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Sample records for glass-flakes reinforced polypropylene

  1. Flexural properties and impact strength of denture base resins reinforced with micronized glass flakes

    Ronak H Choksi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Flexural strength of unmodified PMMA denture base resin decreases with increase in the concentration of glass flakes. Impact strength does not show any significant change at 5% concentration of glass flakes and impact strength significantly reduces with the addition of glass flakes in 10% and 20%.

  2. Woodflour as Reinforcement of Polypropylene

    José Cláudio Caraschi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the filler content and size, as well as accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with woodflour (WF/PP were evaluated. The composites were prepared by the extrusion of polypropylene with woodflour (Pinus elliotti based on following ratios: 15, 25 and 40 wt% with two different granulometries. The specimens were injection molded according to ASTM standards. The composite properties did not show significant differences as a function of the filler granulometry. We also observed that by increasing the filler content, both the mechanical properties and the melt flow index (MFI decreased, and the elasticity modulus, hardness and density increased. Concerning the accelerated aging, the composite presented a reduction in tensile properties. The results showed that the composite properties are extremely favorable when compared to other commercial systems reinforced by inorganic fillers.

  3. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  4. Monotonic and cyclic responses of impact polypropylene and continuous glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene composites at different strain rates

    Yudhanto, Arief; Lubineau, Gilles; Wafai, Husam; Mulle, Matthieu; Pulungan, Ditho Ardiansyah; Yaldiz, R.; Verghese, N.

    2016-01-01

    Impact copolymer polypropylene (IPP), a blend of isotactic polypropylene and ethylene-propylene rubber, and its continuous glass fiber composite form (glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene, GFIPP) are promising materials for impact

  5. Fatigue mechanisms in unidirectional glass-fibre-reinforced polypropylene

    Gamstedt, E.K.; Berglund, L.A.; Peijs, T.

    1999-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene modified with maleic anhydride (MA-PP) reinforced by continuous longitudinal glass fibres have been investigated. The most prominent effect of the modification with maleic anhydride in the composite is a stronger fibre/matrix interface. The effects of interfac......Polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene modified with maleic anhydride (MA-PP) reinforced by continuous longitudinal glass fibres have been investigated. The most prominent effect of the modification with maleic anhydride in the composite is a stronger fibre/matrix interface. The effects...... of interfacial strength on fatigue performance and on the underlying micromechanisms have been studied for these composite systems. Tension-tension fatigue tests (R = 0.1) were carried out on 0 degrees glass-fibre/PP and glass-fibre/ MA-PP coupons. The macroscopic fatigue behaviour was characterized in terms...

  6. Coir dust reinforced recycled polypropylene composites

    Santos, Bianca B. dos; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M. da S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by disposed plastics encourage the search for new alternatives. Recycling polymers leads to the degradation of their mechanical properties, which can be modified by the addition of fillers. In this paper, recycled polypropylene from plastic cups with 2%, 5% and 10% of coir dust were produced with and without the addition of additives. These composites were characterized by tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy on the fracture surface. It was verified the effectiveness of the addition of coir dust in improving the elasticity modulus of recycled polypropylene besides the effectiveness of additives used in promoting the adhesion of the powder to the matrix. However, higher levels of coir dust caused the appearance of air bubbles inside the material, which contributed to its embrittlement. The addition of coir dust promoted a decrease in the degree of polypropylene crystallinity. (author)

  7. Coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composite panel for automotive interior applications

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Songklod Jarusombuti; Vallayuth Fueangvivat; Piyawade Bauchongkol; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    In this study, physical, mechanical, and flammability properties of coconut fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composite panels were evaluated. Four levels of the coir fiber content (40, 50, 60, and 70 % based on the composition by weight) were mixed with the PP powder and a coupling agent, 3 wt % maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) powder. The water resistance and the...

  8. The use of maleic anhydride-modified polypropylene for performance enhancement in continuous glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites

    Rijsdijk, H.A.; Contant, M.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Miravete, A.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of maleic anhydride-modified polypropylene (m-PP) on static mech. properties of continuous glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites was studied. M-PP was added to the PP homopolymer to improve the adhesion between the matrix and the glass fiber. Three-point bending tests

  9. Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites

    Arib, R.M.N.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ahmad, M.M.H.M.; Paridah, M.T.; Zaman, H.M.D. Khairul

    2006-01-01

    Pineapple leaf fibre, which is rich in cellulose, relative inexpensive and abundantly available has the potential for polymer-reinforced composite. The present study investigates the tensile and flexural behaviours of pineapple leaf fibre-polypropylene composites as a function of volume fraction. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of the composites were found to be increasing with fibre content in accordance with the rule of mixtures. The tensile modulus and tensile strength with a volume fraction 10.8% are 687.02 and 37.28 MPa, respectively. The flexural modulus gives higher value at 2.7% volume fraction. The flexural strength of the composites containing 5.4% volume fraction was found to be higher than that of pure polypropylene resin by 5.1%. Scanning electron microscopic studies were carried out to understand the fibre-matrix adhesion and fibre breakage

  10. Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites

    Arib, R.M.N. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sapuan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)]. E-mail: sapuan@eng.upm.edu.my; Ahmad, M.M.H.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zaman, H.M.D. Khairul [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    Pineapple leaf fibre, which is rich in cellulose, relative inexpensive and abundantly available has the potential for polymer-reinforced composite. The present study investigates the tensile and flexural behaviours of pineapple leaf fibre-polypropylene composites as a function of volume fraction. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of the composites were found to be increasing with fibre content in accordance with the rule of mixtures. The tensile modulus and tensile strength with a volume fraction 10.8% are 687.02 and 37.28 MPa, respectively. The flexural modulus gives higher value at 2.7% volume fraction. The flexural strength of the composites containing 5.4% volume fraction was found to be higher than that of pure polypropylene resin by 5.1%. Scanning electron microscopic studies were carried out to understand the fibre-matrix adhesion and fibre breakage.

  11. The mechanisms of reinforcement of polypropylene by graphene nanoplatelets

    Ahmad, Siti Rohana; Xue, Chengzhe; Young, Robert J., E-mail: robert.young@manchester.ac.uk

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The thermal stability of the polypropylene is improved significantly with the GNPs. • The melting temperature and degree of crystallinity of the PP are both increased. • The effective Young’s modulus of the GNP reinforcement is 100 GPa. • The same effective Young’s modulus is found from Raman band shifts. - Abstract: A detailed analysis has been undertaken of the mechanisms of reinforcement of polypropylene (PP) by the addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP). The PP/GNP nanocomposites were processed by melt mixing followed by injection moulding and microstructure was fully characterized. It was found that the GNPs increased the thermal stability of the PP and aided crystal nucleation. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were evaluated using both tensile testing and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. The addition of GNPs led to a significant increase in the Young’s modulus of the PP, coupled with a decrease in the yield stress and a reduction in the elongation to failure. Stress transfer from the PP matrix to the GNP reinforcement was followed from stress-induced shifts of the 2D Raman band and the effective Young’s modulus of the GNPs in the nanocomposites was found to be about 100 GPa, shown to be consistent with the expected value.

  12. Reinforcement of Recycled Foamed Asphalt Using Short Polypropylene Fibers

    Yongjoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of short polypropylene fibers on recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixture. Short polypropylene fibers of 10 mm length with a 0.15% by weight mixing ratio of the fiber to the asphalt binder were used. The Marshall stability test, the indirect tensile strength test, the resilient modulus test, and wheel tracking test of the RFA mixtures were conducted. The test results were compared to find out the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of the fiber and the other mixtures, which included the conventional recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixtures; the cement reinforced recycled foamed asphalt (CRFA mixtures; the semihot recycled foamed asphalt (SRFA mixtures; and recycled hot-mix asphalt (RHMA mixtures. It is found that the FRFA mixture shows higher Marshall stability than the RFA and SRFA mixtures, higher indirect tensile strength than the RFA mixture, and higher rut resistance than the RFA, SRFA, and RHMA mixtures as seen from the wheel tracking test.

  13. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    López-Buendía, Angel M., E-mail: buendia@uv.es [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Benjamin Franklin 17, 46380 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain); Climent, Verónica [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain); Guillem, Celia [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  14. Structural characterization and mechanical properties of polypropylene reinforced natural fibers

    Karim, M. A. A.; Zaman, I.; Rozlan, S. A. M.; Berhanuddin, N. I. C.; Manshoor, B.; Mustapha, M. S.; Khalid, A.; Chan, S. W.

    2017-10-01

    Recently the development of natural fiber composite instead of synthetics fiber has lead to eco-friendly product manufacturing to meet various applications in the field of automotive, construction and manufacturing. The use of natural fibers offer an alternative to the reinforcing fibers because of their good mechanical properties, low density, renewability, and biodegradability. In this present research, the effects of maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical properties and material characterization behaviour of kenaf fiber and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene were investigated. Different fractions of composites with 10wt%, 20wt% and 30wt% fiber content were prepared by using brabender mixer at 190°C. The 3wt% MAPP was added during the mixing. The composites were subsequently molded with injection molding to prepare the test specimens. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated according to ISO 527 to determine the tensile strength and modulus. These results were also confirmed by the SEM machine observations of fracture surface of composites and FTIR analysis of the chemical structure. As the results, the presence of MAPP helps increasing the mechanical properties of both fibers and 30wt% kenaf fiber with 3wt% MAPP gives the best result compare to others.

  15. Flexural strength of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete beams using polypropylene fiber: An experimental study

    Lisantono, Ade; Praja, Baskoro Abdi; Hermawan, Billy Nouwen

    2017-11-01

    One of the methods to increase the tensile strength of concrete is adding a fiber material into the concrete. While to reduce a noise in a construction project, a self compacting concrete was a good choices in the project. This paper presents an experimental study of flexural behavior and strength of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete (RC) beams using polypropylene fiber. The micro monofilament polypropylene fibers with the proportion 0.9 kg/m3 of concrete weight were used in this study. Four beam specimens were cast and tested in this study. Two beams were cast of self compacting reinforced concrete without fiber, and two beams were cast of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete using polypropylene. The beams specimen had the section of (180×260) mm and the length was 2000 mm. The beams had simple supported with the span of 1800 mm. The longitudinal reinforcements were using diameter of 10 mm. Two reinforcements of Ø10 mm were put for compressive reinforcement and three reinforcements of Ø10 mm were put for tensile reinforcement. The shear reinforcement was using diameter of 8 mm. The shear reinforcements with spacing of 100 mm were put in the one fourth near to the support and the spacing of 150 mm were put in the middle span. Two points loading were used in the testing. The result shows that the load-carrying capacity of the self compacting reinforced concrete beam using polypropylene was a little bit higher than the self compacting reinforced concrete beam without polypropylene. The increment of load-carrying capacity of self compacting polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete was not so significant because the increment was only 2.80 % compare to self compacting non fiber reinforced concrete. And from the load-carrying capacity-deflection relationship curves show that both the self compacting polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete beam and the self compacting non fiber reinforced concrete beam were ductile beams.

  16. Acoustic properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with stone groundwood

    Joan Pere López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, acoustic isolation is one of the problems raised with building construction in Spain. The publication of the Basic Document for the protection against noise of the Technical Building Code has increased the demand of comfort for citizens. This has created the need to seek new composite materials that meet the new required acoustical building codes. In this paper we report the results of the newly developed composites that are able to improve the acoustic isolation of airborne noise. These composites were prepared from polypropylene (PP reinforced with mechanical pulp fibers from softwood (Pinus radiata. Mechanical and acoustical properties of the composites from mechanical pulp (MP and polypropylene (PP have been investigated and compared to fiberglass (FG composites. MP composites had lower tensile properties compared with FG composites, although these properties can be improved by incorporation of a coupling agent. The results of acoustical properties of MP composites were reported and compared with the conventional composites based on fiberglass and gypsum plasterboards. Finally, we suggest the application of MP composites as a light-weight building material to reduce acoustic transmitions.

  17. Polypropylene reinforced with organophilic clay and brazilian nut fibers

    Rocha-Gomes, L.V.; Mondelo-Garcia, F.J.; Vaccioli, K.; Valera, S.T.; Silva-Valenzuela, M.G.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have been shown to possess better properties when compared with traditional composites. This study aims to investigate the effects of the addition of organophilic clay and Brazilian nut fiber on the polypropylene (PP). First, 5%, 10% and 20% PP/compatibilizer maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) by weight was added to Pure PP, respectively. From the results, 5% PP-g-MA was defined for preparing the nanocomposites. Samples were prepared containing 5% PP / PP-g-MA reinforced with 5% organophilic Brazilian smectite clay and 5%, 10% and 15% Brazilian nut fiber. Specimens were tested for tensile strength and impact. The materials were characterized by laser diffraction particle size and X-ray diffraction, and the nanocomposites, by mechanical strength and impact. The best result was obtained by inserting 15% fiber. (author)

  18. Process monitoring of glass reinforced polypropylene laminates using fiber Bragg gratings

    Mulle, Matthieu; Wafai, Husam; Yudhanto, Arief; Lubineau, Gilles; Yaldiz, R.; Schijve, W.; Verghese, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hot-press molding of glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) laminates was monitored using longitudinally and transversely embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) at different locations in unidirectional laminates. The optical sensors proved

  19. Nanoscale Characterization of Glass Flake Filled Vinyl Ester Anti-Corrosion Coatings

    Salim Barbhuiya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl ester is a thermoset matrix resin that is widely used in the coating industry. The presence of glass flakes further enhances the anti-corrosion performance of this coating. This paper reports the nanoscaled characterization of glass flake filled vinyl ester anti-corrosion coatings on mild steel. Bond strength properties of one uncoated and four coated samples with different thicknesses (300, 600, 900 and 1200 μm were studied using nanoscratch technique and ASTM Standard Test. It was found that the bond strength of coating with thickness 900 μm was the highest. The frequency distributions of elastic modulus on coating with 900 μm thickness determined using nanoindentation indicated that only 20–25% of the coating is composed of glass flakes and the balance is vinyl ester matrix. The critical depth at which the material is subject to failure due to external load and abrasion, was found to be around 100 nm.

  20. Melt rheological properties of natural fiber-reinforced polypropylene

    Jarrod J. Schemenauer; Tim A. Osswald; Anand R. Sanadi; Daniel F. Caulfield

    2000-01-01

    The melt viscosities and mechanical properties of 3 different natural fiber-polypropylene composites were investigated. Coir (coconut), jute, and kenaf fibers were compounded with polypropylene at 30% by weight content. A capillary rheometer was used to evaluate melt viscosity. The power-law model parameters are reported over a shear rate range between 100 to 1000 s–1...

  1. Tensile strength characteristics of polypropylene composites reinforced with stone groundwood fibers from softwood

    López, Joan Pere; Méndez González, José Alberto; Espinach Orús, Xavier; Julián Pérez, Fernando; Mutjé Pujol, Pere; Vilaseca Morera, Fabiola

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of stone groundwood / polypropylene injection-molded composites was evaluated with and without coupling agent. Stone groundwood (SGW) is a fibrous material commonly prepared in a high yield process and mainly used for papermaking applications. In this work, the use of SGW fibers was explored as a reinforcing element of polypropylene (PP) composites. The surface charge density of the composite components was evaluated, as well as the fiber’s length and diameter inside the composit...

  2. Monotonic and cyclic responses of impact polypropylene and continuous glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene composites at different strain rates

    Yudhanto, Arief

    2016-03-08

    Impact copolymer polypropylene (IPP), a blend of isotactic polypropylene and ethylene-propylene rubber, and its continuous glass fiber composite form (glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene, GFIPP) are promising materials for impact-prone automotive structures. However, basic mechanical properties and corresponding damage of IPP and GFIPP at different rates, which are of keen interest in the material development stage and numerical tool validation, have not been reported. Here, we applied monotonic and cyclic tensile loads to IPP and GFIPP at different strain rates (0.001/s, 0.01/s and 0.1/s) to study the mechanical properties, failure modes and the damage parameters. We used monotonic and cyclic tests to obtain mechanical properties and define damage parameters, respectively. We also used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images to visualize the failure mode. We found that IPP generally exhibits brittle fracture (with relatively low failure strain of 2.69-3.74%) and viscoelastic-viscoplastic behavior. GFIPP [90]8 is generally insensitive to strain rate due to localized damage initiation mostly in the matrix phase leading to catastrophic transverse failure. In contrast, GFIPP [±45]s is sensitive to the strain rate as indicated by the change in shear modulus, shear strength and failure mode.

  3. Evaluation of the thermal properties of polypropylene reinforced with palm fibers composites

    Capri, M.R.; Santana, L.C.; Mulinari, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize polypropylene reinforced with palm composites. Of this form, it was studied physical and chemical modifications of the in nature fibers, washed with hot water and mercerized. The composites of polypropylene reinforced with 5%, 10% and 20% (wt /wt) in nature fibers and mercerized were evaluated thermally. The fibers were characterized by SEM XRD and TGA / DSC techniques. Results revealed that the mercerized fibers presented higher crystallinity when compared to others, as well as increased roughness, facilitating interlacing with the reinforcement matrix. Thermal studies of the fibers showed that the mercerization caused displacement curves paragraph higher temperatures. The composites reinforced with treated fibers presented largest temperatures and enthalpies of degradation. The content of fiber influenced in enthalpy degradation and reduction in fusion temperature. (author)

  4. Jute fiber reinforced polypropylene produced by continuous extrusion compounding. Part 1. Processing and ageing properties

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Snijder, M.H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the processing and ageing properties of jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. The composite has been manufactured by a continuous extrusion process and results in free flowing composite granules, comprising up to 50 weight percent (wt %) jute fiber in PP. These

  5. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a reinforcing fibre in polypropylene composites

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Elbersen, H.W.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Klerk-Engels, de B.

    2003-01-01

    In this study the switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a biomass crop being developed in North America and Europe, was tested as a stiffening and reinforcing agent in polypropylene (PP) composites with and without maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) as a compatibiliser and to evaluate the effect of

  6. Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Reinforced with Polypropylene Fibre

    Wan Mohammad Wan Nur Syazwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work is aimed to investigate how the addition of various proportion of polypropylene fibre affects the mechanical strength and permeability characteristics of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC which has been produced with treated coarse recycled concrete aggregate (RCA. Further research on RAC properties and their applications is of great importance as the scarcity of virgin aggregate sources in close proximity to major urban centers is becoming a worldwide problem. In this study, the hardened RAC properties at the curing age of 7 and 28 days such as compressive strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV, water absorption and total porosity were evaluated and compare with control specimens. Experimental result indicates that although the inclusion of the treated coarse RCA can enhance the mechanical strength and permeability properties of RAC, Further modification by addition of polypropylene fibre can optimize the results.

  7. Tough and Reinforced Polypropylene/Kaolin Composites using Modified Kaolin

    Yao, J. L.; Zhu, H. X.; Qi, Y. B.; Guo, M. J.; Hu, Q.; Gao, L.

    2018-05-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/kaolin composites have been prepared by filling modified kaolin with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) into the PP matrix. The surface modification of kaolin particles effectively improves the compatibility between kaolin and PP matrix. It is conducive for uniform dispersion of inorganic particles in the matrix, and enhances the mechanical performance of the composites. Compared with plain kaolin, the mechanical properties of the modified composites exhibit higher tensile strength, bending strength, impact strength and melt index simultaneously. The DTPA modification of kaolin overall enhances the mechanical properties of PP composites. It meets the requirements in various applications, and makes the modified experiment interesting in modern teaching.

  8. Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Cyclic Immersion on Tensile Properties

    W. H. Haniffah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the degradation of tensile properties of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites due to cyclic immersion into two different solutions, as well as comparison of the developed composites’ tensile properties under continuous and cyclic immersion. Composites with 40% and 60% fibre loadings were immersed in tap water and bleach for 4 cycles. Each cycle consisted of 3 days of immersion and 4 days of conditioning in room temperature (28°C and 55% humidity. The tensile strength and modulus of composites were affected by fibre composition, type of liquid of immersion, and number of cycles. The number of immersion cycles and conditioning caused degradation to tensile strength and modulus of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. Continuous and cyclic immersion in bleach caused tensile strength of the composites to differ significantly whereas, for tensile modulus, the difference was insignificant in any immersion and fibre loadings. However, continuous immersion in the bleach reduced the tensile strength of composites more compared to cyclic immersion. These preliminary results suggest further evaluation of the suitability of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites for potential bathroom application where the composites will be exposed to water/liquid in cyclic manner due to discontinuous usage of bathroom.

  9. Investigating the influence of alkalization on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut and sponge fibers reinforced polypropylene composites

    Okikiola Ganiu AGBABIAKA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are products made from renewable agricultural and forestry feedstock, which can include wood, grasses, and crops, as well as wastes and residues. There are two primary ways these fibers are used: to create polymers or as reinforcement and filler. Thermoplastic polymer may be reinforced or filled using natural fibers such as coir, sponge, hemp, flax, or sisal. This paper focused on the influence of alkalization (NaOH treatment on the mechanical and water absorption properties of selected natural fibers (coconut and sponge fibers reinforced polypropylene composites. In this study, coconut and sponge fiber were extracted from its husk by soaking them in water and was dried before it was cut into 10mm length. Those fibers were chemically treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH in a shaking water bath before it was used as reinforcement in polypropylene composite. The reinforced polypropylene composite was produced by dispersing the coconut fibers randomly in the polypropylene before it was fabricated in a compression molding machine where the composite was produced. The fiber content used were; 2%wt, 4%wt, 6%wt, 8%wt and 10%wt. Tensile and flexural properties was observed from universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for seven (7 days. It was observed that the influence of NaOH treatment highly enhanced the Flexural and water absorption properties of sponge fiber reinforced polypropylene composites than coconut fiber reinforced composite samples.

  10. Bio-composites based on polypropylene reinforced with Almond Shells particles: Mechanical and thermal properties

    Essabir, H.; Nekhlaoui, S.; Malha, M.; Bensalah, M.O.; Arrakhiz, F.Z.; Qaiss, A.; Bouhfid, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Almond Shells (ASs) particles have been used as reinforcement in polypropylene matrix. • The SEBS-g-MA has been used to improve the adhesion between matrix and particles. • The mechanical and thermal properties of the composite have been improved by the AS. - Abstract: In this work, Almond Shells (ASs) particles are used as reinforcement in a thermoplastic matrix as polypropylene (PP). Composites containing Almond Shells (ASs) particles with and without compatibilizer (maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene; SEBS-g-MA) for various particle content (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 wt.%) was investigated by means of studying their mechanical, thermal and rheological properties. The composites were prepared in a twin-screw extruder and assessed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile testing and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Results show a clear improvement in mechanical and rheological properties from the use of Almond Shells particles in the matrix without and with maleic anhydride compatibilizer, corresponding to a gain in Young’s modulus of 56.2% and 35% respectively, at 30 wt.% particle loading. Thermal analysis revealed that incorporation of particle in the composites resulted in increase in the initial thermal decomposition temperatures

  11. Recycling of asbestos tailings used as reinforcing fillers in polypropylene based composites.

    Zhai, Wensi; Wang, Yao; Deng, Yuan; Gao, Hongli; Lin, Zhen; Li, Mao

    2014-04-15

    In this work, asbestos tailings were recycled and used as reinforcing fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP). A silane coupling agent was used to chemically modify the asbestos tailings to increase the compatibility between asbestos tailings and polypropylene matrix. Both raw and chemically treated asbestos tailings with different loading levels (from 3 to 30 wt%) were utilized to fabricate composites. Mechanical properties of these composites have been investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile test and notched impact test. Results showed that hybridization of asbestos tailings in the composites enhanced the mechanical properties of neat PP evidently, and treated asbestos tailings/PP composites yielded even better mechanical properties compared with those of raw asbestos tailings/PP composites. This recycling method of asbestos tailings not only reduces disposal costs and avoids secondary pollution but also produces a new PP-based composite material with enhanced mechanical properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on polypropylene composites reinforced with coconut fibers

    Miranda, Leila F.; Pereira, Nilson C.; Faldini, Sonia B.; Masson, Terezinha J.; Silveira, Luiz H., E-mail: lfmiranda@sti.com.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Curso de Engenharia de Materiais; Silva, Leonardo G. de Andrade e, E-mail: lgasilva@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of the polymeric composite materials has been increasing but these materials have environmental problems related to the discard. To reduce the discard deleterious effect, coconuts, sisal, as well as sugar cane pulp natural based fiber have been studied to replace the synthetic ones. These fibers embedded in a polymeric matrix plays a similar role as the synthetic ones, in terms of mechanical and thermal properties. The natural fibers are environmentally friendly, easy to recycle and biodegradable. The aim of this work is the study of ionizing radiation effects on the properties of recycled polypropylene composites, reinforced with 10%, 15% and 20% of the coconut fibers, using as coupling agent a substance based on maleic anhydride (MAPP) graphitized polypropylene. The samples were molded by injection, irradiated and submitted to thermal and mechanical tests. The mechanical properties (hardness, impact strength and tensile strength), temperature of thermal distortion (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature of the non irradiated and irradiated composites were determined. The irradiation doses were of 30, 50 and 100kGy in a gamma cell. Regarding the thermal and mechanical properties of non-irradiated samples, the incorporation of coconut fibers to polypropylene resulted in a decrease of impact strength, tensile strength and Vicat softening temperature as well as in an increase in hardness and HDT. This result indicates that the coconut fibers do not act like a reinforcement agent but as biodegradable filler. In the irradiated samples, it was observed a decrease in the impact strength, tensile strength, HDT, and thermal distortion temperature and an increase in the hardness and tensile strength. The Vicat softening temperature shows no change. (author)

  13. Effect of ionizing radiation on polypropylene composites reinforced with coconut fibers

    Miranda, Leila F.; Pereira, Nilson C.; Faldini, Sonia B.; Masson, Terezinha J.; Silveira, Luiz H.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the polymeric composite materials has been increasing but these materials have environmental problems related to the discard. To reduce the discard deleterious effect, coconuts, sisal, as well as sugar cane pulp natural based fiber have been studied to replace the synthetic ones. These fibers embedded in a polymeric matrix plays a similar role as the synthetic ones, in terms of mechanical and thermal properties. The natural fibers are environmentally friendly, easy to recycle and biodegradable. The aim of this work is the study of ionizing radiation effects on the properties of recycled polypropylene composites, reinforced with 10%, 15% and 20% of the coconut fibers, using as coupling agent a substance based on maleic anhydride (MAPP) graphitized polypropylene. The samples were molded by injection, irradiated and submitted to thermal and mechanical tests. The mechanical properties (hardness, impact strength and tensile strength), temperature of thermal distortion (HDT) and Vicat softening temperature of the non irradiated and irradiated composites were determined. The irradiation doses were of 30, 50 and 100kGy in a gamma cell. Regarding the thermal and mechanical properties of non-irradiated samples, the incorporation of coconut fibers to polypropylene resulted in a decrease of impact strength, tensile strength and Vicat softening temperature as well as in an increase in hardness and HDT. This result indicates that the coconut fibers do not act like a reinforcement agent but as biodegradable filler. In the irradiated samples, it was observed a decrease in the impact strength, tensile strength, HDT, and thermal distortion temperature and an increase in the hardness and tensile strength. The Vicat softening temperature shows no change. (author)

  14. Mechanical, Thermal Degradation, and Flammability Studies on Surface Modified Sisal Fiber Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites

    Arun Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of surface treated sisal fiber on the mechanical, thermal, flammability, and morphological properties of sisal fiber (SF reinforced recycled polypropylene (RPP composites was investigated. The surface of sisal fiber was modified with different chemical reagent such as silane, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA, and O-hydroxybenzene diazonium chloride (OBDC to improve the compatibility with the matrix polymer. The experimental results revealed an improvement in the tensile strength to 11%, 20%, and 31.36% and impact strength to 78.72%, 77%, and 81% for silane, GMA, and OBDC treated sisal fiber reinforced recycled Polypropylene (RPP/SF composites, respectively, as compared to RPP. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, and heat deflection temperature (HDT results revealed improved thermal stability as compared with RPP. The flammability behaviour of silane, GMA, and OBDC treated SF/RPP composites was studied by the horizontal burning rate by UL-94. The morphological analysis through scanning electron micrograph (SEM supports improves surface interaction between fiber surface and polymer matrix.

  15. Stone-ground wood pulp-reinforced polypropylene composites: Water uptake and thermal properties

    Joan Pere López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two of the drawbacks of using natural-based composites in industrial applications are thermal instability and water uptake capacity. In this work, mechanical wood pulp was used to reinforce polypropylene at a level of 20 to 50 wt. %. Composites were mixed by means of a Brabender internal mixer for both non-coupled and coupled formulations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were used to determine the thermal properties of the composites. The water uptake behavior was evaluated by immersion of the composites in water until an equilibrium state was reached. Results of water absorption tests revealed that the amount of water absorption was clearly dependent upon the fiber content. The coupled composites showed lower water absorption compared to the uncoupled composites. The incorporation of mechanical wood pulp into the polypropylene matrix produced a clear nucleating effect by increasing the crystallinity degree of the polymer and also increasing the temperature of polymer degradation. The maximum degradation temperature for stone ground wood pulp–reinforced composites was in the range of 330 to 345 ºC.

  16. A study on the trans-crystallisation behaviour of flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites and effect on mechanical properties

    George, J.; Garkhail, S.K.; Wieland, B.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Mattoso, L.H.C.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of flax fiber reinforcement on crystn. behavior of polypropylene (PP) was investigated using a hot-stage optical microscope. To follow the crystn. kinetics, cooling rate and crystn. temps. were varied. Flax fibers with different processing history e.g. green flax, Duralin flax, alkali and

  17. Novel polypropylene biocomposites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and hydroxyapatite nanorods for bone replacements

    Liao, Cheng Zhu; Li, Kai [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong, Hoi Man; Tong, Wing Yin; Yeung, Kelvin Wai Kwok [Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Tjong, Sie Chin, E-mail: aptjong@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) of 0.1 and 0.3 wt.% and hydoxyapatite nanorods (nHAs) of 8–20 wt.% were incorporated into polypropylene (PP) to form biocomposites using melt-compounding and injection molding techniques. The structural, mechanical, thermal and in vitro cell responses of the PP/MWNT–nHA hybrids were investigated. Tensile and impact tests demonstrated that the MWNT additions are beneficial in enhancing the stiffness, tensile strength and impact toughness of the PP/nHA nanocomposites. According to thermal analysis, the nHA and MWNT fillers were found to be very effective to improve dimensional and thermal stability of PP. The results of osteoblast cell cultivation and dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) tests showed that the PP/MWNT–nHA nanocomposites are biocompatible. Such novel PP/MWNT–nHA hybrids are considered to be potential biomaterials for making orthopedic bone implants. - Highlights: ► Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA) are used as hybrid fillers to reinforce polypropylene. ► MWNT additions are beneficial in enhancing tensile strength and stiffness of PP/nHA composites. ► Hybridizing MWNT with nHA fillers enhance thermal and dimensional stability of PP significantly. ► Hybridizing MWNT with nHA greatly enhance osteoblast adhesion and proliferation. ► PP/MWNT–nHA composites show attractive applications as load-bearing materials in orthopedics.

  18. Effect of gamma radiation on the performance of jute fabrics-reinforced polypropylene composites

    Haydaruzzaman [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Khan, Ruhul A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, G. P.O. Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Khan, Mubarak A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, G. P.O. Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: makhan.inst@gmail.com; Khan, A.H.; Hossain, M.A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2009-11-15

    Jute fabrics-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites (50% fiber) were prepared by compression molding. Composites were fabricated with non-irradiated jute fabrics/non-irradiated PP (C-0), non-irradiated jute fabrics/irradiated PP (C-1), irradiated jute fabrics/non-irradiated PP (C-2) and irradiated jute fabrics/irradiated PP (C-3). It was found that C-3 composite performed the best mechanical properties over other composites. Total radiation dose varied from 250-1000 krad and composites made of using 500 krad showed the best results. The optimized values (C-3 composites) for tensile strength (TS), bending strength (BS) and impact strength (IS) were found to be 63 MPa, 73 MPa and 2.93 kJ/m{sup 2}, respectively.

  19. Short Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Nonhalogenated Fire Retardants

    Sk. Sharfuddin Chestee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP composites were prepared using a single screw extrusion moulding. Jute fiber content in the composites is optimized with the extent of mechanical properties, and composites with 20% jute show higher mechanical properties. Dissimilar concentrations of several fire retardants (FRs, such as magnesium oxide (MO, aluminum oxide (AO, and phosphoric acid (PA, were used in the composites. The addition of MO, AO, and PA improved the fire retardancy properties (ignition time, flame height, and total firing time of the composites. Ignition time for 30% MO, flame height for 30% PA, and total firing time for 20% MO content composites showed good results which were 8 sec, 1 inch, and 268 sec, respectively. Mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile modulus, bending strength, bending modulus, and elongation at break, degradation properties (soil test, weathering test, and percentage of weight loss, and water uptake were studied.

  20. Reinforced poly(propylene oxide): a very soft and extensible dielectric electroactive polymer

    Goswami, K; Mazurek, P; Daugaard, A E; Skov, A L; Galantini, F; Gallone, G

    2013-01-01

    Poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), a novel soft elastomeric material, and its composites were investigated as a new dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP). The PPO networks were obtained from thiol-ene chemistry by photochemical crosslinking of α,ω-diallyl PPO with a tetra-functional thiol. The elastomer was reinforced with hexamethylenedisilazane treated fumed silica to improve the mechanical properties of PPO. The mechanical properties of PPO and composites thereof were investigated by shear rheology and stress–strain measurements. It was found that incorporation of silica particles improved the stability of the otherwise mechanically weak pure PPO network. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed high relative dielectric permittivity of PPO at 10 3 Hz of 5.6. The relative permittivity was decreased slightly upon addition of fillers, but remained higher than the commonly used acrylic EAP material VHB4910. The electromechanical actuation performance of both PPO and its composites showed properties as good as VHB4910 and a lower viscous loss. (paper)

  1. Reinforced poly(propylene oxide)- a very soft and extensible dielectric electroactive polymer

    Goswami, Kaustav; Galantini, F.; Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), a novel soft elastomeric material, and its composites were investigated as a new dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP). The PPO networks were obtained from thiol-ene chemistry by photochemical crosslinking of ,!-diallyl PPO with a tetra-functional thiol. The elastomer...... was reinforced with hexamethylenedisilazane treated fumed silica to improve the mechanical properties of PPO. The mechanical properties of PPO and composites thereof were investigated by shear rheology and stress–strain measurements. It was found that incorporation of silica particles improved the stability...... of the otherwise mechanically weak pure PPO network. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed high relative dielectric permittivity of PPO at 103 Hz of 5.6. The relative permittivity was decreased slightly upon addition of fillers, but remained higher than the commonly used acrylic EAP material VHB4910...

  2. A Comprehensive Study of the Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Fly Ash Based Geopolymer

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mehdi; Behnia, Arash

    2016-01-01

    and long term impacts of different volume percentages of polypropylene fiber (PPF) reinforcement on fly ash based geopolymer composites. Different characteristics of the composite were compared at fresh state by flow measurement and hardened state by variation of shrinkage over time to assess the response...... of composites under flexural and compressive load conditions. The fiber-matrix interface, fiber surface and toughening mechanisms were assessed using field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that incorporation of PPF up to 3 wt % into the geopolymer......As a cementitious material, geopolymers show a high quasi-brittle behavior and a relatively low fracture energy. To overcome such a weakness, incorporation of fibers to a brittle matrix is a well-known technique to enhance the flexural properties. This study comprehensively evaluates the short...

  3. Degradation mechanisms of organic rubber and glass flake/vinyl ester linings in flue gas desulphurization plants

    Weber, R [Allianz-Centre for Technology GmbH, Ismaning (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    In recent years, there have been reports in numerous publications about damage to rubber and glass flake coatings in flue gas desulphurization plants. The pattern of damage has been described and attempts have frequently been made to determine and explain the cause of the damage. Oxidation/hydrolytic changes were generally observed as the damage mechanisms. In addition, blistering occurs in both the chloroprene coatings in the absorbers and in the glass flake coatings in clean gas ducts. This blistering may be considered as the end of the useful life and leads to cost-intensive and time-intensive repair and restoration measures. The present state of knowledge suggests that the blistering is mainly due to osmotic processes preceded by permeation processes and with permeation processes superimposed on them. Among other things, the reports describe the permeation behaviour of water and other flue gas constituents; the blistering in chloroprene rubber coatings and glass flake coatings is explained by means of the knowledge gained. (au) 16 refs.

  4. Effect of combined extrusion parameters on mechanical properties of basalt fiber-reinforced plastics based on polypropylene

    Bashtannik, P. I.; Ovcharenko, V. G.; Boot, Yu. A.

    1997-11-01

    Basalt fibers are efficient reinforcing fillers for polypropylene because they increase both the mechanical and the tribotechnical properties of composites. Basalt fibers can compete with traditional fillers (glass and asbestos fibers) of polypropylene with respect to technological, economic, and toxic properties. The effect of technological parameters of producing polypropylene-based basalt fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) by combined extrusion on their mechanical properties has been investigated. The extrusion temperature was found to be the main parameter determining the mechanical properties of the BFRPs. With temperature growth from 180 to 240°C, the residual length of the basalt fibers in the composite, as well as the adhesive strength of the polymer-fiber system, increased, while the composite defectiveness decreased. The tensile strength and elastic modulus increased from 35 to 42 MPa and 3.2 to 4.2 GPa, respectively. At the same time, the growth in composite solidity led to its higher brittleness. Thus, a higher temperature of extrusion allows us to produce materials which can be subjected to tensile and bending loads, while the materials produced at a lower temperature of extrusion are impact stable. The effect of the gap size between the extruder body and moving disks on the mechanical properties of the BFRPs is less significant than that of temperature. An increase of the gap size from 2 to 8 mm improves the impregnation quality of the fibers, but the extruder productivity diminishes. The possibility of controling the properties of reinforced polypropylene by varying the technological parameters of combined extrusion is shown. The polypropylene-based BFRPs produced by the proposed method surpass the properties of glass and asbestos fiber-reinforced plastics.

  5. Production of a textile reinforced concrete protective layers with non-woven polypropylene fabric

    Žák, J.; Štemberk, P.; Vodička, J.

    2017-09-01

    Textile concrete with nonwoven polypropylene fabric can be used for protective layers of reinforced concrete structures, reducing the thickness of the cover layer or reducing the water penetration rate into the structure. The material consists of cement matrix with finegrained aggregate and nonwoven textile reinforcement. The maximum grain size of the mixture suitable for the nonwoven textile infiltration is 0.25 mm. The interlayer contains larger aggregates and short fibers. Tensile loading causes a large amount of microcracks in the material. The material can withstand strain over 25% without collapsing. Increased quality and water-cement ratio reduction was achieved using the plasticizers and distribution of the mixture into a fabric using a vibrating trowel. It is possible to make flat plates and even curved structures from this material. Larger curvatures of structures should be solved by cutting and overlapping the fabric. Small curvatures can be solved within the deformability of the fabric. Proper infiltration of the cement mixture into the fabric is the most important task in producing this material.

  6. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of Pine cone fibers reinforced compatibilized polypropylene

    Arrakhiz, F.Z.; El Achaby, M.; Benmoussa, K.; Bouhfid, R.; Essassi, E.M.; Qaiss, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pine cone fibers are used as reinforcement in thermoplastic matrix. ► Pine cone fiber was alkali treated to remove waxes and non cellulosic component. ► Fiber–matrix adhesion was assured by the use of a SEBS-g-MA as a compatibilizer. -- Abstract: Pine cone fibers are a cellulosic material readily available and can be used as reinforcement in a thermoplastic-based composite. A solid knowledge of their fibrillar morphology and structure is required to evaluate their usefulness as a substitute to other abundant natural fibers. Pine cone fibers were alkali treated prior usage to remove waxes and non cellulosic surface component. Fiber–matrix adhesion was assured by both a styrene–(ethylene–butene)–styrene triblock copolymer grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-g-MA) and a linear block copolymer based on styrene and butadiene compatibilizer. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile and torsional tests were employed for Pine cone polypropylene composite and compatibilized composite at different fiber content. Results show a clear improvement in mechanical properties from the use of both alkali treated Pine cone and Pine cone compatibilized with maleic anhydride, a gain of 43% and 49% respectively in the Young’s modulus, as a results of improved adhesion between fibers and matrix at the interface.

  7. Flexure and impact properties of glass fiber reinforced nylon 6-polypropylene composites

    Kusaseh, N. M.; Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Ismail, N. M.; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.; Iqbal, A. K. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, polymer composites are rapidly developing and replacing the metals or alloys in numerous engineering applications. These polymer composites are the topic of interests in industrial applications such as automotive and aerospace industries. In the present research study, glass fiber (GF) reinforced nylon 6 (PA6)-polypropylene (PP) composite specimens were prepared successfully using injection molding process. Test specimens of five different compositions such as, 70%PA6+30%PP, 65%PA6+30%PP+5%GF, 60%PA6+30%PP+10%GF, 55%PA6+30%PP+15%GF and 50%PA6+30%PP+20%GF were prepared. In the experiments, flexure and impact tests were carried out. The obtained results revealed that flexure and impact properties of the polymer composites were significantly influenced by the glass fiber content. Results showed that flexural strength is low for pure polymer blend and flexural strength of GF reinforced composite increases gradually with the increase in glass fiber content. Test results also revealed that the impact strength of 70%PA6+30%PP is the highest and 55%PA6+30%PP+15%GF composite shows moderate impact strength. On the other hand, 50%PA6+30%PP+20%GF composite shows low toughness or reduced impact strength.

  8. Thermal Properties, Structure and Morphology of Graphene Reinforced Polyethylene Terephthalate/ Polypropylene Nano composites

    Inuwa, I.M.; Hassan, A.; Shamsudin, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work the thermal properties, structure and morphology of a blend of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP) reinforced with graphene nano platelets (GNP) were investigated. A blend of PET/ PP (70/ 30 weight percent) compatibilized with styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene grafted maleic anhydride triblock copolymer (10 phr) were fabricated by melt extrusion process in a twin screw extruder. The effective thermal conductivity of the nano composites increased as a function of the GNP concentration. More than 80 % increase in effective thermal conductivity was observed for the 7 phr reinforced sample compared to the neat blend. This observation was attributed to the development interconnected GNP sheets which formed heat conductive bridges that are suitable for maximum heat transfer. However, in the case of thermal stability which is a function of dispersibility of GNP in polymer matrix, the maximum increase was observed at 3 phr GNP loading which could be attributed to the uniform dispersion of GNPs in the matrix. It is explained that the GNP nano fillers migrated to the surface of matrix forming an effective oxygen barrier due to char formation. Morphological studies revealed uniform dispersion graphene in the polymer matrix at 3 phr GNP loading along with isolated instances of exfoliation of the graphene layers. (author)

  9. Effect of Polypropylene Fibers on Self-Healing and Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity Recovery of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Adham El-Newihy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate self-healing properties and recovered dynamic moduli of engineered polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete using non-destructive resonant frequency testing. Two types of polypropylene fibers (0.3% micro and 0.6% macro and two curing conditions have been investigated: Water curing (at ~25 Celsius and air curing. The Impact Resonance Method (IRM has been conducted in both transverse and longitudinal modes on concrete cylinders prior/post crack induction and post healing of cracks. Specimens were pre-cracked at 14 days, obtaining values of crack width in the range of 0.10–0.50 mm. Addition of polypropylene fibers improved the dynamic response of concrete post-cracking by maintaining a fraction of the original resonant frequency and elastic properties. Macro fibers showed better improvement in crack bridging while micro fiber showed a significant recovery of the elastic properties. The results also indicated that air-cured Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete (PFRC cylinders produced ~300 Hz lower resonant frequencies when compared to water-cured cylinders. The analyses showed that those specimens with micro fibers exhibited a higher recovery of dynamic elastic moduli.

  10. Impact of chemical treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut fibre (Cocos nucifera reinforced polypropylene composites

    Isiaka O. OLADELE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chemically treated coconut fibres were used to reinforce Homopolymer Polypropylene in order to ascertain the effect of the treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the composites produced. Coconut fibre was first extracted from its husk by soaking it in water and was dried before it was cut into 10 mm lengths. It was then chemically treated in alkali solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and potassium hydroxide (KOH in a shaker water bath. The treated coconut fibres were used as reinforcements in polypropylene matrix to produce composites of varied fibre weight contents; 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt.%. Tensile and flexural properties were investigated using universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for 7 days. It was observed from the results that, NaOH treated samples gave the best tensile properties while KOH treated samples gave the best flexural and water repellent properties.

  11. Low-Frequency Noise Reduction by Earmuffs with Flax Fibre-Reinforced Polypropylene Ear Cups

    Linus Yinn Leng Ang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soldiers and supporting engineers are frequently exposed to high low-frequency (<500 Hz cabin noise in military vehicles. Despite the use of commercial hearing protection devices, the risk of auditory damage is still imminent because the devices may not be optimally customised for such applications. This study considers flax fibre-reinforced polypropylene (Flax-PP as an alternative to the material selection for the ear cups of commercial earmuffs, which are typically made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS. Different weaving configurations (woven and nonwoven and various noise environments (pink noise, cabin booming noise, and firing noise were considered to investigate the feasibility of the proposed composite earmuffs for low-frequency noise reduction. The remaining assembly components of the earmuff were kept consistent with those of a commercial earmuff, which served as a benchmark for results comparison. In contrast to the commercial earmuff, the composite earmuffs were shown to be better in mitigating low-frequency noise by up to 16.6 dB, while compromising midfrequency acoustical performance. Consequently, the proposed composite earmuffs may be an alternative for low-frequency noise reduction in vehicle cabins, at airports, and at construction sites involving heavy machineries.

  12. Mechanical and dielectric characterization of hemp fibre reinforced polypropylene (HFRPP by dry impregnation process

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibres such as jute, coir, sisal, bamboo and pineapple are known to have high specific strength and can be effectively used in composites in various applications. The use of hemp fibres to reinforce the polymer aroused great interest and expectations amongst scientists and materials engineers. In this paper, composites with isotactic polypropylene (iPP matrix and hemp fibres were studied. These materials were manufactured via the patented FIBROLINE process based on the principle of the dry impregnation of a fibre assembly with a thermoplastic powder (iPP, using an alternating electric field. The aim of this paper is to show the influence of fibre/matrix interfaces on dielectric properties coupled with mechanical behaviours. Fibres or more probably the fibre/matrix interfaces allow the diffusion of electric charges and delocalise the polarisation energy. In this way, damages are limited during mechanical loading and the mechanical properties of the composites increase. The structure of composite samples was investigated by X-ray and FTIR analysis. The mechanical properties were analysed by quasistatic and dynamic tests. The dielectric investigations were carried out using the SEMME (Scanning Electron Microscope Mirror Effect method coupled with the measurement of the induced current (ICM.

  13. Process monitoring of glass reinforced polypropylene laminates using fiber Bragg gratings

    Mulle, Matthieu

    2015-12-29

    Hot-press molding of glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) laminates was monitored using longitudinally and transversely embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) at different locations in unidirectional laminates. The optical sensors proved to efficiently characterize some material properties; for example, strain variations could be related physical change of the laminate, revealing key transition points such as the onset of melt or solidification. These results were confirmed through some comparison with traditional techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry. After the GFPP plate was released from the mold, residual strains were estimated. Because cooling rate is an important process parameter in thermoplastics, affecting crystallinity and ultimately residual strain, two different conditions (22 and 3 °C/min) were investigated. In the longitudinal direction, results were nearly identical while in the transverse direction results showed a 20% discrepancy. Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) were also identified during a post-process heating procedure using the embedded FBGs and compared to the results of a thermo-mechanical analysis. Again, dissimilarities were observed for the transverse direction. With regards to through the thickness properties, no differences were observed for residual strains or for CTEs.

  14. Tribological performance of paddy straw reinforced polypropylene (PSRP and unidirectional glass-pultruded-kenaf (UGPK composites

    R.M. Nasir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In standard preparation and fabrication of natural-fibre embedded composites, 5 wt. % of natural fibre is enough to strengthen and homogenized in parental matrix as the mechanical strength was observed to increase by more than 25% of pure matrix. Hence, paddy straw and kenaf has been a potential candidate in northern region of Malaysia due to its abundance and easily replenished. A unidirectional glass-pultruded-kenaf (UGPK and paddy straws reinforced polypropylene (PSRP was studied focusing on its tribological performance. Meanwhile, friction and wear properties were examined using pin-on-disc machine under ambient temperature with dry contact condition. The tests were conducted at various sliding velocities (1.178-2.749m/s and applied normal loads (9.82-19.64N. The results showed that specific wear rate and friction coefficient decreased with increasing applied normal load and sliding velocity, but the applied normal load was more influential. The coefficient of friction ranges from 0.5 to 4 and wear rate varies from 0.5 to 4 x 10-5 mm3/Nm for PSRP. The friction coefficient of UGPK is within a range of 2.76 to 4.54 at the given test parameters while its wear rate ranging from 0.8 to 1.79 x 10-5mm3/Nm. The failure mode observed during the test was micro-buckling and followed by splitting while fiber-matrix interfacial failure occurred.

  15. Smart Natural Fiber Reinforced Plastic (NFRP) Composites Based On Recycled Polypropylene in The Presence Kaolin

    Suharty, N. S.; Ismail, H.; Diharjo, K.; Handayani, D. S.; Lestari, W. A.

    2017-07-01

    Composites contain double filler material which act as reinforcement and flame retardants of recycled polypropylene (rPP)/kaolin(Kao)/palm oil empty bunch fiber (PEBF) have been succesfully prepared. The composites were synthesized through reactively solution method, using coupling agent PP-g-AA and compatibilizer DVB. The effect of double filler [Kao/PEBF] were investigated flexural strength (FS), inflammability, and morphology. Mechanical testing result in accordance to ASTM D790, the FS of rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composite was 48% higher than that of rPP matrix. Moreover, flexural modulus (FM) was significantly improved by 56% as compared to that of rPP matrix. The scanning electron images (SEM) shown good dispersion of [Ka/PEBF] and good filler-matrix interaction. The inflammability testing result which is tested using ASTM D635, showed that the flame resistance of rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composite was improve by increasing of time to ignition (TTI) about 857% and burning rate (BR) decreasing to 66% compared to the raw material rPP matrix. In the same time, the addition of 20% (w/w) PEBF as a second filler to form rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composites (F5) is able to increase: the FS by 17.5%, the FM by 19%, the TTI by 7.6% and the BR by 3.7% compared to the composite without PEBF (F2).

  16. A Comprehensive Study of the Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Fly Ash Based Geopolymer.

    Navid Ranjbar

    Full Text Available As a cementitious material, geopolymers show a high quasi-brittle behavior and a relatively low fracture energy. To overcome such a weakness, incorporation of fibers to a brittle matrix is a well-known technique to enhance the flexural properties. This study comprehensively evaluates the short and long term impacts of different volume percentages of polypropylene fiber (PPF reinforcement on fly ash based geopolymer composites. Different characteristics of the composite were compared at fresh state by flow measurement and hardened state by variation of shrinkage over time to assess the response of composites under flexural and compressive load conditions. The fiber-matrix interface, fiber surface and toughening mechanisms were assessed using field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results show that incorporation of PPF up to 3 wt % into the geopolymer paste reduces the shrinkage and enhances the energy absorption of the composites. While, it might reduce the ultimate flexural and compressive strength of the material depending on fiber content.

  17. Effect of the interfacial adhesion on the tensile and impact properties of carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene matrices

    Clara Leal Nogueira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic composites have been applied in a wide variety of industrial products, showing recently a great potential to be used in aeronautical field. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the fiber/matrix interface of carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene-based matrices after tensile and impact tests and also to compare the mechanical test results of the manufactured laminates. The laminates were prepared by stacking carbon fiber fabric style Plain Weave (CF and films of four different polypropylene matrices, described as (a polypropylene-PP, (b polypropylene-polyethylene copolymer-PP-PE, (c PP-PE with an interfacial compatibilizer-AM1 and (d PP-PE containing an elastomeric modifier-AM2. The composites were processed using hot compression molding. The mechanical testing results showed that the CF-AM1 laminate family presented the lowest impact strength and the highest tensile strength values when compared to the other laminates. SEM analysis observations of both tensile and impact fractured specimens of the CF-PP/PE-AM1 specimens revealed a stronger fiber/matrix interface. The CF-PP/PE-AM2 laminate showed a lower tensile strength and higher impact strength values when compared to the CF-PP/PE-AM1 one. PP-PE and PP laminates presented the lowest impact strength values.

  18. Thermoforming of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene: A study on the influence of different process parameters

    Schug, Alexander; Winkelbauer, Jonas; Hinterhölzl, Roland; Drechsler, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the forming behaviour of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene and to identify the influence of several process parameters on the resulting part quality. For this purpose, a complex forming tool was designed, consisting of several areas with single and double curvature. The specimens were produced from unidirectional (UD) tape using the Fiberforge RELAY2000® automated tape laying machine and a subsequent consolidation step. They were then fixed in a support frame, pre-heated in an infrared oven, and formed in the forming tool, which was mounted into a hydraulic heating press. The investigated process parameters were the number and force of the springs in the support frame, the tool temperature and the forming pressure and speed. The layups of the specimens were [0/90/0/90/0¯]s and [0/45/90/-45/0¯]s. After the forming process, the parts were analysed in terms of their quality, with a special focus on wrinkles, undulations, gaps and surface roughness. In addition to optical analysis with a statistical evaluation of the results, 3D scans of the specimens at different steps of the forming process were made to gain an impression of the forming mechanisms and the development of failures. The ATOS system of GOM was used for these 3D scans. The results show that the undulations were influenced by the tool temperature and the spring force. By contrast, the surface quality was most strongly dependent on the forming pressure, which also influenced the size and the number of gaps. The forming speed affected the gaps as well. The tool temperature had the largest influence on the development of wrinkles. As expected, the quasi-isotropic layup showed distinctly more wrinkles and undulations, but it also presented a better surface quality than the orthotropic layup.

  19. Toughness increase of self compacting concrete reinforced with polypropylene short fibers

    Melián, G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases in bending tests by the addition of low volume fractions of Polypropylene (PP Short Fibers PP. These toughness increases are similar to those attained by Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC referred elsewhere as Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC, having some ductility and strain hardening in direct tensile and flexural tests. Concretes mixtures were manufactured using natural pozzolanic blended Portland cement, volcanic crushed coarse aggregates and fine sand from Sahara desert dunes (0-1 mm from Canary Islands quarries and sand reservoirs, respectively, besides ordinary siliceous sand (0-4 mm and fly ash from an anthracite-coal heat generator.

    Se presentan en este artículo hormigones autocompactables que, mediante la adición de pequeñas fracciones volumétricas de fibras cortas de polipropileno, consiguen incrementos importantes de tenacidad en su comportamiento mecánico a flexión. Estos aumentos de tenacidad son semejantes a los que presentan un grupo de hormigones reforzados con fibras, denominados ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composites, que muestran también alguna ductilidad y endurecimiento por deformación en ensayos de tracción directa y flexión. Los hormigones se dosificaron empleando cemento Pórtland con Puzolana natural, áridos volcánicos de machaqueo y arena fina procedente de dunas del desierto del Sáhara (0-1 mm, de canteras y depósitos de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias, respectivamente, además de arena silícea ordinaria (0-4 mm y cenizas volantes de una central térmica de combustible antracita.

  20. Coir dust reinforced recycled polypropylene composites; Compositos de polipropileno reciclado e po de coco

    Santos, Bianca B. dos; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M. da S.M., E-mail: bianca@metalmat.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The environmental impacts caused by disposed plastics encourage the search for new alternatives. Recycling polymers leads to the degradation of their mechanical properties, which can be modified by the addition of fillers. In this paper, recycled polypropylene from plastic cups with 2%, 5% and 10% of coir dust were produced with and without the addition of additives. These composites were characterized by tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy on the fracture surface. It was verified the effectiveness of the addition of coir dust in improving the elasticity modulus of recycled polypropylene besides the effectiveness of additives used in promoting the adhesion of the powder to the matrix. However, higher levels of coir dust caused the appearance of air bubbles inside the material, which contributed to its embrittlement. The addition of coir dust promoted a decrease in the degree of polypropylene crystallinity. (author)

  1. Environmental Particle Emissions due to Automated Drilling of Polypropylene Composites and Nanocomposites Reinforced with Talc, Montmorillonite and Wollastonite

    Starost, K.; Frijns, E.; Laer, J. V.; Faisal, N.; Egizabal, A.; Elizextea, C.; Nelissen, I.; Blazquez, M.; Njuguna, J.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the effect on nanoparticle emissions due to drilling on Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with 20% talc, 5% montmorillonite (MMT) and 5% Wollastonite (WO) is investigated. The study is the first to explore the nanoparticle release from WO and talc reinforced composites and compares the results to previously researched MMT. With 5% WO, equivalent tensile properties with a 10 % weight reduction were obtained relative to the reference 20% talc sample. The materials were fabricated through injection moulding. The nanorelease studies were undertaken using the controlled drilling methodology for nanoparticle exposure assessment developed within the European Commission funded SIRENA Life 11 ENV/ES/506 project. Measurements were taken using CPC and DMS50 equipment for real-time characterization and measurements. The particle number concentration (of particles <1000nm) and particle size distribution (4.87nm - 562.34nm) of the particles emitted during drilling were evaluated to investigate the effect of the silicate fillers on the particles released. The nano-filled samples exhibited a 33% decrease (MMT sample) or a 30% increase (WO sample) on the average particle number concentration released in comparison to the neat polypropylene sample. The size distribution data displayed a substantial percentage of the particles released from the PP, PP/WO and PP/MMT samples to be between 5-20nm, whereas the PP/talc sample emitted larger particle diameters.

  2. Enhancement of mechanical properties and interfacial adhesion by chemical odification of natural fibre reinforced polypropylene composites

    Erasmus, E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available with the polymer matrix. Therefore, the constituents need to be chemically modified to enhancing adhesion between fibre and polymer matrix. The aim of this work is to improve the interfacial adhesion between the polypropylene matrix and the natural fibre...

  3. Surface modification and micromechanical properties of jute fiber mat reinforced polypropylene composites

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A new treating method using sodium hydroxide (NaOH and Maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MPP emulsion was introduced to treat jute fiber mat in order to enhance the performance of jute/polypropylene (PP composite prepared by film stacking method. The surface modifications of jute fiber mat have been found to be very effective in improving the fiber-matrix adhesion. It was shown that treatments changed not only the surface topography but also the distribution of diameter and strength for the jute fibers, which was analyzed by using a two-parameter Weibull distribution model. Consequently, the interfacial shear strength, flexural and tensile strength of the composites all increased, but the impact strength decreased slightly. These results have demonstrated a new approach to use natural materials to enhance the mechanical performances of composites.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of jute fabrics reinforced polypropylene-based composites: effects of ionizing radiation and disaccharide (sucrose)

    Sahadat Hossain, Md.; Uddin, Muhammad B.; Razzak, Md.; Sarwaruddin Chowdhury, A. M.; Khan, Ruhul A.

    2017-12-01

    Composites were prepared successfully by compression molding technique using jute fabrics (reinforcing agent) and polypropylene (matrix). Jute fabrics were treated with disaccharide (sucrose) solution and composites were fabricated with the treated fabric and polypropylene. The fiber content of the prepared composites was 40% by weight. It was found that the sucrose (2% solution) decreased the tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break about 6% and 37%, respectively, but tensile modulus and impact strength improved about 27% and 32%, respectively. When gamma radiation was applied through the untreated and treated composites the mechanical properties were improved much higher in non-treated Jute/PP-based composites than that of sucrose treated composites. For 5.0 kGy gamma dose the highest mechanical properties were observed for non-treated composites. At 5.0 kGy gamma dose the improvement of TS was 14% and 2% for non-treated and sucrose treated composites, respectively. The water uptake property of the sucrose treated composites was performed up to 10 days and composites absorbed 18% water. The functional groups of the both composites were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy machine. The scanning electron microscopic images of the both composites were taken for the surface and fiber adhesion analysis.

  5. Improvement of Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Short Natural Fiber Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites through Double Step Grafting Process

    Saputra, O. A.; Rini, K. S.; Susanti, T. D.; Mustofa, R. E.; Prameswari, M. D.; Pramono, E.

    2017-07-01

    This study focused on the effect of a compatibilizer addition, maleic anhydrides (MAH) on mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fiber reinforced recycled polypropylene (rPP) biocomposites. The double steps grafting process were conducted by incorporated MAH on both rPP and EFB to improve the surface adhesion between these materials, to result in a good mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility to nature. The chemical test was carried out using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) spectroscopy technique to evaluated grafting process. The mechanical test was investigated and found that the addition of 10 phr MAH to both rPP and EFB improved mechanical strength of the biocomposites higher than another formulas. In this study, thermal properties of biocomposites also characterized. Water absorption (WA) analysis showed the presence of EFB fiber increased the water uptake of the material.

  6. Mechanical and thermal properties of bio-composites based on polypropylene reinforced with Nut-shells of Argan particles

    Essabir, H.; Hilali, E.; Elgharad, A.; El Minor, H.; Imad, A.; Elamraoui, A.; Al Gaoudi, O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nuts-shells of Argan particles are used as reinforcement in thermoplastic matrix. ► Particles are homogeneously dispersed and distributed within PP matrix. ► Mechanical and thermal characterization of the composite are applied. ► Particles–matrix adhesion was assured by the use of a SBS compatibilizer. - Abstract: This study treats the combined effects of both particle sizes and particle loading on the mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) composites reinforced with Nut-shells of Argan (NA) particles. Three range sizes of particles were used in the presence of a polypropylene matrix grafted with 8 wt.% of a linear block copolymer based on styrene and butadiene coupling agent, to improve adhesion between the particles and the matrix. The composites were prepared through melt-blending using an internal mixer and the tensile specimens were prepared using a hot press molding machine. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and tensile tests were employed to characterize the composites at 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt.% particle contents. Results show a clear improvement in Young’s modulus from the use of particles when compared to the neat PP, a gain of 42.65%, 26.7% and 2.9% at 20 wt.% particle loading, for particle range 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In addition a notable increase in the Young’s modulus was observed when decrease the particle size. The thermal stability of composites exhibits a slight decrease (256–230 °C) with particles loading from 10 to 25 wt.%, against neat PP (258 °C)

  7. Studies on improvement of mechanical properties of Kenaf-reinforced polypropylene composites

    Sarifah Hanisah Syed Abd Aziz; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2006-01-01

    At present, research in composite materials is being directed at using natural fibres instead of synthetic fibres. Kenaf which is extensively grown in the Far East including Malaysia, has been identified as a bast (stem) fibre with significant market potential. In this work, long and random kenaf fibres were used in the as-received condition and alkalized with a 0.06 M NaOH solution. They were combined with polypropylene thin sheets, sandwiched between layers of kenaf fibres and hot-pressed to form natural fibre composites. The mechanical properties of the composites were investigated to observe the effect of fibre alignment, fibre treatment, the addition of coupling agent and pre-irradiation method used. A general trend was observed whereby alkalized and long fibre composites gave higher flexural modulus and flexural strength compared with random mat and untreated fibres. The long fibre composites also gave a higher work of fracture. However, the correlation between fibre surface treatment and the work of fracture was less clear. The addition of coupling agent at 1% showed a slight improvement on the mechanical performance of the composites whereas pre-irradiation on the polypropylene pellets and fibres before the composite is manufactured showed significant improvement on the mechanical properties. However, the method of moulding used need to be improved to optimize the performance of the composites. (Author)

  8. Impact of Surface Modification and Nanoparticle on Sisal Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Nano composites

    Ibrahim, I. D.; Jamiru, T.; Sadiku, E. R.; Agwuncha, S. Ch.; Kupolati, W. K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant fibers, polymer, and nanoparticles for composite has gained global attention, especially in the packaging, automobile, aviation, building, and construction industries. Nano composites materials are currently in use as a replacement for traditional materials due to their superior properties, such as high strength-to-weight ratio, cost effectiveness, and environmental friendliness. Sisal fiber (SF) was treated with 5% NaOH for 2 hours at 70"°C. A mixed blend of sisal fiber and recycled polypropylene (rPP) was produced at four different fiber loadings: 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.%, while nano clay was added at 1, 3, and 5 wt.%. Maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) was used as the compatibilizer for all composites prepared except the untreated sisal fibers. The characterization results showed that the fiber treatment, addition of MAPP, and nano clay improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability and reduced water absorption of the SF/rPP nano composites. The tensile strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength increased by 32.80, 37.62, and 5.48%, respectively, when compared to the untreated SF/rPP composites. Water absorption was reduced due to the treatment of fiber and the incorporation of MAPP and nano clay.

  9. Effect of coupling agent on durian skin fibre nanocomposite reinforced polypropylene

    Siti Nur E'zzati, M. A.; Anuar, H.; Siti Munirah Salimah, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a composite-based natural fiber to reduce the reliance on petroleum-based product in order to amplify environmental awareness. The production of Durian Skin Nanofiber (DSNF) was conducted using biological fermentation method via rhizopus oryzae in order to obtain the nano dimension of the particle size. Polypropylene (PP) and DSNF were produced using Haake internal mixer via melt blending technique. The significant effect of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) on the properties of PP/DSNF nanocomposite was investigated to study its mechanical properties which are tensile strength and thermal stability using thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning analysis (DSC). The tensile property of PP nanocomposites increased from 33 MPa to 38 MPa with the presence of MAPP. The addition of MAPP also increased the thermal stability of PP/DSNF nanocomposite where the char residue increased by 52%. Besides that, the thermal degradation of PP/DSNF and PP/DSNF-MAPP were higher than PP where they exerted higher amount of weight loss at an elevated temperature. The percentage of crystallinity, %Xc, of PP nanocomposites improved with the addition of MAPP by 35% based on the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) result. The SEM analysis showed that the PP/DSNF-MAPP exerts ductile fracture while PP/DSNF exerts brittle fracture.

  10. Serviceability behavior of Reinforcement Concrete beams with polypropylene and steel fibers

    NaserKabashi; Cenë Krasniqi

    2015-01-01

    Serviceability Limit States (SLS) may lead to the design of concrete elements internally reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP).In many types of concrete structure loss the serviceability due to wide cracks, number of cracks or large deflection is not uncommon behaviour in concrete structures or concrete beams.The flexural ductility affects the serviceability deflection of RC beams once flexural cracking take place.Imprvement will be focused on the use of polypropilene fib...

  11. The influence of multiscale fillers reinforcement into impact resistance and energy absorption properties of polyamide 6 and polypropylene nanocomposite structures

    Silva, Francesco; Njuguna, James; Sachse, Sophia; Pielichowski, Krzysztof; Leszczynska, Agnieszka; Giacomelli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Significant improvement in PA composites impact resistance performance. ► Decrease in energy absorption capabilities of PP, this phenomenon is explained. ► Positive effects on mechanical and interphase properties of the matrix material. ► Transition from brittle to ductile fracture mode established. ► Two different toughening mechanisms were observed and explained. - Abstract: Three-phase composites (thermoplastic polymer, glass-fibres and nano-particles) were investigated as an alternative to two-phase (polymer and glass-fibres) composites. The effect of matrix and reinforcement material on the energy absorption capabilities of composite structures was studied in details in this paper. Dynamic and quasi-static axial collapse of conical structures was conducted using a high energy drop tower, as well as Instron universal testing machine. The impact event was recorded using a high-speed camera and the fracture surface was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Attention was directed towards the relation between micro and macro fracture process with crack propagation mechanism and energy absorbed by the structure. The obtained results indicated an important influence of filler and matrix material on the energy absorption capabilities of the polymer composites. A significant increase in specific energy absorption (SEA) was observed in polyamide 6 (PA6) reinforced with nano-silica particles and glass-spheres, whereas addition of montmorillonite (MMT) caused a decrease in that property. On the other hand, very little influence of the secondary reinforcement on the energy absorption capabilities of polypropylene (PP) composites was found

  12. Flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams with discrete steel – polypropylene fibres

    Amizah Wan Jusoh Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experimental results on the flexural test of concrete containing different proportions of steel fibre (SF and polypropylene fibre (PPF. The flexural test was carried out under 4-point bending load and followed the relevant standards to FRC. Hooked-end deformed SF fibre with 60 mm length and fibrillated virgin PPF fibre with 19 mm length were used in this study. Meanwhile, the concrete was designed for high strength concrete of C60. The mixture included both single SF and PPF, and also the combination of both fibres; Control beam (PC, beam with 75%SF, beam with 75%SF + 25%PPF and beam with 25%PPF. The total fibre volume fraction (Vf was fixed at 1.5%. The experimental results show that the percentage proportion of combined SF-PPF at 75-25% had the best performance for its flexural capacity. Mixture with single PPF was also found not effective in delaying the onset of tension cracks and to increase the tensile strength of the concrete. Experimental result also shows beam with 75%SF +25%PPF had their structural stiffness improved the most as compared with the others. For the compressive strength, beam with 75%SF + 25%PPF also revealed comparable performance with the control for high strength composite concrete.

  13. PA6 and Kevlar fiber reinforced isotactic polypropylene: Structure, mechanical properties and crystallization and melting behavior

    Zhao, Songfang; Cheng, Lei; Guo, Yong; Zheng, Yuying; Li, Baoming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► KF was modified with caprolactam using toluenediisocyanate (TDI) as bridge. ► Modified KF improves interfacial interaction of iPP/KF/PA6 composites. ► Fiber and nylon 6 inhibited the crystallization of PP continuous phase. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal and mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP), iPP/Kevlar fiber (KF)/polyamide 6 (PA6) composites were prepared via the melt-extrusion method on twin-screw extruder. Kevlar fiber was modified with caprolactam using toluenediisocyanate (TDI) as bridge. The microstructure of modified KF was successfully characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the results showed that KF was bonded with caprolactam and became coarser. Then the modified KF was introduced into iPP, the composites have better mechanical and thermal properties, implying that modification of KF was helpful to improve the interfacial interaction of iPP/KF/PA6 composites. Besides, the crystallization curves indicated that crystallization behavior of PA6 in the composites was homogeneous and fractional. Furthermore, compatibilizer content played an important role in the mechanical and thermal properties of composites.

  14. Characterization of Polypropylene Green Composites Reinforced by Cellulose Fibers Extracted from Rice Straw

    Ngo Dinh Vu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP based green composites containing 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% of cellulose fibers (CFs which were extracted from rice straw were successfully prepared by melt blend method. The CFs washed with H2O2 after alkaline extraction showed lower water absorption than that not washed with H2O2. The thermal, mechanical, and biodegradation properties of composites were also investigated. The 10% weight loss temperature of the composites was decreased with the increasing CFs content, but all the composites showed over 300°C. Young’s modulus and flexural properties of PP were improved by blending PP with CFs. The pure PP showed no degradability, but the PP/CFs composites degraded from about 3 to 23 wt%, depending on CFs content after being buried in soil for 50 days. These PP/CFs composites with high thermal, mechanical properties and biodegradability may be useful as green composite materials for various environmental fields.

  15. Effect of Reinforcement of Hydrophobic Grade Banana (Musa ornata Bark Fiber on the Physicomechanical Properties of Isotactic Polypropylene

    Md. Mamunur Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the physicomechanical as well as morphological properties of alkali treated (NaOH and KMnO4 and untreated banana bark fiber (BBF reinforced polypropylene composites. A detailed structural and morphological characterization was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and mechanical properties testing (tensile strength, flexural strength, and microhardness. Chemical treatments improved the hydrophobic property of the fiber and it is found to be better for KMnO4 treatment. Composites with 0, 5, 10, and 15 wt.% loadings were then compared for water uptake studies and revealed that KMnO4 treated fiber composites absorb less water compared to others. KMnO4 treatment with 15% fiber loading improved the tensile strength, flexural strength, and microhardness of the composites compared to raw and NaOH treated fiber loadings. TGA analysis also shows onset temperature at 400~500°C that is associated with the decomposition of the banana fibers constituents including lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses which suggests better thermomechanical stability. All of the values suggest that 15% KMnO4 treated banana bark fiber (BBF/PP composites were found to be better than those of the raw and NaOH treated ones.

  16. Study of injection moulded long glass fibre-reinforced polypropylene and the effect on the fibre length and orientation distribution

    Parveeen, B.; Caton-Rose, P.; Costa, F.; Jin, X.; Hine, P.

    2014-05-01

    Long glass fibre (LGF) composites are extensively used in manufacturing to produce components with enhanced mechanical properties. Long fibres with length 12 to 25mm are added to a thermoplastic matrix. However severe fibre breakage can occur in the injection moulding process resulting in shorter fibre length distribution (FLD). The majority of this breakage occurs due to the melt experiencing extreme shear stress during the preparation and injection stage. Care should be taken to ensure that the longer fibres make it through the injection moulding process without their length being significantly degraded. This study is based on commercial 12 mm long glass-fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP) and short glass fibre Nylon. Due to the semi-flexiable behaviour of long glass fibres, the fibre orientation distribution (FOD) will differ from the orientation distribution of short glass fibre in an injection molded part. In order to investigate the effect the change in fibre length has on the fibre orientation distribution or vice versa, FOD data was measured using the 2D section image analyser. The overall purpose of the research is to show how the orientation distribution chnages in an injection moulded centre gated disc and end gated plaque geometry and to compare this data against fibre orientation predictions obtained from Autodesk Moldflow Simulation Insight.

  17. Optimum processing parameters for the fabrication of twill flax fabric-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites

    Zuhudi, Nurul Zuhairah Mahmud; Minhat, Mulia; Shamsuddin, Mohd Hafizi; Isa, Mohd Dali; Nur, Nurhayati Mohd

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, natural fabric thermoplastic composites such as flax have received much attention due to its attractive capabilities for structural applications. It is crucial to study the processing of flax fabric materials in order to achieve good quality and cost-effectiveness in fibre reinforced composites. Though flax fabric has been widely utilized for several years in composite applications due to its high strength and abundance in nature, much work has been concentrated on short flax fibre and very little work focused on using flax fabric. The effectiveness of the flax fabric is expected to give higher strength performance due to its structure but the processing needs to be optimised. Flax fabric composites were fabricated using compression moulding due to its simplicity, gives good surface finish and relatively low cost in terms of labour and production. Further, the impregnation of the polymer into the fabric is easier in this process. As the fabric weave structure contributes to the impregnation quality which leads to the overall performance, the processing parameters of consolidation i.e. pressure, time, and weight fraction of fabric were optimized using the Taguchi method. This optimization enhances the consolidation quality of the composite by improving the composite mechanical properties, three main tests were conducted i.e. tensile, flexural and impact test. It is observed that the processing parameter significantly affected the consolidation and quality of composite.

  18. UTILIZATION OF MICRO SISAL FIBERS AS REINFORCEMENT AGENT AND POLYPROPYLENE OR POLYLACTIC ACID AS POLYMER MATRICES IN BIOCOMPOSITES MANUFACTURE

    Subyakto Subyakto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sisal (Agave sisalana as a perennial tropical plant grows abundantly in Indonesia. Its fibers can be used as the reinforcement agent of biocomposite products. Utilization of sisal as natural fiber has some notable benefits compared to synthetic fibers, such as renewable, light in weight, and low in cost. Manufacture of biocomposite requires the use of matrix such as thermoplastic polymer, e.g. polypropylene (PP and polylactic acid (PLA to bond together with the reinforcement agent (e.g. sisal fibers. In relevant, experiment was conducted on biocomposites manufacture that comprised sisal fibers and PP as well as PLA. Sisal fibers were converted into pulp, then refined to micro-size fibrillated fibers such that their diameter reduced to about 10 μm, and dried in an oven. The dry microfibrillated sisal pulp fibers cellulose (MSFC were thoroughly mixed with either PP or PLA with varying ratios of MSFC/PP as well as MSFC/PLA, and then shaped into the mat (i.e. MSFC-PP and MSFC-PLA biocomposites. Two kinds of shaping was employed, i.e. hot-press molding and injection molding. In the hot-press molding, the ratio of  MSFC/PP as well as MSFC/PLA ranged about 30/70-50/50. Meanwhile in the injection (employed only on assembling the MSFC-PLA biocomposite, the ratio of MSFC/PLA varied about 10/90-30/70. The resulting shaped MSFC-PP and MSFC-PLA biocomposites were then tested of its physical and mechanical properties. With the hot-press molding device, the physical and mechanical (strength properties of MSFC-PLA biocomposite were higher than those of  MSFC-PP biocomposite. The optimum ratio of  MSFC/PP as well as MSFC/PLA reached concurrently at 40/60. The strengths of MSFC-PP as well as MSFC-PLA biocomposites were greater than those of individual polymer (PP and PLA. With the injection molding device, only the MSFC-PLA  biocomposite  was formed  and its strengths  reached  maximum  at 30/70  ratio.  The particular strengths (MOR and MOE of MSFC

  19. Polypropylene reinforced with organophilic clay and brazilian nut fibers; Polipropileno reforcado com argila verde lodo e fibra da castanha-do-brasil

    Rocha-Gomes, L.V.; Mondelo-Garcia, F.J.; Vaccioli, K.; Valera, S.T.; Silva-Valenzuela, M.G.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R., E-mail: leila@ifes.edu.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LPSS/PMT/EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais. Lab. de Materiais Nao-Metalicos

    2014-07-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have been shown to possess better properties when compared with traditional composites. This study aims to investigate the effects of the addition of organophilic clay and Brazilian nut fiber on the polypropylene (PP). First, 5%, 10% and 20% PP/compatibilizer maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) by weight was added to Pure PP, respectively. From the results, 5% PP-g-MA was defined for preparing the nanocomposites. Samples were prepared containing 5% PP / PP-g-MA reinforced with 5% organophilic Brazilian smectite clay and 5%, 10% and 15% Brazilian nut fiber. Specimens were tested for tensile strength and impact. The materials were characterized by laser diffraction particle size and X-ray diffraction, and the nanocomposites, by mechanical strength and impact. The best result was obtained by inserting 15% fiber. (author)

  20. INFLUENCE OF KENAF AND POLYPROPYLENE FIBRES ON MECHANICAL AND DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF FIBRE REINFORCED LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE

    H. AWANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mechanical and durability properties of lightweight foamed concrete (LFC with the inclusion of kenaf and polypropylene fibres. A density of 1000kg/m3 foamed concrete was used for all the tested specimens. The ratio of cement, sand and water used was 1:1.5:0.45. Polypropylene and kenaf fibres were used as additives at 0.25% and 0.4% by volume of the total mix. A 30% cement replacement by fly ash was used with each type of additive. All the experiments were set up in accordance with International standard methods of testing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis is included to have a better view of the concrete behavior with fibre inclusions. In reference to the analysis and discussion, the types of fibre used were proven to have a lesser contribution towards compressive strength or might even have reduced the result. However, the integration of fly ash enhanced the compressive strength. In addition, a higher percentage of fiber inclusions had been recorded to have a positive contribution towards flexural, tensile spiltting and shrinkage properties of LFC.

  1. Effect of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polyamide-6/Polypropylene Composites for Lightweight Automotive Parts

    Huu-Duc Nguyen-Tran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of lightweight automotive parts is an important issue for improving the efficiency of vehicles. Polymer composites have been widely applied to reduce weight and improve mechanical properties by mixing polymers with carbon fibers, glass fibers, and carbon nanotubes. Polypropylene (PP has been added to carbon fiber-reinforced nylon-6 (CF/PA6 composite to achieve further weight reduction and water resistance. However, the mechanical properties were reduced by the addition of PP. In this research, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs were added to compensate for the reduced mechanical properties experienced when adding PP. Tensile testing and bending tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties. A small amount of CNTs improved the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-reinforced PA6/PP composites. For example, the density of CF/PA6 was reduced from 1.214 to 1.131 g/cm3 (6.8% by adding 30 wt % PP, and the tensile strength of 30 wt % PP composite was improved from 168 to 173 MPa (3.0% by adding 0.5 wt % CNTs with small increase of density (1.135 g/cm3. The developed composite will be widely used for lightweight automotive parts with improved mechanical properties.

  2. Investigating the influence of alkalization on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut and sponge fibers reinforced polypropylene composites

    Okikiola Ganiu AGBABIAKA; Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE; Paul Toluwalagbara OLORUNLEYE

    2014-01-01

    Natural fibers are products made from renewable agricultural and forestry feedstock, which can include wood, grasses, and crops, as well as wastes and residues. There are two primary ways these fibers are used: to create polymers or as reinforcement and filler. Thermoplastic polymer may be reinforced or filled using natural fibers such as coir, sponge, hemp, flax, or sisal. This paper focused on the influence of alkalization (NaOH treatment) on the mechanical and water absorption properties o...

  3. Comparative studies of Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide as a potential filler in Polypropylene reinforced rice husk composite

    Awang, M.; Mohd, W. R. Wan

    2018-04-01

    Arising global environmental issues have triggered the search of new products and processes that are compatible with the environment while maintaining novel properties of materials. In this work, green composites containing rice husk (RH), polypropylene (PP), and incorporated with two different fillers namely titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) were prepared using an internal mixer and were injected into desired specimen by using an injection molding method. Mechanical properties of the composite were studied using Instron universal testing machine with load cell of 30kN capacity. Morphological of tensile fractured surface of composites was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the composites with the addition of TiO2 gave an excellent mechanical properties than the composites filled with ZnO. Furthermore, morphological image of PP/RH/TiO2 also shows a good interaction occurred between polymer matrix and RH particles as compared to that of PP/RH/ZnO.

  4. Mechanical and thermal behaviour of isotactic polypropylene reinforced with inorganic fullerene-like WS2 nanoparticles: Effect of filler loading and temperature

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M.; Naffakh, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical behaviour of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) nanocomposites reinforced with different loadings of inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS 2 ) nanoparticles was investigated. The IF-WS 2 noticeably enhanced the polymer stiffness and strength, ascribed to their uniform dispersion, the formation of a large nanoparticle–matrix interface combined with a nucleating effect on iPP crystallization. Their reinforcement effect was more pronounced at high temperatures. However, a drop in ductility and toughness was found at higher IF-WS 2 concentrations. The tensile behaviour of the nanocomposites was extremely sensitive to the strain rate and temperature, and their yield strength was properly described by the Eyring's equation. The activation energy increased while the activation volume decreased with increasing nanoparticle loading, indicating a reduction in polymer chain motion. The nanoparticles improved the thermomechanical properties of iPP: raised the glass transition and heat deflection temperatures while decreased the coefficient of thermal expansion. The nanocomposites also displayed superior flame retardancy with longer ignition time and reduced peak heat release rate. Further, a gradual rise in thermal conductivity was found with increasing IF-WS 2 loading both in the glassy and rubbery states. The results presented herein highlight the benefits and high potential of using IF-nanoparticles for enhancing the thermomechanical properties of thermoplastic polymers compared to other nanoscale fillers. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The thermal and mechanical behaviour of iPP/IF-WS 2 nanocomposites was studied. • Low IF-WS 2 contents provide a good balance between stiffness, strength and toughness. • Their tensile behaviour is sensitive to the strain rate and temperature. • The nanocomposites exhibit superior thermal conductivity and flame retardancy than iPP. • The benefits of using IF-WS 2 compared

  5. Spray-Dried Cellulose Nanofibril-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites for Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing: Nonisothermal Crystallization Kinetics and Thermal Expansion

    Lu Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Isotactic polypropylene (iPP is a versatile polymer. It accounts for the second-largest polymer consumption worldwide. However, iPP is difficult to 3D print via extrusion-based processing. This is attributable to its rapid crystallization rate. In this study, spray-dried cellulose nanofibrils (SDCNF and maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP were investigated to reveal their effects on the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics and thermal expansion of iPP. SDCNF at 3 wt % and 30 wt % accelerated the crystallization rate of iPP, while SDCNF at 10 wt % retarded the crystallization rate by restricting crystal growth and moderately increasing the nucleation density of iPP. Additionally, adding MAPP into iPP/SDCNF composites accelerated the crystallization rate of iPP. The effective activation energy of iPP increased when more than 10 wt % SDCNF was added. Scanning electron microscopy and polarized light microscopy results indicated that high SDCNF content led to a reduced gap size among SDCNF, which hindered the iPP crystal growth. The coefficient of thermal expansion of iPP/SDCNF10% was 11.7% lower than the neat iPP. In summary, SDCNF, at 10 wt %, can be used to reduce the warping of iPP during extrusion-based additive manufacturing.

  6. Interactions between halloysite nanotubes and 2,5-bis(2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene and their effects on reinforcement of polypropylene/halloysite nanocomposites

    Liu Mingxian; Guo Baochun; Zou Quanliang; Du Mingliang; Jia Demin

    2008-01-01

    Many types of clay tend to absorb organics via electron transferring interactions between the clay and the organics. This may be utilized to design clay incorporated polymer composites with better interfacial properties. In the present paper, 2,5-bis(2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene (BBT), capable of donating electrons, is selected as the interfacial modifier for polypropylene (PP)/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composites. The electron transfer between HNTs and BBT are confirmed. The mechanical properties and the unique morphology of the nanocomposites are examined. Formation of fibrils of BBT in the presence of HNTs is found in the nanocomposites. The chemical composition of the fibrils in the nanocomposites is found to be composed of largely BBT and a small amount of HNTs. The formation mechanism of BBT fibrils are elucidated to be the strong interactions between BBT and HNTs under melt shearing. The formation of the BBT fibrils leads to much higher crystallinity compared with previously reported PP nanocomposites. The nanocomposites with BBT show substantially increased tensile and flexural properties, which are attributed to the enhanced crystallinity of the nanocomposites

  7. Interactions between halloysite nanotubes and 2,5-bis(2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene and their effects on reinforcement of polypropylene/halloysite nanocomposites

    Liu Mingxian; Guo Baochun; Zou Quanliang; Du Mingliang; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.cn

    2008-05-21

    Many types of clay tend to absorb organics via electron transferring interactions between the clay and the organics. This may be utilized to design clay incorporated polymer composites with better interfacial properties. In the present paper, 2,5-bis(2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene (BBT), capable of donating electrons, is selected as the interfacial modifier for polypropylene (PP)/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composites. The electron transfer between HNTs and BBT are confirmed. The mechanical properties and the unique morphology of the nanocomposites are examined. Formation of fibrils of BBT in the presence of HNTs is found in the nanocomposites. The chemical composition of the fibrils in the nanocomposites is found to be composed of largely BBT and a small amount of HNTs. The formation mechanism of BBT fibrils are elucidated to be the strong interactions between BBT and HNTs under melt shearing. The formation of the BBT fibrils leads to much higher crystallinity compared with previously reported PP nanocomposites. The nanocomposites with BBT show substantially increased tensile and flexural properties, which are attributed to the enhanced crystallinity of the nanocomposites.

  8. Green aqueous surface modification of polypropylene for novel polymer nanocomposites.

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Vennerberg, Danny; Kessler, Michael R

    2014-06-25

    Polypropylene is one of the most widely used commercial commodity polymers; among many other applications, it is used for electronic and structural applications. Despite its commercial importance, the hydrophobic nature of polypropylene limits its successful application in some fields, in particular for the preparation of polymer nanocomposites. Here, a facile, plasma-assisted, biomimetic, environmentally friendly method was developed to enhance the interfacial interactions in polymer nanocomposites by modifying the surface of polypropylene. Plasma treated polypropylene was surface-modified with polydopamine (PDA) in an aqueous medium without employing other chemicals. The surface modification strategy used here was based on the easy self-polymerization and strong adhesion characteristics of dopamine (DA) under ambient laboratory conditions. The changes in surface characteristics of polypropylene were investigated using FTIR, TGA, and Raman spectroscopy. Subsequently, the surface modified polypropylene was used as the matrix to prepare SiO2-reinforced polymer nanocomposites. These nanocomposites demonstrated superior properties compared to nanocomposites prepared using pristine polypropylene. This simple, environmentally friendly, green method of modifying polypropylene indicated that polydopamine-functionalized polypropylene is a promising material for various high-performance applications.

  9. Resíduos de sisal como reforço em compósitos de polipropileno virgem e reciclado Virgin and recycled polypropylene composites reinforced with sisal by-product

    Francisco Rosário

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as propriedades térmicas e mecânicas de compósitos de polipropileno, virgem e reciclado, reforçados com 30% em massa de fibras residuais de sisal, assim como o perfil de processamento e a morfologia da matriz polimérica. Para tanto, foram determinadas a resistência à tração, o módulo de Young, alongamento na ruptura, e energia de impacto. As amostras também foram caracterizadas por MEV, DMTA e TG. Para ambos os compósitos de polipropileno, virgem e reciclado, com a adição das fibras, o alongamento na ruptura mostrou uma queda significativa, enquanto que a resistência à tração não sofreu grandes variações. Houve um aumento significativo nos valores de tração na ruptura e de energia de impacto com a adição das fibras de sisal na matriz de polipropileno. As análises térmicas mostraram ligações secundárias, como as ligações polares, entre as fibras e a matriz, concordando com o comportamento mecânico dos compósitos. Constatou-se que a temperatura de transição vítrea não variou após a adição da fibra.The mechanical and thermal properties of virgin and recycled polypropylene composites reinforced with 30% by mass of residual sisal fibers were studied, in addition to an analysis of the extrusion process and morphology of the polymeric matrix. Tensile strength, Young's modulus, elongation at break, and impact energy were determined. The samples were also characterized by SEM, DMTA and TG analyses. Elongation at break of the composites presented a significant decrease, while the tensile strength was not affected significantly by addition of sisal fibers. A significant increase was observed in the tension of rupture and in the impact energy of the composite reinforced with sisal fiber. The thermal analyses indicated secondary interactions, such as polar interactions, between the fibers and the matrix, consistent with the mechanical behavior of the composites. The glass transition temperature has not

  10. Abdominal closure reinforcement by using polypropylene mesh functionalized with poly-Ԑ-caprolactone nanofibers and growth factors for prevention of incisional hernia formation

    Plencner M

    2014-07-01

    architecture mimics the natural extracellular matrix. We tested a biodegradable polyester poly-Ԑ-caprolactone in the form of nanofibers as a scaffold for fascia healing in an abdominal closure-reinforcement model for prevention of incisional hernia formation. Both in vitro tests and an experiment on a rabbit model showed promising results. Keywords: nanofibers, growth factors, surgical mesh, hernia regeneration, in vivo

  11. Antifriction basalt-plastics based on polypropylene

    Bashtannik, P. I.; Ovcharenko, V. G.

    1997-05-01

    A study is made of the dependence of the mechanical and friction-engineering properties of polypropylene reinforced with basalt fibers on the viscosity of the polymer matrix. It is established that the main factors that determine the mechanical properties of the plastics are the quality of impregnation of the fibers by the binder and the residual length of the reinforcing filler in the composite after extrusion and injection molding. The material that was developed has a low friction coefficient and low rate of wear within a relatively brood range of friction conditions. The basalt-plastics can be used in the rubbing parts of machines and mechanisms subjected to dry friction.

  12. Conductive polypropylene composites

    Koszkul, J.

    1997-01-01

    The results of studies on polypropylene composites with three sorts of Polish-made carbon blacks were presented. It was found that composite of 20% black content had properties of an electrically conducting material

  13. Radiation crosslinking of polypropylene

    Nojiri, A.; Sawasaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation crosslinking of polypropylene with several kinds of polyfunctional monomers has been examined, and it has been clarified that the enhanced crosslinking may be classified into two types. In particular, the irradiation crosslinking process of polypropylene containing a polyfunctional monomer having an acryloyloxy group giving a specific gel - dose curve has been studied by infrared absorption spectrum and oxygen absorptivity measurement in comparison with the non-enhanced system. (author)

  14. Radiation resistant modified polypropylene

    Bojarski, J.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation technology for production of radiation resistant polypropylene for medical use has been presented. The method consists in radiation induced copolymerization of polypropylene with ethylene and addition of small amount of copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate. The material of proposed composition has a very good mechanical properties and elevated radiation resistivity decided on possibility of radiosterilization of products made of this material and designed for medical use. 3 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Biodegradation of Polypropylene Nonwovens

    Keene, Brandi Nechelle

    The primary aim of the current research is to document the biodegradation of polypropylene nonwovens and filament under composting environments. To accelerate the biodegradat ion, pre-treatments and additives were incorporated into polypropylene filaments and nonwovens. The initial phase (Chapter 2) of the project studied the biodegradation of untreated polypropylene with/without pro-oxidants in two types of composting systems. Normal composting, which involved incubation of samples in food waste, had little effect on the mechanical properties of additive-free spunbond nonwovens in to comparison prooxidant containing spunbond nonwovens which were affected significantly. Modified composting which includes the burial of samples with food and compressed air, the polypropylene spunbond nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants displayed an extreme loss in mechanical properties and cracking on the surface cracking. Because the untreated spunbond nonwovens did not completely decompose, the next phase of the project examined the pre-treatment of gamma-irradiation or thermal aging prior to composting. After exposure to gamma-irradiation and thermal aging, polypropylene is subjected to oxidative degradation in the presence of air and during storage after irradiat ion. Similar to photo-oxidation, the mechanism of gamma radiation and thermal oxidative degradation is fundamentally free radical in nature. In Chapter 3, the compostability of thermal aged spunbond polypropylene nonwovens with/without pro-oxidant additives. The FTIR spectrum confirmed oxidat ion of the polypropylene nonwovens with/without additives. Cracking on both the pro-oxidant and control spunbond nonwovens was showed by SEM imaging. Spunbond polypropylene nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants were also preirradiated by gamma rays followed by composting. Nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants were severely degraded by gamma-irradiation after up to 20 kGy exposure as explained in Chapter 4. Furthermore (Chapter 5), gamma

  16. Susceptibility to scratch surface damage of wollastonite- and talc-containing polypropylene micrometric composites

    Hadal, R.; Dasari, A.; Rohrmann, J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the effect of wollastonite and talc on the scratch deformation behavior of low and high crystallinity polypropylenes under identical test conditions. The vertical resolution of atomic force microscopy and lateral resolution of scanning electron microscopy is utilized to examine the characteristics of scratch damage. Contrary to the expectations that high crystallinity and stiffness of polypropylene composites should increase resistance to scratch deformation, the susceptibility to mechanical deformation depends on bonding of mineral particles to the polymer matrix. Scratch deformed regions in neat polypropylenes were free of voids and grooves, while reinforced-polypropylenes exhibited voids and debonding/detachment of filler particles. The severity of plastic deformation in reinforced polypropylenes is a function of debonding/detachment of mineral particles, which is comparatively more for talc-reinforced polypropylenes than wollastonite-reinforced polypropylenes because of the layered structure of talc that encourages delamination. Usage of coating and coupling agents improved the resistance to scratch deformation by promoting adhesion and bonding between the reinforcement and matrix

  17. Mechanical properties of thermoplastic composites reinforced with Entada Mannii fibre

    Oluwayomi BALOGUN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of thermoplastic composites reinforced with Entada mannii fibres was investigated. Polypropylene reinforced with 1, 3, 5, and 7 wt% KOH treated and untreated Entada mannii fibres were processed using a compression moulding machine. The tensile properties, impact strength, and flexural properties of the composites were evaluated while the tensile fracture surface morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results show that reinforcing polypropylene with Entada mannii fibres resulted in improvement of the tensile strength and elastic modulus. This improvement is remarkable for 5 wt% KOH treated Entada mannii fibre reinforced composites by 28 % increase as compared with the unreinforced polypropylene. The composites reinforced with Entada mannii fibres also had impact strength values of 70 % higher than the unreinforced polypropylene. However, the polypropylene reinforced with 5 and 7wt% KOH treated fibres exhibited significantly higher flexural strength and Young’s modulus by 53% and 52% increase as compared with the unreinforced polypropylene. The fracture surface of the polypropylene composites reinforced with untreated Entada mannii fibres were characterized by fibre debonding, fibre pull-out and matrix yielding while less voids and fibre pull-outs are observed in the composites reinforced with KOH treated Entada mannii fibres. v

  18. Modification of polypropylene with radiation-treated wood fiber

    Czvikovszky, T.; Tapolcai, I.

    1983-01-01

    The dispersed wood material is used not only as filler for thermosetting polymers but also as a new type of fibrous additive for thermoplastics e.g. polypropylene. Benefit of this additive (filler or reinforcement) is determined by the coupling between the wood and the synthetic resin. Fibrous, dispersed wood material was preirradiated in air, treated with vinyl monomer containing polyester resin and then mixed in polypropylene. Processability of such thermoplastic blends as well as reactivity of the mixed components were followed by measuring energy, absorbed during the kneading of the melt. The vinylmonomer vinylmonomer - polyester additive, activated at higher temperature by the radiation-formed peroxy groups on the wood fiber, results in good processability of the thermoplastic blend, and gives interesting mechanical properties. Calandering, extrusion, pressmoulding and mechanical testing demonstrated good workability and practical value of the polypropylene composite material containing radiation-treated wood fiber. (author)

  19. Functional Block Copolymers as Compatibilizers for Nanoclays in Polypropylene Nanocomposites

    Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Stribeck, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of creating tough nanocomposits (NC) [1] based on polypropylene (PP) and nanoclay (NCl) in the framework of the 7th EU program NANOTOUGH we have designed amphiphilic block copolymers utilizing Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) [2]. They consist of a hydrophobic block...... crystallites) is replaced by alien-reinforcement (of the MMT). Furthermore, the results from the impact strength and cyclic test of the prepared PP nanocomposites [3] are promicing....

  20. Underground verification of the large deflection performance of fibre reinforced shotcrete subjected to high stresses and convergence and to dynamic loading.

    Joughin, WC

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available and polypropylene fibre reinforced shotcrete compared to mesh reinforced shotcrete in tunnels subject to high stresses and convergence and possibly, to dynamic loading. In particular: • A direct comparison of the in situ performance of mesh reinforced shotcrete... with that of steel and polypropylene fibre reinforced shotcrete; • Confirmation that the performance of fibre reinforced shotcrete matches the performance of mesh reinforced shotcrete under large deformation; • A comparative basis for theoretical analysis...

  1. The radiation degradation of polypropylene

    De Hollain, G.

    1977-04-01

    Polypropylene is used extensively in the manufacture of disposable medical devices because of its superior properties. Unfortunately this polymer does not lend itself well to radiation sterilization, undergoing serious degradation which affects the mechanical properties of the polymer. In this paper the effects of radiation on the mechanical and physical properties of polypropylene are discussed. A programme of research to minimize the radiation degradation of this polymer through the addition of crosslinking agents to counteract the radiation degradation is proposed. It is furthermore proposed that a process of annealing of the irradiated polymer be investigated in order to minimize the post-irradiation degradation of the polypropylene [af

  2. Rheological properties of polypropylene nanocomposites

    Oliveira, Camila F. de P.; Demarquette, Nicole R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, composites of polypropylene with a master batch to obtain clay containing nano composites were obtained. The materials were characterized by X ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering and by rheological analysis. (author)

  3. Flexural creep behaviour of jute polypropylene composites

    Chandekar, Harichandra; Chaudhari, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Present study is about the flexural creep behaviour of jute fabric reinforced polypropylene (Jute-PP) composites. The PP sheet and alkali treated jute fabric is stacked alternately and hot pressed in compression molding machine to get Jute-PP composite laminate. The flexural creep study is carried out on dynamic mechanical analyzer. The creep behaviour of the composite is modeled using four-parameter Burgers model. Short-term accelerated creep testing is conducted which is later used to predict long term creep behaviour. The feasibility of the construction of a master curve using the time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle to predict long term creep behavior of unreinforced PP and Jute-PP composite is investigated.

  4. FOAM CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT BY BASALT FIBRES

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  5. Development and characterisation of injection moulded, all-polypropylene composites

    A. Kmetty

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, all-polypropylene composites (all-PP composites were manufactured by injection moulding. Prior to injection moulding, pre-impregnated pellets were prepared by a three-step process (filament winding, compression moulding and pelletizing. A highly oriented polypropylene multifilament was used as the reinforcement material, and a random polypropylene copolymer (with ethylene was used as the matrix material. Plaque specimens were injection moulded from the pellets with either a film gate or a fan gate. The compression moulded sheets and injection moulding plaques were characterised by shrinkage tests, static tensile tests, dynamic mechanical analysis and falling weight impact tests; the fibre distribution and fibre/matrix adhesion were analysed with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that with increasing fibre content, both the yield stress and the perforation energy significantly increased. Of the two types of gates used, the fan gate caused the mechanical properties of the plaque specimens to become more homogeneous (i.e., the differences in behaviour parallel and perpendicular to the flow direction became negligible.

  6. Additive manufacturing with polypropylene microfibers.

    Haigh, Jodie N; Dargaville, Tim R; Dalton, Paul D

    2017-08-01

    The additive manufacturing of small diameter polypropylene microfibers is described, achieved using a technique termed melt electrospinning writing. Sequential fiber layering, which is important for accurate three-dimensional fabrication, was achieved with the smallest fiber diameter of 16.4±0.2μm obtained. The collector speed, temperature and melt flow rate to the nozzle were optimized for quality and minimal fiber pulsing. Of particular importance to the success of this method is appropriate heating of the collector plate, so that the electrostatically drawn filament adheres during the direct-writing process. By demonstrating the direct-writing of polypropylene, new applications exploiting the favorable mechanical, stability and biocompatible properties of this polymer are envisaged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Morphological, viscoelastic and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites

    Creusa Iara Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites with different contents of nanofiller were investigated. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the nanofiller particles were homogeneously dispersed in the matrix. The rheological properties indicated that incorporation of graphite improved the matrix stiffness and had a reinforcing effect. Exfoliated graphite had a weak interaction with the polypropylene. The behavior of the nanocomposites was similar to that of polypropylene in terms of the interfacial detachment inferred from the transmission electron microscopy images and of their G' (storage and G'' (loss moduli, and viscosity. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to the matrix improved significantly for the flexural and storage moduli with little loss of impact strength.

  8. Morphological, viscoelastic and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites

    Ferreira, Creusa Iara; Oliveira, Ricardo Vinicius Bof de; Mauler, Raquel Santos, E-mail: raquel.mauler@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PGCIMAT/IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bianchi, Otavio [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (PGMAT/CCET/UCS), RS (Brazil); Oviedo, Mauro Alfredo Soto [Braskem S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The viscoelastic, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites with different contents of nanofiller were investigated. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the nanofiller particles were homogeneously dispersed in the matrix. The rheological properties indicated that incorporation of graphite improved the matrix stiffness and had a reinforcing effect. Exfoliated graphite had a weak interaction with the polypropylene. The behavior of the nanocomposites was similar to that of polypropylene in terms of the interfacial detachment inferred from the transmission electron microscopy images and of their G' (storage) and G' (loss) moduli, and viscosity. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to the matrix improved significantly for the flexural and storage moduli with little loss of impact strength. (author)

  9. Analysis and optimization of machining parameters of laser cutting for polypropylene composite

    Deepa, A.; Padmanabhan, K.; Kuppan, P.

    2017-11-01

    Present works explains about machining of self-reinforced Polypropylene composite fabricated using hot compaction method. The objective of the experiment is to find optimum machining parameters for Polypropylene (PP). Laser power and Machining speed were the parameters considered in response to tensile test and Flexure test. Taguchi method is used for experimentation. Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) is used for multiple process parameter optimization. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is used to find impact for process parameter. Polypropylene has got the great application in various fields like, it is used in the form of foam in model aircraft and other radio-controlled vehicles, thin sheets (∼2-20μm) used as a dielectric, PP is also used in piping system, it is also been used in hernia and pelvic organ repair or protect new herrnis in the same location.

  10. Morphological, viscoelastic and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites

    Ferreira, Creusa Iara; Oliveira, Ricardo Vinicius Bof de; Mauler, Raquel Santos, E-mail: raquel.mauler@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PGCIMAT/IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bianchi, Otavio [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (PGMAT/CCET/UCS), RS (Brazil); Oviedo, Mauro Alfredo Soto [Braskem S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The viscoelastic, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites with different contents of nanofiller were investigated. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the nanofiller particles were homogeneously dispersed in the matrix. The rheological properties indicated that incorporation of graphite improved the matrix stiffness and had a reinforcing effect. Exfoliated graphite had a weak interaction with the polypropylene. The behavior of the nanocomposites was similar to that of polypropylene in terms of the interfacial detachment inferred from the transmission electron microscopy images and of their G' (storage) and G' (loss) moduli, and viscosity. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to the matrix improved significantly for the flexural and storage moduli with little loss of impact strength. (author)

  11. Morphology and properties of recycled polypropylene/bamboo fibers composites

    Phuong, Nguyen Tri; Guinault, Alain; Sollogoub, Cyrille; Chuong, Bui

    2011-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is among the most widely used thermoplastics in many industrial fields. However, like other recycled polymers, its properties usually decrease after recycling process and sometimes are degraded to poor properties level for direct re-employment. The recycled products, in general, need to be reinforced to have competitive properties. Short bamboo fibers (BF) have been added in a recycled PP (RPP) with and without compatibilizer type maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Several properties of composite materials, such as helium gas permeability and mechanical properties before and after ageing in water, were examined. The effects of bamboo fiber content and fiber chemical treatment have been also investigated. We showed that the helium permeability increases if fiber content is higher than 30% because of a poor adhesion between untreated bamboo fiber and polymer matrix. The composites reinforced by acetylated bamboo fibers show better helium permeability due to grafting of acetyl groups onto cellulose fibers surface and thus improves compatibility between bamboo fibers and matrix, which has been shown by microscopic observations. Besides, mechanical properties of composite decrease with ageing in water but the effect is less pronounced with low bamboo fiber content.

  12. Effect of Mesoporous Silica and Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on the Tensile and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Properties of Polypropylene and Polypropylene Foam

    Alireza Albooyeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is the experimental study on the tensile and dynamic - mechanical thermal properties of polypropylene (PP and polypropylene foam reinforced with mesoporous silica (MCM-41, hydroxyapatite (HA and the composite of mesoporous silica and hydroxyapatite (MCM41-HA nanoparticles. Nanocomposites and nanocomposite foams containing PP, maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene, different nanoparticles and chemical blowing agent (for foam samples are mixed using the melt-compounding technique in a twin-screw extruder. The results of the tests show that at the same nanoparticles content, all the nanofillers cause better mechanical properties than neat PP and PP foam. Also, due to the porous structure of the foam samples, these samples have the higher damping characteristics and lower tensile properties than the solid samples. Because of higher rigidity and higher strength of HA nanoparticles, the greatest increase in modulus and tensile strength occurs by adding these nanoparticles to neat PP and PP foam. The highest damping factor is obtained by adding MCM-41-HA nanoparticles to PP and PP foam, because of the porous nature of the MCM-41 particles which were reinforced by HA particles. The results of differential scanning calorimetry show that the addition of different nanoparticles does not have any significant effect on crystallinity and melting behavior of PP. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the nanomaterials were fine and uniformly dispersed within the polymer matrix. Furthermore, the addition of different nanoparticles to PP foam causes to increase the cell density, to reduce the cell sizes and to improve the cell sizes distribution. In this respect, the lowest cell sizes and the highest cell density are created by adding HA and MCM41-HA  nanopaticles to PP foams.

  13. Permeation Tests on Polypropylene Fiber Materials

    2018-03-16

    Permeation Tests on Polypropylene Fiber Materials Brandy J. White Martin H. Moore Brian J. Melde Laboratory for the Study of Molecular Interfacial...ABSTRACT Permeation Tests on Polypropylene Fiber Materials Brandy J. White, Martin H. Moore, Brian J. Melde Center for Bio/Molecular Science

  14. Conifer fibers as reinforcing materials for polypropylene-based composites

    Plackett, David; Chengzhi, Chuai; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2001-01-01

    in improved processing, as well as improvements in the thermal and mechanical properties of the resultant composites compared with the composites filled with untreated conifer fibers. Moreover, MAPP grafting and MAPP treating displayed more obvious benefits than EPDM treating in terms of thermal properties...

  15. Development of hemp fibre reinforced polypropylene composite - Journal Article

    Hargitai, H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available strong decrease in three point bending properties was noticed after immersing the composite samples in the distilled water for 19 days, while the impact strength increased. Double carding of raw materials resulted into decreased anisotropy in composite...

  16. Development of step for light duty truck by using injection molding of long-fiber reinforced thermoplastics; Chosen`i kyoka jushi no shashutsu keisei ni yoru truck yo step no kaihatsu

    Togo, A; Yamamura, H; Yamaguchi, M [Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshino, K [Kawasaki Steel Corp. Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The new step for light duty truck was developed by injection molding of glass long-fiber reinforced polypropylene. Feature of the step is good surface appearance and no post processings, compared with the conventional one press molded with a glass fiber reinforced polypropylene sheet (Stampable sheet). 3 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Studies on Poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol Thermoset Composites towards the Development of Biodegradable Bone Fixation Devices

    M. Jayabalan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reinforcement in the cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol thermoset composites based on Kevlar fibres and hydroxyapatite was studied. Cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol was also studied without any reinforcement for comparison. The reinforcing fibre acts as a barrier for the curing reaction leading to longer setting time and lesser cross-link density. The fibre and HA reinforced composites have almost the same compressive strength. Nonreinforced material undergoes greater degree of swelling. Among the reinforced materials, the hydroxyapatite reinforced composite has a much higher swelling percentage than the fibre reinforced one. The studies on in vitro degradation of the cured materials reveal hydrolytic degradation in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging. All the three materials are found to swell initially in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging and then undergo gradual degradation. Compression properties of these cross-linked composites increase with aging; HA reinforced composite has the highest compressive strength and compressive modulus, whereas the aged fibre-reinforced composite has the least compressive strength and modulus.

  18. Studies on Poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) Thermoset Composites towards the Development of Biodegradable Bone Fixation Devices.

    Jayabalan, M

    2009-01-01

    The effect of reinforcement in the cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) thermoset composites based on Kevlar fibres and hydroxyapatite was studied. Cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) was also studied without any reinforcement for comparison. The reinforcing fibre acts as a barrier for the curing reaction leading to longer setting time and lesser cross-link density. The fibre and HA reinforced composites have almost the same compressive strength. Nonreinforced material undergoes greater degree of swelling. Among the reinforced materials, the hydroxyapatite reinforced composite has a much higher swelling percentage than the fibre reinforced one. The studies on in vitro degradation of the cured materials reveal hydrolytic degradation in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging. All the three materials are found to swell initially in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging and then undergo gradual degradation. Compression properties of these cross-linked composites increase with aging; HA reinforced composite has the highest compressive strength and compressive modulus, whereas the aged fibre-reinforced composite has the least compressive strength and modulus.

  19. Resterilized Polypropylene Mesh for Inguinal Hernia Repair

    2018-04-19

    Apr 19, 2018 ... Conclusion: The use of sterilized polypropylene mesh for the repair of inguinal ... and nonabsorbable materials to reduce the tissue–mesh. INTRODUCTION ... which we have been practicing in our center since we introduced ...

  20. POLYPROPYLENE-MODIFIED KAOLINITE COMPOSITES: EFFECT ...

    Meziane O, Bensedira A, Guessoum M and Haddaoui N

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... prepared by the melt intercalation method. ... several beneficial variations on stiffness, hardness, toughness and heat ..... Polypropylene/ untreated and treated kaolinite composites have been prepared via direct melt.

  1. Study on Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    He, Dongqing; Wu, Min; Jie, Pengyu

    2017-12-01

    Several common high elastic modulus fibers (steel fibers, basalt fibers, polyvinyl alcohol fibers) and low elastic modulus fibers (polypropylene fiber) are incorporated into the concrete, and its cube compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength are studied. The test result and analysis demonstrate that single fiber and hybrid fiber will improve the integrity of the concrete at failure. The mechanical properties of hybrid steel fiber-polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete are excellent, and the cube compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength respectively increase than plain concrete by 6.4%, 3.7%, 11.4%. Doped single basalt fiber or polypropylene fiber and basalt fibers hybrid has little effect on the mechanical properties of concrete. Polyvinyl alcohol fiber and polypropylene fiber hybrid exhibit ‘negative confounding effect’ on concrete, its splitting tensile and flexural strength respectively are reduced by 17.8% and 12.9% than the single-doped polyvinyl alcohol fiber concrete.

  2. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    Das, Oisik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Composite Materials, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  3. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications

  4. Irradiation of isotactic polypropylene and polypropylene/ethylene-propylene (diene-monomer) blends

    Gisbergen, van J.G.M.; Meijerink, J.I.; Overbergh, N.; Kleintjes, L.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of electron beam irradiation on rheological properties and morphology of polypropylene and polypropylene/ethylene-propylene rubber blends was studied. Electron beam irradiation of isotactic PP causes pronounced chain scission (degradation) at dosis = 100 kGy. Melt viscosity can be

  5. Aksa plans polypropylene joint venture

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-01-01

    Turkish acrylic fiber maker Aksa (Yalova), part of the Akkok textile conglomerate, is studying construction of a world-scale polypropylene (PP) plant as part of its diversification plans. The company says it is engaged in discussions with three 'multinations in the PP business' on the possibility of a joint venture. One of the firms is understood to be Amoco. Aksa is looking at three possible locations for the 100,000 m.t.-150,000 m.t./year plant: Yalova, near Istanbul, where its existing plants are located; Zonguldak, on the Black Sea coast; and within one of the existing complexes or a new site belonging to state-owned Petkim. Aksa has not yet discussed that option with Petkim, which recently received approval to build a $2.5-billion petrochemical complex. The Aksa PP plant would cost about $100 million and would use propylene from world markets. The onstream date depends on Aksa's ability to link up with a foreign partner, but it hopes to complete the unit within three years. Turkey has only one PP plant, a 65,000-m.t./year Petkim unit at Aliaga. The domestic market is currently two to three times that amount and is growing. Petkim also plans a 200,000-m.t./year PP plant as part of its new complex

  6. Bio-composites fabricated by sandwiching sisal fibers with polypropylene (PP)

    Sosiati, H.; Nahyudin, A.; Fauzi, I.; Wijayanti, D. A.; Triyana, K.

    2016-01-01

    Sisal fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites were successfully fabricated using sandwiching sisal fibers with PP sheets. The ratio of fiber and polymer matrix was 50:50 (wt. %). Untreated short and long sisal fibers, and alkali treated short sisal fibers in 6% NaOH at 100°C for 1 and 3 h were used as reinforcement or fillers. A small amount (3 wt. %) of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) was added as a coupling agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface morphology and chemical composition of the fibers, respectively. Flexural test of sisal/PP composites was done according to ASTM D 790-02. The results showed that flexural strength of untreated long fiber reinforced composite is much higher than that of the untreated and alkali treated short fibers reinforced composites with and without the addition of MAPP. Alkalization related to fiber surface modification, fiber length/fiber orientation and a composite fabrication technique are important factors in contributing to the fiber distribution within the matrix, the bonding between the fiber and the matrix and the enhancement of flexural strength of the bio-composite.

  7. Bio-composites fabricated by sandwiching sisal fibers with polypropylene (PP)

    Sosiati, H.; Nahyudin, A.; Fauzi, I.; Wijayanti, D. A.; Triyana, K.

    2016-04-01

    Sisal fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites were successfully fabricated using sandwiching sisal fibers with PP sheets. The ratio of fiber and polymer matrix was 50:50 (wt. %). Untreated short and long sisal fibers, and alkali treated short sisal fibers in 6% NaOH at 100°C for 1 and 3 h were used as reinforcement or fillers. A small amount (3 wt. %) of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) was added as a coupling agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface morphology and chemical composition of the fibers, respectively. Flexural test of sisal/PP composites was done according to ASTM D 790-02. The results showed that flexural strength of untreated long fiber reinforced composite is much higher than that of the untreated and alkali treated short fibers reinforced composites with and without the addition of MAPP. Alkalization related to fiber surface modification, fiber length/fiber orientation and a composite fabrication technique are important factors in contributing to the fiber distribution within the matrix, the bonding between the fiber and the matrix and the enhancement of flexural strength of the bio-composite.

  8. Bio-composites fabricated by sandwiching sisal fibers with polypropylene (PP)

    Sosiati, H., E-mail: hsosiati@gmail.com [Nanomaterials Research Group, LPPT Universitas Gadjah Mada (Indonesia); Nahyudin, A., E-mail: ahmadnahyudin@yahoo.co.id; Fauzi, I., E-mail: ikhsannurfauzi@gmail.com; Wijayanti, D. A., E-mail: wijayantidwiastuti@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Triyana, K., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id [Nanomaterials Research Group, LPPT Universitas Gadjah Mada (Indonesia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Sisal fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites were successfully fabricated using sandwiching sisal fibers with PP sheets. The ratio of fiber and polymer matrix was 50:50 (wt. %). Untreated short and long sisal fibers, and alkali treated short sisal fibers in 6% NaOH at 100°C for 1 and 3 h were used as reinforcement or fillers. A small amount (3 wt. %) of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) was added as a coupling agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface morphology and chemical composition of the fibers, respectively. Flexural test of sisal/PP composites was done according to ASTM D 790-02. The results showed that flexural strength of untreated long fiber reinforced composite is much higher than that of the untreated and alkali treated short fibers reinforced composites with and without the addition of MAPP. Alkalization related to fiber surface modification, fiber length/fiber orientation and a composite fabrication technique are important factors in contributing to the fiber distribution within the matrix, the bonding between the fiber and the matrix and the enhancement of flexural strength of the bio-composite.

  9. Effect of Polypropylene and Basalt Fiber on the Behavior of Mortars for Repair Applications

    Chaohua Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fresh, mechanical, and durability properties of the polypropylene fiber-reinforced mortar (PP FRM and the basalt fiber-reinforced mortar (BFRM with various fiber contents were tested in this paper. The test results show that the presence of polypropylene (PP fiber and basalt fiber (BF in the mortar reduces the initial slump flow and increases the slump flow loss rate. The bond strength and flexural strength of fiber-reinforced mortar (FRM are improved, whereas no obvious improvement on the compressive strength has been observed. Compared with the control mortar, the bond strength of PP FRM and BFRM reinforced with 0.6 kg/m3, 1.6 kg/m3, and 2.6 kg/m3 fiber increases by 16.60%–28.80% and 10.60%–21.40%, respectively. Furthermore, FRM shows lower drying shrinkage, superior abrasion resistance, water impermeability, and freeze-thaw resistance compared with the control mortar. The abrasion resistance strength of PP FRM and BFRM is 77.30% and 38.65% more than the control mortar with 2.6 kg/m3 fiber content. Therefore, PP FRM and BFRM are suitable to be utilized as repair materials, especially in repairing hydraulic structures surfaces with excellent bond strength and abrasion resistance.

  10. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  11. Agave nonwovens in polypropylene composites: mechanical and thermal studies

    John, MJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Blends of agave fibres with wool waste, pineapple leaf fibres and polypropylene fibres were manufactured by needle-punching technique. Composites were prepared with polypropylene matrix by the process of compression moulding. The effects of blend...

  12. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    Joaquim, Ana Paula; Tonoli, Gustavo Henrique Denzin; Santos, Sérgio Francisco Dos; Savastano Junior, Holmer

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana) chemical (organosolv) pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP) fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressin...

  13. Mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene composites with curaua fibre irradiated with gamma radiation

    Egute, Nayara S.; Forster, Pedro L.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Fermino, Danilo M.; Santana, Sebastiao; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal and mechanical behavior of polypropylene with curaua fibre composites were investigated. The treatment of the curaua fibres was processed in alkaline solution (10% wt NaOH). A coupling agent was used (maleic anhydride) to increase the adhesion of the fibre/matrix interface. This composite was irradiated with gamma source in the doses of 5, 15 and 30 kGy and the adhesion between the fibres and the polymeric matrix was monitored to observe probable changes. The thermal behavior was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TGA). The mechanical behavior was evaluated using tensile strength in comparison with non-reinforced polypropylene resin. The morphology of the composite fracture surface was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There were no significant changes in the thermal properties neither in the adhesion of irradiated fibres at doses of 5, 15 and 30 kGy of gamma radiation. (author)

  14. A strategy of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) fillers for enhancing the mechanical properties of polypropylene polymers

    Thenepalli, Thriveni; Ahn, Ji Whan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Young Jun; Han, Choon [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ramakrishna, Chilakala [Hanil Cement, Danyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    A wide variety of fillers are currently used in more than twenty types of polymer resins, although four of them alone (polypropylene, polyamides, thermoplastic polyesters, and polyvinyl chloride) account for 90% of the market of mineral fillers in plastics. Polypropylene (PP) and PVC dominate the market for calcium carbonate. PP is a versatile reinforcement material that can meet engineering and structural specifications and is widely used for automotive components, home appliances, and industrial applications. Talc, mica, clay, kaolin, wollastonite, calcium carbonates, feldspar, aluminum hydroxide, glass fibers, and natural fibers are commonly used in fillers. Among these, calcium carbonate (both natural and synthetic) is the mos abundant and affords the possibility of improved surface finishing, control over the manufacture of products, and increased electric resistance and impact resistance. Meeting the global challenge to reduce the weight of vehicles by using plastics is a significant issue. The current the global plastic and automobile industry cannot survive without fillers, additives, and reinforcements. Polypropylene is a major component of the modern plastic industry, and currently is used in dashboards, wheel covers, and some engine parts in automobiles. This article reports that the use of calcium carbonate fillers with polypropylene is the best choice to enhance the mechanical properties of plastic parts used in automobiles.

  15. A strategy of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3) fillers for enhancing the mechanical properties of polypropylene polymers

    Thenepalli, Thriveni; Ahn, Ji Whan; Ahn, Young Jun; Han, Choon; Ramakrishna, Chilakala

    2015-01-01

    A wide variety of fillers are currently used in more than twenty types of polymer resins, although four of them alone (polypropylene, polyamides, thermoplastic polyesters, and polyvinyl chloride) account for 90% of the market of mineral fillers in plastics. Polypropylene (PP) and PVC dominate the market for calcium carbonate. PP is a versatile reinforcement material that can meet engineering and structural specifications and is widely used for automotive components, home appliances, and industrial applications. Talc, mica, clay, kaolin, wollastonite, calcium carbonates, feldspar, aluminum hydroxide, glass fibers, and natural fibers are commonly used in fillers. Among these, calcium carbonate (both natural and synthetic) is the mos abundant and affords the possibility of improved surface finishing, control over the manufacture of products, and increased electric resistance and impact resistance. Meeting the global challenge to reduce the weight of vehicles by using plastics is a significant issue. The current the global plastic and automobile industry cannot survive without fillers, additives, and reinforcements. Polypropylene is a major component of the modern plastic industry, and currently is used in dashboards, wheel covers, and some engine parts in automobiles. This article reports that the use of calcium carbonate fillers with polypropylene is the best choice to enhance the mechanical properties of plastic parts used in automobiles

  16. Microstructural evolution during tensile deformation of polypropylenes

    Dasari, A.; Rohrmann, J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Tensile deformation processes occurring at varying strain rates in high and low crystallinity polypropylenes and ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This is examined for both long and short chain polymeric materials. The deformation processes in different polymeric materials show striking dissimilarities in spite of the common propylene matrix. Additionally, the deformation behavior of long and their respective short chain polymers was different. Deformation mechanisms include crazing/tearing, wedging, ductile ploughing, fibrillation, and brittle fracture. The different modes of deformation are depicted in the form of strain rate-strain diagrams. At a constant strain rate, the strain to fracture follows the sequence: high crystallinity polypropylenes< low crystallinity polypropylenes< ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers, indicative of the trend in resistance to plastic deformation

  17. Flammability of polypropylene/organoclay nanocomposites

    Alves, Tatianny Soares; Barbosa, Renata; Carvalho, Laura Hecker de; Canedo, Eduardo Luis

    2014-01-01

    The flammabilities of nanocomposites made with three polypropylene grades (homo and copolymers) with 5 wt % of organoclay (Cloisite 20A), 5 or 15 wt % of maleated polypropylene as compatibilizer, and 0, 0.5 or 1 wt % of cis-13-docosenamide (Erucamide) as co-intercalant, were studied using the horizontal burning test UL94HB. Masterbatches prepared in an internal mixer were diluted in the polypropylene matrix using a corotating twin-screw extruder, with different screw configurations and operating at 240 or 480 rpm. Results indicate that the high burning rate of the composites was not affected by the processing conditions. For all formulations was observed a significant reduction in smoke release, lack of dripping and the formation of a char surface layer, that protected the core of the samples. (author)

  18. Research on mechanical properties of carbon fiber /polyamide reinforced PP composites

    Chen, Xinghui; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Lixia; Ji, Wenhua; Yang, Li; Fan, Dongli

    2017-10-01

    The polyamide composites reinforced by carbon fiber/polypropylene are produced by injection molding processing. The flow abilities and mechanical properties of the CF/PA/PP composite materials are studied by the fusion index instrument and the universal testing machine. The results show that with the content of carbon fiber/polyamide increase, the impact breaking strength and the tensile property of the composite materials increase, which is instructive to the actual injection production of polypropylene products.

  19. Laparoscopic Pelvic Floor Repair Using Polypropylene Mesh

    Shih-Shien Weng

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic pelvic floor repair using a single piece of polypropylene mesh combined with uterosacral ligament suspension appears to be a feasible procedure for the treatment of advanced vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele. Fewer mesh erosions and postoperative pain syndromes were seen in patients who had no previous pelvic floor reconstructive surgery.

  20. Synthesis And Thermal Characterization Of Polypropylene ...

    The present work investigates the heat transfer and specifically, thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat in Aluminium composite materials. The composites were obtained by mixing polypropylene (PP) with oxidized Aluminium (Al) under various volume fractions. Two sizes of filler are used in the sample composite ...

  1. On clarification of haze in polypropylene

    Bernland, K.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Smith, P.; Tervoort, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of reducing light scattering in isotactic polypropylene (i-PP), through the addition of so-called clarifying agents, is studied with small-angle light scattering (SALS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The clarifying agents used in this study depict monotectic phase behavior

  2. Cyclic viscoelastoplasticity of polypropylene/nanoclay composites

    Drozdov, A.; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2012-01-01

    Observations are reported on isotactic polypropylene/organically modified nanoclay hybrids with concentrations of filler ranging from 0 to 5 wt.% in cyclic tensile tests with a stress–controlled program (oscillations between various maximum stresses and the zero minimum stress). A pronounced effe...

  3. Morphology of Thermoplastic Elastomers:Stereoblock Polypropylene

    Pople, John A

    2002-08-06

    The morphologies of low-density (0.86 g/cm{sup 3}), elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) derived from bis(2-arylindenyl) hafnium dichloride were investigated using a combination of polarized optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM). These low-crystallinity polypropylenes, when crystallized isothermally from the melt, exhibit morphologies reminiscent of classical semi-crystalline polymers. The presence of lamellae, cross-hatching, hedrites, and spherulites was revealed by high resolution TM-AFM. These elastomeric polypropylenes can be fractionated into components of different average tacticities and crystallinities, but similar molecular mass. The analysis of the morphologies of all of the fractions revealed both large hierarchical structures and cross-hatching typical of the {alpha}-modification of crystalline isotactic polypropylene for all but the lowest crystalline ether soluble fraction. Evidence for high-melting crystals in all of the fractions are most consistent with a stereoblock microstructure of atactic and isotactic sequences.

  4. Some Exploitation Properties of Wood Plastic Hybrid Composites Based on Polypropylene and Plywood Production Waste

    Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

    2015-12-01

    During the last 20-30 years many researchers have paid attention to the studies of properties of thewood polymer composites (WPC). A lot of works are closely related to investigations of exploitation properties of wood fibres or wood flour containing polyolefine composites [1, 2]. The most useful from wide selection of polyolefines are polypropylenes, but timber industry waste materials comprising lignocellulose fibres are often used as reinforcement of WPC [3-12]. Plywood industry is not an exception - part of waste materials (by-products) are used for heat energy, i.e. burned. In this work we have approbated reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) with one of the plywood industry by-products, such as birch plywood sawdust (PSWD),which containswood fibre fractions with different length [13]. The main fraction (50%) includes fibres with length l = 0.5 - 1 mm. Our previous study [13] has confirmed that PSWD is a promising filler for PP reinforcing. Addition of PSWD up to 40-50 wt.% has increased WPC tensile and flexural modulus, but decreased deformation ability of PP matrix, impact strength, water resistance and fluidity of composite melts. It was shown [13] that modification of the composites with interfacial modifier - coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP content up to 5-7 wt.%) considerably improved all the abovementioned properties. SEM investigations also confirmed positive action of coupling agent on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix. Another way how to make better properties of the WPC is to form hybridcomposites [1, 14-24]. Very popular WPC modifiers are nanoparticle additions like organonanoclays, which increase WPC physical-mechanical properties - microhardness, water resistance and diminish barrier properties and combustibility [1, 2, 14-17, 19, 20]. The goal of this study was to investigate organonanoclays influence on plywood production industry by-product birch plywood sawdust (PSWD) containing

  5. Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bagasse/Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Hybrid Composites

    Mehdi Roohani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of bagasse/glass fiber/polypropylene hybrid composites. Composites were prepared by the melt compounding method and their properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. DSC results found that with incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber the melting temperature (Tm and the crystallisation temperature (Tc shift to higher temperatures and the degree of crystallinity (Xc increase. These findings suggest that the fibers played the role of a nucleating agent in composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that by the incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber into polypropylene, the storage modulus ( and the loss modulus ( increase whereas the mechanical loss factor (tanδ decrease. To assess the effect of reinforcement with increasing temperature, the effectiveness coefficient C was calculated at different temperature ranges and revealed that, at the elevated temperatures, improvement of mechanical properties due to the presence of fibers was more noticeable. The fiber-matrix adhesion efficiency determined by calculating of adhesion factor A in terms of the relative damping of the composite (tan δc and the polymer (tan δpand volume fraction of the fibers (Фf. Calculated adhesion factor A values indicated that by adding glass fiber to bagasse/polypropylene system, the fiber-matrix adhesion improve. Hybrid composite containing 25% bagasse and 15% glass fiber showed better fiber-matrix adhesion.

  6. Texturing of polypropylene (PP) with nanosecond lasers

    Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a biocompatible and biostable polymer, showing good mechanical properties that has been recently introduced in the biomedical field for bone repairing applications; however, its poor surface properties due to its low surface energy limit their use in biomedical applications. In this work, we have studied the topographical modification of polypropylene (PP) laser textured with Nd:YVO4 nanosecond lasers emitting at λ = 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. First, optical response of this material under these laser wavelengths was determined. The application of an absorbing coating was also studied. The influence of the laser processing parameters on the surface modification of PP was investigated by means of statistically designed experiments. Processing maps to tailor the roughness, and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants, were also determined. Microhardness measurements were performed to discern the impact of laser treatment on the final mechanical properties of PP.

  7. Fracture behavior of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites.

    Chen, Ling; Wang, Ke; Kotaki, Masaya; Hu, Charmaine; He, Chaobin

    2006-12-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/clay nanocomposites have been prepared via a reactive compounding approach with an epoxy based masterbatch. Compared with PP and common PP/organoclay nanocomposites, the PP/clay nanocomposites based on epoxy/clay masterbatch have higher impact strength. The phenomenon can be attributed to the epoxy phase dispersed uniformly in the PP matrix, which may act as impact energy absorber and helps to form a large damage zone, thus a higher impact strength value is achieved.

  8. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Martínez A.B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc. or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.. In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s−1 in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB. Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  9. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  10. Influence of the elastomeric polypropylene addition on the properties of commercial metallocenic polypropylene

    Marques Maria de Fátima V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene with special properties can be obtained by metallocenic catalysts. These catalytic systems represent the beginning of a new age in polyolefins technology. In this work, the influence of the addition of a syndiotactic polypropylene (s-PP on the processability and mechanical properties of a commercial isotactic polypropylene (i-PP obtained by metallocenic catalysts was evaluated. Increasing addition of s-PP promoted better processability, with an increase in the impact strength and a decrease in the stress at break. A reduction of the crystallinity in the polymeric blends was verified. The more significant influence of the s-PP addition was observed for the mi-PP, compared to the ZNi-PP.

  11. Tissue Engineering Bionanocomposites Based on Poly(propylene fumarate

    Ana M. Diez-Pascual

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(propylene fumarate (PPF is a linear and unsaturated copolyester based on fumaric acid that has been widely investigated for tissue engineering applications in recent years due to its tailorable mechanical performance, adjustable biodegradability and exceptional biocompatibility. In order to improve its mechanical properties and spread its range of practical applications, novel approaches need to be developed such as the incorporation of fillers or polymer blending. Thus, PPF-based bionanocomposites reinforced with different amounts of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONR, graphite oxide nanoplatelets (GONP, polyethylene glycol-functionalized graphene oxide (PEG-GO, polyethylene glycol-grafted boron nitride nanotubes (PEG-g-BNNTs and hydroxyapatite (HA nanoparticles were synthesized via sonication and thermal curing, and their morphology, biodegradability, cytotoxicity, thermal, rheological, mechanical and antibacterial properties were investigated. An increase in the level of hydrophilicity, biodegradation rate, stiffness and strength was found upon increasing nanofiller loading. The nanocomposites retained enough rigidity and strength under physiological conditions to provide effective support for bone tissue formation, showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and did not induce toxicity on human dermal fibroblasts. These novel biomaterials demonstrate great potential to be used for bone tissue engineering applications.

  12. Microstructure and Properties of Polypropylene/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Dimitrios Bikiaris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the preparation of polypropylene (PP nanocomposites using carbon nanotubes (CNTs due to the tremendous enhancement of the mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical and structural properties of the pristine material. This is due to the unique combination of structural, mechanical, electrical, and thermal transport properties of CNTs. However, it is well-known that the properties of polymer-based nanocomposites strongly depend on the dispersion of nanofillers and almost all the discussed properties of PP/CNTs nanocomposites are strongly related to their microstructure. PP/CNTs nanocomposites were, mainly, prepared by melt mixing and in situ polymerization. Young’s modulus, tensile strength and storage modulus of the PP/CNTs nanocomposites can be increased with increasing CNTs content due to the reinforcement effect of CNTs inside the polymer matrix. However, above a certain CNTs content the mechanical properties are reduced due to the CNTs agglomeration. The microstructure of nanocomposites has been studied mainly by SEM and TEM techniques. Furthermore, it was found that CNTs can act as nucleating agents promoting the crystallization rates of PP and the addition of CNTs enhances all other physical properties of PP. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the existing literature related to PP/CNTs nanocomposite preparation methods and properties studies.

  13. Interfacial fracture of the fibre-metal laminates based on fibre reinforced thermoplastics

    Abdullah, M.R.; Prawoto, Y.; Cantwell, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    As the adhesion quality plays an important role in determining the mechanical performance and environmental stability of most types of fibre-metal laminates (FMLs), investigating the interfacial fracture properties becomes one of the key factors for the improvement. Adhesion of a self-reinforced polypropylene (SRPP) and glass fibre reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) based FML is evaluated experimentally. Single Cantilever Beam (SCB) tests were performed to access interfacial fracture energy (G c ) of the bi-material laminates and their associated interlayer materials. Simulations mimicking the experiments were also performed. The energy needed to fracture was obtained experimentally and also via stress intensity factor from the simulations. The test results show that good adhesion between the aluminium and fibre reinforced thermoplastics can be achieved using a sulphuric acid anodising surface pre-treatment. Further examination has shown that the edges of the test samples highlighted the presence of significant fibre bridging in the SRPP and plastics deformation in the GFPP. - Highlights: • Adhesion of a self-reinforced polypropylene and glass fibre reinforced polypropylene is evaluated. • Single Cantilever Beam tests were performed to access interfacial fracture energy. • The energy needed to fracture was obtained experimentally and also via stress intensity factor from the simulations. • The test results show that best adhesion is achieved using a sulphuric acid anodizing surface pre-treatment

  14. Processing and Characterization of a Polypropylene Biocomposite Compounded with Maleated and Acrylated Compatibilizers

    Brent A. Nerenz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP biocomposites containing 20 wt.% sunflower hull as a particulate reinforcement were compounded and tested under tensile, flexural, and impact loadings. The incorporation of the sunflower hull without compatibilizer resulted in diminished tensile strength and impact energy absorption but increased flexural strength and both tensile modulus and flexural modulus when compared to neat PP. Formulations containing three different chemical compatibilizers were tested to determine their effectiveness in improving the interfacial adhesion between the fiber surface and PP chains. Maleic anhydride grafted with PP (MA-g-PP achieved greater improvements in tensile strength but reduced impact strength in comparison to an acrylic-acid-grafted PP compatibilizer (AA-g-PP. The molecular weight, graft level, and the ability to affect strength, modulus, and absorbed impact energy were also investigated for the compatibilizers. A MA-g-PP having high molecular weight and low graft level was most effective in improving the investigated properties of a sunflower hull-reinforced polypropylene biocomposite.

  15. Heavy duty glassflake coatings for corrosion protection use in bitumous oil extraction service

    Watkinson, C.J. [Corrocoat/Glassflake Ltd., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    New technologies developed to optimize glass flakes in the organic resinous materials used for corrosion protection were presented. The flakes improve the properties of unsaturated polyester and polypropylene as well as paper and cement. Coatings produced using glass flake technology are increasingly being used in oil and gas applications. Glass flakes are chemical-resistant and inert in most environments. However, the flakes do not present a continuous barrier in resin matrices. Larger glass flake diameters cause surface disruption and roughness on the layers to which they are applied. Glass flake coating formulations use flakes of differing thicknesses and diameters with differing particle distributions. This paper discussed experiments conducted to evaluate the fire resistance qualities of the glass flake coatings, reductions in smoke emissions, heat distortion and creep; and improvements in shrinkage rates during polymerization. Experiments were also conducted on non-coating applications and engineering thermoplastics. Tests included moisture vapour transmission (MVT); water absorption; modified Atlas cold wall testing; cathodic disbondment; and fire and flame resistance. The tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical performance of a glass flake-filled polyester system. Particle size distribution was altered in order to evaluate changes in performance. The viscosity and thixotropic properties of the formulations were also assessed. Glass flakes were then optimized based on the results of the tests. The coatings are now being used in a variety of different oil and gas applications. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Electron beam processing of rubber wood fibers - polypropylene composites. Effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties

    Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus; Jalaluddin Harun; Khairul Zaman

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the suitability of producing agro-fiber reinforced plastic composite (agro-FRPC) from rubber wood fiber blended in polypropylene matrix. The effects of varying fiber dimension and fiber content on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated to provide an insight into the fiber matrix adhesion. The effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated which provides the insight on the reinforcement of the composite. Rubber wood fiber used in this study is currently being used in the manufacturing of medium density fiber (MDF) board. Two sizes of rubber wood fiber were used i.e. 0.5-1.0 mm and 1.0-2.0 mm. Homopolymer polypropylene of MFI 14.0 was used as a matrix. The irradiation work was carried out using electron beam accelerator, 3.0 MeV, 3.0 mA. Various types of reactive additives (RA) with mono-functional, di-functional, tri-functional and oligomer were applied in the blend. For comparison, a conventional chemical cross-linking using two types of maleated polypropylene, MPA (Mw=9,000) and PMAP (Mw=220,000) were also performed. (author)

  17. Electron beam processing of rubber wood fibers - polypropylene composites. Effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties

    Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus; Jalaluddin Harun [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Khairul Zaman [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the suitability of producing agro-fiber reinforced plastic composite (agro-FRPC) from rubber wood fiber blended in polypropylene matrix. The effects of varying fiber dimension and fiber content on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated to provide an insight into the fiber matrix adhesion. The effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated which provides the insight on the reinforcement of the composite. Rubber wood fiber used in this study is currently being used in the manufacturing of medium density fiber (MDF) board. Two sizes of rubber wood fiber were used i.e. 0.5-1.0 mm and 1.0-2.0 mm. Homopolymer polypropylene of MFI 14.0 was used as a matrix. The irradiation work was carried out using electron beam accelerator, 3.0 MeV, 3.0 mA. Various types of reactive additives (RA) with mono-functional, di-functional, tri-functional and oligomer were applied in the blend. For comparison, a conventional chemical cross-linking using two types of maleated polypropylene, MPA (Mw=9,000) and PMAP (Mw=220,000) were also performed. (author)

  18. THE FTIR STUDIES OF PHOTO-OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF POLYPROPYLENE

    WEN Zaiqing; HU Xingzhou; SHEN Deyan

    1988-01-01

    The photo-oxidative degradation process of polypropylene film containing iron ions was investigated via FTIR and absorbance substraction technique. It is shown that the iron ions play an important role in the decomposition of hydroperoxide and the increase of the degradation rate of polypropylene film. Theamorphous region of PP film undergoes degradation prior to the crystalline one.

  19. Influence of injection temperatures and fiberglass compositions on mechanical properties of polypropylene

    Keey, Tony Tiew Chun; Azuddin, M.

    2017-06-01

    Injection molding process appears to be one of the most suitable mass and cost efficiency manufacturing processes for polymeric parts nowadays due to its high efficiency of large scale production. When down-scaling the products and components, the limits of conventional injection molding process are reached. These constraints had initiated the development of conventional injection molding process into a new era of micro injection molding technology. In this study, fiberglass reinforced polypropylenes (PP) with various glass fiber percentage materials were used. The study start with fabrication of micro tensile specimens at three different injection temperature, 260°C, 270°C and 280°C for different percentage by weight of fiberglass reinforced PP. Then evaluate the effects of various injection temperatures on the tensile properties of micro tensile specimens. Different percentage by weight of fiberglass reinforced PP were tested as well and it was found that 20% fiberglass reinforced PP possessed the greatest percentage increase of tensile strength with increasing temperatures.

  20. Estudo das propriedades reológicas, morfológicas e mecânicas de blendas injetadas de polipropileno com poliamidas reforçadas com fibras de vidro An experimental study of the rheological, morphological and mechanical properties of reinforced polypropylene/polyamide blends

    G. Villoutreix

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Neste trabalho foi estudada a influência da adição de compatibilizantes, da composição e dos parâmetros de processamento nas propriedades reológicas, morfológicas e mecânicas de blendas de polipropileno com poliamidas aromáticas, adicionadas de fibras de vidro, obtidas por moldagem por injeção. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a adição de um compatibilizante melhora a adesão entre as fases da blenda, apresentando um papel emulsificante e estabilizador da morfologia da blenda. Utilizando-se um reômetro "in line" na máquina de injeção, e através de observações morfológicas, foi mostrado que ocorre uma evolução significativa da morfologia em função dos parâmetros de processamento e da composição da blenda. A orientação das fibras de vidro em função da posição dentro do molde foi também estudada neste trabalho, demonstrando a existência de três camadas distintas no molde.ABSTRACT: In this work, the influence of compatibilization, blend composition and processing parameters on the rheological, morphological and mechanical properties were studied for blends of polypropylene with aromatic polyamide with glass fibers obtained by injection molding. It was shown that the compatibilizer improves the adhesion at the interface, emulsifies and stabilizes the morphology. Using rheological data obtained with an in-line rheometer, localized in the injection molding machine and morphological observations, it was shown that significant evolution of phase structure occurred depending on processing or compounding parameters. Also, the orientation of the glass fibers was studied as a function of the position in the mold cavity, showing the presence of three layers of different morphology in the molding.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on polypropylene, polypropylene + high density polyethylene and polypropylene + high density polyethylene + wood flour

    Reyes, J.; Albano, C.; Davidson, E.; Poleo, R. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela). Escuela de Quimica; Gonzalez, J.; Ichazo, M. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Dept. de Mecanica, Caracas (Venezuela); Chipara, M. [Research Institute for Electrotechnics, Bucharest (Romania)

    2001-04-01

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation on the mechanical properties of the composites, Polypropylene (PP), PP+high density Polyethylene (HDPE), PP+ HDPE+wood flour, where HDPE is virgin and recycled, was studied. This paper discusses the behavior of the composites after exposure to various doses of gamma irradiation (1-7 MRads) in the presence of oxygen. The dependence of mechanical properties on the integral dose for a constant dose rate of 0.48 MRads/h confirms the influence of the irradiation. Strong effects on the elongation at break and break strength is noticed. The mathematical analysis suggests for the PP+r-HDPE a bimolecular process of the elongation at break. On the order hand, for the PP+HDPE a complex process is represented for a three exponential equation. (orig.)

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on polypropylene, polypropylene + high density polyethylene and polypropylene + high density polyethylene + wood flour

    Reyes, J.; Albano, C.; Davidson, E.; Poleo, R.; Chipara, M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation on the mechanical properties of the composites, Polypropylene (PP), PP+high density Polyethylene (HDPE), PP+ HDPE+wood flour, where HDPE is virgin and recycled, was studied. This paper discusses the behavior of the composites after exposure to various doses of gamma irradiation (1-7 MRads) in the presence of oxygen. The dependence of mechanical properties on the integral dose for a constant dose rate of 0.48 MRads/h confirms the influence of the irradiation. Strong effects on the elongation at break and break strength is noticed. The mathematical analysis suggests for the PP+r-HDPE a bimolecular process of the elongation at break. On the order hand, for the PP+HDPE a complex process is represented for a three exponential equation. (orig.)

  3. Autoclaved Sand-Lime Products with a Polypropylene Mesh

    Kostrzewa, Paulina; Stępień, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the research on modifications of silicate bricks with a polypropylene mesh and their influence on physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of such bricks. The main goal of the paper was to determine effects of the polypropylene mesh on sand-lime product parameters. The analysis has focused on compressive strength, water absorption, bulk density and structural features of the material. The obtained product is characterized by improved basic performance characteristics compared to traditional silicate products. Using the polypropylene mesh increased compressive strength by 25% while decreasing the product density. The modified products retain their form and do not disintegrate after losing their bearing capacity.

  4. Polypropylene and polycarbonate radiosterilization: effects on the stress resistance

    Musico Filho, W.; Terence, M.C.; Guedes, S.M.L.; Araujo, E.S. de

    1994-01-01

    The gamma radiation effect on polymer sterilization used in the fabrication of medical supplies, national polycarbonate and polypropylene, was studied in function of the tensile strength. During the polycarbonate irradiation occur the scission of polymer chain and the crosslinking/scission of the polypropylene, but in the sterilization dose, 25 kGy, does not occur expressive changes in the tensile strength. After the polypropylene sterilization the tensile strength continues increasing as consequence of the crosslinking. Since the sixth day the oxidation reaction predominates as consequence of the radical migration to the amorphous region. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs

  5. Mechanical Properties of Isotactic Polypropylene Modified with Thermoplastic Potato Starch

    Knitter, M.; Dobrzyńska-Mizera, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper selected mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) modified with potato starch have been presented. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) used as a modifier in the study was produced from potato starch modified with glycerol. Isotactic polypropylene/thermoplastic potato starch composites (iPP/TPS) that contained 10, 30, 50 wt.% of modified starch were examined using dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis, static tensile, Brinell hardness, and Charpy impact test. The studies indicated a distinct influence of a filler content on the mechanical properties of composites in comparison with non-modified polypropylene.

  6. Determination of Partition Coefficients of Selected Model Migrants between Polyethylene and Polypropylene and Nanocomposite Polypropylene

    Pablo Otero-Pazos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on nanoparticles have focused the attention of the researchers because they can produce nanocomposites that exhibit unexpected hybrid properties. Polymeric materials are commonly used in food packaging, but from the standpoint of food safety, one of the main concerns on the use of these materials is the potential migration of low molecular substances from the packaging into the food. The key parameters of this phenomenon are the diffusion and partition coefficients. Studies on migration from food packaging with nanomaterials are very scarce. This study is focused on the determination of partition coefficients of different model migrants between the low-density polyethylene (LDPE and polypropylene (PP and between LDPE and nanocomposite polypropylene (naPP. The results show that the incorporation of nanoparticles in polypropylene increases the mass transport of model migrants from LDPE to naPP. This quantity of migrants absorbed into PP and naPP depends partially on the nature of the polymer and slightly on the chemical features of the migrant. Relation (RPP/naPP between partition coefficient KLDPE/PP and partition coefficient KLDPE/naPP at 60°C and 80°C shows that only BHT at 60°C has a RPP/naPP less than 1. On the other hand, bisphenol A has the highest RPP/naPP with approximately 50 times more.

  7. Decontamination of polypropylene fabrics by dry cleaning

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)

  8. Mechanical Properties of Nanofilled Polypropylene Composites

    Cristina-Elisabeta PELIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study concerning mechanical performance of thermoplastic nanocomposites based on isotactic polypropylene matrix, nanofilled with montmorillonite modified with quaternary ammonium salt and carboxyl functionalized carbon nanotubes, respectively, added in the same concentration relative to the matrix. The nanofilled and single polymer materials were obtained by simple melt compounding through extrusion process followed by injection molding into specific shape specimens for mechanical testing of the samples. Mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile and 3 point bending tests. In terms of modulus of elasticity, the results showed overall positive effects concerning the effect of nanofiller addition to the thermoplastic polymer. The fracture cross section of the tested specimens was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM microscopy.

  9. Application of Glass Fiber Waste Polypropylene Aggregate in Lightweight Concrete – thermal properties

    Citek, D.; Rehacek, S.; Pavlik, Z.; Kolisko, J.; Dobias, D.; Pavlikova, M.

    2018-03-01

    Actual paper focus on thermal properties of a sustainable lightweight concrete incorporating high volume of waste polypropylene aggregate as partial substitution of natural aggregate. In presented experiments a glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) which is a by-product of PP tubes production, partially substituted fine natural silica aggregate in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mass %. Results were compared with a reference concrete mix without plastic waste in order to quantify the effect of GFPP use on concrete properties. Main material physical parameters were studied (bulk density, matrix density without air content, and particle size distribution). Especially a thermal transport and storage properties of GFPP were examined in dependence on compaction time. For the developed lightweight concrete, thermal properties were accessed using transient impulse technique, where the measurement was done in dependence on moisture content (from the fully water saturated state to dry state). It was found that the tested lightweight concrete should be prospective construction material possessing improved thermal insulation function and the reuse of waste plastics in concrete composition was beneficial both from the environmental and financial point of view.

  10. Thermal properties of light-weight concrete with waste polypropylene aggregate

    Záleská, Martina; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    Thermal properties of a sustainable light-weight concrete incorporating high volume of waste polypropylene as partial substitution of natural aggregate were studied in the paper. Glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (GFPP), a by-product of PP tubes production, partially substituted fine natural silica aggregate in 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mass%. In order to quantify the effect of GFPP use on concrete properties, a reference concrete mix without plastic waste was studied as well. For the applied GFPP, bulk density, matrix density, and particle size distribution were measured. Specific attention was paid to thermal transport and storage properties of GFPP that were examined in dependence on compaction time. For the developed light-weight concrete, thermal properties were accessed using transient impulse technique, whereas the measurement was done in dependence on moisture content, from the dry state to fully water saturated state. Additionally, the investigated thermal properties were plotted as function of porosity. The tested light-weight concrete was found to be prospective construction material possessing improved thermal insulation function. Moreover, the reuse of waste plastics in concrete composition was beneficial both from the environmental and financial point of view considering plastics low biodegradability and safe disposal.

  11. Effect of surface modified kaolin on properties of polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride

    Yang, Ni; Zhang, Zuo-Cai; Ma, Ning; Liu, Huan-Li; Zhan, Xue-Qing; Li, Bing; Gao, Wei; Tsai, Fang-Chang; Jiang, Tao; Chang, Chang-Jung; Chiang, Tai-Chin; Shi, Dean

    To achieve reinforcement of mechanical and thermal performances of polypropylene (PP) product, this work aimed at fabrication of surface modified kaolin (M-kaolin) filled polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) composites with varying contents of fillers and investigation of their mechanical and thermal properties. And the prepared PP-g-MAH/M-kaolin composites were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Fracture analysis by SEM showed M-kaolin particles were well dispersed in the PP-g-MAH matrix. Mechanical behaviors were determined by tensile strength, tensile strain at break and impact strength analysis. Impact strength of PP-g-MAH/2 wt% M-kaolin composites was improved up to 30% comparing with unfilled composites. Thermostability had been found enhanced when M-kaolin added. The results revealed PP-g-MAH/M-kaolin composites showed the optimal thermal and mechanical properties when 2 wt% of M-kaolin was added.

  12. Mechanical and rheological response of polypropylene/boehmite nanocomposites

    Pedrazzoli, D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the influence of synthetic boehmite alumina (BA) nanoparticles with various surface treatments on the morphology, crystallization behavior and mechanical properties of polypropylene copolymer (PP) nanocomposites was studied...

  13. The effects of normal paraffins mobilizers on irradiated polypropylene

    Chen Wenxiu; Gao Ling

    1995-01-01

    The n-paraffins blended with polypropylene (PP) as mobilizer had been investigated. The effectiveness of mobilizer (n-paraffins) on irradiated polypropylene is dependent on the molecular weight of mobilizer and its content on polypropylene. The n-docosame (n-C 22 ) possesses the best effectiveness of radiation tolerance on PP among the mobilizer paraffins: n-decane (n-C 10 ), n-hexadecane (n-C 16 ), n-docosane (n-C 22 ) and n-hexatriacontane (n-C 36 ). The 2% (w/w) content of a given mobilizer is the most effective at reducing the embrittlement of irradiated PP as evidenced by the elongation at break. The physical properties of polypropylene with mobilizers such as density, Young's modulus, the Fraction of free volume and the weight swelling ratio in p-xylene at room temperature were measured. Above phenomena are related with the constructive of blended PP and demonstrated by its physical properties

  14. Graft copolimerization of hydrophilic monomers onto irradiated polypropylene fibers

    Sundardi, F.

    1978-01-01

    A method of graft copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers, such as 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and acrylamide, onto irradiated polypropylene fibers has been studied. γ ray as well as electron beam were employed for the irradiation processes. Graft-copolymerization kinetics and the properties of grafted fibers have been investigated. Moisture regain, dyes absorption, and melting point of the grafted fibers were found to increase with the increasing of the degree of grafting. Polypropylene for 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafted fibers showed excellent dye absorption for almost all kinds of dyes such as direct, basic, acid, reactive, disper, and naphthol dyes. However, for polypropylene acrylic acid grafted fibers, the colorfastness to washing was found to be unsatisfactory. The colorfastness to washing for polypropylene 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafted fibers was found to be fairly good for certain types of dyes such as vat and naphthol dyes. (author)

  15. Effect of ultraviolet radiation (300-400 nanometers) on polypropylene

    Lerman, S.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene discs and shavings were exposed to simulated ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation (lambda 300-400 nm) for a period equivalent to at least two years of wear within the eye, assuming the eye to be exposed to ambient UV radiation for four hours per day at 1 mW/cm2. The polypropylene and the incubation media were measured by several forms of optical spectroscopy, and there was no photochemical change in either. Where polypropylene discs were exposed to a very high level of UV radiation (greater than 500 W/cm2), they became brittle and discolored within five to ten days. This level of exposure, however, was equivalent to a total of over 20 million joules/cm2, which is at least one million times levels for expected ambient UV exposure to polypropylene within the eye

  16. Interim Report on the Investigation of the Fresh Properties of Synthetic Fiber-Reinforced Concrete for the Richardson Landing Casting Field

    2017-04-01

    ER D C/ G SL S R- 17 -1 Interim Report on the Investigation of the Fresh Properties of Synthetic Fiber - Reinforced Concrete for the...default. ERDC/GSL SR-17-1 April 2017 Interim Report on the Investigation of the Fresh Properties of Synthetic Fiber - Reinforced Concrete for... reinforced concrete mixtures containing 3-, 2-, and 1-lb(s)/yd3, respectively, of synthetic (polypropylene) fiber into the current mixture proportion

  17. Preparation of Polypropylene/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites Using Ionizing Radiation

    Güven, Olgun; Zengin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites are new generation materials that bring significant changes in mechanical, thermal and permeation properties of base polymers by low clay loading. In this study, polypropylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation method by using batch type mixer. Two polypropylene samples with different melt flow indexes are used as the matrix, maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH), and polypropylene granules oxidized by radiation/ozone are used as compatibilizer and unmodified clay (Na + montmorillonite, MMT) as the filler. Aim of this study is to examine the effect of different compatibilizers in the mechanical properties of polypropylene composite. Firstly, PP/clay samples were prepared and the effect of clay was examined, then 5, 10, 20kGy oxidized/degraded polypropylenes were used as compatibilizer and, 10 kGy was determined to be the most suitable irradiation dose for the best compatibilizing effect. Polypropylene granules were ozonated until they contained carbonyl groups equivalent to 10kGy oxidized PP, which was checked by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. UV-visible reflectance measurements were also made on film samples and no significant changes were observed in visible region. Nano structures of some nanocomposites were characterized by PALS (Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy) where it was observed that the addition of clay decreased the number of free volume holes and free volume hole radia. The dispersion state of MMT within polymer matrix was analyzed by XRD (X-ray diffraction). Tensile tests were made and the effect of the addition of clay and compatibilizers investigated. At low melt flow index PP, 1% MMT of PP/10kGyPP/MMT nanocomposite showed an increase in E-modulus 26% and in tensile strength 8% as compared to those of pristine PP. In conclusion radiation degraded (chain scissioned and oxidized) PP has been found to show very good compatibilizing effect for the natural montmorillonite/polypropylene

  18. Application of gas chromatography to the investigations on polypropylene radiolysis

    Zagorski, Z.P.; Gluszewski, W.

    2006-01-01

    Refinement of the gas chromatography (GC) instrumental approach permitted not only improvement of investigation in basic research, but also development of a new kind of polypropylene blends, more suitable for the production of medical devices and radiation sterilization. It has been shown, that using the GC method not only methane and carbon dioxide can be measured, but also the consumption of oxygen which reacts with free radicals on the polypropylene chain

  19. Radiation resistant modified polypropylene; Polipropylen modyfikowany odporny radiacyjnie

    Bojarski, J; Zimek, Z [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Radiation technology for production of radiation resistant polypropylene for medical use has been presented. The method consists in radiation induced copolymerization of polypropylene with ethylene and addition of small amount of copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate. The material of proposed composition has a very good mechanical properties and elevated radiation resistivity decided on possibility of radiosterilization of products made of this material and designed for medical use. 3 figs, 3 tabs.

  20. Polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites by in situ polymerization

    Milani, Marceo A.; Galland, Giselda B.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the synthesis of nanocomposites of polypropylene/graphite by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalyst and graphene nanosheets. Initially was analyzed which of the metallocene catalysts rac-Et(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 or rac-Me 2 Si(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 produces polypropylene with mechanical properties more relevant. Then it were performed the in situ polymerization reactions to obtain the nanocomposites. The polymeric materials were characterized by XRD, DSC, GPC and DMTA. (author)

  1. Preparation of Polypropylene/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites Using Ionizing Radiation

    Güven, Olgun; Zengin, Fatma

    2011-07-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites are new generation materials that bring significant changes in mechanical, thermal and permeation properties of base polymers by low clay loading. In this study, polypropylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation method by using batch type mixer. Two polypropylene samples with different melt flow indexes are used as the matrix, maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH), and polypropylene granules oxidized by radiation/ozone are used as compatibilizer and unmodified clay (Na{sup +} montmorillonite, MMT) as the filler. Aim of this study is to examine the effect of different compatibilizers in the mechanical properties of polypropylene composite. Firstly, PP/clay samples were prepared and the effect of clay was examined, then 5, 10, 20kGy oxidized/degraded polypropylenes were used as compatibilizer and, 10 kGy was determined to be the most suitable irradiation dose for the best compatibilizing effect. Polypropylene granules were ozonated until they contained carbonyl groups equivalent to 10kGy oxidized PP, which was checked by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. UV-visible reflectance measurements were also made on film samples and no significant changes were observed in visible region. Nano structures of some nanocomposites were characterized by PALS (Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy) where it was observed that the addition of clay decreased the number of free volume holes and free volume hole radia. The dispersion state of MMT within polymer matrix was analyzed by XRD (X-ray diffraction). Tensile tests were made and the effect of the addition of clay and compatibilizers investigated. At low melt flow index PP, 1% MMT of PP/10kGyPP/MMT nanocomposite showed an increase in E-modulus 26% and in tensile strength 8% as compared to those of pristine PP. In conclusion radiation degraded (chain scissioned and oxidized) PP has been found to show very good compatibilizing effect for the natural montmorillonite/polypropylene

  2. Evaluation of the environmental aging and mechanical properties of the polypropylene/sugarcane bagasse composites

    Paiva, Rayane Lima de Moura; Mulinari, Daniella Regina

    2013-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with fibers from sugarcane bagasse composites in different proportions were prepared. Also environmental aging was conducted for the composites and their mechanical properties determined. The results showed that chemical treatment caused changes in color and chemical composition of the fibers, removing impurities and amorphous constituents such as lignin and hemicellulose, techniques of FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed these data. Also, it was observed that addition of natural fiber in PP matrix provided an improvement in the mechanical properties materials. The weathering test revealed a slight mass gain after 75 days, but it was clear that the inclusion of fibers has a higher mass gain compared to pure PP. (author)

  3. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene sutures and mesh

    Burks, David; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-02-01

    Complications from polypropylene mesh after surgery for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) may require tedious surgical revision and removal of mesh materials with risk of damage to healthy adjacent tissue. This study explores selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials commonly used in SUI. A compact, 7 Watt, 647-nm, red diode laser was operated with a radiant exposure of 81 J/cm2, pulse duration of 100 ms, and 1.0-mm-diameter laser spot. The 647-nm wavelength was selected because its absorption by water, hemoglobin, and other major tissue chromophores is low, while polypropylene absorption is high. Laser vaporization of ~200-μm-diameter polypropylene suture/mesh strands, in contact with fresh urinary tissue samples, ex vivo, was performed. Non-contact temperature mapping of the suture/mesh samples with a thermal camera was also conducted. Photoselective vaporization of polypropylene suture and mesh using a single laser pulse was achieved with peak temperatures of 180 and 232 °C, respectively. In control (safety) studies, direct laser irradiation of tissue alone resulted in only a 1 °C temperature increase. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials is feasible without significant thermal damage to tissue. This technique may be useful for SUI procedures requiring surgical revision.

  4. Repairing reinforced concrete slabs using composite layers

    Naghibdehi, M. Ghasemi; Sharbatdar, M.K.; Mastali, M.

    2014-01-01

    There are several strengthening methods for rehabilitation of RC structural elements. The efficiency of these methods has been demonstrated by many researchers. Due to their mechanical properties, using fibrous materials in rehabilitation applications is growing fast. Therefore, this study presents rehabilitation of slabs in such a way that plain concrete layers on top, on bottom, on the entire cross section are replaced by reinforced concrete layers. In order to reinforce the concrete, Polypropylene (PP) and steel fibers were used by 0.5%, 1% and 2% fiber volume fractions. Nineteen slabs were studied under flexural loadings and fibrous material effects on the initial crack force, the maximum loading carrying capacity, absorbed energy and ductility were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing the fiber volume fraction or using reinforced concrete layer on top, bottom, or at the entire cross section of the slabs not only always leads to improvement in the slab performance, but also sometimes debilitates the slab performance. Hence, this study will propose the best positioning of reinforced concrete layer, fiber volume fraction and fiber type to achieve the best flexural performance of slabs. - Highlights: • Using PP fibers at the bottom layer led to the best slab performance in bending. • Using steel fiber at the top layer and entire cross-section led to the best slab performance. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 2% steel fiber. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 1% PP fiber

  5. Influence of nonmetals recycled from waste printed circuit boards on flexural properties and fracture behavior of polypropylene composites

    Zheng Yanhong; Shen Zhigang; Cai Chujiang; Ma Shulin; Xing Yushan

    2009-01-01

    Flexural strength and flexural modulus of the composites can be successfully improved by filling nonmetals recycled from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) into polypropylene (PP). By using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the influence of nonmetals on fracture behavior of PP composites is investigated by in situ flexural test. Observation results show that the particles can effectively lead to mass micro cracks instead of the breaking crack. The process of the crack initiation, propagation and fiber breakage dissipate a great amount of energy. As a result, the flexural properties of the composites can be reinforced significantly. Results of the in situ SEM observation and analysis to the dynamic flexural process supply effective test evidence for the reinforcing mechanism of the nonmetals/PP composites on the basis of the energy dissipation theory

  6. Characterization and modeling of fiber reinforced concrete for structural applications in beams and plates

    Paegle, Ieva

    (i.e., stirrups) is investigated in detail using digital image correlation (DIC) measurement technique. The use of steel fibers to replace traditional shear reinforcement is not without precedent in current reinforced concrete design codes. However, more detailed information is provided......Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) with discrete, short and randomly distributed fibers can be specified and designed for structural applications in flexural members. In certain cases, fibers are used as the only reinforcement, while in other cases fibers are used in combination with a reduced amount...... are considered in structural design, the work presented in this thesis analyzes in detail many commonly used test methods on three types of FRC, including Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete (PP-FRC), Polyvinyl Alcohol Fiber Reinforced Concrete called Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) and Steel Fiber...

  7. Influence of Basalt FRP Mesh Reinforcement on High-Performance Concrete Thin Plates at High Temperatures

    Hulin, Thomas; Lauridsen, Dan H.; Hodicky, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    A basalt fiber–reinforced polymer (BFRP) mesh was introduced as reinforcement in high-performance concrete (HPC) thin plates (20–30 mm) for implementation in precast sandwich panels. An experimental program studied the BFRP mesh influence on HPC exposed to high temperature. A set of standard...... furnace tests compared performances of HPC with and without BFRP mesh, assessing material behavior; another set including polypropylene (PP) fibers to avoid spalling compared the performance of BFRP mesh reinforcement to that of regular steel reinforcement, assessing mechanical properties......, requiring the use of steel. Microscope observations highlighted degradation of the HPC-BFRP mesh interface with temperature due to the melting polymer matrix of the mesh. These observations call for caution when using fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement in elements exposed to fire hazard....

  8. Effects of the cooling rate on the shear behavior of continuous glass fiber/impact polypropylene composites (GF-IPP)

    Wafai, Husam

    2016-09-20

    Fiber-reinforced composites with improved dissipation of energy during impact loading have recently been developed based on a polypropylene copolymer commonly called impact polypropylene (IPP). Composites made of IPP reinforced with glass fibers (GF) are particularly attractive to the automotive industry due to their low cost and good impact resistance. In such composites, the cooling rate varies depending on processing techniques and manufacturing choices. Here, we study the effects of the cooling rate of GF-IPP composites on shear behavior, which is critical in impact applications, using [±45]s monotonic and cyclic (load/unload) tensile specimens. The specimens were manufactured under a wide range of cooling rates (3 °C/min, 22 °C/min, 500–1000 °C/min). Mainly dominated by the properties of the matrix, the global shear behavior of GF-IPP composites differed considerably with respect to the cooling rate. However, the performance of the fiber-matrix interface (chemically modified) appeared to be unaffected by the range of cooling rates used in this study. We found that the cooling rate has a minor effect on the rate of damage accumulation, while it strongly modifies the shear-activated rate-dependant viscoelastic behavior. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  9. Magnetic fluids stabilized by polypropylene glycol

    Lebedev, A.V., E-mail: lav@icmm.r [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 1, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation); Lysenko, S.N. [Institute of Technical Chemistry, UB RAS, Academic Korolev Str. 3, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    A series of samples of magnetic fluids stabilized with low-molecular weight polypropylene glycol (PPG) of different molecular masses were synthesized. The use of PPG allowed the maximum extension of the carrier fluid range to include ethyl- and butyl-acetate, ethanol, butanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, kerosene and PPG itself. Magnetic and rheological properties of the samples were investigated. Based on the results of investigation it has been concluded that magnetic nanoparticles are covered by a monolayer of surfactant molecules. At low temperatures the propanol-based sample preserves fluidity up to -115 {sup o}C. Measurement of critical temperatures of other base fluids showed that alcohols are the best carrier medium. Coagulation stability of the ethanol-based ferrocolloid with respect to water and kerosene was explored. It has been found that kerosene, whose fraction by weight exceeds 22.5%, does not mix with the colloid. This effect can be used to produce magneto-controllable extractors of ethyl alcohol. Under the action of water the colloid coagulates, which allows one to substitute the carrier fluid and to separate the colloid into fractions. - Research highlights: PPG stabilizes the magnetic particles in the polar and non-polar media. The minimum operating temperature reaches -115 {sup o}C. Alcohols are the best environment for PPG-stabilized particles. PPG magnetic fluids can be used as magnetic extractors of alcohol. PPG MF can be divided into fractions by partial coagulation with water.

  10. OLED-polypropylene bio-CD sensor

    Vengasandra, Srikanth; Cai, Yuankun; Grewell, David; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2008-08-01

    With the goal of developing microfluidic platforms for sensing applications, flash-free micro patterns were embossed in polypropylene surfaces with ultrasonic heating for a biosensing lab-on-CD application. The embossed features were designed to act as reservoirs, valves, and reaction chambers to allow, in combination with a compact sensing platform, the monitoring of analyte levels using a standard PC-CD player. To generate the compact sensor, as an example, we chose the photoluminescence (PL)-based detection of lactate and glucose using an OLED-based sensing platform. Once embossed, the surface energy of the plastic substrate was chemically modified to make it hydrophilic. Reagents, placed in separate reservoirs, were directed through burst valves towards a reaction chamber via CD rotation. Lactate or glucose were monitored by measuring the effect of the related dissolved oxygen level on the PL decay time of an oxygen-sensitive dye, following analyte oxidation catalyzed by a suitable specific oxidase enzyme. The results demonstrate the potential of integrating OLEDs as excitation sources in PL-based sensors with microfluidic CD-based platforms, including for simultaneous multiple analyses.

  11. Needleless Melt-Electrospinning of Polypropylene Nanofibres

    Jian Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP nanofibres have been electrospun from molten PP using a needleless melt-electrospinning setup containing a rotary metal disc spinneret. The influence of the disc spinneret (e.g., disc material and diameter, operating parameters (e.g., applied voltage, spinning distance, and a cationic surfactant on the fibre formation and average fibre diameter were examined. It was shown that the metal material used for making the disc spinneret had a significant effect on the fibre formation. Although the applied voltage had little effect on the fibre diameter, the spinning distance affected the fibre diameter considerably, with shorter spinning distance resulting in finer fibres. When a small amount of cationic surfactant (dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide was added to the PP melt for melt-electrospinning, the fibre diameter was reduced considerably. The finest fibres produced from this system were 400±290 nm. This novel melt-electrospinning setup may provide a continuous and efficient method to produce PP nanofibres.

  12. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  13. Co-60 gamma radiation assisted diffusion of iodine in polypropylene

    Mathakari, N.L.; Bhoraskar, V.N. [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune, Maharashtra 411007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune, Maharashtra 411007 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Thin films of polypropylene having dimensions 50 mm x 15 mm x 350 {mu}m were immersed in 1 N iodine solution and then irradiated with Co-60 gamma radiation for the periods of 48, 96 and 144 h at the doses varying from 14.4 to 43.2 kGy. The films were also kept immersed in iodine solution for similar periods but without irradiation. Furthermore, the films were also directly-irradiated with Co-60 gamma radiation for similar periods and doses. The radiation-iodinated, plain-iodinated and directly-irradiated samples were characterized by using various techniques such as weight gain EDS, SEM, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy, contact angle and XRD. Weight gain, EDS and SEM collectively reveal that gamma irradiation enhances iodine intake in polypropylene. FTIR, EDS and contact angle measurements indicate that presence of iodine during irradiation resists radiation induced carbonylation of polypropylene. FTIR also shows presence of HOI (Hypoiodous acid) species instead of expected C-I bonds. UV-visible analysis unambiguously shows that presence of iodine enhances radiation induced band gap reduction process of polypropylene. XRD indicates that iodine decreases the crystallinity of polypropylene.

  14. Oxidation of nano-reinforced polyolefins

    Gutierrez Castro, G.G.

    2010-11-01

    Nano-composite materials attract search due to their improvements on barrier properties by incorporating low level of nano-filler of 5%w. Nowadays, organically modified montmorillonite (MMT-O) is the most used filler due to its high aspect ratio which permits stronger clay/polymer interactions. If nano-reinforced materials are highly performing, the ways in which clay presence affects polyolefin durability have not being subject of a rigorous study, thus they are not yet clear. Our goal was to examine unstabilized clay polypropylene and unstabilized clay polyethylene nano composites to get a better comprehension of the clay effects on their thermo-oxidation process under low temperatures. The effects induced by a dual physic-chemical nature of the clay were explored. The problem was tackled from both experimental and theoretical point of views for degradation process not controlled and controlled by oxygen diffusion (homogenous and heterogeneous respectively). It seems that MMT-O speeds up oxidation. This phenomenon was modeled by adding a catalytic reaction between metallic particles initially present in the MMT-O and hydroperoxide groups (main responsible of oxidation). Regarding the oxygen permeability two situations were confronted: for the clay polypropylene system a decrease of 45% of oxygen permeability was measured. On the other hand, no variation was found for the polyethylene case. This effect was attributed to the fact that polyethylene nano-composite reached a blend morphology less developed than those of the polypropylene nano-composite. Kinetics and oxidation products profiles across the sample thickness were simulated for both systems by coupling oxidation reactions with oxygen diffusion equations. For the polyethylene case, the effects induced by oxidation on molar mass and crystalline morphology were also simulated. Finally, based on a structure-property relationship, simulations of mechanic modulus profiles were performed for the heterogeneous

  15. Plasma modification of polypropylene surfaces and its alloying with styrene in situ

    Ma Guiqiu, E-mail: magq@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Liu Ben; Li Chen; Huang Dinghai; Sheng Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2012-01-15

    The treatment of polypropylene surfaces has been studied by dielectric barrier discharges plasma of Ar. The structure and morphology of polypropylene surfaces of Ar plasma modification are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometers and scanning electron microscope. The modified by plasma treatment of iPP (isotactic polypropylene) surface properties have been examined in a determination of free radicals. The modified active surfaces of polypropylene can induce grafting copolymerization of styrene onto polypropylene. The structure of grafting copolymer is characterized and the grafting percent of styrene onto polypropylene is calculated. The homopolymer of styrene can be formed under grafting copolymerization of styrene onto polypropylene, which follows that the alloying of polypropylene with styrene is achieved in situ.

  16. An experimental study on stabilization of Pekan clay using polyethylene and polypropylene

    Zukri, Azhani; Nazir, Ramli; Mender, Fatin Nabilah

    2017-10-01

    Many countries are expressing concern over the growing issues of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and polypropylene (PP) products made by the household sector. The rapid increase in the generation of plastic waste all around the world is due to the economic development and population growth. PP is the world's second-most widely produced synthetic plastic, after polyethylene. Statistics show that nearly 50% of the municipal solid waste in Malaysia comes from the institutional, industrial, residential, and construction waste. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the utilisation of fibres as products of PET bottles and PP products in order to improve the engineering properties of clay soil in Pekan. The soil samples were taken from Kampung Tanjung Medang, Pekan, Pahang. The basic properties of the clay soil were determined as follows; optimum moisture content: 32.5%, maximum dry density: 13.43 kN/m3, specific gravity: 2.51, liquid limit: 74.67%, plastic limit: 45.98%, and plasticity index: 28.69%. This investigation concentrates on the shear strength of the reinforced clay soils with PET and PP in random orientation. The reinforced soil samples were subjected to unconfined compression test (UCT) to differentiate their shear strength with that of the unreinforced soil. The tests found that the waste fibres (PET and PP) improved the strength properties of the Pekan clayey soils. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) value increased with the increasing percentage of PET fibre and reached the optimum content at 10% reinforcement, where it showed the highest improvement of 365 kN/m2 from 325 kN/m2 and depleted when the optimum content reached 20% reinforcement. For PP fibre, the reinforced soil showed the highest UCS at 20% reinforcement with the improvement of 367 kN/m2. The study concluded that the PET and PP fibres can be utilised successfully as reinforcement materials for the stabilisation of clayey soils. The use of these waste compounds

  17. Extraction of Micro- and Nano-Fibrils from Nylon 6/Polypropylene Grafted with Maleic Anhydride/Polypropylene Blended Films

    E. Bagheban Kochak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atechnical feasibility study has been conducted on production of nano- and micro-fibrils from nylon 6/polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride/polypropylene blended films. Fibrils are prepared in four consecutive steps.In the first step the polymers melt blended in an extruder with and without compatibilizers to produce chips; in the second step films are extruded from polymer blends chips, in the third step films are cold drawn with different draw ratios at room temperature and in the forth step fibrils are extracted by Soxhlet extraction with formic acid as solvent for nylon 6.  The films and fibrils were examined by scanning electron microscope and FTIR spectroscopy. It is found that the polypropylene dispersed phase deforms and coalesces into elongated fibrils during drawing  operation. The  fibrils’ diameters in the blends containing compatibilizer are more uniform and are smaller than those from films without compatibilizers. The thinnest polypropylene fibril observed has a diameter around 300 nm with the aspect ratio above 150. The stress-elongation curves show three distinctive regions, elastic, yield and hardening-leading to breakage. The elastic region is short and follows by necking and yield, i.e., elongation without increase in load. The hardening region is accompanied by the increase in the slope. The deformations of the polypropylene particles are noticed during the last regions of the extension; the fibril deformations seem to be more severe during breakage.

  18. Antioxidant action in irradiated polypropylene studied by ultraviolet spectroscopy

    Milosavljevic, B.H.; Novakovic, Lj.

    1999-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrum of 0.2 mm thick film of polypropylene containing 0.5% ORGANOX 1010 showed that in the sample prepared by slow cooling about 15% of the antioxidant reacted during the preparation process. The difference in turbidity between the samples obtained in the slow and the fast cooling process is attributed to the degree of crystallinity, which is in agreement with the DSC data. Very pronounced effects of the oxygen concentration and the degree of crystallinity on antioxidant uptake in irradiated polypropylene films were observed and discussed. It was also shown that a Febetron 707 pulsed electron accelerator is capable of producing both the single pulse dose (50 kGy) and the dose rate (2.5 TGy/s) large enough to enable a comparison of dose rate effects and LET effects in the study of the antioxidant reactions in polypropylene

  19. High-voltage pulsed life of multistressed polypropylene capacitor dielectric

    Laghari, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    High-voltage polypropylene capacitors were aged under singular as well as simultaneous multiple stresses (electrical, thermal, and radiation) at the University of Buffalo's 2 MW thermal nuclear reactor. These stresses were combined neutron-gamma radiation with a total dose of 1.6 x 10 6 rad, electrical stress at 40 V rms /μm, and thermal stress at 90 degrees C. After exposure, the polypropylene dielectric was tested for life (number of pulses to fail) under high-voltage high-repetition-rate (100 pps) pulses. Pulsed life data were also compared with ac life data. Results show that radiation stress causes the most degradation in life, either acting alone or in combination with other stresses. The largest reduction in life occurs when polypropylene is aged under simultaneous multiple stresses (electrical, thermal, and radiation). In this paper, it is shown that pulsed life can be equivalently compared with ac life

  20. Mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) composites filled with modified shell waste

    Yao, Z.T., E-mail: sxyzt@126.com [College of Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Chen, T. [Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, H.Y. [Zhoushan Ocean Research Institute, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan 316021 (China); Xia, M.S., E-mail: msxia@zju.edu.cn [Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Ye, Y.; Zheng, H. [Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Adding modified shell powder could significantly increase the properties of PP. • The modified shell powder could act as a nucleating agent in PP matrix. • The modified shell powder has a potential to be used as a bio-filler. -- Abstract: Shell waste, with its high content of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) plus organic matrix, has a potential to be used as a bio-filler. In this work, shell waste was modified by furfural and then incorporated to reinforce polypropylene (PP). The shell waste and modified powder were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mechanical and thermal properties of neat PP and PP composites were investigated as well. Thermal gravimetric (TG) analyses confirmed the reinforcing role of modified powder in PP composites. The mechanical properties studied showed that adding modified powder could significantly increase the impact strength, elongation at break point and flexural modulus of composites. The maximum incorporation content could reach 15 wt.% with a good balance between toughness and stiffness of PP composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that the modified powder could act as a nucleating agent and thus increase the crystallization temperature of PP. Polarized optical microscopy (POM) observation also indicated that the introduction of modified powder could promote the heterogeneous nucleation of PP matrix.

  1. Bio composites from polypropylene/ clay/eva polymers and kenaf natural fiber

    Siti Hasnah Kamarudin; Khalina Abdan; Bernard Maringgal; Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There is an increasing need to investigate more environmental friendly, sustainable materials to replace existing materials as industry attempts to lessen dependence on petroleum based fuels and products. The natural fiber composites offer specific properties comparable to those of conventional fiber composites. In this experiment, mixing process of polymer/nano clay composites from polypropylene, organo clay and ethylene vinyl acetate were prepared using a Brabender twin screw compounder. The composites sheets were then laminated with kenaf fibers and subjected to hot and cold press machine to form a bio composite. The mechanical properties such as flexural and impact strength are compare favourably between polymers reinforced kenaf fiber and polymers without kenaf fiber. In addition, various analysis techniques were used to characterize the dispersion and the properties of nano composites, using scanning electron micrograph (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These results suggest that kenaf fibers are a viable alternative to inorganic mineral-based reinforcing fibers as long as the right processing conditions are used and they are used in applications where the higher water absorption is not critical. (author)

  2. Mechanical and thermal properties of polymer composite based on natural fibers: Moroccan hemp fibers/polypropylene

    Elkhaoulani, A.; Arrakhiz, F.Z.; Benmoussa, K.; Bouhfid, R.; Qaiss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Moroccan hemp fibers are used as reinforcement in thermoplastic matrix. ► Moroccan hemp fiber was alkali treated to remove waxes and noncellulosic component. ► Fiber–matrix adhesion was assured by the use of a SEBS-g-MA as a compatibilizer. - Abstract: Moroccan hemp is a cellulosic fiber obtained from the north of Morocco. Their use as reinforcement in thermoplastic matrix composite requires a knowledge of their morphology and structure. In this paper the Moroccan hemp fiber was alkali treated to remove waxes and noncellulosic surface components. Fiber/matrix adhesion was assured by the use of a styrene-(ethylene-butene)-styrene three-block copolymer grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-g-MA) as a compatibilizer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile and torsional tests were carried out for hemp fibers polypropylene composite and the compatibilized composite at different fiber content. Thus, the binary composite PP/hemp fibers (Alk) and ternary system with maleic anhydride indicate clearly an improved adhesion of the fiber to the matrix as results of the good interaction at the interface. A gain of 50% on the Young’s modulus of PP/hemp 25 wt.% without coupling agent and 74% on the PP/hemp 20 wt.% composite with the coupling agent were found. Tensile strength curve shows a remarkable stabilization when the coupling agent was used

  3. Production of the oxidation-resistant polypropylene track membranes

    Kravets, L.I.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Apel, P.Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes results of the method of manufacturing the polypropylene track membranes produced by physicochemical treatment under irradiation of accelerated heavy ions of polymer films. The developed method allows to produce membranes 0.1 - 0.2 μm in diameter and more with an improved structural and physicochemical properties. Poly-propylene track membranes of a novel sample are characterized by high homogeneity of pore sizes in magnitude, considerable mechanical strength, advanced thermal stability and resistance to oxidation in aggressive media. It opens new fields for their usage

  4. Anomalous behavior of secondary dielectric relaxation in polypropylene glycols

    Grzybowska, K; Grzybowski, A; Ziolo, J; Rzoska, S J; Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2007-09-19

    A surprising slow down in the dielectric secondary {gamma}-relaxation with temperature increasing near the glass transition is confirmed for several polypropylene glycols. The peculiar behavior diminishes as the molecular weight grows. The minimal model (Dyre and Olsen 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 155703) is applied successfully to describe the temperature dependences of the {gamma}-relaxation times. The minimal model parameters are analyzed for different molecular weights. A molecular explanation of the {gamma}-process anomaly for polypropylene glycols is proposed on the basis of the minimal model prediction.

  5. Preparation of organophilic clays and polypropylene nano composites

    Lima, Martha Fogliato S.; Nascimento, Vinicius G. do; Lenz, Denise M.; Schenato, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    Polypropylene/montmorillonite nano composites were prepared by the melt intercalation technique. The clay was organically modified with different quaternary ammonium salts to obtain the organo clay. The modified clays with the quaternary ammonium salts were introduced in a polypropylene matrix with 3 wt. % of clay. The interlayer distance (d001) of the clay particles were obtained by X- ray diffraction and the thermal stability of the systems were investigated by thermogravimetry. The organo clay presence in the polymer matrix increased the degradation temperature in relation to the pure polymer. (author)

  6. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    David R Lloyd; David R Lloyd; Douglas J Medina; Larry W Hawk; Whitney D Fosco; Jerry B Richards

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...

  7. Flexural reinforced concrete member with FRP reinforcement

    Putzolu, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    One of the most problematic point in construction is the durability of the concrete especially related to corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Due to this problem the construction sector, introduced the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer, the main fibers used in construction are Glass, Carbon and Aramid. In this study, the author aim to analyse the flexural behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP. This aim is achieved by the analysis of specimens reinforced with GFRP bars, with theoreti...

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Extruded Composites Based on Polypropylene and Chitosan Compatibilized with Polypropylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride

    Carrasco-Guigón, Fernando Javier; Rodríguez-Félix, Dora Evelia; Castillo-Ortega, María Mónica; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila C.; Burruel-Ibarra, Silvia E.; Encinas-Encinas, Jose Carmelo; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Herrera-Franco, Pedro Jesus; Madera-Santana, Tomas Jesus

    2017-01-01

    The preparation of composites of synthetic and natural polymers represent an interesting option to combine properties; in this manner, polypropylene and chitosan extruded films using a different proportion of components and polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PPgMA) as compatibilizer were prepared. The effect of the content of the biopolymer in the polypropylene (PP) matrix, the addition of compatibilizer, and the particle size on the properties of the composites was analyzed using characterization by fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength, and contact angle, finding that in general, the addition of the compatibilizer and reducing the particle size of the chitosan, favored the physicochemical and morphological properties of the films. PMID:28772464

  9. Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1999-01-01

    Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete with 2.5-4.2% air and 6-9% air (% by volume in fresh concrete) casted in the laboratory and in-situ is compared. Steel fibres with hooked ends (ZP, length 30 mm) and polypropylene fibres (PP, CS, length 12 mm) are applied. It is shown that· addition...... of 0.4-1% by volume of fibres cannot replace air entrainment in order to secure a frost resistant concrete; the minimum amount of air needed to make the concrete frost resistant is not changed when adding fibres· the amount of air entrainment must be increased when fibres are added to establish...

  10. Colorimetry analysis of polypropylene-polyethylene base copoliners

    Sunol, J. J.; Saurina, J.; Carrasco, F.; Pages, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, crystallisation process study has been performed, from the molten material, in polypropylene-polyethylene (PP-PE) copolymers rich in PP (∼ 95 wgh.%), using different additives. Some samples have been artificially aged. Calorimetric analysis has been performed by different scanning calorimetry (DSC), from which crystallisation kinetics has been studied under dynamic conditions. (Author) 22 refs

  11. Environmental and Cost Assessment of a Polypropylene Nanocomposite

    Roes, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303022388; Marsili, E.; Nieuwlaar, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073931373; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a study on the use of a polypropylene (PP)/layered silicate nanocomposite as packaging film, agricultural film, and automotive panels. The study’s main question was “Are the environmental impacts and costs throughout the life cycle of nanocomposite products lower than those of

  12. Rheology of High-Melt-Strength Polypropylene for Additive Manufacturing

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Kamleitner, Florian; Jagenteufel, Ralf

    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is a widely used material for additive manufacturing (AM) fused deposition modeling (FDM). The rheological properties of high-melt-strength polypropylene (HMS-PP) were compared to commercially available ABS 250 filament to study the possibility of using...

  13. The mechanical properties of unidirectional all-polypropylene composites

    Alcock, B.; Cabrera, N.O.; Barkoula, N.M.; Loos, J.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The creation of highly oriented, co-extruded polypropylene (PP) tapes allows the production of recyclable ‘all-polypropylene’ composites, with a large temperature processing window (>30 °C) and a high volume fraction of highly oriented PP (>90%). These composites show little deviation of mechanical

  14. PLASTIC SHRINKAGE CONTROLLING EFFECT BY POLYPROPYLENE SHORT FIBER WITH HYDROPHILY

    Hosoda, Akira; Sadatsuki, Yoshitomo; Oshima, Akihiro; Ishii, Akina; Tsubaki, Tatsuya

    The aim of this research is to clarify the mechanism of controlling plastic shrinkage crack by adding small amout of synthetic short fiber, and to propose optimum polypropylene short fiber to control plastic shrinkage crack. In this research, the effect of the hydrophily of polypropylene fiber was investigated in the amount of plastic shrinkage of mortar, total area of plastic shrinkage crack, and bond properties between fiber and mortar. The plastic shrinkage test of morar was conducted under high temperature, low relative humidity, and constant wind velocity. When polypropylene fiber had hydrophily, the amount of plastic shrinkage of mortar was restrained, which was because cement paste in morar was captured by hydrophilic fiber and then bleeding of mortar was restrained. With hydrophily, plastic shrinkage of mortar was restrained and bridging effect was improved due to better bond, which led to remarkable reduction of plastic shrinkage crack. Based on experimental results, the way of developing optimum polypropylene short fiber for actual construction was proposed. The fiber should have large hydrophily and small diameter, and should be used in as small amount as possible in order not to disturb workability of concrete.

  15. Packing parameters effect on injection molding of polypropylene nanostructured surfaces

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    having a diameter of 500 nm was employed. The tool insert surface was produced using chemical-based-batch techniques such aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. During the injection molding process, polypropylene (PP) was employed as material and packing phase parameters (packing time, packing...

  16. Comparison of polypropylene and silicone Ahmed Glaucoma Valves.

    Ishida, Kyoko; Netland, Peter A; Costa, Vital P; Shiroma, Lineu; Khan, Baseer; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the clinical outcomes after implantation of the silicone plate and the polypropylene plate Ahmed Glaucoma Valves. Prospective, multicenter, comparative series. A total of 132 patients with uncontrolled glaucoma were treated with either the silicone or polypropylene Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implant. Success was defined according to 2 criteria: (1) intraocular pressure (IOP) of 6 mmHg or more or 21 mmHg or less, and (2) IOP reduction of at least 30% relative to preoperative values. Eyes requiring further glaucoma surgery, including cyclophotocoagulation, or showing loss of light perception were classified as failures. Average follow-up was 12.8 months (range, 6-30 months) for the silicone plate group and 14.5 months (range, 6-30 months) for the polypropylene plate group (P = 0.063). At the last follow-up examination, the mean IOP was 13.8+/-3.9 mmHg and 17.3+/-6.5 mmHg (PAhmed Glaucoma Valve (model FP7) showed improved IOP reduction compared with the polypropylene (model S2) implant. Differences observed in mean IOP, success rate, and complications suggest that plate material may influence clinical outcome.

  17. Polypropylene/organoclay/SEBS nanocomposites with toughness-stiffness properties

    Sanporean (nee Potarniche), Catalina-Gabriela; Vuluga, Zina; Radovici, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Polypropylene nanocomposites with a different amount of styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS)/clay were prepared via a melt mixing technique. To improve the dispersion of commercial organoclay (denoted as OMMT), various amounts of SEBS were incorporated. At a fixed content of O...

  18. Impact of UV radiation on the physical properties of polypropylene ...

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence of simulated sun light radiation (xenon lamp) on physical properties of polypropylene (PP) nonwoven material, which is used for the production of agrotextiles. The research showed that the properties of row cover change when radiated with UV light. Tensile, tearing ...

  19. Reinforced sulphur concrete

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.

  20. Synergistic reinforcement of highly oriented poly(propylene) tapes by sepiolite nanoclay

    Bilotti, E.; Deng, H.; Zhang, R.; Lu, D.; Bras, W.; Fischer, H.R.; Peijs, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the properties of highly oriented nanocomposite tapes based on isotactic PP and needle-like sepiolite nanoclay, obtained by a solid state drawing process. The intrinsic 1D character of sepiolite allows its exploitation in 1D objects, such as oriented polymer fibres and tapes,

  1. Mechanical and thermal properties of water glass coated sisal fibre-reinforced polypropylene composite

    Phiri, G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ?C). Figure 1 shows the processing steps followed to produce composite samples. Up to 15% fibre loading could be achieved and the sisal fibres were coated with water glass to improve fire resistance. In order to improve the adhesion between sisal... preparation process: (A) WG coated fibre, (B) High speed granulator, (C) Composite granules, (D) Single screw extruder, (E) Injection moulder and (F) Composite samples (dumbbells) Mechanical and thermal properties of water glass coated sisal fi bre...

  2. A study of the physical properties of carbon nanofiber reinforced polypropylene composites

    Paleo Vieito, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    [Resumo]Os polímeros termoplásticos son coñecidos, en xeral, pola súa ampla empregabilidade en extrusión e moldeamento, cunha gran variedade de aplicacións tales como a embalaxe, os téxtiles e os compoñentes para a industria do automóbil. Unha tentativa de aumentar a súa aplicabilidade implica a incorporación de partículas nanométricas con propiedades eléctricas e mecánicas intrínsecas no interior da matriz termoplástica. Entre os diversos tipos de aditivos, as nanofibras de carbono, CNFs,...

  3. Assessment of dynamic modulus of high density polypropylene waste fiber reinforcement in asphalt concrete

    Hassan S. OTUOZE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional asphalt tests like Hveem and Marshall tests are at best mere characterization than effective test of pavement field performance because of complex viscoelastic behavior of asphalt. Mechanical properties otherwise called simple performance tests (SPT are performance criteria of asphalt. Dynamic modulus among other SPT’s like permanent deformation, fatigue cracking, thermal cracking, moisture susceptibility, shear and friction properties; determines stress-strain to time-temperature relationships that imparts on strength, service life and durability. The test followed the recommendations of NCHRP 1-37a (2004 and mixes were prepared using 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% HDPP contents. The parameters tested for dynamic modulus, /E*/, are stiffness, recoverable strain (ε, and phase angle (ξ. Time – temperature superposition (TTS called master curve was fitted using sigmoidal curve to interpolate the parameters beyond measured data set so as to observe the viscoelastic behavior outside the physical properties. The performance of 0.5% HDPP asphalt is better enhanced than the conventional asphalt to improve upon strength, service and durability.

  4. Development of foams from linear polypropylene (PP) and high melt strength polypropylene (HMSPP) polymeric blends

    Cardoso, Elisabeth Carvalho Leite

    2009-01-01

    Foamed polymers are future materials, with a comprehensive application field. They can be used in order to improve appearance of insulation structures, for example, or to reduce costs involving materials. This work address to Isotactic Polypropylene / High Melt Strength Polypropylene blends, for foams production. Rheological behavior of polymer melt, especially referring to viscosity in processing temperature, plays a decisive role in applications where dominates extensional flow, as in case of foaming. If the viscosity is very low, it will correspond to a low melt strength, as in case of linear homopolymer (Isotact PP), and the foam will be prejudiced, due to the impossibility of expansion. Otherwise, if the viscosity is very high, with a high melt strength, the foam will collapse immediately after its formation. In order to get foams with an homogeneous and defined cellular structure, there were accomplished blends, 50% in weight, between linear homopolymer (isotactic PP) and HMSPP, from PP modified as per gamma radiation, in acetylene environment and at a 12.5 kGy doses. Extrusion process used a soluble foaming methodology, according to a processing/dissolution principle, which involves the dissolution of a Physical Blowing Agent (PBA), under 30 bar pressure, homogeneously mixed with polymeric melt. Extrusion conditions, that generally involve temperature, pressure and viscoelastic material flow control were experimentally investigated to define prevalent characteristics for producing foams. Nitrogen was the used PBA and process extrusion parameters were adapted to PP, HMSPP and their 50% in weight mixtures thereof. Major PP and HMSPP characteristics were obtained via melt Index and melt strength and thermal analyses (DSC/TGA), in order to make viable and to reproduce foaming as per extrusion process. Foams cellular morphology of PP, HMSPP and their 50% in weight mixtures thereof was investigated, with and without talc addition, as nucleating agent, by using

  5. Study of alteration in the mechanical properties in hybrid nanocomposite of polypropylene/sisal fibers/mineral clay irradiated with gamma rays

    Pereira, Nilson C.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F., E-mail: nilpereira@mackenzie.com.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Curso de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    A new material class formed with reinforced filler, hybrid of organic and inorganic materials provides the technological development of materials with modified properties. And among great numbers of properties that can be modified by presence of hybrid filler to stand out the tension resistance. Polymer shows behavior of tensions and deformation that are not related of simple form. The answer of this material at mechanicals solicitations depends of structural factors and externals variables. As structural factors can be, for example, molecular weight, ramifications and crosslink. As external variables can be, for example, temperature, time or velocity of deformation, kind of solicitation and others. This work was possible to verify as nanostructures materials behavior, mechanically, after were submitted gamma radiation. This work utilized as polymeric matrix, recycled polypropylene, and as hybrid filler, a mixture of montimorillonite mineral clay with natural sisal fibers. It is known that form to magnify the tensile resistance is increase the number of crosslink of principal chain for gamma radiation. After irradiation the polypropylene was crosslinked structures that are result recombination of radicals formed during process of irradiation. It.s known that radicals formed occur preferentially in the amorphous region of polymer. Considering that polymeric matrix polypropylene, without addition fillers suffer strong structural influence when irradiated, was possible verify change in the extension, tensile strength and also maxim tensile in rupture, when this matrix was incorporated with fillers hybrids. (author)

  6. Study of alteration in the mechanical properties in hybrid nanocomposite of polypropylene/sisal fibers/mineral clay irradiated with gamma rays

    Pereira, Nilson C.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F.

    2009-01-01

    A new material class formed with reinforced filler, hybrid of organic and inorganic materials provides the technological development of materials with modified properties. And among great numbers of properties that can be modified by presence of hybrid filler to stand out the tension resistance. Polymer shows behavior of tensions and deformation that are not related of simple form. The answer of this material at mechanicals solicitations depends of structural factors and externals variables. As structural factors can be, for example, molecular weight, ramifications and crosslink. As external variables can be, for example, temperature, time or velocity of deformation, kind of solicitation and others. This work was possible to verify as nanostructures materials behavior, mechanically, after were submitted gamma radiation. This work utilized as polymeric matrix, recycled polypropylene, and as hybrid filler, a mixture of montimorillonite mineral clay with natural sisal fibers. It is known that form to magnify the tensile resistance is increase the number of crosslink of principal chain for gamma radiation. After irradiation the polypropylene was crosslinked structures that are result recombination of radicals formed during process of irradiation. It.s known that radicals formed occur preferentially in the amorphous region of polymer. Considering that polymeric matrix polypropylene, without addition fillers suffer strong structural influence when irradiated, was possible verify change in the extension, tensile strength and also maxim tensile in rupture, when this matrix was incorporated with fillers hybrids. (author)

  7. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance

  8. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K. [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  9. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler's intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  10. Characterising the thermoforming behaviour of glass fibre textile reinforced thermoplastic composite materials

    Kuhtz, M.; Maron, B.; Hornig, A.; Müller, M.; Langkamp, A.; Gude, M.

    2018-05-01

    Textile reinforced thermoplastic composites are predestined for highly automated medium- and high-volume production processes. The presented work focusses on experimental studies of different types of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene (GF-PP) semi-finished thermoplastic textiles to characterise the forming behaviour. The main deformation modes fabric shear, tension, thought-thickness compression and bending are investigated with special emphasis on the impact of the textile structure, the deformation temperature and rate dependency. The understanding of the fundamental forming behaviour is required to allow FEM based assessment and improvement of thermoforming process chains.

  11. The effect of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties of highly oriented polypropylene tapes and all-polypropylene composites

    Alcock, B.; Cabrera, N.O.; Barkoula, N.M.; Reynolds, C.T.; Govaert, L.E.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The creation of highly oriented, co-extruded polypropylene (PP) tapes allows the production of recyclable "all-polypropylene" (all-PP) composites, with a large temperature processing window and a high volume fraction of highly oriented PP (>90%). The wholly thermoplastic nature of these

  12. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    Ana Paula Joaquim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana chemical (organosolv pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressing method as a crude simulation of the Hatschek process. Composites were evaluated at 28 days of age, after exposition to accelerated carbonation and after 100 soak/dry cycles. Composites containing organosolv pulp presented lower mechanical strength, water absorption and apparent porosity than composites reinforced with kraft pulp. The best mechanical performance after ageing was also achieved by samples reinforced with kraft pulp. The addition of PP fibres favoured the maintenance of toughness after ageing. Accelerated carbonation promoted the densification of the composites reinforced with sisal organosolv + PP fibres.

  13. Radiation resistant polypropylene blended with mobilizer,. antioxidants and nucleating agent

    Shamshad, A.; Basfar, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    Post-irradiation storage of medical disposables prepared from isotactic polypropylene renders them brittle due to degradation. To avoid this, isotactic polypropylene [(is)PP] was blended with a mobilizer, dioctyl pthallate (DOP), three antioxidants (hindered amines and a secondary antioxidant) and benzoic acid to obtain radiation-resistant, thermally-stable and transparent material. Different formulations prepared were subjected to gamma radiation to doses of 25 and 50 kGy. Tests of breakage on bending after ageing in an oven at 70°C up to 12 months have shown that the addition of DOP and the antioxidants imparts improved radiation and thermal stability as compared to (is)PP alone or its blend with DOP. All the formulations irradiated or otherwise demonstrated excellent colour stability even after accelerated ageing at 70°C for prolonged periods.

  14. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles for polypropylene nanocomposites applications

    Bracho, Diego; Palza, Humberto; Quijada, Raul; Dougnac, Vivianne

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic silica nanospheres of different diameters produced via the sol-gel method were used in order to enhance the barrier properties of the polypropylene-silica nanocomposites. Modification of the silica surface by reaction with organic chlorosilanes was performed in order to improve the particles interaction with the polypropylene matrix and its dispersion. Unmodified and modified silica nanoparticles were characterized using electronic microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Preliminary permeability tests of the polymer-silica nanocomposite films showed no significant change at low particles load (3 wt%) regardless its size or surface functionality, mainly because of the low aspect ratio of the silica nanospheres. However, it is expected that at a higher concentration of silica particles differences will be observed. (author)

  15. Carbon ion irradiation induced surface modification of polypropylene

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Dutta, R.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with 12 C ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energies in the fluence range of 5x10 13 -5x10 14 ions/cm 2 using 3 MV tandem accelerator. Ion penetration was limited to a few microns and surface modifications were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. At the lowest ion fluence only blister formation of various sizes (1-6 μm) were observed, but at higher fluence (1x10 14 ions/cm 2 ) a three-dimensional network structure was found to form. A gradual degradation in the network structure was observed with further increase in the ion fluence. The dose dependence of the changes on surface morphology of polypropylene is discussed

  16. Carbon ion irradiation induced surface modification of polypropylene

    Saha, A. E-mail: abhijit@alpha.iuc.res.in; Chakraborty, V.; Dutta, R.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N

    2001-12-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with {sup 12}C ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energies in the fluence range of 5x10{sup 13}-5x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} using 3 MV tandem accelerator. Ion penetration was limited to a few microns and surface modifications were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. At the lowest ion fluence only blister formation of various sizes (1-6 {mu}m) were observed, but at higher fluence (1x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}) a three-dimensional network structure was found to form. A gradual degradation in the network structure was observed with further increase in the ion fluence. The dose dependence of the changes on surface morphology of polypropylene is discussed.

  17. Ziegler-Natta catalyst for polypropylene and polyethylene nanocomposites preparation

    Silvino, Alexandre C.; Dias, Marcos L.; Bezerra, Ana Beatriz F.

    2009-01-01

    Polypropylene and polyethylene nanocomposites are well known for their improved properties when compared with the neat polymers. In this work we report the preparation, characterization and the activity studies of a fourth generation Ziegler-Natta catalyst for the preparation of polyolefin/clay nanocomposites. The catalyst was prepared treating an organo-modified silicate with magnesium and titanium compounds. The content of titanium and that of the magnesium of the catalyst were determined by UV-vis spectroscopy and atomic absorption respectively. The first results show that the catalyst is active for propylene polymerization being suitable for polypropylene/clay nanocomposite preparation. The catalyst activity for ethylene polymerization was also investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the polyethylene samples suggest the clay exfoliation occurs in the in situ polymerization, even with high clay loading (about 9 %) indicating that a nanocomposite was formed. (author)

  18. Rheological and Thermal Behavior of Polypropylene-Kaolin Composites

    Teng, S.T.; Nor Azura Abdul Rahim; Lan, D.N.U

    2014-01-01

    Kaolins effect on rheological behaviour of polypropylene-kaolin composites was investigated. The research found that not only the kaolin content influence the rheological behaviour but also the compounding using internal mixer and twin screw extruder. In details, viscosity and shear stress increased with addition of kaolin content. These characteristics also exhibited higher in polypropylene-kaolin composite suspensions compounded using twin screw extruder than using internal mixer. Chain scission was assumed to occur and affect the melt properties. Further justification characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) showed that the effect of kaolin and loading content were more evident on the onset melting temperature and crystallinity. Besides, due to the different cooling operation in both processes, the effect of compounding on melting characteristic was conspicuous. (author)

  19. Modification of bentonite clay and application on polypropylene nano composites

    Oliveira, Akidauana D.B.; Rodrigues, Andre W.B.; Agrawal, Pankaj; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work consisted on the modification of Brasgel PA clay with ionic surfactant Praepagen WB and its incorporation into polypropylene. The results of infrared and DR-X was showed that the intercalation of surfactant in the clay and the incorporation of organoclay in PP matrix resulted in the formation of an intercalated structure. The impact strength of PP increased with the incorporation of organoclay. (author)

  20. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization

    Abednejad, Atiye Sadat, E-mail: atiyeabednejad@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amoabediny, Ghasem [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for New Technologies in Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 63894-14179, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaee, Azadeh [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant. - Highlights: • H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma graft polymerization of PEG on polypropylene membrane was carried out. • Changes in surface properties were investigated by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and AFM. • Surface wettability enhanced as a result of poly ethylene glycol grafting. • PEG grafting degree increase causes reduction of fouling and adhesion.

  1. Fabrication and physical properties of glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for non-metal-clasp dentures.

    Nagakura, Manamu; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2017-11-01

    Recently, non-metal-clasp dentures (NMCDs) made from thermoplastic resins such as polyamide, polyester, polycarbonate, and polypropylene have been used as removable partial dentures (RPDs). However, the use of such RPDs can seriously affect various tissues because of their low rigidity. In this study, we fabricated high-rigidity glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTPs) for use in RPDs, and examined their physical properties such as apparent density, dynamic hardness, and flexural properties. GFRTPs made from E-glass fibers and polypropylene were fabricated using an injection-molding. The effects of the fiber content on the GFRTP properties were examined using glass-fiber contents of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mass%. Commercially available denture base materials and NMCD materials were used as controls. The experimental densities of GFRTPs with various fiber contents agreed with the theoretical densities. Dynamic micro-indentation tests confirmed that the fiber content does not affect the GFRTP surface properties such as dynamic hardness and elastic modulus, because most of the reinforcing glass fibers are embedded in the polypropylene. The flexural strength increased from 55.8 to 217.6 MPa with increasing glass-fiber content from 0 to 50 mass%. The flexural modulus increased from 1.75 to 7.42 GPa with increasing glass-fiber content from 0 to 50 mass%, that is, the flexural strength and modulus of GFRTP with a fiber content of 50 mass% were 3.9 and 4.2 times, respectively, those of unreinforced polypropylene. These results suggest that fiber reinforcement has beneficial effects, and GFRTPs can be used in NMCDs because their physical properties are better than those of controls. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2254-2260, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Quality evaluation of polypropylene packaged corn yogurt during storage

    Aini, Nur; Prihananto, V.; Sustriawan, B.; Astuti, Y.; Maulina, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Packaging is an important factor to control the process of quality decrease of any food product, including to determine the shelf life. The objective of this study was to determine changes quality of corn yogurt packaged using polypropylene. The method were using was package yogurt polypropylene, then it was stored in a refrigerator at 5, 10, or 15°C during 21 days. The yogurt was analysed every 7 days over a 21-day period. The results indicate that protein content decreased during storage, while the lactic acid bacteria, total acid, pH, viscosity, and total solids were increased. At the end of storage, the amount of lactic acid bacteria still fulfil the minimum requirements of a probiotic food, with a count of 6.407 log CFU/g. Overal scoring by panelist (scores ranged from 0 to 5) have a 4.78 at the beginning of storage. By the 21st day of storage, yogurt was packaging using transparent polypropylene having a score of 3.85, and that stored in opaque white packaging having a value of 3.95.

  3. Fabrication of polypropylene/silver nanocomposites for biocidal applications

    Oliani, Washington Luiz, E-mail: washoliani@usp.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 – Cidade Universitária – CEP, 05508-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Komatsu, Luiz Gustavo Hiroki [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 – Cidade Universitária – CEP, 05508-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Lincopan, Nilton [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, 05508-000, São Paulo (Brazil); Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, University of São Paulo, 05508-000, São Paulo (Brazil); Rangari, Vijaya Kumar [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tuskegee University, AL 36088 (United States); Lugao, Ademar Benevolo [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 – Cidade Universitária – CEP, 05508-000 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a study on biocidal effect of polymer nanocomposite films of gamma irradiated polypropylene (PP) and silver nanoparticles. The modified polypropylene was obtained from isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in pellets form by irradiation with gamma rays in the presence of acetylene. A new morphology with long chain branching of PP and distinct rheology is obtained by this process. The blend of 50/50 wt% neat PP and PP modified by gamma radiation were further mixed using a twin screw extruder. The AgNPs were infused into this polymer blend at different concentrations of: 0.1%; 0.25%; 0.5%; 1.0%; 1.0% (PVP), 2.0% and 4.0% by wt%. These polymer nanocomposites were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytotoxicity test and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion techniques. The bactericidal effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were assessed in detail. - Highlights: • PP film was obtained from iPP in pellets form by γ rays with acetylene and AgNPs • Bactericidal effect of P aeruginosa and S aureus were assessed.

  4. Property Relationship in Organosilanes and Nanotubes Filled Polypropylene Hybrid Composites

    Alejandra J. Monsiváis-Barrón

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene composites with different filler contents were prepared by creating a masterbatch containing 3 wt%. filler. A variety of silanol groups were used to synthetized three compounds in different media trough a sol-gel process with acetic acid, formic acid and ammonium hydroxide as catalysts. Besides, four different nanotubular fillers were also used to analyze their behavior and compare it with the effect caused by the silanol groups. These tubular structures comprise: unmodified halloysite, carbon nanotubes and functionalized halloysite and carbon nanotubes. Morphological characterization in SEM and STEM/TEM showed dispersion in the polypropylene matrix. According to TGA and DSC measurements thermal behavior remain similar for all the composites. Mechanical test in tension demonstrate that modulus of the composites increases for all samples with a major impact for materials containing silanol groups synthetized in formic acid. Rheological measurements show a significantly increment in viscosity for samples containing unmodified and modified carbon nanotubes. No difference was found for samples containing silanol groups and halloysite when compared to neat polypropylene. Finally, the oxygen transmission rate increased for all samples showing high barrier properties only for samples containing natural and functionalized halloysite nanotubes.

  5. Study of gel formation in polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation

    Oliani, W.L.; Parra, D.F.; Fermino, D.M.; Lima, L.F.C.P.; Lugao, A.B.; Riella, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    The linearity of the chains of iPP (isotactic polypropylene) confers to this, low melt strength. This fact limits the use of iPP in processes that demand high stretching. The graft of branches confers improvements in its extensional viscosity, resulting in Polypropylene with High Melt Strength (HMS-PP). Preparation process of the HMS-PP, included iPP in pellets, conditioned in plastic container containing acetylene under pressure of 110 kPa and radiation with γ source of 60 Co in the doses of 5, 12.5 and 20 kGy. The gel fraction of the samples was determined by the extraction of soluble components in xylene under boiling for 12 hours at 138 deg C. The soluble part of the samples was decanted with the total volatilization of the xylene to the room temperature (25 deg C) and deposition in glass blades. These samples had been characterized by Optic Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Infrared Spectroscopy. In this study of the morphology, we obtained the formation of gel and microgel of polypropylene with higher incidence in HMS-PP 20 kGy. (author)

  6. Degradation of Polypropylene Membranes Applied in Membrane Distillation Crystallizer

    Marek Gryta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the resistance to degradation of capillary polypropylene membranes assembled in a membrane crystallizer were performed. The supersaturation state of salt was achieved by evaporation of water from the NaCl saturated solutions using membrane distillation process. A high feed temperature (363 K was used in order to enhance the degradation effects and to shorten the test times. Salt crystallization was carried out by the application of batch or fluidized bed crystallizer. A significant membrane scaling was observed regardless of the method of realized crystallization. The SEM-EDS, DSC, and FTIR methods were used for investigations of polypropylene degradation. The salt crystallization onto the membrane surface accelerated polypropylene degradation. Due to a polymer degradation, the presence of carbonyl groups on the membranes’ surface was identified. Besides the changes in the chemical structure a significant mechanical damage of the membranes, mainly caused by the internal scaling, was also found. As a result, the membranes were severely damaged after 150 h of process operation. A high level of salt rejection was maintained despite damage to the external membrane surface.

  7. Property Relationship in Organosilanes and Nanotubes Filled Polypropylene Hybrid Composites.

    Monsiváis-Barrón, Alejandra J; Bonilla-Rios, Jaime; Sánchez-Fernández, Antonio

    2014-10-20

    Polypropylene composites with different filler contents were prepared by creating a masterbatch containing 3 wt%. filler. A variety of silanol groups were used to synthetized three compounds in different media trough a sol-gel process with acetic acid, formic acid and ammonium hydroxide as catalysts. Besides, four different nanotubular fillers were also used to analyze their behavior and compare it with the effect caused by the silanol groups. These tubular structures comprise: unmodified halloysite, carbon nanotubes and functionalized halloysite and carbon nanotubes. Morphological characterization in SEM and STEM/TEM showed dispersion in the polypropylene matrix. According to TGA and DSC measurements thermal behavior remain similar for all the composites. Mechanical test in tension demonstrate that modulus of the composites increases for all samples with a major impact for materials containing silanol groups synthetized in formic acid. Rheological measurements show a significantly increment in viscosity for samples containing unmodified and modified carbon nanotubes. No difference was found for samples containing silanol groups and halloysite when compared to neat polypropylene. Finally, the oxygen transmission rate increased for all samples showing high barrier properties only for samples containing natural and functionalized halloysite nanotubes.

  8. Comparison of the mechanical properties between carbon nanotube and nanocrystalline cellulose polypropylene based nano-composites

    Huang, Jun; Rodrigue, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SWCNT and NCC can effectively improve the mechanical properties of nano-composites. • SWCNT is more effective than NCC to increase modulus and strength. • Longer NCC is more effective to improve the mechanical properties of nano-composites. • It is more economic to use NCC than SWCNT to improve mechanical properties. - Abstract: Using beam and tetrahedron elements to simulate nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and polypropylene (PP), finite element method (FEM) is used to predict the mechanical properties of nano-composites. The bending, shear and torsion behaviors of nano-composites are especially investigated due to the limited amount of information in the present literature. First, mixed method (MM) and FEM are used to compare the bending stiffness of NCC/PP and SWCNT/PP composites. Second, based on mechanics of materials, the shear moduli of both types of nano-composites are obtained. Finally, fixing the number of fibers and for different volume contents, four NCC lengths are used to determine the mechanical properties of the composites. The bending and shearing performances are also compared between NCC and SWCNT based composites. In all cases, the elastic–plastic analyses are carried out and the stress or strain distributions for specific regions are also investigated. From all the results obtained, an economic analysis shows that NCC is more interesting than SWCNT to reinforce PP

  9. The Usage Of Nutshell In The Production of Polypropylene Based on Polymer Composite Panels

    Selçuk Akbaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been commonly utilized to reinforced materials for many years. Recently due to advantages of natural fibers such as low cost, high physical and mechanical resistance are produced plastic-composite materials by mixing various proportions. In addition, plastic composites are used natural fibers include agricultural wastes (wheat straw, rice straw, hemp fiber, shells of various dry fruits, etc.. In this study, polymer composites were manufactured using waste nutshell flour as filler and polypropylene (PP as polymer matrix. The nutshell-PP composites were manufactured via extrusion and compression methods. The final product tested to determine their tensile, flexural, impact strength properties as well as some physical features such as thickness swelling and water absorptions. The best results were obtained composites containing 30% nutshell flour. In addition, composites which were produced nutshell provided the values of ASTM D6662 standard. The data collected in our country which waste a large portion of nutshell allows for the evaluation of the production polymer composites. The incorporation of nutshell flour feasible to produce plastic composites when appropriate formulations were used. As a result hazelnut shell which was considered agricultural waste can be utilized in polymer composite production.

  10. Effect of fibre treatment using fluorosilane on Sansevieria Trifasciata/Polypropylene composite

    Aref, Yanzur Mohd; Baharum, Azizah

    2018-04-01

    Recently, there is an increasing interest in the development of wood-plastic composites (WPC) due to their advantages such as wide availability, low cost, environment friendliness and sustainability. However, some major factors limiting the large scales production of WPC including the tendency of natural fibres to absorb water and the poor compatibility between fibre and matrix. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of natural fibre treatment using fluorosilane in imparting hydrophobicity to the polypropylene (PP) matrix composite reinforced with Sansevieria Trifasciata (ST) fibres. ST fibres are subjected to silane treatment with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxsysilane (POTS) at 1, 3 and 5% for a period of 2 hours. Influence of POTS treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of composites was studied to determine the optimum condition of silane treatment. The water contact angle (WCA) of WPC increased after POTS treatment where the highest value of 115° was shown by 3% POTS treated ST/PP composite. Based on mechanical properties results, incorporation of POTS treated ST fibre improves the mechanical properties with the enhancement of flexural and impact strength. The treatment with 3% POTS revealed statistically higher flexural strength and modulus compared to 1 and 5%. The water absorption test of ST/PP composites also gives the best result for 3% POTS treatment with 20.90% water uptake.

  11. Stabilization of polypropylene, polypropylene blends with poly (styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) under irradiation: A comparative investigation

    Luan Shifang; Yang Huawei; Shi Hengchong; Zhao Jie; Wang Jianwei; Yin Jinghua

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the stabilization of polypropylene in the poly (styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) (SEBS)/polypropylene (PP) blends under irradiation with respect to PP. The PP films, SEBS/PP films were subjected to electron beam irradiation and characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). It demonstrated that upon irradiation, the molecular weight of PP had a pronounced decrease due to the major chain scission, and the minor chain cross-linking or chain branching occurred at the higher irradiation dose. Stabilization of PP was improved in the presence of SEBS, exhibiting an enhanced irradiation resistance.

  12. Stabilization of polypropylene, polypropylene blends with poly (styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) under irradiation: A comparative investigation

    Luan Shifang; Yang Huawei; Shi Hengchong; Zhao Jie [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang Jianwei [Shandong Weigao Group Medical Polymer Company Limited, Weihai 264209 (China); Yin Jinghua, E-mail: yinjh@ciac.jl.c [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the stabilization of polypropylene in the poly (styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) (SEBS)/polypropylene (PP) blends under irradiation with respect to PP. The PP films, SEBS/PP films were subjected to electron beam irradiation and characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). It demonstrated that upon irradiation, the molecular weight of PP had a pronounced decrease due to the major chain scission, and the minor chain cross-linking or chain branching occurred at the higher irradiation dose. Stabilization of PP was improved in the presence of SEBS, exhibiting an enhanced irradiation resistance.

  13. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  14. Adapting without reinforcement.

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C Randy

    2012-11-01

    Our data rule out a broad class of behavioral models in which behavioral change is guided by differential reinforcement. To demonstrate this, we showed that the number of reinforcers missed before the subject shifted its behavior was not sufficient to drive behavioral change. What's more, many subjects shifted their behavior to a more optimal strategy even when they had not yet missed a single reinforcer. Naturally, differential reinforcement cannot be said to drive a process that shifts to accommodate to new conditions so adeptly that it doesn't miss a single reinforcer: it would have no input on which to base this shift.

  15. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement

    Austin G. Garner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved.

  16. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement

    Goulet, Benjamin E.

    2018-01-01

    Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved. PMID:29614048

  17. [Quantification of Wood Flour and Polypropylene in Chinese Fir/Polypropylene Composites by FTIR].

    Lao, Wan-li; Li, Gai-yun; Zhou, Qun; Qin, Te-fu

    2015-06-01

    The ratio of wood and plastic in Wood Plastic Composites (WPCss) influences quality and price, but traditional thermochemical methods cannot rapidly and accurately quantify the ratio of wood/PP in WPCss. This paper was addressed to investigate the feasibility of quantifying the wood flour content and plastic content in WPCss by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. With Chinese fir, polypropylene (PP) and other additives as raw materials, 13 WPCs samples with different wood flour contents, ranging from 9.8% to 61.5%, were prepared by modifying wood flour, mixing materials and extrusion pelletizing. The samples were analyzed by FTIR with the KBr pellets technique. The absorption peaks of WPCss at 1059, 1 033 and 1 740 cm(-1) are considered as characteristic of Chinese fir, and the absorption peaks at 1 377, 2 839 and 841 cm(-1) are typical of PP by comparing the spectra of WPCss with that of Chinese fir, PP and other additives. The relationship between the wood flour content, PP content in WPCss and their characteristic IR peaks height ratio was established. The results show that there is a strong linear correlation between the wood flour content in WPCss and I1 059/l 1 377/I1 033, /I1377, R2 are 0.992 and 0.993 respectively; there is a high linear correlation between the PP content in WPCss and I1 377/I1 740, I2 839 /I1 740 R2 are 0.985 and 0.981, respectively. Quantitative methods of the wood flour content and PP content in WPCss by FTIR were developed, the predictive equations of the wood flour content in WPCss are y = 53.297x-9. 107 and y = 55.922x-10.238, the predictive equations of the PP content in WPCss are y = 6.828 5x+5.403 6 and y = 8.719 7x+3.295 8. The results of the accuracy test and precision test show that the method has strong repeatability and high accuracy. The average prediction relative deviations of the wood flour content and PP content in WPCss are about 5%. The prediction accuracy has been improved remarkably, compared to

  18. Compressive behaviour of hybrid fiber-reinforced reactive powder concrete after high temperature

    Zheng, Wenzhong; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We complete the high temperature test and compression test of RPC after 20–900 °C. ► The presence of steel fiber and polypropylene fiber can prevent RPC from spalling. ► Compressive strength increases first and then decreases with elevated temperatures. ► Microstructure deterioration is the root cause of macro-properties recession. ► Equations to express the compressive strength change with temperature are proposed. -- Abstract: This study focuses on the compressive properties and microstructures of reactive powder concrete (RPC) mixed with steel fiber and polypropylene fiber after exposure to 20–900 °C. The volume dosage of steel fiber and polypropylene fiber is (2%, 0.1%), (2%, 0.2%) and (1%, 0.2%). The effects of heating temperature, fiber content and specimen size on the compressive properties are analyzed. The microstructures of RPC exposed to different high temperatures are studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the compressive strength of hybrid fiber-reinforced RPC increases at first, then decreases with the increasing temperature, and the basic reason for the degradation of macro-mechanical properties is the deterioration of RPC microstructure. Based on the experimental results, equations to express the relationships of the compressive strength with the heating temperatures are established. Compared with normal-strength and high-strength concrete, the hybrid fiber-reinforced RPC has excellent capacity in resistance to high temperature.

  19. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  20. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness.

    Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B

    2014-01-09

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  1. The effect of impact modifier and of nucleating agent on the radiation tolerance of polypropylene

    Liu Dongyuan (Beijing Normal Univ., BJ (China)); Czvikovszky, T.; Dobo, J.; Somogyi, A. (Research Inst. for the Plastics Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The effect of two types of additives was investigated with respect to the oxidative post-irradiation stability of polypropylene: SBS thermoplastic rubbers as impact modifiers and benzoic acid as nucleating agent. Testing was performed by ultimate deformation on bending. The thermoplastic rubber additive increased the post-irradiation stability of polypropylene substantially. (author).

  2. The effect of impact modifier and of nucleating agent on the radiation tolerance of polypropylene

    Liu Dongyuan; Czvikovszky, T.; Dobo, J.; Somogyi, A.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of two types of additives was investigated with respect to the oxidative post-irradiation stability of polypropylene: SBS thermoplastic rubbers as impact modifiers and benzoic acid as nucleating agent. Testing was performed by ultimate deformation on bending. The thermoplastic rubber additive increased the post-irradiation stability of polypropylene substantially. (author)

  3. Modification of low density polyethylene, isostatic polypropylene and their blends by gamma radiation

    Santos Rosa, D. dos

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the gamma radiation (of a 60 Co source), over low density polyethylene, isostatic polypropylene and their blends of low density polyethylene / polypropylene were studied. The structures modifications were attended by infrared spectrometry (IV), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), strain-strain measurement, density measurement and scanning electron microscope (SEM). (author)

  4. Use of polypropylene mesh in hernioplasty by Lichtenstein's technique

    Montejo Sainz, Jesus Enrique; Pisonero Socias, Juan Jose

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. The aim of present study was to assess the benefit using the prosthesis (polypropylene mesh) in the hernioplasty using the Lichtenstein's technique in the 'Joaquin Albarran' Clinical Surgical Hospital. METHODS. A prospective study (with an interval of 14 months) was conducted in 140 surgical interventions carried out using the Lichtenstein's technique in patients presenting with inguinal hernia. One hundred and ten patients were excluded due to interventions were of ambulatory method. The following data were studied: type of hernia found in the physical examination, age, sex, and race, type of job, intervention's date, and technique used as well as the complications during the immediate postoperative time. Also, the hernia's relapse after operation, surgical complications and tolerance to polypropylene mesh were taking into account. RESULTS. There was predominance of male sex confirming a direct influence among types of jobs requiring a strong physical effort and the appearance of inguinal hernias (63,3 %). There were only three complications: a hematoma and two seromas. There were not relapses and any case of infection, both local and systemic. The use of prophylactic antibiotics showed an appropriate cost-benefit relationship. CONCLUSIONS. The old age, the male sex and a sustained physical effort have a directly proportional relation to appearance of inguinal hernias. The feasibility of Lichtenstein's hernioplasty, the null incidence of hernia relapses and no appearance of complications including the rejection to prosthetic material, favoured the use of polypropylene in this plasty. Authors recommended the use of perioperative prophylactic antibiotic therapy to avoid wound's infection and thus to secure the result of surgical intervention and its durability. (author)

  5. Synthesis and characterization of CNTs using polypropylene waste as precursor

    Bajad, Ganesh S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440010 (India); Tiwari, Saurabh K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Vijayakumar, R.P., E-mail: vijayakumarrp@che.vnit.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440010 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile method for producing CNTs from polypropylene waste is proposed. • Optimization of Ni/Mo mole ratio using RSM suggests the adequacy of cubic model. • Process parameters were optimized by RSM using Box–Behnken four factorial design. • Maximum desirability of one suggested that 514% of CNTs would yield over Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 0.2}MgO{sub 1}. • Increase in Ni/Mo ratio from 0.5 to 20, inner diameter of CNTs decreases from 25 to 2 nm. - Abstract: We study the synthesis of MWCNTs using polypropylene waste as a precursor and Ni/Mo/MgO as a catalyst by the combustion technique. Molar ratios of Ni, Mo and MgO in the Ni/Mo/MgO catalyst were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the maximum yield of CNTs. The mole ratio 4/0.2/1 was found to yield more carbon product. Further, process parameters such as combustion temperature, combustion time, polymer and catalyst weight were optimized by RSM using Box–Behnken three-level and four-factorial design. The best possible combination of process parameters (combustion time of 10 min, combustion temperature of 800 °C, polymer weight of 5 g and catalyst weight of 150 mg) for maximum yield of CNTs was obtained. HRTEM indicates that the diameter of CNTs depends on the catalyst composition used for the synthesis of CNTs. The results of the study indicate a facile method for producing CNTs from polypropylene waste.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of CNTs using polypropylene waste as precursor

    Bajad, Ganesh S.; Tiwari, Saurabh K.; Vijayakumar, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile method for producing CNTs from polypropylene waste is proposed. • Optimization of Ni/Mo mole ratio using RSM suggests the adequacy of cubic model. • Process parameters were optimized by RSM using Box–Behnken four factorial design. • Maximum desirability of one suggested that 514% of CNTs would yield over Ni 4 Mo 0.2 MgO 1 . • Increase in Ni/Mo ratio from 0.5 to 20, inner diameter of CNTs decreases from 25 to 2 nm. - Abstract: We study the synthesis of MWCNTs using polypropylene waste as a precursor and Ni/Mo/MgO as a catalyst by the combustion technique. Molar ratios of Ni, Mo and MgO in the Ni/Mo/MgO catalyst were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the maximum yield of CNTs. The mole ratio 4/0.2/1 was found to yield more carbon product. Further, process parameters such as combustion temperature, combustion time, polymer and catalyst weight were optimized by RSM using Box–Behnken three-level and four-factorial design. The best possible combination of process parameters (combustion time of 10 min, combustion temperature of 800 °C, polymer weight of 5 g and catalyst weight of 150 mg) for maximum yield of CNTs was obtained. HRTEM indicates that the diameter of CNTs depends on the catalyst composition used for the synthesis of CNTs. The results of the study indicate a facile method for producing CNTs from polypropylene waste

  7. Raman Spectroscopy of Isotactic Polypropylene-Halloysite Nanocomposites

    Elamin E. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy investigations on nanocomposites obtained by dispersing halloysite within isotactic polypropylene are reported. A detailed analysis of the modifications of the regularity band associated to the polymeric matrix is presented. The Raman lines assigned to the polymeric matrix are broadened and weakened as the loading with halloysite is increased. The analysis of Raman lines indicates that the polymeric matrix becomes less crystalline upon the loading with halloysite and that the nanofiller is experiencing a weak dehydration upon dispersion within the polymeric matrix, probably due to the related thermal processing used to achieve the dispersion of halloysite.

  8. Surface modifications of polypropylene by high energy carbon ions

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Dutta, R.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with 12 C ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energies using 3 MV tandem accelerator. The surface modification was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Optical changes were monitored by UV-VIS and FTIR spectroscopy. At the lowest ion fluence, only blister formation of various sizes (1-6 μm) was observed. Polymer when irradiated at a fluence of 1x10 14 ions/cm 2 exhibited a network structure. A comparative study on dose dependence of surface and bulk modification has been described. (author)

  9. Polypropylene-polyethylene blends modified by gamma radiation

    Terence, Mauro C.; Ruiz, Francisco C.

    2009-01-01

    One way to obtain a better mechanical property of polypropylene and polyethylene is to increasing the number of polymer chains cross-linked by gamma radiation. After irradiation a network is formed as a result of various chemical reactions and the radicals formed are concentrated in the amorphous phase. With the objective to improve the mechanical properties of PP, blends with PE were prepared and irradiated in doses up to 500 kGy, in atmospheric ambient. The molecular characterization of the blends was made by infrared spectroscopy and the data showed an increase in rigidity and a unique behaviour in Izod impact resistance. (author)

  10. Effect of nanosilica particles on polypropylene polymer modified asphalt mixture performance

    Nura Bala

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of nanosilica particles on the performance characteristics of polymer modified asphalt binders. In this study, control 80/100 binder were modified with polypropylene polymer and nanosilica particles at concentration of 0%–4%. Both nanosilica particles and polypropylene polymer were added by weight of total bitumen content. The asphalt performance tests flexural four point beam fatigue test, indirect tensile strength, indirect tensile stiffness modulus and draindown tests are conducted to evaluate the effect of nanosilica particles. The results of the study shows that nanosilica particles improves the fatigue properties of polypropylene polymer modified binder. This indicates that nanosilica particles have significant effect on improving the performance properties of polymer modified binders. Also, the result reveals that thermoplastic polymer polypropylene with nanosilica particles when used as bitumen modifiers improve the performance and durability of asphalt mixtures. Keywords: Polypropylene, Fatigue cracking, Stiffness modulus, Modified asphalt, Draindown

  11. Polypropylene Track Membranes for Mikro and Ultrafiltration of Chemically Aggressive Agents

    Kravets, L I; Apel, P Yu

    2000-01-01

    A production process for track membranes on the basis of chemically resistant polymer polypropylene has been developed. Research in all stages of the formation of the polypropylene track membranes has been conducted: the main principles of the process of chemical etching of polypropylene irradiated with accelerated ions have been investigated, the most effective structure of the etchant for a selective etching of the heavy ion tracks has been selected, the parameters of etching have been optimized. A method for sensibilization of latent tracks in polypropylene by effect of solvents has been developed. It helps to reach a significant increase in etching selectivity. A method for destruction of an absorbed chromocontaining layer on the surface of polypropylene track membranes formed during etching has been elaborated. Experimental samples of the membranes for micro and ultrafiltration have been obtained and their properties have been studied in course of their exploitation in chemically aggressive agents. For t...

  12. Effect of compatibilizing agents on the interface and mechanical behaviour of polypropylene/hemp bast fiber biocomposites

    Boruvka, M.; Lenfeld, P.; Brdlik, P.; Behalek, L.

    2015-07-01

    During the last years automotive industry has given a lot of attention to the biobased polymers that are sustainable and eco-friendly. Nevertheless fully green composites are currently too expensive for most applications. A viable solution and logical starting point at this material revolution lies in reinforced synthetic thermoplastics based on plant derived biodegradable fibers. Plant fibers (PF's) have potential to reduce weight of composite vehicle parts up to 40% compared with the main automotive composites filler, glass fibers (GF's). Production of GF's composites is much more energy intensive and polluting compared with growing, harvesting and preparing of PF's. The main disadvantage of PF's lies in combination of non-polar hydrophobic polymer matrix and polar hydrophilic fibers. This combination creates poor interface with low adhesion of both components. That implies poor wettability of fibres by polymer matrix and low mechanical properties of biocomposites. Therefore specific compatibilizing agents (Struktol SA1012, Fusabond P353, Smart + Luperox) were used in order to enhance compatibility between reinforcement and matrix. In this paper sets of biocomposite compounds were prepared by twin screw extrusion considering different type and weight percentage (wt. %) of compatibilizing agents, hemp bast fibres (HBF's) within ratio 20 (wt. %) and polypropylene (PP) THERMOFIL PP E020M matrix. Resulting compounds were than injection molded and tested samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical testing.

  13. Hybrid fibre-reinforced concrete under repeated loading

    Komlos, K.; Babal, B.; Nuernbergerova, T.

    1995-01-01

    Fibre-reinforced concrete containing several volume fractions in different ratios of two types of fibre - polypropylene and steel - were tested under repeated loading. The mechanical properties of specimens - cubes 150mm x 150mm x 150mm (for compressive strength), prisms 100mm x 100mm x 400mm (for flexural strength) and short cylinders 150mm long and 60mm in diameter (for impact strength) - have been experimentally investigated before and after cyclic loading after a curing time of 28 days.Mix proportions were designed according to DIN 1045 with maximum aggregate size 8mm and grading curve B8. Portland cement PC 40 in the amount of 450kgm -3 was applied and the water-to-cement ratio was 0.55. The workability of mixes was measured by the Vebe method and regulated by the plasticizing admixture Ligoplast Na. The maximum hybrid fibre volume fraction (polypropylene+steel) was 1.0%. The dynamic forces generated in a Schenck testing machine with a frequency of 16Hz had a sinusoidal waveform varying between 0.7 and 0.1 of the static mechanical characteristics. The number of cycles in all tests was 10 5 . The residual MOR in the static four-point bending test and working force-deflection diagram were also obtained. The impact properties after repeated loading in compression were tested by means of the falling-weight test. Relationships between the composition of fibre composites with different amounts of polypropylene (0.2, 0.3 and 0.5vol.%) and steel fibre content (0.5, 0.7 and 0.8vol.%) were obtained and the technological properties of the mixes as well. (orig.)

  14. Micromechanical analysis of a hybrid composite—effect of boron carbide particles on the elastic properties of basalt fiber reinforced polymer composite

    Krishna Golla, Sai; Prasanthi, P.

    2016-11-01

    A fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite is an important material for structural application. The diversified application of FRP composites has become the center of attention for interdisciplinary research. However, improvements in the mechanical properties of this class of materials are still under research for different applications. The reinforcement of inorganic particles in a composite improves its structural properties due to their high stiffness. The present research work is focused on the prediction of the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites where continuous fibers are reinforced in a micro boron carbide particle mixed polypropylene matrix. The effectiveness of the addition of 30 wt. % of boron carbide (B4C) particle contributions regarding the longitudinal and transverse properties of the basalt fiber reinforced polymer composite at various fiber volume fractions is examined by finite element analysis (FEA). The experimental approach is the best way to determine the properties of the composite but it is expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, the finite element method (FEM) and analytical methods are the viable methods for the determination of the composite properties. The FEM results were obtained by adopting a micromechanics approach with the support of FEM. Assuming a uniform distribution of reinforcement and considering one unit-cell of the whole array, the properties of the composite materials are determined. The predicted elastic properties from FEA are compared with the analytical results. The results suggest that B4C particles are a good reinforcement for the enhancement of the transverse properties of basalt fiber reinforced polypropylene.

  15. The influence of antioxidant on positron annihilation in polypropylene

    Djourelov, N.; He, C.; Suzuki, T.; Ito, Y; Kondo, K.; Ito, Y.; Shantarovich, V.P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to check the influence of the carbonyl groups (CG), created by oxygen naturally dissolved in a polymer matrix and by the source irradiation, on annihilation characteristics of free positrons using the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and coincidence Doppler-broadening spectroscopy (CDBS). Positron annihilation in a pure polypropylene (PP) and in an antioxidant-containing polypropylene (PPA) sample at room and low temperatures has been studied by CDBS. PALS has been used as an o-Ps (orth-positronium) formation monitor. The momentum density distributions of electrons obtained by CDBS at the beginning of measurements have been compared to that at the o-Ps intensity saturation level. It has been shown that the initial concentration of carbonyl groups in a PP sample is high, while for an antioxidant-containing sample, PPA, carbonyl groups are not detected by CDBS. CDBS spectra for a PP can be explained by annihilation of free positrons with the oxygen contained in the carbonyl groups. For a PPA sample, no significant contribution of annihilation with oxygen core electrons can be concluded. (Y. Kazumata)

  16. Stability of erythropoietin repackaging in polypropylene syringes for clinical use

    Angela Marsili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epoetin alfa (Eprex® is a subcutaneous, injectable formulation of short half-life recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO. To current knowledge there are no published studies regarding the stability of rHuEPO once repackaging occurs (r-EPO for clinical trial purposes. Materials and methods: We assessed EPO concentration in Eprex® and r-EPO syringes at 0, 60, 90, and 120 days after repackaging in polypropylene syringes. R-EPO was administered to 56 patients taking part in a clinical trial in Friedreich Ataxia. Serum EPO levels were measured at baseline and 48 h after r-EPO administration. Results: No differences were found between r-EPO and Eprex® syringes, but both globally decreased in total EPO content during storage at 4 °C. Patients receiving r-EPO had similar levels in EPO content as expected from previous trials in Friedreich Ataxia and from pharmacokinetics studies in healthy volunteers. Discussion: We demonstrate that repackaging of EPO does not alter its concentration if compared to the original product (Eprex®. This is true both for repackaging procedures and for the stability in polypropylene tubes. The expiration date of r-EPO can be extended from 1 to 4 months after repackaging, in accordance with pharmacopeia rules.

  17. Chemical modification of polypropylene induced by high energy carbon ions

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Chintalapudi, S.N. E-mail: snc@gamma.iuc.res.in

    2000-06-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energy using 3 MV Pelletron. The spectral changes owing to ion bombardment were investigated by UV-VIS and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A gradual increase in absorbance was observed around visible and near visible region with increase in fluence of bombarding ions. The difference absorption spectra show formation of chromophoric groups with wavelength maximum near 380 nm at lower fluence, but at high fluence a shift in peak is observed. The chromophoric groups are likely to be the extended conjugated polyene system and the red shift in peak position at high fluence may be attributed to the greater degree of conjugation. The formation of unsaturated linkage is confirmed by the FTIR spectra with observed stretching band around 1650 cm{sup -1} and its intensity was found to increase with increase in ion fluence studied. The gases (in the range 2-80 amu) which were evolved due to interaction of polypropylene with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions were measured with Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). A large number of gaseous components were detected. This shows that polymer chains break into some smaller fragments which concomitantly leads to extended conjugation.

  18. Investigation of Fibres Migration in Cotton/Polypropylene Blended Yarn

    Dzmitry RYKLIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is devoted to theoretical and experimental research of fibres migration in blended yarns. A hypothesis states that due to fibres migration their tension in yarn becomes equal. On the basis of that hypothesis, we identified the factors that affect the migration. The main factors influencing are differences in Young's modulus and density of fibres. Simulating the fibres migration we obtained the formulae for determining the proportion of fibres in the external and inner layers of blended yarn. These formulae were proved by analysis of cross-section of cotton/polypropylene yarn. Results of blended yarn processing in knitting showed that migration of polypropylene fibres in direction to the yarn surface leads to significant increase of yarn breakages due to growth of its friction coefficient. Reduction of the input yarn tension by 10 % – 15 % helped to stabilize the process of knitting. It was found that the usage of theoretical information about fibres migration allows to draw conclusions about the necessity of adjustments to settings of subsequent processing of blended yarns. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4610

  19. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  20. Effect of Surface Modification of Palygorskite on the Properties of Polypropylene/Polypropylene-g-Maleic Anhydride/Palygorskite Nanocomposites

    David Cisneros-Rosado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of surface modification of palygorskite (Pal on filler dispersion and on the mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP/polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH/palygorskite (Pal nanocomposites was evaluated. A natural Pal mineral was purified and individually surface modified with hexadecyl tributyl phosphonium bromide and (3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane; the pristine and modified Pals were melt-compounded with PP to produce nanocomposites using PP-g-MAH as compatibilizer. The grafting of Pal surface was verified by FT-IR and the change in surface hydrophilicity was estimated by the contact angle of sessile drops of ethylene glycol on Pal tablets. The extent of Pal dispersion and the degree of improvement in both the mechanical and thermal properties were related to the surface treatment of Pal. Modified Pals were better dispersed during melt processing and improved Young’s modulus and strength; however, maximum deformation tended to decrease. The thermal stability of PP/PP-g-MAH/Pal nanocomposites was considerably improved with the content of modified Pals. The degree of crystallinity increased with Pal content, regardless of the surface modification. Surfactant modified Pal exhibited better results in comparison with silane Pal; it is possible that longer alkyl chains from surfactant molecules promoted interactions with polymer chains, thereby improving nanofiller dispersion and enhancing the properties.

  1. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene film and its biodegradability

    Mandal, Dev K.; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Dubey, K. A.; Varshney, L.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene based commodity polyolefins are widely used in packaging, manufacturing, electrical, pharmaceutical and other applications. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of grafting of acrylic acid on the biodegradability of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene. The effect of different conditions showed that grafting percentage increased with increase in monomer concentration, radiation dose and inhibitor concentration but decreased with increase in radiation dose rate. The maximum grafting of 159.4% could be achieved at optimum conditions. The structure of grafted polypropylene films at different degree of grafting was characterized by EDS, FTIR, TGA, DSC, SEM and XRD. EDS studies showed that the increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the hydrophilicity of the grafted films. FTIR studies indicated the presence of acrylic acid on the surface of polypropylene film. TGA studies revealed that thermal stability decreased with increase in grafting percentage. DSC studies showed that melting temperature and crystallinity of the grafted polypropylene films lower than polypropylene film. SEM studies indicated that increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the wrinkles in the grafted films. The maximum biodegradability could be achieved to 6.85% for 90.5% grafting. This suggested that microorganisms present in the compost could biodegrade acrylic acid grafted polypropylene.

  2. Thermal degradation kinetics and estimation of lifetime of radiation grafted polypropylene films

    Mandal, Dev K.; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Bhalla, Vinod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In this research work, thermal stability and degradation behavior of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene (PP-g-PAAc) films were investigated by using thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis at four different heating rates 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C/min over a temperature range of 40–550 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The kinetic parameters namely activation energy (E a ), reaction order (n) and frequency factor (Z) were calculated by three multiple heating rate methods. The thermal stability of PP-g-PAAc films is found to decrease with increase in degree of grafting. The TGA data and thermal kinetic parameters were also used to predict the lifetime of grafted PP films. The estimated lifetime of neat PP as well as grafted PP decreased with increase in temperature by all the three methods. Studies also indicated that E a and lifetime of PP-g-PAAc films decreased with increase in degree of grafting, which may also be helpful in biodegradation of grafted PP films. - Highlights: • Thermal stability of grafted polypropylene films have been observed lower than for neat polypropylene film. • Multiple heating rate methods have been used for determination of activation energy. • Activation energies of grafted polypropylene films were lower than polypropylene film. • The lifetimes of grafted polypropylene films were shorter than for neat polypropylene film.

  3. Biomechanical findings in rats undergoing fascial reconstruction with graft materials suggested as an alternative to polypropylene.

    Konstantinovic, M L; Ozog, Y; Spelzini, F; Pottier, C; De Ridder, D; Deprest, J

    2010-03-01

    Graft materials used for pelvic floor reinforcement should still be considered as investigational and, therefore, evaluated experimentally and within clinical trials. The present report describes our biomechanical findings in rats implanted with selected novel implant materials, which in recent years have been suggested as alternatives to plain polypropylene (PP) meshes. Full thickness abdominal wall defects were primarily repaired by the implant of interest. Experiments involved eight different implant materials: two partly degradable synthetic implants, that is, a hybrid of polyglactin 910 with PP (Vypro II) and collagen coated PP (Pelvitex); two non-cross linked (Surgisis, InteXēn LP) and two cross-linked materials (Pelvicol, Pelvisoft) and two porous modifications of InteXēn LP and Pelvicol implants. At different time points (7, 14, 30, and 90 days), the implants and surrounding host tissue (explant) were harvested and tensiometry was performed. Tensile strength and location of breakage were recorded. In general resorbable non-cross linked collagen matrices and porous materials were weaker after 90 days; similar behavior was seen for implant materials alone and their construction with the surrounding native tissue. Both non-porous and porous modification of InteXēn LP appeared at 90 days as a very thin layer of collagen that was two-thirds, respectively one-third of the initial thickness. In experimental conditions, sufficient strength was obtained only after 3 months, and PP containing constructs appeared as the strongest though reconstruction with Pelvicol showed comparable outcomes. Lower values for strength of non-cross linked and porous collagen materials are questioning their efficacy for pelvic floor reconstruction. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Thermal Stability, Combustion Behavior, and Mechanical Property in a Flame-Retardant Polypropylene System

    Lili Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively improve the strength, toughness, flame retardancy, smoke suppression, and thermal stability of polypropylene (PP, layered double hydroxide (LDH Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH was synthesized by a coprecipitation method coupled with the microwave-hydrothermal treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD, morphology, mechanical, thermal, and fire properties for PP composites containing 1 wt %–20 wt % Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH were investigated. The cone calorimeter tests confirm that the peak heat release rate (pk–HRR of PP–20%LDH was decreased to 500 kW/m2 from the 1057 kW/m2 of PP. The pk–HRR, average mass loss rate (AMLR and effective heat of combustion (EHC analysis indicates that the condensed phase fire retardant mechanism of Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH in the composites. The production rate and mean release yield of CO for composites gradually decrease as Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH increases in the PP matrix. Thermal analysis indicates that the decomposition temperature for PP–5%LDH and PP–10%LDH is 34 °C higher than that of the pure PP. The mechanical tests reveal that the tensile strength of PP–1%LDH is 7.9 MPa higher than that of the pure PP. Furthermore, the elongation at break of PP–10%LDH is 361% higher than PP. In this work, the synthetic LDH Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH can be used as a flame retardant, smoke suppressant, thermal stabilizer, reinforcing, and toughening agent of PP products.

  5. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites of wood flour in polypropylene matrix using barium titanate as coupling agent

    Ulloa, Maritza Eliza Perez

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effects of ionizing radiation on the properties of wood flour composites in polypropylene matrix, using barium titanate as a coupling agent and the reactive monomer tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPDGA). An electron accelerator was used in the study as the radiation source. The physical properties of virgin compounds and of the polypropylene/wood flour composite, with and without barium titanate and TPDGA addition, were investigated. The composites were developed from the load treatment, which first consisted of incorporating additives to the wood flour reinforcement and after that, the fusion process of polypropylene and composite mixing in a 'calander'. Subsequently, the samples to be irradiated and submitted to thermal and mechanical assays were molded by injection. The mechanical properties (hardness, impact resistance and molten fluidity index (MFI)), as well as the thermal properties (HDT and Vicat) of the composites were determined. The investigated compositions consisted of polypropylene/wood flour, polypropylene/wood flour with barium titanate and polypropylene/wood flour with barium titanate and TPDGA, using different wood flour concentrations of 10 por cent, 15 por cent and 20 por cent in the polypropylene matrix. The samples were separated in groups and irradiated to doses of 10 kGy and 20 kGy in the samples of the essays of traction. Besides these doses, it was also used doses of 15 kGy and 25 kGy to be observed the behavior of the sample of the sample due to the increase of the radiation. These doses were chosen to show that with low doses the composite material presents reticulation, what represents a viable commercial option. There was a reduction of the flow rate for the composites containing wood flour, being this reduction more effective in the presence of TiBa. The superficial treatment using TPDGA monomer influence in the composite samples because it acted as a plastic additive becoming the sample

  6. Corn gluten meal as a biodegradable matrix material in wood fibre reinforced composites

    Beg, M.D.H.; Pickering, K.L.; Weal, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate corn gluten meal (CGM) as a biodegradable matrix material for wood fibre reinforced composites. CGM was used alone, as well as hybridized with polypropylene, and reinforced with radiata pine (Pinus Radiata) fibre using a twin-screw extruder followed by injection moulding. Tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to assess the composites. For composites from CGM and wood fibres, extrusion was carried out with the aid of the following plasticizers: octanoic acid, glycerol, polyethylene glycol and water. Windows of processability for the different plasticizers were obtained for all plasticizers. These were found to lie between 20 and 50 wt.% of plasticizer with a maximum of approximately 20% wood fibre reinforcement. The best mechanical properties were obtained with a matrix containing 10 wt.% octanoic acid and 30 wt.% water, which gave a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 18.7 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively. Hybrid matrix composites were compounded with a maleated polypropylene coupling agent and benzoyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. The highest tensile strength and Young's modulus obtained from hybrid matrix composites were 36.9 MPa and 5.8 GPa with 50 wt.% fibre

  7. Corn gluten meal as a biodegradable matrix material in wood fibre reinforced composites

    Beg, M.D.H. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand); Pickering, K.L. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)]. E-mail: klp@waikato.ac.nz; Weal, S.J. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2005-12-05

    This study was undertaken to investigate corn gluten meal (CGM) as a biodegradable matrix material for wood fibre reinforced composites. CGM was used alone, as well as hybridized with polypropylene, and reinforced with radiata pine (Pinus Radiata) fibre using a twin-screw extruder followed by injection moulding. Tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to assess the composites. For composites from CGM and wood fibres, extrusion was carried out with the aid of the following plasticizers: octanoic acid, glycerol, polyethylene glycol and water. Windows of processability for the different plasticizers were obtained for all plasticizers. These were found to lie between 20 and 50 wt.% of plasticizer with a maximum of approximately 20% wood fibre reinforcement. The best mechanical properties were obtained with a matrix containing 10 wt.% octanoic acid and 30 wt.% water, which gave a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 18.7 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively. Hybrid matrix composites were compounded with a maleated polypropylene coupling agent and benzoyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. The highest tensile strength and Young's modulus obtained from hybrid matrix composites were 36.9 MPa and 5.8 GPa with 50 wt.% fibre.

  8. Pulse NMR-spectroscopy of structural changes of chemically modified polypropylene

    Gafarov, A.M.; Galibeev, S.S.; Kochnev, A.M.; Sukhanov, P.P.; Arkhireev, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    The structure of polypropylene compositions is studied by the method of pulse NMR-spectroscopy. The polypropylene compositions are derived by means of the modification by multicomponent systems. The analysis of relaxation times in a wide temperature range is carried out. Character of changes going on at a level of supermolecular structures is described. It is shown that the amplifications that manifest themselves under the polypropylene modification by the mixtures based on 2,4-tolyilendiisocyanate and e-caprolactam, are related to the change in the intermolecular interaction and formation of a more ordered polymer structure. (authors)

  9. Behaviour of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete beam–column joints under reverse cyclic loads

    Ganesan, N.; Indira, P.V.; Sabeena, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed a high performance hybrid fibre reinforced cementitious composite. • Exterior beam-column joints have been tested under reversed cyclic loading. • Ductility factor, energy dissipation and stiffness degradation have been evaluated. • Contribution to reduce congestion of reinforcement in beam column joints. - Abstract: An experimental investigation was carried out to study the effect of hybrid fibres on the strength and behaviour of High performance concrete beam column joints subjected to reverse cyclic loads. A total of 12 reinforced concrete beams column joints were cast and tested in the present investigation. High performance concrete of M60 grade was designed using the modified ACI method suggested by Aïtcin. Crimped steel fibres and polypropylene fibres were used in hybrid form. The main variables considered were the volume fraction of (i) crimped steel fibres viz. 0.5% (39.25 kg/m 3 ) and 1.0% (78.5 kg/m 3 ) and (ii) polypropylene fibres viz. 0.1% (0.9 kg/m 3 ), 0.15% (1.35 kg/m 3 ), and 0.2% (1.8 kg/m 3 ). Addition of fibres in hybrid form improved many of the engineering properties such as the first crack load, ultimate load and ductility factor of the composite. The combination of 1% (78.5 kg/m 3 ) volume fraction of steel fibres and 0.15% (1.35 kg/m 3 ) volume fraction of polypropylene fibres gave better performance with respect to energy dissipation capacity and stiffness degradation than the other combinations

  10. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  11. Effect of polybutenes on mechanical and physical properties of polypropylene

    Nascimento, Uedson A. do; Timoteo, Gustavo Arante V.; Rabello, Marcelo S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of polybutene (PIB) of molecular weights ranging from 480 the 1.600 g/mol in polypropylene homopolymer. Compositions with 0, 3, 5 and 7% of PIB were prepared in internal mixer and compression moulded. The properties evaluated were: tensile strength, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and melt flow index (IF). The results of mechanical tests showed that the presence of the plasticizer reduced the tensile strength, elastic modulus and hardness. The analysis of XRD showed a drop in the degree of crystallinity of PP/PIB blends. The micrographs obtained by SEM did not reveal the occurrence of the phase separation. The IF analysis confirm the effect of PIB as internal lubricant's, by increasing the rate of flow. (author)

  12. Broad line NMR study of modified polypropylene fibres

    Olcak, D.; Sevcovic, L.; Mucha, L.

    1999-01-01

    Study of drawn fibres prepared from an isostatic polypropylene modified by an ethylene aminoalkylacrylate copolymer has been done using the broad line of 1 H NMR. NMR spectra were measured on the set of fibres prepared with a draw ratio λ from 1 to 5.5 at two temperatures, one of them corresponding to the onset of segmental motion and the other one is the minddle of the temperature interval as determined by decrease of the second moment M 2 . Decomposition of the spectra into elementary components related to the amorphous, intermediate and crystalline regions of partially crystalline polymers has been made. The drawing of the fibres was found to enhance the chain mobility in the amorphous region and to restrain the molecular motion in the intermediate region. Such behaviour well supports conclusions predicted in the earlier study based on the spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 and dynamic mechanical data treated using the WLF theory. (Authors)

  13. Strength of biodegradable polypropylene tapes filled with a modified starch

    Vinidiktova, N. S.; Ermolovich, O. A.; Goldade, V. A.; Pinchuk, L. S.

    2006-05-01

    The possibility of creating composite materials with high deformation and strength characteristics based on polypropylene (PP) and a natural polysaccharide in the form of a modified starch (MS) has been studied. The modified starch is shown to interact chemically with functional groups of PP, thereby positively affecting the physicomechanical properties, structure, and water absorption properties of films and oriented flat fibers based on starch-filled PP. The strength characteristics of both oriented and unoriented composites are 1.5-2.0 times as high as those of the initial PP. The water absorption ability of the materials varies symbatically with content of MS, which points to the dominant contribution of interactions at the PP-MS interface. The introduction of MS into synthetic polymers offers a possibility of producing new ecologically safe materials with high strength characteristics.

  14. Investigation reactor D-2201 polypropylene production unit using nuclear technique

    Wibisono; Sugiharto; Jefri Simanjuntak

    2016-01-01

    D-2201 reactor is a unit in the polypropylene production process at Pertamina Refinery Unit III Plaju. Reactor with a capacity of 45 kilo liter is not operated in normal operation condition. The validity of liquid level indicator on the unit is doubtful when refers to the production quality. Gamma source of 150 mCi Cobalt-60 and a scintillation detector had been used to scan the outer wall of the reactor to detect the liquid level during operation with a capacity of 40 %. Measurements were made along the reactor walls with 25 mm scan resolution and 5 seconds time sampling. Experiment result shows that the liquid level at the position of 40 % and at normal level position are not observed. Investigation did not find the liquid level above normal. D-2201 is diagnose not normal operating condition diagnosed with liquid abundant passed the recommended limits. Investigation advised to repair or to calibrate the liquid level indicator which is currently installed. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Environmental Aging of Polypropylene Irradiated Versus Pristine

    Romano, Rebeca S. Grecco; Oliani, Washington Luiz; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo

    Polypropylene (PP) is the most common thermoplastic resin of the plastic market due to its very interesting physical, chemical and processing properties at very low market price, however after its use the resin does not degrade in the environment or it degrades at very low rate. This study has the objective of comparing the environmental exposure of PP irradiated with 20 kGy and pristine PP. Dumbbell samples were manufactured by injection molding and exposed to the environment during 90 days; another one set was subjected to gamma irradiation at 20 kGy total dose and exposed at the same conditions too. The samples were characterized by mechanical testing, visual inspection, infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The irradiated samples, after environmental aging, showed oxidation and presence of cracks in samples of the PP 20 kGy.

  16. Effect of compatibilizer, bamboo fiber size and content on the mechanical properties of PP-g-MA compatibilized polypropylene/bamboo fiber composites

    Caranti, Lilian R.A.; Bonse, Baltus C.; Costa, Ricardo A. da

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary need for ecological preservation is a challenge to the realms of science to develop environmentally sustainable materials and processes. Research on composites reinforced with natural cellulosic fibers seeks to meet that need. An investigation was performed on the mechanical and thermal behavior of a composite comprising a polypropylene thermoplastic matrix and bamboo fibers (Phyllostachys Edulis). Interfacial adhesion between the two materials was achieved by the addition of compatibilizer maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene PPg- MA. An investigation was carried out with 8 compositions by varying the average fiber size (lower level = 0.94 mm and upper level = 2.19 mm), fiber content (20 and 40 weight %) and compatibilizer PP-g-MA (1 and 4 weight %). The mechanical behavior of the composites was studied by carrying out tensile, flexural, impact and fatigue tests. Thermal behavior was investigated by heat deflection temperature tests. Crystallinity was measured by means of X Ray diffraction and fractured surfaces were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  17. CFRP materials reinforced with LCP fibres for applications in vehicle and aircraft engineering. Final report; Faserverbundkunststoffe mit einer LCP-Faserverstaerkung fuer Anwendungen im Fahrzeug- und Flugzeugbau. Abschlussbericht

    NONE

    1997-02-11

    CFRP materials reinforced with liquid crystalline polyester (LCP) fibres were produced and characterized with regard to their physical and mechanical characteristics. Compared with non-reinforced plastics, polypropylene/LCP fibre-UD laminates produced by filmstacking, epoxy resin/LCP fibre-UD laminates produced by spooling and epoxy resin composites with internal LCP fibre fleece had significantly higher strength and stiffness as well as high thermoforming resistance and waterproofness. [Deutsch] In diesem Forschungsvorhaben wurden Faserverbundkunststoffe mit einer Verstaerkungsfaser auf Basis eines thermotropen fluessigkristallinen Polyester [Liquid Crystalline Polyester, abgekuerzt LCP] hergestellt und bezueglich der physikalisch-mechanischen Eigenschaften charakterisiert. Die im `filmstacking`-Verfahren hergestellte Polypropylen/LCP-Faser-UD-Laminate und mittels Bewicklung gewonnene Epoxidharz/LCP-Faser-UD-Laminate sowie Epoxidharzverbunde mit eingearbeiteten LCP-Faservlies zeigen gegenueber den unverstaerkten Kunststoffmaterialien einen betraechtlichen Anstieg von Festigkeit und Steifigkeit. Die Faserverbunde weisen ausserdem eine hohe Waermeformbestaendigkeit und Wassersperrwirkung auf. (orig.)

  18. The Effect of Size and Crumb Rubber Composition as a Filler with Compatibilizer Pp-G-Ma in Polypropylene Blends and Sir-20 Compound on Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    Erna Frida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Having been researched the development of thermoplastic elastomer material of polypropylene and natural rubber SIR-20 compound with Crumb Rubber as the filler. Reinforced polypropylene with size 60 mesh with 1 mm, and the composition of the Crumb rubber (30, 40, and 50 wt%. Observed mechanical properties are tensile strength, fracture elongation, Young's modulus, tear strength and impact strength. Thermal properties are analyzed by DSC and DTA/TGA. It is acquired that for the size of 60 mesh crumb rubber tensile strength, fracture elongation, Young’s modulus, tear strength and impact strength are bigger than 1mm size. The addition of 60 mesh crumb rubber increases but it decreases by adding of 50 weight%. While for crumb rubber 1 mm tensile strength, fracture elongation, tear strength and impact strength decreas. Based on analysis of DSC that the addition of crumb rubber does not make a difference boiling point significantly between samples containing crumb rubber and polypropylene Analysis TGA/DTA to an increase in enthalpy and decomposition temperature with the addition of crumb rubber used and thermal stability.

  19. Modeling reinforced concrete durability.

    2014-06-01

    This project developed a next-generation modeling approach for projecting the extent of : reinforced concrete corrosion-related damage, customized for new and existing Florida Department of : Transportation bridges and suitable for adapting to broade...

  20. Effect of processing conditions on the mechanical and thermal properties of high-impact polypropylene nanocomposites

    Furlan, L G [Federal Institute of Rio Grande do Sul, IFRS, Campus Restinga, Estrada Joao Antonio da Silveira, 351, Porto Alegre 91790-400 (Brazil); Ferreira, C I; Dal Castel, C; Santos, K S; Mello, A C.E. [Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil); Liberman, S A; Oviedo, M A.S. [Braskem S.A., III Polo Petroquimico, Via Oeste, Lote 5, Triunfo 95853-000 (Brazil); Mauler, R.S., E-mail: mauler@iq.ufrgs.br [Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil)

    2011-08-25

    Highlights: {yields} Polypropylene montmorillonite (PP-MMT) produced at different processing conditions. {yields} Polypropylene Nanocomposites with higher increase on impact resistance. {yields} Higher enhancement on mechanical properties. - Abstract: Polypropylene montmorillonite (PP-MMT) nanocomposites have been prepared by using a co-rotating twin screw extruder. The effects of processing conditions at fixed clay content (5 wt%) on polymer properties were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flexural modulus, izod impact, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was noticed that the morphology and the mechanical properties of polypropylene nanocomposites were affected by different screw shear configuration. The results showed that the higher enhancement on mechanical properties was obtained by medium shear intensity profile instead of high configuration. An exceptional increase (maximum of 282%) on impact resistance was observed.

  1. Physical and dielectric properties of irradiated polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Kita, H.; Okamoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of high-energy electron irradiation in air and in nitrogen on the physical and dielectric properties of polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) has been studied by measurements of electric strength, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, tensile strength, gel fraction and molecular weight distribution. Electric strength of polypropylene was improved by irradiation, while dielectric properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) were virtually unaffected by irradiation of 1.0-20 Mrad. Possible mechanisms for increasing electric strength are discussed from the point of view of degradation and oxidation taking place simultaneously with crosslinking of polypropylene. The maximum dose level to improve the electric strength of polypropylene is determined to be about 5 Mrad. (author)

  2. Improvement of radiation resistance of polypropylene by blending with polyethylene and polystyrene

    Al Aji, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The use of polypropylene in production of medical component and packaging materials makes it an interesting material for applied research. Since the use of ethylene oxide for sterilization of medical components will be forbidden in the next future because of its carcinogens effect. Therefore, another alternative sterilization methods are required. The use of Gamma radiation is already established for sterilization of some medical components, this technique causes change in the physical mechanical properties of polypropylene, which makes the addition of stabilizers necessary. In this work, blends of domestically used polymers, polypropylene, linear low-density polyethylene, and polystyrene/butadiene were prepared in order to improve the radiation resistance of polypropylene; naphthalene was also used as an additive

  3. Mechanisms of Contact Electrification at Aluminum-Polytetrafluoroethylene and Polypropylene-Water

    Nauruzbayeva, Jamilya

    2017-01-01

    of electrons, but a comprehensive understanding of contact electrification at interfaces of electrical insulators, such as air, water, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polypropylene remains incomplete. In fact, a variety of mechanisms responsible for transfer

  4. Evaluation of endoscopic laser excision of polypropylene mesh/sutures following anti-incontinence procedures.

    Davis, N F

    2012-11-01

    We reviewed our experience with and outcome of the largest series to our knowledge of patients who underwent endoscopic laser excision of eroded polypropylene mesh or sutures as a complication of previous anti-incontinence procedures.

  5. Morphology and crystalline-phase-dependent electrical insulating properties in tailored polypropylene for HVDC cables

    Zha, Jun-Wei; Yan, Hong-Da; Li, Wei-Kang; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2016-11-01

    Polypropylene (PP) has become one promising material to potentially replace the cross-link polyethylene used for high voltage direct current cables. Besides the isotactic polypropylene, the block polypropylene (b-PP) and random polypropylene (r-PP) can be synthesized through the copolymerization of ethylene and propylene molecules. In this letter, the effect of morphology and crystalline phases on the insulating electrical properties of PP was investigated. It was found that the introduction of polyethylene monomer resulted in the formation of β and γ phases in b-PP and r-PP. The results from the characteristic trap energy levels indicated that the β and γ phases could induce deep electron traps which enable to capture the carriers. And the space charge accumulation was obviously suppressed. Besides, the decreased electrical conductivity was observed in b-PP and r-PP. It is attributed to the existence of deep traps which can effectively reduce the carrier mobility and density in materials.

  6. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters from polyester and polypropylene fibre nonwovens

    Boguslavsky, L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available filtration efficiency. Glass fibres are more harmful to human, compared to polypropylene and polyester fibre which are chemically inert. Hydroentanglement and chemical bonding techniques were utilised in manufacturing nonwovens for dry filtration. Acrylic...

  7. Raman structural study of melt-mixed blends of isotactic polypropylene with polyethylene of various densities

    Prokhorov, K. A.; Nikolaeva, G. Yu; Sagitova, E. A.; Pashinin, P. P.; Guseva, M. A.; Shklyaruk, B. F.; Gerasin, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    We report a Raman structural study of melt-mixed blends of isotactic polypropylene with two grades of polyethylene: linear high-density and branched low-density polyethylenes. Raman methods, which had been suggested for the analysis of neat polyethylene and isotactic polypropylene, were modified in this study for quantitative analysis of polyethylene/polypropylene blends. We revealed the dependence of the degree of crystallinity and conformational composition of macromolecules in the blends on relative content of the blend components and preparation conditions (quenching or annealing). We suggested a simple Raman method for evaluation of the relative content of the components in polyethylene/polypropylene blends. The degree of crystallinity of our samples, evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, is in good agreement with the results of analysis by differential scanning calorimetry.

  8. Effect of processing conditions on the mechanical and thermal properties of high-impact polypropylene nanocomposites

    Furlan, L.G.; Ferreira, C.I.; Dal Castel, C.; Santos, K.S.; Mello, A.C.E.; Liberman, S.A.; Oviedo, M.A.S.; Mauler, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polypropylene montmorillonite (PP-MMT) produced at different processing conditions. → Polypropylene Nanocomposites with higher increase on impact resistance. → Higher enhancement on mechanical properties. - Abstract: Polypropylene montmorillonite (PP-MMT) nanocomposites have been prepared by using a co-rotating twin screw extruder. The effects of processing conditions at fixed clay content (5 wt%) on polymer properties were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flexural modulus, izod impact, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was noticed that the morphology and the mechanical properties of polypropylene nanocomposites were affected by different screw shear configuration. The results showed that the higher enhancement on mechanical properties was obtained by medium shear intensity profile instead of high configuration. An exceptional increase (maximum of 282%) on impact resistance was observed.

  9. Enhancement in Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Polypropylene Using Graphene Oxide Grafted with End-Functionalized Polypropylene

    Patchanee Chammingkwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Terminally hydroxylated polypropylene (PP synthesized by a chain transfer method was grafted to graphene oxide (GO at the chain end. Thus obtained PP-modified GO (PP-GO was melt mixed with PP without the use of a compatibilizer to prepare PP/GO nanocomposites. Mechanical and electrical properties of the resultant nanocomposites and reference samples that contained graphite nanoplatelets, partially reduced GO, or fully reduced GO were examined. The best improvement in the tensile strength was obtained using PP-GO at 1.0 wt %. The inclusion of PP-GO also led to the highest electrical conductivity, in spite of the incomplete reduction. These observations pointed out that terminally hydroxylated PP covalently grafted to GO prevented GO layers from re-stacking and agglomeration during melt mixing, affording improved dispersion as well as stronger interfacial bonding between the matrix and GO.

  10. Effect of Mixing Process on Polypropylene Modified Bituminous Concrete Mix Properties

    Noor Zainab Habib; Ibrahim Kamaruddin; Madzalan Napiah; Isa Mohd Tan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a research conducted to investigate the effect of mixing process on polypropylene (PP) modified bitumen mixed with well graded aggregate to form modified bituminous concrete mix. Two mode of mixing, namely dry and wet with different concentration of polymer polypropylene was used with 80/100 pen bitumen, to evaluate the bituminous concrete mix properties. Three percentages of polymer varying from 1-3% by the weight of bitumen was used in this study. Three mixes namely cont...

  11. A new constitutive model for prediction of impact rates response of polypropylene

    Buckley C.P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new constitutive model for predicting the impact rates response of polypropylene. Impact rates, as used here, refer to strain rates greater than 1000 1/s. The model is a physically based, three-dimensional constitutive model which incorporates the contributions of the amorphous, crystalline, pseudo-amorphous and entanglement networks to the constitutive response of polypropylene. The model mathematics is based on the well-known Glass-Rubber model originally developed for glassy polymers but the arguments have herein been extended to semi-crystalline polymers. In order to predict the impact rates behaviour of polypropylene, the model exploits the well-known framework of multiple processes yielding of polymers. This work argues that two dominant viscoelastic relaxation processes – the alpha- and beta-processes – can be associated with the yield responses of polypropylene observed at low-rate-dominant and impact-rates dominant loading regimes. Compression test data on polypropylene have been used to validate the model. The study has found that the model predicts quite well the experimentally observed nonlinear rate-dependent impact response of polypropylene.

  12. Effect of compatibilization and reprocessing on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites

    Arieny Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on polymer mixtures aimed at the potential applications of these materials. This work analyzed the effect of polymer reprocessing and the type and concentration of compatibilizer on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites. The composites, which were polypropylene grafted with acrylic acid (PP-g-AA and maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA, were processed in a twin screw extruder with and without compatibilizer. Reprocessed polypropylene reached complete crystallization in less time than the composites with virgin polypropylene. The addition of wood flour to the composites did not change the kinetics significantly compared to that of the pure polymers, but the compatibilizers did, particularly PP-g-AA. The nucleation exponent (n and crystallization rate (K were calculated from Avrami plots. The values of n ranged from 2 to 3, indicating instantaneous to sporadic nucleation. The crystallization half-time of reprocessed polypropylene was shorter than that of virgin polypropylene and of the compositions containing PP-g-AA compatibilizer. The activation energy of crystallization and the equilibrium melting temperature were calculated, respectively, from Arrhenius and Hoffman-Weeks plots. Both of these parameters showed lower values in the composites, particularly in the ones containing compatibilizers.

  13. Photo-oxidative degradation of TiO{sub 2}/polypropylene films

    García-Montelongo, X.L. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Martínez-de la Cruz, A., E-mail: azael70@yahoo.com.mx [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Vázquez-Rodríguez, S. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Torres-Martínez, Leticia M. [Facultad de Ingeniería Civil, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photo-oxidative degradation of polypropylene is accelerated by TiO{sub 2} incorporation. • Weight loss, FTIR, SEM and GPC shown high degree of degradation of polypropylene. • A mechanism of the photo-degradation of polypropylene by TiO{sub 2} is proposed. - Abstract: Photo-oxidative degradation of polypropylene films with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles incorporated was studied in a chamber of weathering with Xenon lamps as irradiation source. TiO{sub 2} powder with crystalline structure of anatase was synthesized by thermal treatments at 400 and 500 °C starting from a precursor material obtained by sol–gel method. Composites of TiO{sub 2}/polypropylene were prepared with 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 wt% of TiO{sub 2}. The mixture of components was performed using a twin screw extruder, the resulting material was pelletized by mechanical fragmenting and then hot-pressed in order to form polypropylene films with TiO{sub 2} dispersed homogeneously. Photo-oxidative degradation process was followed by visual inspection, weight loss of films, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transformed (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC)

  14. Radiation modification and interaction mechanism of polypropylene and polyethylene by protons and electrons

    Wang Guanghou

    1988-10-01

    A systematic investigation of radiation effects on isotactic polypropylene (PP) and low-density polyethylene (PE) films by protons and electrons is reported. Electrons can make polyethylene cross-linked and polypropylene crached while protons can improve the PP mechanical properties and deteriorate polyethylene with increasing the irradiation dose. The structural analysis shows that conversion between α and β phases occurs and the crystallinity remains constant in the electron-irradiated polypropylene whereas the network structure is formed by allyl-type radicals in the e - -irradiated polyethylene. The infrared spectra indicate that conformational changes have taken place in the polypropylene under proton bombardment, such as the transition from an ordered to a disordered state in the crystalline region, the formation of double bonds as well as trans-conformations. This leads to the cross-linking between macromolecules of polypropylene at the proper irradiation doses, thus enhancing its mechanical properties. The cross-linking of polypropylene by proton bombardment observed and its properties may have some potential applications

  15. Application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene in waste-appliances

    Ha, Kyung Ho; Kim, Moon Saeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Polypropylene is mechanically recycled from waste-appliances. → Recycled polypropylene (RPP) is impact enhanced polypropylene with ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR). → Performance evaluation shows that RPP is applicable to refrigerator plastics. -- Abstract: For the application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene (PP) in waste-appliances, it needs to identify the degradation and heterogeneity of recycled polypropylene (RPP). It is applicable the thermal analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), spectroscopic analysis such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and morphological analysis such as scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The analysis results show that RPP from waste-appliances is the polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) copolymer enhanced impact property (Impact-PP) and it is possible to apply refrigerator plastics with good impact property at low temperature. Finally, the performance evaluation of RPP is estimated by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analysis and is performed by the various mechanical and physical testing methods. It shows that RPP has relatively high molecular weight and balanced properties with strength and toughness. It is expected that RPP by the mechanical recycling from waste-appliances will have about 50% cost-merit.

  16. Thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite fibers

    Esthappan, Saisy Kudilil; Kuttappan, Suma Kumbamala; Joseph, Rani

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wet synthesis method was used for the synthesis of TiO 2 nano particles. ► Mechanical properties of polypropylene fibers were increased by the addition of TiO 2 nanoparticles. ► Thermal stability of polypropylene fiber was improved significantly by the addition of TiO 2 nano particles. ► TiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed well in polypropylene fibers. -- Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet synthesis method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The nanotitanium dioxide then used to prepare polypropylene/titanium dioxide composites by melt mixing method. It was then made into fibers by melt spinning and subsequent drawing. Mechanical properties of the fibers were studied using Favimat tensile testing machine with a load cell of 1200 cN capacity. Thermal behavior of the fibers was studied using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscope studies were used to investigate the titanium dioxide surface morphology and crosssection of the fiber. Mechanical properties of the polypropylene fiber was improved by the addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Incorporation of nanoparticles improves the thermal stability of polypropylene. Differential scanning calorimetric studies revealed an improvement in crystallinity was observed by the addition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

  17. Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars

    D. H. Tavares

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.

  18. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  19. Storing of Extracts in Polypropylene Microcentrifuge Tubes Yields Contaminant Peak During Ultra-flow Liquid Chromatographic Analysis

    Kshirsagar, Parthraj R.; Hegde, Harsha; Pai, Sandeep R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: This study was designed to understand the effect of storage in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials during ultra-flow liquid chromatographic (UFLC) analysis. Materials and Methods: One ml of methanol was placed in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes (PP material, Autoclavable) and glass vials (Borosilicate) separately for 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 40, and 80 days intervals stored at ?4?C. Results: Contaminant peak was detected in methanol stored in polypropylene m...

  20. Rheological properties of molten flax- and Tencel"®-polypropylene composites: Influence of fiber morphology and concentration

    Abdennadher, Ahmed; Vincent, Michel; Budtova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The rheological properties of short fiber reinforced polypropylene were investigated. Flax and Tencel"® are two cellulose based fibers used in this study. Flax fibers are extracted from the bast of plants. They are composed of thin elementary fibers and rigid thick bundles made of elementary fibers “glued” together. Tencel"® is a man-made cellulosic fiber spun from cellulose solution, with a uniform diameter, thin, and flexible. First, fiber dimensions before and after compounding were analyzed. Both types of fibers were broken during compounding. Flax shows larger length and diameter than Tencel"®, but aspect ratio of flax is smaller. The reason is that after compounding flax remained in bundles. Dynamic viscosity, elastic and viscous moduli were studied as a function of fiber type, concentration (from 0 to 30 wt. %), and composite temperature (from 180 to 200 °C). All Tencel"®-based composites showed higher apparent yield stress, viscosity, and moduli compared to flax-based composites at the same fiber concentrations. The results are analyzed in terms of the influence of fiber type, aspect ratio, and flexibility. The importance of considering fiber morphology is demonstrated as far as it controls fiber flexibility and fiber-fiber interactions

  1. Influence of polypropylene fibres on the tensile strength and thermal properties of various densities of foamed concrete

    Jhatial, Ashfaque Ahmed; Inn, Goh Wan; Mohamad, Noridah; Johnson Alengaram, U.; Mo, Kim Hung; Abdullah, Redzuan

    2017-11-01

    As almost half of the world’s population now lives in the urban areas, the raise in temperature in these areas has necessitated the development of thermal insulating material. Conventional concrete absorbs solar radiation during the daytime while releasing it at night causing raise in temperature in urban areas. The thermal conductivity of 2200 kg/m3 density conventional concrete is 1.6 W/mK. Higher the thermal conductivity value, greater the heat flow through the material. To reduce this heat transfer, the construction industry has turned to lightweight foamed concrete. Foamed concrete, due to its air voids, gives excellent thermal properties and sound absorption apart from fire-resistance and self-leveling properties. But due to limited studies on different densities of foamed concrete, the thermal properties are not understood properly thus limiting its use as thermal insulating material. In this study, thermal conductivity is determined for 1400, 1600 and 1800 kg/m3 densities of foamed concrete. 0.8% of Polypropylene fibres (PP) is used to reinforce the foamed concrete and improve the mechanical properties. Based upon the results, it was found that addition of PP fibres enhances the tensile strength and slightly reduced the thermal conductivity for lower densities, while the reverse affect was noticed in 1800 kg/m3 density.

  2. Strength and fracture energy of foamed concrete incorporating rice husk ash and polypropylene mega-mesh 55

    Jaini, Z. M.; Rum, R. H. M.; Boon, K. H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the utilization of rice husk ash (RHA) as sand replacement and polypropylene mega-mesh 55 (PMM) as fiber reinforcement in foamed concrete. High pozzolanic reaction and the ability to become filler make RHA as a strategic material to enhance the strength and durability of foamed concrete. Furthermore, the presence of PMM optimizes the toughness of foamed concrete in resisting shrinkage and cracking. In this experimental study, cube and cylinder specimens were prepared for the compression and splitting-tensile tests. Meanwhile, notched beam specimens were cast for the three-point bending test. It was found that 40% RHA and 9kg/m3 PMM contribute to the highest strength and fracture energy. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths are 32MPa, 2.88MPa and 6.68MPa respectively, while the fracture energy achieves 42.19N/m. The results indicate high potential of RHA and PMM in enhancing the mechanical properties of foamed concrete.

  3. Reinforced concrete tomography

    Mariscotti, M.A.J.; Morixe, M.; Tarela, P.A.; Thieberger, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of ± 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) [es

  4. Braided reinforced composite rods for the internal reinforcement of concrete

    Gonilho Pereira, C.; Fangueiro, R.; Jalali, S.; Araujo, M.; Marques, P.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports on the development of braided reinforced composite rods as a substitute for the steel reinforcement in concrete. The research work aims at understanding the mechanical behaviour of core-reinforced braided fabrics and braided reinforced composite rods, namely concerning the influence of the braiding angle, the type of core reinforcement fibre, and preloading and postloading conditions. The core-reinforced braided fabrics were made from polyester fibres for producing braided structures, and E-glass, carbon, HT polyethylene, and sisal fibres were used for the core reinforcement. The braided reinforced composite rods were obtained by impregnating the core-reinforced braided fabric with a vinyl ester resin. The preloading of the core-reinforced braided fabrics and the postloading of the braided reinforced composite rods were performed in three and two stages, respectively. The results of tensile tests carried out on different samples of core-reinforced braided fabrics are presented and discussed. The tensile and bending properties of the braided reinforced composite rods have been evaluated, and the results obtained are presented, discussed, and compared with those of conventional materials, such as steel.

  5. Soil reinforcement with geosynthetics

    Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportionality of existence of land with good bearing to erect any building or building is very small, to remedy this deficiency it is necessary to resort to techniques of reinforcement of the soils which can constitute a very important development. Among these methods of remediation, there is reinforcement by the geosynthetics which constitute an effective solution to these constraints. This process tends to stabilize the soil in question with increased load bearing capacity in civil engineering and geotechnical works such as embankments, slopes, embankments and hydraulic structures, with an inestimable gain in time, economy and durability while preserving the natural and environmental aspect.

  6. Skin compatibility and antimicrobial studies on biofunctionalized polypropylene fabric

    Anjum, Sadiya [Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Gupta, Amlan; Sharma, Deepika [Department of Pathology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok 737102 (India); Dalal, Prashansa [Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Gupta, Bhuvanesh, E-mail: bgupta@textile.iitd.ernet.in [Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was the development of antimicrobial fabric which can be used as skin contacting material. The nanosilver loaded bioactive nanogels of polyacrylamide were prepared by gamma irradiation process and the particle size was observed to be in the range of 10–50 nm. In this study, we used polyethylene glycol as carrier for the combination of functional nanogel and essential oils together. Plasma functionalized polypropylene fabric was used as the base material for the bio-immobilization. Bioactive emulsion was coated on the fabric which exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Skin irritation studies were carried out over a period of 3 d on Swiss albino mice. Histopathology studies of the fabric did not show adverse inflammatory response in contact with the skin. The biofunctionalized fabric offers appear to be promising material for skin contacting applications. - Highlights: • Antimicrobial processing of PP fabric for skin contacting material • Polyethylene glycol is used for the carrier of bioactive nanogels. • Synergistic effect of functional nanosilver and essential oil has been investigated. • Skin compatibility and histopathological studies of material have been observed.

  7. Mapping physicochemical surface modifications of flame-treated polypropylene

    S. Farris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate how the surface morphology of polypropylene (PP is influenced by the surface activation mediated by a flame obtained using a mixture of air and propane under fuel-lean (equivalence ratio φ = 0.98 conditions. Morphological changes observed on flamed samples with smooth (S, medium (M, and high (H degree of surface roughness were attributed to the combined effect of a chemical mechanism (agglomeration and ordering of partially oxidized intermediate-molecular-weight material with a physical mechanism (flattening of the original roughness by the flame’s high temperature. After two treatments, the different behavior of the samples in terms of wettability was totally reset, which made an impressive surface energy of ~43 mJ•m–2 possible, which is typical of more hydrophilic polymers (e.g., polyethylene terephthalate – PET. In particular, the polar component was increased from 1.21, 0.08, and 0.32 mJ•m–2 (untreated samples to 10.95, 11.20, and 11.17 mJ•m–2 for the flamed samples S, M, and H, respectively, an increase attributed to the insertion of polar functional groups (hydroxyl and carbonyl on the C–C backbone, as demonstrated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results.

  8. Benzothiazole sulfide compatibilized polypropylene/halloysite nanotubes composites

    Liu Mingxian [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Guo Baochun, E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lei Yanda; Du Mingliang; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Clay-philic benzothiazole sulfide, capable of donating electrons, is grafted onto polypropylene (PP) backbones when N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide (CBS), a commonly used accelerator in the tire industry, is included in the processing of PP/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composites. CBS decomposes at elevated temperature and yields benzothiazole sulfide radicals, which react with the PP polymeric free radicals generated during the processing of the composites. On the other hand, the benzothiazole group of CBS is reactive to HNTs via electron transferring. The compatibilization between HNTs and PP is thus realized via interfacial grafting and electron transferring mechanism. The interfacial interactions in the compatibilized systems were fully characterized. Compared with the control sample, the dispersion of HNTs and the interfacial bonding are enhanced substantially in the compatibilized composites. The significantly improved mechanical properties and thermal properties of benzothiazole sulfide compatibilized PP/HNTs composites are correlated to the enhanced interfacial property. The present work demonstrates a novel interfacial design via interfacial grafting/electron transferring for the compatibilization of PP/clay composites.

  9. Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets

    Xiaoqing Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP, followed by proper corona charging. Young’s modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d33 coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d33 ⋅ g33 for a more typical d33 value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa−1. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigated at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm2 and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.

  10. Bacterial Growth on Chitosan-Coated Polypropylene Textile

    Erben, D.; Hola, V.; Jaros, J.; Rahel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Biofouling is a problem common in all systems where microorganisms and aqueous environment meet. Prevention of biofouling is therefore important in many industrial processes. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the ability of material coating to inhibit biofilm formation. Chitosan-coated polypropylene nonwoven textile was prepared using dielectric barrier discharge plasma activation. Resistance of the textile to biofouling was then tested. First, the textile was submerged into a growth medium inoculated with green fluorescein protein labelled Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After overnight incubation at 33°C, the textile was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy for bacterial enumeration and biofilm structure characterisation. In the second stage, the textile was used as a filter medium for prefiltered river water, and the pressure development on the in-flow side was measured to quantify the overall level of biofouling. In both cases, nontreated textile samples were used as a control. The results indicate that the chitosan coating exhibits antibacterial properties. The developed method is applicable for the evaluation of the ability to inhibit biofilm formation. PMID:23724330

  11. Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets

    Zhang, Xiaoqing [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology & School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute for Telecommunications Technology, Merckstrasse 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Wu, Liming [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology & School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sessler, Gerhard M., E-mail: g.sessler@nt.tu-darmstadt.de [Institute for Telecommunications Technology, Merckstrasse 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP), followed by proper corona charging. Young’s modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d{sub 33} coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d{sub 33} ⋅ g{sub 33}) for a more typical d{sub 33} value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa{sup −1}. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigated at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm{sup 2} and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.

  12. Positron states in polypropylene and polystyrene at low temperature

    Djourelov, N.; Dauwe, C.; Palacio, C.A.; Laforest, N.; Bas, C.

    2007-01-01

    The increase of the positronium (Ps) yield as a function of the positron (e + ) source exposure time at 20 K was monitored in polypropylene and polystyrene by positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and Doppler broadening (DB) spectroscopy. The contributions of the different e + and Ps states as extracted from the PAL analysis were used to reproduce the behaviour of the sharpness parameter (S) as a function of the wing parameter (W) of the annihilation line as measured by DB spectroscopy. We find a remarkable non-linearity in the S -W plots, which seems to be related to the existence of a third component (C 3 ) in a four-component exponential analysis. We discuss the origin of C 3 in the frame of a ''blob'' analysis of the PAL spectra. It is shown that the simulated S-W dependence can satisfactorily fit the observed non-linearity only on the assumption that C 3 characterizes a e + -molecule complex. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Effect of isotacticity on radiation stability of polypropylene

    Qiao Jinliang; Zhang Fengru; Wei Genshuan; Zhang Juhong; Wu Jilan.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between radiation stability and isotacticity of polypropylene(PP), such as isotactic pentad ratio, was studied in this paper. It was found that the higher isotacticity, the better radiation stability. Compared with normal PP powder which has normal isotacticity, the special PP powder with higher isotacticity, such as, isotactic pentad ratio > 98%, can keep the Melting Index change less than normal PP after UV-light-oxygen aging or γ-irradiation in air. Furthermore, the special PP powder with higher isotacticity has lower intention of crosslinking or branching after 1KGy γ-irradiation in vacuum and has lower intention of degradation after 5KGy γ-irradiation in vacuum. The special PP powder with higher isotacticity also has lower content of carbonyl after 25KGy γ-irradiation in air. These demonstrated that the special PP with higher isotacticity made from 'special catalyst' is more suitable as the material for radiation sterilization than normal PP, because there are less 'week points' in PP with higher isotacticity than that in PP with lower isotacticity. The random copolymer with 2.7% ethylene units made from the 'special catalyst' mentioned above is even more stable in irradiation sterilization than homopolypropylene with higher isotacticity; therefore, it is reasonable that a random copolypropylene with about 4%wt ethylene made from the 'special catalyst' should be the much more suitable PP material than normal PP for irradiation sterilization. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of polypropylene/conducting fiber composites

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Yeung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic released from the automotive electronic parts is harmful to human body. Electromagnetic interference (EMT) shielding refers to the reflection and/or adsorption of electromagnetic radiation by a material, which thereby acts as a shield against the penetration of the radiation through the shield. Polypropylene (PP)/conductive micro fiber composites containing various fiber contents and fiber length were injection-molded. The effect of fiber content and length on electrical properties of the composites was studied by electrical resistivity and EMT shielding measurements. The through-plane electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity were obtained by measuring dielectric properties. The EMT shielding effectiveness (SE) was investigated by using S-parameter in the range of 100 ~ 1500 MHz. Reflection, absorption and multiple-reflection are the EMT attenuation mechanisms. From the measurement of S-Parameters, the absorption coefficient, reflection coefficient, and the shielding efficiency of the materials were calculated. The EMT SE of PP/conducing fiber composites is 40 dB over a wide frequency range up to 1.5 GHz, which is higher than that of PP/talc composite used automotive parts, viz. 0 dB.

  15. Radiation-induced grafting of TMPM onto polypropylene

    Wang Huiliang; Li Hong; Chen Wenxiu

    1995-01-01

    The gamma radiation-induced graft copolymerization of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl-methacrylate (TMPM), a very effective hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), onto polypropylene was investigated by simultaneous- irradiation technique. The various synthesis conditions on the graft content was studied. It was found that benzene, CCl 4 and petroleum ether are more effective than other solvents, the percent grafting reached 7.1% for benzene. The percent grafting is higher when graft copolymerization is carried out in argon atmosphere than those in air. For all the grafting copolymerization carried out in benzene and CCl 4 , percent grafting increase linearly from 1 to 5 Mrad and beyond 5 Mrad, a tendency to level off appeared. At a constant dose, the percent grafting was found to be higher at high dose rate until 228 rad/s. Percent grafting also increased continuously with increasing monomer concentration up to 2.85 mol/L, but significant increase in grafting was observed only up to 1.14 mol/L

  16. Synthesis and characterization of polypropylene/jigsaw wood ash composite

    Sudirman; Karo Karo, Aloma; Gunawan, Indra; Handayani, Ari; Hertinvyana, Evi

    2002-01-01

    The composite of polypropylene (PP) polymer with jigsaw wood ash as filler is the alternative composite material. The dispersion of the filler in the composite is random with the jigsaw wood ash composition of 10,30, and 50% by volume. The characterization of composite are done to measure its mechanical properties, physical properties and microstructure by using XRD and SEM. From this research, it is concluded that increasing filler content of the composite will decrease its mechanical and physical properties. The comparation of different composites are found that tensile strength of PP MF 10 is higher 4.24% compared with PP MF 2 as a matrix. It is also found that melting temperature of PP MF 10 is higher 4.09% compared with PP MF 2 as a matrices and the decomposition temperature different is 0.17%. The degree of crystallinity of composite with PP MF 10 as a matrices is 2.55% higher compared with PP MF 2. The higher degree of crystallinity is increasing the tensile strength

  17. Functionalization of Silica Nanoparticles for Polypropylene Nanocomposite Applications

    Diego Bracho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic silica nanospheres of 20 and 100 nm diameter were produced via the sol-gel method to be used as filler in polypropylene (PP composites. Modification of the silica surface was further performed by reaction with organic chlorosilanes in order to improve the particles interaction with the hydrophobic polyolefin matrix. These nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electronic microscopy (TEM, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. For unmodified silica, it was found that the 20 nm particles have a greater effect on both mechanical and barrier properties of the polymeric composite. In particular, at 30 wt%, Young's modulus increases by 70%, whereas water vapor permeability (WVP increases by a factor of 6. Surface modification of the 100 nm particles doubles the value of the composite breaking strain compared to unmodified particles without affecting Young's modulus, while 20 nm modified particles presented a slight increase on both Young's modulus and breaking strain. Modified 100 nm particles showed a higher WVP compared to the unmodified particles, probably due to interparticle condensation during the modification step. Our results show that the addition of nanoparticles on the composite properties depends on both particle size and surface modifications.

  18. Mechanical properties of polypropylene/calcium carbonate nanocomposites

    Daniel Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles in both tensile and impact mechanical properties of a polypropylene homopolymer. Four compositions of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites were prepared in a co-rotational twin screw extruder machine with calcium carbonate content of 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt. (% The tests included SEM analyzes together with EDS analyzer and FTIR spectroscopy for calcium carbonate, tensile and impact tests for PP and the nanocomposites. The results showed an increase in PP elastic modulus and a little increase in yield stress. Brittle-to-ductile transition temperature was reduced and the impact resistance increased with the addition of nanoparticles. From the stress-strain curves we determined the occurrence of debonding process before yielding leading to stress softening. Debonding stress was determined from stress-strain curves corresponding to stress in 1% strain. We concluded that the tensile properties depend on the surface contact area of nanoparticles and on their dispersion. Finally we believe that the toughening was due to the formation of diffuse shear because of debonding process.

  19. Effect of Nanosilica Filled Polyurethane Composite Coating on Polypropylene Substrate

    Yern Chee Ching

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic based polyurethane (PU coatings with various amounts of nanosilica contents were prepared using solution casting method. The nanosilica (SiO2 particles used are around 16 nm in diameter. The friction and wear test was conducted using the reciprocating wear testing machine. The tests were performed at rotary speed of 100 rpm and 200 rpm with load of 0.1 kg to 0.4 kg under 1 N interval. The effect of the PU/nano-SiO2 composite coating on friction and wear behavior of polypropylene substrate was investigated and compared. The worn surface of coating film layer after testing was investigated by using an optical microscope. The introduction of PU/nanosilica composite coating containing 3 wt% of nano-SiO2 content gives the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate to PP substrate. Both the friction and wear rate of PP substrate coated with >3 wt% of nano-SiO2 filled PU coating would increase with the increasing of applied load and sliding time.

  20. Wear resistance of polypropylene-SiC composite

    Abenojar, J.; Enciso, B.; Martínez, MA; Velasco, F.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the wear resistance of thermoplastic composites with a high amount of ceramic is evaluated. Composites made of polypropylene (PP) and silicon carbide (SiC) powder at 50 wt% were used with the final objective of manufacturing ablative materials. This is the first part of a project studying the wear resistance and the mechanical properties of those composites, to be used in applications like habitat industry. In theory, the exposure to high temperature of ablative materials involves the elimination of thermal energy by the sacrifice of surface polymer. In our case, PP will act as a heat sink, up to the reaction temperature (melting or sublimation), where endothermic chemical decomposition into charred material and gaseous products occurs. As the surface is eroded, it is formed a SiC like-foam with improved insulation performance. Composites were produced by extrusion and hot compression. The wear characterization was performed by pin-on-disk test. Wear test was carried out under standard ASTM G99. The parameters were 120 rpm speed, 15 N load, a alumina ball with 6 mm as pin and 1000 m sliding distance. The tracks were also observed by opto-digital microscope.

  1. Improved Mechanical Properties of Compatibilized Polypropylene/Polyamide-12 Blends

    Nora Aranburu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compatibilized blends of polypropylene (PP and polyamide-12 (PA12 as a second component were obtained by direct injection molding having first added 20% maleic anhydride-modified copolymer (PP-g-MA to the PP, which produced partially grafted PP (gPP. A nucleating effect of the PA12 took place on the cooling crystallization of the gPP, and a second crystallization peak of the gPP appeared in the PA12-rich blends, indicating changes in the crystalline morphology. There was a slight drop in the PA12 crystallinity of the compatible blends, whereas the crystallinity of the gPP increased significantly in the PA12-rich blends. The overall reduction in the dispersed phase particle size together with the clear increase in ductility when gPP was used instead of PP proved that compatibilization occurred. Young’s modulus of the blends showed synergistic behavior. This is proposed to be both due to a change in the crystalline morphology of the blends on the one hand and, on the other, in the PA12-rich blends, to the clear increase in the crystallinity of the gPP phase, which may, in turn, have been responsible for the increase in its continuity and its contribution to the modulus.

  2. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene on polypropylene pellets

    Souza, Camila P.; Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    The changes of radiation-induced in polypropylene (PP) pellets exposed to gamma irradiation in inert atmosphere were investigated in correlation with the applied doses (10 and 50 kGy). Also, results from the grafting of styrene onto PP pellets using simultaneous irradiation at the same doses are presented. The grafting reaction was carried out using toluene as solvent, under nitrogen atmosphere and at room temperature. The properties of the irradiated and grafted PP pellets were studied using Melt Flow Index, thermal analysis (TG and DSC), and ATR-IR. The degree of grafting (DOG) for the grafted pellets was gravimetrically determined. The results showed that radiation-induced graft polymerization on pellets were successfully obtained and the influence of dose irradiated did not change the thermal properties in spite of the increase in the MFI and consequently this increase in the viscosity results an decrease the molecular mass. The MFI for grafted pellets was not achievable because the high degree of viscosity of polymer, even arising the test temperature, the polymer was not flow enough. (author)

  3. Functional behaviour of polypropylene/ZnO-soluble starch nanocomposites

    Chandramouleeswaran, Subramani; Mhaske, S T; Kathe, A A; Varadarajan, P V; Prasad, Virendra; Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam

    2007-01-01

    ZnO-polypropylene nanocomposites (nano-PP) were prepared using nanoparticles of ZnO stabilized by soluble starch (nano-ZnO) as filler in PP by the melt mixing process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and other spectroscopic analysis-ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and photoluminescence-revealed the presence and characteristics of nano-ZnO in the composites. The presence of ZnO imparts whiteness, while starch increased the yellowing of polymers. The nanocomposites were analyzed for changes in optical, mechanical, electrical and rheological properties, as influenced by the increasing concentration of nano-ZnO. The mechanical properties were marginally increased and the dielectric strength of the nano-PP increased to a notable level. By monitoring the evolution of the carbonyl absorption bands from FTIR analysis, the efficacy of nano-ZnO in the reduction of photo-degradation due to UV irradiation was demonstrated. The excellent antibacterial activity exhibited by nano-ZnO impregnated PP against two human pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, makes it a suitable candidate for food packaging applications

  4. Functional behaviour of polypropylene/ZnO soluble starch nanocomposites

    Chandramouleeswaran, Subramani; Mhaske, S. T.; Kathe, A. A.; Varadarajan, P. V.; Prasad, Virendra; Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam

    2007-09-01

    ZnO-polypropylene nanocomposites (nano-PP) were prepared using nanoparticles of ZnO stabilized by soluble starch (nano-ZnO) as filler in PP by the melt mixing process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and other spectroscopic analysis—ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and photoluminescence—revealed the presence and characteristics of nano-ZnO in the composites. The presence of ZnO imparts whiteness, while starch increased the yellowing of polymers. The nanocomposites were analyzed for changes in optical, mechanical, electrical and rheological properties, as influenced by the increasing concentration of nano-ZnO. The mechanical properties were marginally increased and the dielectric strength of the nano-PP increased to a notable level. By monitoring the evolution of the carbonyl absorption bands from FTIR analysis, the efficacy of nano-ZnO in the reduction of photo-degradation due to UV irradiation was demonstrated. The excellent antibacterial activity exhibited by nano-ZnO impregnated PP against two human pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, makes it a suitable candidate for food packaging applications.

  5. Anticoagulant and antimicrobial finishing of non-woven polypropylene textiles

    Degoutin, S; Jimenez, M; Casetta, M; Bellayer, S; Chai, F; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Kacem, I; Traisnel, M; Martel, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare non-woven polypropylene (PP) textile functionalized with bioactive molecules in order to improve its anticoagulation and antibacterial properties. This paper describes the optimization of the grafting process of acrylic acid (AA) on low-pressure cold-plasma pre-activated PP, the characterization of the modified substrates and the effect of these modifications on the in vitro biological response towards cells. Then, the immobilization of gentamicin (aminoglycoside antibiotic) and heparin (anticoagulation agent) has been carried out on the grafted samples by either ionic interactions or covalent linkages. Their bioactivity has been investigated and related to the nature of their interactions with the substrate. For gentamicin-immobilized AA-grafted samples, an inhibition radius and a reduction of 99% of the adhesion of Escherichia coli have been observed when gentamicin was linked by ionic interactions, allowing the release of the antibiotic. By contrast, for heparin-immobilized AA-grafted PP samples, a strong increase of the anticoagulant effect up to 35 min has been highlighted when heparin was covalently bonded on the substrate, by contact with the blood drop. (paper)

  6. Morphological, rheological and mechanical characterization of polypropylene nanocomposite blends.

    Rosales, C; Contreras, V; Matos, M; Perera, R; Villarreal, N; García-López, D; Pastor, J M

    2008-04-01

    In the present work, the effectiveness of styrene/ethylene-butylene/styrene rubbers grafted with maleic anhydride (MA) and a metallocene polyethylene (mPE) as toughening materials in binary and ternary blends with polypropylene and its nanocomposite as continuous phases was evaluated in terms of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), oscillatory shear flow and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA). The flexural modulus and heat distortion temperature values were determined as well. A metallocene polyethylene and a polyamide-6 were used as dispersed phases in these binary and ternary blends produced via melt blending in a corotating twin-screw extruder. Results showed that the compatibilized blends prepared without clay are tougher than those prepared with the nanocomposite of PP as the matrix phase and no significant changes in shear viscosity, melt elasticity, flexural or storage moduli and heat distortion temperature values were observed between them. However, the binary blend with a nanocomposite of PP as matrix and metallocene polyethylene phase exhibited better toughness, lower shear viscosity, flexural modulus, and heat distortion temperature values than that prepared with polyamide-6 as dispersed phase. These results are related to the degree of clay dispersion in the PP and to the type of morphology developed in the different blends.

  7. Potential safe termination by injection of polypropylene pellets in JET

    Schmidt, G.L.; Ali-Arshad, S.; Bartlett, D.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal energy and the magnetic field energy associated with the plasma current must be dissipated safely when a tokamak discharge is terminated in a disruption. Magnetic energy can be dissipated by impurity radiation if position control is maintained. Prior to the dissipation of magnetic energy, thermal energy is usually conducted to the plasma contact points on a 1ms time scale in a thermal quench. A resistive, highly radiating plasma formed prior to the thermal quench, might dissipate both the thermal and magnetic energy by radiation minimizing damage due to local deposition. High speed injection of a low Z material can produce a resistive, highly radiating plasma on a 1ms time scale. Neon has recently been used in such an application on JT60-U. A large carbon pellet producing dilution temperatures < 1 keV is a possible alternative. This paper summarizes the results of an initial experiment performed in JET using carbon injected at high speed, as a 6mm polypropylene pellet, to investigate this potential approach to a safe plasma termination

  8. Polypropylenes foam consisting of thermally expandable microcapsule as blowing agent

    Jeoung, Sun Kyung; Hwang, Ye Jin; Lee, Hyun Wook; Kwak, Sung Bok; Han, In-Soo; Ha, Jin Uk

    2016-03-01

    The structure of thermally expandable microcapsule (TEMs) is consisted of a thermoplastic shell which is filled with liquid hydrocarbon at core. The shell of TEMs becomes soft when the temperature is higher than boiling temperature of liquid hydrocarbon. The shell of TEMs is expanded under the high temperature because the inner pressure of TEMs is increased by vaporization of hydrocarbon core. Therefore, the TEMs are applicable for blowing agents and light weight fillers. In this research, we fabricated the polypropylene (PP) foam by using the TEMs and chemical blowing agents and compared to their physical properties. The density of the specimen was decreased when the contents of chemical blowing agents and TEMs were increased. In addition, the mechanical properties (i.e. tensile strength and impact strength) of specimens were deteriorated with increasing amount of chemical blowing agents and TEMs. However, PP foam produced with TEMs showed higher impact strength than the one with the chemical blowing agent. In order to clarify the dependence of impact strength of PP foam as the blowing agent, the morphology difference of the PP foams was investigated. Expanding properties of PP foams produced with TEMs was changed with TEMs content of PP foams. Processing conditions also influenced the mechanical properties of PP foam containing TEMs.

  9. Wear resistance of polypropylene-SiC composite

    Abenojar, J; Enciso, B; Martínez, MA; Velasco, F

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the wear resistance of thermoplastic composites with a high amount of ceramic is evaluated. Composites made of polypropylene (PP) and silicon carbide (SiC) powder at 50 wt% were used with the final objective of manufacturing ablative materials. This is the first part of a project studying the wear resistance and the mechanical properties of those composites, to be used in applications like habitat industry. In theory, the exposure to high temperature of ablative materials involves the elimination of thermal energy by the sacrifice of surface polymer. In our case, PP will act as a heat sink, up to the reaction temperature (melting or sublimation), where endothermic chemical decomposition into charred material and gaseous products occurs. As the surface is eroded, it is formed a SiC like-foam with improved insulation performance. Composites were produced by extrusion and hot compression. The wear characterization was performed by pin-on-disk test. Wear test was carried out under standard ASTM G99. The parameters were 120 rpm speed, 15 N load, a alumina ball with 6 mm as pin and 1000 m sliding distance. The tracks were also observed by opto-digital microscope. (paper)

  10. Influence of chemical treatment of clay to obtain polypropylene nanocomposites

    Rosa, Jeferson L.S.; Marques, Maria F.V.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial clay was chemically treated to prepare a Ziegler-Natta catalyst containing MgCl 2 and clay for the synthesis of polypropylene nanocomposites by in situ polymerization. The performance of this catalyst and materials obtained in propylene polymerization was compared with a reference catalyst (without clay) and with another, whose composition presents the same clay but without prior chemical treatment. Techniques like differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and melt flow index (MFI) measurements were performed. There was a marked reduction in catalytic activity of clay catalysts in comparison with the reference one, and a slight reduction in melting temperature of the polymers produced from first ones. The melt flow index of polymers obtained with treated clay were notably higher than those synthesized with the untreated clay, so the treated clay caused treated the production of PP's with lower molar mass. The clays showed an increase of spacing and irregular stacking of the lamellas, especially if chemically treated. (author)

  11. The Influence of Moisture on the Performance of Polymer Fibre-Reinforced Asphalt Mixture

    Kamaruddin Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of researches have been done worldwide to evaluate the damage caused by water in bituminous pavements. The use of the retained strength ratios obtained from laboratory moisture damage tests is a useful tool in making quantitative predictions of the related damage caused by water. This study involved laboratory work on the effect of water on the performance of bituminous mixtures. Comparisons are made between the performances of Hot-rolled Asphalt (HRA bituminous mixtures containing base bitumen of 50 pen grade to that of a polymer-fibre reinforced HRA mixture. Two types of polymer fibre were studied, namely polypropylene and polyester and these fibre were added in different concentrations in the bituminous mixtures. Changes in both the cohesive properties of the bitumen and the adhesion of the bitumen to the aggregate surface were observed as a result of exposing the bituminous mixtures to moisture. The effect of polymer fibre reinforcement in bituminous mixtures helps reduce the level of moisture damage. This was evident in the lower moisture susceptibility achieved in the polymer fibre reinforced bituminous mixtures as compared to the control mixture. The additional bitumen in the fibre reinforced mixtures also afforded an increased film thickness on the aggregate particles, thus affording additional protection of the mixtures from moisture. The reinforcement of polymer fibres in bituminous mixtures also acts to decrease the moisture sensitivity of the bitumen to aggregate bonding. This may be due to the strengthening of the wetted binder matrix that helps promote both adhesion and cohesion retention.

  12. Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites and comparison with jute and flax fibre PP composites

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites were fabricated with different fibre loadings (20, 30, 40, 50wt% and in some cases 35 and 45 wt%. Flax and jute fibre reinforced PP composites were also fabricated with 30 wt% fibre loading. The mechanical properties, odour emission and structure properties were investigated for those composites. Tensile, flexural and Charpy impact strengths were found to increase for fibre loadings up to 40 wt% and then decreased. Falling weight impact tests were also carried out and the same tendency was observed. Owing to the addition of coupling agent (maleated polypropylene -MAH-PP, the tensile, flexural and falling weight impact properties were found to increase in between 30 to 80% for different fibre loadings. When comparing jute and flax fibre composites with abaca fibre composites, jute fibre composites provided best tensile properties but abaca fibre polypropylene composites were shown to provide best notch Charpy and falling weight impact properties. Odours released by flax fibre composites were smaller than jute and abaca fibre composites.

  13. Strain Rate Dependent Behavior and Modeling for Compression Response of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    S.M. Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the stress-strain characteristics of Hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC composites under dynamic compression using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB for strain rates in the range of 25 to 125 s-1. Three types of fibers - hooked ended steel fibers, monofilament crimped polypropylene fibers and staple Kevlar fibers were used in the production of HFRC composites. The influence of different fibers in HFRC composites on the failure mode, dynamic increase factor (DIF of strength, toughness and strain are also studied. Degree of fragmentation of HFRC composite specimens increases with increase in the strain rate. Although the use of high percentage of steel fibers leads to the best performance but among the hybrid fiber combinations studied, HFRC composites with relatively higher percentage of steel fibers and smaller percentage of polypropylene and Kevlar fibers seem to reflect the equally good synergistic effects of fibers under dynamic compression. A rate dependent analytical model is proposed for predicting complete stress-strain curves of HFRC composites. The model is based on a comprehensive fiber reinforcing index and complements well with the experimental results.

  14. Influence of thermal conditions on the tensile properties of basalt fiber reinforced polypropylene–clay nanocomposites

    Eslami-Farsani, Reza; Reza Khalili, S. Mohammad; Hedayatnasab, Ziba; Soleimani, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied tensile properties of basalt fiber/nanoclay-polypropylene (BF–PPCN). • Addition of nanoclay improves the yield strength and Young’s modulus of BF–PPCN. • The tensile properties of BF–PPCN are high at low temperature (−196 °C). - Abstract: In this paper, a comparative study on the tensile properties of clay reinforced polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites (PPCN) and chopped basalt fiber reinforced PP–clay nanocomposites (PPCN-B) is presented. PP matrix are filled with 1, 3 and 5 wt.% of nanoclays. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, Young’s modulus and toughness are measured at various temperature conditions. The thermal conditions are included the room temperature (RT), low temperature (LT) and high temperature (HT). The basal spacing of clay in the composites is measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Nanoscale morphology of the samples is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Addition of nanoclay improves the yield strength and Young’s modulus of PPCN and PPCN-B; however, it reduces the ultimate tensile strength. Furthermore, the addition of chopped basalt fibers to PPCN improves the Young’s modulus of the composites. The Young’s modulus and the yield strength of both PPCN and PPCN-B are significantly high at LT (−196 °C), descend at RT (25 °C) and then low at HT (120 °C)

  15. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimenta...

  16. Turbomachine blade reinforcement

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system having a turbomachine blade segment including a blade and a mounting segment coupled to the blade, wherein the mounting segment has a plurality of reinforcement pins laterally extending at least partially through a neck of the mounting segment.

  17. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  18. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  19. Mechanical Properties of Fiber Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Containing Surfactant

    Yoo-Jae Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced aerated lightweight concrete (FALC was developed to reduce concrete's density and to improve its fire resistance, thermal conductivity, and energy absorption. Compression tests were performed to determine basic properties of FALC. The primary independent variables were the types and volume fraction of fibers, and the amount of air in the concrete. Polypropylene and carbon fibers were investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% volume ratios. The lightweight aggregate used was made of expanded clay. A self-compaction agent was used to reduce the water-cement ratio and keep good workability. A surfactant was also added to introduce air into the concrete. This study provides basic information regarding the mechanical properties of FALC and compares FALC with fiber reinforced lightweight concrete. The properties investigated include the unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and toughness index. Based on the properties, a stress-strain prediction model was proposed. It was demonstrated that the proposed model accurately predicts the stress-strain behavior of FALC.

  20. Development of glass fibre reinforced composites using microwave heating technology

    Köhler, T.; Vonberg, K.; Gries, T.; Seide, G.

    2017-10-01

    Fibre reinforced composites are differentiated by the used matrix material (thermoplastic versus duroplastic matrix) and the level of impregnation. Thermoplastic matrix systems get more important due to their suitability for mass production, their good shapeability and their high impact resistance. A challenge in the processing of these materials is the reduction of the melt flow paths of the thermoplastic matrix. The viscosity of molten thermoplastic material is distinctly higher than the viscosity of duroplastic material. An approach to reduce the flow paths of the thermoplastic melt is given by a commingling process. Composites made from commingling hybrid yarns consist of thermoplastic and reinforcing fibres. Fabrics made from these hybrid yarns are heated and consolidated by the use of heat pressing to form so called organic sheets. An innovative heating system is given by microwaves. The advantage of microwave heating is the volumetric heating of the material, where the energy of the electromagnetic radiation is converted into thermal energy inside the material. In this research project microwave active hybrid yarns are produced and examined at the Institute for Textile Technology of RWTH Aachen University (ITA). The industrial research partner Fricke und Mallah Microwave Technology GmbH, Peine, Germany develops an innovative pressing systems based on a microwave heating system. By implementing the designed microwave heating technology into an existing heat pressing process, FRTCs are being manufactured from glass and nanomodified polypropylene fibre woven fabrics. In this paper the composites are investigated for their mechanical and optical properties.

  1. Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Mortars Incorporating Nano-Silica

    Ahmed Ghazy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Repair and rehabilitation of deteriorating concrete elements are of significant concern in many infrastructural facilities and remain a challenging task. Concerted research efforts are needed to develop repair materials that are sustainable, durable, and cost-effective. Research data show that fiber-reinforced mortars/concretes have superior performance in terms of volume stability and toughness. In addition, it has been recently reported that nano-silica particles can generally improve the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based systems. Thus, there has been a growing interest in the use of nano-modified fiber-reinforced cementitious composites/mortars (NFRM in repair and rehabilitation applications of concrete structures. The current study investigates various mechanical and durability properties of nano-modified mortar containing different types of fibers (steel, basalt, and hybrid (basalt and polypropylene, in terms of compressive and flexural strengths, toughness, drying shrinkage, penetrability, and resistance to salt-frost scaling. The results highlight the overall effectiveness of the NFRM owing to the synergistic effects of nano-silica and fibers.

  2. Thermal Stability of Clay's Galleries in Polypropylene - Clay (montmorillonite Nanocomposites using Polypropylene-gMaleic Anhydride as Compatibilizer

    Sotya Astutiningsih

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Superior properties of food packaging can be achieved using nanocomposite technology. However, fabrication of this materials are complex and expensive. Long term objectives of this research is the synthesis of low cost polypropylene clay nanocomposites (PPCN via a short-cut method known as ‘cascade engineering’. Cascade engineering principle in PPCN fabrication is performed by using compatibilizer (to enable the mixing of PP and clay masterbatch, and PPCN in one pot process using melt mixer. This paper present the experimental results using small-angle x-ray diffraction (XRD on the thermal stability of the PPCN. Results from the XRD analysis showed that the clay was intercalated, however no significant changes were observed as a result of variation in mixing time. XRD patterns of the annealed PPCN showed reduction of MMT’s gallery (deintercalation These phenomenon was probably caused by insufficient bonding and lack of compatibility between PP-g-MA and MMT.

  3. Properties analysis of tensile strength, crystallinity degree and microstructure of polymer composite polypropylene-sand

    Sudirman; Karo-Karo, Aloma; Ari-Handayani; Bambang-Sugeng; Rukihati; Mashuri

    2004-01-01

    Materials modification base on polymer toward polymer composite is needed by addition of filler. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, crystallinity degree and microstructure of polymer composite based on polypropylene with sand filler have been investigated. In this work, the polymer composite has been made by mixing the matrix of polypropylene melt flow 2 (PP MF2) or polypropylene melt flow 10 (PP MF 10) with sand filler in a labo plastomill. The composition of sand filler was varied to 10, 30, 40 and 50 % v/v, a then the composite were casted to the film sheets form. The sheets were characterized mechanically i.e tensile strength, crystallinity degree and microstructure. The result showed that the tensile strength decreased by increasing the volume fraction of sand filler, in accordance with microstructure investigation that the matrix area under zone plastic deformation (more cracks), while the filler experienced elastic deformation, so that the strength mechanism of filler did not achieved with expectation (Danusso and Tieghi theory). For filler more than 30 % of volume fraction, the tensile strength of polypropylene melt flow 10 (PP MF 10) was greater than that polypropylene melt flow 2 (PP MF2). It was caused by plasticities in PP MF 10. The tensile strength of PP MF2 was greater than that PP MF 10 for volume fraction of sand filler less than 30 %. It was caused by PP MF2 to be have more degree of crystallinity

  4. Radiation-modified blends of the basis of polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene

    Mery-Meri, R.; Revyakin, O.; Zicans, J.

    2000-01-01

    The binary composite systems on the basis of post-consumer poly-(ethylene terephthalate) and polypropylene have been investigated. Mechanical properties of the compositions were studied in detail in order to expand the application possibilities of tested binary composites. Structural changes of the poly (ethylene terephthalate) / polypropylene blends depending on the concentration of the components were investigated also. Additionally, the optimum processing conditions were established. Particular attention was paid to study the influence of the ionizing γ-radiation on the structural and mechanical properties of the composition systems tested. The magnitude of the adsorbed dose od γ-radiation was established to affect differently the structure of poly(ethylene terephalate) and polypropylene. At small absorbed doses (50 kGy) crosslinking of the polymer was observed for both poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polypropylene resulting in the increase of some mechanical properties of pure materials as well of their compositions, whereas the absorbed dose of 300 kGy caused the destruction of the tested materials. It is important to mention that the rate of radiation-chemical destruction of polypropylene is higher than poly(ethylene terephthalate) destruction rate. (author)

  5. Role of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in improving wear properties of polypropylene (PP) in dry sliding condition

    Ashok Gandhi, R.; Palanikumar, K.; Ragunath, B.K.; Paulo Davim, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Role of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on wear behaviour of polypropylene (PP) is evaluated. ► Effect of applied pressure and composition against a steel counter face is investigated. ► Microstructure and worn surfaces of samples are observed by scanning electron microscope. ► The wear phenomenon has been discussed based on wear losses and worn surfaces. ► The coefficient of friction (μ) and sliding time for PP and PP/CNT blend is investigated. - Abstract: Polymers are widely used for sliding couples against metals and other materials. Polypropylene is a polymer used in variety of applications includes packaging, laboratory equipments, automotive components, etc. Polypropylene is often desirable automotive material due to its low cost, colorability, chemical resistance and UV stability. In addition the range of potential polypropylene uses is nearly unlimited through the use of modifiers, additives and fillers. In the present work, the sliding wear of polypropylene (PP) and carbon nanotube (CNT) blends are evaluated as a function of applied load and composition against a steel counter face in dry condition. The addition of CNT in PP in wear performance is investigated and presented in detail. Microstructure and worn surfaces of samples were observed by scanning electron microscope. The wear phenomenon has been discussed based on wear losses and worn surfaces

  6. The Reinforcing Event (RE) Menu

    Addison, Roger M.; Homme, Lloyd E.

    1973-01-01

    A motivational system, the Contingency Management System, uses contracts in which some amount of defined task behavior is demanded for some interval of reinforcing event. The Reinforcing Event Menu, a list of high probability reinforcing behaviors, is used in the system as a prompting device for the learner and as an aid for the administrator in…

  7. Antimicrobial Carvacrol-Containing Polypropylene Films: Composition, Structure and Function

    Max Krepker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant research has been directed toward the incorporation of bioactive plant extracts or essential oils (EOs into polymers to endow the latter with antimicrobial functionality. EOs offer a unique combination of having broad antimicrobial activity from a natural source, generally recognized as safe (GRAS recognition in the US, and a volatile nature. However, their volatility also presents a major challenge in their incorporation into polymers by conventional high-temperature-processing techniques. Herein, antimicrobial polypropylene (PP cast films were produced by incorporating carvacrol (a model EO or carvacrol, loaded into halloysite nanotubes (HNTs, via melt compounding. We studied the composition-structure-property relationships in these systems, focusing on the effect of carvacrol on the composition of the films, the PP crystalline phase and its morphology and the films’ mechanical and antimicrobial properties. For the first time, molecular dynamics simulations were applied to reveal the complex interactions between the components of these carvacrol-containing systems. We show that strong molecular interactions between PP and carvacrol minimize the loss of this highly-volatile EO during high-temperature polymer processing, enabling semi-industrial scale production. The resulting films exhibit outstanding antimicrobial properties against model microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Alternaria alternata. The PP/(HNTs-carvacrol nanocomposite films, containing the carvacrol-loaded HNTs, display a higher level of crystalline order, superior mechanical properties and prolonged release of carvacrol, in comparison to PP/carvacrol blends. These properties are ascribed to the role of HNTs in these nanocomposites and their effect on the PP matrix and retained carvacrol content.

  8. Laser-induced selective copper plating of polypropylene surface

    Ratautas, K.; Gedvilas, M.; Stankevičiene, I.; JagminienÄ--, A.; Norkus, E.; Li Pira, N.; Sinopoli, S.; Emanuele, U.; Račiukaitis, G.

    2016-03-01

    Laser writing for selective plating of electro-conductive lines for electronics has several significant advantages, compared to conventional printed circuit board technology. Firstly, this method is faster and cheaper at the prototyping stage. Secondly, material consumption is reduced, because it works selectively. However, the biggest merit of this method is potentiality to produce moulded interconnect device, enabling to create electronics on complex 3D surfaces, thus saving space, materials and cost of production. There are two basic techniques of laser writing for selective plating on plastics: the laser-induced selective activation (LISA) and laser direct structuring (LDS). In the LISA method, pure plastics without any dopant (filler) can be used. In the LDS method, special fillers are mixed in the polymer matrix. These fillers are activated during laser writing process, and, in the next processing step, the laser modified area can be selectively plated with metals. In this work, both methods of the laser writing for the selective plating of polymers were investigated and compared. For LDS approach, new material: polypropylene with carbon-based additives was tested using picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Different laser processing parameters (laser pulse energy, scanning speed, the number of scans, pulse durations, wavelength and overlapping of scanned lines) were applied in order to find out the optimal regime of activation. Areal selectivity tests showed a high plating resolution. The narrowest width of a copper-plated line was less than 23 μm. Finally, our material was applied to the prototype of the electronic circuit board on a 2D surface.

  9. Autoshaping Chicks with Heat Reinforcement: The Role of Stimulus-Reinforcer and Response-Reinforcer Relations

    Wasserman, Edward A.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The present series of experiments attempted to analyze more fully the contributions of stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relations to autoshaping within a single conditioning situation. (Author)

  10. Study on reinforced concrete beams with helical transverse reinforcement

    Kaarthik Krishna, N.; Sandeep, S.; Mini, K. M.

    2018-02-01

    In a Reinforced Concrete (R.C) structure, major reinforcement is used for taking up tensile stresses acting on the structure due to applied loading. The present paper reports the behavior of reinforced concrete beams with helical reinforcement (transverse reinforcement) subjected to monotonous loading by 3-point flexure test. The results were compared with identically similar reinforced concrete beams with rectangular stirrups. During the test crack evolution, load carrying capacity and deflection of the beams were monitored, analyzed and compared. Test results indicate that the use of helical reinforcement provides enhanced load carrying capacity and a lower deflection proving to be more ductile, clearly indicating the advantage in carrying horizontal loads. An analysis was also carried out using ANSYS software in order to compare the test results of both the beams.

  11. Degradation of Waterfront Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Key words: Degradation, reinforced concrete, Dar es Salaam port. Abstract—One of the ... especially corrosion of the reinforcement. ... Corrosion of steel reinforcement contributes .... cracks along the line of reinforcement bars and most of the ...

  12. Effect of boron and phosphate compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of wood-polypropylene composites

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Umit Buyuksari; Zeki Candan; Erkan Avci

    2012-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites incorporated with different contents of boron compounds; borax/boric acid and zinc borate, and phosphate compounds; mono and diammonium phosphates were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent content, maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene, on the properties of...

  13. Evaluation of Properties of Unidirectional Hemp/Polypropylene Composites: Influence of Fiber Content and Fiber/Matrix Interface Variables

    Plackett, David; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Lilholt, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Flament-wound textile hemp yarn was used in combination with unmodified or maleated polypropylene (PP) films to produce plates of unidirectional composites.......Flament-wound textile hemp yarn was used in combination with unmodified or maleated polypropylene (PP) films to produce plates of unidirectional composites....

  14. Analysis of Nanodomain Composition in High-Impact Polypropylene by Atomic Force Microscopy-Infrared.

    Tang, Fuguang; Bao, Peite; Su, Zhaohui

    2016-05-03

    In this paper, compositions of nanodomains in a commercial high-impact polypropylene (HIPP) were investigated by an atomic force microscopy-infrared (AFM-IR) technique. An AFM-IR quantitative analysis method was established for the first time, which was then employed to analyze the polyethylene content in the nanoscopic domains of the rubber particles dispersed in the polypropylene matrix. It was found that the polyethylene content in the matrix was close to zero and was high in the rubbery intermediate layers, both as expected. However, the major component of the rigid cores of the rubber particles was found to be polypropylene rather than polyethylene, contrary to what was previously believed. The finding provides new insight into the complicated structure of HIPPs, and the AFM-IR quantitative method reported here offers a useful tool for assessing compositions of nanoscopic domains in complex polymeric systems.

  15. Study of microcellular injection-molded polypropylene/waste ground rubber tire powder blend

    Xin, Zhen Xiang; Zhang, Zhen Xiu; Pal, Kaushik; Byeon, Jong Ung; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2010-01-01

    Microcellular polypropylene/waste ground rubber tire powder blend processing was performed on an injection-molding machine with a chemical foaming agent. The molded samples produced based on the design of experiments (DOE) matrices were subjected to tensile testing and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. Molding conditions and waste ground rubber tire (WGRT) powder have been found to have profound effects on the cell structures and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) and waste ground rubber tire powder composite samples. The result shows that microcellular PP/WGRT blend samples exhibit smaller cell size and higher cell density compare with polypropylene resin. Among the molding parameters studied, chemical foaming agent weight percentage has the most significant effect on cell size, cell density, and tensile strength. The results also suggest that tensile strength of microcellular PP/WGRT composites is sensitive to weight reduction, and skin thickness.

  16. Essential work of fracture analysis for starch filled poly(propylene carbonate) composites

    Wang, X.L.; Li, R.K.Y.; Cao, Y.X.; Meng, Y.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Starch filled poly(propylene carbonate) composites are environmental friendly materials. In this study, the fracture toughness of composites under mode I loading was determined by the essential work of fracture concept. The specific essential fracture work of the poly(propylene carbonate)/starch composites decreases with increasing the starch content, while the non-essential work term, βw p increases with increasing the starch content. In addition, the morphologies, thermal properties, thermo-mechanical properties were studied by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The thermal and thermo-mechanical measurements revealed that increasing starch content led to an increase in glass transition temperature and thermal stability. Morphology observation indicates that poly(propylene carbonate) and starch have weak interfacial adhesion

  17. Influence of procedure variables in formation and properties of polypropylene/bentonite nanocomposites

    Andrade, Daniela de Lourdes Anjos Coutinho Simoes

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to prepare nanocomposites of polypropylene/compatibilizer/bentonite, by melting intercalation, with a commercial sodium clay - Argel - as filler. This clay was organically purified and modified by different methods, with a quaternary ammonium salt. The clays were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analyses (TG) to determine the most efficient preparation method. Before that, in the second stage of this study, the influence of the type and contend of organoclay in the properties of the polypropylene films was measured; the same was done for the compatibilizer. The preliminary results indicate that the nanocomposites film with 1% of organoclay and 15% of polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride show promise as packing materials and may be used, in the near future, as a new product by the national industry. (author)

  18. Flammability of polypropylene/organoclay nanocomposites; Inflamabilidade de nanocompositos de polipropileno/argila organofilica

    Alves, Tatianny Soares; Barbosa, Renata [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina (Brazil); Carvalho, Laura Hecker de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Canedo, Eduardo Luis [Instituto de Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    The flammabilities of nanocomposites made with three polypropylene grades (homo and copolymers) with 5 wt % of organoclay (Cloisite 20A), 5 or 15 wt % of maleated polypropylene as compatibilizer, and 0, 0.5 or 1 wt % of cis-13-docosenamide (Erucamide) as co-intercalant, were studied using the horizontal burning test UL94HB. Masterbatches prepared in an internal mixer were diluted in the polypropylene matrix using a corotating twin-screw extruder, with different screw configurations and operating at 240 or 480 rpm. Results indicate that the high burning rate of the composites was not affected by the processing conditions. For all formulations was observed a significant reduction in smoke release, lack of dripping and the formation of a char surface layer, that protected the core of the samples. (author)

  19. Nickel-titanium wire in circumferential suture of a flexor tendon repair: a comparison to polypropylene.

    Karjalainen, T; He, M; Chong, A K S; Lim, A Y T; Ryhanen, J

    2010-07-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) has been proposed as an alternative material for flexor tendon core suture. To our knowledge, its suitability as a circumferential suture of flexor tendon repair has not been investigated before. The purpose of this ex vivo study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of NiTi circumferential repairs and to compare them with commonly used polypropylene. Forty porcine flexor tendons were cut and repaired by simple running or interlocking mattress technique using 100 microm NiTi wire or 6-0 polypropylene. The NiTi circumferential repairs showed superior stiffness, gap resistance, and load to failure when compared to polypropylene repairs with both techniques. Nickel-titanium wire seems to be a potential material for circumferential repair of flexor tendons. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on food contact polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Volatiles

    Kawamura, Yoko; Sayama, Kayo; Yamada, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the generation of volatiles from food contact polyethylene and polypropylene were investigated using head space (HS)/GC/MS. All samples generated volatiles such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butanoic acid, 2,2-dimethylpropionic acid, acetone, 2-butanone, 2-propanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, hydrocarbons, etc., due to the gamma irradiation. Especially, acetic acid and acetone were formed in greatest amounts. Since these volatiles did not exist before irradiation and their amounts increased with increasing irradiation dose, they should be degradation products from the polymer or additives by irradiation. Polypropylene generated more kinds and larger amounts of volatiles than polyethylene, which showed that polypropylene is more sensitive to irradiation. Polystyrene contained styrene and ethylbenzene as monomers before irradiation and their amounts decreased after irradiation. Polystyrene generated few degradation products during the irradiation. (author)

  1. Interfacial enhancement of polypropylene composites modified with sorbitol derivatives and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin

    Dobrzyńska-Mizera, Monika; Dutkiewicz, Michał; Sterzyński, Tomasz; Di Lorenzo, Maria Laura

    2015-12-01

    Composites based on polypropylene (iPP) modified with a sorbitol derivative (NX8000) and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin (SiOPh) containing maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as compatibilizer were prepared by melt extrusion. Calorimetric investigations were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), whereas the morphological and mechanical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static tensile tests. DSC measurements revealed no influence of SiOPh and a slight effect of MAPP addition on the crystallization kinetics of polypropylene. Additionally, the introduction of MAPP into the iPP+NX8000+SiOPh composites increased plastic properties of the samples. All the above was attributed to the compatibilizing effect of MAPP which improved interfacial adhesion between iPP, NX8000 and SiOPh. This phenomenon was also confirmed by the SEM images illustrating more homogenous distribution of the filler in the compatibilized samples.

  2. Vibration behaviour of foamed concrete floor with polypropylene and rise husk ash fibre

    Azaman, N. A. Mohd; Ghafar, N. H. Abd; Ayub, N.; Ibrahim, M. Z.

    2017-11-01

    In the history of the construction industry, lightweight concrete or foamed concrete is a special concrete which can very useful in the construction sector because it is very lightweight and it can compact by itself at each angle of foamwork. Foamed concrete is one of lightweight concrete which widely used for floor construction due to its light weight and economic. The significant challenges in the floor design process are considering the vibration that needs improvements for the poor dynamic behaviour insulation. An alternative material to replace sand with certain amount of rice husk ash (RHA) and polypropylene was introduced. Research was determine the dynamic behavior of foam-polypropylene and foam-RHA concrete by using impact hammer test. The natural frequency for normal foamed concrete, 0.5 % of Polypropylene and 15% of RHA is 29.8 Hz, 29.3 Hz and 29.5 Hz respectively.

  3. Reel-to-Reel Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD Plasma Treatment of Polypropylene Films

    Lukas JW Seidelmann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of the surface of a polypropylene film can significantly increase its surface energy and, thereby improve the printability of the film. A laboratory-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD system has therefore been developed, which simulates the electrode configuration and reel-to-reel web transport mechanism used in a typical industrial-scale system. By treating the polypropylene in a nitrogen discharge, we have shown that the water contact angle could be reduced by as much as 40° compared to the untreated film, corresponding to an increase in surface energy of 14 mNm−1. Ink pull-off tests showed that the DBD plasma treatment resulted in excellent adhesion of solvent-based inks to the polypropylene film.

  4. The effect of modified ijuk fibers to crystallinity of polypropylene composite

    Prabowo, I.; Nur Pratama, J.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, plastics becomes concern associated with its degradation and environmental issues. It has led studies to develop an environmental-friendly material. To minimize the impact of those problems, recently the usage of natural fibers as a filler are introduced because of biodegradability and availability. The promising natural fiber is “ijuk” fiber from Arenga pinnata plant as a filler and polypropylene (PP) polymer as a matrix. Unfortunately, the natural fibers and polymers have the different properties on which polymers are polar while natural fibers are non-polar so that reducing the compatibility and resulting the poor crystallinity. To enhance the compatibility and crystallinity, ijuk fibers were prepared by multistage treatments including alkalinization with 5 and 10% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), oxidation with 3 and 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and hydrolysis with 20% sulphuric acid (H2SO4) in sequences. The purposes of multistage treatments are to remove the components such as lignin, wax, hemicellulose, to cause an oxidative fragmentation of remaining lignin and to annihilate the amorphous parts respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) confirms the compatibility meanwhile Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) reveals the crystallinity and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) displays surface morphology of polypropylene. The experiments were revealing that the effects of “ijuk” fibers by the multistage treatments of 5 and 10% NaOH resulting the crystallinity of polypropylene around 31.2 and 27.64% respectively compared to the crystallinity before adding the “ijuk” fibers for 16.8%. It indicates that the entire treatments increasing the compatibility and crystallinity of polypropylene. In addition, the use of 5% NaOH offers the better crystallinity than non-treated polypropylene. The experiments conclude that by adding alkalinized “ijuk” fibers of multistage treatments can increase the compatibility and crystallinity of polypropylene.

  5. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  6. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  7. Wrinkles in reinforced membranes

    Takei, Atsushi; Brau, Fabian; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José.

    2012-02-01

    We study, through model experiments, the buckling under tension of an elastic membrane reinforced with a more rigid strip or a fiber. In these systems, the compression of the rigid layer is induced through Poisson contraction as the membrane is stretched perpendicularly to the strip. Although strips always lead to out-of-plane wrinkles, we observe a transition from out-of-plane to in plane wrinkles beyond a critical strain in the case of fibers embedded into the elastic membranes. The same transition is also found when the membrane is reinforced with a wall of the same material depending on the aspect ratio of the wall. We describe through scaling laws the evolution of the morphology of the wrinkles and the different transitions as a function of material properties and stretching strain.

  8. Deep Reinforcement Fuzzing

    Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh

    2018-01-01

    Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...

  9. Free radicals in irradiated unstabilized polypropylene, as seen by diffuse reflection absorption-spectrophotometry

    Zagorski, Z.P.; Rafalski, A.

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry to the study of radiation chemistry of polymers has opened the possibility to investigate even very opaque samples. The virgin powder polypropylene, as obtained from the industrial production line, shows after irradiation unstable products of radiolysis. Until now they were investigated mainly by EPR method. Optical absorption spectra (by diffuse reflection spectrophotometry) contribute to better identification and study of changes in time, temperature and diffusion of reactive gases. Studying the formation of stable compounds, which do not produce EPR signal, we are able to examine these species on the basis of their electronic spectra. The most important results concern the peroxides in irradiated polypropylene

  10. Enhancing the Dyeability of Polypropylene Fibers by Melt Blending with Polyethylene Terephthalate

    Fereshteh Mirjalili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempts were made to modify polypropylene fibers by melt blending with polyethylene terephthalate in order to enhance the dyeability of the resultant fiber. Five blends of polypropylene/polyethylene terephthalate/compatibilizer were prepared and subsequently spun into fibers. Three disperse dyes were used to dye such modified fibers at boiling and 130°C. The dyeing performance of the blend fibers, as well as the morphological, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties, of the corresponding blends was characterized by means of spectrophotometry, polarized optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and tensile testing.

  11. Thermal analysis of polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation composites under outdoor conditions

    Komatsu, Luiz G.H.; Oliani, Washington L.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the influence of the clay in the degradation process of the HMSPP.The polypropylene (PP) was irradiated under acetylene atmosphere in gamma irradiation source ( 60 Co) to obtain the HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene). Composites of HMSPP were processed in twin-screw extruder with clay Cloisite 20A and Maleic Anhydride (PP-g-MA) as coupling agent. The obtained composites were exposed under outdoor conditions for 6 months. The ageing effects were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA). Chemical oxidation was evaluated by Carbonyl Index (IC) through infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed correlation between carbonyl index and ageing time. (author)

  12. Physicochemical Study of Irradiated polypropylene/Organo :Modified Montmorillonite Composites by Using Electron Beam Irradiation Technique

    Hassan, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Polypropylene/ Organo modified montmorillonite composites (PP/ OMMT) were prepared by melt blending with a twin screw extruder. The thermal properties by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), the dispersion of OMMT of macromolecules by X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical properties and the morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The effect of electron beam irradiation on these properties was also studied. The results showed an intercalation between the silicate layers and the PP polymer matrix. The (PP/ OMMT) composites exhibit higher thermal stability and lower mechanical properties than pure polypropylene

  13. Thermal analysis of polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation composites under outdoor conditions

    Komatsu, Luiz G.H.; Oliani, Washington L.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the influence of the clay in the degradation process of the HMSPP.The polypropylene (PP) was irradiated under acetylene atmosphere in gamma irradiation source ({sup 60}Co) to obtain the HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene). Composites of HMSPP were processed in twin-screw extruder with clay Cloisite 20A and Maleic Anhydride (PP-g-MA) as coupling agent. The obtained composites were exposed under outdoor conditions for 6 months. The ageing effects were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA). Chemical oxidation was evaluated by Carbonyl Index (IC) through infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed correlation between carbonyl index and ageing time. (author)

  14. The Effect of Tool Pin Shape of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) on Polypropylene

    Nik, Z. C.; Ishak, M.; Othman, N. H.

    2017-09-01

    This experiment deals with similar joining of polypropylene (PP) with thickness of 3 mm was carried out by using friction stir welding (FSW) technique. The process parameters, rotational speed, welding speed and tilt angle were fixed of experiments. The tool geometry shapes were the main parameters which were taken into consideration. The optimum designs of tool geometry shape were determined with reference to tensile strength of the joint. During the tensile testing experiment, the results show that all fractured occurs in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) on the polypropylene (PP). Results show that the optimum design can be obtained with same rotational speed, welding speed and tilt angle.

  15. Development of a Halogen Free Flame Retardant Masterbatch for Polypropylene Fibers

    François Rault

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of new phosphinates, in combination with melamine cyanurate, was studied using different polypropylene textile structures. The influence of different ratios up to a total amount of 6 wt% in the polypropylene fiber was investigated using the limiting oxygen index (LOI and cone calorimeter method for research purposes, while the performances were correlated to the standards FMVSS 302 (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and DIN 4102-l (Deutsches Institut für Normung used more specifically for automotive and building sector.

  16. Chondrocyte behavior on nanostructured micropillar polypropylene and polystyrene surfaces

    Prittinen, Juha [Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Jiang, Yu [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland); Ylärinne, Janne H. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Pakkanen, Tapani A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland); Lammi, Mikko J., E-mail: mikko.lammi@uef.fi [Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Qu, Chengjuan [Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate whether patterned polypropylene (PP) or polystyrene (PS) could enhance the chondrocytes' extracellular matrix (ECM) production and phenotype maintenance. Bovine primary chondrocytes were cultured on smooth PP and PS, as well as on nanostructured micropillar PP (patterned PP) and PS (patterned PS) for 2 weeks. Subsequently, the samples were collected for fluorescein diacetate-based cell viability tests, for immunocytochemical assays of types I and II collagen, actin and vinculin, for scanning electronic microscopic analysis of cell morphology and distribution, and for gene expression assays of Sox9, aggrecan, procollagen α{sub 1}(II), procollagen α{sub 1}(X), and procollagen α{sub 2}(I) using quantitative RT-PCR assays. After two weeks of culture, the bovine primary chondrocytes had attached on both patterned PP and PS, while practically no adhesion was observed on smooth PP. However, the best adhesion of the cells was on smooth PS. The cells, which attached on patterned PP and PS surfaces synthesized types I and II collagen. The chondrocytes' morphology was extended, and an abundant ECM network formed around the attached chondrocytes on both patterned PP and PS. Upon passaging, no significant differences on the chondrocyte-specific gene expression were observed, although the highest expression level of aggrecan was observed on the patterned PS in passage 1 chondrocytes, and the expression level of procollagen α{sub 1}(II) appeared to decrease in passaged chondrocytes. However, the expressions of procollagen α{sub 2}(I) were increased in all passaged cell cultures. In conclusion, the bovine primary chondrocytes could be grown on patterned PS and PP surfaces, and they produced extracellular matrix network around the adhered cells. However, neither the patterned PS nor PP could prevent the dedifferentiation of chondrocytes. - Highlights: • Methods to avoid chondrocyte dedifferentiation would be useful for cartilage

  17. Reinforced seal component

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  18. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  19. Mechanical performance of hemp fiber polypropylene composites at different operating temperatures

    Mehdi Tajvidi; Nazanin Motie; Ghonche Rassam; Robert H. Falk; Colin Felton

    2010-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of hemp fiber polypropylene composites, formulations containing 25% and 40% (by weight) hemp fiber were produced and tested at three representative temperatures of 256, 296, and 336 K. Flexural, tensile, and impact tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis, were performed and the reduction...

  20. Spatially Resolved Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystal-Polypropylene Composite by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Ronald Sabo; Richard S. Reiner; Craig M. Clemons; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)–polypropylene (PP) composites and to investigate the spatial distribution of CNCs in extruded composite filaments. Three composites were made from two forms of nanocellulose (CNCs from wood pulp and the nanoscale fraction of microcrystalline cellulose) and two of the three composites investigated used...

  1. Polypropylene /Aspen/ liquid polybutadienes composites: maximization of impact strength, tensile and modulus by statistical experimental design

    Kokta, B. V.; Fortelný, Ivan; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Horák, Zdeněk; Michálková, Danuše

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, - (2005), s. 10-11 ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polymeric Materials in Automotive , Slovak Rubber Conference /17./. 10.5.2005-12.5.2005, Bratislava] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polypropylene * Aspen-PP composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  2. Properties and Semicrystalline Structure Evolution of Polypropylene/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites under Mechanical Load

    Stribeck, Norbert; Zeinolebadi, Ahmad; Ganjaee Sari, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) monitors tensile and load-cycling tests of metallocene isotactic polypropylene (PP), a blend of PP and montmorillonite (MMT), and two block copolymer compatibilized PP/MMT nanocomposites. Mechanical properties of the materials are similar, but the semicrystalline......%. Other results concern the evolution of Strobl’s block structure and void formation during tensile loading....

  3. Influence of postdrawing temperature on mechanical properties of melt-spun isotactic polypropylene

    Schimanski, T.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Lemstra, P.J.; Loos, J.

    2004-01-01

    Mech. properties of melt-spun and postdrawn isotactic polypropylene (iPP) are studied to examine the dependence on the temp. in the postdrawing stage. In accordance with the literature, the Young's modulus is uniquely detd. by the applied draw ratio. However, we found that the overall mech. behavior

  4. Modification of polycarbonate and polypropylene surfaces by argon ion cluster beams

    Biederman, H.; Slavinská, D.; Boldyreva, H.; Lehmberg, H.; Takaoka, G.; Matsuo, J.; Kinpara, H.; Zemek, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2001), s. 2050-2056 ISSN 0734-2101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914; CEZ:MSM113200002 Keywords : polycarbonate * polypropylene * surfometer * atomic force microscop * X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.448, year: 2001

  5. Influence of Wind Speed on Heat Flow through Polypropylene Insulating Material

    SUN Yu-chai; CHENG Zhong-hao; FENG Xun-wei

    2006-01-01

    The heat transfer properties of polypropylene insulation at different ambient temperature against wind were analysed.A theoretical model of the combined conductive, convective and radiative heat flow through fibrous insulating material was presented. Detail study was carried out by using the finite element method. The theoretical results are in accordance to the experimental results which were accomplished in an artificial climate chamber.

  6. Polypropylene Darning: A New Alternative for Reconstruction of Orbital Floor after Total Maxillectomy.

    Sharma, Prashant

    2015-06-01

    Removal of orbital floor is an integral part of total (radical) maxillectomy (type IIIa), which if not managed properly, may lead to some eye related distressing complications like diplopia, eyelid malposition, epiphora, dacryocystitis, enopthalmos and ectoprion. Among all, diplopia is the most distressing complication which hampers daily activity. Various options for orbital floor reconstruction are available like titanium sheet, polypropylene mesh, non-vascularized or vascularized bone graft, pedicled flaps, micro-vascular free flaps, prosthesis placement, and split skin graft followed by obturator placement. Till date no-body has tried stabilization of eye ball by 'darning' the orbital floor using non-absorbable suture. 'Polypropylene suture darning' is an easy to learn, novel method with equally good results. Five patients with potentially resectable tumors underwent total maxillectomy. I used polypropylene 3-0 round body suture and 'darning' was done at orbital floor, incorporating periosteum (if remaining) and peri-orbital fat into the sutures. Muscle flaps were done to provide bulk and palatal reconstruction. Assessment of patients was done post-operatively at day-5 i.e., before discharge and at 1 month after surgery, and also in further follow up visits. The results were very good in terms of clear vision & eye movements (directly related to 'darning'), and the aesthetic look of patients and bilateral symmetry were satisfactory (not related to darning). Darning of orbital floor by polypropylene after total maxillectomy is an easy to learn and cost-effective method of reconstruction with good results.

  7. Prediction of yield and long-term failure of oriented polypropylene: kinetics and anisotropy

    van Erp, T.B.; Reynolds, C.T.; Peijs, T.; van Dommelen, J.A.W.; Govaert, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    The time-dependent yield and failure behavior of off-axis loaded uniaxially oriented polypropy-lene tape is investigated. The yield and failure behavior is described with an anisotropic vis-coplastic model. A viscoplastic flow rule is used with an equivalent stress, based on Hill’sanisotropic yield

  8. Rate-, temperature-, and structure-dependent yield kinetics of isotactic polypropylene

    Erp, van T.B.; Cavallo, D.; Peters, G.W.M.; Govaert, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of cooling rate on the structure and resulting mechanical performance is explored for a set of isotactic polypropylenes with varying molecular weight, insertion of counits, and addition of a nucleating agent. A continuous variation of crystal type (a–mesomorphic phase competition) and

  9. Flow-induced solidification of high-impact polypropylene copolymer compositions : morphological and mechanical effects

    Drongelen, van M.; Gahleitner, M.; Spoelstra, A.B.; Govaert, L.E.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene-based impact copolymers are a complex composition of matrix material, a dispersed phase and many optional modifiers. The final heterophasic morphology of such systems is influenced significantly by the processing step, adding an additional level of complexity to understanding the

  10. Origin of toughness in .beta.-polypropylene: the effect of molecular mobility in the amorphous phase

    Policianová, Olivia; Hodan, Jiří; Brus, Jiří; Kotek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, 9 March (2015), s. 107-114 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-29009S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : isotactic polypropylene * β-modification * toughness Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.586, year: 2015

  11. Interfacial interactions of poly(urethane-urea) based primers with polypropylene

    Villani, M.; Scheerder, J. (Jeroen); Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; With, de G.

    2014-01-01

    Good adhesion to polypropylene is required in a number of technologies including printing, painting and food packaging technology. However, for good adhesion between polyolefins and other materials it is usually necessary to pretreat and prime the polyolefinic substrate. In this paper waterborne

  12. Influence of radiational oxidation on the kinetics of electrization of polypropylene by electron irradiation

    Rozno, A.G.; Romanov, A.V.; Sukhov, N.L.; Gromov, V.V.; Ershov, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetics of volumetric electric charge and accumulation of paramagnetic centres (PMC) in polypropylene (PP) of two crystal modifications, subjected to radiational oxidation were studied. A correlation between volumetric charge and PMC in radiationally oxidation PP was detected. Considerable influence of crystal phase on the processes of charging and radiational oxidation was revealed

  13. Comparison of chemical changes during photooxidation of polypropylene film and filament containing phthalocyanine pigment

    Ahmadi, Z.; Haghighat Kish, M.; Kotak, R.; Katbab, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Photooxidation as an important process, which significantly affects the service life of the polypropylene products, has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental study. Pigments used often change the light stabilities of polypropylene. Out-door applications of pigmented polypropylene are now increasingly developed in products such as artificial grass. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of photo-oxidation on the structure of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in film and filament forms, where phthalocyanine pigment is used. For production of films and filaments, iPP granules with MFI 25 g/10 min were used, with and without phthalocyanine pigment. Samples were exposed to xenon lamp for various time lengths. The extent of the changes in chemical and structural parameters was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wide angle x-ray diffraction. The results show that carbonyl and hydroperoxide indices increase during the exposure to the radiation. The changes in melting points of the samples were not significant after irradiation process. The effects of phthalocyanine pigment in the photooxidation of film and filament were different. Crystalline fractions of the non-pigmented filament samples decreased during the irradiation time while increased in film samples. Build up of hydroperoxide and carbonyl group in filament was higher than in film samples; that could be due to the differences in structural parameters. Crystallinity variations during photooxidation are related to the nucleation effect of the pigment, chemical crystallization and phase transformation

  14. Time-Dependent Response of Polypropylene/Clay Nanocomposites Under Tension and Retraction

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2013-01-01

    Observations are reported in relaxation tests under tension and retraction on polypropylene/clay nanocomposites with various contents of filler. A two-phase constitutive model is developed in cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of nanocomposites. Adjustable parameters in the stress–strain ...

  15. Trapping of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by amphiphilic cyclodextrin functionalized polypropylene nonwovens

    Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Nielsen, Ronnie Bo Højstrup; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    of the textile fibers. In this study we present the ability of amphiphilic CD coated polypropylene nonwovens to trap 8 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/endocrine disruptors from aqueous solutions thus demonstrating the potential of using the amphiphilic cyclodextrins for water purification....

  16. Spinning, drawing and physical properties of polypropylene nanocomposite fibers with fumed nanosilica

    Dabrowska, I.; Fambri, L.; Pegoretti, A.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Vacková, Taťana; Kolarik, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2015), s. 277-290 ISSN 1788-618X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypropylene * fibers * nanocomposites Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2015

  17. Effect of particles size on mechanical properties of polypropylene particulate composites

    Nezbedová, E.; Krčma, F.; Majer, Z.; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2016), s. 690-699 ISSN 1757-9864 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Morphology * Mechanical properties * Numerical simulation * Polypropylene particulate composite s * Plasma surface treatment Subject RIV: JI - Composite Material s www.emeraldinsight.com/1757-9864.htm

  18. Ag2S deposited on oxidized polypropylene as composite material for solar light absorption

    Krylovaa, V.; Milbrat, Alexander; Embrachts, A.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Thin film metal chalcogenides are superior solar light absorbers and can be combined into a functional material when deposited on polymeric substrates. Ag2S composite materials were synthesized on oxidized polypropylene using chemical bath deposition method and their properties were explored using

  19. Oriented Crystallization and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Nucleated on Fibrillated Polytetrafluorethylene Scaffolds

    van der Meer, D.W.; Milazzo, Daniel; Sanguineti, Aldo; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that friction deposited polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) layers are able to nucleate crystallization of thin films of isotactic polypropylene (iPP). In order to investigate the influence of PTFE on the crystallization behavior and morphology of iPP in bulk, PTFE-particles of two different

  20. Using Raman spectroscopic imaging for non-destructive analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled polypropylene

    Boros, Evelin; Porse, Peter Bak; Nielsen, Inga

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study on using Raman spectral imaging for visualization and analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled poly-propylene samples has been carried out. The spectral images were acquired using a Raman spectrometer with 785 nm light source.Eight injection-molded samples with concentr...

  1. Comparison of Chemical Changes During Photooxidation of Polypropylene Film and Filament Containing Phthalocyanine Pigment

    Z. Ahmadi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Photooxidation as an important process, which significantly affects the service life of the polypropylene products, has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental study. Pigments used often change the light stabilities of polypropylene. Out-door applications of pigmented polypr-opylene are now increasingly developed in products such as artificial grass. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of photo-oxidation on the structure of isotactic polypropylene (iPP in film and filament forms, where phthalocyanine pigment is used. For production of films and filaments, iPP granules with MFI 25 g/10min were used, with and without phthalocyanine pigment. Samples were exposed to xenon lamp for various time lengths. The extent of the changes in chemical and structural parameters was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wide angle x-ray diffraction. The results show that carbonyl and hydroperoxide indices increase during the exposure to the radiation. The changes in melting points of the samples were not significant after irradiation process. The effects of phthalocyanine pigment in the photooxidation of filmand filament were different. Crystalline fractions of the non-pigmented filament samples decreased during the irradiation time while increased in film samples. Build up of hydroperoxide and carbonyl group in filament was higher than in film samples; that could be due to the differences in structural parameters. Crystallinity variations during photooxidation are related to the nucleation effect of the pigment, chemical crystallization and phase transformation.

  2. Nanocomposites of polypropylene/titanate nanotubes: morphology, nucleation effects of nanoparticles and properties

    Mikešová, Jana; Šlouf, Miroslav; Gohs, U.; Popelková, Daniela; Vacková, Taťana; Vu, Ngoc Húng; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Zhigunov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 4 (2014), s. 795-818 ISSN 0170-0839 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/0348 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : titanate nanotubes * polypropylene nanocomposites * nucleation effect Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.438, year: 2014

  3. A kinetic study of reactions of coal with polypropylene and polystyrene

    Straka, Pavel; Náhunková, Jana; Brožová, Zuzana; Zubková, H.

    12(126) (2002), s. 81-84 ISSN 1211-1929 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2046902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : coal * kinetics * polypropylene Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  4. Influence of low shear mixing settings on the mechanical properties of long glass fibre polypropylene

    de Bruijn, Thomas A.; Vincent, Guillaume Almire; van Hattum, Ferrie

    2017-01-01

    The influence of several mixing settings on the mechanical properties were studied. A Long fibre thermoplastic glass polypropylene material was mixed, compression moulded and analysed by flexural tests and charpy impact. In a low-shear mixing machine, chosen for limited fibre length degradation, six

  5. Morphologies and mechanical properties of syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP)/polyethylene (PE) blends

    Loos, J.; Bonnet, M.; Petermann, J.

    2000-01-01

    The tensile properties of blends based on syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) have been studied. In order to understand the unexpected decrease in ductility, the crystallization behavior of these blends was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal expansion behaviour of oriented polypropylene

    Godjevargov, L.; Novakovic, L.J.; Kostoski, D.

    1991-01-01

    Quenched and air-cooled samples of oriented polypropylene have been irradiated to 300 kGy adsorbed dose in the presence of air. The parallel thermal expansion coefficient decreases and becomes negative with increasing orientation. The effect of adsorbed dose on the thermal expansion behaviour is practically negligible. (author) 4 refs.; 4 figs

  7. Evaluating penetration ability of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae into multilayer polypropylene packages

    Larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), can invade or penetrate packaging materials and infest food products. Energy bars with three polypropylene packaging types were challenged with eggs (first instars), third, and fifth instars of P. interpunctella to determine package res...

  8. Functionalized Poly(propylene imine) Dendrimers as Novel Phase Transfer Catalyst in Supercritical Cabon Dioxide

    Goetheer, E.L.V.; Baars, M.W.P.L.; Broeke, van den L.J.P.; Meijer, E.W.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2000-01-01

    Perfluoro-functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimers have been used as reactive extractants for anionic species and as phase transfer catalysts for two types of reactions. Different generations of dendrimers have been used for applications in carbon dioxide. First, the reactive extraction of

  9. A Study on Creep Behavior of Wood Flour- Recycled Polypropylene Composite

    Saman Ghahri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The creep behavior of wood flour- recycled polypropylene composites (with and without compatibilizer has been evaluated in this study. For this purpose, virgin polypropylene (PP was thermo-mechanically degraded by five times of extrusion under controlled conditions in a twin-screw extruder at a rotor speed of 100 rpm and at temperature of 1900C. The virgin and recycled polypropylene were mixed with the wood flour (50/50% W/W as well as the compatibilizer (0, 2% W/W by a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder to manufacture the wood flour-PP composites (WPCs samples. The nominal cross section of the manufactured composites was 70×10 mm2. Short term flexural creep test at 30% of ultimate bending load was performed by using flexural creep equipment. The total time to complete every test was 120 min (60 min creep and 60 min recovery. Results revealed that recycling of the PP reduced the creep resistance in composites containing recycled polypropylene. Also results have shown that with the presence of compatibilizer (MAPP creep deflection, creep factor and relative creep decrease and creep modulus increase. The composites containing virgin PP and MAPP exhibited higher creep resistance than those containing recycled PP.

  10. Chapter 1.4: Spatially Resolved Characterization of CNC-Polypropylene composite by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Umesh Agarwal; Ronald Sabo; Richard Reiner; Craig Clemons; Alan Rudie

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-polypropylene (PP) composites and to investigate the spatial distribution of CNCs in extruded composite filaments. Three composites were made from two forms of nanocellulose (CNCs from wood pulp and the nanoscale fraction of microcrystalline cellulose), and two of the three composites...

  11. Histological assessment of titanium and polypropylene fiber mesh implantation with and without fibrin tissue glue.

    Hallers, E.J.O. ten; Jansen, J.A.; Marres, H.A.M.; Rakhorst, G.; Verkerke, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and titanium (Ti) meshes are well-known surgical implants that provoke a relative low foreign body reaction. Firm stabilization of the implant is important to prevent migration and subsequent failure of the operation. Fibrin tissue glues are commercially available adhesives and

  12. Histological assessment of titanium and polypropylene fiber mesh implantation with and without fibrin tissue glue

    ten Hallers, E.J. Olivier; Jansen, John A.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and titanium (Ti) meshes are well-known surgical implants that provoke a relative low foreign body reaction. Firm stabilization of the implant is important to prevent migration and subsequent failure of the operation. Fibrin tissue glues are commercially available adhesives and

  13. Histological assessment of titanium and polypropylene fiber mesh implantation with and without fibrin tissue glue

    ten Hallers, E. J. Olivier; Jansen, John A.; Marres, Henri A. M.; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    Polypropylene (PP) and titanium (Ti) meshes are well-known surgical implants that provoke a relative low foreign body reaction. Firm stabilization of the implant is important to prevent migration and subsequent failure of the operation. Fibrin tissue glues are commercially available adhesives and

  14. Study on Welding Mechanism Based on Modification of Polypropylene for Improving the Laser Transmission Weldability to PA66

    Liu, Huixia; Jiang, Hairong; Guo, Dehui; Chen, Guochun; Yan, Zhang; Li, Pin; Zhu, Hejun; Chen, Jun; Wang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene and PA66 are widely used in our daily life, but they cannot be welded by laser transmission welding (LTW) because of polar differences and poor compatibility. In this paper, grafting modification technology is used to improve the welding performance between polypropylene and PA66. Firstly, the strong reactive and polar maleic-anhydride (MAH) is grafted to polypropylene and infrared spectrometer is used to prove that MAH has been grafted to polypropylene. At the same time, the mechanical and thermal properties of the graft modified polypropylene (TGMPP) are tested. The results prove that the grafting modification has little influence on them. Also, the optical properties of TGMPP are measured. Then, the high welding strength between TGMPP and PA66 is found and the mechanism of the weldability is researched, which shows that there are two reasons for the high welding strength. By observing the micro morphology of the welding zone, one reason found is that the modification of polypropylene can improve the compatibility between polypropylene and PA66 and make them easy to diffuse mutually, which causes many locking structures formed in the welding region. The other reason is that there are chemical reactions between TGMPP and PA66 proved by the X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. PMID:28793484

  15. Influence of alkaline treatment and fiber loading on the physical and mechanical properties of kenaf/polypropylene composites for variety of applications☆

    Majid Niaz Akhtar; Abu Bakar Sulong; M.K. Fadzly Radzi; N.F. Ismail; M.R. Raza; Norhamidi Muhamad; Muhammad Azhar Khan

    2017-01-01

    Due to current trend and increasing interest towards natural based fiber products, Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibers have been used for the developments of many products. Therefore, Kenaf fiber-reinforced composites have been widely used in engineering and industrial applications. The present work deals with the fabricating and characterization of untreated and treated kenaf/polypropylene (PP)-reinforced composites. Composites of PP reinforced with treated and untreated kenaf fibers were fabricated using the injection molding technique. Different fiber loadings of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 wt%treated and untreated kenaf composites were also prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the treated, untreated kenaf fibers and kenaf/PP composites. Moreover, the alkaline-treated kenaf composites exhibit better physical, morphological, and mechanical properties because of the compatibility of kenaf with PP. However, variations in tensile and flexural properties depend on treatment and kenaf fiber contents. The percentage increase in the mechanical properties of the treated kenaf/PP composites relative to that of PP was also measured. In addition, 40 wt%kenaf fiber loading resulted in higher mechanical properties. By contrast, kenaf/PP composite with 50%fiber loading was not successfully prepared because of improper mixing and the burning of kenaf fibers in the PP matrix. To conclude, 40%kenaf/PP composites with superior physical and mechanical properties may be used in variety of applications such as automotive, sports, construction, animal bedding, and mass production industries.

  16. Influence of alkaline treatment and fiber loading on the physical and mechanical properties of kenaf/polypropylene composites for variety of applications

    Majid Niaz Akhtar; Abu Bakar Sulong; M.K.Fadzly Radzi; N.F.Ismail; M.R.Raza; Norhamidi Muhamad; Muhammad Azhar Khan

    2016-01-01

    Due to current trend and increasing interest towards natural based fiber products,Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibers have been used for the developments of many products.Therefore,Kenaf fiber-reinforced composites have been widely used in engineering and industrial applications.The present work deals with the fabricating and characterization of untreated and treated kenaf/polypropylene (PP)-reinforced composites.Composites of PP reinforced with treated and untreated kenaf fibers were fabricated using the injection molding technique.Different fiber loadings of 10,20,30,40,50 wt% treated and untreated kenaf composites were also prepared.Xray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the treated,untreated kenaf fibers and kenaf/PP composites.Moreover,the alkaline-treated kenaf composites exhibit better physical,morphological,and mechanical properties because of the compatibility of kenaf with PP.However,variations in tensile and flexural properties depend on treatment and kenaf fiber contents.The percentage increase in the mechanical properties of the treated kenaf/PP composites relative to that of PP was also measured.In addition,40 wt%kenaf fiber loading resulted in higher mechanical properties.By contrast,kenaf/PP composite with 50% fiber loading was not successfully prepared because of improper mixing and the burning of kenaf fibers in the PP matrix.To conclude,40% kenaf/PP composites with superior physical and mechanical properties may be used in variety of applications such as automotive,sports,construction,animal bedding,and mass production industries.

  17. Influence of alkaline treatment and fiber loading on the physical and mechanical properties of kenaf/polypropylene composites for variety of applications

    Majid Niaz Akhtar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to current trend and increasing interest towards natural based fiber products, Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus fibers have been used for the developments of many products. Therefore, Kenaf fiber-reinforced composites have been widely used in engineering and industrial applications. The present work deals with the fabricating and characterization of untreated and treated kenaf/polypropylene (PP-reinforced composites. Composites of PP reinforced with treated and untreated kenaf fibers were fabricated using the injection molding technique. Different fiber loadings of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 wt% treated and untreated kenaf composites were also prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA were performed on the treated, untreated kenaf fibers and kenaf/PP composites. Moreover, the alkaline-treated kenaf composites exhibit better physical, morphological, and mechanical properties because of the compatibility of kenaf with PP. However, variations in tensile and flexural properties depend on treatment and kenaf fiber contents. The percentage increase in the mechanical properties of the treated kenaf/PP composites relative to that of PP was also measured. In addition, 40 wt% kenaf fiber loading resulted in higher mechanical properties. By contrast, kenaf/PP composite with 50% fiber loading was not successfully prepared because of improper mixing and the burning of kenaf fibers in the PP matrix. To conclude, 40% kenaf/PP composites with superior physical and mechanical properties may be used in variety of applications such as automotive, sports, construction, animal bedding, and mass production industries.

  18. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure....

  19. The Reinforcement Learning Competition 2014

    Dimitrakakis, Christos; Li, Guangliang; Tziortziotis, Nikoalos

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is one of the most general problems in artificial intelligence. It has been used to model problems in automated experiment design, control, economics, game playing, scheduling and telecommunications. The aim of the reinforcement learning competition is to encourage the development of very general learning agents for arbitrary reinforcement learning problems and to provide a test-bed for the unbiased evaluation of algorithms.

  20. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  1. Constitutive model for reinforced concrete

    Feenstra, P.H.; Borst, de R.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical model is proposed for reinforced-concrete behavior that combines the commonly accepted ideas from modeling plain concrete, reinforcement, and interaction behavior in a consistent manner. The behavior of plain concrete is govern by fracture-energy-level-based formulation both in tension

  2. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    .0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire...

  3. Tangible Reinforcers: Bonuses or Bribes?

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Objections to the use of tangible reinforcers, such as prizes, candy, cigarettes, and money, are discussed. Treatment programs using tangible reinforcers are recommended as powerful modifers of behavior to be implemented only after less powerful means of modification have been tried. (Author)

  4. Mechanical Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Reinforced with Hybrid Fibers

    Rooban Chakravarthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash substitution to cement is a well-recognized approach to reduce CO2 emissions. Although fly ash concrete is prone to brittle behavior, researchers have shown that addition of fibers could reduce brittle behavior. Previous research efforts seem to have utlised a single type of fiber or two types of fibers. In this research, three types of fibers, steel, polypropylene, and basalt as 0%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1% by volume of concrete, were mixed in varying proportions with concrete specimens substituted with 50% fly ash (class F. All specimens were tested for compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, and flexural strength over a period of 3 to 56 days of curing. Test results showed that significant improvement in mechanical properties could be obtained by a particular hybrid fiber reinforcement combination (1% steel fiber, 0.75% polypropylene fiber, and 0.75% basalt fiber. The strength values were observed to exceed previous research results. Workability of concrete was affected when the fiber combination exceeded 3%. Thus a limiting value for adding fibers and the combination to achieve maximum strengths have been identified in this research.

  5. The influence of filler surface modification on mechanical and material properties of layered double hydroxide -containing polypropylene composites

    Moyo, Lumbidzani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The processing and properties of layered double hydroxides (LDHs)-containing polypropylene (PP) composites have been studied extensively. However, no detailed studies have reported on how stearic acid (SA)-intercalated and SA-coated LDHs influence...

  6. Isotactic polypropylene/carbon nanotube composites prepared by latex technology. Thermal analysis of carbon nanotube-induced nucleation

    Miltner, H.E.; Grossiord, N.; Lu, K.; Loos, J.; Koning, C.E.; Van Mele, B.

    2008-01-01

    During nonisothermal crystallization of highly dispersed polypropylene/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites, considerable heterogeneous nucleation is observed to an extent scaling with the CNT surface area. Saturation occurs at higher loadings, reaching a plateau value for the crystallization onset

  7. Functionalisation of polypropylene non-woven fabrics (NWFs): Functionalisation by oxyfluorination as a first step for graft polymerisation

    Vargha, V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface oxyfluorination had been carried out on polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP NWF) samples of different morphologies and pore sizes. The modified surfaces were characterised by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed (ATR...

  8. Reinforcement of cement-based matrices with graphite nanomaterials

    Sadiq, Muhammad Maqbool

    Cement-based materials offer a desirable balance of compressive strength, moisture resistance, durability, economy and energy-efficiency; their tensile strength, fracture energy and durability in aggressive environments, however, could benefit from further improvements. An option for realizing some of these improvements involves introduction of discrete fibers into concrete. When compared with today's micro-scale (steel, polypropylene, glass, etc.) fibers, graphite nanomaterials (carbon nanotube, nanofiber and graphite nanoplatelet) offer superior geometric, mechanical and physical characteristics. Graphite nanomaterials would realize their reinforcement potential as far as they are thoroughly dispersed within cement-based matrices, and effectively bond to cement hydrates. The research reported herein developed non-covalent and covalent surface modification techniques to improve the dispersion and interfacial interactions of graphite nanomaterials in cement-based matrices with a dense and well graded micro-structure. The most successful approach involved polymer wrapping of nanomaterials for increasing the density of hydrophilic groups on the nanomaterial surface without causing any damage to the their structure. The nanomaterials were characterized using various spectrometry techniques, and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). The graphite nanomaterials were dispersed via selected sonication procedures in the mixing water of the cement-based matrix; conventional mixing and sample preparation techniques were then employed to prepare the cement-based nanocomposite samples, which were subjected to steam curing. Comprehensive engineering and durability characteristics of cement-based nanocomposites were determined and their chemical composition, microstructure and failure mechanisms were also assessed through various spectrometry, thermogravimetry, electron microscopy and elemental analyses. Both functionalized and non-functionalized nanomaterials as well as different

  9. Quick Detection of Contaminants Leaching from Polypropylene Centrifuge Tube with Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Ultra Violet Absorption Spectroscopy

    Xu, Zhida; Liu, Logan

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks are identified for liquid sample stored in polypropylene centrifuge tubes (PP tube) for months. We observed the unexpected Raman peaks during experiments for Thiamine Hydrochloride aqueous solution stored in PP tube for two months. In order to identify the contaminants we have performed SERS experiments for de-ionized water (DI water) stored in polypropylene centrifuge tube for two months and compared them with fresh DI water sample. We...

  10. Evaluation of the environmental aging and mechanical properties of the polypropylene/sugarcane bagasse composites; Avaliacao do envelhecimento ambiental e das propriedades mecanicas dos compositos de polipropileno/bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Paiva, Rayane Lima de Moura; Mulinari, Daniella Regina [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with fibers from sugarcane bagasse composites in different proportions were prepared. Also environmental aging was conducted for the composites and their mechanical properties determined. The results showed that chemical treatment caused changes in color and chemical composition of the fibers, removing impurities and amorphous constituents such as lignin and hemicellulose, techniques of FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed these data. Also, it was observed that addition of natural fiber in PP matrix provided an improvement in the mechanical properties materials. The weathering test revealed a slight mass gain after 75 days, but it was clear that the inclusion of fibers has a higher mass gain compared to pure PP. (author)

  11. Short- and long-term results of chordal reconstruction using artificial suture material (polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene in the dog

    Isamu Kanemoto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No previous reports have compared the suitability of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE and polypropylene as artificial suture materials for chordal reconstruction in mitral valve plasty (MVP in the dog. Twelve normal dogs were subjected to MVP using surfaceinduced deep hypothermia. In the short-term group (1.5-4 months after surgery, all ePTFE sutures were covered by a tissue sheath including the paired suture arms, which gave the appearance of native chordae from 2 months after surgery. In contrast, all polypropylene sutures were not covered by tissue, and appeared the same as the paired polypropylene suture arms at the operation. In the long-term group (12 months after surgery, all ePTFE sutures were covered by a tissue sheath, which appeared the same as that in the short-term group, and had flexibility without increased thickness with time. In contrast, although the polypropylene suture was covered completely by a tissue sheath in 1 dog, all the other polypropylene sutures were exposed except for both ends of the suture. ePTFE may be superior to polypropylene as an artificial suture material for chordal reconstruction in MVP.

  12. Improvement of the T-peel Strength of Polypropylene Adhesion Joints by Surface Photografting Pre-Treatment with Methyl Methacrylate

    Balart, R.; Sánchez-Nácher, L.; Balart, J.; Fombuena, V.; España, J. M.

    2010-06-01

    Although polypropylene is one of the most used polymers at industrial level due to good balanced properties, it presents some restrictions in applications that require good adhesion properties as well as coating and painting. These restrictions are related to its non polar nature which leads to low wetting properties. So that, in most cases, it is necessary a previous surface pre-treatment in order to improve adhesion properties. These surface treatments could be physical or chemical. Among the wide variety of physical processes, plasma technologies are useful from both technical and environmental points of view. If we take into account economic considerations, chemical processes are interesting due to low cost equipment and procedures. In particular, we have used photografting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer on polypropylene substrates with UV radiation and initiators. This process is useful to promote chemical modification of polypropylene surface by grafting MMA monomers into polypropylene polymer chains. Due to polarity of some groups in MMA monomers, it is possible to increase surface wettability thus promoting a remarkable increase in adhesion properties of polypropylene. In this work, changes in wettability of polypropylene surfaces in terms of the exposure time to UV radiation in presence of MMA monomers and initiators has been investigated. Furthermore, chemical changes have been characterized by FTIR analysis and mechanical performance of adhesion joints has been evaluated by T-peel tests.

  13. LOSS FACTOR AND DYNAMIC YOUNG MODULUS DETERMINATION FOR COMPOSITE SANDWICH BARS REINFORCED WITH STEEL FABRIC

    Cosmin-Mihai MIRIŢOIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have build some composite sandwich bars. For these bars I have determined the dynamic response by recording their free vibrations. These bars have the core made of polypropylene honeycomb with upper and lower layers reinforced with steel wire mesh. For these bars I have determined the the eigenfrequency of the first eigenmode in this way: the bar was embedded at one end and free at the other where there was placed an accelerometer at 10 mm distance from the edge and I applied an initial force at the free end. I have determined the eigenfrequency because I will use its values for the loss factor and dynamic Young modulus determination.

  14. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete exposed to freeze-thaw and deicing salt

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1998-01-01

    Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by subjecting beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached. Specimens sawn from the beams after unloading are exposed to freeze-thaw and deic......Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by subjecting beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached. Specimens sawn from the beams after unloading are exposed to freeze-thaw...... and deicing salt. The concrete has a water-powder ratio of 0.38 including both fly ash and silica fume. Both steel fibres (ZP, 0.4 vol%) and polypropylene fibres (PP, 1 vol%) are used as well as main reinforcement. The freeze-thaw test emphasizes the need for a critical evaluation of the mix design and mixing...

  15. Utilization of power plant bottom ash as aggregates in fiber-reinforced cellular concrete.

    Lee, H K; Kim, H K; Hwang, E A

    2010-02-01

    Recently, millions tons of bottom ash wastes from thermoelectric power plants have been disposed of in landfills and coastal areas, regardless of its recycling possibility in construction fields. Fiber-reinforced cellular concrete (FRCC) of low density and of high strength may be attainable through the addition of bottom ash due to its relatively high strength. This paper focuses on evaluating the feasibility of utilizing bottom ash of thermoelectric power plant wastes as aggregates in FRCC. The flow characteristics of cement mortar with bottom ash aggregates and the effect of aggregate type and size on concrete density and compressive strength were investigated. In addition, the effects of adding steel and polypropylene fibers for improving the strength of concrete were also investigated. The results from this study suggest that bottom ash can be applied as a construction material which may not only improve the compressive strength of FRCC significantly but also reduce problems related to bottom ash waste.

  16. Mechanical behaviour of textile-reinforced thermoplastics with integrated sensor network components

    Hufenbach, W.; Adam, F.; Fischer, W.-J.; Kunadt, A.; Weck, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Consideration of two types of integrated bus systems for textile-reinforced thermoplastics with embedded sensor networks. → Specimens with bus systems made of flexible printed circuit boards show good mechanical performance compared to the reference. → Inhomogeneous interface and reduced stiffnesses and strengths for specimens with bus systems basing on single copper wires. -- Abstract: The embedding of sensor networks into textile-reinforced thermoplastics enables the design of function-integrative lightweight components suitable for high volume production. In order to investigate the mechanical behaviour of such functionalised composites, two types of bus systems are selected as exemplary components of sensor networks. These elements are embedded into glass fibre-reinforced polypropylene (GF/PP) during the layup process of unconsolidated weft-knitted GF/PP-preforms. Two fibre orientations are considered and orthotropic composite plates are manufactured by hot pressing technology. Micrograph investigations and computer tomography analyses show different interface qualities between the thermoplastic composite and the two types of bus systems. Mechanical tests under tensile and flexural loading indicate a significant influence of the embedded bus system elements on the structural stiffness and strength.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of polypropylene/graphite nano composite preparation for in situ polymerization

    Montagna, L.S.; Fim, F. de C.; Galland, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites through in situ polymerization, using the metallocene catalyst C 20 H 16 Cl 2 Zr (dichloro(rac-ethylenebis(indenyl))zircon(IV)). The graphite nanosheets in nano dimensions were added to the polymer matrix in percentages of 0.6;1.0;4.2;4.8 and 6.0% (w/w). The TEM images indicated that the thickness of graphite nanosheets ranged from 4 to 60 nm and by means of XRD analysis it was observed that the physical and chemical treatment did not destroyed the graphite layers. The presence of nanosheets did not decrease the catalytic activity of the nanocomposites. TEM images and XRD analysis of nanocomposites showed a good dispersion of the graphite nanosheets in the polypropylene matrix. (author)

  18. Synthesis and Application of a Novel Polyamide Charring Agent for Halogen-Free Flame Retardant Polypropylene

    Jie Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel charring agent, poly(p-ethylene terephthalamide (PETA, for halogen-free flame retardant polypropylene was synthesized by using p-phthaloyl chloride (TPC and ethylenediamine through solution polycondensation at low temperature, and the effects of PETA on flame retardance of polypropylene (PP/IFR systems were studied. The experimental results showed that PETA could considerably enhance the fire retardant performance as proved by evidence of the increase of limiting oxygen index (LOI values, the results of UL-94 tests, and cone calorimeter tests (CCT. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM demonstrated that an appropriate amount of PETA could react with PP/IFR system to form cross-link network; a more compact char layer could be formed which was responsible for the improved thermal and flame retardant properties of PP/IFR systems. However, the superfluous amount of PETA would play the negative role.

  19. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    Bhat, A. H., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com; Dasan, Y. K., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred.

  20. Development of novel nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric.

    Bondar, Yuliia; Kuzenko, Svetlana; Han, Do-Hung; Cho, Hyun-Kug

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric was synthesized for selective removal of Cs ions from contaminated waters by a two-stage synthesis: radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid monomer onto the nonwoven polypropylene fabric surface with subsequent in situ formation of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (KNiHCF) nanoparticles within the grafted chains. Data of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of KNiHCF homogeneous phase on the fabric surface, which consisted of crystalline cubic-shaped nanoparticles (70 to 100 nm). The efficiency of the synthesized adsorbent for removal of cesium ions was evaluated under various experimental conditions. It has demonstrated a rapid adsorption process, high adsorption capacity over a wide pH range, and selectivity in Cs ion removal from model solutions with high concentration of sodium ions.

  1. Evaluation of the acquirement of nano composites of polypropylene and a bentonite organophilized by different methodologies

    Paiva, Lucilene B. de; Morales, Ana R.; Branciforti, Marcia C.; Bretas, Rosario E.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the organophilization of an argentinean sodium bentonite with a quaternary ammo nium salt, by two methodologies: cation exchange in aqueous dispersion and intercalation in semi-solid medium. The modified samples were used in the preparation of nano composites, with polypropylene as a matrix and polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride as a coupling agent, through melt intercalation by using a twin-screw micro extruder. The organophilic bentonites were characterized by the swelling capacity test in water and in xylene and by X-ray diffraction, and the nano composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy. The results showed that were obtained nano composites with structures partially intercalated and exfoliated. (author)

  2. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    Bhat, A. H.; Dasan, Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred

  3. Montmorillonite clay/polypropylene (HMSPP) nanocomposites: evaluation of thermal and mechanical properties

    Komatsu, L.G.H.; Oliani, W.L.; Lugao, A.B.; Parra, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) properties in nanocomposites was done in composites of 0.1; 1; 3; 5; 10 wt% of Cloisite 20A clay. The PP-g-MA (polypropylene graft maleic anhydride) was the compatibilizer agent in the process of extrusion in twin-screw. Mechanical tests performed in the nanocomposites with higher clay content showed higher values of rupture in 5 and 10 wt% of Cloisite. The thermal properties were evaluate utilizing Calorimetry Differential Exploratory (DSC) and in the sample of 10 wt% of Cloisite were observed increase of the melting temperature and increase of crystallinity. The morphology was investigated by the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR), in which the sample with lower clay amount, 1 wt% of Cloisite showed better dispersion of the clay. X-Ray Diffraction reported the clay intercalation in the sample with 5 wt% of clay. (author)

  4. Polyfunctional monomers as additives for enhancing the radiation copolymerization of styrene with polyethylene, polypropylene, and PVC

    Ang, C.H.; Garnett, J.L.; Levot, R.; Long, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Additives which can increase the yield in the radiation grafting of monomers to polymers are useful. The use of polyfunctional monomers as additives (approx. = 1% v/v) are shown to enhance significantly the copolymerization yields of styrene in methanol to films of polyethylene and polypropylene under certain radiation conditions. The results obtained when the polyolefins are replaced by PVC as backbone polymer in these accelerated grafting reactions are reported. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were used as representative polyfunctional monomers for the enhancement effect. When polypropylene was used as backbone polymer, the inclusion of DVB significantly enhanced the radiation grafting of styrene in methanol at all monomer concentrations studied above 35%. At certain monomer concentrations (50% , 60%), the yield of graft copolymer was almost doubled by the addition of DVB. 3 tables. (DP)

  5. Evaluation of Mechanical Property of Carbon Fiber/Polypropylene Composite According to Carbon Fiber Surface Treatment

    Han, Song Hee; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Seong Su

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of a carbon fiber/polypropylene composite were evaluated according to the carbon fiber surface treatment. Carbon fiber surface treatments such as silane coupling agents and plasma treatment were performed to enhance the interfacial strength between carbon fibers and polypropylene. The treated carbon fiber surface was characterized by XP S, Sem, and single-filament tensile test. The interlaminar shear strength (Ilks) of the composite with respect to the surface treatment was determined by a short beam shear test. The test results showed that the Ilks of the plasma-treated specimen increased with the treatment time. The Ilks of the specimen treated with a silane coupling agent after plasma treatment increased by 48.7% compared to that of the untreated specimen

  6. Non-isothermal kinetic studies on co-processing of olive residue and polypropylene

    Aboulkas, A.; El Harfi, K.; El Bouadili, A.

    2008-01-01

    Co-processing of olive residue with polypropylene was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) reaction system in a nitrogen atmosphere with a view to comparing the process of the mixture with those of the individual components. Experiments were conducted at different heating rates of 2, 10, 20 and 50 K min -1 in the temperature range of 300-975 K based on the results obtained, three thermal stages were identified during the thermal degradation. The first two were dominated by olive residue pyrolysis, while the third was linked to polypropylene pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. Discrepancies between the experimental and calculated TG/DTG profiles were considered as a measurement of the extent of interactions occurring on co-pyrolysis. The maximum degradation temperature of each component in the mixture was higher than those of the individual components alone; thus, an increase in thermal stability was expected. The kinetic processing of thermogravimetric data was conducted using the Friedman method

  7. Chemical cross-linking of polypropylenes towards new shape memory polymers.

    Raidt, Thomas; Hoeher, Robin; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-04-01

    In this work, syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) as well as isotactic polypropylene (iPP) are cross-linked to gain a shape memory effect. Both prepared PP networks exhibit maximum strains of 700%, stored strains of up to 680%, and recoveries of nearly 100%. While x-iPP is stable for many cycles, x-sPP ruptures after the first shape-memory cycle. It is shown by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments that cross-linked iPP exhibits homoepitaxy in the temporary, stretched shape but in contrast to previous reports it contains a higher amount of daughter than mother crystals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on food contact polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene: additives and other chemicals

    Kawamura, Yoko; Sayama, Kayo; Yamada, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on additives, oligomers, and other chemicals in food contact polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene were investigated. Polyethylene and polypropylene products contained several antioxidants, lubricants and plasticizers. After gamma irradiation, the contents of all the antioxidants significantly decreased. Irgafos 168 disappeared the fastest. Lubricants and plasticizers decreased to some extent or not at all. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was detected not only after irradiation but also before irradiation, and 1,3-di-tert-butylbenzene and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone were detected only after irradiation. They were presumed to be degradation products of the irradiation, though the former should be also a degradation product of the manufacturing process. On the other hand, the polystyrene products contained styrene dimers and trimers and their contents did not change after the gamma irradiation. (author)

  9. Irradiation and processing of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres - polypropylene composites

    Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Syarifah Hanisah Syed Abdul Aziz

    2000-01-01

    In this study, polypropylene was blended with oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres at a ratio of 60 to 40 by weight, respectively. Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) was used as the crosslinking agent. Homopolymer Polypropylene of MFI 14.0 and EFB fibres of 0.5 -1.0 mm sizes were used through out the experiment. Processing parameters such as temperature, rotor speed and processing time were optimized. Modes of irradiation were established to determine the optimum properties of the composites. The mechanical properties of the composite such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured. The results indicate that temperature, 185 degree C, with a rotor speed of 40 rpm and 9 minutes processing time are sufficient to produce the optimum mechanical properties of PP/EFB composite. Modes of adding TMPTA into the blend and modes of irradiation also have influenced the properties of the composites

  10. Electrochemical Impedance Study of Zinc Yellow Polypropylene-Coated Aluminum Alloy

    Zhi-hua Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of zinc yellow polypropylene-coated aluminum alloy 7B04 during accelerated degradation test is studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. It has been found that the zinc yellow polypropylene paint has few flaw and acts as a pure capacitance before accelerated test. After 336-hour exposure to the test, the impedance spectroscopy shows two time constants, and water has reached to the aluminum alloy/paint interface and forms corrosive microcell. For the scratched samples, the reaction of metal corrosion and the hydrolysis of zinc yellow ion can occur simultaneously. The impedance spectroscopy indicates inductance after 1008-hour exposure to the test, but the inductance disappears after 1344-hour exposure and the passivation film has pitting corrosion.

  11. Gamma-Irradiation modified polypropylene and nano silver hybrid films: antibacterial activity

    Oliani, Washigton L.; Alcantara, Mara T.S.; Lima, Luis F.C.P. de; Bueno, Nelson R.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Huenuman, Nilton E.L.; Santos, Priscila M. dos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of films based on blends of polypropylene (PP) with radiation modified PP and insertion of silver nanoparticles aiming bactericide effect. The use of silver (Ag) gives important antibacterial properties since silver is highly toxic for bacteria. The blend of 50/50 PP and gamma irradiated PP was processed in a twin screw extruder. The polypropylene was processed for five PP-Nanocomposite AgNPs in different concentrations of 0.25%; 0.5%; 1.0%; 2.0% and 4.0% in wt%. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytotoxicity assay and reduction colony-forming unit (CFU). The analyzed films showed agglomeration of silver particles and regions with homogeneous distribution of the particles. The interactions of the nano silver bactericidal effect with E. coli and S. aureus were assessed. (author)

  12. Feasibility of the recovery of uranium from alkaline waste by amidoximated grafted polypropylene polymer matrix

    Misra, S.K.; Gandhi, P.M.; Bhardwaj, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    The amidoximated grafted polypropylene polymer matrix was prepared by post irradiation grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) onto thermally bonded non-woven matrix of poly(propylene) sheet using electron beams. This precursor polymer was reacted with hydroxylamine to convert AN to poly(acrylamidoxime) (AO) groups, and conditioned by treating them with 2.5 % KOH at 80 deg C for 1 h. The polymer matrix was having the degree of AN grafting ∼106 wt% and its subsequent conversion to AO groups ∼70 %. The water uptake capacity of AO polymer matrix were found to be 100 ± 5 % (w/w). Quantitative recovery of uranium from alkaline waste (ammonium diuranate supernatant) solution was achieved by this polymer matrix. The other radionuclides present in the waste solution were not extracted by the polymer matrix. For all other radionuclides, the uptake was found to be <6 %. (author)

  13. Hierarchically mesoporous silica materials prepared from the uniaxially stretched polypropylene membrane and surfactant templates

    Wang Xiaocong; Ma Jin; Liu Jin; Zhou Chen; Zhao, Yan; Yi Shouzhi; Yang Zhenzhong

    2006-01-01

    Hierarchically mesoporous silica materials with a bimodal distribution were template-prepared from uniaxially stretched polypropylene membrane in the presence of a surfactant via a sol-gel process. Their regularity and morphologies were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The larger channel pores formed by removing the microfibrils of uniaxially stretched polypropylene membrane have a broad pore size distribution, and their size is around 13 nm. In contrast, the smaller mesopores formed by surfactant templates have a narrow distribution; their size is about 3.9 nm. The size of the smaller pores could be tuned from 2 to 6 nm by selecting different surfactants and by changing the concentration of reactants

  14. Gamma-Irradiation modified polypropylene and nano silver hybrid films: antibacterial activity

    Oliani, Washigton L.; Alcantara, Mara T.S.; Lima, Luis F.C.P. de; Bueno, Nelson R.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: washoliani@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Huenuman, Nilton E.L.; Santos, Priscila M. dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Microbiologia; Riella, Humberto G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a study of films based on blends of polypropylene (PP) with radiation modified PP and insertion of silver nanoparticles aiming bactericide effect. The use of silver (Ag) gives important antibacterial properties since silver is highly toxic for bacteria. The blend of 50/50 PP and gamma irradiated PP was processed in a twin screw extruder. The polypropylene was processed for five PP-Nanocomposite AgNPs in different concentrations of 0.25%; 0.5%; 1.0%; 2.0% and 4.0% in wt%. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytotoxicity assay and reduction colony-forming unit (CFU). The analyzed films showed agglomeration of silver particles and regions with homogeneous distribution of the particles. The interactions of the nano silver bactericidal effect with E. coli and S. aureus were assessed. (author)

  15. Ziegler-Natta catalysts for the preparation of polypropylene clay nanocomposites from magnesium ethoxide

    Marques, Maria de Fatima V.; Silva, Micheli G. da; Ferreira, Ana Luiza R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, the process for the preparation of Ziegler-Natta catalysts based on MgCl 2 /TiCl 4 was evaluated on the synthesis of isotactic polypropylene. The catalysts were produced by the chemical activation process aiming the morphology control, in order to obtain catalyst particles with spherical form. The synthesis of the catalytic support was accomplished from magnesium ethoxide at different preparation conditions. Commercial clays were also added in the preparation of ZN catalysts, which were employed in propylene polymerization. The purpose was to synthesizing polypropylene nanocomposites by in situ polymerization technique. The results indicated that the developed methods of catalyst preparation were effective, since they have shown high activities and they produced PP with high melting temperatures. It was possible to verify by XRD that the catalytic components were inserted in the clays galleries and the polymers obtained by means of those catalysts are possibly exfoliated nanocomposites. (author)

  16. Effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot welding of polypropylene sheets

    M. K. Bilici

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tool geometry and properties on friction stir spot welding properties of polypropylene sheets were studied. Four different tool pin geometries, with varying pin angles, pin lengths, shoulder diameters and shoulder angles were used for friction stir spot welding. All the welding operations were done at the room temperature. Lap-shear tensile tests were carried out to find the weld static strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. From the experiments the effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot weld formation and weld strength were determined. The optimum tool geometry for 4 mm thick polypropylene sheets were determined. The tapered cylindrical pin gave the biggest and the straight cylindrical pin gave the lowest lap-shear fracture load.

  17. CO2-laser-assisted processing of glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    Brecher, Christian; Emonts, Michael; Schares, Richard Ludwig; Stimpfl, Joffrey

    2013-02-01

    To fully exploit the potential of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (FRTC) and to achieve a broad industrial application, automated manufacturing systems are crucial. Investigations at Fraunhofer IPT have proven that the use of laser system technology in processing FRTC allows to achieve high throughput, quality, flexibility, reproducibility and out-of-autoclave processing simultaneously. As 90% of the FRP in Europe1 are glass fiber-reinforced a high impact can be achieved by introducing laser-assisted processing with all its benefits to glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTC). Fraunhofer IPT has developed the diode laser-assisted tape placement (laying and winding) to process carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFRTC) for years. However, this technology cannot be transferred unchanged to process milky transparent GFRTC prepregs (preimpregnated fibers). Due to the short wavelength (approx. 980 nm) and therefore high transmission less than 20% of the diode laser energy is absorbed as heat into non-colored GFRTC prepregs. Hence, the use of a different wave length, e.g. CO2-laser (10.6 μm) with more than 90% laser absorption, is required to allow the full potential of laser-assisted processing of GFRTC. Also the absorption of CO2-laser radiation at the surface compared to volume absorption of diode laser radiation is beneficial for the interlaminar joining of GFRTC. Fraunhofer IPT is currently developing and investigating the CO2-laser-assisted tape placement including new system, beam guiding, process and monitoring technology to enable a resource and energy efficient mass production of GFRP composites, e.g. pipes, tanks, masts. The successful processing of non-colored glass fiber-reinforced Polypropylene (PP) and Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) has already been proven.

  18. Characterization of nylon 6/poly(propylene oxide) polymeric mixture by combined NMR techniques

    Costa, Dilma Alves; Oliveira, Clara Marize F.; Tavares, Maria Ines B.

    1995-01-01

    Polymeric mixtures aim to improve physical or chemical properties of materials. This mixtures can be compatible or not. The compatibility between polymers determine changes of properties. This work has presented a detailed study where nylon 6 and poly(propylene oxide) mixture was analysed by 13 C NMR in the solid state, and NMR spectra were shown and explained. The molecular mobility as well as the compatibility have been observed and discussed

  19. The effect of annealing on the time-dependent behavior of isotactic polypropylene at finite strains

    Drozdov, Aleksey D.; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2002-01-01

    Four series of tensile relaxation tests are performed on isotactic polypropylene at elongations up to the necking point. In the first series of experiments, injection-molded samples are used without thermal pre-treatment. In the other series, the specimens are annealed for 24 h prior to testing a...... at annealing. In the post-critical region (large strains), an increase in the fraction of active amorphous domains is attributed to disintegration of primary (thick) lamellae....

  20. Compressive and flexural strength of concrete containing palm oil biomass clinker and polypropylene fibres

    Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Mangi, Sajjad Ali; Burhanudin, M. K.; Ridzuan, M. B.; Jamaluddin, N.; Shahidan, S.; Wong, YH; Faisal, SK; Fadzil, M. A.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Ayop, S. S.; Othman, N. H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the effects of using palm oil biomass (POB) clinker with polypropylene (PP) fibres in concrete on its compressive and flexural strength performances. Due to infrastructural development works, the use of concrete in the construction industry has been increased. Simultaneously, it raises the demand natural sand, which causes depletion of natural resources. While considering the environmental and economic benefits, the utilization of industrial waste by-products in concrete will be the alternative solution of the problem. Among the waste products, one of such waste by-product is the palm oil biomass clinker, which is a waste product from burning processes of palm oil fibres. Therefore, it is important to utilize palm oil biomass clinker as partial replacement of fine aggregates in concrete. Considering the facts, an experimental study was conducted to find out the potential usage of palm oil fibres in concrete. In this study, total 48 number of specimens were cast to evaluate the compressive and flexural strength performances. Polypropylene fibre was added in concrete at the rate of 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%, and sand was replaced at a constant rate of 10% with palm oil biomass clinker. The flexural strength of concrete was noticed in the range of 2.25 MPa and 2.29 MPa, whereas, the higher value of flexural strength was recorded with 0.4% polypropylene fibre addition. Hence, these results show that the strength performances of concrete containing POB clinker could be improved with the addition of polypropylene fibre.

  1. The effect of specific beta-nucleation on morphology and mechanical behavior of isotactic polypropylene

    Kotek, Jiří; Raab, Miroslav; Baldrian, Josef; Grellmann, W.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 6 (2002), s. 1174-1184 ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/P011; GA ČR GA106/98/0718; GA AV ČR IAA4050904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : polypropylene * morphology * beta-nucleation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2002

  2. Stability of busulfan solutions in polypropylene syringes and infusion bags as determined with an original assay.

    Guichard, Nicolas; Bonnabry, Pascal; Rudaz, Serge; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2017-11-15

    The stability of busulfan solution in 0.9% sodium chloride and stored in polypropylene syringes or infusion bags was evaluated. Busulfan solutions (0.54 mg/mL) were prepared and transferred to 50-mL polypropylene syringes and 100- and 500-mL polypropylene infusion bags and stored at 2-8 and 23-27 °C. Chemical stability was measured using a stability-indicating, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method. The stability of busulfan was assessed by measuring the percentage of the initial concentration remaining at the end of each time point of analysis. The initial busulfan concentration was defined as 100%. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial busulfan concentration. A visual inspection of the samples for particulate matter, clarity, and color without instrumentation of magnification was conducted at each time point of analysis. The visual inspection demonstrated no influence of the storage container when busulfan infusions diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stored at 23-27 °C. No color change or precipitate was observed at this temperature; however, a rapid decrease of the busulfan content in all containers stored at room temperature was observed. Busulfan in syringes was chemically stable for 12 hours, while busulfan in infusion bags (100 and 500 mL) was stable only for 3 hours at 23-27 °C. Busulfan 0.54-mg/mL solution in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was physically and chemically stable for 30 hours when stored in 50-mL polypropylene syringes at 2-8 °C and protected from light. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation oxidation of polypropylene: A solid-state 13C NMR study using selective isotopic labeling

    Mowery, Daniel M.; Assink, Roger A.; Derzon, Dora K.; Klamo, Sara B.; Bernstein, Robert; Clough, Roger L.

    2007-01-01

    Polypropylene samples, in which the three different carbon atoms along the chain were selectively labeled with carbon-13, were subjected to radiation under inert and air atmospheres, and to post-irradiation exposure in air at various temperatures. By using solid-state 13 C NMR measurements at room temperature, we have been able to identify and quantify the oxidation products. The isotopic labeling provides insight into chemical reaction mechanisms, since oxidation products can be traced back to their positions of origin on the macromolecule. The major products include peroxides and alcohols, both formed at tertiary carbon sites along the chain. Other products include methyl ketones, acids, esters, peresters, and hemiketals formed from reaction at the tertiary carbon, together with in-chain ketones and esters from reaction at the secondary chain carbon. No evidence is found of products arising from reactions at the methyl side chain. Significant temperature-dependent differences are apparent; for example much higher yields of chain-end methyl ketones, which are the indicator product of chain scission, are generated for both elevated temperature irradiation and for post-irradiation treatment at elevated temperatures. Time-dependent plots of yields of the various oxidation products have been obtained under a wide range of conditions, including the post-irradiation oxidation of a sample at room temperature in air that has been monitored for 2 years. Radiation-oxidation products of polypropylene are contrasted to products measured for 13 C-labeled polyethylene in an earlier investigation: the peroxides formed in irradiated polypropylene are remarkably longer lived, the non-peroxidic products are significantly different, and the overall ratios of oxidation products in polypropylene change relatively little as a function of the extent of oxidation

  4. Study of structural modifications in the stretched polypropylene (PP) film for various ratios

    Melinte, S.; Leanca, M.; Moise, M.; Mateescu, N.

    1979-01-01

    The initial spherolitic structure of isotactic polypropylene films changes as a result of their plastic deformation. The fibrous structure fraction increases with the draw ratio. Interfibrillar ranges, formed by molecules binding adjacent microfibrils, also develop. Along interfibrillar borders there occur voids which have a special role in lending properties to the film. Amorphous orientation rises proportionally to the draw degree while the crystal lattice orientation quickly grows and is almost completed for lambda = 5. (author)

  5. Using polypropylene mesh graft for soft-tissue reconstruction in internal hemipelvectomy: a case report

    Asavamongkolkul Apichat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a patient with chondrosarcoma involving the right pelvis and contralateral pubic area in a 45-year-old male who underwent an extensive internal hemipelvectomy without bony reconstruction. We demonstrate the technique of using polypropylene mesh graft for soft-tissue reconstruction. Follow-up at 7.5 years showed a good oncological and functional outcome.

  6. Laparoscopic repair of congenital pleuroperitoneal hernia using a polypropylene mesh in a dog

    H.F. Hartmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pleuroperitoneal hernias are the most uncommon type of diaphragmatic hernias in dogs and cats. The treatment of choice is surgery and may involve the use of prosthetic implant through celiotomy. In the current report, laparoscopic repair of a congenital pleuroperitoneal hernia using polypropylene mesh in a dog is described. The surgery was feasible. Appropriate reduction of the hernia was carried out and no complications were noted.

  7. Development of bio/blood compatible polypropylene through low pressure nitrogen plasma surface modification

    Gomathi, N.; Rajasekar, R.; Babu, R. Rajesh; Mishra, Debasish; Neogi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene by nitrogen containing plasma was performed in this work in order to improve the wettability which resulted in enhanced biocompatibility and blood compatibility. Various nitrogen containing functional groups as well as oxygen containing functional groups were found to be incorporated to the polymer surface during plasma treatment and post plasma reaction respectively. Wettability of the polymers was evaluated by static contact angle measurement to show the improvement in hydrophilicity of plasma treated polypropylene. Cross linking and surface modification were reported to be dominating in the case of nitrogen plasma treatment compared to degradation. The effect of various process variables namely power, pressure, flow rate and treatment time on surface energy and weight loss was studied at various levels according to the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Except pressure the other variables resulted in increased weight loss due to etching whereas with increasing pressure weight loss was found to increase and then decrease. The effect of process variables on surface morphology of polymers was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Well spread fibroblast cells on nitrogen plasma treated polypropylene due to the presence of CO, NH 2+ and NH + was observed. Reduced platelet adhesion and increased partial thromboplastin time evidenced the increased blood compatibility. - Highlights: ► Improved biocompatibility and blood compatibility of polypropylene. ► Nitrogen plasma surface modification. ► Maintaining a balance between polar group incorporation and weight loss due to etching. ► Optimization of process conditions by response surface methodology.

  8. Comparison of efficacy of polypropylene with chromic catgut suture in stitching paediatric facial lacerations

    Hussain, A.; Ahmed, R.; Aziz, O.B.A.; Aamir, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare 5/0 polypropylene suture with 5/0 chromic catgut in small clean pediatric facial laceration repair in terms of cosmetic outcome. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial.Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from 26th May 2012 to 25th Nov 2012.Patients and Methods: A total of 300 patients of both gender under 12 years of age, with small clean facial lacerations were selected and divided in two equal groups using random number tables. All the patients underwent suturing in minor operating theater of trauma centre CMH Rawalpindi as day care cases, under local anesthesia and aseptic measures. In group 1, polypropylene 5/0 suture was used where as in group 2 chromic catgut 5/0 was used for suturing. Aseptic dressing was applied. All patients were reviewed on 5th day (for stitch removal in polypropylene group) and 3 months post-operatively to establish cosmetic outcome which was determined by scar visual analog score both by parents of the child and consultant surgeon. Results: The mean VAS (visual analog score) as observed by Consultant surgeon was 79.14 and 78.63 for polypropylene and chromic catgut groups respectively. The mean VAS observed by the parents of the child for respective groups was 76.67 and 76.03. The significance value was 0.961 for parental VAS and 0.988 for surgeons VAS depicting insignificant difference in both suture groups.Conclusion: There is no long-term difference in cosmetic outcomes of both the sutures in the repair of facial lacerations in the pediatric population. No difference in complication rate of wound was observed. In addition, the parents of the children in absorbable suture group expressed satisfaction over prevention of psychological trauma of stitch removal. (author)

  9. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  10. The effect of temperature and drawing ratio on the mechanical properties of polypropylene monofilaments

    Taheri, Hesam; Nóbrega, João Miguel; Samyn, Pieter; Covas, José Antonio

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the simultaneous effect of both temperature and drawing ratio during processing of polypropylene monofilaments has been investigated. The basis of this work specifically aims at emphasizing the conditions of temperature and drawing ratio applied in the cooling bath, in order to find out under which conditions the named parameters can be applied in a processing line under continuous extrusion. The effects of temperature are studied for a constant total drawing ratio to analyze the influences on mechanical properties and structural differences of the final polypropylene monofilament. The quenched monofilaments were drawn around an adjustable guide assembly in the quench bath and first drawing stage, imparting thermal and mechanical treatments to the filaments. In the heating stage, monofilaments are affected to high-speed draw rolls while passing through the oven. As such, the best conditions to produce a polypropylene monofilament with high tenacity strength were determined. Results of this study show that the monofilament properties are significantly affected by temperature in the cooling zone. The nature of the first drawing had a significant effect on the end properties and monofilaments with modulus of 637 MPa have finally been manufactured. We have also proposed a new hypothesis, which is termed "gap nucleation" and determine this phenomenon in the gap between die and cooling bath.

  11. Assessment of extrusion-sonication process on flame retardant polypropylene by rheological characterization

    Guadalupe Sanchez-Olivares

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the rheological behavior of flame retardant polypropylene composites produced by two methods: 1 twin-screw extrusion and 2 ultrasound application combined with a static mixer die single-screw extrusion is analyzed in detail; results are related to the morphology of the composites. The flame retardant polymer composites are composed of a polypropylene matrix, an intumescent flame retardant system and functionalized clay. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the combination of the static mixer die and on-line sonication reduced particle size and improved the dispersion and distribution of the intumescent additives in the polypropylene matrix at the micrometric level. From linear viscoelastic properties, the Han, Cole-Cole and van Gurp-Palmen diagrams characterized the improved particle dispersion of the flame retardant additives. Two well-defined rheological behaviors were observed in these diagrams. These behaviors are independent on clay presence and concentration. In fact, the ultrasound device generates a 3D highly interconnected structure similar to a co-continuous pattern observed in polymer blends as evidenced by rheological measurements. This improvement in the dispersion and distribution of the additives is attributed to the combined effect of the static mixer die and on-line sonication that allowed reducing the additive content while achieving the optimum classification UL94-V0.

  12. Catalytic copyrolysis of particle board and polypropylene over Al-MCM-48

    Kim, Hannah; Choi, Suek Ju [School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Man [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jong-Ki [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan 31080 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Hoon; Jung, Sang-Chul [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Chai [Department of Environmental Education, Mokpo National University, Muan 58554 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Kwon, E-mail: catalica@uos.ac.kr [School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Al-MCM-48 was used for catalytic copyrolysis of particle board and polypropylene. • Catalytic produced mainly hydrocarbons. • The hydrocarbons produced were mainly in the diesel range. - Abstract: Particle board and polypropylene (PP) at a mixing ratio of 1:1 were copyrolyzed over two Al-MCM-48 catalysts with Si/Al ratios of 20 and 80. The catalyst characteristics were examined by measuring the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia, and X-ray diffraction. The main pyrolysis products of particle board were oxygenates, acids, and phenolics, whereas a large quantity of hydrocarbons within the diesel fuel range was produced from copyrolysis with polypropylene. The catalytic copyrolysis of particle board and PP over the Al-MCM-48 catalysts produced bio-oil with a much larger hydrocarbon content than that from the catalytic pyrolysis of particle board only. The hydrocarbons produced were mainly in the diesel range, highlighting the potential for the production of high-quality fuel.

  13. Polypropylene film with silver nanoparticles and nanoclay aiming to action biocidal

    Oliani, W.L.; Lima, L.F.C.P.; Lugao, A.B.; Parra, D.F.; Fermino, D.M.; Diaz, F.R.V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an initial study of films made of polypropylene nanoclay and silver nanoparticles. The nanocomposite of polypropylene (iPP), commercial organoclay - montmorillonite (MMT), Cloisite 20A at concentrations of 1.0% and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at a concentration of 0.1% were prepared in a twin-screw-extruder, using polypropylene with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) as coupling agent. The properties of nanocomposites of PP/MMT/AgNPs are closely related to the dispersion of silver particles and the distribution of sheets of MMT in the polymer matrix, which define its efficiency in the case of the particles and their interaction clay/polymer matrix. However, this combination of MMT and AgNPs that are polar, with the polymer matrix nonpolar in the molten state, presents a challenge. The characterization of the film was performed by analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and reduction of colony forming unit (CFU %). The results indicate the formation of predominantly exfoliated microstructures and agglomeration of silver nanoparticles in the film. The effect of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against bacteria E.coli and S.aureus. (author)

  14. Surgical treatment of subcostal incisional hernia with polypropylene mesh - analysis of late results

    Marco Antonio de Oliveira Peres

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of subcostal incisional hernia repair using polypropylene mesh, the technical aspects of musculo-aponeurotic reconstruction, routine fixation of supra-aponeurotic mesh and follow-up for five years.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study that assessed 24 patients undergoing subcostal incisional hernia repair with use of polypropylene mesh; 15 patients (62.5% were female; ages ranged from 33 to 82, and 79.1% had comorbidities.RESULTS: Early complications: three cases (12.5% of wound infection, three cases (12.5% of seroma, one case (4.1% of hematoma; and one case (4.1% of wound dehiscence. Late complications occurred in one case (4.1% of hernia recurrence attributed to technical failure in the fixation of the mesh and in one case (4.1% of chronic pain. There were no cases of exposure or rejection of the mesh.CONCLUSION: The subcostal incisional hernia, though not very relevant, requires adequate surgical treatment. Its surgical correction involves rebuilding the muscle-aponeurotic defect, supra-aponeurotic fixation of polypropylene mesh, with less complexity and lower rates of complications and recurrences.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR ENHANCED MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE TERNARY NANOCOMPOSITES

    Oladipupo Olaosebikan Ogunleye

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of Polypropylene ternary nanocomposites (PPTN was accomplished by blending multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT in polypropylene/clay binary system using a melt intercalation method. The effects of MWCNT loadings (A, melting temperature (B and mixing speed (C were investigated and optimized using central composite design. The analysis of the fitted cubic model clearly indicated that A and B were the main factors influencing the tensile properties at a fixed value of C. However, the analysis of variance showed that the interactions between the process parameters, such as; AB, AC, AB2, A2B and ABC, were highly significant on both tensile strength and Young’s modulus enhancement, while no interaction is significant in all models considered for elongation. The established optimal conditions gave 0.17%, 165 °C, and 120 rpm for A, B and C, respectively. These conditions yielded a percentage increase of 57 and 63% for tensile strength and Young’s modulus respectively compared to the virgin Polypropylene used.

  16. A novel technique for distal fingertip replantation: Polypropylene suture guided interpositional vein graft.

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bitik, Ozan; Uzun, Hakan; Bilgen, Fatma

    2015-05-04

    Despite current advances in microsurgery, fingertip replantation is still controversial, mainly due to its difficulty and cost. The purpose of this study is to describe a new technique of interposition vein graft guided by polypropylene suture in distal fingertip replantation. A total of eight consecutive Tamai zone 1 fingertip replantations performed by the same author were included. All replantations were performed using interposition vein graft guided by polypropylene suture. This technique involved a vein graft of ∼ 2 cm, with appropriate calibration, obtained from the volar part of the forearm and a 2-0 polyprolene suture passed through the interposition vein graft. Then, a polypropylene suture guide carrying the vein graft was inserted into the artery. The anastomosis was easily performed with the aid of 10-0 or 11-0 nylon in a bloodless medium and without encountering the posterior wall problem. Average surgery time was 2.5 hours (range = 2-3 hours). Among eight Tamai zone 1 replantations, six were successful (75%). There were two replantations lost because of arterial failure. This technique may ease fingertip replantations and increase the success rate for Tamai zone 1 injuries.

  17. Study of Tensile Properties and Deflection Temperature of Polypropylene/Subang Pineapple Leaf Fiber Composites

    Hafizhah, R.; Juwono, A. L.; Roseno, S.

    2017-05-01

    The development of eco-friendly composites has been increasing in the past four decades because the requirement of eco-friendly materials has been increasing. Indonesia has a lot of natural fiber resources and, pineapple leaf fiber is one of those fibers. This study aimed to determine the influence of weight fraction of pineapple leaf fibers, that were grown at Subang, to the tensile properties and the deflection temperature of polypropylene/Subang pineapple leaf fiber composites. Pineapple leaf fibers were pretreated by alkalization, while polypropylene pellets, as the matrix, were extruded into sheets. Hot press method was used to fabricate the composites. The results of the tensile test and Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) test showed that the composites that contained of 30 wt.% pineapple leaf fiber was the best composite. The values of tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and deflection temperature were (64.04 ± 3.91) MPa; (3.98 ± 0.55) GPa and (156.05 ± 1.77) °C respectively, in which increased 187.36%, 198.60%, 264.72% respectively from the pristine polypropylene. The results of the observation on the fracture surfaces showed that the failure modes were fiber breakage and matrix failure.

  18. Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy for recurrent pelvic organ prolapse after failed transvaginal polypropylene mesh surgery.

    Schmid, Corina; O'Rourke, Peter; Maher, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    A prospective case series to assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy for the surgical management of recurrent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) after transvaginal polypropylene mesh prolapse surgery. Between January and December 2010, women with post-hysterectomy recurrent prolapse (≥ stage 2 POP-Q) after transvaginal polypropylene mesh prolapse surgery were included. Perioperative morbidity and short-term complications were recorded and evaluated. Surgical outcomes were objectively assessed utilising the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system (POP-Q), the validated, condition-specific Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire (APFQ) and the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) at 12 months. All 16 women in this study had undergone surgery with trocar-guided transvaginal polypropylene mesh kits. In 75% the recurrent prolapse affected the compartment of prior mesh surgery with the anterior (81%) and apical (75%) compartment prolapse predominating. At a mean follow-up of 12 months, all women had resolution of awareness of prolapse, had transvaginal mesh surgery is feasible and safe. Further widespread evaluation is required.

  19. Thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of poly (hydroxybutyrate and polypropylene blends after processing

    Wagner Mauricio Pachekoski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing accumulation of plastic waste in the environment has motivated research on polymers that degrade rapidly after being discarded as possible substitutes for conventional inert plastics. Biodegradable polymers can be an alternative, since they have non-toxic residual products and low environmental permanence. Poly (hydroxybutyrate is a biodegradable polymer with a strong potential for industrial purposes, but its thermal instability and fragility limit its applications. Thus, an alternative to improve the processability and properties of poly (hydroxybutyrate is to mix it with another polymer, not necessarily a biodegradable one. In this work, different mixtures of poly(hydroxybutyrate or PHB and polypropylene or PP were extruded and injected. After processing, the blends were studied and their miscibility, mechanical properties and degradability in different soils were analyzed. The main results indicated that the PHB/PP blends had better mechanical properties than pure PHB, as well as improved immiscibility and higher degradation in alkaline soil. The poly-hydroxybutyrate/polypropylene blends showed a tendency for lower crystallinity and stiffness of the polymer matrix, proportional to the amount of polypropylene in the blends, rendering them less stiff and fragile. The degradation tests showed that both pure PHB and blends with 90% PHB and 10% PP were degraded, with loss of their mechanical properties and weight.

  20. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods.

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.