the Ming dynasty is higher than the samples of the Qing dynasty. The manganese content in Jilan glazes of the Ming dynasty is higher than that in the Qing dynasty, while the glaze ash addition and the lightness value in the glaze are opposite.

  17. Analytical analysis of solar thermal collector with glass and Fresnel lens glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifle, Idris; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz Hj; Othman, Mohd Yusof Hj; Ibarahim, Zahari

    2018-04-01

    Solar thermal collector is a system that converts solar radiation to heat. The heat will raise the temperature higher than the ambient temperature. Absorber and glazing are two important components in order to increase the temperature of the collector. The thermal absorber will release heat by convection and as radiation to the surrounding. These losses will be reduced by glazing. Other than that, glazing is beneficial for protecting the collector from dust and water. This study discusses about modelling of solar thermal collector effects of different mass flow rates with different glazing for V-groove flat plate solar collectors. The glazing used was the glass and linear Fresnel lens. Concentration ratio in this modelling was 1.3 for 0.1m solar collector thickness. Results show that solar collectors with linear Fresnel lens has the highest efficiency value of 71.18% compared to solar collectors with glass which has efficiency 54.10% with same operation conditions.

  18. Study of ceramic mixed boron element as a neutron shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Mustapha; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Md Fakarudin Ab Rahman; Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan; Samihah Mustaffha; Yusof Abdullah; Mohamad Rabaie Shari; Airwan Affandi Mahmood; Nurliyana Abdullah; Hearie Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Shielding upon radiation should not be underestimated as it can causes hazard to health. Precautions on the released of radioactive materials should be well concerned and considered. Therefore, the combination of ceramic and boron make them very useful for shielding purpose in areas of low and intermediate neutron. A six grades of ceramic tile have been produced namely IMN05 - 5 % boron, IMN06 - 6 % boron, IMN07 - 7 % boron, IMN08 - 8 % boron, IMN09 - 9 % boron, IMN10 - 10 % boron from mixing, press and sintered process. Boron is a material that capable of absorbing and capturing neutron, so that neutron and gamma test were conducted to analyze the effectiveness of boron material in combination with ceramic as shielding. From the finding, percent reduction number of count per minute shows the ceramic tiles are capable to capture neutron. Apart from all the percentage of boron used, 10 % is the most effective shields since the percent reduction indicating greater neutron captured increased. (author)

  19. Comfort Study of Office Buildings with Large Glazed Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Motuzienė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the buildings with large glazed areas the biggest problem is the space overheating during the warm season. This causes increased energy demand for cooling. The survey was carried out during the warm and cold seasons in two office buildings with large glazed areas. The methodology was prepared for evaluating indoor climate parameters using objective and subjective evaluation. The measurements have shown that there are problems with lighting in workplaces of both buildings during both the warm and cold seasons. The biggest problem is too dry air during the cold period, an acceptable temperature is also not always in the building No. 2. The survey has shown that some employees are dissatisfied with the indoor climate in the workplace, the bigger dissatisfaction is in building No. 2. Assessing according to the O. Fanger methodology was obtained that the number of PPD is in the normal range during the cold period, whereas close to the limit when the building can not be operated in the warm period.

  20. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 μm of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  1. A comparison of the marginal fit of In-Ceram, IPS Empress, and Procera crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, F; Chai, J; Jameson, L M; Wozniak, W T

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro marginal fit of three all-ceramic crown systems (In-Ceram, Procera, and IPS Empress) was compared. All crown systems were significantly different from each other at P = 0.05. In-Ceram exhibited the greatest marginal discrepancy (161 microns), followed by Procera (83 microns), and IPS Empress (63 microns). There were no significant differences among the various stages of the crown fabrication: core fabrication, porcelain veneering, and glazing. The facial and lingual margins exhibited significantly larger marginal discrepancies than the mesial and distal margins.

  2. Radiometric measurement of ceramic material moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kominek, A.; Sojka, J.; Votava, P.

    1975-01-01

    Water content measurement using a neutron moisture meter has a long tradition in the CSSR. The method of water content determination using neutron and gamma radiation was developed by the Research Institute of Building Materials in Brno for a number of materials, as e.g. coke, brown coal semi-coke, anthracite, glass sand, dolomite, soda, gravel, aggregates, cement sludge, slag, brick clay, intermediate products of the ceramics industry, refractory building materials, etc. The water content measurement of ceramic materials for the manufacture of wall tiles was performed in a special equipment by detection of the slowed-down neutrons with an accuracy of +-0.6% water (within the range from 5 to 11%) and of materials for the manufacture of floor tiles by means of neutron and gamma radiation with an accuracy of +-0.4% water (within the range from 5 to 8%). (author)

  3. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhov, Andrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's last radial layer can assist in muon tagging using Level-1 muon trigger. It can help in the rejection of fake muon triggers arising from background radiation (slow charged particles - protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The TileCal main activity for Phase-0 upgrade ATLAS program (2013-2014) was the activation of the TileCal third layer signal for assisting the muon trigger at 1.0<|η|<1.3 (Tile-Muon Trigger). This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger at TileCal upgrade activities, focusing on the new on-detector electronics such as Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) to provide (receive and digitize) the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap sector logic blocks.

  4. Status of the ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Short status of the Tile Calorimeter project is given. Major achievements in the mechanical construction of the detector modules, their instrumentation, cylinders assembly, as well as the principles of the detector front-end electronics, are described. The ideas of Tile Calorimeter module calibration are presented

  5. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  6. Investigating critical success factors in tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Salmani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine critical success factors influencing the success of tile industry in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among some experts in tile industry. Using Pearson correlation test, the study has detected that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between marketing planning and the success of tile industry (r = 0.312 Sig. = 0.001. However, there is not any meaningful relationship between low cost production and success of tile industry (r = 0.13 Sig. = 0.12 and, there is a positive and meaningful relationship between organizational capabilities and success of tile industry (r = 0.635 Sig. = 0.000. Finally, our investigation states that technology and distributing systems also influence on the success of tile industry, positively. The study has also used five regression analyses where the success of tile industry was the dependent variable and marketing planning, low cost production and organizational capabilities are independent variables and the results have confirmed some positive and meaningful relationship between the successes of tile industry with all independent variables.

  7. Tiling by rectangles and alternating current

    KAUST Repository

    Prasolov, M. V.; Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    This paper is on tilings of polygons by rectangles. A celebrated physical interpretation of such tilings by R.L. Brooks, C.A.B. Smith, A.H. Stone and W.T. Tutte uses direct-current circuits. The new approach of this paper is an application

  8. Influência da cinética de oxidação no controle da atmosfera de fornos de revestimentos cerâmicos Influence of the oxidation kinetics for control of the atmosphere of kilns for production of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cava

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available No processo de monoqueima para produção de revestimentos cerâmicos, o aparecimento do "coração negro" ocorre sob determinadas condições de matérias-primas utilizadas e parâmetros do processo industrial. Neste sentido, decidimos pesquisar os efeitos de uma atmosfera enriquecida com oxigênio para minimizar defeitos como o "coração negro", com o objetivo de reduzir o ciclo de queima. Foram realizadas uma completa caracterização física e química das matérias-primas utilizadas. Os corpos de prova foram queimados em um forno de laboratório tipo câmara, eletricamente aquecido, com controle de atmosfera, e simulação do processo de queima rápida. Fluxos de uma mistura de oxigênio e/ou misturas de oxigênio foram continuamente adicionados no forno por dois diferentes métodos. A tendência da eliminação do coração negro em função da atmosfera do forno foi avaliada pela medida da relação de volumes de coração negro e volume total da amostra. Os resultados, conforme o modelo proposto, mostram que o efeito da atmosfera enriquecida com oxigênio segue as equações determinadas pelos modelos cinéticos de reação de oxi-redução, que neste caso, determina a evolução da eliminação do defeito "coração negro" em função da atmosfera modificada com oxigênio introduzida no forno. Isto indica que além de melhorar a qualidade do produto final, pode-se aumentar a produtividade, reduzindo o ciclo de queima.In the single firing process for the production of ceramic tiles, the appearance of the "black core" defect occurs under determined conditions of raw materials and parameters of the industrial process. It was then decided to investigate the effects of an oxygen enriched atmosphere for minimizing the occurrence of defects such as "black core", with the goal of reducing the firing cycle. A complete physical and chemical characterization of the used raw materials was carried out. Raw material samples were fired in an

  9. Análise de coberturas com telhas de barro e alumínio, utilizadas em instalações animais para duas distintas alturas de pé-direito The analysis of ceramic tile and aluminum covers, used in animal facilities for two different foot-right heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Santos

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a análise de coberturas com telhas de barro e alumínio, comumente utilizadas em instalações animais, para duas distintas alturas de pé-direito, em condições de inverno no Brasil. O experimento foi realizado com modelos reduzidos de galpões avícolas, escala 1:10, e a análise foi feita quantificando-se a Carga Térmica de Radiação (CTR e o Índice de Temperatura de Globo Negro e Umidade (ITGU em diferentes horários, ao longo do período experimental. O experimento foi montado segundo um esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento em blocos casualizados. A interpretação estatística dos dados experimentais foi feita por meio da análise de variância e regressão. Para os fatores qualitativos (tipos de cobertura e pé-direito as médias foram comparadas utilizando-se o teste de Tukey e/ou F, adotando-se o nível de 5% de probabilidade; já para o fator quantitativo, os modelos foram escolhidos com base na significância dos coeficientes de regressão, utilizando-se o teste t em nível de 5% de probabilidade, o coeficiente de determinação e o fenômeno em estudo. Verificou-se, através deste experimento, que nas horas de frio mais intenso todas as coberturas causaram desconforto térmico e todos os protótipos tiveram UR acima do máximo tolerável para o conforto animal.This research had as objective the analysis of ceramic tiles and aluminum roof, commonly used in animal facilities, for two different heights, under Brazilian Winter conditions. The experiment used reduced models of poultry houses (scale 1:10 and the analysis was made by the values of Thermal Load of Radiation (TLR and of Black Globe and Humidity Index (BGHI, at different times along the experiment. The trial was conducted in randomized complete block design. The statistical interpretation of the experimental data was made through the variance and regression analysis. For the qualitative factors (roof types and height, the

  10. Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

    1992-11-01

    This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

  11. Confocal examination of subsurface cracking in ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etman, Maged K

    2009-10-01

    The original ceramic surface finish and its microstructure may have an effect on crack propagation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between crack propagation and ceramic microstructure following cyclic fatigue loading, and to qualitatively evaluate and quantitatively measure the surface and subsurface crack depths of three types of ceramic restorations with different microstructures using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Twenty (8 x 4 x 2 mm(3)) blocks of AllCeram (AC), experimental ceramic (EC, IPS e.max Press), and Sensation SL (SSL) were prepared, ten glazed and ten polished of each material. Sixty antagonist enamel specimens were made from the labial surfaces of permanent incisors. The ceramic abraders were attached to a wear machine, so that each enamel specimen presented at 45 degrees to the vertical movement of the abraders, and immersed in artificial saliva. Wear was induced for 80K cycles at 60 cycles/min with a load of 40 N and 2-mm horizontal deflection. The specimens were examined for cracks at baseline, 5K, 10K, 20K, 40K, and 80K cycles. Twenty- to 30-microm deep subsurface cracking appeared in SSL, with 8 to 10 microm in AC, and 7 microm close to the margin of the wear facets in glazed EC after 5K cycles. The EC showed no cracks with increasing wear cycles. Seventy-microm deep subsurface cracks were detected in SSL and 45 microm in AC after 80K cycles. Statistically, there was significant difference among the three materials (p 0.05) in crack depth within the same ceramic material with different surface finishes. The ceramic materials with different microstructures showed different patterns of subsurface cracking.

  12. Análise da co-utilização do resíduo do beneficiamento do caulim e serragem de granito para produção de blocos e telhas cerâmicos Analysis of the use of kaolin processing waste and granite sawing waste together for the production of ceramic bricks and roof tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes

    2007-06-01

    high amounts of wastes. This work has as aim the characterization of the kaolin processing waste and granite sawing waste and the evaluation of their use together for the production of bricks and roof tiles. The wastes were characterized by chemical composition determination, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and gravimetric analyses, particle size distribution determination, and morphological analysis by electronic scanning microscopy. Several formulations were prepared and samples bodies were prepared by extrusion. The sample bodies were fired at 800, 900 and 1000 ºC. Fired samples were characterized in terms of water absorption and mechanical strength. The results showed that the kaolin waste is composed by kaolinite, mica and quartz and that the granite waste is composed by quartz, mica, albite and calcite, and that, the wastes have significantly distinct particles size distributions. It could also be concluded that are possible incorporations of up to 50% of wastes in formulation for the production of ceramic bricks and roof tiles, and that, the use of the kaolin waste and granite waste together provide better physical properties than those observed in samples bodies with incorporations of only kaolin waste.

  13. Latest news from the Tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Costanzo, D

    The Tile hadronic calorimeter will be installed in the central region of ATLAS with an inner radius of 2.28 m, an outer radius of 4.25 m, a total length of about 12 m and a weight of about 2300 tons. The calorimeter is mechanically divided in one central barrel and two extended barrels, with a gap in between for the services of the internal part of ATLAS. The construction of the calorimeter is advanced, and installation in the ATLAS pit is foreseen to start in December 2003. After mechanical assembly the modules are instrumented with all the optical components. Scintillating tiles are inserted into the slots, and the read-out Wave Length Shifting fibers are coupled to scintillators and bundled to achieve the quasi-projective cell geometry of the calorimeter. The final modules are stored in bldg 185, shown in the first photo, and in bldg 175 at CERN. The barrel modules are mechanically assembled in Dubna and then transported to CERN to be optically instrumented, while the extended barrels are constructed in t...

  14. Photon CT scanning of advanced ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.D.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1987-02-01

    Advanced ceramic materials are being developed for high temperature applications in advanced heat engines and high temperature heat recovery systems. Small size flaws (10 - 200 μm) and small nonuniformities in density distributions (0.1 -2%) present as long-range density gradients, are critical in most ceramics and their detection is of crucial importance. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging provides a means of obtaining a precise two-dimensional density map of a cross section through an object from which accurate information about small flaws and small density gradients can be obtained. With the use of high energy photon sources high contrast CT images can be obtained for both low and high density ceramics. In the present paper we illustrate the applicability of the photon CT technique to the examination of advanced ceramics. CT images of sintered alumina tiles are presented from which data on high-density inclusions, cracks and density gradients have been extracted

  15. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00304670; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  16. Influence of Material Properties on the Ballistic Performance of Ceramics for Personal Body Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christian; Cronin, Duane; Worswick, Michael; Pageau, Gilles; Beth, Andre

    2003-01-01

    In support of improved personal armour development, depth of penetration tests have been conducted on four different ceramic materials including alumina, modified alumina, silicon carbide and boron carbide. These experiments consisted of impacting ceramic tiles bonded to aluminum cylinders with 0.50 caliber armour piercing projectiles. The results are presented in terms of ballistic efficiency, and the validity of using ballistic efficiency as a measure of ceramic performance was examined. In...

  17. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.) [pt

  18. Microbial deterioration of artistic tiles from the façade of the Grande Albergo Ausonia & Hungaria (Venice, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomucci, Lucia; Bertoncello, Renzo; Salvadori, Ornella; Martini, Ilaria; Favaro, Monica; Villa, Federica; Sorlini, Claudia; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    The Grande Albergo Ausonia & Hungaria (Venice Lido, Italy) has an Art Nouveau polychrome ceramic coating on its façade, which was restored in 2007. Soon after the conservation treatment, many tiles of the façade decoration showed coloured alterations putatively attributed to the presence of microbial communities. To confirm the presence of the biological deposit and the stratigraphy of the Hungaria tiles, stereomicroscope, optical and environmental scanning electron microscope observations were made. The characterisation of the microbial community was performed using a PCR-DGGE approach. This study reported the first use of a culture-independent approach to identify the total community present in biodeteriorated artistic tiles. The case study examined here reveals that the coloured alterations on the tiles were mainly due to the presence of cryptoendolithic cyanobacteria. In addition, we proved that the microflora present on the tiles was generally greatly influenced by the environment of the Hungaria hotel. We found several microorganisms related to the alkaline environment, which is in the range of the tile pH, and related to the aquatic environment, the presence of the acrylic resin Paraloid B72® used during the 2007 treatment and the pollutants of the Venice lagoon.

  19. LIMITS IN APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TO INNOVATIVE CERAMIC SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gres Porcelain stoneware is a ceramic with a compact, hard, coloured and non-porous body. It is largely used as building materials, for a quality architecture, offering high resistance to impact, stress, wear, scratching, frost, chemical attach and stains. It is produced in flat tiles, billions of tons per year. A very prominent technology, based on a pyroclastic deformation, permits to obtain bended porcelain tiles as innovative solutions for a modern architecture. This technology is grounded on a proper combination of heavy machining by cutting tools and secondary firing in a kiln. This new element, the bended tile, can be used in several innovative applications (as steps, shelves, benches, radiators.... But, new functions require a better and in-depth knowledge of these materials, especially referring to the mechanical proprieties. This paper investigates the limits of applicability of ISO standards for the quality classification of ceramics and experimental measures of their mechanical proprieties.

  20. Conceptual Design for a Bulk Tungsten Divertor Tile in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, P.; Neubauer, O.; Philipps, V.; Schweer, B.; Samm, U.; Hirai, T.; Sadakov, S.

    2006-01-01

    With ITER on the verge of being build, the ITER-like Wall project (ILW) for JET aims at providing the plasma chamber of the tokamak with an environment of mixed materials which will be relevant to the support of decisions to the first wall construction and, from the point of view of plasma physics, to the corresponding investigations of possible plasma configuration and plasma-wall interaction. In both respects, tungsten plays a key role in the divertor cladding whereas beryllium will be used for the vessel's first wall. For the central tile, also called LB-SRP for '' Load-Bearing Septum Replacement Plate '', resort to bulk tungsten is envisaged in order to cope with the high loads expected (up to 10 MW/m 2 for about 10 s). This is indeed the preferred plasma-facing component for positioning the outer strike-point in the divertor. Forschungszentrum Juelich has developed a conceptual design for this tile, based on an assembly of tungsten blades or lamellae. It was selected in the frame of an extensive R-and-D study in search of a suitable, inertially cooled component(T. Hirai et al., R-and-D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET ITER-like Wall Project: this conference). As reported elsewhere, the design is actually driven by electromagnetic considerations in the first place(S. Sadakov et al., Detailed electromagnetic analysis for optimisation of a tungsten divertor plate for JET: this conference). The lamellae are grouped in four stacks per tile which are independently attached to an equally re-designed supporting structure. A so-called adapter plate, also a new design, takes care of an appropriate interface to the base carrier of JET, onto which modules of two tiles are positioned and screwed by remote handling (RH) procedures. The compatibility of the design on the whole with RH requirements is another essential ingredient which was duly taken into account throughout. The concept and the underlying philosophy will be presented along with important

  1. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal

  2. Electrochemical desalination of historic Portuguese tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble salts cause severe decay of historic Portuguese tiles. Treatment options for removal of the salts to stop the decay are few. The present paper deals with development of a method for electrochemical desalination, where an electric DC field is applied to the tiles. Laboratory experiments were...... the electrochemical treatment. The removal rate was similar for the two anions so the chloride concentration reached the lowest concentration level first. At this point the electric resistance increased, but the removal of nitrate continued unaffected till similar low concentration. The sulfate concentration...... was successful. Based on the obtained results an important step is taken towards development of an electrochemical technique for desalination of tile panels....

  3. Introductory Tiling Theory for Computer Graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Tiling theory is an elegant branch of mathematics that has applications in several areas of computer science. The most immediate application area is graphics, where tiling theory has been used in the contexts of texture generation, sampling theory, remeshing, and of course the generation of decorative patterns. The combination of a solid theoretical base (complete with tantalizing open problems), practical algorithmic techniques, and exciting applications make tiling theory a worthwhile area of study for practitioners and students in computer science. This synthesis lecture introduces the math

  4. Tile-Packing Tomography Is NP-hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrobak, Marek; Dürr, Christoph; Guíñez, Flavio

    2010-01-01

    Discrete tomography deals with reconstructing finite spatial objects from their projections. The objects we study in this paper are called tilings or tile-packings, and they consist of a number of disjoint copies of a fixed tile, where a tile is defined as a connected set of grid points. A row...

  5. Beautiful Math, Part 5: Colorful Archimedean Tilings from Dynamical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Peichang; Zhao, Weiguo; Huang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The art of tiling originated very early in the history of civilization. Almost every known human society has made use of tilings in some form or another. In particular, tilings using only regular polygons have great visual appeal. Decorated regular tilings with continuous and symmetrical patterns were widely used in decoration field, such as mosaics, pavements, and brick walls. In science, these tilings provide inspiration for synthetic organic chemistry. Building on previous CG&A “Beautiful Math” articles, the authors propose an invariant mapping method to create colorful patterns on Archimedean tilings (1-uniform tilings). The resulting patterns simultaneously have global crystallographic symmetry and local cyclic or dihedral symmetry.

  6. Elemental oxides analysis of the medieval period glazed ware from Gogha, Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Khedekar, V.; Rao, B.R.

    for elemental oxides using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrum. The results indicate that silicon oxide content of the glazed sherds varies between approx. 73 and 77%, forming three-fourths of the total composition, while it ranges from...

  7. Infrared reflecting glazing for automotive application. New developments to improve fuel efficiency and thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielsch, R.; Wahl, A.; Kleinhempel, R. [Southwall Europe GmbH, Grossroehrsdorf (Germany); Coda, M.; Boman, L. [Southwall Technologies Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Solar control coatings in automotive glazing improve the thermal comfort for passengers, degrease solar irradiation into the cabin and reduce fading of materials. In IRR glazing solar radiation reduction is performed by silver based low-e-stacks with high visual transmittance and high near infrared reflectance. The proposed ARB regulation for Califormia published 2009 demanded for reduced total solartransmittance Tts of <50% of automotive glazing in new cars from 2012 on and of <40% starting 2016. Unfortunately, the regulation was ceased last minute and of March 2010 due to some technical concerns related to proper operation of electronic communication devices. Nevertheless, the technical goals regarding the total solar energy transmittance became a widely accepted performance target for solar heat protection glazing in upcoming new car models for the next years. In order to achieve the challenging new Tts target <40% major steps forward in coating design and optimization of layer properties are required. (orig.)

  8. The provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze from Shanxi by INAA and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.; Ding, X.L.; Feng, S.L.; Feng, X.Q.; Lu, Z.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze in Shanxi. The minor and trace elements of body of color glaze in different dynasty from Xiyue temper kiln and that of Lidipo kiln in Ming Dynasty determined by INAA, some of ancient porcelain from Lidipo kiln were measured, also. The factor analysis showed that provenances of the ancient color glazes from Xiyue Temple that were produced during Song Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty were in the place of the Xiyue kiln, and body material of ancient color have little been changed, on the other hand, that of Later Qing Dynasty were-produced from Lidipo kiln. Different color glazes were measured by SRXRF and it proved the colored elements were Fe and Cu.

  9. Directional and hemispherical solar energy transmittance of single and double glazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Hugot-Le Goff, le A; Granqvist, C.-G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Solar and visual light transmittance, color appearance, thermal emissivity, and other optical properties of architectural glazing are in general angular dependent. Realistic computation of solar properties, therefore, requires the angular behavior to be known. Determination of these properties for

  10. VOCs monitoring of new materials for ceramic tiles decoration: GC–MS analysis of emissions from common vehicles and inkjet inks during firing in laboratory; Monitorización de los COV de nuevos materiales para la decoración de azulejos cerámicos: análisis con GC-MS de las emisiones de vehículos comunes y de tintas digitales durante la cocción en laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, G.; Zannini, P.

    2017-11-01

    The decoration of ceramic tiles “ink-jet revolution” has brought significant advantages to tiles manufacturing, but the explosive diffusion, until 4–5 years ago, of this technique has not been accomplished by an adequate scientific research. Among all the features that have to be studied yet, one of the most important is the influence of the new generation inks on the total emission at ceramic chimneys. In this paper, we present a first characterization of emissions from a set of commercial inks and vehicles: they were collected by propter firing of samples in an electric kiln and analyzed by GC–MS. This study is part of a larger research project, which includes the chemical characterization and the evaluation of thermal behavior of inks and vehicles by TG-DTA and other techniques. The obtained results permit to divide common vehicles into 3 classes, depending on their thermal behavior and emissions pattern. Inks, most of which present an ester based formulation, sometimes mixed with glycols or paraffins, follow the behavior of their single components. The most common formulation leads to the presence in the emission pattern of evaporation products (2-ethylhexyl esters of lauric, myristic, decanoic and octanoic acids) and decomposition products (mainly aldehydes and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol). [Spanish] La decoración de los azulejos cerámicos mediante tecnología Ink-jet ha supuesto numerosas ventajas en la producción de baldosas cerámicas, pero su rápida implantación no ha sido acompañada por una adecuada investigación científica, hasta hace 4–5 años. Entre todas las características que deberían ser estudiadas, una de las más importantes es la influencia de las nuevas tintas digitales en las emisiones totales de las chimeneas cerámicas. En este artículo presentamos una primera caracterización de las emisiones de un grupo de tintas y vehículos comerciales: las emisiones se recogieron durante la cocción en laboratorio y fueron analizadas por GC

  11. Natural Radioactivity in Ceramic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Khadra, S.A.; Kamel, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramics are one of the most important types of the industrial building materials. The raw materials of the ceramic are made of a mixture of clay, feldspar, silica, talc kaolin minerals together with zirconium silicates (ZrSiO4).The ceramic raw materials and the final products contain naturally occurring radionuclide mainly U-238 and, Th-232 series, and the radioactive isotope of potassium K-40. Six raw ceramic samples were obtained from the Aracemco Company at Egypt together with a floor tile sample (final product) for measuring radioactive concentration levels., The activity of the naturally U-238, Th-232, and K-40 were determined as (Bq/kg) using gamma spectroscopy (Hyperactive pure germanium detector). Concentration of U and Th were determined in (ppm) using spectrophotometer technique by Arsenazo 111 and Piridy l-Azo -Resorcinol (PAR) indicators. Sequential extraction tests were carried out in order to determine the quantity of the radionuclide associated with various fractions as exchangeable, carbonate, acid soluble and in the residue. The results evaluated were compared to the associated activity indices (AI) that were defined by former USSR and West Germany

  12. Use of OVH residue in the ceramics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grellier, S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal oxidation (OVH: “Oxydation par Voie Humide” is an innovative technology used for waste water treatment, which is presented as an alternative to sewage sludge spreading and incineration. This process generates a fine-grain (D50 = 2 μm mineral by-product, which is very useful for the ceramics industry due to its high content in argillaceous elements, quartz, phosphate and calcium carbonate. Therefore, this work describes the recycling of this OVH residue in the ceramics industry, and more particularly in the manufacture of calcareous earthenware wall tiles. The residue can be combined with a white calcareous earthenware body up to a level of 7% without significant colorimetric deterioration, and if this is raised to 15%, it is possible to completely replace the crushed chalk, some of the quartz and reduce costly imported tight-burning clays by 6%. The developed body exceeds standardised requirements (modulus of rupture: + 40%; moisture swelling and glaze quality, which means that a 20°C reduction in firing temperature might be envisaged. An industrial pilot test of 1500 kg conducted by the DESVRES site managers with 100 m2 of tiles (format: 15 x 20 cm confirmed these laboratory results, in particular validating the absence of rheological disturbance of the slip and the harmlessness of the addition on the maturing glaze quality. Furthermore, the nature of the fumes emitted in the test complied with current regulations, and the finished product did not exceed the thresholds defined by European regulations for inert waste classification.

    La oxidación hidrotérmica (OVH: “Oxydation par Voie Humide” u oxidación por vía húmeda es una tecnología innovadora usada en la depuración de las aguas residuales, que se presenta como alternativa al esparcimiento y a la incineración de los lodos de aguas negras. Este proceso genera un producto derivado de mineral de grano fino (D50 = 2 μm que es muy útil para la

  13. VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristow, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Washington, DC.

  14. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  15. GIBS Web Map Tile Service (WMTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The WMTS implementation standard provides a standards-based solution for serviing digital maps using predefined image tiles. Through the constructs of the...

  16. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marjanovic, Marija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each one being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of the full readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration sub-systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements, and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and to equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal evolution, from scintillation light to digitization. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and u...

  17. 2011 Las Conchas Post Fire Tile Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set consists of an orthophotography tile index based on multi-spectral (red, green, blue, near-infrared) digital aerial imagery, collected and processed by...

  18. Instrumented module of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS tile calorimeter consists of steel absorber plates interspersed with plastic scintillator tiles. Interactions of high-energy hadrons in the plates transform the incident energy into a 'hadronic shower'. When shower particles traverse the scintillating tiles, the latter emit an amount of light proportional to the incident energy. This light is transmitted along readout fibres to a photomultiplier, where a detectable electrical signal is produced. These pictures show one of 64 modules or 'wedges' of the barrel part of the tile calorimeter, which are arranged to form a cylinder around the beam axis. The wedge has been instrumented with scintillators and readout fibres. Photos 03, 06: Checking the routing of the readout fibres into the girder that houses the photomultipliers. Photo 04: A view of the fibre bundles inside the girder.

  19. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  20. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  1. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, ...

  2. Influence of full-contour zirconia surface roughness on wear of glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangruangrong, Palika; Cook, N Blaine; Sabrah, Alaa H; Hara, Anderson T; Bottino, Marco C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of full-contour (Y-TZP) zirconia surface roughness (glazed vs. as-machined) on the wear behavior of glass-ceramics. Thirty-two full contour Y-TZP (Diazir®) specimens (hereafter referred to as zirconia sliders) (ϕ = 2 mm, 1.5 mm in height) were fabricated using CAD/CAM and sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions. Zirconia sliders were embedded in brass holders using acrylic resin and then randomly assigned (n = 16) according to the surface treatment received, that is, as-machined or glazed. Glass-ceramic antagonists, Empress/EMP and e.max/EX, were cut into tabs (13 × 13 × 2 mm(3) ), wet-finished, and similarly embedded in brass holders. Two-body pin-on-disk wear testing was performed at 1.2 Hz for 25,000 cycles under a 3 kg load. Noncontact profilometry was used to measure antagonist height (μm) and volume loss (mm(3) ). Qualitative data of the zirconia testing surfaces and wear tracks were obtained using SEM. Statistics were performed using ANOVA with a significance level of 0.05. As-machined yielded significantly higher mean roughness values (Ra = 0.83 μm, Rq = 1.09 μm) than glazed zirconia (Ra = 0.53 μm, Rq = 0.78 μm). Regarding glass-ceramic antagonist loss, as-machined zirconia caused significantly less mean height and volume loss (68.4 μm, 7.6 mm(3) ) for EMP than the glazed group (84.9 μm, 9.9 mm(3) ), while no significant differences were found for EX. Moreover, EMP showed significantly lower mean height and volume loss than EX (p glass-ceramics tested. e.max wear was not affected by zirconia surface roughness; however, Empress wear was greater when opposing glazed zirconia. Overall, surface glazing on full-contour zirconia did not minimize glass-ceramic wear when compared with as-machined zirconia. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Comparison of medieval decorated floor-tiles with clay and tile fragments from the kilns at Bistrup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Als Hansen, B.; Aaman Soerensen, M.; McKerrell, H.; Mejdahl, V.

    1977-01-01

    In 1976 two tile kilns with numerous wasters of ornamented tiles were excavated at Bistrup near Roskilde. Identical ornaments had earlier been found on floor-tiles from seven sites, mainly churches, in north and east Zealand. The question arose whether some of these tiles were made locally or whether all tiles carrying this particular ornamentation were made at Bistrup. Preliminary results obtained from a comparison of the tiles with material from Bistrup means of neutron activation analysis indicate that not all tiles were made at Bistrup. (author)

  4. Key design features of multi-vacuum glazing for windows: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of vacuum glazed windows is increasing due to their application in mod-ern building design. Among various types of vacuum glazed windows reported in literature, thermal transmittance of single glass sheet (conventional window i. e 6 W/m2k is reduced by 66 and 77% using air filled double glazed and air filled triple glazed windows, respectively. Using low emittance coatings thermal transmittance of double glazed windows is reduced by 53%, however it offsets the visibility by reduc-ing light transmittance by 5%. Stresses due to temperature/pressure gradients if not eliminated may lead to reduction in service life of vacuum glazed windows. Vacuum created between the glass sheets is used to reduce conductive heat transfer. Degrada-tion in the vacuum is caused by number of factors such as, permeation of gaseous molecules through glass sheets, leakage through sealing, thermal/optical desorption, and photo-fragmentation of organic species have been critically reviewed and future trends are outlined.

  5. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Energy efficient glazed office buildings with double skin facades in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Bo; Blomsterberg, Aake (WSP Environmental (Sweden)). e-mail: bo.eriksson@wspgroup.se

    2009-07-01

    Many modern office buildings have highly glazed facades. Their energy efficiency and indoor climate are, however, being questioned. Therefore more and more of these buildings are being built with double skin facades, which can provide improvements: A project BESTFACADE, with participants from Austria, Germany, Greece, Portugal (France) and Sweden, was therefore funded by the European Commission (IEE) to actively promote well-performing concepts of double skin facades. Included were best practice guidelines, which included the determination of the energy use and thermal comfort by simulations for warm, mild and cold climates. The main conclusion is that the choice of glazing properties such as glazing area, U-value (thermal transmittance) of the glazing and its profiles, g-value (the total solar energy transmittance) of the glazing and type of solar shading are crucial for the energy and indoor climate performance of an office. The choice of control strategies for ventilation of the cavity and operation of solar shading are crucial. The above choices are very dependant on the climate. Choices which are optimal in a cold climate, will not work very well in a warm climate, and vice versa. From an energy and indoor climate point of view a highly glazed office with a double skin facade is often preferred to a single

  7. Ceramic joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the relation between reactions at ceramic-metal interfaces and the development of strong interfacial bonds in ceramic joining. Studies on a number of systems are described, including silicon nitrides, aluminium nitrides, mullite, and aluminium oxides. Joints can be weakened by stresses such as thermal expansion mismatch. Ceramic joining is used in a variety of applications such as solid oxide fuel cells.

  8. Sensitive Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive Ceramics is showing an interactive digital design tool for designing wall like composition with 3d ceramics. The experiment is working on two levels. One which has to do with designing compositions and patterns in a virtual 3d universe based on a digital dynamic system that responds on ...... with realizing the modules in ceramics by 3d printing directly in porcelain with a RapMan printer that coils up the 3d shape in layers. Finally the ceramic modules are mounted in a laser cut board that reflects the captured composition of the movement of the hands....

  9. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  10. Obtention of ceramic pigments with residue from electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.; Kniess, C.T.; Aguiar, B.M. de; Prates, P.B.; Milanez, K.

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of industrial residues in industrial processes opens up new business opportunities and reduces the volume of extraction of raw materials, preserving natural resources, which are limited. An important residue is the mud from galvanic industry, consisting of alkali and transition metals. According to NBR 10004/2004, this residue can be classified as Class I (hazardous), depending on the concentration of metals present in the mud. This paper proposes a method for reusing the residue from electroplating in ceramic pigments. The characterization of residual plating was obtained by chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis and pH measurements. The electroplating waste was incorporated in different percentages on a standard pigment formula of industrial ceramic, consisting mainly of Zn, Fe and Cr. The obtained pigments were applied in ceramic glazes to colorimetric and visual analysis, which showed good results with the addition of up to 15% of industrial waste. (author)

  11. Recycling of porcelain tile polishing residue in portland cement: hydration efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisser, Fernando; Steiner, Luiz Renato; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-02-21

    Ceramic tiles are widely used by the construction industry, and the manufacturing process of ceramic tiles generates as a major residue mud derived from the polishing step. This residue is too impure to be reused in the ceramic process and is usually discarded as waste in landfills. But the analysis of the particle size and concentration of silica of this residue shows a potential use in the manufacture of building materials based on portland cement. Tests were conducted on cement pastes and mortars using the addition of 10% and 20% (mass) of the residue. The results of compressive strength in mortars made up to 56 days showed a significant increase in compressive strength greater than 50%. The result of thermogravimetry shows that portlandite is consumed by the cement formed by the silica present in the residue in order to form calcium silicate hydrate and featuring a pozzolanic reaction. This effect improves the performance of cement, contributes to research and application of supplementary cementitious materials, and optimizes the use of portland cement, reducing the environmental impacts of carbon dioxide emissions from its production.

  12. Study on Coloration Mechanism of Chinese Ancient Ceramics by X-ray Absorption Near-edge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y. H.; Xie, Z.; He, J. F.; Liu, Q. H.; Pan, Z. Y.; Cheng, W. R.; Wei, S. Q.

    2013-04-01

    The Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of a series of ceramic shards were measured by fluorescence mode to reveal the color-generating techniques of Chinese porcelain. The analysis disclosed relationships among the chemical form of the iron, the firing conditions and the colors of the ceramics. The results indicate that the coloration for different ceramics depend on the valence states of iron as the main color element in glaze and the proportion of Fe2+ and Fe3+ was attributed to the baking technology. The findings provide important information for archaeologist on the coloration researches.

  13. Neutron activation analysis of the arovenance relation of tang tri-color glazed potteryies of huangye kiln and yaozhou kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Guo Min

    2006-01-01

    The technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been employed to measure the content of 29 kinds of elements in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln and Yaozhou kiln. Then a fuzzy cluster analysis has been conducted to the NAA data. The results indicate that the places of origin of raw materials of body samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln are very concentrated, and that the places of origin of raw materials of body and glaze samples are scattered the places of origin of raw materials of the body and glaze raw material cover that of the body raw material. The source of raw materials of samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln is obviously different from that of samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Yaozhou kiln. (authors)

  14. Application of large-area chromogenics to architectural glazings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1990-03-01

    Glass plays a significant role in the design of building envelopes today. Since its emergence during the last century as a major building material, glass has evolved into an ubiquitous and versatile building design element, performing functions today that would have been unimaginable a few years ago. The optical clarity and transparency of glass that we take for granted is one of its most unique features. Glass windows keep out the cold wind and rain without blocking the view, but also perform many more complex functions which require variable properties and tradeoffs between conflicting conditions. The glazing that provides view must also provide visual privacy at other times and must sometimes become totally opaque (for audiovisual shows, for example). Transparent glass admits daylight, providing good color rendition and offsetting electric lighting energy needs, but it can also create discomfort and disability glare conditions. The sun provides desirable warmth in winter but its heat is unwelcome in summer when it contributes to thermal discomfort and cooling energy requirements. And glass is an important element in the appearance and aesthetics of a building, both interior and exterior.

  15. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)); Soule, D.E. (Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Investigation of medieval ceramics from Ras by physicochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindović Nataša D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although early medieval Serbian ceramic is well described by the archeologists and historians, knowledge of the Balkan ceramic production is still limited. Archaeometric study of ceramics provenance, technology of preparation and used pigments as well as influence of neighboring countries and specific characteristics of different workshops has never been performed so far. The detailed knowledge of the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of an archaeological artifact is critical in finding solutions to problems of restoration, conservation, dating and authentication in the art world. In this work we present results of systematic investigation of pottery shards from archeological site Ras. The term Ras, which signifies both the fortress and the region encompassing the upper course of Raška River, used to be the center of the medieval Serbian state. Both the ceramic body and the polychromatic glaze of the artifacts were studied by a multianalitical approach combining optical microscopy (OM, FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Mineralogical composition of pottery shards has been determined combining results obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy, after deconvolution of the spectra, and XRPD analysis. Firing temperature has been estimated based on the mineralogical composition and positions of Si-O stretching (-1000 cm-1 and banding (-460 cm-1 vibrations. Investigated samples have been classified into two groups based on the mineralogical composition, cross sections and firing temperature. Larger group consists of samples of fine-grained, homogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures bellow 800 °C which indicates imported products. Second, smaller group consists of inhomogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures between 850 and 900 °C produced in the domestic workshops. The obtained results will be used to build up a national database for the compositions of bodies, glazes and pigments.

  17. ATLAS Rewards Russian Supplier for Scintillating Tile Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At a ceremony held at CERN on 30 July, the ATLAS collaboration awarded Russian firm SIA Luch from Podolsk in the Moscow region an ATLAS Suppliers Award. This follows delivery by the company of the final batch of scintillating tiles for the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter some six months ahead of schedule.   Representatives of Russian firm Luch Podolsk received the ATLAS Suppliers Award in the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter instrumentation plant at CERN on 30 July. In front of one Tile Calorimeter module instrumented by scintillating tiles are (left to right) IHEP physicists Evgueni Startchenko and Andrei Karioukhine, Luch Podolsk representatives Igor Karetnikov and Yuri Zaitsev, Tile Calorimeter Project Leader Rupert Leitner, ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and CERN Tile Calorimeter group leader Ana Henriques-Correia. Scintillating tiles form the active part of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter, which will measure the energy and direction of particles produced in LHC collisions. They are emb...

  18. Quality Analysis of Ceramic Tent Product With Six Sigma Method in PT. Mas Keramik KIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi, A.; Ardiansyah P., F.; Ngatilah, Y.

    2018-01-01

    PT. KIA Keramik Mas is a company engaged in manufacturing, which produces ceramic tiles, one of the problems faced by this company is the number of defects found, in the July - December 2015 amounted to 6,259,945 units producing tiles and discovered defects by 960 683 units with an object research is ceramic tile products, among some of the defects found several characteristics of defects that occur include rugged body, coincide, grainy, scratched, and colors distorted. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of the product and propose improvements that reduce the number of such defects, using quality control methods that Six Sigma. Six Sigma is used to generate a defect that does not exceed 3.4 DPMO (defects per million opportunities) or zero defect which is an approach to calculate the number of defects per million possibilities. Average quality ceramic tile products during the month of July - December 2015 was on a sigma of 3.37 with DPMO of 30 586, which means that one million opportunities that exist there will be 30 586 (3,05%) the possibility that the process of making the ceramic tile defect or defects occur, so to get to the required target of Six Sigma improvement.

  19. [Ceramic posts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Legros, Caroline; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    As a result of ceramics and all-ceram technologies development esthetic inlay core and abutments flooded the market. Their tooth-colored appearance enhances restoration biomimetism principally on the marginal gingiva area. This article reviews indications and types of cores designed for natural teeth and implants.

  20. Tile drainage as karst: Conduit flow and diffuse flow in a tile-drained watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Helmers, M.

    2008-01-01

    The similarity of tiled-drained watersheds to karst drainage basins can be used to improve understanding of watershed-scale nutrient losses from subsurface tile drainage networks. In this study, short-term variations in discharge and chemistry were examined from a tile outlet collecting subsurface tile flow from a 963 ha agricultural watershed. Study objectives were to apply analytical techniques from karst springs to tile discharge to evaluate water sources and estimate the loads of agricultural pollutants discharged from the tile with conduit, intermediate and diffuse flow regimes. A two-member mixing model using nitrate, chloride and specific conductance was used to distinguish rainwater versus groundwater inputs. Results indicated that groundwater comprised 75% of the discharge for a three-day storm period and rainwater was primarily concentrated during the hydrograph peak. A contrasting pattern of solute concentrations and export loads was observed in tile flow. During base flow periods, tile flow consisted of diffuse flow from groundwater sources and contained elevated levels of nitrate, chloride and specific conductance. During storm events, suspended solids and pollutants adhered to soil surfaces (phosphorus, ammonium and organic nitrogen) were concentrated and discharged during the rapid, conduit flow portion of the hydrograph. During a three-day period, conduit flow occurred for 5.6% of the time but accounted for 16.5% of the total flow. Nitrate and chloride were delivered primarily with diffuse flow (more than 70%), whereas 80-94% of total suspended sediment, phosphorus and ammonium were exported with conduit and intermediate flow regimes. Understanding the water sources contributing to tile drainage and the manner by which pollutant discharge occurs from these systems (conduit, intermediate or diffuse flow) may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating non-point source reduction strategies in tile-drained landscapes. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Effect finishing and polishing procedures on the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Juliana Maria Capelozza; Nishida, Rodrigo; Elossais, André Afif; Lima, Darlon Martins; Reis, José Mauricio Santos Nunes; Campos, Edson Alves; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic when treated with different finishing/polishing protocols. Sixteen specimens of IPS Empress 2 ceramic were made from wax patterns obtained using a stainless steel split mold. The specimens were glazed (Stage 0-S0, control) and divided into two groups. The specimens in Group 1 (G1) were finished/polished with a KG Sorensen diamond point (S1), followed by KG Sorensen siliconized points (S2) and final polishing with diamond polish paste (S3). In Group 2 (G2), the specimens were finished/polished using a Shofu diamond point (S1), as well as Shofu siliconized points (S2) and final polishing was performed using Porcelize paste (S3). After glazing (S0) and following each polishing procedure (S1, S2 or S3), the surface roughness was measured using TALYSURF Series 2. The average surface roughness results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc tests (α = 0.01) RESULTS: All of the polishing procedures yielded higher surface roughness values when compared to the control group (S0). S3 yielded lower surface roughness values when compared to S1 and S2. The proposed treatments negatively affected the surface roughness of the glazed IPS Empress 2 ceramic.

  2. Effects of surface treatments on the translucency, opalescence, and surface texture of dental monolithic zirconia ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Ha, Seung-Ryong

    2016-06-01

    Surface polishing or glazing may increase the appearance of depth of monolithic zirconia restorations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of surface treatments on the translucency, opalescence, and surface texture of dental monolithic zirconia ceramics. Forty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (16.3×16.4×2.0 mm) were divided into groups I to V, according to the number of colorings each received. Each group was then divided into 3 subgroups (n=3) according to the surface treatment: N=no treatment; P=polished; and G=glazed. CIElab color coordinates were obtained relative to D65 on a reflection spectrophotometer. The translucency parameter (TP) and opalescence parameter (OP) were calculated. One specimen per subgroups I and V was selected for evaluation of surface roughness (Ra) and was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and pairwise comparisons (α=.05). Statistical powers were verified to evaluate results (α=.05). The interaction effects of surface treatments combined with the number of colorings were significant for TP, OP, and Ra (P.05), whereas glazing significantly decreased OP and Ra in most groups. SEM images demonstrated that surface treatments affected the surface texture of monolithic zirconia ceramics. Surface treatments combined with coloring strongly affect the surface texture of dental monolithic zirconia ceramics. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of luminescence techniques with ceramic materials for retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailiff, I.K.

    1996-01-01

    Luminescence techniques are being used with ceramic materials to provide evaluations of integrated external gamma dose for dose reconstruction in populated areas contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. A range of suitable ceramics can be found associated with buildings: on the exterior surfaces (tiles), within walls (bricks) and within the interiors (porcelain fittings and tiles). Dose evaluations obtained using such samples provide information concerning the time-averaged incident gamma radiation field, average shielding factors and, with the aid of computational modelling techniques, dose estimates at external reference positions

  4. Influence of Material Properties on the Ballistic Performance of Ceramics for Personal Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kaufmann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In support of improved personal armour development, depth of penetration tests have been conducted on four different ceramic materials including alumina, modified alumina, silicon carbide and boron carbide. These experiments consisted of impacting ceramic tiles bonded to aluminum cylinders with 0.50 caliber armour piercing projectiles. The results are presented in terms of ballistic efficiency, and the validity of using ballistic efficiency as a measure of ceramic performance was examined. In addition, the correlation between ballistic performance and ceramic material properties, such as elastic modulus, hardness, spall strength and Hugoniot Elastic Limit, has been considered.

  5. The Mu3e Tile Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Hans Patrick

    2015-05-06

    The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavour violating decay μ→e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -} with a sensitivity of one in 10{sup 16} decays. An observation of such a decay would be a clear sign of physics beyond the Standard Model. Achieving the targeted sensitivity requires a high precision detector with excellent momentum, vertex and time resolution. The Mu3e Tile Detector is a highly granular sub-detector system based on scintillator tiles with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) readout, and aims at measuring the timing of the muon decay products with a resolution of better than 100 ps. This thesis describes the development of the Tile Detector concept and demonstrates the feasibility of the elaborated design. In this context, a comprehensive simulation framework has been developed, in order to study and optimise the detector performance. The central component of this framework is a detailed simulation of the SiPM response. The simulation model has been validated in several measurements and shows good agreement with the data. Furthermore, a 16-channel prototype of a Tile Detector module has been constructed and operated in an electron beam. In the beam tests, a time resolution up to 56 ps has been achieved, which surpasses the design goal. The simulation and measurement results demonstrate the feasibility of the developed Tile Detector design and show that the required detector performance can be achieved.

  6. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Van Daalen, Tal Roelof; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized every 25 ns by sampling the signal. About 10000 channels of the front-end electronics measure the signals of the calorimeter with energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each step of the signal reconstruction from scintillation light to the digital pulse reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations...

  7. Performance of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoli, Gabriele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau­particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator­steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front­end electronics read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read­out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real­time. The digitized signals are reconstructed with the Optimal Filtering algorithm, which computes for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruc...

  8. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum fro...

  9. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynevich, A.

    2017-06-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC . Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV . Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response and its modelling by the Monte Carlo simulations. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  10. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from elec...

  11. Optimal control and performance of photovoltachromic switchable glazing for building integration in temperate climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favoino, Fabio; Fiorito, Francesco; Cannavale, Alessandro; Ranzi, Gianluca; Overend, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The features and properties of photovoltachromic switchable glazing are presented. • The different possible control strategies for the switchable glazing are presented. • Thermal and daylight performance are co-simulated for rule-based and optimal control. • A novel building performance simulation framework is developed for this aim. • Switchable glazing performance is compared for different controls and climates. - Abstract: The development of adaptive building envelope technologies, and particularly of switchable glazing, can make significant contributions to decarbonisation targets. It is therefore essential to quantify their effect on building energy use and indoor environmental quality when integrated into buildings. The evaluation of their performance presents new challenges when compared to conventional “static” building envelope systems, as they require design and control aspects to be evaluated together, which are also mutually interrelated across thermal and visual physical domains. This paper addresses these challenges by presenting a novel simulation framework for the performance evaluation of responsive building envelope technologies and, particularly, of switchable glazing. This is achieved by integrating a building energy simulation tool and a lighting simulation one, in a control optimisation framework to simulate advanced control of adaptive building envelopes. The performance of a photovoltachromic glazing is evaluated according to building energy use, Useful Daylight Illuminance, glare risk and load profile matching indicators for a sun oriented office building in different temperate climates. The original architecture of photovoltachromic cell provides an automatic control of its transparency as a function of incoming solar irradiance. However, to fully explore the building integration potential of photovoltachromic technology, different control strategies are evaluated, from passive and simple rule based controls, to

  12. The effect of glazing and aging on the surface properties of CAD/CAM resin blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekçe, Neslihan; Fidan, Sinan; Tuncer, Safa; Kara, Dilan; Demirci, Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effect of accelerated aging on surface properties of glazed CAD/CAM resin blocks using a 2D surface profilometer and a 3D non-contact optical profilometer. Three types of CAD/CAM resin restorative materials, LAVA Ultimate (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), VITA Enamic (Vita Zahnfabrik H. Rauter, Bad Säckingen, Germany), and Cerasmart (GC Corparation, Tokyo, Japan) were used for this study. CAD/CAM blocks were cut in 3-mm thickness slabs and divided into three groups; Group 1: control group (specimens polished with 600 grit SCI paper); Group 2: specimens sandblasted, silanized, and glazed with Optiglaze Color (GC); Group 3: glazed specimens subjected to 5000 thermocycles (n=15). The surface roughness (R a and R z ) was evaluated using a profilometer and a 3D scanning instrument. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test ( P .05). For VITA and Cerasmart, the specimens in Group 1 exhibited significantly higher R a values than Group 2 ( P .05). Glaze material Optiglaze Color makes CAD/CAM resin surfaces smooth and glazed CAD/CAM surfaces seem resistant to deterioration under 5000 thermocycles.

  13. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory... manufacture of asbestos floor tile. ...

  14. Oxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshkewitch, E.; Richerson, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book explores single-phase ceramic oxide systems from the standpoint of physical chemistry and technology. This second edition also focuses on advances in technology since publication of the original edition. These include improvements in raw materials and forming and sintering techniques, and the major role that oxide ceramics have had in development of advanced products and processes. The text is divided into five major sections: general fundamentals of oxide ceramics, advances in aluminum oxide technology, advances in zirconia technology, and advances in beryllium oxide technology

  15. Fiber-tile optical studies at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.; Morgan, D.J.; Proudfoot, J.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a fiber-tile calorimeter for SDC, we have done studies on a number of topics. The most basic problems were light output and uniformity of response. Using a small electron beam, we have studied fiber placement, tile preparation, wrapping and masking, fiber splicing, fiber routing, phototube response, and some degradation factors. We found two configurations which produced more light output than the others and reasonably uniform response. We have chosen one of these to go into production for the EM test module on the basis of fiber routing for ease of assembly of the calorimeter. We have also applied some of the tools we developed to CDF end plug tile uniformity, shower max testing and development for a couple of detectors, and development of better techniques for radiation damage studies. 18 figs

  16. Remotely replaceable Tokamak plasma limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, G.

    1989-01-01

    U-shaped limiter tiles placed end-to-end over a pair of parallel runners secured to a wall have two rods which engage L-shaped slots in the runners. The short receiving legs of the L-shaped slots are perpendicular to the wall and open away from the wall, while long retaining legs are parallel to and adjacent the wall. A sliding bar between the runners has grooves with clips to retain the rods pressed into receiving legs of the L-shaped slots in the runners. Sliding the bar in the direction of retaining legs of the L-shaped slots latches the tiles in place over the runners. Resilient contact strips between the parallel arms of the U-shaped tiles and the wall assure thermal and electrical contact with the wall

  17. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Performance at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Molander, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal pays a major role in detecting hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and measuring the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good signal to noise ratio it assists the muon spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons, which are also a tool for the in situ energy scale validation. The results presented here stem from the data collection in dedicated calibration runs, in cosmic rays data-taking and in LHC collisions along 3 years of operation. The uniformity, stability and precision of the energy scale, the time measurement capabilities and the robustness of the performance against pile-up are exposed through the usage of hadronic and muon final states and confirm the design expectations.

  18. Upgrading the Atlas Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Popeneciu, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Around 2024, after the upgrade of the LHC the peak luminosity will increase by a factor of 5 compared to the design value, thus requiring an upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter readout electronics. Except the photomultipliers tubes (PMTs), most of the on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced, with the aim of digitizing all PMT pulses at the front-end level and sending them with 10 Gb/s optical links to the back-end electronics. One demonstrator prototype module is planned to be inserted in Tile Calorimeter in 2015 that will include hybrid electronic components able to probe the new design.

  19. Improvement of PVC floor tiles by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plessis, T.A. du; Badenhorst, F.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma radiation presents a unique method of transforming highly plasticized PVC floor tiles, manufactured at high speed through injection moulding, into a high quality floor covering at a cost at least 30% less than similarly rated rubber tiles. A specially formulated PVC compound was developed in collaboration with a leading manufacturer of floor tiles. These tiles are gamma crosslinked in its shipping cartons to form a dimensionally stable product which is highly fire resistant and inert to most chemicals and solvents. These crosslinked tiles are more flexible than the highly filled conventional PVC floor tiles, scratch resistant and have a longer lifespan and increased colour fastness. These tiles are also less expensive to install than conventional rubber tiles. (author)

  20. TileCal TDAQ/DCS communication

    CERN Document Server

    Solans, C; Arabidze, G; Carneiro Ferreira, B; Sotto-Maior Peralva, B

    2007-01-01

    This document describes the communication between the TDAQ and DCS systems of the Hadronic Tile Calorimeter detector of the ATLAS experiment, currently under commissioning phase at CERN. It is a further step on the TDAQ and DCS communication for TileCal operation. The aim of the implementation is to increase the robustness and understanding of the detector from the two systems involved. The basic principle observed is that the two systems operate independently in parallel. Hence, the knowledge of the status of the whole detector from each of the two systems is required for further analysis of the archived data.

  1. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  2. Environmental, economic and energy analysis of double glazing with a circulating water chamber in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Lopez, Tomas; Gimenez-Molina, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Glazed façade area is the part that produces greatest energy losses and gains. ► A potential for energy savings has been detected in residential buildings. ► Active glazing comprising two laminated glass panels with a circulating water chamber. ► Analysis of energy performance, economic viability and impact on carbon footprint. ► Natural gas condensing boilers is the less contaminating and more efficient option. -- Abstract: In general, the glazed façade area of a building is the part that produces the greatest energy losses and gains. The basic aim of this work is to achieve a more efficient heat control in closed spaces. To this end, an exhaustive study has been made of active glazing comprising two laminated glass panels with a circulating water chamber. Not only has the energy consumption been analysed but also the energy efficiency according to fuel type, the amount of CO 2 emitted into the atmosphere and the economic cost. The results of this study, from the points of view of economic feasibility and energy efficiency, show that the solution of double glazing with a circulating water chamber is a less polluting and more efficient option than the systems currently used. This solution is able to reduce the energy losses and gains that are produced through the glazed façade of a building by 18.26% for calorific and frigorific energy compared to the total consumption of the building. The layout of the proposed installation facilitates its integration into any type of residential building, either under construction or being renovated. Moreover, its zero visual impact means it can even be implemented in places with strict town-planning regulations.

  3. Characterization of kaolin and granite waste for formulation of porcelain stoneware tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna da Silveira, G.C.; Acchar, W.; Gomes, U.U.; Silva, B.K.O.; Luna da Silveira, R.V.; Labrincha, J.A.; Costa, M.C.P.

    2016-01-01

    To produce a stoneware tiles is necessary develop a formulation that satisfies their structural characteristics, micro-structural, physical and mechanical properties. Thus, in order to create a formulation for porcelain stoneware tiles that give use to kaolin and granite waste used in the production of ceramic materials were asked the following characterizations: chemical analysis, mineralogical, thermal and particle size. We found that in the kaolin sample it presents a rate of silicon oxide and aluminum oxide similar to those found in the work of other investigators, about 45.23% SiO2 and 37.39% Al_2O_3. In the granite waste, the percentage of silicon oxide and aluminum oxide are also similar to those observed in other studies, with about 74.89% SiO2 and 10.54% Al_2O_3. Both the percentage of SiO_2 and Al_2O_3 founded in these two samples satisfy the percentage required in the manufacturing of porcelain stoneware tiles. (author)

  4. First reported case of reactive airway dysfunction syndrome in a laborer due to porcelain tile dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Tasleem; Malik, Javid Ahmad; Shoib, Sheikh

    2013-06-01

    Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS) is a type of non-immunologically mediated asthma-like disease. It usually occurs after a massive exposure to an irritating substance in the atmosphere in the form of smoke, fumes, gases, and vapor. Unlike bronchial asthma, there is no latency to the symptoms seen in RADS. A number of agents are known to cause RADS, but tile dust, as an etiological agent, has not been previously reported. We report a 45-year-old male laborer, who presented with an acute onset of cough, chest tightness, breathlessness, and audible wheeze after his first time exposure to porcelain tile dust within 5 hours of exposure. Lab tests, including, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, air blood gas analysis, and serum IgE, were unremarkable. Spirometry showed a mild obstruction [forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)=72% of predicted], while the bronchodilator reversibility test was significant(14% increase in FEV1 above the baseline).Bronchial biopsy revealed a chronic inflammatory reaction with lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration and more importantly a striking absence of eosinophils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RADS as a result of exposure to tile dust (porcelain ceramics).

  5. PV-PCM integration in glazed building. Co-simulation and genetic optimization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elarga, Hagar; Dal Monte, Andrea; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2017-01-01

    . An exploratory step has also been considered prior to the optimization algorithm: it evaluates the energy profiles before and after the application of PCM to PV module integrated in glazed building. The optimization analysis investigate parameters such as ventilation flow rates and time schedule to obtain......The study describes a multi-objective optimization algorithm for an innovative integration of forced ventilated PV-PCM modules in glazed façade buildings: the aim is to identify and optimize the parameters that most affect thermal and energy performances. 1-D model, finite difference method FDM...

  6. Highly insulating glazing in new multi-storey buildings; Hoejisolerende glaspartier i nye etageboliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, K.; Schmidt, H.; Aggerholm, S.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate how highly insulating types of glazing can be used in multi-storey buildings for housing in new ways. These are energy efficient and provide good indoor climate and also satisfy requirements to high architectural quality. The project has resulted in a number of design proposal demonstrating how new types of glazing can be fitted into multi-storey buildings and how new facade expressions, space and lighting effects can be obtained by using highly insulating glass areas. The project is collaboration between the architects Boje Lundgaard and Lene Tranberg's Tegnestue, KAB Bygge og Boligadministration and Danish Building and Urban Research. Calculations of heat demand suggest that it is possible to meet the targets outlined in the Danish Government's action plan for energy. Energy 21 by using new types of highly insulating glazing in new buildings. Another 33% reduction of the heating demand is targeted in relation to existing requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 1995 (BR 95) and the Danish Building Regulations for Small Dwellings 1998 (BR-S 98). The project builds on experience gained from 'High-insulated Glass House' (Wittchen and Aggerholm, 1999) built on the housing estage Egebjerggaard in Ballerup, a suburb of Copenhagen. Examples of existing multi-storey buildings with glass facades show extensive use of glazing as early as 1830 in Spain. Walls preceding the curtain wall were built from wood and glass and rested on stone corbels at about 1 m from the load-bearing facade. The first multi-storey buildings with facades entirely made from glass date from the 1920s. The architect Le Corbusier was the first to create a building system that facilitated the construction of non-loadbearing facades. Various conditions must be especially considered at the design of facades with highly insulating glass areas, i.a. type of glass and glazing, solar shadings, frame constructions and airtightness

  7. Study on sources of colored glaze of Xiyue Temple in Shanxi province by INAA and multivariable statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin

    2005-01-01

    The major, minor and trace elements in the bodies of ancient colored glazes which came from the site of Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln in Shanxi province, and were unearthed from the stratums of Song, Yuan, Ming, Early Qing and Late Qing dynasty were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of multivariable statistical analyses show that the chemical compositions of the colored glaze bodies are steady from Song to Early Qing dynasty, but distinctly different from that in Late Qing. Probably, the sources of fired material of ancient colored glaze from Song to Early Qing came from the site of Xiyue Temple. The chemical compositions of three pieces of colored glazes in Ming dynasty and that in Late Qing are similar to that of Lidipo kiln. From this, authors could conclude that the sources of the materials of ancient coloured glazes of Xiyue Temple in Late Qing dynasty were fired in Lidipo kiln. (authors)

  8. Leaching behaviour of a glassy slag and derived glass-ceramics from arc-plasma vitrification of hospital wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Maximina; Hernández, M. S.; Rincón López, Jesús María

    2009-01-01

    The arc-plasma vitrification of a hospital wastes containing metals and inorganic oxides yields to a leach-resistant glassy or vitreous slag, which can be environmentally safe for landfill disposal or could be transformed in glass-ceramic tiles with physical and mechanical properties similar to those showed by marketable products for building applications. Standard methods have been used for testing the leachability of elements from this new type of tiles. The water resistance was evaluated b...

  9. Effects of the dolomite from Irati formation as additive in a refractory clay used as raw material in Santa Gertrudes ceramic cluster (SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.H.O.; Gaspar Junior, L.A.; Moreno, M.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of addition of carbonates in clays used as floor tiles have been intensively studied, but the focus usually is the pure calcite or calcitic limestone, which has nobler uses in industry, especially for cement production. However, in the important area known as Santa Gertrudes Ceramic Cluster, in Sao Paulo State, occurs mainly the dolomitic limestone, which is little studied as a potential additive which could be used in order to improve the properties of the floor tiles. This work aimed to check out the potentiality of dolomitic limestone as additive in ceramic products, especially floor tiles. Using as ingredients dolomitic limestones and refractory clay collected inside the area of the referred cluster, ceramic bodies were obtained with different dolomitic limestones contents incorporated to the refractory clay, and these ceramic bodies were mineralogically, chemically and physically analyzed. The conclusions are the dolomitic limestone can be particularly useful when incorporated to refractory clays, due to its fluxing properties. (author)

  10. Sacroiliac screw fixation for tile B fractures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, E.W. van den; Zwienen, C.M. van; Hoek van Dijke, G.A.; Snijders, C.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this comparative cadaveric study was to investigate whether the stability of partially unstable pelvic fractures can be improved by combining plate fixation of the symphysis with a posterior sacroiliac screw. METHODS: In six specimens, a Tile B1 (open-book) pelvic fracture

  11. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape!

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The last of the 64 modules for one of the ATLAS Hadron tile calorimeter barrels has just arrived at CERN. This arrival puts an end to two and a half years work assembling and testing all the modules in the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), in Barcelona.

  12. L-Tromino Tiling of Multilated Chessboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An "n" x "n" chessboard is called deficient if one square is missing from any spot on the board. Can all deficient boards with a number of cells divisible by 3 be tiled by bent (or L-shaped) trominoes? The answer is yes, with exception of the order-5 board. This paper deals with the general problem plus numerous related puzzles and proofs…

  13. From open fireplaces to tile hearths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaus, C

    1979-10-01

    The history and technology of tile hearths are reviewed. It is shown that naked fires were used until the 6th century; by the 8th century, these had been replaced by open hearth fires which were used until the 18th and even 19th century. The first 'modern' hearth with a closed combustion space was constructed in 1790.

  14. ATLAS: First rehearsal for the tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The dry run assembly of the first barrel of the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter has been successfully completed. It is now being dismantled again so that it can be lowered into the ATLAS cavern where it will be reassembled in October 2004.

  15. TILE at Iowa: Adoption and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florman, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces a University of Iowa effort to enhance and support active learning pedagogies in technology-enhanced (TILE) classrooms and three elements that proved essential to the campus-wide adoption of those pedagogies. It then describes the impact of those professional development efforts on the curricula and cultures of three…

  16. Similarity of eigenstates in generalized labyrinth tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiem, Stefanie; Schreiber, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The eigenstates of d-dimensional quasicrystalline models with a separable Hamiltonian are studied within the tight-binding model. The approach is based on mathematical sequences, constructed by an inflation rule P = {w → s,s → sws b-1 } describing the weak/strong couplings of atoms in a quasiperiodic chain. Higher-dimensional quasiperiodic tilings are constructed as a direct product of these chains and their eigenstates can be directly calculated by multiplying the energies E or wave functions ψ of the chain, respectively. Applying this construction rule, the grid in d dimensions splits into 2 d-1 different tilings, for which we investigated the characteristics of the wave functions. For the standard two-dimensional labyrinth tiling constructed from the octonacci sequence (b = 2) the lattice breaks up into two identical lattices, which consequently yield the same eigenstates. While this is not the case for b ≠ 2, our numerical results show that the wave functions of the different grids become increasingly similar for large system sizes. This can be explained by the fact that the structure of the 2 d-1 grids mainly differs at the boundaries and thus for large systems the eigenstates approach each other. This property allows us to analytically derive properties of the higher-dimensional generalized labyrinth tilings from the one-dimensional results. In particular participation numbers and corresponding scaling exponents have been determined.

  17. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  18. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2023. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 ...

  19. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5$\\times$ compared to the design luminosity ($10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, c...

  20. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Popeneciu, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Around 2023, after the upgrade of the LHC (High Luminosity LHC, phase 2) the peak luminosity will increase by a factor of 5 compared to the design value (1034 cm-2 s-1), thus requiring an upgrade of the TileCal readout electronics. Except the 9852 photomultipliers (PMTs), most of the on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced, with the aim of digitizing all PMT pulses at 40 MHz at the front-end level and sending them with 10 Gbps optical links to the back-end electronics. Moreover, to increase reliability, redundancy will be introduced at different levels. Three different options are currently being investigated for the front-end electronics and extensive test beam studies are planned to select the best option. One demonstrator prototype module is also planned to be inserted in TileCal in 2014 that will include hybrid electronic components able to probe the new design, but still compatible with the presen...

  1. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (P hase - II ) where the pea k luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expe cted to happen around 202 4 . The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on - and off - detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off - detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve th e required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investiga...

  2. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hrynevich, Aliaksei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadr...

  3. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomont, Arthur; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitization. Based on LHC Run 1 experience, several calibration systems were improved for Run 2. The lessons learned, the modifications, and the current LHC Run 2 performance are discussed.

  4. Masking properties of ceramics for veneer restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllouriotis, Andreas L; Yamamoto, Hideo L; Nathanson, Dan

    2017-10-01

    The translucency and opacity of ceramics play a significant role in emulating the natural color of teeth, but studies of the masking properties and limitations of dental ceramics when used as monolayer restorations are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the translucency of 6 materials used for veneer restorations by assessing their translucency parameters (TPs), contrast ratios (CRs), and potential to mask dark tooth colors. Ten square- or disk-shaped specimens (0.5-mm thickness, shade A2) were fabricated from Vitablocks Mark II (VMII; Vita Zahnfabrik), IPS e.max CAD LT (EMXC LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max CAD HT (EMXC HT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS Empress CAD LT (EMP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max Press LT (EMXP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), and CZR (CZR; Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc). Their luminance (Y) values over black and over white tiles were measured, followed by their color (CIELab) over black tiles and white tiles and shaded A2 (control group), A3.5, A4, and B4 acrylic resin blocks. All measurements were performed using a spectrophotometer in 2 different areas on each specimen. Then CRs, TPs, and color differences (over shaded backgrounds) were determined. Data were subjected to 1-way and 2-way ANOVA (α=.05) for analysis. Mean CR values of EMXP LT were significantly higher than those of the other tested materials, whereas VMII and EMXC HT had the lowest values (Pmasking properties against the A4 background. The color differences of most tested ceramics were more acceptable when tested against the B4 background (ΔE*≤3.3). Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An efficient pseudomedian filter for tiling microrrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Thomas E; Carriero, Nicholas J; Gerstein, Mark B

    2007-06-07

    Tiling microarrays are becoming an essential technology in the functional genomics toolbox. They have been applied to the tasks of novel transcript identification, elucidation of transcription factor binding sites, detection of methylated DNA and several other applications in several model organisms. These experiments are being conducted at increasingly finer resolutions as the microarray technology enjoys increasingly greater feature densities. The increased densities naturally lead to increased data analysis requirements. Specifically, the most widely employed algorithm for tiling array analysis involves smoothing observed signals by computing pseudomedians within sliding windows, a O(n2logn) calculation in each window. This poor time complexity is an issue for tiling array analysis and could prove to be a real bottleneck as tiling microarray experiments become grander in scope and finer in resolution. We therefore implemented Monahan's HLQEST algorithm that reduces the runtime complexity for computing the pseudomedian of n numbers to O(nlogn) from O(n2logn). For a representative tiling microarray dataset, this modification reduced the smoothing procedure's runtime by nearly 90%. We then leveraged the fact that elements within sliding windows remain largely unchanged in overlapping windows (as one slides across genomic space) to further reduce computation by an additional 43%. This was achieved by the application of skip lists to maintaining a sorted list of values from window to window. This sorted list could be maintained with simple O(log n) inserts and deletes. We illustrate the favorable scaling properties of our algorithms with both time complexity analysis and benchmarking on synthetic datasets. Tiling microarray analyses that rely upon a sliding window pseudomedian calculation can require many hours of computation. We have eased this requirement significantly by implementing efficient algorithms that scale well with genomic feature density. This result

  6. An efficient pseudomedian filter for tiling microrrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerstein Mark B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tiling microarrays are becoming an essential technology in the functional genomics toolbox. They have been applied to the tasks of novel transcript identification, elucidation of transcription factor binding sites, detection of methylated DNA and several other applications in several model organisms. These experiments are being conducted at increasingly finer resolutions as the microarray technology enjoys increasingly greater feature densities. The increased densities naturally lead to increased data analysis requirements. Specifically, the most widely employed algorithm for tiling array analysis involves smoothing observed signals by computing pseudomedians within sliding windows, a O(n2logn calculation in each window. This poor time complexity is an issue for tiling array analysis and could prove to be a real bottleneck as tiling microarray experiments become grander in scope and finer in resolution. Results We therefore implemented Monahan's HLQEST algorithm that reduces the runtime complexity for computing the pseudomedian of n numbers to O(nlogn from O(n2logn. For a representative tiling microarray dataset, this modification reduced the smoothing procedure's runtime by nearly 90%. We then leveraged the fact that elements within sliding windows remain largely unchanged in overlapping windows (as one slides across genomic space to further reduce computation by an additional 43%. This was achieved by the application of skip lists to maintaining a sorted list of values from window to window. This sorted list could be maintained with simple O(log n inserts and deletes. We illustrate the favorable scaling properties of our algorithms with both time complexity analysis and benchmarking on synthetic datasets. Conclusion Tiling microarray analyses that rely upon a sliding window pseudomedian calculation can require many hours of computation. We have eased this requirement significantly by implementing efficient algorithms that

  7. FY 1998 report on the results of R and D projects by local consortiums for immediate effects. Development of woody ceramics and application to building parts; 1998 nendo woody ceramics no sosei to kenchiku buzai nado eno oyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D project has been implemented for developing materials for, e.g., light, highly heat-insulating and energy-saving type building parts (e.g., roofing tiles and tiles), and light tableware having warmness of wood. The stock materials for china and porcelain, roofing tile clay, tiles and cement are dispersed with hollow microcapsules as the filler, which are of glassy balloons thermally treated to be highly functional, in order to develop superlight, highly heat insulating and high-strength materials. For development of the woody ceramic materials, the microcapsules are investigated for size, thickness, thermal shrinkage, fusibility, compressive stress, reinforcing mechanisms, and monodispersibility. Also investigated are optimization of material formability, development of commercial ceramics and evaluation of their marketability, decoration techniques, antimicrobial membrane materials and their immobilization techniques, development of antimicrobial ceramic tiles, evaluation of the antimicrobial membranes, evaluation of resistance to microwaves, and so on. The efforts are also directed to researches on fundamental techniques for woody tile clay, and R and D of the application techniques and products of the woody cement. (NEDO)

  8. Thermal Simulation of a Zero Energy Glazed Pavilion in Sofia, Bulgaria. New Strategies for Energy Management by Means of Water Flow Glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ama Gonzalo, Fernando; Hernandez Ramos, Juan A.; Moreno, Belen

    2017-10-01

    The building sector is primarily responsible for a major part of total energy consumption. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directives (EPBD) emphasized the need to reduce the energy consumption in buildings, and put forward the rationale for developing Near to Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB). Passive and active strategies help architects to minimize the use of active HVAC systems, taking advantage of the available natural resources such as solar radiation, thermal variability and daylight. The building envelope plays a decisive role in passive and active design strategies. The ideal transparent façade would be one with optical properties, such as Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) and Visible Transmittance (VT), that could readily adapt in response to changing climatic conditions or occupant preferences. The aim of this article consists of describing the system to maintain a small glazed pavilion located in Sofia (Bulgaria) at the desired interior temperature over a whole year. The system comprises i) the use of Water Flow Glazing facades (WFG) and Radiant Interior Walls (RIW), ii) the use of free cooling devices along with traditional heat pump connected to photo-voltaic panels and iii) the use of a new Energy Management System that collects data and acts accordingly by controlling all components. The effect of these strategies and the use of active systems, like Water Flow Glazing, are analysed by means of simulating the prototype over one year. Summer and Winter energy management strategies are discussed in order to change the SHGC value of the Water Flow Glazing and thus, reduce the required energy to maintain comfort conditions.

  9. Quantitative measurement of natural radioactivity in some roofing tile materials used in upper Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uosif, M. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative measurement of radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) in some roofing tile materials (granite, alabaster, marble, traditional and advanced ceramic) used in Upper Egypt is presented in this paper. Measurements were done by using gamma spectrometry (NaI (Tl) 3'' x 3''). The values of concentration of natural radionuclides were in the following ranges: 12-78.9 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 8.4-113.1 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 94.9-509 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. The activity concentration index (I), the specific dose rates indoors (D . ) and the annual effective dose (D E ) due to gamma radiation were calculated for each investigated sample. The lowest value of I is 0.19 for alabaster, while the highest one is 0.88 for traditional and advanced ceramic. The ranges of D E are between 0.03 and 0.13 mSv, it is below the maximal permitted values, so that the examined materials could be used as roofing tiles in the construction of new buildings. (authors)

  10. Sintering behavior of porous wall tile bodies during fast single-firing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei José Gomes Sousa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In ceramic wall tile processing, fast single-firing cycles have been widely used. In this investigation a fast single-firing porous wall tile mixture was prepared using raw materials from the North Fluminense region.Specimens were obtained by uniaxial pressing and sintered in air at various temperatures (1080 - 1200 °C using a fast-firing cycle (60 minutes. Evolution of the microstructure was followed by XRD and SEM. The results revealed that the main phases formed during the sintering step are anorthite, gehlenite and hematite. It appears that the sintering process is characterized by the presence of a small amount of a liquid phase below 1140 °C. As a result, the microstructure of the ceramic bodies showed a network of small dense zones interconnected with a porous phase. In addition, the strength of the material below 1140 °C appeared to be related to the type and quantity of crystalline phases in the sintered bodies.

  11. Structural characterization of clays commercially used in red ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, E.M.; Moura, J.K.L.; Souza, R.B.; Brandim, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of clays hills being an alternative to clay floodplain, due to environmental protection laws. The research project aims at the morphological and chemical characterization of hills clays used industrially for the production of ceramic tiles and blocks. Therefore, two types of methods were known commercially in the region of Teresina-PI through diffraction of X-rays (X-DR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry X-ray (EDS). It can be observed that the samples have a high percentage of quartz, hematite still having in its constitution aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide and titanium oxide. The results show that the clays are clays and montmorillonites may be used for the production of ceramic tiles and blocks, but as the proportion of using the same will be focusing the next job. (author)

  12. High temperature tribological properties of plasma-sprayed metallic coatings containing ceramic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, S.; Legoux, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    For sealing a moving metal component with a dense silica-based ceramic pre-heated at 800 C, coatings with a low coefficient of friction and moderate wear loss are required. As reported previously, plasma-sprayed coatings containing solid lubricants could reduce sliding wear in high-temperature applications. Plasma-sprayed metal-based coatings containing ceramic particles have been considered for high temperature sealing. Selected metal powders (NiCoCrAlY, CuNi, CuNiIn, Ag, Cu) and ceramic particles (boron nitride, Zeta-B ceramic) were agglomerated to form suitable spray powders. Plasma-sprayed composite coatings and reference materials were tested in a modified pin-on-disc apparatus in which the stationary disc consisted of a dense silica-based ceramic piece initially heated at 800 C and allowed to cool down during tests. The influence of single exposure and repeated contacts with a dense silica-based ceramic material pre-heated to 800 C on the coefficient of friction, wear loss and damage to the ceramic piece was evaluated. Being submitted to a single exposure at high temperature, coatings containing malleable metals such as indium, silver and copper performed well. The outstanding tribological characteristics of the copper-Zeta-B ceramic coating was attributed to the formation of a glazed layer on the surface of this coating which lasted over exposures to high temperature. This glazed layer, composed of fine oxidation products, provided a smooth and polished surface and helped maintaining the coefficient of friction low

  13. Effects of using kaolin waste and granite waste as raw materials for the production of low-water absorption ceramic tiles; Efeitos da co-utilizacao dos residuos do beneficiamento do caulim e da extracao do granito rain forest para a producao de revestimentos ceramicos com baixa absorcao de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freires, H.P.; Argonz, R.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q.; Sasaki, J.M., E-mail: argonz@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Sales, J.C. [Universidade do Vale do Aracau (UVA), Crateus, CE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of co-use of granite waste (Rain Forest) and kaolin waste as raw material for the manufacture of ceramic coating of low water absorption. Raw materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Kaolin residue was added to the residue of granite in the following proportions (in wt%): 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. Specimens were fabricated by uniaxial pressing and fired at 1175,1200 and 1225 deg C. Studies of firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent density and tensile bending test (or rupture modulus) were conducted. The temperature of 1225 deg C allowed the use of a mixture of 50% granite residue and 50% kaolin residue. Ceramic parts made from that mixture exhibited the maximum values required by the Brazilian Standard NBR 13818 for water absorption, shrinkage and density. (author)

  14. ATLAS rewards Russian supplier for scintillating tile production

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has awarded Russian firm SIA Luch from Podolsk in the Moscow region an ATLAS Supplier Award. This follows delivery by the company of the final batch of scintillating tiles for the collaboration's tile calorimeter some six months ahead of schedule. Representatives of the firm are seen here receiving the award at a ceremony held in the collaboration's tile calorimeter instrumentation plant at CERN on 30 July. In front of one tile calorimeter module instrumented by scintillating tiles are (left to right) IHEP physicists Evgueni Startchenko and Andrei Karioukhine, Luch Podolsk representatives Igor Karetnikov and Yuri Zaitsev, tile calorimeter project leader Rupert Leitner, ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and CERN tile calorimeter group leader Ana Henriques-Correia.

  15. Solving Vertex Cover Problem Using DNA Tile Assembly Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA tile assembly models are a class of mathematically distributed and parallel biocomputing models in DNA tiles. In previous works, tile assembly models have been proved be Turing-universal; that is, the system can do what Turing machine can do. In this paper, we use tile systems to solve computational hard problem. Mathematically, we construct three tile subsystems, which can be combined together to solve vertex cover problem. As a result, each of the proposed tile subsystems consists of Θ(1 types of tiles, and the assembly process is executed in a parallel way (like DNA’s biological function in cells; thus the systems can generate the solution of the problem in linear time with respect to the size of the graph.

  16. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimondo, M.; Dondi, M.; Zanelli, C.; Guarini, G.; Gozzi, A.; Marani, F.; Fossa, L.

    2010-07-01

    Large-sized ceramic slabs with dimensions up to 360x120 cm{sup 2} and thickness down to 2 mm are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites). Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD) and microstructural (SEM) viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated facades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling), indoor furnitures (table tops, doors), support for photovoltaic ceramic panels. (Author) 24 refs.

  17. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, M.; Dondi, M.; Zanelli, C.; Guarini, G.; Gozzi, A.; Marani, F.; Fossa, L.

    2010-01-01

    Large-sized ceramic slabs with dimensions up to 360x120 cm 2 and thickness down to 2 mm are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites). Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD) and microstructural (SEM) viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated facades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling), indoor furnitures (table tops, doors), support for photovoltaic ceramic panels. (Author) 24 refs.

  18. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  19. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for complex glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Four different complex glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET.The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements and to perform measurements and corrections according to a method developed in the ALTSET project...

  20. New milarite/osumilite-type phase formed during ancient glazing of an Egyptian scarab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, G.; Angelini, I.; Nestola, F.

    2013-02-01

    A scarab found in grave 25 of the Monte Prama necropolis, near Cabras, Oristano, Sardinia, is of special importance for the archaeological interpretation and dating of this important archaeological site. The object has been misinterpreted in the past as composed by bone: recent archaeometric analyses showed that it is a glazed steatite of Egyptian origin and that the altered surface contains interesting phases crystallized during the high-temperature interaction of the Mg-rich talc core with the alkali-rich glass used for glazing. A novel single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of one of the phases indicates that it is a new compound having the milarite-osumilite structure type, with a peculiar composition close to (Na1.52K0.12□0.36)(Mg3)(Mg1.72Cu0.16Fe0.12)(Si11.4Al0.6)O30, not reported for naturally occurring minerals. The structural and crystal chemical features of the compound, together with the known high-temperature stability of the series, allow a complete interpretation of the glazing process and conditions, based on direct application of the glaze on the steatite core with subsequent treatment at temperatures above 1000 °C.

  1. The characterisation of the daylighting properties of special glazings and solar shading devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H.A.L. van; Bakker, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Within the EU DGXII R&D Programme JOULE a project, called REVIS. started in 1998 and will be completed within 2.5 years, with the objective to develop detailed daylight product information of novel products of glazings and solar shading devices. This involves a test procedure, definition of product

  2. Modelling the optical and thermal properties of advanced glazing overview of recent developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenfeld, J.L.J.; Platzer, W.J.; Dijk, H.A.L. van; Maccari, A.

    2001-01-01

    The recently completed ALTSET project was part of the European Commission's Standards, Measurement and Testing programme. Its objective was the development of European standard test procedures for the determination of angular-dependent light and total solar energy transmittance for complex glazings

  3. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    to 1000 m²/g), the material is proposed to serve as substrate for catalytic materials. • The special pore structure of aerogel could be used for gas filters in the 20 to 100 nm region. • The sound velocity within aerogel is in the range of 100 to 300 m/s, which should be one of the lowest for an inorganic......-free nano-structured aerogel materials through a reasonably fast and reproducible process. The applicative part of this project aimed at elaborating, studying and optimising “state-of-the-art” (0.5 W/m2 K) aerogel glazings for windows. An important issue was the risk of outside condensation and rime and its....... No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. The annual energy savings compared to triple low energy glazing is in the range of 10 – 20% depending on type of building. Beside the application in glazing production the HILIT+ aerogel material...

  4. Permanent transparent color-warming glazes for dimmable and non-dimmable LED bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanard, Jan-Marie A.

    2014-02-01

    Illuminant metameric failure is frequently experienced when viewing material samples under LED generated light vs. traditional incandescent light. LED light temperatures can be improved with phosphor coatings, but long-wave red light is still generally absent in LED "warm-white" light, resulting in metameric failure of orange-to-red objects. Drawing on techniques developed for the architectural restoration of stained glass, we find that transparent, heat-resistant, permanent, pigmented coatings can be applied to any glass, aluminum or plastic surface of an LED bulb, including the phosphor plate, dome or envelope, to produce warmer visible light than in current warm-light LED bulbs. These glazes can be applied in combination with existing technologies to better tune the LED emitted light or they may be used alone. These pigmented coatings include, but are not limited to, those made by suspending inorganic materials in potassium silicates or durable transparent pigmented resins. The pigmented resin glazes may be produced in either a clear gloss vehicle or an iridescent, light diffusing transparent base. Further, a graduated density of the tinted glazes on dimmable bulbs allow the light to change color as wattage is diminished. The glazes may be applied in the manufacturing of the bulb or marketed to current bulb owners as an after-market product to better tune the thousands of LED light bulbs currently in use.

  5. Energy Labelling of Glazings and Windows in Denmark: Calculated and Measured Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Svend; Mogensen, Morten Møller

    2002-01-01

    The influence of windows on the energy consumption in buildings is well known and in order to encourage the development and the appropriate use of high performance glazings and windows in Denmark, an Energy Labelling and Rating system is being developed. During this work a need for establishing...

  6. Oil and the Translucent. Varnishing and glazing in practice, recipes and historiography, 1100-1600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, M.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies for the first time the history of varnishing and glazing in relation to the use of drying oils in the workshop of the medieval painter until the late sixteenth century. Results from technical research and historical reconstructions will be combined with an analysis of

  7. Sediment management and the renewability of floodplain clay for structural ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Wiersma, A.P.; Perk, M. van der; Middelkoop, H.; Hobo, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope: The Netherlands has vast resources of clay that are exploited for the fabrication of structural ceramic products such as bricks and roof tiles. Most clay is extracted from the so-called embanked floodplains along the rivers Rhine and Meuse, areas that are flooded during

  8. Sediment management and the renewability of floodplain clay for structural ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der M.J.; Wiersma, A.P.; Perk, van der M.; Middelkoop, H.; Hobo, N.

    2009-01-01

    The Netherlands has vast resources of clay that are exploited for the fabrication of structural ceramic products such as bricks and roof tiles. Most clay is extracted from the so-called embanked floodplains along the rivers Rhine and Meuse, areas that are flooded during high-discharge conditions.

  9. Design of a 2 x 2 scintillating tile package for the SDC barrel electromagnetic tile/fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, K.; Maekoba, H.; Minato, H.; Miyamoto, Y.; Nakano, I.; Okabe, M.; Seiya, Y.; Takano, T.; Takikawa, K.; Yasuoka, K.

    1996-01-01

    We describe R and D results on optical properties of a scintillating tile/fiber system for the SDC barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. The tile/fiber system uses a wavelength shifting fiber to read out the signal of a scintillating plate (tile) and a clear fiber to transmit the signal to a phototube. In the SDC calorimeter design, four of tile/fiber systems are grouped as a 2 x 2 tile package so that the gap width between and the location of the tiles in the absorber slot can be controlled. Optical properties of the tile package such as the light yield, its uniformity, and cross talk were measured in a test bench with a β-ray source and in a 2-GeV/c π + test beam. The performance as an electromagnetic calorimeter was evaluated by a GEANT simulation using the measured response map. We discuss a method of correction for the calorimeter non-uniformity. (orig.)

  10. The influence of clay fineness upon sludge recycling in a ceramic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szőke, A. M.; Muntean, M.; Sándor, M.; Brotea, L.

    2016-04-01

    The feasibility of sludge recycling in the ceramic manufacture was evaluated through laboratory testing. Such residues have similar chemical and mineralogical composition with the raw mixture of the green ceramic body used in construction. Several ceramic masses with clay and various proportion of sludge have been synthesized and then characterized by their physical-mechanical properties. The fineness of the clay, the main component of the green ceramic body, has been considered for every raw mixture. The proportion of the sludge waste addition depends on the clay fineness and the sintering capacity also, increases with the clay fineness. The ceramic properties, particularly, the open porosity, and mechanical properties, in presence of small sludge proportion (7, 20%) shows small modification. The introduction of such waste into building ceramic matrix (bricks, tiles, and plates) has a very good perspective.

  11. Large-Aperture Grating Tiling by Interferometry for Petawatt Chirped-Pulse--Amplification Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, J.; Kalb, A.; Guardalben, M.J.; King, G.; Canning. D.; Kelly, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    A tiled-grating assembly with three large-scale gratings is developed with real-time interferometric tiling control for the OMEGA EP Laser Facility. An automatic tiling method is achieved and used to tile a three-tile grating assembly with the overall wavefront reconstructed. Tiling parameters sensitivity and focal-spot degradation from all combined tiling errors are analyzed for a pulse compressor composed of four such assemblies

  12. Effect of Two Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness, Topography, and Flexural Strength of a Monolithic Lithium Disilicate Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadibassir, Mahshid; Rezvani, Mohammad Bagher; Golzari, Hossein; Moravej Salehi, Elham; Fahimi, Mohammad Amin; Kharazi Fard, Mohammad Javad

    2017-03-08

    To evaluate the effect of overglazing and two polishing procedures on flexural strength and quality and quantity of surface roughness of a monolithic lithium disilicate ceramic computer-aided design (CAD) after grinding. This in vitro study was conducted on 52 partially crystalized bar-shaped specimens (16 × 4 × 1.6 mm) of monolithic lithium disilicate ceramic. The specimens were wet polished with 600-, 800-, and 1200-grit silicon carbide papers for 15 seconds using a grinding/polishing machine at a speed of 300 rpm. Then, the specimens were crystalized and glaze-fired in one step simultaneously and randomly divided into four groups of 13: (I) Glazing group (control); (II) Grinding-glazing group, subjected to grinding with red band finishing diamond bur (46 μm) followed by glazing; (III) Grinding-D+Z group, subjected to grinding and then polishing by coarse, medium, and fine diamond rubber points (D+Z); and (IV) Grinding-OptraFine group, subjected to grinding and then polishing with a two-step diamond rubber polishing system followed by a final polishing step with an OptraFine HP brush and diamond polishing paste. The surface roughness (Ra and Rz) values (μm) were measured by a profilometer, and the mean values were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane's test (post hoc comparison). One specimen of each group was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for surface topography. The three-point flexural strength values of the bars were measured using a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed and recorded. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane's test (α = 0.05). Statistically significant differences were noted among the experimental groups for Ra, Rz (p SEM analysis of polished surfaces revealed regular morphology with some striations. The OptraFine system created smoother and more uniform surfaces in terms of quantity (p < 0.03 for Ra, p < 0.01 for Rz) and quality of roughness compared to glazing. The flexural

  13. Surface characterization of polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses after treatment with photopolymerized glaze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Commar, Betina Chiarelo; Rocha Bonatto, Liliane da; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Sônego, Mariana Vilela; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Pesqueira, Aldieris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The material used for interim prostheses fabrication must present excellent physical properties for greater longevity in the face of environmental conditions, which can occur in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a photopolymerized glaze on the physical and mechanical properties of polymers used for the fabrication of interim prostheses, before and after thermocycling and immersion in staining solutions. One hundred samples of composite and acrylic resins were fabricated: Dencor chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR) (n = 20) and heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR) (n = 20), Charisma (n = 20), Structur (n = 20), and Protemp (n = 20). A mechanical polishing was performed on half of the samples, and a chemical polishing was performed on the remaining samples. Subsequently, all samples were submitted to thermocycling and immersion in coffee staining solution for 21 days. Analysis of color and microhardness, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) were performed. The data were submitted to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey test (α = 0.05) and the Student t-test (α = 0.05). It was verified that the glaze decreased the chromatic alteration values, and increased the microhardness values of the samples, with the exception of the Charisma resin. The samples that did not receive chemical polishing had the greatest number of surface irregularities. This study concluded that the groups with glaze presented less color alteration. In addition, Charisma and Structur resins exhibited the greatest chromatic stability. As to the microhardness, the values were greater when the samples were treated with the glaze, with the exception of the Charisma group. - Highlights: • Polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses were analyzed. • The influence of a chemical polishing on these polymers was analyzed.

  14. Surface characterization of polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses after treatment with photopolymerized glaze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos, E-mail: danielamicheline@foa.unesp.br [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil); Commar, Betina Chiarelo; Rocha Bonatto, Liliane da; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Sônego, Mariana Vilela [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil); Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano [Technological Plasma Laboratory (LaPTec), Experimental Campus of Sorocaba, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Tres de Março Av., 511, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, 18087-180 (Brazil); Pesqueira, Aldieris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    The material used for interim prostheses fabrication must present excellent physical properties for greater longevity in the face of environmental conditions, which can occur in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a photopolymerized glaze on the physical and mechanical properties of polymers used for the fabrication of interim prostheses, before and after thermocycling and immersion in staining solutions. One hundred samples of composite and acrylic resins were fabricated: Dencor chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR) (n = 20) and heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR) (n = 20), Charisma (n = 20), Structur (n = 20), and Protemp (n = 20). A mechanical polishing was performed on half of the samples, and a chemical polishing was performed on the remaining samples. Subsequently, all samples were submitted to thermocycling and immersion in coffee staining solution for 21 days. Analysis of color and microhardness, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) were performed. The data were submitted to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey test (α = 0.05) and the Student t-test (α = 0.05). It was verified that the glaze decreased the chromatic alteration values, and increased the microhardness values of the samples, with the exception of the Charisma resin. The samples that did not receive chemical polishing had the greatest number of surface irregularities. This study concluded that the groups with glaze presented less color alteration. In addition, Charisma and Structur resins exhibited the greatest chromatic stability. As to the microhardness, the values were greater when the samples were treated with the glaze, with the exception of the Charisma group. - Highlights: • Polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses were analyzed. • The influence of a chemical polishing on these polymers was analyzed.

  15. Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibrtion procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the photomultipliers (PMTs) that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the test in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the resonse drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operation during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure the drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to the data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  16. Optics robustness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Batalha Pedro, Rute; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    TileCal, the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is composed of plastic scintillators interleaved by iron plates, and wavelength shifting optical fibres. The optical properties of these components are known to suffer from natural ageing and degrade due to exposure to radiation. The calorimeter was designed for 10 years of LHC operating at the design luminosity of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. Irradiation tests of scintillators and fibres shown that their light yield decrease about 10 for the maximum dose expected after the 10 years of LHC operation. The robustness of the TileCal optics components is evaluated using the calibration systems of the calorimeter: Cs-137 gamma source, laser light, and integrated photomultiplier signals of particles from collisions. It is observed that the loss of light yield increases with exposure to radiation as expected. The decrease in the light yield during the years 2015-2017 corresponding to the LHC Run 2 will be reported.

  17. Large TileCal magnetic field simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessi, M.; Bergsma, F.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Borisov, O.N.; Lomakina, O.V.; Karamysheva, G.A.; Budagov, Yu.A.

    1994-01-01

    The ATLAS magnetic field map has been estimated in the presence of the hadron tile calorimeter. This is an important issue in order to quantify the needs for individual PMT shielding, the effect on the scintillator light yield and its implications on the calibration. The field source is based on a central solenoid and 8 superconducting air-core toroidal coils. The maximum induction value in the scintillating tiles does not exceed 6 mT. When an iron plate is used to close the open drawer window the field inside the PMT near to the extended barrel edge does not exceed 0.6 mT. Estimation of ponder motive force distribution, acting on individual units of the system was performed. VF electromagnetic software OPERA-TOSCA and CERN POISCR code were used for the field simulation of the system. 10 refs., 4 figs

  18. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two photomultiplier in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter r...

  19. Tile-in-ONE.cern.ch

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella Gomes, Andressa; The ATLAS collaboration; Ferreira, Fernando; Solans, Carlos; Solodkov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter assesses the quality of data in order to ensure its proper operation. A number of tasks are then performed by running several tools and systems, which were independently developed to meet distinct collaboration’s requirements and do not necessarily builds an effective connection among them. Thus, a program is usually implemented without a global perspective of the detector, requiring basic software features. In addition, functionalities may overlap in their objectives and frequently replicate resources retrieval mechanisms. Tile-in-ONE is a unique platform that assembles various web systems used by the calorimeter community through a single framework and a standard technology. It provides an infrastructure to support the code implementation, avoiding duplication of work while integrating with an overall view of the detector status. Database connectors smooth the process of information access since developers do not need to be aware of where records are placed and how to extract th...

  20. Laser Calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibration procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the PMTs that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the tests in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the response drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operating during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.