WorldWideScience

Sample records for glass test tubes

  1. Failure analysis of glass-ceramic insulators of shock tested vacuum (neutron) tubes

    Spears, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Eight investigative techniques were used to examine the glass-ceramic insulators in vacuum (neutron) tubes. The insulators were extracted from units that had been subjected to low temperature mechanical shock tests. Two of the three units showed reduced neutron output after these tests and an insulator on one of these two was cracked completely through which probably occurred during shock testing. The objective of this study was to determine if any major differences existed between the insulators of these tubes. After eight analyses, it was concluded that no appreciable differences existed. It appeared that cracking of the one glass-ceramic sample was initiated at inner-sleeve interface voids. For this sample, the interface void density was much higher than is presently acceptable. All insulators were made with glass-ceramic having a Na 2 O content of 4.6 wt%. An increased Na 2 O content will cause an increase in the coefficient of expansion and will reduce the residual stress level since the molybdenum has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than the insulator. Thus, it is believed that a decrease in interface voids and an increase in Na 2 O should aid in reduced cracking of the insulator during these tests

  2. Structural integrity testing of glass-ceramic/molybdenum vacuum tube frames

    Spears, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    In this study, vacuum tube subassemblies made of glass-ceramic insulators sealed to inner and outer molybdenum frames were loaded in compression to failure with a tensile test machine. Several factors were varied in processing these subassemblies. These factors included etching and nonetching of molybdenum piece parts, annealing and nonannealing of subassemblies, and vapor and non-vapor honing of insulators after sealing. After failure, the subassemblies were examined for fracture patterns. In most cases, fracture started at points near the lower portion of the inner sleeve-insulator interface. More load was carried by subassemblies having molybdenum piece parts that were acid etched. No difference appeared between the strength of subassemblies having annealed and nonannealed glass-ceramic insulators. Parts with vapor-honed insulators failed at substantially lower loads

  3. Field survey and laboratory tests on composite materials case of GRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester tubes for water suply

    Radu Hariga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Moldova land, were made two lines of water adduction, having 6000 m length and 40 m slope, or 1/150 slope. The water supply component tubes were disposed under the plant: The tubes are made of glass – reinforced thermosetting plastics (GRP. After about 180 days of operation, one of the lines showed severe deterioration of the quality pipe components. This paper deals with some laboratory tests in order to detect the failure cases of the pipelines components.

  4. Mechanical Characterization of Basalt and Glass Fiber Epoxy Composite Tube

    Lapena, Mauro Henrique; Marinucci, Gerson

    2017-01-01

    The application of basalt fibers are possible in many areas thanks to its multiple and good properties. It exhibits excellent resistance to alkalis, similar to glass fiber, at a much lower cost than carbon and aramid fibers. In the present paper, a comparative study on mechanical properties of basalt and E-glass fiber composites was performed. Results of apparent hoop tensile strength test of ring specimens cut from tubes and the interlaminar shear stress (ILSS) test are presented. Tensile te...

  5. Incorporation of tv tube glass waste in aluminous porcelain

    Holanda, J.N.F.; Santos, T.F.; Paes Junior, H.R. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full test: This work analyzes the reuse of TV tube glass waste as a method to provide alternative raw material for aluminous porcelain, through of replacement of natural sodic feldspar by up to 30 wt.%. Aluminous porcelain formulations containing TV tube glass waste were pressed and fired in air at 1300 deg C using a fast-firing cycle. Ceramic pieces were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, linear shrinkage, apparent density, apparent porosity, water absorption, and electrical resistivity. XRD and SEM results indicated that all aluminous porcelain pieces are composed essentially of mullite, quartz, and ?-alumina embedded in a vitreous matrix. The results also showed that the aluminous porcelain pieces containing TV tube glass waste presented low water absorption values between 0.42 and 0.45 %, apparent density between 2.44 and 2.46 g/cm3, and volume electrical resistivity between 1.91 and 2.93 x 1011 ?.cm. Thus, the TV tube glass waste could be used into aluminous porcelain formulations, in the range up to 30 wt.%, as a replacement for traditional flux material (sodic feldspar). (author)

  6. Utilization of recycled glass derived from cathode ray tube glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → A recycling/treatment process to remove lead on funnel glass surface is described. → Utilizing recycled funnel glass in mortar can reduce hazardous CRT glass wastes. → Effects of CRT glass content on the properties of cement mortar are studied. → Fly ash can effectively mitigate ASR expansion of mortar even at 100% glass content. → Alkaline medium in cement matrix successfully prevented the leaching of lead. - Abstract: Rapid advances in the electronic industry led to an excessive amount of early disposal of older electronic devices such as computer monitors and old televisions (TV) before the end of their useful life. The management of cathode ray tubes (CRT), which have been a key component in computer monitors and TV sets, has become a major environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop sustainable alternative methods to manage hazardous CRT glass waste. This study assesses the feasibility of utilizing CRT glass as a substitute for natural aggregates in cement mortar. The CRT glass investigated was an acid-washed funnel glass of dismantled CRT from computer monitors and old TV sets. The mechanical properties of mortar mixes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of CRT glass were investigated. The potential of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and leachability of lead were also evaluated. The results confirmed that the properties of the mortar mixes prepared with CRT glass was similar to that of the control mortar using sand as fine aggregate, and displayed innocuous behaviour in the ASR expansion test. Incorporating CRT glass in cement mortar successfully prevented the leaching of lead. We conclude that it is feasible to utilize CRT glass in cement mortar production.

  7. Physical Characteristics and Technology of Glass Foam from Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass

    G. Mucsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the laboratory investigation of cathode-ray-tube- (CRT- glass-based glass foam, the so-called “Geofil-Bubbles” which can be applied in many fields, mainly in the construction industry (lightweight concrete aggregate, thermal and sound insulation, etc.. In this study, the main process engineering material properties of raw materials, such as particle size distribution, moisture content, density, and specific surface area, are shown. Then, the preparation of raw cathode ray tube glass waste is presented including the following steps: crushing, grinding, mixing, heat curing, coating, and sintering. Experiments were carried out to optimize process circumstances. Effects of sintering conditions—such as temperature, residence time, and particle size fraction of green pellet—on the mechanical stability and particle density of glass foam particles were investigated. The mechanical stability (abrasion resistance was tested by abrasion test in a Deval drum. Furthermore, the cell structure was examined with optical microscopy and SEM. We found that it was possible to produce foam glass (with proper mechanical stability and particle density from CRT glass. The material characteristics of the final product strongly depend on the sintering conditions. Optimum conditions were determined: particle size fraction was found to be 4–6 mm, temperature 800°C, and residence time 7.5 min.

  8. Study of the performances of acoustic emission testing for glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes containing defects; Etude des performances du controle par emission acoustique de tubes en materiaux composites resine-fibre de verre contenant des defauts

    Villard, D.; Vidal, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes are more and more often used, in nuclear power plants, for building or replacement of water pipings classified `nuclear safety`. Tests have been performed to evaluate the performances of acoustic emission testing for in service inspection of these components. The tests were focused on glass fibre reinforced polyester and vinyl-ester pipes, in as received conditions or containing impacts, and intentionally introduced defects. They have been carried out by CETIM, following the ASTM Standard E 1118 (code CARP), to a maximum pressure lever of 25 Bar The results show that the CARP procedure can be used for detection of defects and evaluation of their noxiousness towards internal pressure: most of the tubes containing low energy impacts could not be distinguished from tubes without defect; on the other hand the important noxiousness of lacks of impregnation of roving layer appeared clearly. Complementary tests have been performed on some tubes at a more important pressure lever, for which the damage of the tubes in enough to deteriorate there elastic properties. The results showed that CARP procedure give valuable informations on damage level. It would be interesting to evaluate acoustic emission on tubes containing realistic in-service degradations. (author). 11 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs., 2 appends.

  9. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements

  10. Laboratory testing of LITCO glasses

    Ellison, A.; Wolf, S.; Buck, E.; Luo, J.S.; Dietz, N.; Bates, J.K.; Ebert, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to measure, the intermediate and long-term durability of glasses developed by Lockheed Idaho Technology Co. (LITCO) for the immobilization of calcined radioactive wastes. The objective is to use accelerated corrosion tests as an aid in developing durable waste form compositions. This is a report of tests performed on two LITCO glass compositions, Formula 127 and Formula 532. The main avenue for release of radionuclides into the environment in a geologic repository is the reaction of a waste glass with ground water, which alters the glass and releases its components into solution. These stages in glass corrosion are analyzed by using accelerated laboratory tests in which the ratio of sample surface area to solution volume, SA/V, is varied. At low SA/V, the solution concentrations of glass corrosion products remain low and the reaction approaches the forward rate. At higher SA/V the solution approaches saturation levels for glass corrosion products. At very high SA/V the solution is rapidly saturated in glass corrosion products and secondary crystalline phases precipitate. Tests at very high SA/V provide information about the composition of the solution at saturation or, when no solution is recovered, the identities and the order of appearance of secondary crystalline phases. Tests were applied to Formula 127 and Formula 532 glasses to provide information about the interim and long-term stages in glass corrosion

  11. Liquid-Nitrogen Test for Blocked Tubes

    Wagner, W. R.

    1984-01-01

    Nondestructive test identifies obstructed tube in array of parallel tubes. Trickle of liquid nitrogen allowed to flow through tube array until array accumulates substantial formation of frost from moisture in air. Flow stopped and warm air introduced into inlet manifold to heat tubes in array. Tubes still frosted after others defrosted identified as obstructed tubes. Applications include inspection of flow systems having parallel legs.

  12. A Study on Thermal Performance of a Novel All-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Collector Manifold Header with an Inserted Tube

    Jichun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel all-glass evacuated tube collector manifold header with an inserted tube is proposed in this paper which makes water in all-glass evacuated solar collector tube be forced circulated to improve the performance of solar collector. And a dynamic numerical model was presented for the novel all-glass evacuated tube collector manifold header water heater system. Also, a test rig was built for model validation and comparison with traditional all-glass evacuated tube collector. The experiment results show that the efficiency of solar water heater with a novel collector manifold header is higher than traditional all-glass evacuated tube collector by about 5% and the heat transfer model of water heater system is valid. Based on the model, the relationship between the average temperature of water tank and inserted tube diameter (water mass flow has been studied. The results show that the optimized diameter of inserted tube is 32 mm for the inner glass with the diameter of 47 mm and the water flow mass should be less than 1.6 Kg/s.

  13. Tritium application: self-luminous glass tube(SLGT)

    Kim, K.; Lee, S.K.; Chung, E.S.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, W.S.; Nam, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    To manufacture SLGTs (self-luminous glass tubes), 4 core technologies are needed: coating technology, tritium injection technology, laser sealing/cutting technology and tritium handling technology. The inside of the glass tubes is coated with greenish ZnS phosphor particles with sizes varying from 4∝5 [μm], and Cu, and Al as an activator and a co-dopant, respectively. We also found that it would be possible to produce a phosphor coated glass tube for the SLGT using the well established cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) bulb manufacturing technology. The conceptual design of the main process loop (PL) is almost done. A delicate technique will be needed for the sealing/cutting of the glass tubes. Instead of the existing torch technology, a new technology using a pulse-type laser is under investigation. The design basis of the tritium handling facilities is to minimize the operator's exposure to tritium uptake and the emission of tritium to the environment. To fulfill the requirements, major tritium handling components are located in the secondary containment such as the glove boxes (GBs) and/or the fume hoods. The tritium recovery system (TRS) is connected to a GB and PL to minimize the release of tritium as well as to remove the moisture and oxygen in the GB. (orig.)

  14. Tritium application: self-luminous glass tube(SLGT)

    Kim, K.; Lee, S.K.; Chung, E.S.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, W.S. [Nuclear Power Lab., Korea Electric Power Research Inst. (KEPRI), Daejeon (Korea); Nam, G.J. [Engineering Information Technology Center, Inst. for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Kyonggi-do (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    To manufacture SLGTs (self-luminous glass tubes), 4 core technologies are needed: coating technology, tritium injection technology, laser sealing/cutting technology and tritium handling technology. The inside of the glass tubes is coated with greenish ZnS phosphor particles with sizes varying from 4{proportional_to}5 [{mu}m], and Cu, and Al as an activator and a co-dopant, respectively. We also found that it would be possible to produce a phosphor coated glass tube for the SLGT using the well established cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) bulb manufacturing technology. The conceptual design of the main process loop (PL) is almost done. A delicate technique will be needed for the sealing/cutting of the glass tubes. Instead of the existing torch technology, a new technology using a pulse-type laser is under investigation. The design basis of the tritium handling facilities is to minimize the operator's exposure to tritium uptake and the emission of tritium to the environment. To fulfill the requirements, major tritium handling components are located in the secondary containment such as the glove boxes (GBs) and/or the fume hoods. The tritium recovery system (TRS) is connected to a GB and PL to minimize the release of tritium as well as to remove the moisture and oxygen in the GB. (orig.)

  15. Freezing of aluminium oxide and iron flowing upward in circular quartz glass tubes

    Kuhn, D.; Moeschke, M.; Werle, H.

    1983-10-01

    The freezing of aluminium oxide and iron flowing upward in circular quartz glass tubes has been studied in a series of experiments. Several tubes were used in the same test. This demonstrated a good reproducibility and allowed systematic parameter variations, especially of the channel diameter. The time-dependance of the penetration was observed with a film camera and these date provide a good basis for a detailed check of sophisticated models which are in development. (orig.) [de

  16. External glass peening of zircaloy calandria tubes to increase the critical heat flux

    Fong, R.W.L.; Coleman, C.E.; Nitheanandan, T.; Kroeger, V.D.; Moyer, R.G.; Sanderson, D.B.; Root, J.H.; Rogge, R.B.

    1997-12-01

    Glass-peening the outside surfaces of Zircaloy calandria tubes increases the nucleation sites available for boiling heat transfer and has been demonstrated to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) in pool-boiling experiments. The objective of this study is to optimise the heat-transfer enhancement by glass peening while ensuring that the microstructure of the peened tube is acceptable for reactor use. Pool-boiling tests were done using small Zircaloy tubes with as-received ('smooth') surfaces and variously peened surfaces, to evaluate two peening parameters, glass-bead size and the coverage of peened surface. Our results showed that the maximum enhancement of CHF (by 60% compared with as-received tubes) was obtained using a glass-bead size of 90-125 μm with a coverage of 100%. The CHF enhancement was found to be insensitive to glass-bead size over a wide range (from 60-90 μm to 125-180 μm). Using a fixed glass-bead size of 125-180 μm to evaluate the influence of peening coverage, the maximum effect on the CHF response was obtained with a coverage of 1 00%. The microstructures of the peened tubes were evaluated using light microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, and mechanical tests. After peening, the microstructure in the subsurface layer (-30 μm) consisted of deformed α-Zr grains, and the crystallographic texture of the grains changed slightly. After stress-relieving at 500 degrees C for 1 h, some recrystallisation had occurred and the residual strains remaining in the tube were low. The tensile and burst properties of glass-peened and stress-relieved tubes were similar to those of as-received tubes. The microstructures introduced by peening and stress relieving were judged to have little effect on creep and growth behaviour. Since there are no deleterious consequences of the glass-peening treatment, the peened and stress-relieved tubes are found to be acceptable for reactor use. (author)

  17. 40 CFR 426.100 - Applicability; description of the glass tubing (Danner) manufacturing subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... glass tubing (Danner) manufacturing subcategory. 426.100 Section 426.100 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Glass Tubing (Danner) Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.100 Applicability; description of the glass tubing (Danner) manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  18. Development of Self-Luminous Glass Tube (SLGT) Manufacturing Technology

    Kim, Kwang Sin; Kim, Kyeong Sook; Chung, Eun Su; Song, Kyu Min; Lee, Sook Kyung; Son, Soon Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Tritium produced from the Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility (WTRF) will be a radioactive waste when it is stored in the vault inside the WTRF, which requires maintenance cost and is a troublesome waste such that it cannot be sent to the radioactive waste disposal facility. However, when tritium is utilized it can be valuable resource for many applications. As a starting point to utilize tritium we tried to domesticate the selfluminous glass tube (SLGT) manufacturing technology. As a hydrogen isotope, tritium has similar chemical properties to hydrogen but slightly different physical properties. Due to its unstable nature, tritium emits beta rays, which are streams of electrons, with 0∼18.6 keV (5.7 keV in average) energies and 12.323 years of a half-life. The energy level of tritium is relatively low and the biological effects of tritium to the human body are not significant, which makes tritium a popular radioactive isotope for use in industries. The electrons in a beta ray collide with phosphor to produce light so that tritium sealed in phosphor coated glass tubes can make the tubes glow without an external supply of energy. To manufacture these SLGTs, 4 core technologies are needed: coating technology, tritium injection technology, laser sealing/cutting technology and tritium handling technology

  19. Determining optical and radiation characteristics of cathode ray tubes' glass to be reused as radiation shielding glass

    Zughbi, A.; Kharita, M. H.; Shehada, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    A new method of recycling glass of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) has been presented in this paper. The glass from CRTs suggested being used as raw materials for the production of radiation shielding glass. Cathode ray tubes glass contains considerable amounts of environmentally hazardous toxic wastes, namely heavy metal oxides such as lead oxide (PbO). This method makes CRTs glass a favorable choice to be used as raw material for Radiation Shielding Glass and concrete. The heavy metal oxides increase its density, which make this type of glass nearly equivalent to commercially available shielding glass. CRTs glass have been characterized to determine heavy oxides content, density, refractive index, and radiation shielding properties for different Gamma-Ray energies. Empirical methods have been used by using the Gamma-Ray source cobalt-60 and computational method by using the code XCOM. Measured and calculated values were in a good compatibility. The effects of irradiation by gamma rays of cobalt-60 on the optical transparency for each part of the CRTs glass have been studied. The Results had shown that some parts of CRTs glass have more resistant to Gamma radiation than others. The study had shown that the glass of cathode ray tubes could be recycled to be used as radiation shielding glass. This proposed use of CRT glass is only limited to the available quantity of CRT world-wide.

  20. Determining optical and radiation characteristics of cathode ray tubes' glass to be reused as radiation shielding glass

    Zughbi, A.; Kharita, M.H.; Shehada, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    A new method of recycling glass of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) has been presented in this paper. The glass from CRTs suggested being used as raw materials for the production of radiation shielding glass. Cathode ray tubes glass contains considerable amounts of environmentally hazardous toxic wastes, namely heavy metal oxides such as lead oxide (PbO). This method makes CRTs glass a favorable choice to be used as raw material for Radiation Shielding Glass and concrete. The heavy metal oxides increase its density, which make this type of glass nearly equivalent to commercially available shielding glass. CRTs glass have been characterized to determine heavy oxides content, density, refractive index, and radiation shielding properties for different Gamma-Ray energies. Empirical methods have been used by using the Gamma-Ray source cobalt-60 and computational method by using the code XCOM. Measured and calculated values were in a good compatibility. The effects of irradiation by gamma rays of cobalt-60 on the optical transparency for each part of the CRTs glass have been studied. The Results had shown that some parts of CRTs glass have more resistant to Gamma radiation than others. The study had shown that the glass of cathode ray tubes could be recycled to be used as radiation shielding glass. This proposed use of CRT glass is only limited to the available quantity of CRT world-wide. - Highlights: • A new method of recycling glass of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) has been presented. • The glass from CRTs used as raw materials for radiation shielding glass. • The resulted glass have good optical properties and stability against radiations.

  1. Atmospheres in a Test Tube

    Claudi, R.; Erculiani, M. S.; Giro, E.; D'Alessandro, M.; Galletta, G.

    2013-09-01

    The "Atmosphere in a Test Tube" project is a laboratory experiment that will be able to reproduce condition of extreme environments by means of a simulator. These conditions span from those existing inside some parts of the human body to combinations of temperatures, pressures, irradiation and atmospheric gases present on other planets. In this latter case the experiments to be performed will be useful as preliminary tests for both simulation of atmosphere of exoplanets and Solar System planets and Astrobiology experiments that should be performed by planetary landers or by instruments to be launched in the next years. In particular at INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padova Laboratory we are approaching the characterization of extrasolar planet atmospheres taking advantage by innovative laboratory experiments with a particular focus on low mass Neptunes and Super earths and low mass M dwarfs primaries.

  2. Tests of compressed geometry NEC acceleration tubes

    Raatz, J.E.; Rathmell, R.D.; Stelson, P.H.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Tests have been performed in the 3 MV Pelletron test machine at NEC on a compressed geometry tube which increases the insulating length of the tube by eliminating the heated electrode assemblies (approx.2.5 cm thick) at the end of each tube section. Some insert electrodes are changed to provide some trapping of secondary ions. The geometry tested provided an 18% increase in live ceramic in the tube. The compressed geometry tube allowed a terminal voltage of 3.55 MV on the 3 MV column at normal gradients of 30.3 kv/tube gap. The tube was also conditioned to more than 4 MV and remained stable in voltage with few sparks and with low x-ray levels for days at about 4 MV. This same performance could be achieved with or without arc discharge cleaning. 4 refs., 4 figs

  3. Decolorization of dyeing wastewater in continuous photoreactors using tio2 coated glass tube media

    Jutaporn Chanathaworn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with a decolorization development of malachite green (MG dyeing wastewater using TiO2 thin films coated glass tube media in photoreactor. The TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by three methods: TTIP sol-gel, TiO2 powder-modified sol, and TiO2 powder suspension coating on raschig ring glass tube media and was investigated crystallinity phase by SEM, XRD, and AFM. Degradation kinetics of the dyeing wastewater by photocatalytic was carried out under UV light irradiation. The Langmuir first-order model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The catalyst prepared by powder suspension technique and coated on glass tube had given the highest of decolorization kinetics and efficiency. Continuous photoreactor packed with the TiO2 coating media was designed and proven to be the high effectiveness for MG dyeing degradation and stable throughout the recyclability test. The light intensity, dye solution flow rate, and TiO2 loading were the most important parameters that response to decolorization efficiency. The optimum condition of photo decolorization of MG dye solution can be obtained from RSM model. Effectiveness of the synthesized TiO2 thin films using suspension technique and the continuous photoreactor design were obtained with a great potential to be proven for wastewater treatment at industrial scale.

  4. Atmosphere in a Test Tube

    Claudi, R.; Pace, E.; Ciaravella, A.; Micela, G.; Piccioni, G.; Billi, D.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Coccola, L.; Erculiani, M. S.; Fedel, M.; Galletta, G.; Giro, E.; La Rocca, N.; Morosinotto, T.; Poletto, L.; Schierano, D.; Stefani, S.

    The ancestor philosophers' dream of thousand of new world is finally realised: more than 1800 extrasolar planets have been discovered in the neighborhood of our Sun. Most of them are very different from those we used to know in our Solar System. Others orbit the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Space missions, as JWST and the very recently proposed ARIEL, or ground based instruments, like SPHERE@VLT, GPI@GEMINI and EPICS@ELT, have been proposed and built to measure the atmospheric transmission, reflection and emission spectra over a wide wavelength range of these new worlds. In order to interpret the spectra coming out by this new instrumentation, it is important to know in detail the optical characteristics of gases in the typical physical conditions of the planetary atmospheres and how those characteristics could be affected by radiation driven photochemical and bio-chemical reaction. Insights in this direction can be achieved from laboratory studies of simulated planetary atmosphere of different pressure and temperature conditions under the effects of radiation sources, used as proxies of different bands of the stellar emission. ''Atmosphere in a Test Tube'' is a collaboration among several Italian astronomical, biological and engineering institutes in order to share their experiencece in performing laboratory experiments on several items concerning extrasolar planet atmospheres.

  5. Eddy current tube testing unit

    Dufayet, J.P.; Duret, G.

    1975-01-01

    The unit described can check a wide variety of tubes in quick succession and its modular design gives it a high degree of versability. Suitably defined working conditions and specific fittings enable most of the faults encountered in the manufacture of a tube to be detected. By appropriate means of selection based on signal amplitude, phase and frequency analyses it is possible to adapt selection criteria to the seriousness of the different categories of defect [fr

  6. Effects of Oxidation and fractal surface roughness on the wettability and critical heat flux of glass-peened zirconium alloy tubes

    Fong, R.W.L.; Nitheanandan, T.; Bullock, C.D.; Slater, L.F.; McRae, G.A.

    2003-05-01

    Glass-bead peening the outside surfaces of zirconium alloy tubes has been shown to increase the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of water. The CHF is found to correlate with the fractal roughness of the metal tube surfaces. In this study on the effect of oxidation on glass-peened surfaces, test measurements for CHF, surface wettability and roughness have been evaluated using various glass-peened and oxidized zirconium alloy tubes. The results show that oxidation changes the solid-liquid contact angle (i.e., decreases wettability of the metal-oxide surface), but does not change the fractal surface roughness, appreciably. Thus, oxidation of the glass-peened surfaces of zirconium alloy tubes is not expected to degrade the CHF enhancement obtained by glass-bead peening. (author)

  7. Mechanical strength evaluation of the glass base material in the JRR-3 neutron guide tube

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    The lifetime of the thermal neutron guide tube installed JRR-3 was investigated after 6 years from their first installation. And it was confirmed that a crack had been piercing into the glass base material of the side plate of the neutron guide tube. The cause of the crack was estimated as a static fatigue of the guide tube where an inside of the tube had been evacuated and stressed as well as an embrittlement of the glass base material by gamma ray irradiation. In this report, we evaluate the mechanical strength of the glass base material and estimate the time when the base material gets fatigue fracture. Furthermore, we evaluate a lifetime of the neutron guide tube and confirm the validity of update timing in 2000 and 2001 when the thermal neutron guide tubes T1 and T2 were exchanged into those using the super mirror. (author)

  8. Crash worthy capacity of a hybridized epoxy-glass fiber aluminum columnar tube using repeated axial resistive force

    Paruka, Perowansa [Jalan Politeknik, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia); Siswanto, Waluyo Adi [Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja (Malaysia); Maleque, Md Abdul [Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Shah, Mohd Kamal Mohd [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    A combination of aluminum columnar member with composite laminate to form a hybrid structure can be used as collapsible energy absorbers especially in automotive vehicular structures to protect occupants and cargo. A key advantage of aluminum member in composite is that it provides ductile and stable plastic collapse mechanisms with progressive deformation in a stable manner by increasing energy absorption during collision. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the influence of the number of hybrid epoxy glass layers in overwrap composite columnar tubes. Three columnar tube specimens were used and fabricated by hand lay-up method. Aluminum square hollow shape was combined with externally wrapped by using an isophthalic epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber skin with an orientation angle of 0 .deg. /90 .deg. The aluminum columnar tube was used as reference material. Crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes were prepared using one, two, and three layers to determine the crash worthy capacity. Quasi-static crush test was conducted using INSTRON machine with an axial loading. Results showed that crush force and the number of layers were related to the enhancement of energy absorption before the collapse of columnar tubes. The energy absorption properties of the crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes improved significantly with the addition of layers in the overwrap. Microscopic analysis on the modes of epoxy-glass fiber laminate failure was conducted by using scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Crash worthy capacity of a hybridized epoxy-glass fiber aluminum columnar tube using repeated axial resistive force

    Paruka, Perowansa; Siswanto, Waluyo Adi; Maleque, Md Abdul; Shah, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2015-01-01

    A combination of aluminum columnar member with composite laminate to form a hybrid structure can be used as collapsible energy absorbers especially in automotive vehicular structures to protect occupants and cargo. A key advantage of aluminum member in composite is that it provides ductile and stable plastic collapse mechanisms with progressive deformation in a stable manner by increasing energy absorption during collision. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the influence of the number of hybrid epoxy glass layers in overwrap composite columnar tubes. Three columnar tube specimens were used and fabricated by hand lay-up method. Aluminum square hollow shape was combined with externally wrapped by using an isophthalic epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber skin with an orientation angle of 0 .deg. /90 .deg. The aluminum columnar tube was used as reference material. Crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes were prepared using one, two, and three layers to determine the crash worthy capacity. Quasi-static crush test was conducted using INSTRON machine with an axial loading. Results showed that crush force and the number of layers were related to the enhancement of energy absorption before the collapse of columnar tubes. The energy absorption properties of the crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes improved significantly with the addition of layers in the overwrap. Microscopic analysis on the modes of epoxy-glass fiber laminate failure was conducted by using scanning electron microscopy.

  10. ILAW Glass Testing for Disposal at IDF: Phase 1 Testing

    Papathanassiu, Adonia [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Virteous State Lab.; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Virteous State Lab.; Brandys, Marek [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Virteous State Lab.; Gilbo, Konstantin [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Virteous State Lab.; Barkatt, Aaron [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Virteous State Lab.; Joseph, Innocent [EnergySolutions Federal EPC, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Virteous State Lab.; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Virteous State Lab.; Brown, Elvie E. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, David J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-04-11

    This document reports the results of the testing of phase 1 ORP LAW (low activity waste) glasses, also identified as enhanced LAW glasses. Testing involved are SPFT (Single Pass Flow Through), VHT (Vapor Hydration Test), and PCT (Product Consistency Test), along with the analytical tests (XRD and SEM-EDS). This report contains the data of the high waste loading ORP LAW glasses that will be used for the performance assessment of the IDF (Integrated Disposal Facility).

  11. ILAW Glass Testing for Disposal at IDF: Phase 1 Testing

    Papathanassiu, Adonia; Swanberg, David J.

    2011-01-01

    This document reports the results of the testing of phase 1 ORP LAW (low activity waste) glasses, also identified as enhanced LAW glasses. Testing involved are SPFT (Single Pass Flow Through), VHT (Vapor Hydration Test), and PCT (Product Consistency Test), along with the analytical tests (XRD and SEM-EDS). This report contains the data of the high waste loading ORP LAW glasses that will be used for the performance assessment of the IDF (Integrated Disposal Facility).

  12. Internal ultrasonic testing of steam generator tubes

    Furlan, J.; Soleille, G.; Chalaye, H.

    1983-01-01

    The ''in situ'' inspection of steam generator tubes uses generally Foucault currents before starting and along its life. This inspection aims at searching cracks and corrosion defects. The Foucault current method is quite badly adapted to ''closed crack'' detection, for it doesn't introduce neither resistivity or magnetic permeability variation, or lack of matter. More, it is sensible to the magnetic properties of the tube itself and to its environment (tubular or support plates). It is why, this first systematic inspection has to be completed by an ultrasonic one allowing to bring new elements in the uncertain cases. A device with an internal probe has been developed. It ''lights'' the tube wall with the aid of a transducer of which beam reflects on a mirror. Operating conditions are the same as for Foucault current testing, that is to say the probe moves inside the tube without rotation of the device (bent parts are excluded) [fr

  13. Process and device for subdividing a glass tube filled with a radioactive gas

    Caffarella, T.E.; Radda, G.J.; Watts, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A process is described for subdividing into individual sealed segments an elongated glass tube coated internally with a luminescent material and filled with a radioactive gas, this tube having a longitudinal axis. It consists in directing a focused laser beam on to the surface of the tube in an ambient atmosphere with a pressure greater than that of the gas in the tube and to create a relative, repetitive and alternating movement between the laser beam and the surface of the tube. This movement is transversal to the longitudinal axis of the tube, so as to heat and soften the tube along a cutting line until the tube divides and presents new ends where it contracts, causing these ends to seal up [fr

  14. Electronic waste: chemical characterization glasses of tubes cathode rays with viability for recycling

    Lima, Norma Maria O.; Morais, Crislene R. Silva; Lima, Lenilde Mergia Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Electronic waste, or e-waste, often makes incorrect destinations, which causes serious environmental problems. The aim of this study was to analyze the X-ray fluorescence to study the recycling technology for the glass of Cathode Ray Tubes or, popularly, 'picture tubes', identified by the acronym CRT (Cathode Ray Tubes), which integrate computer monitors. It was observed that the glass screen and funnel analyzed have different chemical compositions. As the silicon oxide (SiO2), the largest component of these glasses percentage 59.89% and 48.63% respectively for the screen and funnel this oxide is responsible for forming the vitreous network. The study of recycling of computer monitors it is important, since about 45% of existing materials on a monitor are made of glass, since it is 100% recyclable and can be reused, thus reducing the amount of waste deposited in the environment. (author)

  15. Eddy current testing of heat exchangers tubes

    Gouez, J.F.; Rieusset, A.; Groix, F.

    An automatic system for Eddy Current testing of heat exchangers tubes of warships was developed. The advantages are an exposure of the controller limited at the time required to put in place the system and a reduced time of control [fr

  16. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes. S Mahadevan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 395-405. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0395-0405. Keywords.

  17. Irradiation test of borosilicate glass burnable poison

    Feng Mingquan; Liao Zumin; Yang Mingjin; Lu Changlong; Huang Deyang; Zeng Wangchun; Zhao Xihou

    1991-08-01

    The irradiation test and post-irradiation examinations for borosilicate glass burnable poison are introduced. Examinations include visual examination, measurement of dimensions and density, and determination of He gas releasing and 10 B burnup. The corrosion and phenomenon of irradiation densification are also discussed. Two type glass samples have been irradiated with different levels of neutron flux. It proved that the GG-17 borosilicate glass can be used as burnable poison to replace the 10 B stainless steel in the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, and it is safe, economical and reasonable

  18. Water motion and movement without sticking, weight loss and cross-contaminant in superhydrophobic glass tube.

    Yuan, Jian-Jun; Jin, Ren-Hua

    2010-02-10

    We report that a simple fabrication of a superhydrophobic nanosurface consisted of a grass-like silica thin film on the inner wall of a glass tube and its feature in water motion and water movement. The glass tube with a superhydrophobic inner wall can make the water flow with friction-drag reduction and completely preventing water sticking. Transferring water by this tube did not cause weight loss at all. Therefore, aqueous solutions containing high content metal ions were cross-moved without washing the tube used and no cross-contamination occurred after cross-movement. Furthermore, in an inside diameter of 6.0 mm glass tube where the half-length of the inner surface is covered by superhydrophobic nanograss and the other half is an unmodified hydrophilic surface, the water droplets flowing down from the hydrophilic side can be stopped spontaneously at the hydrophilic-superhydrophobic boundary as if there is an invisible flow-stopping fence built inside the glass tube.

  19. High insulation foam glass material from waste cathode ray tube panel glass

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    . In general CRT consists of two types of glasses: barium/strontium containing glass (panel glass) and lead containing glass (funnel and panel glass). In this work we present the possibility to produce high performance insulation material from the recycled lead-free glass. We studied the influence of foaming...... between 750 and 850°C. We investigated the influence of milling time, particle size, foaming and oxidizing agent concentrations, temperature and time on the foaming process, foam density, foam porosity and homogeneity. Only moderate foaming was observed in carbon containing samples, while the addition...... of the oxidizing agent greatly improved the foaming quality. The results showed that the amount of oxygen available from the glass is not sufficient to combust all of the added carbon, therefore, additional oxygen was supplied via manganese reduction. In general, a minimum in the foam glass density was observed...

  20. Surveillance test of OWL-2 inpile tube

    Shimizu, Masatsugu; Itoh, Noboru

    1976-08-01

    A series of irradiation surveillance tests performed in integrity evaluation of an inpile tube for the test loop OWL-2 are described. Specimens were exposed to the neutron fluences from 1 x 10 20 to 3.4 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (>1 MeV), and subjected to post-irradiation tensile test at room temperature and service temperature 285 0 C. The strength increased and the ductility decreased with increasing neutron fluence. The reduction in fracture ductility due to neutron irradiation in the fluence range was insignificant, and the elongation of 33% was retained even for the maximum neutron fluence at 285 0 C. Little decrease of the ductility with fluence indicates that the tube would be in service for long time, ie to the integral fluence of 3.4 x 10 21 n/cm 2 . (auth.)

  1. Thin tube testing by eddy currents

    David, Bernard; Pigeon, Michel

    1981-01-01

    It is often necessary to define test conditions in eddy current testing, in consequence rules and laws allowing a rapid choice of these conditions are welcome. The similarity law, given by Forster, using the reduced frequency f/fg, allows extrapolation of results from an object to one another, if these two objects are similar (i.e. all their dimensions are proportional). In a particular case, often met, a law going further is given to describe, in a sole way, eddy current behaviour using the reduced frequency in all thin tubes (internal to external diameter ratio between 0.85 to 1). For instance working at f/fe=2 defines the same verification leading to identical results, whatever the nature, the diameter or the thickness may be, if the tubes are thin. A diagram is given and a slide-rule, based on this principle, has been realized [fr

  2. Stress corrosion testing of irradiated cladding tubes

    Lunde, L.; Olshausen, K.D.

    1980-01-01

    Samples from two fuel rods with different cladding have been stress corrosion tested by closed-end argon-iodine pressurization at 320 0 C. The fuel rods with stress relieved and recrystallized Zircaloy-2 had received burnups of 10.000 and 20.000 MWd/ton UO 2 , respectively. It was found that the SCC failure stress was unchanged or slightly higher for the irradiated than for the unirradiated control tubes. The tubes failed consistently in the end with the lowest irradiation dose. The diameter increase of the irradiated cladding during the test was 1.1% for the stress-relieved samples and 0.24% for the recrystallized samples. SEM examination revealed no major differences between irradiated and unirradiated cladding. A ''semi-ductile'' fracture zone in recrystallized material is described in some detail. (author)

  3. Immunochromatographic diagnostic test analysis using Google Glass.

    Feng, Steve; Caire, Romain; Cortazar, Bingen; Turan, Mehmet; Wong, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-03-25

    We demonstrate a Google Glass-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) reader platform capable of qualitative and quantitative measurements of various lateral flow immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical diagnostics tests. Using a custom-written Glass application and without any external hardware attachments, one or more RDTs labeled with Quick Response (QR) code identifiers are simultaneously imaged using the built-in camera of the Google Glass that is based on a hands-free and voice-controlled interface and digitally transmitted to a server for digital processing. The acquired JPEG images are automatically processed to locate all the RDTs and, for each RDT, to produce a quantitative diagnostic result, which is returned to the Google Glass (i.e., the user) and also stored on a central server along with the RDT image, QR code, and other related information (e.g., demographic data). The same server also provides a dynamic spatiotemporal map and real-time statistics for uploaded RDT results accessible through Internet browsers. We tested this Google Glass-based diagnostic platform using qualitative (i.e., yes/no) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. For the quantitative RDTs, we measured activated tests at various concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL for free and total PSA. This wearable RDT reader platform running on Google Glass combines a hands-free sensing and image capture interface with powerful servers running our custom image processing codes, and it can be quite useful for real-time spatiotemporal tracking of various diseases and personal medical conditions, providing a valuable tool for epidemiology and mobile health.

  4. Preparation of tubular urease immobilized on the inner wall of glass tube by radiation-polymerization

    Tanaka, Y; Hayashi, T; Kawashima, K [National Food Research Inst., Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan); Oka, O

    1981-03-01

    A method to prepare immobilized urease on the inner wall of a glass tube by radiation-polymerization under frozen state was investigated. As a part of a continuous flow analyzer, i.w.. Technicon Auto Analyzer II, the immobilized urease tube of 1 cm length was set and used for the routine determination of urea. This flow-through system could measure urea concentration of up to 30 mM at rate of 30 samples per hour. The system were possible to assay 2000 to 3000 samples, continuously in practice. The activity of the urease tube stored in a refrigerator maintained 94% of the initial activity after 115 days.

  5. Preparation of tubular urease immobilized on the inner wall of glass tube by radiation-polymerization

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Toru; Kawashima, Koji; Oka, Osamu.

    1981-01-01

    A method to prepare immobilized urease on the inner wall of a glass tube by radiation-polymerization under frozen state was investigated. As a part of a continuous flow analyzer, i.w.. Technicon Auto Analyzer II, the immobilized urease tube of 1 cm length was set and used for the routine determination of urea. This flow-through system could measure urea concentration of up to 30 mM at rate of 30 samples per hour. The system were possible to assay 2000 to 3000 samples, continuously in practice. The activity of the urease tube stored in a refrigirator maintained 94% of the initial activity after 115 days. (author)

  6. Petrology and geochemistry of VLT glasses from double drive tube 79001/2

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Martinez, R. R.; Mckay, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of more general studies of soils from Apollo 17 double drive tube 79001/2, glasses from the 79001/2 core are being analyzed by a multidisciplinary approach including SEM/EDS and INAA. Efforts are currently focused on VLT (very low-Ti; TiO2 less than 1 wt%) mare glasses, which are common in 79001/2 and have also been found in other Apollo 17 soils. One of the primary objectives is to determine whether any or all of the Apollo 17 VLT glasses represent pristine volcanic compositions. In addition, the range of VLT glass compositions and possible relationships between the glasses and VLT lithic samples, for which some geochemical data have been obtained previously, is being defined.

  7. Parametric testing of a DWPF glass

    Bazan, F.; Rego, J.

    1985-03-01

    A series of tests has been performed to characterize the chemical stability of a DWPF borosilicate glass sample as part of the Waste Package Task of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. This material was prepared at the Savannah River Laboratory for the purpose of testing the 165-frit matrix doped with a simulated nonradioactive waste. All tests were conducted at 90 0 C using deionized water and J-13 water (a tuffaceous formation ground water). In the deionized water tests, both monoliths and crushed glass were tested at various ratios of surface area of the sample to volume of water in order to compare leach rates for different sample geometries or leaching times. Effects on the leach rates as a result of the presence of crushed tuff and stainless steel material were also investigated in the tests with J-13 water. 3 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  9. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  10. Foaming of waste cathode ray tube panel glass via CaCO3

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic equipment has become a global environmental problem. However, with responsible collecting, dismantling and materials separation, majority of materials can be recycled. Cathode ray tube (CRT) glass represents as much as two-thirds of the weight...

  11. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus on the co...... for future system optimization....

  12. Bond strength tests between silicon wafers and duran tubes (fusion bonded fluidic interconnects)

    Fazal, I.; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, J.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2005-01-01

    The fusion bond strength of glass tubes with standard silicon wafers is presented. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and those coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are presented. Results obtained are discussed in terms of homogeneity and strength of fusion bond. High pressure testing

  13. Construction of lead glass tubing matrices for applications in medical physics and high energy physics

    Schwartz, G.; Conti, M.; Del Guerra, A.; Cinti, M.; Di Fino, M.; Habel, R.

    1985-01-01

    Honeycomb matrices which act both as gamma ray converter/radiator and electron drift structures have been manufactured from lead glass tubing of high density (5-6 g/cm 3 ). Baking the tubing in a reducing atmosphere produces a resistive metallic layer which can be used as a continuous voltage divider for drift field shaping. The application of a multiwire proportional chamber/converter detector to positron emission tomography is described; arrays of lead glass capillaries ( < 1.0 mm inner diameter) are used as converter for the 511 keV annihilation photons. Another application is under study in high energy physics, a high density projection chamber in electromagnetic calorimetry. The various phases of the construction of these lead glass matrices for both applications are described in detail

  14. Disc-Donut-Tube wear test report, Phase I

    Kowal, K.; Knaus, S.E.

    1976-06-01

    The report describes a test program which simulated the wear-inducing conditions in the AI Prototype CRBR Steam Generator. This was accomplished by simulating the wear inducing loading and motion of a steam tube against ''disc-donut'' tube spacer plates. It was found that 2- 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo tubes, wearing against 2- 1 / 4 Cr-l Mo tube spacer plates, seized and galled as deep as .017 inches. Inconel 718 tube spacer plates uniformly wore the tubes as deep as .012 in. Aluminum bronze inserts wore as deep as .003 inches into the tube

  15. Tube vibration in industrial size test heat exchanger

    Halle, H.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1980-03-01

    Tube vibration data from tests of a specially built and instrumented, industrial-type, shell-and-tube heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger is nominally 0.6 m (2 ft) in dia and 3.7 m (12 ft) long. Both full tube and no-tubes-in-window bundles were tested for inlet/outlet nozzles of different sizes and with the tubes supported by seven, equally-spaced, single-segmental baffles. Prior to water flow testing, natural frequencies and damping of representative tubes were measured in air and water. Flow testing was accomplished by increasing the flow rates in stepwise fashion and also by sweeping through a selected range of flow rates. The primary variables measured and reported are tube accelerations and/or displacements and pressure drop through the bundle. Tests of the full tube bundle configuration revealed tube rattling to occur at intermediate flow rates, and fluidelastic instability, with resultant tube impacting, to occur when the flow rate exceeded a threshold level; principally, the four-span tubes were involved in the regions immediately adjacent to the baffle cut. For the range of flow rates tested, fluidelastic instability was not achieved in the no-tubes-in-window bundle; in this configuration the tubes are supported by all seven baffles and are, therefore, stiffer

  16. Stress relaxation in tempered glass caused by heat soak testing

    Schneider, Jens; Hilcken, Jonas; Aronen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Heat soak testing of tempered glass is a thermal process required after the tempering process itself to bring glasses of commercial soda-lime-silica-glass to failure that are contaminated with nickel sulphide inclusions, diameter 50 mm to 500 mm typically. Thus, the tests avoid a so-called "spont...... of commercial soda-lime-silica glass, it causes stress relaxation in tempered glass and the fracture pattern of the glass changes accordingly, especially thin glasses are affected. Based on the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Model, this paper comprises the theoretical background of the stress...

  17. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    Hampton, L.V.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  18. Recommendations for Glass Durability Test Criteria

    Strachan, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this short report is to define a set of activities that should lead to a specification for a test that can be used as one of the acceptance criteria and as an indicator of acceptable long-term behavior in contact with water. Since the glass composition is not yet defined and is likely to change as the composition of the waste changes, a strategy for developing criteria for what is acceptable involves a series of tests and modeling activities. The results of these activities lead to a criterion for an acceptable product and the data that are needed to reliably determine the behavior of the glass in the storage environment

  19. Spectral Optical Readout of Rectangular-Miniature Hollow Glass Tubing for Refractive Index Sensing.

    Rigamonti, Giulia; Bello, Valentina; Merlo, Sabina

    2018-02-16

    For answering the growing demand of innovative micro-fluidic devices able to measure the refractive index of samples in extremely low volumes, this paper presents an overview of the performances of a micro-opto-fluidic sensing platform that employs rectangular, miniature hollow glass tubings. The operating principle is described by showing the analytical model of the tubing, obtained as superposition of different optical cavities, and the optical readout method based on spectral reflectivity detection. We have analyzed, in particular, the theoretical and experimental optical features of rectangular tubings with asymmetrical geometry, thus with channel depth larger than the thickness of the glass walls, though all of them in the range of a few tens of micrometers. The origins of the complex line-shape of the spectral response in reflection, due to the different cavities formed by the tubing flat walls and channel, have been investigated using a Fourier transform analysis. The implemented instrumental configuration, based on standard telecom fiberoptic components and a semiconductor broadband optical source emitting in the near infrared wavelength region centered at 1.55 µm, has allowed acquisition of reflectivity spectra for experimental verification of the expected theoretical behavior. We have achieved detection of refractive index variations related to the change of concentration of glucose-water solutions flowing through the tubing by monitoring the spectral shift of the optical resonances.

  20. Spectral Optical Readout of Rectangular–Miniature Hollow Glass Tubing for Refractive Index Sensing

    Rigamonti, Giulia; Bello, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    For answering the growing demand of innovative micro-fluidic devices able to measure the refractive index of samples in extremely low volumes, this paper presents an overview of the performances of a micro-opto-fluidic sensing platform that employs rectangular, miniature hollow glass tubings. The operating principle is described by showing the analytical model of the tubing, obtained as superposition of different optical cavities, and the optical readout method based on spectral reflectivity detection. We have analyzed, in particular, the theoretical and experimental optical features of rectangular tubings with asymmetrical geometry, thus with channel depth larger than the thickness of the glass walls, though all of them in the range of a few tens of micrometers. The origins of the complex line-shape of the spectral response in reflection, due to the different cavities formed by the tubing flat walls and channel, have been investigated using a Fourier transform analysis. The implemented instrumental configuration, based on standard telecom fiberoptic components and a semiconductor broadband optical source emitting in the near infrared wavelength region centered at 1.55 µm, has allowed acquisition of reflectivity spectra for experimental verification of the expected theoretical behavior. We have achieved detection of refractive index variations related to the change of concentration of glucose-water solutions flowing through the tubing by monitoring the spectral shift of the optical resonances. PMID:29462907

  1. Maintenance of immersion ultrasonic testing on the water tube boiler

    Ishiyama, Toru; Kawasaki, Ichio; Miura, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    There are 4-boiler in nuclear fuel cycle engineering laboratories (NCL). These boilers have been operated in the long term over 20 years. One of them, the leakage of boiler water was found at one of the generating tubes, and 2 adjoining generating tubes were corroded in Dec, 2011. These generating tubes were investigated by immersion ultrasonic testing (UT) for measure thickness of the tube. As a result, thinner tube was found in a part of a bend and near the water drum. These parts are covered with sulfide deposit, it seems that the generating tubes were corroded by sulfide. (author)

  2. Management practices for end-of-life cathode ray tube glass: Review of advances in recycling and best available technologies.

    Iniaghe, Paschal O; Adie, Gilbert U

    2015-11-01

    Cathode ray tubes are image display units found in computer monitors and televisions. In recent years, cathode ray tubes have been generated as waste owing to the introduction of newer and advanced technologies in image displays, such as liquid crystal displays and high definition televisions, among others. Generation and subsequent disposal of end-of-life cathode ray tubes presents a challenge owing to increasing volumes and high lead content embedded in the funnel and neck sections of the glass. Disposal in landfills and open dumping are anti-environmental practices considering the large-scale contamination of environmental media by the potential of toxic metals leaching from glass. Mitigating such environmental contamination will require sound management strategies that are environmentally friendly and economically feasible. This review covers existing and emerging management practices for end-of-life cathode ray tubes. An in-depth analysis of available technologies (glass smelting, detoxification of cathode ray tube glass, lead extraction from cathode ray tube glass) revealed that most of the techniques are environmentally friendly, but are largely confined to either laboratory scale, or are often limited owing to high cost to mount, or generate secondary pollutants, while a closed-looped method is antiquated. However, recycling in cementitious systems (cement mortar and concrete) gives an added advantage in terms of quantity of recyclable cathode ray tube glass at a given time, with minimal environmental and economic implications. With significant quantity of waste cathode ray tube glass being generated globally, cementitious systems could be economically and environmentally acceptable as a sound management practice for cathode ray tube glass, where other technologies may not be applicable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Nocturnal reverse flow in water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters

    Tang, Runsheng; Yang, Yuqin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at night was studied. • Experimental measurements showed that reverse flow occurred in SWHs at night. • Reverse flow in SWHs was very high but the heat loss due to reverse flow was very low. • Reverse flow seemed not sensitive to atmospheric clearness but sensitive to collector tilt-angle. - Abstract: In this work, the thermal performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at nights was experimentally investigated. Measurements at nights showed that the water temperature in solar tubes was always lower than that in the water tank but higher than the ambient air temperature and T exp , the temperature of water inside tubes predicted in the case of the water in tubes being naturally cooled without reverse flow. This signified that the reverse flow in the system occurred at nights, making the water in solar tubes higher than T exp . It is found that the reverse flow rate in the SWH, estimated based on temperature measurements of water in solar tubes, seemed not sensitive to the atmospheric clearness but sensitive to the collector tilt-angle, the larger the tilt-angle of the collector, the higher the reverse flow rate. Experimental results also showed that, the reverse flow in the SWH was much higher as compared to that in a thermosyphonic domestic solar water heater with flat-plate collectors, but the heat loss from collectors to the air due to reverse flow in SWHs was very small and only took about 8–10% of total heat loss of systems

  4. A study on characteristic of glass dosimeter according to grade change of tube current

    Son, Jin Hyun; Kim, Seong Ho; Mun, Hyun Jun; Kim, Lyun Kyun; Son, In Hwa; Kim, Young Jun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study was evaluated the linearity and reproducibility according to dose, and reproducibility according to delay time by changing tube current amount (5 mAs, 10 mAs, 16 mAs, 20 mAs, 25 mAs, 32 mAs respectively, which are low energy radiations) using Glass Dosimeter (GD) and piranha semiconductor dosimeter which are used for measuring exposure dose. Measurements of radiation dose were performed using external detector of piranha 657 which is multi-function QA device (RTI Electronic, Sweden). Conditions of measurement were 80 kVp, SSD 100 and exposure region is 10 cm x 10 cm. Glass dosimeter was exposed to radiation. Twenty-four glass dosimeters were divided into six groups (5 mAs, 10 mAs, 16 mAs, 20 mAs, 25 mAs, 32 mAs respectively), then measured. This study was resulted by measuring the linearity and reproducibility according to change of tube current in low energy field. In dose characteristic of GD, this study could be useful as previous study with regard to dose characteristic according to change of tube voltage in low energy field.

  5. Stress analysis of glass-ceramic insulator and molybdenum cylinders in vacuum tube subassembly

    Spears, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    This study determined the state of stress between molybdenum cylinders and a glass-ceramic insulator of a vacuum tube during cooling when the glass-ceramic coefficient of expansion differed from molybdenum by +-2 x 10 -7 / 0 C. A thermoelastic stress analysis was performed on the vacuum tube subassembly using the finite element method. Two cases, which examined the effect of cooling over a 700 0 C range, were considered. In Case One, the expansion coefficient of the glass-ceramic was 2 x 10 -7 / 0 C less than that of molybdenum while for Case Two, it was 2 x 10 -7 / 0 C greater. For Case One, it was found that the tangential stresses in the insulator were entirely compressive but the maximum principal stresses in the r-z plane were mainly tensile. For Case Two, the tangential stresses were tensile in the insulator as were most of the maximum principal stresses in the r-z plane except for stress in the upper regions of the insulator. The magnitude of the stress at the maximum principal stress location appears to be substantially lower than what has been observed in practice (i.e., cracking of this design had never been a major problem, but it has been observed that if the coefficient of expansion of the glass-ceramic was 2 x 10 -7 / 0 C lower than molybdenum, cracking usually resulted). This analysis showed that the expansion coefficient of the glass-ceramic could be varied quite liberally from molybdenum before the ultimate strength (13,000 lb/in. 2 ) of the glass-ceramic was exceeded

  6. Test Station for Measuring Aluminum Tube Geometrical Parameters

    Oansea, D; Gongadze, A L; Gostkin, M I; Dedovich, D V; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Comanescu, B; Kotov, S A; Necsoiu, T; Potrap, I N; Rogalev, E V; Tskhadadze, E G; Chelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    A test station for quality control of aluminum tube outer diameter and wall thickness is presented. The tested tubes are used for drift detector assembly of ATLAS (LHC, CERN) muon system. The outer diameter and wall thickness of aluminium tubes are measured by means of noncontact optical and ultrasonic methods respectively with the accuracy of 3 {\\mu}m. The testing process is automatic and interacts with the production data base.

  7. Geochemistry of HASP, VLT, and other glasses from double drive tube 79001/2

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Wentworth, S. J.; Martinez, R. R.; Mckay, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 double drive tube 79001/2 (station 9, Van Serg Crater) is distinctive because of its extreme maturity, abundance, and variety of glass clasts. It contains mare glasses of both high Ti and very low Ti (VLT) compositions, and highland glasses of all compositions common in lunar regolith samples: highland basalt (feldspathic; Al2O3 greater than 23 wt percent), KREEP (Al2O3 less than 23 wt percent, K2O greater than 0.25 wt percent), and low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM; Al2O3 less than 23 wt percent, K2O less than 0.25 wt percent). It also contains rare specimens of high-alumina, silica-poor (HASP), and ultra Mg glasses. HASP glasses contain insufficient SiO2 to permit the calculation of a standard norm, and are thought to be the product of volatilization during impact melting. They have been studied by electron microprobe major-element analysis techniques but have not previously been analyzed for trace elements. The samples analyzed for this study were polished grain mounts of the 90-160 micron fraction of four sieved samples from the 79001/2 core (depth range 2.3-11.5 cm). A total of 80 glasses were analyzed by SEM/EDS and electron microprobe, and a subset of 33 of the glasses, representing a wide range of compositional types, was chosen for high-sensitivity INAA. A microdrilling device removed disks (mostly 50-100 micron diameter, weighing approx. 0.1-0.5 micro-g) for INAA. Preliminary data reported here are based only on short counts done within two weeks of irradiation.

  8. Multifrequency eddy current testing of helical tubes of steam generators

    Pigeon, M.; David, B.

    1983-06-01

    In the event of a water-sodium reaction in a steam-generator of a fast breeder reactor, it is necessary to test the tubes close to the leak to evaluate the damage. In SUPERPHENIX, the tubes are about 100m long and are coiled on a dead body. This report describes the equipment and the technic to test such tubes with multifrequency eddy current technics [fr

  9. First experimental tests of a lead glass drift calorimeter

    Guerra, A.D.; Bellazzini, R.; Conti, M.; Massai, M.M.; Schwartz, G.; Habel, R.; Mulera, T.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1985-10-01

    We are building a drift collection calorimeter, which has a combined radiator and electric field shaping structure made of fused lead glass tubing, treated in a H 2 reducing atmosphere. We describe the construction detail of the calorimeter and the experimental measurements on several prototypes with radioative sources and minimum ionizing particles. 9 refs., 11 figs

  10. Test tube systems with cutting/recombination operations

    Freund, R. [Technische Universitaet Wien (Austria); Csuhaj-Varju, E. [Computer and Automation Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Wachtler, F. [Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    We introduce test tube systems based on operations that are closely related to the splicing operations, i.e. we consider the operations of cutting a string at a specific site into two pieces with marking them at the cut ends and of recombining two strings with specifically marked endings. Whereas in the splicing of two strings these strings are cut at specific sites and the cut pieces are recombined immediately in a crosswise way, in CR(cutting/recombination)-schemes cutting can happen independently from recombining the cut pieces. Test tube systems based on these operations of cutting and recombination turn out to have maximal generative power even if only very restricted types of input filters for the test tubes are used for the redistribution of the contents of the test tubes after a period of cuttings and recombinations in the test tubes. 10 refs.

  11. Study of the performances of acoustic emission testing for glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes containing defects

    Villard, D.; Vidal, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes are more and more often used, in nuclear power plants, for building or replacement of water pipings classified 'nuclear safety'. Tests have been performed to evaluate the performances of acoustic emission testing for in service inspection of these components. The tests were focused on glass fibre reinforced polyester and vinyl-ester pipes, in as received conditions or containing impacts, and intentionally introduced defects. They have been carried out by CETIM, following the ASTM Standard E 1118 (code CARP), to a maximum pressure lever of 25 Bar The results show that the CARP procedure can be used for detection of defects and evaluation of their noxiousness towards internal pressure: most of the tubes containing low energy impacts could not be distinguished from tubes without defect; on the other hand the important noxiousness of lacks of impregnation of roving layer appeared clearly. Complementary tests have been performed on some tubes at a more important pressure lever, for which the damage of the tubes in enough to deteriorate there elastic properties. The results showed that CARP procedure give valuable informations on damage level. It would be interesting to evaluate acoustic emission on tubes containing realistic in-service degradations. (author). 11 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs., 2 appends

  12. The time development of the plasma-glass boundary layer in a T-tube

    Pavlov, M.; Djurovic, S.

    1982-01-01

    The refraction of a laser beam by a flat boundary layer between the plasma and the glass plate is analysed. A boundary layer with a constant gradient electron density is assumed. Results of the analysis for plasmas produced in a small T-tube show that the boundary layer thickness increases with time faster than linearly. This means that a relatively fast collapse due to cooling through the boundary layer happens at the second half of the reflected plasma life time, while the boundary layer is negligible thin during the first 2μs after the reflected shock front has passed the point of observation. (author)

  13. Stripe-like Clay Nanotubes Patterns in Glass Capillary Tubes for Capture of Tumor Cells.

    Liu, Mingxian; He, Rui; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Changren

    2016-03-01

    Here, we used capillary tubes to evaporate an aqueous dispersion of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in a controlled manner to prepare a patterned surface with ordered alignment of the nanotubes . Sodium polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) was added to improve the surface charges of the tubes. An increased negative charge of HNTs is realized by PSS coating (from -26.1 mV to -52.2 mV). When the HNTs aqueous dispersion concentration is higher than 10%, liquid crystal phenomenon of the dispersion is found. A typical shear flow behavior and decreased viscosity upon shear is found when HNTs dispersions with concentrations higher than 10%. Upon drying the HNTs aqueous dispersion in capillary tubes, a regular pattern is formed in the wall of the tube. The width and spacing of the bands increase with HNTs dispersion concentration and decrease with the drying temperature for a given initial concentration. Morphology results show that an ordered alignment of HNTs is found especially for the sample of 10%. The patterned surface can be used as a model for preparing PDMS molding with regular micro-/nanostructure. Also, the HNTs rough surfaces can provide much higher tumor cell capture efficiency compared to blank glass surfaces. The HNTs ordered surfaces provide promising application for biomedical areas such as biosensors.

  14. Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Tubes by Means of Tube Bulge Test

    D'Urso, G.; Longo, M.; Giardini, C.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints are generally evaluated by means of conventional tensile test. This testing method might provide insufficient information because maximum strain obtained in tensile test before necking is small; moreover, the application of tensile test is limited when the joint path is not linear or even when the welds are executed on curved surfaces. Therefore, in some cases, it would be preferable to obtain the joints properties from other testing methods. Tube bulge test can be a valid solution for testing circumferential or longitudinal welds executed on tubular workpieces. The present work investigates the mechanical properties and the formability of friction stir welded tubes by means of tube bulge tests. The experimental campaign was performed on tubular specimens having a thickness of 3 mm and an external diameter of 40 mm, obtained starting from two semi-tubes longitudinally friction stir welded. The first step, regarding the fabrication of tubes, was performed combining a conventional forming process and friction stir welding. Sheets in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy AA6060 T6 were adopted for this purpose. Plates having a dimension of 225x60 mm were bent (with a bending axis parallel to the main dimension) in order to obtain semi-tubes. A particular care was devoted to the fabrication of forming devices (punch and die) in order to minimize the springback effects. Semi-tubes were then friction stir welded by means of a CNC machine tool. Some preliminary tests were carried out by varying the welding parameters, namely feed rate and rotational speed. A very simple tool having flat shoulder and cylindrical pin was used. The second step of the research was based on testing the welded tubes by means of tube bulge test. A specific equipment having axial actuators with a conical shape was adopted for this study. Some analyses were carried out on the tubes bulged up to a certain pressure level. In particular, the burst pressure and the

  15. Eddy current testing of steam generator tubes

    Neumaier, P.

    1981-01-01

    A rotating probe is described for improving the inspection of tubes and end plate in steam generators. The method allows a representation of the whole defect, consequently the observer is able to determine directly the type of defect, signal processing in-line or off-line is possible [fr

  16. Standard test method for measuring waste glass or glass ceramic durability by vapor hydration test

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 The vapor hydration test method can be used to study the corrosion of a waste forms such as glasses and glass ceramics upon exposure to water vapor at elevated temperatures. In addition, the alteration phases that form can be used as indicators of those phases that may form under repository conditions. These tests; which allow altering of glass at high surface area to solution volume ratio; provide useful information regarding the alteration phases that are formed, the disposition of radioactive and hazardous components, and the alteration kinetics under the specific test conditions. This information may be used in performance assessment (McGrail et al, 2002 (1) for example). 1.2 This test method must be performed in accordance with all quality assurance requirements for acceptance of the data. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practice...

  17. Dynamic fatigue testing of Zerodur glass-ceramic

    Tucker, Dennis S.

    1988-01-01

    The inherent brittleness of glass invariably leads to a large variability in strength data and a time dependence in strength. Leading rate plays a large role in strength values. Glass is found to be weaker when supporting loads over long periods of time as compared to glass which undergoes rapid leading. These properties complicate the structural design allowables for the utilization of glass components in an application such as Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The test methodology to obtain parameters which can be used to predict the reliability and life time of Zerodur glass-ceramic which is to be used for the mirrors in the AXAF is described.

  18. Automatic integrated testing bench for tubes in translation

    Dufayet, J.P.; Perdijon, J.

    1976-01-01

    All the nondestructive tests required for receiving the cladding tubes intended for fast nuclear reactor are integrated on this bench: quality control by eddy currents and ultra-sounds, thickness and (inner and outer) diameter measurement. The linear displacement of the tube allows very high rates to be attained [fr

  19. Life-test results on the Zetatron tube, transformer and the tube-transformer assembly

    Shope, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the development of the PFN probe it became evident that some considerable life testing of the neutron tube, high-voltage pulse transformer, and the tube-transformer assembly (TTA) were needed to (1) identify life limiting mechanisms, (2) estimate performance degradation, and (3) provide a data base for end-of-life predictions. Initial results had shown clearly that testing monitored by technicians would be much too costly. Consequently, a computer-controlled and monitored test was developed. This paper describes the test, summarizes the records, and discusses the results. Also presented are early results of actual probe life testing now underway

  20. The glass-like glazed coating made of cathode-ray tube faceplates cullet

    N.І. Zavgorodnya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of the current time is to find ways of expedient municipal solid waste recycling as a secondary raw material with similar physicochemical and mechanical characteristics for the purpose of efficient use of resources and reduction of harmful impact on the environment. Due to the termination the production of monitors and television sets with cathode-ray tubes, a significant part of them is grow out of use in the form of dimensional waste. Kinescopes of these electric devices contain valuable components including the screen and conical glass and cathode-luminophors. Existing trends in the world of CRT faceplates cullet recycling argue for reasonability of recycling ways of this valuable secondary raw materials. Aim: The aim of researches is to determine the impact of the full replacement of quartz sand by faceplates cullet and using the zinc sulfide, reconstituted of used cathode-luminophors, as a secondary raw material in the production of glass-like glaze on the basic properties of color glaze. Materials and Methods: Cathode-ray tube faceplates are cut off during removal process, washed from dirt, dried, crushed by press, milled in a cheek grinder and finally crushed in a barrel mill. The slurried impurity (clay, dyes of desired color, including ZnS, water are added to this powder. The received mix is processed of wet grinding for slip production. Slip is surfaced on glass-ceramic tile, dried up, burned at maximum temperature of 900ºС. Results: Experimental research has shown that glass-forming, modifying and intermediate oxides of inorganic substances are added to the glaze with the CRT faceplates cullet. The Chasiv Yar clay belongs to the group with significant gas emission. The water vapor arising during the clay dehydration plays role of the "carrier" of heavy non-volatile components, considerably accelerates gas processes and increases activity of gas components. Zinc sulphide, dissolved in the silicate glaze melts when heated

  1. Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TN-0756 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation...Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation by Clayton M Weiss Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education...ORISE), Belcamp, MD Parimal J Patel Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is

  2. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrates

    Mohd Roslie Ali; Shahrul Nizam Mohd Salleh

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were deposited onto Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by introducing the use of Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) as the method. The Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were dispersed ultrasonically in ethanol and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to form stable suspension. The addition of Sodium Hydroxide in ethanol can stabilize the suspension, which was very important step before the deposition take place. Two substrates of Indium-Tin-Oxide(ITO)-coated glass placed in parallel facing each other (conductive side) into the suspension. The deposition occurs at room temperature, which the distance fixed at 1 cm between both electrodes and the voltage level applied was fixed at 400 V, respectively. The deposition time also was fixed at 30 minutes. The deposited ITO-Glass with Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) will be characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Raman Microscope. The images of SEM shows that the Multi -Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were distributed uniformly onto the surface of ITO-Glass. The deposited ITO-Glass with Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) could be the potential material in various practical applications such as field emission devices, fuel cells, and super capacitors. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was found to be an efficient technique in forming well distribution of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) onto ITO-Glass substrates, as proved in characterization methods, in which the optimum conditions will play the major role. (author)

  3. Investigation into the suitability of capillary tubes for microcrystalline testing.

    Elie, Leonie E; Baron, Mark G; Croxton, Ruth S; Elie, Mathieu P

    2013-07-01

    A comparison between microcrystalline tests performed on microscope slides and flat capillary tubes with inner diameters ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mm was carried out to explore the appropriateness of tubes for rapid testing of suspected drugs of abuse in the laboratory as well as in the field. Tests for mephedrone, cocaine, and phencyclidine were chosen as examples to investigate the handling of the capillary tubes, the influence on crystal habit, size, and the effects on the limit of detection. Image stacking software was used to increase the depth of field of micrographs taken from developed microcrystals greatly enhancing the interpretability even months after carrying out the microcrystalline test. Additionally, the potential of seeding capillary tubes with a reagent was studied. Pre-treatment of tubes would allow microcrystalline tests to be carried out quicker and anywhere without the necessity of taking along expensive and hazardous reagents. The sealing of capillary tubes containing developed microcrystalline tests in order to preserve results for a long period of time was successfully done by applying paraffin wax to the open ends. Finally, it was concluded that capillary tubes are suitable vessels for performing microcrystalline tests. The increased portability of the improved set-up allows tests to be safely executed outside laboratories without impairing the quality of the result. Findings were applied to six legal high samples purchased online between May and August 2011. The active ingredients like MDAI as well as cutting agents like caffeine were successfully identified using the microcrystalline test technique in capillary tubes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Statistics applied to the testing of cladding tubes

    Perdijon, J.

    1987-01-01

    Cladding tubes, either steel or zircaloy, are generally given a 100 % inspection through ultrasonic non-destructive testing. This inspection may be completed beneficially with an eddy current test, as this is not sensitive to the same defects as those typically traced by ultrasonic testing. Unfortunately, the two methods (as with other non-destructive tests) exhibit poor precision; this means that a flaw, whose size is close to that denoted as rejection limit, may be accepted or rejected. Currently, rejection, i.e. the measurement above which a tube is rejected, is generally determined through measuring a calibration tube at regular time intervals, and the signal of a given tube is compared to that of the most recently completed calibration. This measurement is thus subject to variations which can be attributed to an actual shift of adjustments as well as to poor precision. For this reason, monitoring instrument adjustments using the so-called control chart method are proposed

  5. Countercurrent Flow of Molten Glass and Air during Siphon Tests

    Guerrero, H.N.

    2001-01-01

    Siphon tests of molten glass were performed to simulate potential drainage of a radioactive waste melter, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site. Glass is poured from the melter through a vertical downspout that is connected to the bottom of the melter through a riser. Large flow surges have the potential of completely filling the downspout and creating a siphon effect that has the potential for complete draining of the melter. Visual observations show the exiting glass stream starts as a single-phase pipe flow, constricting into a narrow glass stream. Then a half-spherical bubble forms at the exit of the downspout. The bubble grows, extending upwards into the downspout, while the liquid flows counter-currently to one side of the spout. Tests were performed to determine what are the spout geometry and glass properties that would be conducive to siphoning, conditions for terminating the siphon, and the total amount of glass drained

  6. No rotating U.S. Testing of thin walled tubes

    Furlan, J.; Boulanger, G.; Mogavero, R.

    1981-07-01

    Thin walled tube ultrasonic testing is performed, with Lamb waves, using annular transducers and conical or helicoidal mirrors. The main advantage of this already known system is dispensing with rotation of tube and/or transducer. High speed control (30 cm/s and more) is then allowed. The present paper describes the parameters influencing the sensitivity has been improved by searching, theoretically and practically, the best suited Lamb wave modes, and by using transducers which are well characterized. Practical example of cladding tube U.S. testing is described

  7. Axial Crushing and Energy Absorption of Empty and Foam Filled Jute-glass/ Epoxy Bi-tubes

    Khalid Asad A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work on the axial crushing of empty and polyurethane foam filled bi-tubular composite cone-tube has been carried out. Hand lay-up method was used to fabricate the bi-tubes using woven roving glass, jute and hybrid jute-glass/epoxy materials. The tubes were of 56 mm diameter, and the cones top diameters were 65 mm. Cone semi-apical angles of 5°, 10°, 15°, 20° and 25° were examined. Height of 120 mm was maintained for all the fabricated specimens. Effects of material used, cone semi apical angle and foam filler on the load-displacement relation, maximum load, crush force efficiency, and the specific energy absorption and failure mode were investigated. Results show that the foam filler improved the progressive crushing process, increased the maximum load and the absorbed energy of the bi-tubes. The maximum crushing load and the specific energy absorption increased with increasing the cone semi apical angle up to 20° for the empty bi-tubes and up to 25° for the foam filled bi-tubes. Progressive failure mode with fiber and matrix cracking was observed at the top narrow side of the fractured bi-tubes as well as at the bottom surface of 20° and 25° cone semi-apical angle bi-tubes.

  8. Preliminary results of durability testing with borosilicate glass compositions

    Adel-Hadadi, M.; Adiga, R.; Barkatt, Aa.

    1987-01-01

    This is a report on the first year of research conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of the Catholic University of America in support of the West Valley Demonstration Project. One objective is the vitrification of liquid waste generated by previous nuclear fuel reprocessing. This work has been directed principally at the problem of glass composition optimization. This has necessitated the development of a coordinated program of glass production, durability measurements, and processability assessment. A small-scale continuous melter has been constructed for melting uranium and thorium containing glasses and for studying glass processing characteristics. Glass viscosities have been measured over a range of temperatures. A large number of glasses have also been produced in small crucible melts. Glass durability has been assessed using four types of leach tests: MCC-3, MCC-1, IAEA/ISO, and pulsed-flow tests. Extensive data from these tests are reported. The data have led to the design of very durable glasses (comparable to the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Reference Glass) which have the requisite waste loading and processing characteristics. 14 refs., 4 figs., 77 tabs

  9. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  10. Testing and analysis of tube voltage and tube current in the radiation generator for mammography

    Jung, Hong Ryang; Hong, Dong Hee; Han, Beom Hui

    2014-01-01

    Breast shooting performance management and quality control of the generator is applied to the amount of current IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601-2-45 tube voltage and tube current are based on standards that were proposed in the analysis of the test results were as follows. Tube voltage according to the value of the standard deviation by year of manufacture from 2001 to 2010 as a 42-3.15 showed the most significant, according to the year of manufacture by tube amperage value of the standard deviation to 6.38 in the pre-2000 showed the most significant , manufactured after 2011 the standard deviation of the devices, the PAE(Percent Average Error) was relatively low. This latest generation device was manufactured in the breast of the tube voltage and tube diagnosed shooting the correct amount of current to maintain the performance that can be seen. The results of this study as the basis for radiography diagnosed breast caused by using the device's performance and maintain quality control, so the current Food and Drug Administration 'about the safety of diagnostic radiation generator rule' specified in the test cycle during three years of self-inspection radiation on a radiation generating device ensure safety and performance of the device using a coherent X-ray(constancy) by two ultimately able to keep the radiation dose to the public to reduce the expected effect is expected

  11. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2012 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Pierce, Eric M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kerisit, Sebastien N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krogstad, Eirik J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burton, Sarah D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bjornstad, Bruce N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle MV [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-03-29

    PNNL is conducting work to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility for Hanford immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program, PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. Key activities in FY12 include upgrading the STOMP/eSTOMP codes to do near-field modeling, geochemical modeling of PCT tests to determine the reaction network to be used in the STOMP codes, conducting PUF tests on selected glasses to simulate and accelerate glass weathering, developing a Monte Carlo simulation tool to predict the characteristics of the weathered glass reaction layer as a function of glass composition, and characterizing glasses and soil samples exhumed from an 8-year lysimeter test. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2012 and the first quarter of FY 2013 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of LAW glasses.

  12. Sodium flow distribution test of the air cooler tubes

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Hidehisa; Shimazu, Hisashi

    1980-01-01

    In the heat transfer tubes of the air cooler which is installed in the auxiliary core cooling system of the fast breeder prototype plant reactor ''Monju'', sodium freezing may be caused by undercooling the sodium induced by an extremely unbalanced sodium flow in the tubes. Thus, the sodium flow distribution test of the air cooler tubes was performed to examine the flow distribution of the tubes and to estimate the possibility of sodium freezing in the tubes. This test was performed by using a one fourth air cooler model installed in the water flow test facility. As the test results show, the flow distribution from the inlet header to each tube is almost equal at any operating condition, that is, the velocity deviation from normalized mean velocity is less than 6% and sodium freezing does not occur up to 250% air velocity deviation at stand-by condition. It was clear that the proposed air cooler design for the ''Monju'' will have a good sodium flow distribution at any operating condition. (author)

  13. Development and test evaluation of duplex steam reformer tube

    Allen, D.C.; Meyer, D.J.; Pflasterer, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    For HTR applications involving a steam reformer (SR), it is uncertain whether an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required. There are several system configurations that could be developed for the application of nuclear heat using the steam reformer reaction. The considerations (advantages vs. disadvantages) for each of the system configurations are summarized. The approach that technically and economically appears to be the most attractive, in studies conducted by General Electric, combines the SR process heat exchanger and the IHX in a single component using a duplex tube. A central question concerning the duplex tube concept is whether the design would provide adequate leak monitoring capability and significant reduction in tritium and hydrogen diffusion, while introducing only a small increase in overall temperature difference from the helium to the process gas. A cooperative GE-KFA effort was undertaken to develop, fabricate, test, and evaluate a duplex steam reformer tube. GE was responsible for the development and fabrication of the tube, and KFA was responsible for testing the tube in the EVA I facility at Juelich. Both GE and KFA are evaluating the thermochemical and metallurgical test data. Actual fabrication of the tube was performed by Foster-Wheeler in accordance with the GE design. This paper reviews the highlights of the fabrication development and preliminary evaluation of the test data

  14. Utilization of recycled cathode ray tubes glass in cement mortar for X-ray radiation-shielding applications.

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun; Lam, Wai-Shung; Chan, Tai-Po; Fung, Karl Ka-Lok

    2012-01-15

    Recycled glass derived from cathode ray tubes (CRT) glass with a specific gravity of approximately 3.0 g/cm(3) can be potentially suitable to be used as fine aggregate for preparing cement mortars for X-ray radiation-shielding applications. In this work, the effects of using crushed glass derived from crushed CRT funnel glass (both acid washed and unwashed) and crushed ordinary beverage container glass at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by volume) of sand on the mechanical properties (strength and density) and radiation-shielding performance of the cement-sand mortars were studied. The results show that all the prepared mortars had compressive strength values greater than 30 MPa which are suitable for most building applications based on ASTM C 270. The density and shielding performance of the mortar prepared with ordinary crushed (lead-free) glass was similar to the control mortar. However, a significant enhancement of radiation-shielding was achieved when the CRT glasses were used due to the presence of lead in the glass. In addition, the radiation shielding contribution of CRT glasses was more pronounced when the mortar was subject to a higher level of X-ray energy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Remote field eddy current testing of ferromagnetic tubes

    David, B.

    1990-01-01

    In order to test ferromagnetic tubes using internal probes, Intercontrole and the CEA have carried out theoretical and experimental works and developed a method to adapt the Remote Field Eddy Current technique which has been known and used for 30 years now. This document briefly recalls the basic principles of the Remote Field Eddy Current technique, the various steps of the works carried out and mainly describes examples of field inspection of ferromagnetic tubes and pipes [fr

  16. Adjustable lead glass shielding device for use with a over-the-table x-ray tube

    Eubig, C.; Groves, B.M.; Davey, G.

    1978-01-01

    Sources of scattered radiation exposure to personnel from a ceiling-mounted x-ray tube were examined at the side of cardiac catheterization patients. A fully adjustable mounting for a lead glass shield was designed to afford maximum radiation protection to the attending physician's head and neck area, while minimizing interference with the procedure

  17. Use of a high density lead glass tubing projection chamber in positron emission tomography and in high energy physics

    Conti, M.; Guerra, A.D.; Habel, R.; Mulera, T.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Schwartz, G.

    1985-10-01

    We describe the principle of operation of a high density Projection Chamber, in which the converter/radiator and drift field shaping structures are combined in the form of high density (5 to 6 g/cm 3 ) lead glass tubing. The main applications of this type of detector to Medical Physics (Positron Emission Tomography) and High Energy Physics (Electromagnetic Calorimetry) are discussed

  18. Adjustable lead glass shielding device for use with an over-the-table x-ray tube.

    Eubig, C; Groves, B M; Davey, G

    1978-12-01

    Sources of scattered radiation exposure to personnel from a ceiling-mounted x-ray tube were examined at the side of cardiac catheterization patients. A fully adjustable mounting for a lead glass shield was designed to afford maximum radiation protection to the attending physician's head and neck area, while minimizing interference with the procedure.

  19. Experimental investigation of the higher coefficient of thermal performance for water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters in China

    Zhang, Xinyu; You, Shijun; Xu, Wei; Wang, Min; He, Tao; Zheng, Xuejing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy grades system for solar water heater (SWH) in China was introduced. • Heat loss and capacity of heat collection mainly affected SWH thermal performance. • Optimum ratio of tank volume to collector area for solar water heater is 57 to 72 L/m 2 . • The recommendation polyurethane insulation layer should be around 50 mm thick. • SWH with shorter tube has a better thermal performance. - Abstract: Solar water heaters (SWHs), now widely used in China, represent an environmentally friendly way to heat water. We tested the performance of more than 1000 water-in-glass evacuated tube SWHs according to Chinese standards and found that the heat loss from the storage tank and capacity of the solar collector affected their thermal performance. The optimum parameters to maximize the performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube SWHs included a ratio of tank volume to collector area of 57–72 L/m 2 , which should give a system efficiency of 0.49–0.57, meaning that the temperature of water in the tank will exceed 45 °C after one day of heat collection. In addition, the polyurethane insulation layer should be around 50 mm thick with a free foaming density of about 35 kg/m 3 , and the evacuated tube should be short. The tilt angle did not affect the performance of the SWHs. These results should aid in the design of highly efficient SWHs

  20. Parametric effects on glass reaction in the unsaturated test method

    Woodland, A.B.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1991-12-01

    The Unsaturated Test Method has been applied to study glass reaction under conditions that may be present at the potential Yucca Mountain site, currently under evaluation for storage of reprocessed high-level nuclear waste. The results from five separate sets of parametric experiments are presented wherein test parameters ranging from water contact volume to sensitization of metal in contact with the glass were examined. The most significant effect was observed when the volume of water, as controlled by the water inject volume and interval period, was such to allow exfoliation of reacted glass to occur. The extent of reaction was also influenced to a lesser extent by the degree of sensitization of the 304L stainless steel. For each experiment, the release of cations from the glass and alteration of the glass were examined. The major alteration product is a smectite clay that forms both from precipitation from solution and from in-situ alteration of the glass itself. It is this clay that undergoes exfoliation as water drips from the glass. A comparison is made between the results of the parametric experiments with those of static leach tests. In the static tests the rates of release become progressively reduced through 39 weeks while, in contrast, they remain relatively constant in the parametric experiments for at least 300 weeks. This differing behavior may be attributable to the dripping water environment where fresh water is periodically added and where evaporation can occur

  1. Non-destructive testing of tubes by electromagnetic processes

    Kowarski, A.

    1979-01-01

    This article reviews and assesses the non destructive testing techniques used for locating defects in tubes by electromagnetic processes. These form the basis of many testing devices, the diversity of which results from various factors: range of materials, methods of fabrication, specific defects of the product. There are two distinct main families of devices utilising two different principles: dispersion flow and Foucault currents [fr

  2. Influence of test tube material on subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux in short vertical tube

    Hata, Koichi; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Noda, Nobuaki

    2007-01-01

    The steady state subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) for the flow velocities (u=4.0 to 13.3 m/s), the inlet subcoolings (ΔT sub,in =48.6 to 154.7 K), the inlet pressure (P in =735.2 to 969.0 kPa) and the increasing heat input (Q 0 exp(t/τ), τ=10, 20 and 33.3 s) are systematically measured with the experimental water loop. The 304 Stainless Steel (SUS304) test tube of inner diameter (d=6 mm), heated length (L=66 mm) and L/d=11 with the inner surface of rough finished (Surface roughness, Ra=3.18 μm), the Cupro Nickel (Cu-Ni 30%) test tube of d=6 mm, L=60 mm and L/d=10 with Ra=0.18 μm and the Platinum (Pt) test tubes of d=3 and 6 mm, L=66.5 and 69.6 mm, and L/d=22.2 and 11.6 respectively with Ra=0.45 μm are used in this work. The CHF data for the SUS304, Cu-Ni 30% and Pt test tubes were compared with SUS304 ones for the wide ranges of d and L/d previously obtained and the values calculated by the authors' published steady state CHF correlations against outlet and inlet subcoolings. The influence of the test tube material on CHF is investigated into details and the dominant mechanism of subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux is discussed. (author)

  3. Influence of Test Tube Material on Subcooled Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux in Short Vertical Tube

    Koichi Hata; Masahiro Shiotsu; Nobuaki Noda

    2006-01-01

    The steady state subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) for the flow velocities (u = 4.0 to 13.3 m/s), the inlet subcooling (ΔT sub,in = 48.6 to 154.7 K), the inlet pressure (P in = 735.2 to 969.0 kPa) and the increasing heat input (Q 0 exp(t/t), t = 10, 20 and 33.3 s) are systematically measured with the experimental water loop. The 304 Stainless Steel (SUS304) test tubes of inner diameters (d = 6 mm), heated lengths (L = 66 mm) and L/d = 11 with the inner surface of rough finished (Surface roughness, R a = 3.18 μm), the Cupro Nickel (Cu-Ni 30%) test tubes of d = 6 mm, L = 60 mm and L/d = 10 with R a = 0.18 μm and the Platinum (Pt) test tubes of d = 3 and 6 mm, L = 66.5 and 69.6 mm, and L/d 22.2 and 11.6 respectively with R a = 0.45 μm are used in this work. The CHF data for the SUS304, Cu-Ni 30% and Pt test tubes were compared with SUS304 ones for the wide ranges of d and L/d previously obtained and the values calculated by the authors' published steady state CHF correlations against outlet and inlet subcooling. The influence of the test tube material on CHF is investigated into details and the dominant mechanism of subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux is discussed. (authors)

  4. Utilization of recycled cathode ray tubes glass in cement mortar for X-ray radiation-shielding applications

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun; Lam, Wai-Shung; Chan, Tai-Po; Fung, Karl Ka-Lok

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is feasible to use recycled CRT glass in mortar as shield against X-ray radiation. ► Shielding properties of CRT mortar is strongly depended on CRT content. ► Linear attenuation coefficient was reduced by 142% upon 100% CRT glass in mortar. ► Effect of mortar thickness and irradiation energies on shielding was investigated. - Abstract: Recycled glass derived from cathode ray tubes (CRT) glass with a specific gravity of approximately 3.0 g/cm 3 can be potentially suitable to be used as fine aggregate for preparing cement mortars for X-ray radiation-shielding applications. In this work, the effects of using crushed glass derived from crushed CRT funnel glass (both acid washed and unwashed) and crushed ordinary beverage container glass at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by volume) of sand on the mechanical properties (strength and density) and radiation-shielding performance of the cement–sand mortars were studied. The results show that all the prepared mortars had compressive strength values greater than 30 MPa which are suitable for most building applications based on ASTM C 270. The density and shielding performance of the mortar prepared with ordinary crushed (lead-free) glass was similar to the control mortar. However, a significant enhancement of radiation-shielding was achieved when the CRT glasses were used due to the presence of lead in the glass. In addition, the radiation shielding contribution of CRT glasses was more pronounced when the mortar was subject to a higher level of X-ray energy.

  5. Nondestructive testing of multi-layer tubes during fabrication

    Troitskij, V.A.; Biletskij, S.M.; Trushchenko, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Design of multilayer steel tubes for gas pipelines and technology of their fabrication are described in brief. Testing of the ground metal and welded joints of tubes used in their fabrication are considered. These methods comprise ultrasonic (US) testing of band, US testing and vacuum-bubble testing (VBT) of inner lap joints of shells X-ray TV control (XTVC) of ring welds, US testing of edge sections of shells with a continuous wall. Equipment applied in testing is described. XTVC is exercised by means of the RUP-150/300-10 X-ray apparatus, RI-60TEh introscope, sensitivity of testing is not worse than 4%, the rate equals 1-2 m/min

  6. A blind test on the pulse tube refrigerator model (PTRM)

    Yuan, S.W.K.; Radebaugh, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Stirling Refrigerator Performance Model (SRPM) has been validated extensively against the Lockheed built Stirling Coolers and various units in the literature. This model has been modified to predict the performance of the Pulse Tube Coolers (PTCs). It was successfully validated against a Lockheed in-house-built PTC. The results are to be published elsewhere. In this paper, the validation of PTRM against a NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) orifice pulse tube cooler is reported. Dimensions and operating condition of the PTC were obtained from NIST without prior knowledge of the performance. In other words, this is a open-quote blind test close-quote on the PTRM with the help of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Good correlation was found between the test data and the prediction. PTRM is a generic model that gives accurate performance prediction of the pulse tube coolers

  7. Delayed hydrogen cracking test design for pressure tubes

    Haddad, Roberto; Loberse, Antonio N.; Yawny, Alejandro A.; Riquelme, Pablo

    1999-01-01

    CANDU nuclear power stations pressure tubes of alloy Zr-2,5 % Nb present a cracking phenomenon known as delayed hydrogen cracking (DHC). This is a brittle fracture of zirconium hydrides that are developed by hydrogen due to aqueous corrosion on the metal surface. This hydrogen diffuses to the crack tip where brittle zirconium hydrides develops and promotes the crack propagation. A direct current potential decay (DCPD) technique has been developed to measure crack propagation rates on compact test (CT) samples machined from a non irradiated pressure tube. Those test samples were hydrogen charged by cathodic polarization in an acid solution and then pre cracked in a fatigue machine. This technique proved to be useful to measure crack propagation rates with at least 1% accuracy for DHC in pressure tubes. (author)

  8. Microstructure examination of the interface of the glass-ceramic insulator of the molybdenum frame of a vacuum tube

    Spears, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    A common technique used in examining the structural integrity of a glass-ceramic insulator-molybdenum cylinder bond in a vacuum tube subassembly is to slit the outer molybdenum cylinder and separate it from the glass-ceramic insulator. Typically, a black glassy layer (0.001 to 0.002 in. thick) remains on the cylinder. This layer has been interpreted as a requirement for an adequate seal. A subassembly was found that did not exhibit this feature. Further investigation of approximately 100 subassemblies revealed four more parts lacking a black glassy layer. These parts were found to be from two production runs and from three glass-ceramic lots. A microstructural analysis showed that on those parts having a black glassy layer, the crystalline phase in the glass-ceramic grew to within one to two microns of the metal interface and then terminated. A dark region existed in the insulator between the interface and the termination of the crystalline phase. This was attributed to molybdenum oxide dissolved in the glass. On those parts where the glass-ceramic broke clean from the cylinder, the crystalline phase extended up to the metal. Also observed on these parts was the appearance of a dark region adjacent to the metal that extended approximately one to two microns into the glass-ceramic. This was assumed to be an oxide of molybdenum. This report presents information concerning the microstructure of the interface

  9. Tube suction test for evaluating durability of cementitiously stabilized soils.

    2011-06-01

    In a comprehensive laboratory study, different tests namely, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at the end of freeze-thaw/wet-dry (F-T/W-D) cycles, resilient modulus (Mr) at the end of F-T/W-D cycles, vacuum saturation, tube suction, and moisture ...

  10. Tube suction test for evaluating durability of cementitiously stabilized soils.

    2011-06-01

    In a comprehensive laboratory study, different tests namely, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at the end of freeze-thaw/wet-dry (FT/ : W-D) cycles, resilient modulus (Mr) at the end of F-T/W-D cycles, vacuum saturation, tube suction, and moistur...

  11. Optimization of ultrasonic tube testing with concentric transducers

    Dufayet, J.-P.; Gambin, Raymond.

    1978-01-01

    In order to test tubes by ultrasonics without rotation, concentric transducers can be used with conical mirrors to detect transverse defects and with helical shaped mirrors to detect longitudinal defects. Further optimization studies have been carried out in order to bring the system highly operational. The respective advantages brought by the rotating screen or by our especially designed sectorial transducers are discussed [fr

  12. Eddy current test of fin tubes for a heat exchanger

    KIm, Young Joo; Lee, Se Kyung; Chung, Min Hwa

    1992-01-01

    Eddy current probes were designed for the test of fin tubes. Fin tubes, often used for heat exchangers, have uneven outer and inner surfaces to enhance the heat emission. The surface roughness make it difficult to detect flaws employing eddy current test(ECT). In order to overcome the difficulties we performed two types of works, one is the delopment of ECT probes, and the other is the signal processing including fast Fourier transform and digital filtering. In the development of ECT probes, we adopted empirical design method. Our ECT probes for fin tubes are inside diameter type. And we are specially concerned about geometric features such as the widths of the coils composing an ECT probe. We fabricated four probes with various coil widths. Eddy current test was performed using those ECT probes on specimens with artificial flaws. After analyzing the output signals, we found that, in order for the effective testing, the width of a coil should be determined considering the pitch of the fins of a tube. And we also learned that the frequency filtering could improve the s/n ratio.

  13. High temperature collecting performance of a new all-glass evacuated tubular solar air heater with U-shaped tube heat exchanger

    Wang, Pin-Yang; Guan, Hong-Yang; Liu, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Guo-San; Zhao, Feng; Xiao, Hong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel solar air heater with simplified CPC and U-type heat exchanger is designed and tested. • The system is made up of 10 linked collecting panels. • Simplified CPC has a much lower cost at the expense of slight efficiency loss. • The air heater can propose the heated air exceeding 200 °C with great air flow rate. - Abstract: Experiment and simulation are conducted on a new-type all-glass evacuated tubular solar air heater with simplified compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The system is made up of 10 linked collecting panels and each panel includes a simplified CPC and an all-glass evacuated tube with a U-shaped copper tube heat exchanger installed inside. Air is gradually heated when passing through each U-shaped copper tube. The heat transfer model of the solar air heater is established and the outlet air temperature, the heat power and heat efficiency are calculated. Calculated and experimental results show that the present experimental system can provide the heated air exceeding 200 °C. The whole system has an outstanding high-temperature collecting performance and the present heat transfer model can meet the general requirements of engineering calculations

  14. Inert medium (helium) irradiation testing of pressure tube samples

    Ancuta, M.; Radu, V.; Stefan, V.; Preda, M.

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation tests currently performed in C-5 capsule aim at obtaining data and information concerning behavior to irradiation of pressure tubes of CANDU type fuel channel, to evidence the factors limiting operation life span. A calculation code for analysis and prediction of pressure tube behavior should be based upon periodical inspection results, post irradiation examination of the removed from reactor pressure tubes as well as on the experimental results obtained with materials subjected to irradiation conditions identical with the operational ones. Mechanical behavior analysis should focus both complex thermal-mechanical type stresses and mechanical properties alteration under irradiation. The experimental results should be applied: - to evaluate the irradiation effects upon mechanical properties of Zr-2.5% Nb exposed to fluences up to 10 21 n·cm -2 ; - to gather data concerning the real stress / real deformation characteristic from which characteristic quantities can be deduced as, for instance, elasticity modulus, plasticity modulus, exponent of stress term in the Tsu-Berteles relation, to be used within the CANTUP simulation code describing pressure tube behavior, currently developed at INR Pitesti; - to develop prediction methods of pressure tube behavior and merging with in-service inspection procedure in order to forecast the life span and the proper timing for replacement before major failures occur. The samples irradiated in C-5 capsule were extracted from the ends of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes resulting from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. The samples for tensile tests were extracted on longitudinal and transversal directions of the pressure tube. The tests were carried out under following conditions: - test environment temperature, 260 - 280 deg.C; - testing medium, helium at 1 - 6 b pressure; - neutron flux (E n > 1 MeV), 1 - 2 · 10 13 ncm -2 s -1 ; - neutron fluence (E n > 1 MeV), 4 · 10 20 ncm -2 . The following characteristics were obtained from tensile

  15. SCC testing of steam generator tubes repaired by welded sleeves

    Pierson, E.; Stubbe, J.

    1993-01-01

    One way to repair steam generator tubing is to introduce a sleeve inside the tube so that it spans the corroded area and to seal it at both ends. This technique has been studied at Laborelec with a particular attention paid to the occurrence of new SCC cracks at the upper joint. Tube segments coming from the same lot of mill annealed alloy 600 were sent to six manufacturers to be sleeved by their own procedure (including TIG, laser or kinetic welding, followed or not by a stress relief heat treatment), and then tested at Laborelecin 10% NaOH at 350 degrees C. The tests were performed with and without differential pressure i.e. in capsules (Δ = 9 and 19 MPa) and in autoclave (Δp = 0). Nearly all the not stress relieved mock-ups developed through cracks in several hundred hours in auto-clave. The cracks were circumferential and situated near the weld. At 9 and 19 MPa, the time to failure decreased and longitudinal cracks appeared near the weld and at the transition zone of expanded areas. Cracks were never observed in the alloy 690 sleeve, except in the weld bead. Reference capsules (roll expaned tubes) made of the same lot of alloy 600 were tested in the same environment

  16. Analysis of components from drip tests with ATM-10 glass

    Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1996-09-01

    Waste package assemblies consisting of actinide-doped West Valley ATM-10 reference glass and sensitized 304L stainless steel have been reacted with simulated repository groundwater using the Unsaturated Test Method. Analyses of surface corrosion and reaction products resulting from tests that were terminated at scheduled intervals between 13 and 52 weeks are reported. Analyses reveal complex interactions between the groundwater, the sensitized stainless steel waste form holder, and the glass. Alteration phases form that consist mainly of smectite clay, brockite, and an amorphous thorium iron titanium silicate, the latter two incorporating thorium, uranium, and possibly transuranics. The results from the terminated tests, combined with data from tests that are still ongoing, will help determine the suitability of glass waste forms in the proposed high-level repository at the Yucca Mountain Site

  17. Development of an ASTM standard glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT), for high level radioactive waste glass

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The nation's first, and the world's largest, facility to immobilize high-level nuclear waste in durable borosilicate glass has started operation at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The product specifications on the glass wasteform produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) required extensive characterization of the glass product before actual production began and for continued characterization during production. To aid in this characterization, a glass durability (leach) test was needed that was easily reproducible, could be performed remotely on highly radioactive samples, and could yield results rapidly. Several standard leach tests were examined with a variety of test configurations. Using existing tests as a starting point, the DWPF Product Consistency Test (PCT was developed in which crushed glass samples are exposed to 90 ± 2 degree C deionized water for seven days. Based on extensive testing, including a seven-laboratory round robin and confirmatory testing with radioactive samples, the PCT is very reproducible, yields reliable results rapidly, and can be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples

  18. Preliminary project of installation for separation tubes tests-ITTS

    Rocha, Z.

    1984-01-01

    A consolidation of actual ideas about installation, entitled ''Installation to separation tubes tests-ITTS'', expected to CDTN is presented. The project bases, the testing to be realized, the procedures to be obeyed during the operation, the components and the space required by installation and auxiliary equipments, the presumable origin of components (nacional and international), including a preliminary list of building and operation costs are described. (author) [pt

  19. Effect of Rebonding on the Bond Strength of Orthodontic Tubes: A Comparison of Light Cure Adhesive and Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement In Vitro

    Monika Aleksiejunaite

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of different enamel preparation procedures and compare light cure composite (LCC and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI on the bond strength of orthodontic metal tubes rebonded to the enamel. Twenty human molars were divided into two groups (n=10. Tubes were bonded using LCC (Transbond XT in group 1 and RMGI (Fuji Ortho LC in group 2. The tubes in each group were bonded following manufacturers’ instructions (experiment I and then debonded using testing machine. Then, the same brackets were sandblasted and rebonded twice. Before the first rebonding, the enamel was cleaned using carbide bur (experiment II and before second rebonding, it was cleaned using carbide bur and soda blasted (experiment III. Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests showed no significant difference between RMGI and LCC bond strengths in case of normal bonding and rebonding, when enamel was cleaned using carbide bur before rebonding. Enamel soda blasting before rebonding significantly increased RMGI tensile bond strength value compared to LLC (p<0.05. LCC and RMGI (especially RMGI provide sufficient bond strengths for rebonding of molar tubes, when residual adhesive from previous bonding is removed and enamel soda blasted.

  20. Preparation of lead oxide nanoparticles from cathode-ray tube funnel glass by self-propagating method.

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Jianxin

    2012-05-15

    This paper presents a novel process of extracting lead oxide nanoparticles from cathode-ray tube (CRT) funnel glass using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The impacts of added amount of funnel glass on the extraction ratio of lead, the lead extraction velocity and the micromorphology, as well as particle size of extracted nanoparticles were investigated. We found that self-propagating reaction in the presence of Mg and Fe(2)O(3) could separate lead preferentially and superfine lead oxide nanoparticles were obtained from a collecting chamber. The separation ratio was related closely to the amount of funnel glass added in the original mixture. At funnel glass addition of no more than 40wt.%, over 90wt.% of lead was recovered from funnel glass. High extraction yield reveals that the network structure of funnel glass was fractured due to the dramatic energy generated during the SHS melting process. The PbO nanoparticles collected show good dispersion and morphology with a mean grain size of 40-50nm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Liquid scintillation systems and apparatus for measuring high-energy radiation emitted by samples in standard laboratory test tubes

    Benvenutti, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid scintillation detection system employs improved sample holders in which the cap of a glass vial is provided with a well for receiving a standard laboratory test tube containing a radioactive sample. The well is immersed in a liquid scintillator in the vial, the scintillator containing lead acetate solution to enhance its efficiency. A commercially available beta-counting liquid scintillation apparatus is modified to provide gamma-counting with the improved sample holders

  2. Glass solidification material confinement test device

    Namiki, Shigekazu.

    1997-01-01

    In a device for confining glass solidification materials, a pipeline connecting a detection vessel and a detector is formed to have a double walled structure, and air blowing holes are formed on the wall of the inner pipe, and an air supply mechanism is connected to inner and outer pipes for supplying blowing air thereby preventing deposition on the inner pipe wall. The air blowing holes are formed by constituting the pipe by using a porous sintered material and porous portions thereof are defined as the air blowing holes, or holes are formed on the pipe wall made of a metal by machining. A blowing boundary layer is formed by blowing the supplied air along the pipe wall of the inner pipe, by which deposition of the sucked materials to the inner wall of the inner pipe is prevented, and all of the materials sucked from the detection vessel are collected to the detector. In addition, an air exit pipe is formed into a double walled structure so as to be supplied blowing air from the air supply mechanism thereby enabling to prevent deposition of sucked materials more reliably. (N.H.)

  3. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  4. Fracture Toughness Round Robin Test International in pressure tube materials

    Villagarcia, M.P.; Liendo, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Part of the pressure tubes surveillance program of CANDU type reactors is to determine the fracture toughness using a special fracture specimen and test procedure. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited decided to hold a Round Robin Test International and 9 laboratories participated worldwide in which several pressure tube materials were selected: Zircaloy-2, Zr-2.5%Nb cold worked and Zr-2.5%Nb heat treated. The small specimens used held back the thickness and curvature of the tube. J-R curves at room temperature were obtained and the crack extension values were determined by electrical potential drop techniques. These values were compared with results generated from other laboratories and a bid scatter was founded. It could be due to slight variations in the test method or inhomogeneity of the materials and a statistical study must be done to see if there is any pattern. The next step for the Round Robin Test would be to make some modifications in the test method in order to reduce the scatter. (Author)

  5. RIA simulation tests using driver tube for ATF cladding

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lowden, R. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, K. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) is a potential failure mechanism for accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding candidates during a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA). This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 research activities that were undertaken to evaluate the PCMI-like hoop-strain-driven mechanical response of ATF cladding candidates. To achieve various RIA-like conditions, a modified-burst test (MBT) device was developed to produce different mechanical pulses. The calibration of the MBT instrument was accomplished by performing mechanical tests on unirradiated Generation-I iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy samples. Shakedown tests were also conducted in both FY 2016 and FY 2017 using unirradiated hydrided ZIRLO™ tube samples. This milestone report focuses on testing of ATF materials, but the benchmark tests with hydrided ZIRLO™ tube samples are documented in a recent journal article.a For the calibration and benchmark tests, the hoop strain was monitored using strain gauges attached to the sample surface in the hoop direction. A novel digital image correlation (DIC) system composed of a single high-speed camera and an array of six mirrors was developed for the MBT instrument to better resolve the failure behavior of samples and to provide useful data for validation of high-fidelity modeling and simulation tools. The DIC system enable a 360° view of a sample’s outer surface. This feature was added to the instrument to determine the precise failure location on a sample’s surface for strain predictions. The DIC system was tested on several silicon carbide fiber/silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite tube samples at various pressurization rates of the driver tube (which correspond to the strain rates for the samples). The hoop strains for various loading conditions were determined for the SiC/SiC composite tube samples. Future work is planned to enhance understanding of the failure behavior of the ATF cladding candidates of age

  6. A novel test tube method of screening for hemoglobin E.

    Tatu, T; Kasinrerk, W

    2012-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is a β-structural variant common worldwide. This Hb disorder can form a compound heterozygous state with the β-thalassemia gene, leading to life-threatening hereditary hemolytic anemia, HbE/β-thalassemia. Screening of HbE has proven to be a challenging practice in prevention and control of the HbE/β-thalassemia. A novel test tube method for HbE screening using diethyl aminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose resin was described. With the developed system, HbE/A(2) did not bind to the resin and remained dissolved in the supernatant, whereas other Hbs completely bound to the resin. The red color of the supernatant observed in the test tube indicated the presence of HbE. Colorless or markedly pale color of the supernatant indicates the absence of HbE. Accuracy and efficiency of the established method in detecting HbE was comparable with the standard cellulose acetate electrophoresis method. The developed method is cheap and simple with no requirement of sophisticated equipment. The reagent could be stored at 4 °C for up to 5 months. Hemolysate samples aged up to 5 months were still suitable for this test. The described novel test tube method could be an alternative method of mass population screening for HbE, particularly in small health care facilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Accelerated Leach Testing of GLASS: ALTGLASS Version 3.0

    Trivelpiece, Cory L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-31

    The Accelerated Leach Testing of GLASS (ALTGLASS) database is a collection of data from short- and long-term product consistency tests (PCT, ASTM C1285 A and B) on high level waste (HLW) as well as low activity waste (LAW) glasses. The database provides both U.S. and international researchers with an archive of experimental data for the purpose of studying, modeling, or validating existing models of nuclear waste glass corrosion. The ALTGLASS database is maintained and updated by researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This newest version, ALTGLASS Version 3.0, has been updated with an additional 503 rows of data representing PCT results from corrosion experiments conducted in the United States by the Savannah River National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Vitreous State Laboratory (SRNL, PNNL, ANL, VSL, respectively) as well as the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) in the United Kingdom.

  8. Accelerated Leach Testing of GLASS: ALTGLASS Version 3.0

    Trivelpiece, Cory L.; Jantzen, Carol M.; Crawford, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The Accelerated Leach Testing of GLASS (ALTGLASS) database is a collection of data from short- and long-term product consistency tests (PCT, ASTM C1285 A and B) on high level waste (HLW) as well as low activity waste (LAW) glasses. The database provides both U.S. and international researchers with an archive of experimental data for the purpose of studying, modeling, or validating existing models of nuclear waste glass corrosion. The ALTGLASS database is maintained and updated by researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This newest version, ALTGLASS Version 3.0, has been updated with an additional 503 rows of data representing PCT results from corrosion experiments conducted in the United States by the Savannah River National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Vitreous State Laboratory (SRNL, PNNL, ANL, VSL, respectively) as well as the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) in the United Kingdom.

  9. Durability testing with West Valley borosilicate glass composition- Phase II

    Macedo, P.B.; Finger, S.M.; Barkatt, A.A.; Pegg, I.L.; Feng, X.; Freeborn, W.P.

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the research performed by the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) during FY 1987 in support of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) nuclear waste vitrification process. A principal objective of this work is the optimization of the glass composition be used for the vitrification of the liquid high-level waste generated at West Valley during nuclear fuel reprocessing. This report discusses (1) the experimental investigations to optimize the reference glass composition (the current leading candidates are WVCM-50 and ATM-10) for the WVDP vitrification process; (2) the systematic experimental investigation performed to determine the effects of compositional variations in WVCM-50 and WV-205 reference glasses on their viscosity and durability (including initial results of long-term leach tests of WVCM-50 under repository conditions); (3) the development of short-time and predictive leach tests; (4) the development of a process model for the West Valley vitrification process which predicts the range of glass compositions which may be encountered during normal operations and the effects of deviations in process control parameters; and (5) the development of product models for predicting the durability and viscosity of nuclear waste glasses

  10. Am/Cm TTR testing - 3/8-inch glass beads evaluation in CIM5

    Witt, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    To facilitate the procurement and handling of the glass former for Am/Cm vitrification in the F-Canyon MPPF, 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch diameter glass beads were purchased from Corning for evaluation in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Prior to evaluating the beads in the CIM5, tests were conducted in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) with 1/4 inch beads, 3/8 inch beads, and a 50/50 mixture to identify any process concerns. Results of the DTTS tests are summarized in Attachment 1. A somewhat larger volume expansion was experienced in all three DTTS runs as compared to a standard run using cullet. Further testing of the use of glass beads in the CIM5 was requested by the Design Authority as Task 1.02 of Technical Task Request 99-MNSS/SE-006. Since the Technical Task Plan was not yet approved, the completion of this task was conducted under an authorization request approved by the SRTC Laboratory Director, S. Wood. This request is included as Attachment 2

  11. Extreme learning machine: a new alternative for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters.

    Liu, Zhijian; Li, Hao; Tang, Xindong; Zhang, Xinyu; Lin, Fan; Cheng, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    Heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial indicators for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, wasting too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we previously used artificial neural networks and support vector machine to develop precise knowledge-based models for predicting the heat collection rates and heat loss coefficients of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters, setting the properties measured by "portable test instruments" as the independent variables. A robust software for determination was also developed. However, in previous results, the prediction accuracy of heat loss coefficients can still be improved compared to those of heat collection rates. Also, in practical applications, even a small reduction in root mean square errors (RMSEs) can sometimes significantly improve the evaluation and business processes. As a further study, in this short report, we show that using a novel and fast machine learning algorithm-extreme learning machine can generate better predicted results for heat loss coefficient, which reduces the average RMSEs to 0.67 in testing.

  12. Failure analysis of burst tested fuel tube samples

    Padmaprabu, C.; Ramana Rao, S.V.; Srivatsava, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Total Circumferential Elongation (TCE) is an important parameter for evaluation of ductility of the Zircaloy-4 fuel tubes for the PHWR reactors. The TCE values of the fuel tubes were obtained using the burst testing technique. In some lots there is a variation in the values of the TCE. To investigate the reasons for such a large variation in the TCE, samples were selected at appropriate intervals and sectioned at the fractured portion. The surface morphology of the fractured surfaces was examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The morphologies show segregation of elements at specific locations. Energy dispersive spectra was obtained from those segregated particles. According to the magnitude of TCE value the samples were classified into low, intermediate and high ductility. Low ductility samples were found to contain large amount of segregations along the thickness direction of the tube. This forms a brittle region and a path for the easy crack growth along thickness direction. In the case of intermediate samples the segregation occurred in fewer locations compared to low ductile samples and also confined to the circumferential direction of the outside surface of the tube. Due to this, probability of crack formation at the surface of the tube could be high. But crack growth would be slower in the ductile matrix along the thickness direction resulting in the enhancement of TCE value compared to the low ductile sample. In the high ductile samples, the segregations were very scarce and found to be isolated and embedded in the ductile matrix. The mode of failure in these types of samples was found to be purely ductile. Cracks were found to originate solely from the micro voids in the material. As the probability of crack formation and its propagation is low, very high TCE values were observed in these samples. Microstructural observations of fractured surfaces and EDAX analysis was able to identify the

  13. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  14. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2010 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 A - 105 m 3 of glass (Puigh 1999). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 0.89 A - 1018 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99Tc (t1/2 = 2.1 A - 105), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessement (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2010 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses. The emphasis in FY2010 was the completing an evaluation of the most sensitive kinetic rate law parameters used to predict glass weathering, documented in Bacon and Pierce (2010), and transitioning from the use of the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases to Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases computer code for near-field calculations. The FY2010 activities also consisted of developing a Monte Carlo and Geochemical Modeling framework that links glass composition to alteration phase formation by (1) determining the structure of unreacted and reacted glasses for use as input information into Monte Carlo

  15. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2010 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Serne, R Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2010-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 × 105 m3 of glass (Puigh 1999). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 0.89 × 1018 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99Tc (t1/2 = 2.1 × 105), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessement (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2010 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses. The emphasis in FY2010 was the completing an evaluation of the most sensitive kinetic rate law parameters used to predict glass weathering, documented in Bacon and Pierce (2010), and transitioning from the use of the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases to Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases computer code for near-field calculations. The FY2010 activities also consisted of developing a Monte Carlo and Geochemical Modeling framework that links glass composition to alteration phase formation by 1) determining the structure of unreacted and reacted glasses for use as input information into Monte Carlo

  16. Determination of residence times of ions in a resistive glass selected ion flow-drift tube using the Hadamard transformation.

    Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Španěl, Patrik

    2015-09-15

    Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, used for trace gas analyses has certain fundamental limitations that could be alleviated by adding a facility that allows reaction times and ion interaction energies to be varied. Thus, a selected ion flow-drift tube, SIFDT, has been created to explore the influence of an embedded electric field on these parameters and on reaction processes. The new SIFTD instrument was constructed using a miniature resistive glass drift tube. Arrival times of ions, t, analysed by a downstream quadrupole mass spectrometer over the m/z range 10-100 were studied by modulating the injected ion current using a gate lens. Single pulse modulation was compared with pseudorandom time multiplexing exploiting the Hadamard transformation. A simple model involving analysis of ethanol and water vapour mixture in air was used to explore the advantages of the SIFDT concept to SIFT-MS analysis. It is shown that the resistive glass drift tube is suitable for SIFDT experiments. The Hadamard transformation can be used to routinely determine reagent ion residence time in the flow-drift tube and also to observe differences in arrival times for different product ions. Two-dimensional data combining arrival time and mass spectra can be obtained rapidly. The calculated ion drift velocities vary with the reduced field strength, E/N, and the calculated ion mobilities agree with theoretical and previous literature values. This study has provided evidence that the SIFDT-MS technique can be implemented in a miniature and low-cost instrument and two- or three-dimensional data can be obtained (product ion count rates as functions of m/z, t and E/N) using the Hadamard transformation thus providing exciting possibilities for further analytical additions and extensions of the SIFT-MS technique. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Eddy current testing device for metallic tubes at least locally curved

    Pigeon, Marcel; Vienot, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    Steam generators, condensers and heat exchangers generally consist of metallic tube bundles, the tubes having a complex geometry. The invention concerns an Eddy current testing device for metallic tubes at least locally curved, operating by translation of a probe inside the tubes [fr

  18. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  19. The performance of solar collector CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) type with three pipes covered by glass tubes

    Gaos, Yogi Sirodz; Yulianto, Muhamad; Juarsa, Mulya; Nurrohman, Marzuki, Edi; Yuliaji, Dwi; Budiono, Kabul

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a tropical country that has potential energy of solar radiation worth of 4.5 until 4.8 kWh/m2. However, this potential has not been utilized regularly. This paper will discuss the performance of solar collector compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) type with water as the working fluid. This CPC solar collector utilized three pipes covered by glass tubes. This paper has contribution to provide the temperature achievement between three pipes covered by glass tubes with and without glass cover of solar collector CPC type. The research conducted by varying the water flow rate of 1 l/m up to 6 l/m with three pipes arranged in series and parallel. From the results, the used of solar collector CPC type in the current study shows that the decrease of solar radiation, which was caused by climate change, did not influence the heat absorbance by water in the pipe. Therefore, the design of the solar collector in this research has potential to be used in future when solar radiation are used as the energy source.

  20. Tests and analysis on steam generator tube failure propagation

    Tanabe, Hiromi

    1990-01-01

    The understanding of leak enlargement and failure propagation behavior is essential to select a design basis leak (DBL) of LMFBR steam generators. Therefore, various series of experiments, such as self-enlargement tests, target wastage tests, failure propagation tests were conducted in a wide range of leak using test facilities of SWAT at PNC/OEC. Especially, in the large leak tests, potential of overheating failure was investigated under a prototypical steam cooling condition inside target tubes. In the small leak, the difference of wastage resistivity was clarified among several tube materials such as 9-chrome steels. In regard to an analytical approach, a computer code LEAP (Leak Enlargement and Propagation) was developed on the basis of all of these experimental results. The code was used to validate the previously selected DBL of the prototype reactor, Monju, steam generator. This approach proved to be successful in spite of somewhat over-conservatism in the analysis. Moreover, LEAP clarified the effectiveness of a rapid steam dump and an enhanced leak detection system. The code improvement toward a realistic analysis is desired, however, to lessen the DBL for a future large plant and then the re-evaluation of the experimental data such as the size of secondary failure is under way. (author). 4 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  1. Electronic waste: chemical characterization glasses of tubes cathode rays with viability for recycling; Lixo eletronico: caracterizacao quimica dos vidros de tubos de raios catodicos com viabilidade para reciclagem

    Lima, Norma Maria O.; Morais, Crislene R. Silva, E-mail: normalimam@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Lima, Lenilde Mergia Ribeiro [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UATEC/UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Tecnologia do Desenvolvimento

    2011-07-01

    Electronic waste, or e-waste, often makes incorrect destinations, which causes serious environmental problems. The aim of this study was to analyze the X-ray fluorescence to study the recycling technology for the glass of Cathode Ray Tubes or, popularly, 'picture tubes', identified by the acronym CRT (Cathode Ray Tubes), which integrate computer monitors. It was observed that the glass screen and funnel analyzed have different chemical compositions. As the silicon oxide (SiO2), the largest component of these glasses percentage 59.89% and 48.63% respectively for the screen and funnel this oxide is responsible for forming the vitreous network. The study of recycling of computer monitors it is important, since about 45% of existing materials on a monitor are made of glass, since it is 100% recyclable and can be reused, thus reducing the amount of waste deposited in the environment. (author)

  2. Counting DNA: estimating the complexity of a test tube of DNA.

    Faulhammer, D; Lipton, R J; Landweber, L F

    1999-10-01

    We consider the problem of estimation of the 'complexity' of a test tube of DNA. The complexity of a test tube is the number of different kinds of strands of DNA in the test tube. It is quite easy to estimate the number of total strands in a test tube, especially if the strands are all the same length. Estimation of the complexity is much less clear. We propose a simple kind of DNA computation that can estimate the complexity.

  3. Geometric Relations for CYLEX Test Tube-Wall Motion

    Hill, Larry

    2015-06-01

    The CYLinder EXpansion (CYLEX) test is a (precision, instrumented, high-purity annealed copper) pipe bomb. Its essential measured quantities are detonation speed and tube-wall motion. Its main purpose is to calibrate detonation product equations of state (EOS) by measuring how product fluid pushes metal. In its full complexity, CYLEX is an integral test, for which EOS calibration requires the entire system to be computationally modeled and compared to salient data. Stripped to its essence, CYLEX is a non-integral test for which one may perform the inverse problem, to infer the EOS directly from data. CYLEX analysis can be simplified by the fact that the test constituents achieve a steady traveling wave structure; this allows derivation of several useful geometric relationships regarding tube wall motion. The first such treatment was by G.I. Taylor. Although his analysis was limited to small wall deflection angles, he asserted that the results remain valid for arbitrary ones. I confirm this attribute and present additional useful relationships. In the past decade, CYLEX wall-motion instrumentation has migrated almost entirely from streak camera to PDV, yet discrepancies remain between the two methods. I further present geometric relationships that shed light on this issue. Work supported by the U.S. DOE.

  4. Instruments for non-destructive evaluation of advanced test reactor inpile tubes

    Livingston, R.A.; Beller, L.S.; Edgett, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor is a 250 MW LWR used primarily for irradiation testing of materials contained in inpile tubes that pass through the reactor core. These tubes provided the high pressure and temperature water environment required for the test specimens. The reactor cooling water surrounding the inpile tubes is at much lower pressure and temperature. The structural integrity of the inpile tubes is monitored by routine surveillance to ensure against unplanned reactor shutdowns to replace defective inpile tubes. The improved instruments developed for inpile tube surveillance include a bore profilometer, ultrasonic flaw detetion system and bore diameter gauges. The design and function of these improved instruments is presented

  5. Development of small-diameter lead-glass-tube matrices for gamma-ray conversion in positron emission tomography

    Schwartz, G.M.

    1985-05-01

    A gamma-ray converter for a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) positron emission tomograph is described. The converter is made of small-diameter (0.48 mm inner diameter, 0.06 mm wall thickness) lead-oxide-glass tubes fused to form a honeycomb matrix. The surfaces of the tubes are reduced in a hydrogen atmosphere to provide the drift electric field for detection of the conversion electrons. The detection efficiency for a 10 mm thick converter is 6.65%, with a time resolution of 160 ns (FWHM). A scheme which will improve the spatial resolution of the tomograph by use of the self quenching streamer mode of chamber operation is described. Details of construction of the converters and the MWPC are presented, as well as the design performance of a high spatial resolution positron emission tomograph (HISPET). 40 refs., 22 figs

  6. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 x 10 5 m 3 of glass (Certa and Wells 2010). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 8.9 x 10 14 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99 Tc (t 1/2 = 2.1 x 10 5 ), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2011 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses.

  7. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of glass (Certa and Wells 2010). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 8.9 x 10{sup 14} Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally {sup 99}Tc (t{sub 1/2} = 2.1 x 10{sup 5}), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2011 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses.

  8. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  9. Measurement of the volatility and glass transition temperatures of glasses produced during the DWPF startup test program

    Marra, J.C.; Harbour, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize high-level radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site by incorporating the waste into a glass matrix. The molten waste glass will be poured into stainless steel canisters which will be welded shut to produce the final waste form. One specification requires that any volatiles produced as a result of accidentally heating the waste glass to the glass transition temperature be identified. Glass samples from five melter campaigns, run as part of the DWPF Startup Test Program, were analyzed to determine glass transition temperatures and to examine the volatilization (by weight loss). Glass transition temperatures (T g ) for the glasses, determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ranged between 445 C and 474 C. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) scans showed that no overall weight loss occurred in any of the glass samples when heated to 500 C. Therefore, no volatility will occur in the final glass product when heated up to 500 C

  10. Testing Placement of Gastric Feeding Tubes in Infants.

    Metheny, Norma A; Pawluszka, Ann; Lulic, Melanie; Hinyard, Leslie J; Meert, Kathleen L

    2017-11-01

    Inadvertent positioning of a nasogastric tube in the lung can cause serious complications, so identifying methods to detect improperly inserted tubes is imperative. To compare the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of 4 pH cut points (< 4.0, < 4.5, < 5.0, and < 5.5) in differentiating gastric and tracheal aspirates under various treatment conditions and to explore the utility of a pepsin assay for distinguishing between gastric and tracheal aspirates. Gastric and tracheal aspirates were collected from critically ill infants undergoing mechanical ventilation who had nasogastric or orogastric feeding tubes. Aspirates were tested with colorimetric pH indicators and a rapid pepsin assay. Information about treatment conditions was obtained from medical records. Two hundred twelve gastric aspirates and 60 tracheal aspirates were collected from 212 patients. Sensitivity was highest and specificity was lowest at the gastric aspirate pH cut point of less than 5.5. Positive predictive values were 100% at all pH cut points less than 5.0. Negative predictive values were higher at the pH cut point of less than 5.0 than at cut points less than 4.5. A higher percentage of pepsin-positive readings was found in gastric aspirates (88.3%) than in tracheal aspirates (5.4%). For a desired positive predictive value of 100%, a pH cut point of less than 5.0 provides the best negative predictive values, regardless of gastric acid inhibitor administration and feeding status. The pepsin assay is promising as an additional marker to distinguish gastric from tracheal aspirates. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. Design of experiments and equipment to test the ballooning characteristics of CANDU pressure tubes

    Forrest, C.F.; Stern, F.; Hart, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been planned and an apparatus has been designed to enable creep testing of end-of-life pressure tube specimens in a LOCA environment. Effects that could be studied include: annealing of irradiation damage during transient heating; effects of hydride blisters on pressure tube ballooning strains; and, effects of uniformly-distributed hydrogen content on pressure tube ballooning strains. The proposed experimental program will consist of separate effects creep tests on pressure tube sections under transient heating conditions

  12. Enhancement of the glass corrosion in the presence of clay minerals: testing experimental results with an integrated glass dissolution model

    Godon, N.; Vernaz, E.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Recent glass dissolution experiments, conducted at 90 deg C in the presence of potential backfill materials, indicate remarkably faster glass corrosion in the presence of clay, compared to tests where the glass is leached either alone or with alternative backfill materials. This effect correlates with the clay content in the backfill, and may be attributed to the removal of silica from solution. Scorpion, or dissolution with reprecipitation of a silica-rich clay, have been proposed as possible mechanisms for the silica consumption. The results of some experiments have been tested against a glass dissolution model, in which a widely used kinetic equation for glass corrosion is coupled with diffusive silica transport through a single porosity, linearly sorbing medium, which represents the backfilling. Because the glass corrosion rates imposed by the kinetic equation are inversely proportional to the silicic acid concentration of the leachant contacting the glass, the model predicts enhanced glass dissolution if silica is sorbed by the porous medium. The experimental data proved to be consistent with the predicted enhancement of the glass dissolution. Moreover, the model-estimated distribution coefficients for silica sorption (K d ) fall within the range of values extracted from available literature data, thus supporting the hypothesis that the observed high corrosion rates are due to sorption of silica on the clay mineral surfaces. (author)

  13. Tuboimpedance: A New Test of Eustachian Tube Function.

    Smith, Matthew E; Zou, Charlie C; Blythe, Andrew J C; Tysome, James R

    2017-04-01

    Objective Eustachian tube (ET) dysfunction is most frequently caused by a failure of the ET to adequately open; however, there is currently no reliable method of assessing this. Tubomanometry has recently shown good interindividual repeatability as a measure of ET function by measuring middle ear pressure after the application of regulated nasopharyngeal pressures during swallowing. We present the first reports of a novel test: middle ear impedance measurements during standard nasopharyngeal pressure application (tuboimpedance). We assess repeatability in healthy ears and any advantages over tubomanometry. Study Design Exploratory cohort diagnosis study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects Twenty screened, healthy ears (10 volunteers). Methods Tubomanometry and tuboimpedance tests were performed while individuals swallowed with applied nasopharyngeal pressures of 20, 30, 40, and 50 mbar. Eustachian tube opening detection rate and test repeatability (measured by intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) for immediate and delayed repeats at each pressure were compared. Results ET opening was detected more frequently using tuboimpedance, with a 100% detection rate using a nasopharyngeal pressure of 30 mbar or more, compared to 88% to 96% with tubomanometry. Detection of ET opening at 20 mbar was possible with tuboimpedance. Repeatability of both tests was mostly strong (ICC >0.7) for both immediate and delayed repeats. Repeatability for the tubomanometry R value was only fair to moderate. Conclusion Tuboimpedance may provide a repeatable measure of ET opening that is easier to perform due to lower nasopharyngeal pressures required and fewer issues with poor ear-probe sealing. Further assessment in patients with different forms of ET dysfunction is required.

  14. Template synthesis of test tube nanoparticles using non-destructive replication.

    Wagner, Jonathan; Yao, Jingyuan; Rodgers, David; Hinds, Bruce

    2013-03-01

    Nano test tubes are a promising delivery vehicle for a range of therapeutics, including small molecule drugs and biologics. However, current template synthesis methods of producing nano test tubes are prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Here, non-destructive template replication was used to increase nano test tube yield from porous alumina by more than a hundredfold. We demonstrate how to produce nano test tubes of several sizes and compositions, including hybrid tubes with different inner and outer surfaces for targeted surface chemistry. Nano test tubes were readily suspended and stored in aqueous solutions without the need for chemical treatment. These nano test tubes should find application as delivery vehicles for therapeutics, particularly for processive 'bionanoreactors' loaded with enzymes.

  15. Template synthesis of test tube nanoparticles using non-destructive replication

    Wagner, Jonathan; Rodgers, David; Yao Jingyuan; Hinds, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Nano test tubes are a promising delivery vehicle for a range of therapeutics, including small molecule drugs and biologics. However, current template synthesis methods of producing nano test tubes are prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Here, non-destructive template replication was used to increase nano test tube yield from porous alumina by more than a hundredfold. We demonstrate how to produce nano test tubes of several sizes and compositions, including hybrid tubes with different inner and outer surfaces for targeted surface chemistry. Nano test tubes were readily suspended and stored in aqueous solutions without the need for chemical treatment. These nano test tubes should find application as delivery vehicles for therapeutics, particularly for processive ‘bionanoreactors’ loaded with enzymes. (paper)

  16. Final Report. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing, VSL-03R3460-1, Rev. 0

    Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Lai, Shan-Tao T. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-06-18

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  17. The Effects of Phonation Into Glass, Plastic, and LaxVox Tubes in Singers: A Systematic Review.

    Mendes, Amanda Louize Félix; Dornelas do Carmo, Rodrigo; Dias de Araújo, Aline Menezes Guedes; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; da Mota, Camila Silva Oliveira; Dias, Sheila Schneiberg Valença; Reis, Francisco Prado; Aragão, José Aderval

    2018-05-03

    The present study aimed to perform a systematic literature review to assess the effects of phonation therapy on voice quality and function in singers. The systematic search was performed in February and updated in October 2017. No restriction of year, language, or publication status was applied. The primary electronic databases searched were LILACS, SciELO, PubMed, and Cochrane. Kappa coefficient was used to assess the agreement between examiners in judging article eligibility. The eligible articles were analyzed based on their risk of bias using the tools proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Mendeley Desktop 1.13.3 software package (Mendeley Ltd, London, UK) was used to standardize the references of identified articles. The general sample consisted of 1965 articles screened out of the electronic databases. Two examiners analyzed the sample in the search for eligible articles. The agreement between examiners reached excellent outcomes (kappa coefficient = 0.88). After the selection, phase 6 articles remained eligible. Together, the eligible studies accounted 141 subjects (65 men and 76 women) aged between 18 and 72 years old. Electroglottography was considered as the most common method (83.33%) of assessment of the effects of phonation therapy in singers. The most prevalent exercises within the therapies were phonation into straws and phonation into glass tubes. The phonation into glass tubes immersed in water, straws, and LaxVox tubes promoted positive effects on the voice quality in singers, such as more comfortable phonation, better voice projection, and economy in voice emission. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  19. DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell.

    Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Groves, Benjamin; Muscat, Richard A; Seelig, Georg

    2015-09-01

    The programmability of Watson-Crick base pairing, combined with a decrease in the cost of synthesis, has made DNA a widely used material for the assembly of molecular structures and dynamic molecular devices. Working in cell-free settings, researchers in DNA nanotechnology have been able to scale up system complexity and quantitatively characterize reaction mechanisms to an extent that is infeasible for engineered gene circuits or other cell-based technologies. However, the most intriguing applications of DNA nanotechnology - applications that best take advantage of the small size, biocompatibility and programmability of DNA-based systems - lie at the interface with biology. Here, we review recent progress in the transition of DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell. We highlight key successes in the development of DNA-based imaging probes, prototypes of smart therapeutics and drug delivery systems, and explore the future challenges and opportunities for cellular DNA nanotechnology.

  20. DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell

    Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Groves, Benjamin; Muscat, Richard A.; Seelig, Georg

    2015-09-01

    The programmability of Watson-Crick base pairing, combined with a decrease in the cost of synthesis, has made DNA a widely used material for the assembly of molecular structures and dynamic molecular devices. Working in cell-free settings, researchers in DNA nanotechnology have been able to scale up system complexity and quantitatively characterize reaction mechanisms to an extent that is infeasible for engineered gene circuits or other cell-based technologies. However, the most intriguing applications of DNA nanotechnology -- applications that best take advantage of the small size, biocompatibility and programmability of DNA-based systems -- lie at the interface with biology. Here, we review recent progress in the transition of DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell. We highlight key successes in the development of DNA-based imaging probes, prototypes of smart therapeutics and drug delivery systems, and explore the future challenges and opportunities for cellular DNA nanotechnology.

  1. Lead removal from cathode ray tube glass by the action of calcium hydroxide and poly(vinyl chloride)

    Grause, Guido; Takahashi, Kenshi; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • About 99.9% of lead is removed from CRT glass by PbCl 2 volatilization. • PVC is used as chlorination agent with the aid of Ca(OH) 2 as HCl absorbing material. • The residual calcium silicate has a lead content as low as 140 mg kg −1 . • Lead leaching from the residue was below the detection limit. - Abstract: With the development of flat screen technology, the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in TV sets became obsolete, leaving huge amounts of lead-containing CRT glass for disposal. We developed a novel lead volatilization process in which PbCl 2 was generated in the presence of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a chlorination agent and Ca(OH) 2 as an HCl absorber. PVC was incinerated in air atmosphere and the resulting HCl was captured by Ca(OH) 2 before exiting the reactor with the air flow. CaCl 2 and Ca(OH) 2 reacted with the lead glass forming volatile PbCl 2 and crystalline Ca-silicates. Since the reactivity of lead glass with gaseous HCl is negligible, the presence of Ca(OH) 2 was essential for the success of this method. At a temperature of 1000 °C, a molar Cl/Pb ratio of 16, and a molar Ca/Si ratio of about 2, approximately 99.9% of the lead was volatilized, leaving a residue with a lead content of 140 mg kg −1 . The residual calcium silicate, with its low lead level, has the potential to be repurposed for other uses

  2. Glasses

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  3. Assembly and method for testing the integrity of stuffing tubes

    Morrison, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    A stuffing tube integrity checking assembly includes first and second annular seals, with each seal adapted to be positioned about a stuffing tube penetration component. An annular inflation bladder is provided, the bladder having a slot extending longitudinally there along and including a separator for sealing the slot. A first valve is in fluid communication with the bladder for introducing pressurized fluid to the space defined by the bladder when mounted about the tube. First and second releasible clamps are provided. Each clamp assembly is positioned about the bladder for securing the bladder to one of the seals for thereby establishing a fluid-tight chamber about the tube.

  4. Testing of Photomultiplier Tubes in a Magnetic Field

    Waldron, Zachary; A1 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The A1 collaboration at MAMI in Mainz, Germany has designed a neutron detector that can be used in experiments to measure the electric form factor of the neutron. They will measure elastic scattering from the neutron, using the polarized electron beam from MAMI at A1's experimental hall. The detector will be composed of two walls of staggered scintillator bars which will be read out by photomultiplier tubes (PMT), connected to both ends of each scintillator via light guides. The experiment requires a magnetic field with strength of 1 Tesla, 2m away from the first scintillator wall. The resulting fringe field is sufficient to disrupt the PMTs, despite the addition of Mu Metal shielding. The effects of the fringe field on these PMTs was tested to optimize the amplification of the PMTs. A Helmholtz Coil was designed to generate a controlled magnetic field with equivalent strength to the field that the PMTs will encounter. The PMTs were read out using a multi-channel analyzer, were tested at various angles relative to the magnetic field in order to determine the optimal orientation to minimize signal disruption. Tests were also performed to determine: the neutron detector response to cosmic radiation; and the best method for measuring a magnetic field's strength in two dimensions. National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  5. Preliminary research on eddy current bobbin quantitative test for heat exchange tube in nuclear power plant

    Qi, Pan; Shao, Wenbin; Liao, Shusheng

    2016-02-01

    For quantitative defects detection research on heat transfer tube in nuclear power plants (NPP), two parts of work are carried out based on the crack as the main research objects. (1) Production optimization of calibration tube. Firstly, ASME, RSEM and homemade crack calibration tubes are applied to quantitatively analyze the defects depth on other designed crack test tubes, and then the judgment with quantitative results under crack calibration tube with more accuracy is given. Base on that, weight analysis of influence factors for crack depth quantitative test such as crack orientation, length, volume and so on can be undertaken, which will optimize manufacture technology of calibration tubes. (2) Quantitative optimization of crack depth. Neural network model with multi-calibration curve adopted to optimize natural crack test depth generated in in-service tubes shows preliminary ability to improve quantitative accuracy.

  6. Mount Protects Thin-Walled Glass or Ceramic Tubes from Large Thermal and Vibration Loads

    Amato, Michael; Schmidt, Stephen; Marsh. James; Dahya, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The design allows for the low-stress mounting of fragile objects, like thin walled glass, by using particular ways of compensating, isolating, or releasing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) differences between the mounted object and the mount itself. This mount profile is lower than true full kinematic mounting. Also, this approach enables accurate positioning of the component for electrical and optical interfaces. It avoids the higher and unpredictable stress issues that often result from potting the object. The mount has been built and tested to space-flight specifications, and has been used for fiber-optic, optical, and electrical interfaces for a spaceflight mission. This mount design is often metal and is slightly larger than the object to be mounted. The objects are optical or optical/electrical, and optical and/or electrical interfaces are required from the top and bottom. This requires the mount to be open at both ends, and for the object s position to be controlled. Thin inside inserts at the top and bottom contact the housing at defined lips, or edges, and hold the fragile object in the mount. The inserts can be customized to mimic the outer surface of the object, which further reduces stress. The inserts have the opposite CTE of the housing material, partially compensating for the CTE difference that causes thermal stress. A spring washer is inserted at one end to compensate for more CTE difference and to hold the object against the location edge of the mount for any optical position requirements. The spring also ensures that any fiber-optic or optic interface, which often requires some pressure to ensure a good interface, does not overstress the fragile object. The insert thickness, material, and spring washer size can be traded against each other to optimize the mount and stresses for various thermal and vibration load ranges and other mounting requirements. The alternate design uses two separate, unique features to reduce stress and hold the

  7. Nondestructive testing of welds on thin-walled tubing

    Hagemaier, D. J.; Posakony, G. J.

    1969-01-01

    Special ultrasonic search unit, or transducer assembly, reliably inspects the quality of melt-through welds of fusion welded tubing couplers for hydraulic lines. This instrumentation can also be used to detect faulty braze bonds in thin-walled, small diameter joints and wall thickness of thin-walled metal tubing.

  8. Using synthetic biology to make cells tomorrow's test tubes.

    Garcia, Hernan G; Brewster, Robert C; Phillips, Rob

    2016-04-18

    The main tenet of physical biology is that biological phenomena can be subject to the same quantitative and predictive understanding that physics has afforded in the context of inanimate matter. However, the inherent complexity of many of these biological processes often leads to the derivation of complex theoretical descriptions containing a plethora of unknown parameters. Such complex descriptions pose a conceptual challenge to the establishment of a solid basis for predictive biology. In this article, we present various exciting examples of how synthetic biology can be used to simplify biological systems and distill these phenomena down to their essential features as a means to enable their theoretical description. Here, synthetic biology goes beyond previous efforts to engineer nature and becomes a tool to bend nature to understand it. We discuss various recent and classic experiments featuring applications of this synthetic approach to the elucidation of problems ranging from bacteriophage infection, to transcriptional regulation in bacteria and in developing embryos, to evolution. In all of these examples, synthetic biology provides the opportunity to turn cells into the equivalent of a test tube, where biological phenomena can be reconstituted and our theoretical understanding put to test with the same ease that these same phenomena can be studied in the in vitro setting.

  9. Shattered: Medawar's test tubes and their enduring legacy of chaos.

    Bowles, J

    2000-02-01

    Medawar's 1952 paper 'An Unsolved Problem of Biology' underlies most subsequent theoretical work regarding the evolution of aging; it concludes that aging is accidental and could not have evolved; this prevents reconciling the growing body of evidence suggesting the existence of multiple, evolved, aging systems. The paper features a well-known thought experiment using test tubes to show why aging could not evolve. Medawar assumes that constant, random, breakage sufficiently represents lethal forces of nature; however, famine, drought, predation, disease, and accidents each uniquely affect populations. Predation is the only evolving force that continually invents new ways to kill members of the prey populations; thus all prey defenses to predation will eventually be defeated. Defenses to non-evolving or non-obligate lethal forces, however, should quickly evolve. Thus unevolving, identical test tubes cannot adequately represent biological populations. The example also ignores population booms and busts which often occur in nature. By ignoring these issues, Medawar examines only one population age distribution skewed towards younger individuals in predator-dominated environments while ignoring predator-free populations skewed towards older individuals after population crashes. Further, Medawar's test tubes lack meaningful competition for finite resources, and ignore declining fertility which occurs in all aging species. Medawar concludes that older individuals are too few in number to influence the population's gene pool for or against aging. This conclusion is found to be incorrect when variations in the age of reproductive senescence are introduced into a predator-free population.A new thought experiment with competing strains of algae corrects for these issues and shows that aging evolved and is retained so that groups retain enough genetic variability to allow for rapid evolution of a defense to novel predation. The example shows reasons why the rate of aging is

  10. Sensitivity of the improved Dutch tube diffusion test for detection of ...

    The sensitivity of the improved two-tube test for detection of antimicrobial residues in Kenyan milk was investigated by comparison with the commercial Delvo test SP. Suspect positive milk samples (n =244) from five milk collection centers, were analyzed with the improved two-tube and the commercial Delvo SP test as per ...

  11. Chalcogenide Glass Radiation Sensor; Materials Development, Design and Device Testing

    Mitkova, Maria; Butt, Darryl; Kozicki, Michael; Barnaby, Hugo

    2013-04-30

    studied the effect of x-rays and γ-rays, on thin film chalcogenide glasses and applied them in conjunction with film incorporating a silver source in a new type of radiation sensor for which we have an US patent application [3]. In this report, we give data about our studies regarding our designed radiation sensor along with the testing and performance at various radiation doses. These studies have been preceded by materials characterization research related to the compositional and structural characteristics of the active materials used in the radiation sensor design. During the work on the project, we collected a large volume of material since every experiment was repeated many times to verify the results. We conducted a comprehensive material research, analysis and discussion with the aim to understand the nature of the occurring effects, design different structures to harness these effects, generated models to aid in the understanding the effects, built different device structures and collected data to quantify device performance. These various aspects of our investigation have been detailed in previous quarterly reports. In this report, we present our main results and emphasize on the results pertaining to the core project goals materials development, sensor design and testing and with an emphasis on classifying the appropriate material and design for the optimal application. The report has three main parts: (i) Presentation of the main data; (ii) Bulleted summary of the most important results; (iii) List of the patent, journal publications, conference proceedings and conferences participation, occurring as a result of working on the project.

  12. Laboratory testing of glasses for Lockheed Idaho Technology Company: Final report

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.; Wolf, S.F.; Bates, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Tests have been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in support of the efforts of Lockheed Idaho Technology Company (LITCO) to vitrify high-level waste calcines. Tests were conducted with three classes of LITCO glass formulations: Formula 127 (fluorine-bearing), Formula 532 (fluorine-free), and 630 series (both single- and mixed-alkali) glasses. The test matrices included, as appropriate, the Product Consistency Test Method B (PCT-B), the Materials Characterization Center Test 1 (MCC-1), and the Argonne vapor hydration test (VHT). Test durations ranged from 7 to 183 d. In 7-d PCT-Bs, normalized mass losses of major glass-forming elements for the LITCO glasses are similar to, or lower than, normalized mass losses obtained for other domestic candidate waste glasses. Formula 532 glasses form zeolite alteration phases relatively early in their reaction with water. The formation of those phases increased the dissolution rate. In contrast, the Formula 127 glass is highly durable and forms alteration phases only after prolonged exposure to water in tests with very high surface area to volume ratios; these alteration phases have a relatively small effect on the rate of glass corrosion. No alteration phases formed within the maximum test duration of 183 d in PCT-Bs with the 630 series glasses. The corrosion behavior of the mixed-alkali 630 series glasses is similar to that of 630 series glasses containing sodium alone. In VHTs, both single- and mixed-alkali glasses form zeolite phases that increase the rate of glass reaction. The original 630 series glasses and those based on a revised surrogate calcine formulation react at the same rate in PCT-Bs and form the same major alteration phases in VHTs

  13. New eddy current testing system in steam generator tubes

    Nagata, Yasuyuki; Shimone, Junri; Maeda, Kotaro; Harada, Yutaka; Murakami, Ryuji

    2003-01-01

    Eddy Current Testing (ECT) technique is applied to PWR Steam Generator (SG) tubes during refueling outage inspection. Bobbin type probe is generally used for the inspection, but it cannot provide sufficient detectability for very tight cracks. NEL, R/D Tech (Canada) and AECL (Canada) jointly developed new ECT probe. The probe is transmit and receive type array probe. It has axial defect detection mode and circumferential defect detection mode. Its inspection speed is as fast as conventional bobbin probe, and detectability performance is same or better than performance of rotating pancake coil (RPC) probe, which is used for detailed inspection. As a tester of the new probe, we have developed new ECT tester TC7700. It is able to transmit composite wave from the 4 independent oscillators (simultaneous excitation system) compared with the conventional inspection system. As regarding for field inspection system, we have integrated Zetec (USA) probe positioner, probe pusher and R/D Tech TC7700. We are also developing new analysis software. The software has automated data screening function, which can deal with large amount of data compared with conventional bobbin probe. We plan to perform a large-scale field trial using the probe and new system in near future. (author)

  14. Feasibility Test with a STS304 tube of the Eddy Current Test using a Bobbin Probe for the SMART SG Tube Inspection

    Lee, Yoon Sang; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Choung, Yun Hang

    2010-01-01

    The SMART SG tubes will be made of Alloy 690. The outside diameter will be 17 mm and the thickness will be 2.5 mm. They will be assembled helically around, and their innermost diameter will be about 600 mm and the total length will be about 32 meters. For the sake of safety, SMART SG tubes are designed for use with thick tubes such as 2.5 mm thickness compared to about 1 mm thickness of normal Korean standard pressurized water reactor tubes. Due to using thick tubes such as the 2.5 mm varieties, it was doubted that the Eddy Current Testing Method (ECT) would be a feasible method. Therefore we are trying to check the feasibility of the ECT using the substitute material STS304 tube instead of Alloy 690 tubes with the bobbin type ECT probe. The previous paper reported the feasibility of the ECT using modeling, but this paper will report the preliminary experimental results and comparison with the previous results of the modeling for the STS304 tube

  15. [Is the use of plastic capillary tubes justified for blood gases analysis?].

    Daurès, Marie-Françoise; Bozonnat, Marie-Cécile; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Some clinical units, such as neonatal or maternity units, preferentially use capillary tubes when analysing blood gases. Using glass tubes is delicate and nurses must recollect blood when breaking. In order to eliminate this problem, we tested flexible, plastic capillary tubes in both the above mentionned units and in our biochemistry laboratory. Each unit, where glass tubes were habitually used, tested 200 flexible, plastic capillary tubes. In addition, the nursing staffed filled out a questionnaire concerned tube usage. Both units clearly preferred using the flexible tubes. In the laboratory, results for blood gas analyses were compared between rigid glass and flexible plastic capillary tubes for 112 patients. Concordance tests did not showed significant differences between the two tube types, except for hematocrit and total haemoglobin. A questionnaire was also presented to the lab technician, who confirmed the easier usability of plastic capillary tubes.

  16. In-operation testing of condensers tubes in EDF thermal power plants

    Sermadiras, P.; Cormier, J.

    1982-01-01

    Electricite de France requires manufacturers to perform a number of tests on condenser tubes, as it does itself, including eddy current tests. This article describes the worksite inspection procedures, which use internal single-frequency probes to detect the following irregularities: - in differential mode: external corrosion, impacts, foreign matter, vibrations, internal behaviour of tubes; - in absolute mode: corrosion by ammonia [fr

  17. Numerical investigation of tube hyroforming of TWT using Corner Fill Test

    Zribi, Temim; Khalfallah, Ali

    2018-05-01

    Tube hydroforming presents a very good alternative to conventional forming processes for obtaining good quality mechanical parts used in several industrial fields, such as the automotive and aerospace sectors. Research in the field of tube hydroforming is aimed at improving the formability, stiffness and weight reduction of manufactured parts using this process. In recent years, a new method of hydroforming appears; it consists of deforming parts made from welded tubes and having different thicknesses. This technique which contributes to the weight reduction of the hydroformed tubes is a good alternative to the conventional tube hydroforming. This technique makes it possible to build rigid and light structures with a reduced cost. However, it is possible to improve the weight reduction by using dissimilar tailor welded tubes (TWT). This paper is a first attempt to analyze by numerical simulation the behavior of TWT hydroformed in square cross section dies, commonly called (Corner Fill Test). Considered tubes are composed of two materials assembled by butt welding. The present analysis will focus on the effect of loading paths on the formability of the structure by determining the change in thickness in several sections of the part. A comparison between the results obtained by hydroforming the butt joint of tubes made of dissimilar materials and those obtained using single-material tube is achieved. Numerical calculations show that the bi-material welded tube has better thinning resistance and a more even thickness distribution in the circumferential directions when compared to the single-material tube.

  18. Garter spring location of pressure tube for PHWR using eddy current testing methods

    Lee, Y. S.; Yang, D. J.; Jeong, H. K.

    2001-01-01

    There are garter springs between pressure tube and calandria tube for PHWR. If the space of these garter springs become to be changed, the sagging of tube is caused and the contact between the pressure tube and calandria tube will cause the tube to be failed. AECL has applied the eddy current testing methods using send-receive type probe for this purpose, but this study apply eddy current testing methods using bobbin differential type probe to detection of garter spring location. And we did the computer simulation using VIC-3D code and compared it with experiments results for inspection 1 ∼ 11kHz. The results was that the garter spring signal was successfully detected for every frequency, and 5 kHz was best

  19. Sequence Design for a Test Tube of Interacting Nucleic Acid Strands.

    Wolfe, Brian R; Pierce, Niles A

    2015-10-16

    We describe an algorithm for designing the equilibrium base-pairing properties of a test tube of interacting nucleic acid strands. A target test tube is specified as a set of desired "on-target" complexes, each with a target secondary structure and target concentration, and a set of undesired "off-target" complexes, each with vanishing target concentration. Sequence design is performed by optimizing the test tube ensemble defect, corresponding to the concentration of incorrectly paired nucleotides at equilibrium evaluated over the ensemble of the test tube. To reduce the computational cost of accepting or rejecting mutations to a random initial sequence, the structural ensemble of each on-target complex is hierarchically decomposed into a tree of conditional subensembles, yielding a forest of decomposition trees. Candidate sequences are evaluated efficiently at the leaf level of the decomposition forest by estimating the test tube ensemble defect from conditional physical properties calculated over the leaf subensembles. As optimized subsequences are merged toward the root level of the forest, any emergent defects are eliminated via ensemble redecomposition and sequence reoptimization. After successfully merging subsequences to the root level, the exact test tube ensemble defect is calculated for the first time, explicitly checking for the effect of the previously neglected off-target complexes. Any off-target complexes that form at appreciable concentration are hierarchically decomposed, added to the decomposition forest, and actively destabilized during subsequent forest reoptimization. For target test tubes representative of design challenges in the molecular programming and synthetic biology communities, our test tube design algorithm typically succeeds in achieving a normalized test tube ensemble defect ≤1% at a design cost within an order of magnitude of the cost of test tube analysis.

  20. Automation of inspection methods for eddy current testing of steam generator tubes

    Meurgey, P.; Baumaire, A.

    1990-01-01

    Inspection of all the tubes of a steam generator when the reactor is stopped is required for some of these exchangers affected by stress corrosion cracking. Characterization of each crack, in each tube is made possible by the development of software for processing the signals from an eddy current probe. The ESTELLE software allows a rapid increase of tested tubes, more than 80,000 in 1989 [fr

  1. The efficacy of test tube warming devices used during oocyte retrieval for IVF.

    Yeung, Queenie Sum Yee; Briton-Jones, Christine May; Tjer, Grace Ching Ching; Chiu, Tony Tak Yu; Haines, Christopher

    2004-10-01

    To investigate whether commonly used test tube warming devices maintain a constant temperature in follicular fluid aspirates. By using a digital thermocouple, temperature was measured and comparisons were made between an analog dry block heater, a digital dry block heater, and a thermostatic test tube heater. For small fluid volumes, temperature in the block heaters increased above 37 degrees C after being in the block for over 2 min. The thermostatic heater maintained a constant temperature, but this was below the factory setting of 36.9 degrees C. Temperature maintenance was influenced by fluid volume in each tube. One of the key factors in the handling of gametes and embryos is the maintenance of constant temperature. Test tube warming devices require verification of their ability to maintain fluid at the desired temperature. Temperature may vary with fluid volume and the type of test tube warming device used.

  2. Pressure tests to assess the significance of defects in boiler and superheater tubing

    Guest, J.C.; Hutchings, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Internal pressure tests on 9 per cent Cr-1 per cent Mo steel tubing containing artificial defects demonstrated that the resultant loss of strength was less than a simple calculation based on the reduced tube thickness would suggest. Bursting tests on tubes containing longitudinal defects of varying length, depth and acuity showed notch strengthening at ambient temperature and at 550 0 C. A flow stress concept developed for simple bursting tests was shown to apply to creep conditions at 550 0 C. Results of creep and short-term bursting tests show that the length as well as the depth of the defect is an important factor affecting the life of bursting strength of the tubes. Defects less than 10 per cent of the tube thickness were found to have an insignificant effect. (author)

  3. Product consistency leach tests of Savannah River Site radioactive waste glasses

    Bibler, N.E.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    The product consistency test (PCT) is a glass leach test developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to confirm the durability of radioactive nuclear waste glasses that will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The PCT is a seven day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water at 90C. Final leachates are filtered and acidified prior to analysis. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCT when performed remotely, SRS and Argonne National Laboratory have performed the PCT on samples of two radioactive glasses. The tests were also performed to compare the releases of the radionuclides with the major nonradioactive glass components and to determine if radiation from the glass was affecting the results of the PCT. The test was performed in triplicate at each laboratory. For the major soluble elements, B, Li, Na, and Si, in the glass, each investigator obtained relative precisions in the range 2-5% in the triplicate tests. This range indicates good precision for the PCT when performed remotely with master slave manipulators in a shielded cell environment. When the results of the two laboratories were compared to each other, the agreement was within 20%. Normalized concentrations for the nonradioactive and radioactive elements in the PCT leachates measured at both facilities indicated that the radionuclides were released from the glass slower than the major soluble elements in the glass. For both laboratories, the normalized releases for both glasses were in the general order Li ∼ B ∼ Na > Si > Cs - 137 > Sb - 125 < Sr - 90. The normalized releases for the major soluble elements and the final pH values in the tests with radioactive glass are consistent with those for nonradioactive glasses with similar compositions. This indicates that there was no significant effect of radiation on the results of the PCT

  4. Modeling and testing of a tube-in-tube separation mechanism of bodies in space

    Michaels, Dan; Gany, Alon

    2016-12-01

    A tube-in-tube concept for separation of bodies in space was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The separation system is based on generation of high pressure gas by combustion of solid propellant and restricting the expansion of the gas only by ejecting the two bodies in opposite directions, in such a fashion that maximizes generated impulse. An interior ballistics model was developed in order to investigate the potential benefits of the separation system for a large range of space body masses and for different design parameters such as geometry and propellant. The model takes into account solid propellant combustion, heat losses, and gas phase chemical reactions. The model shows that for large bodies (above 100 kg) and typical separation velocities of 5 m/s, the proposed separation mechanism may be characterized by a specific impulse of 25,000 s, two order of magnitude larger than that of conventional solid rockets. It means that the proposed separation system requires only 1% of the propellant mass that would be needed for a conventional rocket for the same mission. Since many existing launch vehicles obtain such separation velocities by using conventional solid rocket motors (retro-rockets), the implementation of the new separation system design can reduce dramatically the mass of the separation system and increase safety. A dedicated experimental setup was built in order to demonstrate the concept and validate the model. The experimental results revealed specific impulse values of up to 27,000 s and showed good correspondence with the model.

  5. Fretting wear of steam generator tubes: high-temperature tests on AECL rig

    Guerout, F.; Zbinden, M.

    1993-07-01

    The R and DD has undertaken the study of fretting-wear of Alloy 600 S.G. tubes which occurs by contact with migrating items. The test series was performed in Canada at AECL Research (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) as part of an exchange program. Four types of configuration were envisaged: a tube-to-drilled hole support contact which provides reference results and three types of tube-to-support contacts which simulate the tube fretting-wear induced by a welding rod, a threaded rod and a knife-edge rod support. This programme is completed by the study of the contact between a S.G. tube and a neighbouring S.G. tube which has been broken after plugging. (authors). 1 tab., 3 refs

  6. Corrosion testing of a plutonium-loaded lanthanide borosilicate glass made with Frit B.

    Ebert, W. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-09-30

    Laboratory tests were conducted with a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass made with Frit B and added PuO2 (the glass is referred to herein as Pu LaBS-B glass) to measure the dependence of the glass dissolution rate on pH and temperature. These results are compared with the dependencies used in the Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model that was developed to account for HLW glasses in total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations for the Yucca Mountain repository to determine if that model can also be used to represent the release of radionuclides from disposed Pu LaBS glass by using either the same parameter values that are used for HLW glasses or parameter values specific for Pu LaBS glass. Tests were conducted by immersing monolithic specimens of Pu LaBS-B glass in six solutions that imposed pH values between about pH 3.5 and pH 11, and then measuring the amounts of glass components released into solution. Tests were conducted at 40, 70, and 90 C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days at low glass-surface-area-to-solution volume ratios. As intended, these test conditions maintained sufficiently dilute solutions that the impacts of solution feedback effects on the dissolution rates were negligible in most tests. The glass dissolution rates were determined from the concentrations of Si and B measured in the test solutions. The dissolution rates determined from the releases of Si and B were consistent with the 'V' shaped pH dependence that is commonly seen for borosilicate glasses and is included in the Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model. The rate equation in that model (using the coefficients determined for HLW glasses) provides values that are higher than the Pu LaBS-B glass dissolution rates that were measured over the range of pH and temperature values that were studied (i.e., an upper bound). Separate coefficients for the rate expression in acidic and alkaline solutions were also determined from the test results to model Pu LaBS-B glass dissolution

  7. Experimental Investigation of Reynolds Number Effects on Test Quality in a Hypersonic Expansion Tube

    Rossmann, Tobias; Devin, Alyssa; Shi, Wen; Verhoog, Charles

    2017-11-01

    Reynolds number effects on test time and the temporal and spatial flow quality in a hypersonic expansion tube are explored using high-speed pressure, infrared optical, and Schlieren imaging measurements. Boundary layer models for shock tube flows are fairly well established to assist in the determination of test time and flow dimensions at typical high enthalpy test conditions. However, the application of these models needs to be more fully explored due to the unsteady expansion of turbulent boundary layers and contact regions separating dissimilar gasses present in expansion tube flows. Additionally, expansion tubes rely on the development of a steady jet with a large enough core-flow region at the exit of the acceleration tube to create a constant velocity region inside of the test section. High-speed measurements of pressure and Mach number at several locations within the expansion tube allow for the determination of an experimental x-t diagram. The comparison of the experimentally determined x-t diagram to theoretical highlights the Reynolds number dependent effects on expansion tube. Additionally, spatially resolved measurements of the Reynolds number dependent, steady core-flow in the expansion tube viewing section are shown. NSF MRI CBET #1531475, Lafayette College, McCutcheon Foundation.

  8. Tagging of Test Tubes with Electronic p-Chips for Use in Biorepositories.

    Mandecki, Wlodek; Kopacka, Wesley M; Qian, Ziye; Ertwine, Von; Gedzberg, Katie; Gruda, Maryann; Reinhardt, David; Rodriguez, Efrain

    2017-08-01

    A system has been developed to electronically tag and track test tubes used in biorepositories. The system is based on a light-activated microtransponder, also known as a "p-Chip." One of the pressing problems with storing and retrieving biological samples at low temperatures is the difficulty of reliably reading the identification (ID) number that links each storage tube with the database containing sample details. Commonly used barcodes are not always reliable at low temperatures because of poor adhesion of the label to the test tube and problems with reading under conditions of frost and ice accumulation. Traditional radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are not cost effective and are too large for this application. The system described herein consists of the p-Chip, p-Chip-tagged test tubes, two ID readers (for single tubes or for racks of tubes), and software. We also describe a robot that is configured for retrofitting legacy test tubes in biorepositories with p-Chips while maintaining the temperature of the sample below -50°C at all times. The main benefits of the p-Chip over other RFID devices are its small size (600 × 600 × 100 μm) that allows even very small tubes or vials to be tagged, low cost due to the chip's unitary construction, durability, and the ability to read the ID through frost and ice.

  9. Corrosion behavior of environmental assessment glass in product consistency tests of extended duration

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.; Tam, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    We have conducted static dissolution tests to study the corrosion behavior of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass, which is the benchmark glass for high-level waste glasses being produced at US Department of Energy facilities. These tests were conducted to evaluate the behavior of the EA glass under the same long-term and accelerated test conditions that are being used to evaluate the corrosion of waste glasses. Tests were conducted at 90 C in a tuff groundwater solution at glass surface area/solution volume (WV) ratios of about 2000 and 20,000 m -1 . The glass dissolved at three distinct dissolution rates in tests conducted at 2000 m -1 . Based on the release of boron, dissolution within the first seven days occurred at a rate of about 0.65 g/(m 2 · d). The rate between seven and 70 days decreased to 0.009 g/(m 2 · d). An increase in the dissolution rate occurred at longer times after the precipitation of zeolite phases analcime, gmelinite, and an aluminum silicate base. The dissolution rate after phase formation was about 0.18 g/(m 2 · d). The formation of the same zeolite alteration phases occurred after about 20 days in tests at 20,000 m - . The average dissolution rate over the first 20 days was 0.5 g/(m 2 · d) and the rate after phase formation was about 0.20 g/(m 2 · d). An intermediate stage with a lower rate was not observed in tests at 20,000 m -1 . The corrosion behavior of EA glass is similar to that observed for other high-level waste glasses reacted under the same test conditions. The dissolution rate of EA glass is higher than that of other high-level waste glasses both in 7-day tests and after alteration phases form

  10. Development of ultrasonic testing scanner for NPP steam generator tubes (I)

    Shin, J. I.; Huh, H.

    1998-12-01

    Testing tubes are designed and fabricated to investigate the optimum test conditions through the various experiments. The proto-type P/C-controlled automatic rotating scanner is fabricated to obtain the ultrasonic data automatically from test tubes. It was attempted to visualize the shape of defects presented inside the specimen using peak amplitude at each point. However, further research works will be needed to be applied at the plant site as a more reliable technology

  11. Cryogenic testing of fluoropolymer-coated stainless steel tubing

    Dooley, J.B.

    1989-11-01

    Stainless steel tubing coated internally with two different types of fluorinated polymers were subjected to microscopic examination after a welding operation had been performed on the tubing. The welded assemblies were photographed and subjected to repeated cycles between liquid helium and room temperature. The green tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) coating peeled back in the area subjected to welding heat and displayed cracking all over its surface without regard to proximity to the weld area. The dark fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) coating showed a tendency to char or burn away progressively in the weld area. The dark (FEP) coating did not crack as extensively as the green TFE coating, but did show a few areas of ''crazing'' or cracking of the topmost surface after cryogenic exposure. 12 figs

  12. Standard test method for determining liquidus temperature of immobilized waste glasses and simulated waste glasses

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover procedures for determining the liquidus temperature (TL) of nuclear waste, mixed nuclear waste, simulated nuclear waste, or hazardous waste glass in the temperature range from 600°C to 1600°C. This method differs from Practice C829 in that it employs additional methods to determine TL. TL is useful in waste glass plant operation, glass formulation, and melter design to determine the minimum temperature that must be maintained in a waste glass melt to make sure that crystallization does not occur or is below a particular constraint, for example, 1 volume % crystallinity or T1%. As of now, many institutions studying waste and simulated waste vitrification are not in agreement regarding this constraint (1). 1.2 Three methods are included, differing in (1) the type of equipment available to the analyst (that is, type of furnace and characterization equipment), (2) the quantity of glass available to the analyst, (3) the precision and accuracy desired for the measurement, and (4) candi...

  13. Fabrication and mechanical testing of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite tubes

    Tufail, M.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer based composites are produced using less expensive moulds and quick fabrication techniques. The overall processing cost for such materials is much lesser than metallic materials. Usually monolithic parts are produced out of composite materials which further decreases the processing time needed for joining sub- , assemblies as in the case of metallic parts. Any defects encountered due to sub-assemblies are also eliminated. Thermoset based composites have been used for long time to produce parts for automotive, aerospace, marine, and sports industries. The properties thus obtained by using thermoset as matrix are very well in comparison with metals but certain draw backs a.e there with this kind of matrix. Thermoset based composites are processed in untidy environment and once the object is produced can not be reshaped. In contrary to that thermoplastic materials are processed in a clean environment and the material can be recycled. The component once produced can easily be reshaped if required as no chemical reaction does take place during the process. Although the high melt viscosity of thermoplastic has limited its application as due to its high viscosity, its processing would be very difficult. Various methods have been developed to resolve this issue. In this study, a commingled material has been used to produce thermoplastic based composite tubes. The method developed for making such tubes is defined along with the method adopted to measure some of the mechanical properties of these tubes. (author)

  14. Results of testing the Grambow rate law for use in HWVP glass durability correlations

    Kuhn, W.L.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1996-03-01

    A theory based on Grambow's work on hydration of glass as linear function of solution composition was evaluated. Use of Grambow's linear rate law for correlation of durability with glass composition is not recommended. Dissolution rate of the glass was determined using the rate of release of sodium with an ion selective electrode. This method was tested first applying it to initial dissolution rate of several glasses at several temperatures with zero initial concentration of silicic acid. HW39-2, HW39-4, and SRL-202 from Savannah River were tested; there was significant scatter in the data, with the dissolution rates of HW39 glasses and the SRL glass being comparable within this scatter. The dissolution rate of SRL-202 at 80 C and pH 7 for silicic acid concentrations 0, 25, 50, and 100% saturation, was found to decrease dramatically at only 25% of the saturated silicic acid concentration, which does not conform to the linear theory

  15. Radiographic testing of glass fiber reinforced plastic materials

    Babylas, E.

    1976-01-01

    The microradiography of glass fiber reinforced polymers allowed to obtain informations on the growth of defects during molding. A relation was established between microstructure and routine radiography. The conditions needed for obtaining good quality radiograms are analyzed [fr

  16. The design and test of ellipsoidal glass capillaries as condensers for X-ray microscope

    Tian Jinping; Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Liu Gang; Xiong Ying; Liu Longhua; Huang Xinlong; Tian Yangchao

    2008-01-01

    A high resolution X-ray microscope endstation was constructed on a wiggler beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Parameters of the ellipsoidal glass capillaries as condensers were calculated and designed based on the illumination requests in the X-ray microscope system. Performance of the ellipsoidal glass capillaries was tested. The results indicate that the beam size agrees with the designed parameters and focus efficiencies of the ellipsoidal glass capillary condensers are better than 85%. (authors)

  17. Preliminary studies of microchannel plate photomultiplier tube neutron detectors for flight test applications

    Dolan, K.W.

    1978-10-01

    Electrical, mechanical, thermal, and neutron response data indicate that microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are viable candidates as miniature, ruggedized neutron detectors for flight test applications in future weapon systems

  18. Test bench HEATREC for heat loss measurement on solar receiver tubes

    Márquez, José M.; López-Martín, Rafael; Valenzuela, Loreto; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) plants the thermal energy of solar radiation is absorbed by solar receiver tubes (HCEs) and it is transferred to a heat transfer fluid. Therefore, heat losses of receiver tubes have a direct influence on STE plants efficiency. A new test bench called HEATREC has been developed by Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in order to determinate the heat losses of receiver tubes under laboratory conditions. The innovation of this test bench consists in the possibility to determine heat losses under controlled vacuum.

  19. Laboratory testing of waste glass aqueous corrosion; effects of experimental parameters

    Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey has been performed to assess the effects of the temperature, glass surface area/leachate volume ratio, leachant composition, leachant flow rate, and glass composition (actual radioactive vs. simulated glass) used in laboratory tests on the measured glass reaction rate. The effects of these parameters must be accounted for in mechanistic models used to project glass durability over long times. Test parameters can also be utilized to highlight particular processes in laboratory tests. Waste glass corrosion results as water diffusion, ion-exchange, and hydrolysis reactions occur simultaneously to devitrify the glass and release soluble glass components into solution. The rates of these processes are interrelated by the affects of the solution chemistry and glass alteration phases on each process, and the dominant (fastest) process may change as the reaction progresses. Transport of components from the release sites into solution may also affect the observed corrosion rate. The reaction temperature will affect the rate of each process, while other parameters will affect the solution chemistry and which processes are observed during the test. The early stages of corrosion will be observed under test conditions which maintain dilute leachates and the later stages will be observed under conditions that generate more concentrated leachate solutions. Typically, water diffusion and ion-exchange reactions dominate the observed glass corrosion in dilute solutions while hydrolysis reactions dominant in more concentrated solutions. Which process(es) controls the long-term glass corrosion is not fully understood, and the long-term corrosion rate may be either transport- or reaction-limited

  20. Elastic Stability of Concentric Tube Robots: A Stability Measure and Design Test.

    Gilbert, Hunter B; Hendrick, Richard J; Webster, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Concentric tube robots are needle-sized manipulators which have been investigated for use in minimally invasive surgeries. It was noted early in the development of these devices that elastic energy storage can lead to rapid snapping motion for designs with moderate to high tube curvatures. Substantial progress has recently been made in the concentric tube robot community in designing snap-free robots, planning stable paths, and characterizing conditions that result in snapping for specific classes of concentric tube robots. However, a general measure for how stable a given robot configuration is has yet to be proposed. In this paper, we use bifurcation and elastic stability theory to provide such a measure, as well as to produce a test for determining whether a given design is snap-free (i.e. whether snapping can occur anywhere in the unloaded robot's workspace). These results are useful in designing, planning motions for, and controlling concentric tube robots with high curvatures.

  1. Out-of pile mechanical test: simulating reactivity initiated accident (RIA) of zircaloy-4 cladding tube

    Lee, Myung Ho; Kim, Jun Hwan; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Jeong, Young Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The ejection or drop of a control rod in a reactivity initiated accident (RIA) causes a sudden increase in reactor power and in turn deposits a large amount of energy into the fuel. In a RIA, cladding tubes bear thermal expansion due to sudden reactivity and may fail from the resulting mechanical damage. Thus, RIA can be one of the safety margin reducers because the oxide on the tubes makes their thickness to support the load less as well as hydrides from the corrosion reduce the ductility of the tubes. In a RIA, the peak of reactor power from reactivity change is about 0.1m second and the temperature of the cladding tubes increases up to 1000 .deg. C in several seconds. Although it is hard to fully simulate the situation, several attempts to measure the change of mechanical properties under a RIA situation has done using a reduction coil, ring tension tests with high speed. This research was done to see the effect of oxide on the change of circumferential strength and ductility of Zircaloy-4 tubes in a RIA. The ring stretch tensile tests were performed with the strain rate of 1/sec and 0.01/s to simulate a transient of the cladding tube under a RIA. Since the test results of the ring tensile test are very sensitive to the lubricant, the tests were also carried out to select a suitable lubricant before the test of oxided specimens.

  2. Nuclear waste glass product consistency test (PCT), Version 5.0

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.; Waters, B.J.

    1992-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), poured into stainless steel canisters, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS), the durability of the glass needs to be measured during production to assure its long term stability and radionuclide release properties. A durability test, designated the Produce Consistency Test (PCT), was developed for DWPF glass in order to meet the WAPS requirements. The response of the PCT procedure was based on extensive testing with glasses of widely different compositions. The PCT was determined to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, and to be easily performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. Version 5.0 of the PCT procedure is attached

  3. Development and testing the modular fireproof fine filters on the basis of glass paper

    Rovnyj, S.I.; Glagolenko, Yu.V.; Pyatin, N.P.; Tranchuk, O.A.; Maksimov, V.E.; Afanas'eva, E.V.

    2006-01-01

    Paper describes a procedure to fabricate modified module glass paper fine filters to trap radioactive substances (14 models). The mentioned filters are made of a glass paper ensuring their fire-resistance. Paper describes the procedure of service life tests of the designed filters and the efficient procedure to extract valuable components from the spent filters [ru

  4. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    Blough, J.L. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings was exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy are being exposed for 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after approximately 4,400 hours of exposure.

  5. Testing of a 7-tube palladium membrane reactor for potential use in TEP

    Carlson, Bryan J.; Trujillo, Stephen; Willms, R. Scott

    2010-01-01

    A Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) consists of a palladium/silver membrane permeator filled with catalyst (catalyst may be inside or outside the membrane tubes). The PMR is designed to recover tritium from the methane, water, and other impurities present in fusion reactor effluent. A key feature of a PMR is that the total hydrogen isotope content of a stream is significantly reduced as (1) methane-steam reforming and/or water-gas shift reactions proceed on the catalyst bed and (2) hydrogen isotopes are removed via permeation through the membrane. With a PMR design matched to processing requirements, nearly complete hydrogen isotope removals can be achieved. A 3-tube PMR study was recently completed. From the results presented in this study, it was possible to conclude that a PMR is appropriate for TEP, perforated metal tube protectors function well, platinum on aluminum (PtA) catalyst performs the best, conditioning with air is probably required to properly condition the Pd/Ag tubes, and that CO/CO 2 ratios maybe an indicator of coking. The 3-tube PMR had a permeator membrane area of 0.0247 m 2 and a catalyst volume to membrane area ratio of 4.63 cc/cm 2 (with the catalyst on the outside of the membrane tubes and the catalyst only covering the membrane tube length). A PMR for TEP will require a larger membrane area (perhaps 0.35 m 2 ). With this in mind, an intermediate sized PMR was constructed. This PMR has 7 permeator tubes and a total membrane area of 0.0851 m 2 . The catalyst volume to membrane area ratio for the 7-tube PMR was 5.18 cc/cm 2 . The total membrane area of the 7-tube PMR (0.0851 m 2 ) is 3.45 times larger than total membrane area of the 3-tube PMR (0.0247 m 2 ). The following objectives were identified for the 7-tube PMR tests: (1) Refine test measurements, especially humidity and flow; (2) Refine maintenance procedures for Pd/Ag tube conditioning; (3) Evaluate baseline PMR operating conditions; (4) Determine PMR scaling method; (5) Evaluate PMR

  6. Product consistency leach tests of Savannah River Site radioactive waste glasses

    Bibler, N.E.; Bates, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Product Consistency Test (PCT) is a glass leach test that was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to routinely confirm the durability of nuclear waste glasses that will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The PCT is a 7 day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water at 90 degree C. Final leachates are filtered and acidified prior to analysis. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCT when performed remotely, SRS and Argonne National Laboratory have performed the PCT on samples of two radioactive glasses. The tests were also performed to compare the releases of the radionuclides with the major nonradioactive glass components and to determine if radiation from the glass was affecting the results of the PCT. The test was performed in triplicate at each laboratory. For the major soluble elements, B, Li, Na, and Si, in the glass, each investigator obtained relative precisions in the range 2--5% in the triplicate tests. This range indicates good precision for the PCT when performed remotely with master slave manipulators in a shielded cell environment

  7. Experimental investigation of thermal-hydraulic performance of PCCS with horizontal tube heat exchangers: single U-tube test

    Nakamura, Hideo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Arai, Kenji; Kurita, Tomohisa

    2000-01-01

    JAERI and JAPC started a cooperative study to verify performance of a PCCS (Passive Containment Cooling System) using horizontal heat exchanger for next-generation BWR in 1998. A test facility with a horizontal single U-tube was constructed in JAERI in 1999 to investigate fundamental condensation behavior under influences of non-condensable gas. Preliminary pre-test analyses were performed using RELAP5/ MOD3.2.1.2 code to expect the experimental outcomes by incorporating a correlation for condensation degradation because of non-condensable gas by Ueno et al. for better prediction. Preliminary results from both experiments (shakedown) and pre-test analyses indicated that the PCCS using horizontal U-tube heat exchanger is promising. Steam generated under assumed severe accident conditions; steam generation rate approx. = 1% core power, non-condensable gas concentration of 1% and simulated containment vessel pressure of 0.7 MPa, was totally condensed with a small differential pressure across inlet and outlet plenum. Experimental data will be accumulated to develop models and correlations for a better prediction of responses of the PCCS using horizontal heat exchanger during postulated severe accidents. (author)

  8. Status of the bench-test system for the tubes in the HIMAC DTL linac

    Fujimoto, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Kobayashi, C.

    2000-01-01

    The tetrode tube of SIEMENS RS2074SK is used for HIMAC DTL (Drift Tube Linac) 1.4 MW final amplifiers. We installed a bench-test system for this tube in 1999. This system can be used under low power operation with CW mainly for filament aging. This system consists of DC sources, drive-amplifier (5 kW transistor amplifier) and 3/4λ coaxial input and output circuits. We will also use this system to improve the DTL final amplifiers, for example to reduce the parasitic oscillation level. This paper describes status of this system. (author)

  9. In situ corrosion tests on HLW glass as part of a larger approach

    Van Iseghem, P.

    1997-01-01

    In-situ corrosion tests were performed on various candidate high-level waste glasses in the underground laboratory in clay underneath SCK x CEN. The tests exposed the glass samples directly to the Boom clay rock, for maximum durations of 7.5 years. We succeeded to interpret the corrosion data at 90 deg C in terms of dissolution mechanisms, and we concluded that the glass composition has a determining effect on the corrosion stability. The data from our in-situ tests were of high relevance for estimating the long-term behaviour of the glasses. The long-term in-situ tests provide corrosion data which show different trends than other corrosion tests, e.g. shorter duration tests in Boom clay, or tests in deionized water. The initial dissolution rate using MCC1 test at 90 deg C is about the same for the three glasses discussed, but the longest duration in Boom clay at 90 deg C shows a difference in mass loss of about 25 times. We finally present some ideas on how the corrosion tests can meet the needs, such as the modelling of the glass corrosion or providing input in the performance assessment. (author)

  10. Testing the paradigms of the glass transition in colloids

    Zia, Roseanna; Wang, Jialun; Peng, Xiaoguang; Li, Qi; McKenna, Gregory

    2017-11-01

    Many molecular liquids freeze upon fast enough cooling. This so-called glass state is path dependent and out of equilibrium, as measured by the Kovacs signature experiments, i.e. intrinsic isotherms, asymmetry of approach and memory effect. The reasons for this path- and time-dependence are not fully understood, due to fast molecular relaxations. Colloids provide a natural way to model such behavior, owing to disparity in colloidal versus solvent time scales that can slow dynamics. To shed light on the ambiguity of glass transition, we study via large-scale dynamic simulation of hard-sphere colloidal glass after volume-fraction jumps, where particle size increases at fixed system volume followed by protocols of the McKenna-Kovacs signature experiments. During and following each jump, the positions, velocities, and particle-phase stress are tracked and utilized to characterize relaxation time scales. The impact of both quench depth and quench rate on arrested dynamics and ``state'' variables is explored. In addition, we expand our view to various structural signatures, and rearrangement mechanism is proposed. The results provide insight into not only the existence of an ``ideal'' glass transition, but also the role of structure in such a dense amorphous system.

  11. Test plan for Fauske and Associates to perform tube propagation experiments with simulated Hanford tank wastes

    Carlson, C.D.; Babad, H.

    1996-05-01

    This test plan, prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Westinghouse Hanford Company, provides guidance for performing tube propagation experiments on simulated Hanford tank wastes and on actual tank waste samples. Simulant compositions are defined and an experimental logic tree is provided for Fauske and Associates (FAI) to perform the experiments. From this guidance, methods and equipment for small-scale tube propagation experiments to be performed at the Hanford Site on actual tank samples will be developed. Propagation behavior of wastes will directly support the safety analysis (SARR) for the organic tanks. Tube propagation may be the definitive tool for determining the relative reactivity of the wastes contained in the Hanford tanks. FAI have performed tube propagation studies previously on simple two- and three-component surrogate mixtures. The simulant defined in this test plan more closely represents actual tank composition. Data will be used to support preparation of criteria for determining the relative safety of the organic bearing wastes

  12. The EL-4 reactor. Changing of a pressure tube on a test loop

    Foulquier, H.; Clara, P.

    1964-01-01

    Right from the beginning of the EL-4 project, the research convected with the overall design of the reactor was guided by the various technical specifications resulting from a justifiable concern about the reliability. The external and internal tubes of each layer situated in the reactor block had in particular to be interchangeable. The research alone into the dismantling of the external tube, i.e in fact the pressure tube, justified a certain number of full-scale tests on a model. The tests carried out under relevant conditions on a non-irradiated structure made it possible to define a complete ranger of of positioning and un-positioning sequences at a distance for such a pressure tube. (authors) [fr

  13. Controlatron Neutron Tube Test Suite Software Manual - Operation Manual (V2.2)

    Noel, W P; Hertrich, R J; Martinez, M L; Wallace, D L

    2002-01-01

    The Controlatron Software Suite is a custom built application to perform automated testing of Controlatron neutron tubes. The software package was designed to allowing users to design tests and to run a series of test suites on a tube. The data is output to ASCII files of a pre-defined format for data analysis and viewing with the Controlatron Data Viewer Application. This manual discusses the operation of the Controlatron Test Suite Software and a brief discussion of state machine theory, as state machine is the functional basis of the software.

  14. Studies of the steam generator degraded tubes behavior on BRUTUS test loop

    Chedeau, C.; Rassineux, B. [EDF/DER/MTC, Moret Sur Loing (France); Flesch, B. [EDF/EPN/DMAINT, Paris (France)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Studies for the evaluation of steam generator tube bundle cracks in PWR power plants are described. Global tests of crack leak rates and numerical calculations of crack opening area are discussed in some detail. A brief overview of thermohydraulic studies and the development of a mechanical probabilistic design code is also given. The COMPROMIS computer code was used in the studies to quantify the influence of in-service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of a steam generator tube rupture.

  15. Round robin tests of the PISC III programme on defective steam generators tubes

    Birac, C.; Herkenrath, H.; Crutzen, S.; Miyake, Y.; Maciga, G.

    1991-11-01

    The PISC III actions are intended to extend the results and methodologies of the previous PISC exercises, i.e. the assessment of the capabilities of the various examination techniques when used on real or realistic flaws in real components under real conditions of inspection. Being aware of the industrial problems that the degradation of steam generator tubes can create, the PISC III management board decided to include in the PISC III programme a special action on steam generator tubes testing (SGT). (author)

  16. Testing of Large-Scale ICV Glasses with Hanford LAW Simulant

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Matyas, Josef; Smith, Donald E.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Yeager, John D.

    2005-03-01

    Preliminary glass compositions for immobilizing Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) by the in-container vitrification (ICV) process were initially fabricated at crucible- and engineering-scale, including simulants and actual (radioactive) LAW. Glasses were characterized for vapor hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) responses and crystallinity (both quenched and slow-cooled samples). Selected glasses were tested for toxicity characteristic leach procedure (TCLP) responses, viscosity, and electrical conductivity. This testing showed that glasses with LAW loading of 20 mass% can be made readily and meet all product constraints by a far margin. Glasses with over 22 mass% Na2O can be made to meet all other product quality and process constraints. Large-scale testing was performed at the AMEC, Geomelt Division facility in Richland. Three tests were conducted using simulated LAW with increasing loadings of 12, 17, and 20 mass% Na2O. Glass samples were taken from the test products in a manner to represent the full expected range of product performance. These samples were characterized for composition, density, crystalline and non-crystalline phase assemblage, and durability using the VHT, PCT, and TCLP tests. The results, presented in this report, show that the AMEC ICV product with meets all waste form requirements with a large margin. These results provide strong evidence that the Hanford LAW can be successfully vitrified by the ICV technology and can meet all the constraints related to product quality. The economic feasibility of the ICV technology can be further enhanced by subsequent optimization.

  17. NASA Lewis Stirling SPRE testing and analysis with reduced number of cooler tubes

    Wong, W.A.; Cairelli, J.E.; Swec, D.M.; Doeberling, T.J.; Lakatos, T.F.; Madi, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power converters are a candidate for high capacity space power applications. The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine coupled with a linear alternator, is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of the Civil Space Technology Initiative. The SPRE is used as a test bed for evaluating converter modifications which have the potential to improve converter performance and for validating computer code predictions. Reducing the number of cooler tubes on the SPRE has been identified as a modification with the potential to significantly improve power and efficiency. This paper describes experimental tests designed to investigate the effects of reducing the number of cooler tubes on converter power, efficiency and dynamics. Presented are test results from the converter operating with a reduced number of cooler tubes and comparisons between this data and both baseline test data and computer code predictions

  18. Fluid elastic instability tests on an array of tubes preferentially flexible in the flow direction

    Mureithi, N.W.; Zhang, C.; Pettigrew, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The present work is motivated by the observation that, in the presence of flat bar supports (AVBs), U-tubes in steam generators and heat exchangers are not positively restrained in the in-plane direction. The stability behavior of a rotated triangular array is investigated in detail in the work presented here. Tubes within the array are flexible only in the flow direction. Tests are conducted with a fully flexible array, a single flexible tube, and a finite number of flexible tubes at several locations within the otherwise rigid array. In all cases tube flexibility is purely in the flow direction. The fully flexible array is shown to undergo fluid-elastic instability. Despite the unidirectional flexibility constraint, the critical instability velocity is of the same order of magnitude when compared with previous tests on an unconstrained fully flexible array. A single flexible tube, on the other hand, is found to be stable. Results of tests on partially flexible array configurations are also presented. (authors)

  19. Product consistency testing of three reference glasses in stainless steel and perfluoroalkoxy resin vessels

    Olson, K.M.; Smith, G.L.; Marschman, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Because of their chemical durability, silicate glasses have been proposed and researched since the mid-1950s as a medium for incorporating high-level radioactive waste (HLW) generated from processing of nuclear materials. A number of different waste forms were evaluated and ranked in the early 1980s; durability (leach resistance) was the highest weighted factor. Borosilicate glass was rated the best waste form available for incorporation of HLW. Four different types of vessels and three different glasses were used to study the possible effect of vessel composition on durability test results from the Production Consistency Test (PCT). The vessels were 45-m 304 stainless steel vessels, 150-m 304 L stainless steel vessels, and 60-m perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) fluoropolymer resin vessels. The three glasses were the Environmental Assessment glass manufactured by Corning Incorporated and supplied by Westinghouse Savannah River company, and West Valley Nuclear Services reference glasses 5 and 6, manufactured and supplied by Catholic University of America. Within experimental error, no differences were found in durability test results using the 3 different glasses in the 304L stainless steel or PFA fluoropolymer resin vessels over the seven-day test period

  20. Risks of Using Bedside Tests to Verify Nasogastric Tube Position in Adult Patients

    Melody Ni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric (NG tubes are commonly used for enteral feeding. Complications of feeding tube misplacement include malnutrition, pulmonary aspiration, and even death. We built a Bayesian network (BN to analyse the risks associated with available bedside tests to verify tube position. Evidence on test validity (sensitivity and specificity was retrieved from a systematic review. Likelihood ratios were used to select the best tests for detecting tubes misplaced in the lung or oesophagus. Five bedside tests were analysed including magnetic guidance, aspirate pH, auscultation, aspirate appearance, and capnography/colourimetry. Among these, auscultation and appearance are non-diagnostic towards lung or oesophagus placements. Capnography/ colourimetry can confirm but cannot rule out lung placement. Magnetic guidance can rule out both lung and oesophageal placement. However, as a relatively new technology, further validation studies are needed. The pH test with a cut-off at 5.5 or lower can rule out lung intubation. Lowering the cut-off to 4 not only minimises oesophageal intubation but also provides extra safety as the sensitivity of pH measurement is reduced by feeding, antacid medication, or the use of less accurate pH paper. BN is an effective tool for representing and analysing multi-layered uncertainties in test validity and reliability for the verification of NG tube position. Aspirate pH with a cut-off of 4 is the safest bedside method to minimise lung and oesophageal misplacement.

  1. Optimum Frequency for Eddy Current Testing Method of SMART SG tubes

    Lee, Yoon Sang; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Choung, Yun Hang

    2009-01-01

    The SMART SG tubes will be made of Alloy 690. The outside diameter will be 17 mm and the thickness will be 2.5 mm. They will be assembled helically around, and their innermost diameter will be about 600 mm and the total length will be about 32 meters. For safety, SMART SG tubes are designed for use with thick tubes such as 2.5 mm thickness compared to about 1 mm thickness of normal Korean standard pressurized water reactor tubes. Due to using thick tubes such as 2.5 mm varieties, it was doubted that the Eddy Current Testing Method (ECT) would be a feasible method. Therefore we are trying to simulate the bobbin probe signal for SMART SG tubes and comparing it to PWR SG ECT probe signal using VIM software, checking for the applicability of ECT. Also we are trying to compare the ECT signal of 2.5 mm thick stainless tubes to check if they are possible substitute material

  2. The sky blue method as a screening test to detect misplacement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube at exchange.

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Hideki; Iwase, Tsuyoshi; Kura, Toshiroh; Imazato, Shin; Kudo, Michiaki; Ohta, Tomoyuki; Mizuhara, Akihiro; Tamamori, Yutaka; Muramatsu, Hirohito; Nishiguchi, Yukio; Nishiyama, Yorihiro; Takahashi, Mikako; Nishiwaki, Shinji; Matsumoto, Masami; Goshi, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Shigeo; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Ijima, Masashi; Ogawa, Tetsushi; Shimazaki, Makoto; Takei, Shinichi; Kimura, Chikou; Yamashita, Satoyoshi; Endo, Takao; Nakahori, Masato; Itoh, Akihiko; Kusakabe, Toshiro; Ishizuka, Izumi; Iiri, Takao; Fukasawa, Shingo; Arimoto, Yukitsugu; Kajitani, Nobuaki; Ishida, Kazuhiko; Onishi, Koji; Taira, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Itano, Yasuto; Kobuke, Toshiya

    2009-01-01

    During tube exchange for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), a misplaced tube can cause peritonitis and death. Thus, endoscopic or radiologic observation is required at tube exchange to make sure the tube is placed correctly. However, these procedures cost extensive time and money to perform in all patients at the time of tube exchange. Therefore, we developed the "sky blue method" as a screening test to detect misplacement of the PEG tube during tube exchange. First, sky blue solution consisting of indigocarmine diluted with saline was injected into the gastric space via the old PEG tube just before the tube exchange. Next, the tube was exchanged using a standard method. Then, we checked whether the sky blue solution could be collected through the new tube or not. Finally, we confirmed correct placement of the tube by endoscopic or radiologic observation for all patients. A total of 961 patients were enrolled. Each tube exchange took 1 to 3 minutes, and there were no adverse effects. Four patients experienced a misplaced tube, all of which were detectable with the sky blue method. Diagnostic parameters of the sky blue method were as follows: sensitivity, 94% (95%CI: 92-95%); specificity, 100% (95%CI: 40-100%); positive predictive value, 100% (95%CI: 100-100%); negative predictive value, 6% (95%CI: 2-16%). These results suggest that the number of endoscopic or radiologic observations to confirm correct replacement of the PEG tube may be reduced to one fifteenth using the sky blue method.

  3. Proposed Testing to Assess the Accuracy of Glass-To-Metal Seal Stress Analyses.

    Chambers, Robert S.; Emery, John M; Tandon, Rajan; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Stavig, Mark E.; Newton, Clay S.; Gibson, Cory S; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2014-09-01

    The material characterization tests conducted on 304L VAR stainless steel and Schott 8061 glass have provided higher fidelity data for calibration of material models used in Glass - T o - Metal (GTM) seal analyses. Specifically, a Thermo - Multi - Linear Elastic Plastic ( thermo - MLEP) material model has be en defined for S S304L and the Simplified Potential Energy Clock nonlinear visc oelastic model has been calibrated for the S8061 glass. To assess the accuracy of finite element stress analyses of GTM seals, a suite of tests are proposed to provide data for comparison to mo del predictions.

  4. Tests for determining impact resistance and strength of glass used for nuclear waste disposal

    Bunnell, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    Tests are described for determining the impact resistance (Section A) and static tensile strength (Section B) of glasses containing simulated or actual nuclear wastes. This report describes the development and use of these tests to rank different glasses, to assess effects of devitrification, and to examine the effect of impact energy on resulting surface area. For clarity this report is divided into two sections, Impact Resistance and Tensile Strength

  5. Lead extraction from Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) funnel glass: Reaction mechanisms in thermal reduction with addition of carbon (C).

    Lu, Xingwen; Ning, Xun-An; Chen, Da; Chuang, Kui-Hao; Shih, Kaimin; Wang, Fei

    2018-06-01

    This study quantitatively determined the extraction of lead from CRT funnel glass and examined the mechanisms of thermally reducing lead in the products of sintering Pb-glass with carbon in the pre-heated furnace. The experimentally derived results indicate that a 90.3 wt% lead extraction efficiency can be achieved with 20 wt% of C addition at 950 °C for 3 min under air. The formation of viscous semi-liquid glass blocked the oxygen supply between the interaction of C and Pb-glass, and was highly effective for the extraction of metallic Pb. A maximum of 87.3% lead recover was obtained with a C to Na 2 CO 3 ratio of 1/3 at 1200 °C. The decrease of C/Na 2 CO 3 ratio enhanced the metallic lead recovery by increasing the glass viscosity for effective sedimentation of metallic lead in the bottom. However, with the further increase of temperature and treatment time, re-vitrification of lead back to silicate-glass matrix was detected in both Pb-glass/C and Pb-glass/C/Na 2 CO 3 systems. The findings indicated that with proper controls, using C as an inexpensive reagent can effectively reduce treatment time and energy, which is crucial to a waste-to-resource technology for economically recovering lead from the waste CRT glass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using a Bedside Video-assisted Test Tube Test to Assess Stoma Viability: A Report of 4 Cases.

    Ahmad, Sarwat; Turner, Keli; Shah, Paulesh; Diaz, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Mucosal discoloration of an intestinal stoma may indicate self-limited venous congestion or necrosis necessitating operative revision. A common bedside technique to assess stoma viability is the "test tube test". A clear tube is inserted into the stoma and a hand-held light is used to assess the color of the stoma. A technique (video-assisted test tube test [VATTT]) developed by the authors utilizes a standard video bronchoscope inserted into a clear plastic blood collection tube to visually inspect and assess the mucosa. This technique was evaluated in 4 patients (age range 49-72 years, all critically ill) with a discolored stoma after emergency surgery. In each case, physical exam revealed ischemic mucosa at the surface either immediately after surgery or after worsening hypotension weeks later. Serial test tube test assessments were ambiguous when trying to assess deeper mucosa. The VATTT assessment showed viable pink mucosa beneath the surface and until the fascia was revealed in 3 patients. One (1) patient had mucosal ischemia down to the fascia, which prompted operative revision of the stoma. The new stoma was assessed with a VATTT and was viable for the entire length of the stoma. VATTT provided an enhanced, magnified, and clearer way to visually assess stoma viability in the postoperative period that can be performed at the bedside with no adverse events. It may prevent unnecessary relaparotomy or enable earlier diagnosis of deep ostomy necrosis. Validity and reliability studies are warranted.

  7. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE FRIT X COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    Marra, J

    2006-11-15

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is the preferred option for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium in the late 1990's. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Recent FY05 studies have further investigated the LaBS Frit B formulation as well as development of a newer LaBS formulation denoted as LaBS Frit X. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit X glass and perform corrosion testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit X composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL using quenched Pu Frit X glass with varying exposed surface areas. Effects of isothermal and can-in-canister heat treatments on the Pu Frit X glass were also investigated. Another series of PCTs were performed on these different heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses. Leachates from all these PCTs

  8. High-level waste glass field burial tests at CRNL

    Melnyk, T.W.; Walton, F.B.; Johnson, H.L.

    1983-06-01

    In 1960 June, 25 nepheline syenite-based glass hemispheres containing the fission products 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 144 Ce and 106 Ru were buried below the water table in fluvial sand at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Soil and groundwater concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs have been determined since then and the data have been interpreted using kinetically limited migration models to deduce the leaching history of the glass for these burial conditions. The leaching history derived from the field data is compared to laboratory leaching of samples from a glass hemisphere retrieved in 1978, and also to pre-burial laboratory leaching of identical hemispheres. The time dependence of the leach rates observed for the buried specimens suggests that leaching is being inhibited by the formation of a protective surface layer, although no direct observation of this layer has been made. Using an average leach rate of 5.6 x 10 -14 kg/(m 2 .s) derived from the field data for the period 1966 to 1977, it is estimated that it would require approximately 20 million years to dissolve the glass hemispheres. The effect of the kinetic limitations of the fission-product/fluvial-sand interactions is discussed with respect to the migration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs over a 20-a time scale. It is concluded that kinetically limited sorption by oxyhydroxides rather than equilibrium ion exchange controls the long-term migration of 90 Cr; the action of the oxyhydroxides immobilizes the 90 Sr on the longer time scale. Cesium is initially rapidly bound to the micaceous fraction of the sand. On a longer time scale, slow remobilization of 137 Cs in particulate form is observed and is believed to be related to bacterial action

  9. Glass-surface area to solution-volume ratio and its implications to accelerated leach testing

    Pederson, L.R.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; McVay, G.L.; Riddle, B.L.

    1982-10-01

    The value of glass surface area to solution volume ratio (SA/V) can strongly influence the leaching rate of PNL 76-68 glass. The leaching rate is largely governed by silicon solubility constraints. Silicic acid in solution reduced the elemental release of all glass components. No components are leached to depths greater than that of silicon. The presence of the reaction layer had no measurable effect on the rate of leaching. Accelerated leach testing is possible since PNL 76-68 glass leaching is solubility-controlled (except at very low SA/V values). A series of glasses leached with SA/V x time = constant will yield identical elemental release

  10. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSHILICATE FRIT X COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    Marra, J

    2006-11-21

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is the preferred option for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium in the late 1990's. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Recent FY05 studies have further investigated the LaBS Frit B formulation as well as development of a newer LaBS formulation denoted as LaBS Frit X. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit X glass and perform corrosion testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit X composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL using quenched Pu Frit X glass with varying exposed surface areas. Effects of isothermal and can-in-canister heat treatments on the Pu Frit X glass were also investigated. Another series of PCTs were performed on these different heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses. Leachates from all these PCTs

  11. Scramjet test flow reconstruction for a large-scale expansion tube, Part 2: axisymmetric CFD analysis

    Gildfind, D. E.; Jacobs, P. A.; Morgan, R. G.; Chan, W. Y. K.; Gollan, R. J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the second part of a study aiming to accurately characterise a Mach 10 scramjet test flow generated using a large free-piston-driven expansion tube. Part 1 described the experimental set-up, the quasi-one-dimensional simulation of the full facility, and the hybrid analysis technique used to compute the nozzle exit test flow properties. The second stage of the hybrid analysis applies the computed 1-D shock tube flow history as an inflow to a high-fidelity two-dimensional-axisymmetric analysis of the acceleration tube. The acceleration tube exit flow history is then applied as an inflow to a further refined axisymmetric nozzle model, providing the final nozzle exit test flow properties and thereby completing the analysis. This paper presents the results of the axisymmetric analyses. These simulations are shown to closely reproduce experimentally measured shock speeds and acceleration tube static pressure histories, as well as nozzle centreline static and impact pressure histories. The hybrid scheme less successfully predicts the diameter of the core test flow; however, this property is readily measured through experimental pitot surveys. In combination, the full test flow history can be accurately determined.

  12. Effect of tubing condensate on non-invasive positive pressure ventilators tested under simulated clinical conditions.

    Hart, Diana Elizabeth; Forman, Mark; Veale, Andrew G

    2011-09-01

    Water condensate in the humidifier tubing can affect bi-level ventilation by narrowing tube diameter and increasing airflow resistance. We investigated room temperature and tubing type as ways to reduce condensate and its effect on bi-level triggering and pressure delivery. In this bench study, the aim was to test the hypothesis that a relationship exists between room temperature and tubing condensate. Using a patient simulator, a Res-med bi-level device was set to 18/8 cm H(2)O and run for 6 h at room temperatures of 16°C, 18°C and 20°C. The built-in humidifier was set to a low, medium or high setting while using unheated or insulated tubing or replaced with a humidifier using heated tubing. Humidifier output, condensate, mask pressure and triggering delay of the bi-level were measured at 1 and 6 h using an infrared hygrometer, metric weights, Honeywell pressure transducer and TSI pneumotach. When humidity output exceeded 17.5 mg H(2)O/L, inspiratory pressure fell by 2-15 cm H(2)O and triggering was delayed by 0.2-0.9 s. Heating the tubing avoided any such ventilatory effect whereas warmer room temperatures or insulating the tubing were of marginal benefit. Users of bi-level ventilators need to be aware of this problem and its solution. Bi-level humidifier tubing may need to be heated to ensure correct humidification, pressure delivery and triggering.

  13. Leach testing of waste glasses under near-saturation conditions

    Strachan, D.M.; Grambow, B.

    1983-11-01

    Two waste glasses, MCC 76 to 68 and C31 to 3, were leached in deionized water and 0.001 M MgCl 2 for periods up to 158 days. At 57 days the gel layer was removed from some of the specimens and leaching continued for up to 100 days. Results from leaching in deionized water showed that the gel layer was not protective. Results from leaching in 0.001 M MgCl 2 are in good agreement with the predicted results obtained from the use of the PHREEQE geochemical code and with sepiolite [Mg 2 Si 3 O 6 (OH) 4 ] as the Mg-bearing precipitate. Both B and Si were predicted and observed to increase with increasing glass dissolution while maintaining sepiolite solubility. Both MCC 76 to 68 and C31 to 3 glasses showed increased leaching in 0.001 M MgCl 2 upon removal of the layer. This suggests a leaching mechanism whereby leaching is driven by the formation of an alteration product

  14. Assessment of thin-walled cladding tube mechanical properties by segmented expanding Mandrel test

    Nilsson, Karl-Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the principles of the segmented expanding mandrel test for thin-walled cladding tubes, which can be used as a basic material characterisation test to determine stress-strain curves and ductility or as a test to simulate mechanical pellet-cladding interaction. The paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the test method and it illustrates how the test can be used to simulate hydride reorientations in zirconium claddings and quantify how hydride reorientation affects ductility. (authors)

  15. Design and test of the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Hong, Yong-Ju; Ko, Junseok; Kim, Hyo-Bong; Yeom, Han-Kil; In, Sehwan; Park, Seong-Je

    2017-12-01

    Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers are very attractive for cooling of diverse application because it has it has several inherent advantages such as no moving part in the cold end, low manufacturing cost and long operation life. To develop the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler, we need to design a linear compressor to drive the pulse tube cryocooler. A moving magnet type linear motor of dual piston configuration is designed and fabricated, and this compressor could be operated with the electric power of 100 W and the frequency up to 60 Hz. A single stage coaxial type pulse tube cold finger aiming at over 1.5 W at 80K is built and tested with the linear compressor. Experimental investigations have been conducted to evaluate their performance characteristics with respect to several parameters such as the phase shifter, the charging pressure and the operating frequency of the linear compressor.

  16. Polysialic acid immobilized on silanized glass surfaces: a test case for its use as a biomaterial for nerve regeneration.

    Steinhaus, Stephanie; Stark, Yvonne; Bruns, Stephanie; Haile, Yohannes; Scheper, Thomas; Grothe, Claudia; Behrens, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The immobilization of polysialic acid (polySia) on glass substrates has been investigated with regard to the applicability of this polysaccharide as a novel, biocompatible and bioresorbable material for tissue engineering, especially with regard to its use in nerve regeneration. PolySia, a homopolymer of alpha-2,8-linked sialic acid, is involved in post-translational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). The degradation of polySia can be controlled which makes it an interesting material for coating and for scaffold construction in tissue engineering. Here, we describe the immobilization of polySia on glass surfaces via an epoxysilane linker. Whereas glass surfaces will not actually be used in nerve regeneration scaffolds, they provide a simple and efficient means for testing various methods for the investigation of immobilized polySia. The modified surfaces were investigated with contact angle measurements and the quantity of immobilized polySia was examined by the thiobarbituric acid assay and a specific polySia-ELISA. The interactions between the polySia-modified surface and immortalized Schwann cells were evaluated via cell adhesion and cell viability assays. The results show that polySia can be immobilized on glass surfaces via the epoxysilane linker and that surface-bound polySia has no toxic effects on Schwann cells. Therefore, as a key substance in the development of vertebrates and as a favourable substrate for the cultivation of Schwann cells, it offers interesting features for the use in nerve guidance tubes for treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  17. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models: Results for the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Best, D. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-03

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  18. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support Enhanced Hanford Waste Glass Models. Results for the Augusta and October 2014 LAW Glasses

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Best, D. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-07

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the August and October 2014 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  19. History of the water chemistry for the few tube test model

    Moss, S.A.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The water chemistry activities carried out in support of the Few Tube Test are described. This test was conducted to provide design confirmation data for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) steam generators. Proposed CRBRP chemistry was followed; all volatile treatment (AVT) of water was carried out with on-line monitoring capability

  20. Can serums be replaced by Mueller‑Hinton agar in germ tube test ...

    Background: The germ tube test (GTT) is inexpensive, easy, and well‑defined test that differentiates Candida albicans (excluding Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana) from other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate various serums (i.e., human, rabbit, horse, and fetal bovine serum) used in the GTT and ...

  1. Bulge testing of copper and niobium tubes for hydroformed RF cavities

    Kim, H.S., E-mail: kim.3237@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sumption, M.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Susner, M.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lim, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collings, E.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-01-27

    The heat treatment, tensile testing, and bulge testing of Cu and Nb tubes has been carried out to gain experience for the subsequent hydroforming of Nb tube into seamless superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for high energy particle acceleration. In the experimental part of the study samples removed from representative tubes were prepared for heat treatment, tensile testing, residual resistance ratio measurement, and orientation imaging electron microscopy (OIM). After being optimally heat treated Cu and Nb tubes were subjected to hydraulic bulge testing and the results analyzed. In the final part of the study finite-element models (FEM) incorporating constitutive (stress–strain) relationships analytically derived from the tensile and bulge tests, respectively, were used to replicate the bulge test. As expected, agreement was obtained between the experimental bulge parameters and the FEM model based on the bulge-derived constitutive relationship. Not so for the FEM model based on tensile-test data. It is concluded that a constitutive relationship based on bulge testing is necessary to predict a material's performance under hydraulic deformation.

  2. Bulge testing of copper and niobium tubes for hydroformed RF cavities

    Kim, H.S.; Sumption, M.D.; Susner, M.A.; Lim, H.; Collings, E.W.

    2016-01-01

    The heat treatment, tensile testing, and bulge testing of Cu and Nb tubes has been carried out to gain experience for the subsequent hydroforming of Nb tube into seamless superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for high energy particle acceleration. In the experimental part of the study samples removed from representative tubes were prepared for heat treatment, tensile testing, residual resistance ratio measurement, and orientation imaging electron microscopy (OIM). After being optimally heat treated Cu and Nb tubes were subjected to hydraulic bulge testing and the results analyzed. In the final part of the study finite-element models (FEM) incorporating constitutive (stress–strain) relationships analytically derived from the tensile and bulge tests, respectively, were used to replicate the bulge test. As expected, agreement was obtained between the experimental bulge parameters and the FEM model based on the bulge-derived constitutive relationship. Not so for the FEM model based on tensile-test data. It is concluded that a constitutive relationship based on bulge testing is necessary to predict a material's performance under hydraulic deformation.

  3. Forming limit diagram of aluminum AA6063 tubes at high temperatures by bulge tests

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Naeini, Hassan Moslemi; Liaghat, Gholamhossein; Tafti, Rooholla Azizi; Rahmani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    A free bulge test and ductile fracture criteria were used to obtain the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of aluminum alloy AA6063 tubes at high temperatures. Ductile fracture criteria were calibrated using the results of uniaxial tension tests at various elevated temperatures and different strain rates through adjusting the Zener-Holloman parameter. High temperature free bulge test of tubes was simulated in finite element software Abaqus, and tube bursting was predicted using ductile fracture criteria under different loading paths. FLDs which were obtained from finite element simulation were compared to experimental results to select the most accurate criterion for prediction of forming limit diagram. According to the results, all studied ductile fracture criteria predict similarly when forming condition is close to the uniaxial tension, while Ayada criterion predicts the FLD at 473 K and 573 K very well.

  4. Forming limit diagram of aluminum AA6063 tubes at high temperatures by bulge tests

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Naeini, Hassan Moslemi; Liaghat, Gholamhossein [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafti, Rooholla Azizi [Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, Farzad [Kar Higher Education Institute, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A free bulge test and ductile fracture criteria were used to obtain the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of aluminum alloy AA6063 tubes at high temperatures. Ductile fracture criteria were calibrated using the results of uniaxial tension tests at various elevated temperatures and different strain rates through adjusting the Zener-Holloman parameter. High temperature free bulge test of tubes was simulated in finite element software Abaqus, and tube bursting was predicted using ductile fracture criteria under different loading paths. FLDs which were obtained from finite element simulation were compared to experimental results to select the most accurate criterion for prediction of forming limit diagram. According to the results, all studied ductile fracture criteria predict similarly when forming condition is close to the uniaxial tension, while Ayada criterion predicts the FLD at 473 K and 573 K very well.

  5. Characterization and durability testing of a glass-bonded ceramic waste form

    Johnson, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a glass bonded ceramic waste form for encapsulating the fission products and transuranics from the conditioning of metallic reactor fuel. This waste form is currently being scaled to the multi-kilogram size for encapsulation of actual high level waste. This paper will present characterization and durability testing of the ceramic waste form. An emphasis on results from application of glass durability tests such as the Product Consistency Test and characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The information presented is based on a suite of tests utilized for assessing product quality during scale-up and parametric testing

  6. Delamination propensity of pharmaceutical glass containers by accelerated testing with different extraction media.

    Guadagnino, Emanuel; Zuccato, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The delamination of pharmaceutical glass is a serious issue, as it can cause glass particles to appear in vials, a problem that has forced a number of drug product recalls in recent years. In Type I pharmaceutical glass vials, delamination occurs generally at the bottom and shoulder, where extensive flaming during the conversion process can favor a strong evaporation of alkali and borate species and the formation of heavily enriched silica layers. The contact with parenteral preparations dissolved in an alkaline medium increases the rate of glass corrosion, while the differential hydration of these layers can cause the detachment of flakes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the pH and the composition of the extraction solutions on the propensity of different glass types to delaminate. Repeated autoclave extractions at 121 °C were carried out on different glass types with different extraction media, including organic extractants like citric and glutaric acid. When vials were in contact with alkaline solutions and similarly aggressive media, an increase in silica extraction values indicated glass corrosion and an increasing risk for further delamination. Under such conditions expansion 33 glass is extensively corroded, showing high silica concentration and heavy flaking as compared to other glass types. Sulfur-treated glass also showed early flaking, even if SiO(2) concentration was very low. A similar ranking was observed with extractions carried out with glutaric and citric acids, but at far much higher SiO(2) concentration levels. Extractions with 0.9% KCl solution can be used as an accelerated test to highlight the propensity of a glass to delaminate, but in no case it can be taken as a guarantee that the glass will not delaminate when exposed to the pharmaceutical drug, whose extraction ability requires case-by-case study. How can injectable drug manufacturers prevent glass delamination? The issue of delamination is a serious one, as it

  7. Improvement in reliability and accuracy of heater tube eddy current testing by integration with an appropriate destructive test

    Giovanelli, F.; Gabiccini, S.; Tarli, R.; Motta, P.

    1988-01-01

    A specially developed destructive test is described showing how the reliability and accuracy of a non-destructive technique can be improved if it is suitably accompanied by an appropriate destructive test. The experiment was carried out on samples of AISI 304L tubes from the low-pressure (LP) preheaters of a BWR 900 MW nuclear plant. (author)

  8. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.; Girshik, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings by exposing them to fireside corrosion tests which simulated a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, RA253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, Ta-modified 310, NF 709, 690 clad, 671 clad, and 800HT for up to approximately 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy were exposed for 4,483, 11,348, and 15,883 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after the full 15,883 hours of exposure. A previous topical report has been issued for the 4,483 hours of exposure.

  9. Sulfur Solubility Testing and Characterization of Hanford LAW Phase 2, Inner Layer Matrix Glasses

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Caldwell, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-27

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for a series of simulated low activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. A procedure developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for producing sulfur saturated melts (SSMs) was carried out at both SRNL and PNNL to fabricate the glasses characterized in this report. This method includes triplicate melting steps with excess sodium sulfate, followed by grinding and washing to remove unincorporated sulfur salts. The wash solutions were also analyzed as part of this study. These data will be used in the development of improved sulfur solubility models for LAW glass.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material - ATM-12 glass

    Wald, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) Approved Testing Material ATM-12 is a borosilicate glass that incorporates elements typical of high-level waste (HLW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuels. The composition has been adjusted to match that predicted for HLW type 76-68 glass at an age of 300 y. Radioactive constituents contained in this glass include depleted uranium, 99 Tc, 237 Np, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. The glass was produced by the MCC at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). ATM-12 glass ws produced from July to November of 1984 at the request of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigations (NNWSI) Program and is the third in a series of glasses produced for NNWSI. Most of the glass produced was in the form of cast bars; special castings and crushed material were also produced. Three kilograms of ATM-12 glass were produced from a feedstock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1150 0 C in a platinum crucible, and formed into stress-annealed rectangular bars and the special casting shapes requested by NNWSI. Bars of ATM-12 were nominally 1.9 x 1.9 x 10 cm, with an average mass of 111 g each. Nineteen bars and 37 special castings were made. ATM-12 glass has been provided to the NNWSI Program, in the form of bars, crushed powder and special castings. As of August 1985 approximately 590 g of ATM-12 is available for distribution. Requests for materials or services related to this glass should be directed to the Materials Characterization Center Program Office, PNL

  11. Diagnostic of corrosion defects in steam generator tubes using advanced signal processing from Eddy current testing

    Formigoni, Andre L.; Lopez, Luiz A.N.M.; Ting, Daniel K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the Brazilian Angra I PWR nuclear power plant went into a programmed shutdown for substitution of its Steam Generator (SG) which life was shortened due to stress corrosion in its tubes. The total cost of investment were around R$724 million. The signals generated during an Eddy-current Testing (ECT) inspection in SG tubes of nuclear plant allows for the localization and dimensioning of defects in the tubes. The defects related with corrosion generate complex signals that are difficult to analyze and are the most common cause in SG replacement in nuclear power plants around the world. The objective of this paper is the development of a methodology that allows for the characterization of corrosion signals by ECT inspections applied in the heat exchangers tubes of SG of a nuclear power plant. In this present work, the aim is to investigate distributed type defects by inducing controlled corrosion in sample tubes of different materials The ECT signals obtained from these samples tubes with corrosion implanted, will be analyzed using Zetec ECT equipment, the MIZ-17ET and its probes. The data acquisition will use a NI PC A/D CARD 700 card and the LabVIEW program. Subsequently, we will apply mathematical tools for signal processing like time windowed Fast Fourier transforms and Wavelets transforms, in MATLAB platform, which will allow effectiveness to remove the noises and to extract representative characteristics for the defect being analyzed. Previously obtained results as well as the proposal for the future work will be presented. (author)

  12. Circumferential tensile test method for mechanical property evaluation of SiC/SiC tube

    Yu, Ju-Hyeon, E-mail: 15096018@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kishimoto, Hirotatsu [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Park, Joon-soo [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Nakazato, Naofumi [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kohyama, Akira [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • NITE SiC/SiC cooling channel system to be a candidate of divertor system in future. • Hoop strength is one of the important factors for a tube. • This research studies the relationship between deformation and strain of SiC/SiC tube. - Abstract: SiC fiber reinforced/SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composite is expected to be a candidate material for the first-wall, components in the blanket and divertor of fusion reactors in future. In such components, SiC/SiC composites need to be formed to be various shapes. SiC/SiC tubes has been expected to be employed for blanket and divertor after DEMO reactor, but there is not established mechanical investigation technique. Recent progress of SiC/SiC processing techniques is likely to realize strong, having gas tightness SiC/SiC tubes which will contribute for the development of fusion reactors. This research studies the relationship between deformation and strain of SiC/SiC tube using a circumferential tensile test method to establish a mechanical property investigation method of SiC/SiC tubes.

  13. Leach testing of SYNROC and glass samples at 85 and 200/degree/C

    Oversby, V.M.; Ringwood, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Leach tests were conducted on 0.5 g disc samples of SYNROC and two glass types using distilled water at 85 and 200/degree/C. No leaching was detected for SYNROC at either temperature. Thus, the upper limit on leach rate for SYNROC is <0.005 g/m/sup 2/d. Waste glass PNL 76-68 had leach rates of 1.4 g/m/sup 2/ d at 85/degree/C and 8.9 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C, while 73-1 glass frit had a leach rate of 41 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C. The leach tests were repeated in the presence of rock powders. Again, no leaching was measurable for SYNROC. PNL 76-68 glass had leach rates between 4 and 23 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C and 73-1 frit leached at rates between 29 and 176 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C. Tests were also conducted on crushed glass samples (PNL 76-68, 100-200 /mu/m size fraction). Bulk leach rates were calculated based on measurement of Ca, Cs, and U in the leach solutions. The results of the leach tests show that SYNROC is several orders of magnitude more resistant to leaching than glass

  14. Evaluation of tube rupture simulation test (TRUST-1) for FBR steam generators

    Hayashida, Yoshihiko; Hamada, Hirotsugu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1996-06-01

    The intermediate water leak in an FBR Steam Generator (SG) causes a high temperature and corrosive sodium-water reaction jet. In such cases, it is necessary to evaluate the wastage and overheating rupture behavior of heat transfer tubes. Especially, in the large SG that aims at high temperature of sodium and high temperature/pressure of water, the establishment of the rational evaluation method is important. In this paper, as a basic experiment to make clear the phenomenon of overheating rupture, tests and analysis of Tube Rupture Simulation Test-1 (TRUST-1) were conducted. TRUST-1 simulates the overheating rupture of the tube made of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel by nitrogen gas pressurization and quick induction heating. The result of TRUST-1 are as follows: (1) The breaking strength predicted by the internal pressure is larger than the tensile strength of the tube material. (2) The margin of the breaking strength from the tensile strength of the tube material has a tendency of decreasing with the heating rate, especially in the lower temperature region. (3) Using an theoretical formula that is deduced from the steady creep model and appropriate experimental coefficients that are determined by the test data, the breaking strength can be reasonably evaluated. (author)

  15. Eddy-current tests on operational evaluation of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a worldwide research on the technical and economical impacts due to failure in tube bundles of nuclear power plant steam generators. An Eddy current non destructive test using Foucault currents for the inspection and failure detection on the tubes, and also the main type of defects. The paper also presents the signals generated by a Zetec MIZ-40 test equipment. This paper also presents a brief description of an automatic system for data analysis which is under development by using a fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence

  16. High-voltage test and training of plastic streamer tubes for the DELPHI hadron calorimeter

    Alekseev, G.D.; Cellar, S.; Khomenko, B.A.; Korytov, A.V.; Kulinich, P.A.; Micelmacher, G.V.; Sedykh, Yu.V.; Toledo, R.

    1987-01-01

    The results of high-voltage test and training of plastic streamer tubes of the DELPHI hadron calorimeter are presented. The testing technique is considered in detail. The equipment for high-voltage training consists of a mini-computer, CAMAC-electronics, a controllable high-voltage supply and a digital ampermeter. The experimental results shows that high-voltage training of streamer tubes improves their characteristics. The value of dark current decreased up to 1 μA. The operational voltage range increased by a value more than 300 V

  17. Study on vibration alleviating properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete through orthogonal tests

    Bai Wenfeng; Zhang Jianhua; Yan Peng; Wang Xinli

    2009-01-01

    Polymer concrete (PC), because of its good vibration alleviating properties, is a proper material for elementary machine parts in high-precision machine tools. Glass fiber was applied in PC to improve its mechanical properties, and the material obtained is called glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete (GFRPC). The best parameter to estimate the vibration alleviating property is damping ratio. Orthogonal tests were carried out to prepare GFRPC specimens with different component proportions. Damping ratio of the GFRPC specimens was measured. The effect of the factors considered in the experiments on damping ratio of GFRPC was studied. Results of the tests show that granite proportion plays the most important role in determining damping ratio of GFRPC, then flexibilizer dosage and glass fiber length, while epoxy resin dosage and glass fiber dosage play a comparatively less important part. Detailed descriptions were made about how the considered factors affect damping ratio of GFRPC in this paper

  18. Performance demonstration tests for eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Anderson, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the methodology and results for development of performance demonstration tests for eddy current (ET) inspection of steam generator tubes. Statistical test design principles were used to develop the performance demonstration tests. Thresholds on ET system inspection performance were selected to ensure that field inspection systems would have a high probability of detecting and and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented in detail. Statistical test design calculations for probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described. A recommended performance demonstration test based on the design calculations is presented. A computer program for grading the probability of detection portion of the performance demonstration test is given

  19. Performance demonstration tests for eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Anderson, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the methodology and results for development of performance demonstration tests for eddy current (ET) inspection of steam generator tubes. Statistical test design principles were used to develop the performance demonstration tests. Thresholds on ET system inspection performance were selected to ensure that field inspection systems would have a high probability of detecting and and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented in detail. Statistical test design calculations for probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described. A recommended performance demonstration test based on the design calculations is presented. A computer program for grading the probability of detection portion of the performance demonstration test is given.

  20. Six-Tube Freezable Radiator Testing and Model Correlation

    Lilibridge, Sean T.; Navarro, Moses

    2012-01-01

    Freezable Radiators offer an attractive solution to the issue of thermal control system scalability. As thermal environments change, a freezable radiator will effectively scale the total heat rejection it is capable of as a function of the thermal environment and flow rate through the radiator. Scalable thermal control systems are a critical technology for spacecraft that will endure missions with widely varying thermal requirements. These changing requirements are a result of the spacecraft?s surroundings and because of different thermal loads rejected during different mission phases. However, freezing and thawing (recov ering) a freezable radiator is a process that has historically proven very difficult to predict through modeling, resulting in highly inaccurate predictions of recovery time. These predictions are a critical step in gaining the capability to quickly design and produce optimized freezable radiators for a range of mission requirements. This paper builds upon previous efforts made to correlate a Thermal Desktop(TM) model with empirical testing data from two test articles, with additional model modifications and empirical data from a sub-component radiator for a full scale design. Two working fluids were tested: MultiTherm WB-58 and a 50-50 mixture of DI water and Amsoil ANT.

  1. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 test S-28-2 (steam generator tube rupture test)

    Patton, M.L.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-10-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-2 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-2 was conducted from initial conditions of 15 936 kPa and 558 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. For Test S-28-2, accumulator injection into the intact loop hot leg was provided to simulate simulate the rupture of six steam generator tubes

  2. A Study on the Development of Nonglass Solar Vacuum Tube Collector

    Oh, Seung Jin

    2008-02-01

    Nature has been providing us energy from the beginning of the world. However human has hardly used it wisely. Solar energy is a kind of renewable energy from the nature. This study has been carried out to study the use of solar energy as it is harnessed in the form of thermal energy. Solar energy is one of the most promising energy resources such as hydrogen, biomass, wind and geothermal energy, because it is clean and inexhaustible. Space heating in buildings can be provided from solar energy by systems that are similar in many respects to water heater systems. By tapping into solar energy, we can not only solve the problem of energy shortage, but also can protect the environment and benefit the human beings. There are currently two types of evacuated tube; a single glass tube and a double glass tube. The former consists of a single glass tube which contains a flat or curved aluminium plate attached to a copper heat pipe or water flow pipe. The latter consists of rows of parallel transparent glass tubes, each of which contains an absorber tube. Evacuated tube collectors introduced above, however, pose some problems as they break rather easily under mechanical stresses. This paper introduces some preliminary results in design and fabrication of a non-glass solar vacuum tube collector in which the thermosyphon(heat pipe)made of copper is used as a heat transfer device. A series of tests have been performed to assess the ability of a non-glass solar vacuum tube collector. The series of experiments are as follows: 1)Vacuum level inside a vacuum tube. 2)Effects of the air remaining inside a vacuum tube on the temperature on the absorber plate. 3)Comparison of a non-glass vacuum solar collector with a single glass evacuated tube(SEIDO 5). Different vacuum levels inside non-glass vacuum tubes were applied to check any leakage or unexpected physical or chemical developments with time. The vacuum level changed from 10 -2 torr to 5torr in 5 days due to air infiltration from

  3. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material - ATM-8 glass

    Wald, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) Approved Testing Material ATM-8 is a borosilicate glass that incorporates elements typical of high-level waste (HLW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Its composition is based upon the simulated HLW glass type 76-68 (Mendel, J.E. et al., 1977, Annual Report of the Characteristics of High-Level Waste Glasses, BNWL-2252, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington), to which depleted uranium, technetium-99, neptunium-237 and plutonium-239 have been added at moderate to low levels. The glass was requested by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. It was produced by the MCC at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute. ATM-8 glass was produced in April of 1984, and is the second in a series of testing materials for NNWSI. This report discusses its fabrication (starting materials, batch and glass preparation, measurement and testing equipment, other equipment, procedures, identification system and materials availability and storage, and characterization (bulk density) measurements, chemical analysis, microscopic examination, and x-ray diffraction analysis. 4 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Radiation impact on the characteristics of optical glasses test results on a selected set of materials

    Fruit, Michel; Gussarov, Andrei; Berghmans, Francis; Doyle, Dominic; Ulbrich, Gerd

    2017-11-01

    It is well known within the Space optics community that radiation may significantly affect transmittance of glasses. To overcome this drawback, glass manufacturers have developed Cerium doped counterparts of classical glasses. This doped glasses display much less transmittance sensitivity to radiation. Still, the impact of radiation on refractive index is less known and may affect indifferently classical or Cerium doped glasses. ESTEC has initialised an R&D program with the aim of establishing a comprehensive data base gathering radiation sensitivity data, called Dose coefficients, for all the glass optical parameters (transmittance / refractive index / compaction……). The first part of this study, to define the methodology for such a data base, is run by ASTRIUM SAS in co-operation with SCK CEN. This covers theoretical studies associated to testing of a selected set of classical and "radiation hardened" glasses. It is proposed here to present first the theoretical backgrounds of this study and then to give results which have been obtained so far.

  5. Long-term product consistency test of simulated 90-19/Nd HLW glass

    Gan, X.Y.; Zhang, Z.T.; Yuan, W.Y.; Wang, L.; Bai, Y.; Ma, H.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical durability of 90-19/Nd glass, a simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass in contact with the groundwater was investigated with a long-term product consistency test (PCT). Generally, it is difficult to observe the long term property of HLW glass due to the slow corrosion rate in a mild condition. In order to overcome this problem, increased contacting surface (S/V = 6000 m -1 ) and elevated temperature (150 o C) were employed to accelerate the glass corrosion evolution. The micro-morphological characteristics of the glass surface and the secondary minerals formed after the glass alteration were analyzed by SEM-EDS and XRD, and concentrations of elements in the leaching solution were determined by ICP-AES. In our experiments, two types of minerals, which have great impact on glass dissolution, were found to form on 90-19/Nd HLW glass surface when it was subjected to a long-term leaching in the groundwater. One is Mg-Fe-rich phyllosilicates with honeycomb structure; the other is aluminosilicates (zeolites). Mg and Fe in the leaching solution participated in the formation of phyllosilicates. The main components of phyllosilicates in alteration products of 90-19/Nd HLW glass are nontronite (Na 0.3 Fe 2 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 .4H 2 O) and montmorillonite (Ca 0.2 (Al,Mg) 2 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 .4H 2 O), and those of aluminosilicates are mordenite ((Na 2 ,K 2 ,Ca)Al 2 Si 10 O 24 .7H 2 O)) and clinoptilolite ((Na,K,Ca) 5 Al 6 Si 30 O 72 .18H 2 O). Minerals like Ca(Mg)SO 4 and CaCO 3 with low solubility limits are prone to form precipitant on the glass surface. Appearance of the phyllosilicates and aluminosilicates result in the dissolution rate of 90-19/Nd HLW glass resumed, which is increased by several times over the stable rate. As further dissolution of the glass, both B and Na in the glass were found to leach out in borax form.

  6. Improvement of the vibration of the test fuel(Type-B) with a guide tube under operational condition

    Sohn, Dong Seung; Yim, Jeong Sik; Lim, I. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The Type-B test fuel for the Hanaro has a flexible guide tube on top of the fuel to lead and guide the instrumentation wires. Depending on the flow condition in the reactor, the fuel is susceptible to vibration. During the test operation of the fuel, a fairly large amplitude vibration was observed and the possibility of flow tube contact with adjacent flow tubes, due to the excessive vibration of the fuel, and consequent wear or defect of the flow tubes were raised. Thus, to know the vibration characteristics as well as whether the flow tube contact each other, analyses of the Type-B fuel the dummy fuel were performed by BEVIRA and ANSYS. Besides the analyses, vibration tests using the dummy fuel in air and with Type-B fuel in the core at zero power under operational flow condition were executed. The results from the analyses were compared with those from tests to validate the analyses. From the deflection test of the dummy fuel in air to get the maximum displacement of the flow tube at the top, the flow tube were found to contact each other. For the prevention of the contact of the flow tubes caused by the excessive vibration of the guide tube, an additional support to the guide tube was proposed. With the additional support, analysis and in core vibration test under operational flow condition were conducted and there found to be no excessive vibration any more. 6 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  7. Pollen tube growth test (PTGT) in environmental biomonitoring and predictive radiation biology studies: problem and prospect

    Pandey, Devi D.

    2012-01-01

    In Environmental and Human Bio monitoring studies of Hazardous xenobiotics over living system particularly at cell level, it is desirable to have easy and sensitive test system like Cell Viability assay, MNT, Cell Culture photo toxicity Test, PTGT etc. Out of these the PTGT quite better than other because the in vitro culture of pollen grain can provides a sensitive indication of toxicity at cellular level, since germination and growth of pollen tube will inhibited in presence of toxic substance like DDT, Heavy metal, even Radionuclide's. This test system is easy, economical and widely accepted through out world. In PTGT pollen tube never containing Chloroplast or other plastids so pollen tube resembles animals more than a plant organ and is therefore also a suitable as model for Genotoxicity Assessment of compounds harmful to animal and humans. Lack of plastids in PT, PTGT will not identify the toxic effect of compounds that targets Non cyclic and cyclic photoposphorylation of photosynthesis. This test system valid in International Toxicity Testing Protocol. But this method is time consuming and problem in measurement of pollen tube growing in a culture medium became usually bent and make measurement difficult. Other disadvantage of this method is requirement of DMSO to dissolve test substance of low water suitability in culture medium. DMSO shown to have no effect on PTG at Concentration not more than 1% but some extent interfere with results. Values of PTG are quantified in ED50/IC50 that is the concentration of test compounds that reduces pollen tube growth to 50% of control. So PTGT could be very sensitive and easy to assess in common lab in International way. (author)

  8. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 test S-28-3 (steam generator tube rupture test)

    Gillins, R.L.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-10-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-3 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-3 was conducted from initial conditions of 15621 kPa and 555 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. Twelve steam generator tube ruptures were simulated by a controlled injection from a heated accumulator into the intact loop hot leg

  9. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-28-1 (steam generator tube rupture test series)

    Collins, B.L.; Coppin, C.E.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-10-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-1 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-1 was conducted from initial conditions of 15 767 kPa and 557 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. Sixty steam generator tube ruptures were simulated by a controlled injection from a heated accumulator into the intact loop hot leg

  10. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 test S-28-4 (steam generator tube rupture test)

    Esparza, V.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-10-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-4 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-4 was conducted from initial conditions of 15 646 kPa and 557 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. Thirty steam generator tube ruptures were simulated by a controlled injection from a heated accumulator into the intact loop hot leg

  11. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models. Results for the third set of high alumina outer layer matrix glasses

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for 14 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 96.9 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Several of the glasses exhibited increases in normalized concentrations (NCi) after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Five of the glasses, after the CCC heat treatment, had NCB values that exceeded that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results can be combined with additional characterization, including X-ray diffraction, to determine the cause of the higher release rates.

  12. Inhibition of Microbial Growth by Fatty Amine Catalysts from Polyurethane Foam Test Tube Plugs

    Bach, John A.; Wnuk, Richard J.; Martin, Delano G.

    1975-01-01

    When polyurethane foam test tube plugs are autoclaved, they release volatile fatty amines that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms. The chemical structures of these amines were determined by the use of a gas chromatographmass spectrometer. They are catalysts used to produce the foam. The problem of contaminating growth media with toxic substances released from polymeric materials is discussed. PMID:1096816

  13. Using an indwelled test tube as a good "navigator" during enterostomy closure.

    Hirose, Ryuichiro; Tojigamori, Manabu; Obata, Satoshi; Tatsuta, Kyosuke; Kawakubo, Naonori; Arima, Toru

    2012-11-01

    Surgeons often have difficulty in identifying a suitable incision line to enter the peritoneal cavity for stoma mobilization during enterostomy closure. A mini-size test tube that is preoperatively placed into the stoma can act as an efficient guide in finding a free area to enter the peritoneal cavity, by supplying efficient counter traction and a palpable marker of the intestinal wall.

  14. Research on test of alkali-resistant glass fibre enhanced seawater coral aggregate concrete

    Liu, Leiyang; Wang, Xingquan

    2017-12-01

    It is proposed in the 13th five-year plan that reefs of the south China sea should be constructed. In the paper, an innovative thinking was proposed for the first time in order to realize local material acquisition in island construction and life dependence on sea, namely alkali-resistant glass fibre is mixed in coralaggregate concrete as reinforcing material. The glass fibre is characterized by low price, low hardness, good dispersibility and convenient construction. Reliable guarantee is provided for widely applying the material in future projects. In the paper, an orthogonal test method is firstly applied to determine the mix proportion of grade C50 coral aggregate concrete. Then, the design plan ofmix proportion of alkali-resistant glass fibre enhanced seawater coral aggregate concrete is determined. Finally, the influence law of alkali-resistant glass fibre dosageon tensile compressiveflexture strength of seawatercoralaggregate concrete is made clear.

  15. Optimization and testing of dried antibody tube: The EuroFlow LST and PIDOT tubes as examples

    V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); J. Flores-Montero (Juan); M. Perez-Andres; M. Martin-Ayuso (M.); Crespo, O. (Oliver); Blanco, E. (Elena); T. Kalina (Tomas); J. Philippé (Jan); Bonroy, C. (Carolien); M. de Bie (Maaike); J.G. te Marvelde (Jeroen); C. Teodosio (Cristina); Corral Mateos, A. (Alba); V. Kanderová (V.); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); Van Hoof, D. (Dennis); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); A. Orfao (Alberto)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWithin EuroFlow, we recently developed screening tubes for hematological malignancies and immune deficiencies. Pipetting of antibodies for such 8-color 12-marker tubes however is time-consuming and prone to operational mistakes. We therefore evaluated dried formats of the lymphocytosis

  16. Formulation of a candidate glass for use as an acceptance test standard material

    Ebert, W.L.; Strachan, D.M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, the authors discuss the formulation of a glass that will be used in a laboratory testing program designed to measure the precision of test methods identified in the privatization contracts for the immobilization of Hanford low-activity wastes. Tests will be conducted with that glass to measure the reproducibility of tests and analyses that must be performed by glass producers as a part of the product acceptance procedure. Test results will be used to determine if the contractually required tests and analyses are adequate for evaluating the acceptability of likely immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) products. They will also be used to evaluate if the glass designed for use in these tests can be used as an analytical standard test material for verifying results reported by vendors for tests withg ILAW products. The results of those tests and analyses will be presented in a separate report. The purpose of this report is to document the strategy used to formulate the glass to be used in the testing program. The low-activity waste reference glass LRM that will be used in the testing program was formulated to be compositionally similar to ILAW products to be made with wastes from Hanford. Since the ILAW product compositions have not been disclosed by the vendors participating in the Hanford privatization project, the composition of LRM was formulated based on simulated Hanford waste stream and amounts of added glass forming chemicals typical for vitrified waste forms. The major components are 54 mass % SiO 2 , 20 mass % Na 2 O, 10 mass % Al 2 O 3 , 8 mass % B 2 O 3 , and 1.5 mass % K 2 O. Small amounts of other chemicals not present in Hanford wastes were also included in the glass, since they may be included as chemical additives in ILAW products. This was done so that the use of LRM as a composition standard could be evaluated. Radionuclides were not included in LRM because a nonradioactive material was desired

  17. FY 1997 Progress report on tube propagation testing of tank waste using the PRSST

    Bechtold, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    The subject of this FY 1997 progress report is tube propagation tests of actual, dried tank waste to verify the contact temperature ignition (CTI) criterion for point-source ignition in the Hanford Site waste tanks. Testing is in support of the Organic Tanks Safety Project and will help resolve safety issues with waste containing organic constituents. In FY 1997, improvements were made to the laboratory apparatus and procedures for conducting the testing, and the final testing strategy was formulated. The strategy lays out details of the tests to be performed, samples to be tested, and modes of reporting results

  18. A Study of Frequency Mixing Approaches for Eddy Current Testing of Steam Generator Tubes

    Jung, Hee Jun; Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Hwan; Kim, Dae Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The multifrequency eddy current testing(ECT) have been proposed various frequency mixing algorithms. In this study, we compare these approaches to frequency mixing of ECT signals from steam generator tubes; time-domain optimization, discrete cosine transform-domain optimization. Specifically, in this study, two different frequency mixing algorithms, a time-domain optimization method and a discrete cosine transform(DCT) optimization method, are investigated using the experimental signals captured from the ASME standard tube. The DCT domain optimization method is computationally fast but produces larger amount of residue.

  19. Testing external surface of fuel element tubes for power nuclear reactors

    Naugol'nykh, O.G.; Nelyubin, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Optical methods are regarded perspective for discovery and detection of flaws of external surfaces of fuel element tubes. The TV method has highest information content among them. Two mock-ups of facilities based on the TV method using a ''dissector'' type TV device and a TV tube with charge accumulation (vidikon) have been developed. It is concluded that complex testing - combination of ultrasonic, photoelectric and TV methods in a facility is necessary for discovery and analysis of the whole variety of flaws, though sensitivity of the TV method is enough for disclosure of all the main defects

  20. Signal Characteristics of Eddy Current Test for Intergranular Attack of Steam Generator Tubes

    Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Han, Jung Ho; Hur, Do Haeng; Cho, Se Gon; Yim, Chang Jae

    2002-01-01

    Because intergranular attack (IGA), one of the localized corrosion forms occurring on steam generator tubes, can not be fabricated by an electric discharge machining method, there are few data for the eddy current test (ECT) characteristics of IGA. In this paper, the characteristics of eddy current signals are evaluated using nonexpanded tubes with IGA defects formed in 0.1 M sodium tetrathionate solution at 40 .deg. C. The detectability and sizing accuracy of IGA were discussed in terms of the coil type and frequency of the ECT probes

  1. Recent Advances in Simulation of Eddy Current Testing of Tubes and Experimental Validations

    Reboud, C.; Prémel, D.; Lesselier, D.; Bisiaux, B.

    2007-03-01

    Eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used in iron and steel industry for the inspection of tubes during manufacturing. A collaboration between CEA and the Vallourec Research Center led to the development of new numerical functionalities dedicated to the simulation of ECT of non-magnetic tubes by external probes. The achievement of experimental validations led us to the integration of these models into the CIVA platform. Modeling approach and validation results are discussed here. A new numerical scheme is also proposed in order to improve the accuracy of the model.

  2. Final Report. LAW Glass Formulation to Support AP-101 Actual Waste Testing, VSL-03R3470-2, Rev. 0

    Muller, I. S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Carranza, Isidro [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Lai, Shan-Tao T. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-06-22

    The main objective of the work was to develop and select a glass formulation for vitrification testing of the actual waste sample of LAW AP-101 at Battelle - Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD). Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses to demonstrate compliance with contract and processing requirements, evaluation of the ability to achieve waste loading requirements, testing to demonstrate compatibility of the glass melts with melter materials of construction, comparison of the properties of simulant and actual waste glasses, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  3. Eddy-current testing of nuclear fuel cladding tubes using tilted encircling coil system, 1

    Yin, Renzhong; Sekine, Kazuyoshi; Shimizu, Hisaji; Tsukui, Kazushige; Urata, Megumu.

    1989-01-01

    The eddy current testing method with external encircling-coils has been widely used as a standard technique for inspection of defects in irradiated zircaloy cladding tubes. In this inspection, the systematic procedure to reliably characterize defects is required. This paper describes the newly developed external tilted encircling-coil system, in which the coil axis is inclined by an angle α to the sample tube axis, for reliable determination of the sort, location and size of defects. As the results of experimental work concerning some kinds of artificial defects in zircaloy cladding tubes using newly designed tilted coil system, an adaptable general-procedure for characterization of defects has been proposed. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that in the case of smaller tilt angles of coil, the signal-to noise ratio for defect response in this coil system is approximately equal to that of ordinary encircling coil system. (author)

  4. Laboratory testing of glasses for Lockheed Idaho Technology Co. - fiscal year 1994 report

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Wolf, S.F.; Bates, J.K.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to measure the intermediate and long-term durability of vitrified waste forms developed by Lockheed Idaho Technology Co. (LITCO) for the immobilization of calcined radioactive wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Two vitreous materials referred to as Formula 127 and Formula 532, have been subjected to accelerated durability tests to measure their long-term performance. Formula 127 consists of a glass matrix containing 5-10 vol % fluorite (CaF 2 ) as a primary crystalline phase. It shows low releases of glass components to solution in 7-, 28-, 70-, and 140-day Product Consistency Tests performed at 2000 m -1 at 90 degrees C. In these tests, release rates for glass-forming components were similar to those found for durable waste glasses. The Ca and F released by the glass as it corrodes appear to reprecipitate as fluorite. Formula 532 consists of a glass matrix containing 5-10 vol % of an Al-Si-rich primary crystalline phase. The release rates for components other than aluminum are relatively low, but aluminum is released at a much higher rate than is typical for durable waste glasses. Secondary crystalline phases form relatively early during the corrosion of Formula 532 and appear to consist almost entirely of the Al-Si-rich primary phase (or a crystal with the same Al:Si ratio) and a sodium-bearing zeolite. Future test results are expected to highlight the relative importance of primary and secondary crystalline phases to the rate of corrosion of Formula 127 and Formula 532

  5. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R. [Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Holliday, K. S. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-05-21

    Nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. The resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  6. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. The resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  7. Nuclear waste glass product consistency test (PCT): Version 7.0. Revision 3

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), poured into stainless steel canisters, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS), the durability of the glass needs to be measured during production to assure its long term stability and radionuclide release properties. A durability test, designated the Product Consistency Test (PCT), was developed for DWPF glass in order to meet the WAPS requirements. The response of the PCT procedure was based on extensive testing with glasses of widely different compositions. The PCT was determined to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, and to be easily performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. Version 7.0 of the PCT procedure is attached. This draft version has been submitted to ASTM for full committee (C26, Nuclear Fuel Cycle) ballot after being balloted successfully through subcommittee C26.13 on Repository Waste Package Materials Testing

  8. In-pile Creep Tests of Zircaloy Tubing in the Studsvik R2 Reactor. Final Report

    Tomani, Hans; Lindeloew, Ulf

    2000-12-01

    In this report are presented the findings of a prototype creep test on Zr4 guide tube specimens exposed in-pile and out-of-pile and stressed by constant bending moments. The calculated initial deflection curvature caused by the applied bending moment agrees very well with the measured initial values. Furthermore, the measurement results show excellent consistency. The dominant impact of neutron irradiation is clearly demonstrated. After 3 cycles (∼1300 hours) the irradiation creep is 4 times as large as the thermal creep. This is the case at least when fresh tube material is used. Irradiation creep progresses steadily, but the creep rate is not quite constant during the 3 irradiation cycles. The thermal creep, on the other hand, quickly saturates and there is hardly any further deflection after the second cycle for the specimen situated above the core. A limitation with the rig has been that the tube deflection became limited by the rig carrier body of the rig in the neutron flux (core) that disqualified the results of a fourth irradiation cycle actually performed in the fall of 1998. The test method appears to be suitable for testing the bending creep of different guide tube materials or designs under PWR conditions

  9. Applied research for profilometric testing of the state of interior surfaces in heat exchanger tubes

    Gyongyosi, Tiberiu; Panaitescu, Valeriu Nicolae

    2009-01-01

    Generally, the surface flaws identified at heat exchangers tubing are characteristic for the heat secondary systems, located on the external surfaces of the heat exchanger tubes and are mostly the results of the ageing phenomena in systems operation. The tests performed, with the impressing replicating device confirmed the applicability of the technique, functionality of the device and resulted in replicas on metal support, these being the hard copy of the negative of the test tube surface, allowing the profile measurement. The visual inspection of the replicas on the metallic support gives information about the surface geometry replicated, pointing out the marks, which belong to the same area under observation. The minimum and maximum values for the depth of the channel worked out in the inner test tube wall have been determined by profile graphic measurement on the replicas. The paper presents the structural and functional description of the experimental devices. The first results and some conclusions are also included. Two patent applications were submitted at State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) covering the original data to protect royalty: 'The local pit flaws, scratches, incipient micro-cracks replicating device on inner cylindrical surfaces', under no. A/00299/17.04.2008 and 'The annular local flaw, incipient micro-cracks replicating device on inner cylindrical surface' under no. A/00300/17.04.2008

  10. Method and apparatus for testing closed-end tubes in heat exchangers of nuclear reactors and the like

    Seyd, G.; Bergbauer, A.; Paulsen, U.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a test stopper which is insertable into a tube closed at one end for testing the tightness of the tube with a fluid under pressure, the tube being in a heat exchanger of a nuclear reactor or the like. The test stopper includes a tubular outer jacket that is expandable outwardly to tightly seat the stopper in the tube. The stopper also has front and back end-face members joined to the ends of the outer jacket to define a closed space within the jacket. With the stopper inserted into the tube, the front end-face member and the closed end portion of the tube define a closed inner region of the tube. An inner tubular member, disposed within the outer jacket, partitions the closed space within the jacket into an annular outer chamber and a cylindrical inner chamber. A pressure-fluid supply selectively supplies fluid to the chambers. The outer jacket expands in response to fluid admitted to the annular chamber and the front end-face member has a through bore to admit fluid under pressure to the inner region of the tube. A method of testing of such a tube with a fluid under pressure includes inserting the test stopper into the tube and then expanding the outer jacket of the stopper to seat the stopper firmly in the tube. A fluid under pressure is directed through the stopper and into the closed region defined by the front end-face member of the stopper and the closed end portion of the tube. The pressure of the fluid introduced into this closed region is monitored for detecting a leak in the closed-end tube

  11. IR1 flow tube and In-Pile Test Section Pressure drop test for the 3-Pin Fuel Test Loop

    Lee, H. H.; Park, K. N.; Chi, D. Y.; Sim, B. S.; Park, S. K.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, H. N

    2006-02-15

    The in-pile Section (IPS) of 3-pin Fuel Test Loop(FTL) shall be installed in the vertical hole call IR1 of HANARO reactor core. In order to verify the pressure drop and flow rate both the inside region of IPS at the annular region between IPS and IR1 flow tube, a pressure drop was measured by varing the flow rate on both regions. The measured pressure drop in the annular region is 209kpa at 14.9kg/s which meets the limiting condition of operation of 200kpa. The measured pressure drop in side the IPS becomes 260.25kpa which is lower than the designed value of 306.65kpa. As the pressure drop is lower than the design value, it is quite conservative from the safety and operating point of view.

  12. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    Paolo Giacomelli

    2001-01-01

    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  13. Ion microprobe analyses of aluminous lunar glasses - A test of the 'rock type' hypothesis

    Meyer, C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Previous soil survey investigations found that there are natural groupings of glass compositions in lunar soils and that the average major element composition of some of these groupings is the same at widely separated lunar landing sites. This led soil survey enthusiasts to promote the hypothesis that the average composition of glass groupings represents the composition of primary lunar 'rock types'. In this investigation the trace element composition of numerous aluminous glass particles was determined by the ion microprobe method as a test of the above mentioned 'rock type' hypothesis. It was found that within any grouping of aluminous lunar glasses by major element content, there is considerable scatter in the refractory trace element content. In addition, aluminous glasses grouped by major elements were found to have different average trace element contents at different sites (Apollo 15, 16 and Luna 20). This evidence argues that natural groupings in glass compositions are determined by regolith processes and may not represent the composition of primary lunar 'rock types'.

  14. Development and testing of a glass waste form for the immobilization of plutonium

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Hanchar, J.M.; Emery, J.W.; Hoh, J.C.; Wolf, S.F.; Finch, R.J.; Bates, J.K.; Ellison, A.J.G.; Dingwell, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    The United States has declared about 50 metric tons of weapons-grade Pu surplus to national security needs. The President has directed that this Pu be placed in a form that provides a high degree of proliferation resistance in which the surplus Pu is both unattractive and inaccessible for use by others [I]. Three alternatives are being evaluated for the disposal 2048 of this material: (1) use of the Pu as a fuel source for commercial reactors; (2) immobilization, where Pu is fixed in a glass or ceramic matrix that also contains or is surrounded by highly radioactive material; and (3) deep bore hole, where Pu is emplaced at depths of several kilometers. The immobilization alternative is being directed by the staff at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The staff at ANL are assisting by developing a glass for the immobilization of Pu and in the corrosion testing of glass and ceramic material prepared both at ANL and at other DOE laboratories. As part of this program, we have developed an ATS glass into which 5-7 wt percent Pu has been dissolved. The ATS glass was engineered to accommodate high Pu loading and to be durable under conditions likely to accelerate glass reactions in the geological environment during long-term storage

  15. Adaptation, testing and application of the two-dimensional FE computer program system for steam generator tube testing

    Betzold, K.

    1987-01-01

    The 2d-FE computing program system, taken over by EPRI, is used for the improvement of the eddy current test of steam generator heating tubes. The investigations focus on test tasks in the area of the tube plate and the scrap mark; among them: accumulation of mud in the cracking area and above the tube plate; circulating slots with and without accumulation of mud. The interaction of the factors of influence given by the test object and the parameters selectable by the tester as for example coil length and base space for absolute coils and differential coils as well as test frequencies are calculated and the form of the signal locus curves and the dynamic curves are listed in a sample catalogue. It is demonstrated with selected examples that the sample catalogue contributes to the test-specific design of the coil and to the choice of the test frequencies; interpretation of measured signals; deepening of the knowledge of the physical processe in eddy current tests. (orig./HP) [de

  16. FY2016 ILAW Glass Corrosion Testing with the Single-Pass Flow-Through Method

    Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parruzot, Benjamin PG [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The inventory of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be disposed of at the near-surface, on-site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). When groundwater comes into contact with the waste form, the glass will corrode and radionuclides will be released into the near-field environment. Because the release of the radionuclides is dependent on the dissolution rate of the glass, it is important that the performance assessment (PA) model accounts for the dissolution rate of the glass as a function of various chemical conditions. To accomplish this, an IDF PA model based on Transition State Theory (TST) can be employed. The model is able to account for changes in temperature, exposed surface area, and pH of the contacting solution as well as the effect of silicon concentrations in solution, specifically the activity of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4), whose concentration is directly linked to the glass dissolution rate. In addition, the IDF PA model accounts for the alkali-ion exchange process as sodium is leached from the glass and into solution. The effect of temperature, pH, H4SiO4 activity, and the rate of ion-exchange can be parameterized and implemented directly into the PA rate law model. The rate law parameters are derived from laboratory tests with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) method. To date, rate law parameters have been determined for seven ILAW glass compositions, thus additional rate law parameters on a wider range of compositions will supplement the existing body of data for PA maintenance activities. The data provided in this report can be used by ILAW glass scientists to further the understanding of ILAW glass behavior, by IDF PA modelers to use the rate law parameters in PA modeling efforts, and by Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and decision makers as they assess the IDF PA program.

  17. Calculation of fuel element temperature TRIGA 2000 reactor in sipping test tubes using CFD

    Sudjatmi KA

    2013-01-01

    It has been calculated the fuel element temperature in the sipping test of Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor. The calculation needs to be done to ascertain that the fuel element temperatures are below or at the limit of the allowable temperature fuel elements during reactor operation. ensuring that the implementation of the test by using this device, the temperature is still within safety limits. The calculation is done by making a model sipping test tubes containing a fuel element surrounded by 9 fuel elements. according to the position sipping test tubes in the reactor core. by using Gambit. Dimensional model adapted to the dimensions of the tube and the fuel element in the reactor core of Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor. Sipping test Operation for each fuel element performed for 30 minutes at 300 kW power. Calculations were performed using CFD software and as input adjusted parameters of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Simulations carried out on the operation of the 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 minutes. The calculation result shows that the temperature of the fuel in tubes sipping test of 236.06 °C, while the temperature of the wall is 87.58 °C. The maximum temperature in the fuel center of TRIGA 2000 reactor in normal operation is 650 °C. and the boiling is not allowed in the reactor. So it can be concluded that the operation of the sipping test device are is very safe because the fuel center temperature is below the temperature limits the allowable fuel under normal operating conditions as well as the fuel element wall temperature is below the boiling temperature of water. (author)

  18. Effects of container material on PCT leach test results for high-level nuclear waste glasses

    Xing, S.B.; Pegg, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    A glass-based waste form used for the immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes should exhibit good resistance to aqueous corrosion since typically this is the primary process by which radionucleides could be released into the environment upon failure of other barriers. In the USA, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) provides a set of requirements to ensure the consistency of the waste forms produced and specifies the Product Consistency Test (PCT) as a measure of relative chemical durability. While the PCT procedure permits usage of both Teflon and stainless steel vessels for testing of simulated development glasses, Teflon is not permitted for testing of production glasses due to radiative degradation. The results presented in this paper indicate that there are very significant differences between tests conducted in the two types of vessels due to the well-known permeability of Teflon to atmospheric carbon dioxide which results in lowering of the solution pH and a consequent reduction in the leach rate of silicate glasses. A wide range of nuclear waste glass compositions was subjected to the PCT procedure using both Teflon and stainless steel vessels. The magnitude of the effect (up to a factor of four for B, Na, Li concentrations) depends strongly on glass composition, therefore the isolated checks performed previously were inconclusive. The permeability to CO, of two types of Teflon vessels specified in the PCT procedure was directly measured using buffer solutions: ingress of CO, is linear in time, strongly pH-dependent, and was as high as 100 ppm after 7 days. In actual PCT tests in Teflon vessels, the total CO, content was 560 ppm after 87 days and 1930 ppm after one year

  19. Preanalytical errors in primary healthcare: a questionnaire study of information search procedures, test request management and test tube labelling.

    Söderberg, Johan; Brulin, Christine; Grankvist, Kjell; Wallin, Olof

    2009-01-01

    Most errors in laboratory medicine occur in the preanalytical phase and are the result of human mistakes. This study investigated information search procedures, test request management and test tube labelling in primary healthcare compared to the same procedures amongst clinical laboratory staff. A questionnaire was completed by 317 venous blood sampling staff in 70 primary healthcare centres and in two clinical laboratories (response rate = 94%). Correct procedures were not always followed. Only 60% of the primary healthcare staff reported that they always sought information in the updated, online laboratory manual. Only 12% reported that they always labelled the test tubes prior to drawing blood samples. No major differences between primary healthcare centres and clinical laboratories were found, except for test tube labelling, whereby the laboratory staff reported better practices. Re-education and access to documented routines were not clearly associated with better practices. The preanalytical procedure in the surveyed primary healthcare centres was associated with a risk of errors which could affect patient safety. To improve patient safety in laboratory testing, all healthcare providers should survey their preanalytical procedures and improve the total testing process with a systems perspective.

  20. Five Tubes Rupture at Cold Side of Steam Generator Simulation Test Report Using the ATLAS

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a postulated SGTR event of the APR1400 was experimentally investigated with the ATLAS. In order to simulate a double-ended rupture of five U-tubes in the APR1400, the SGTR-CL-02 test was performed with the ATLAS. The main objectives of this test were not only to provide a physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the SGTR but also to produce integral effect experimental data to validate the safety analysis code. In the present report, major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Compared to the case of a single U-tube rupture test, opening frequency of the MSSVs in the intact steam generator (SG-2) was highly reduced after 500 seconds in the present SGTR-CL-02 test. Large discharge of the primary inventory resulted in rapid depressurization of the primary system and consequently early injection of the SIP. Supply of cold ECC water by the SIPs reduced the energy transfer to the secondary side compared with the single U-tube rupture case. Less heat transfer to the secondary side had more influence on the secondary pressure of the affected steam generator than the break flow. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code

  1. Five Tubes Rupture at Hot Side of Steam Generator Simulation Test Report Using the ATLAS

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho Seok

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a postulated SGTR event of the APR1400 was experimentally investigated with the ATLAS. In order to simulate a double-ended rupture of five U-tubes in the APR1400, the SGTR-HL-05 test was performed with the ATLAS. The main objectives of this test were not only to provide a physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the SGTR but also to produce integral effect experimental data to validate the SPACE code. In the present report, major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. On the contrary to the case of a single U-tube rupture test, the MSSV of the intact steam generator was not opened any more after 1500 seconds in the present SGTR-HL-05 test. Large discharge of the primary inventory resulted in rapid depressurization of the primary system and consequently early injection of the SIP. Supply of cold ECC water by the SIPs reduced the energy transfer to the secondary side compared with the single U-tube rupture case. Less heat transfer to the secondary side had more influence on the secondary pressure of the affected steam generator than the break flow. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code

  2. Behavior of 99Tc in doped-glass/basalt hydrothermal interaction tests

    Coles, D.G.; Apted, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The release of polyvalent radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository located in basalt may be sensitively related to the redox potential (Eh) imposed by the basalt. A series of tests are reported here, evaluating the effect of basalt on the concentrations of 99 Tc released into solution from a borosilicate glass waste form. Crushed PNL 76-68 glass, doped with 0.7 mg 99 Tc/g glass, was reacted with reference basalt groundwater under oxic hydrothermal conditions in a sampling autoclave, both alone and in the presence of crushed basalt. The steady state fluid concentrations of 99 Tc and various table species were determined from samples obtained at the test conditions of 200 0 C, 30 MPa, and a initial solution to solid mass ratio of 10 for both tests. In the glass + groundwater test, the 99 Tc concentration rose rapidly to about 50 mg/L after only 200 hr of run time and remained at a value between 50 and 60 mg/L throughout the duration of the test. For the basalt + glass + groundwater test, the 99 Tc concentration rose to an initial value of about 2.5 mg/L. At about 700 hr, the 99 Tc concentration began to drop rapidly until a value near the analytical detection limit (approximately 0.005 mg/L) was reached after a test duration of 1400 hr. It is concluded that the presence of basalt in these hydrothermal experiments reduces the concentration of 99 Tc in solution by nearly four orders of magnitude, probably by control of solution Eh and subsequent precipitation of a solid containing a reduced form of technetium. Reaction mechanisms are discussed that can account for these observations. 17 references, 1 figure

  3. Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes biphasic social dominance abnormalities in the tube test.

    Arrant, A E; Filiano, A J; Warmus, B A; Hall, A M; Roberson, E D

    2016-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which social behavior is disrupted. Progranulin-insufficient mice, both Grn(+/-) and Grn(-/-) , are used as models of FTD due to GRN mutations, with Grn(+/-) mice mimicking the progranulin haploinsufficiency of FTD patients with GRN mutations. Grn(+/-) mice have increased social dominance in the tube test at 6 months of age, although this phenotype has not been reported in Grn(-/-) mice. In this study, we investigated how the tube test phenotype of progranulin-insufficient mice changes with age, determined its robustness under several testing conditions, and explored the associated cellular mechanisms. We observed biphasic social dominance abnormalities in Grn(+/-) mice: at 6-8 months, Grn(+/-) mice were more dominant than wild-type littermates, while after 9 months of age, Grn(+/-) mice were less dominant. In contrast, Grn(-/-) mice did not exhibit abnormal social dominance, suggesting that progranulin haploinsufficiency has distinct effects from complete progranulin deficiency. The biphasic tube test phenotype of Grn(+/-) mice was associated with abnormal cellular signaling and neuronal morphology in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. At 6-9 months, Grn(+/-) mice exhibited increased mTORC2/Akt signaling in the amygdala and enhanced dendritic arbors in the basomedial amygdala, and at 9-16 months Grn(+/-) mice exhibited diminished basal dendritic arbors in the prelimbic cortex. These data show a progressive change in tube test dominance in Grn(+/-) mice and highlight potential underlying mechanisms by which progranulin insufficiency may disrupt social behavior. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Some results of the 50 MW straight tube steam generator test in the TNO 50 MW SCTF at Hengelo

    Ludwig, P.W.P.H.; Hus, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    A prototype 50 MW straight tube steam generator has been tested during more than 3000 hours under operating conditions. The steady state, transient and stability behaviour were tested. The most remarkable results of the experiments are given. (author)

  5. Some results of the 50 MW straight tube steam generator test in the TNO 50 MW SCTF at Hengelo

    Ludwig, P W.P.H.; Hus, B M

    1975-07-01

    A prototype 50 MW straight tube steam generator has been tested during more than 3000 hours under operating conditions. The steady state, transient and stability behaviour were tested. The most remarkable results of the experiments are given. (author)

  6. [Efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas].

    Wang, Zhao-Yu; Lin, Jing-Ming; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2007-08-01

    To develop a new technique for efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of the medicinal and energy- producing plant Jatropha curcas. Using the mini-stem fragment (2-3 cm) of Jatropha curcas with merely one axillary bud as the explant, the effect of an auxin IBA concentration on the plantlet regeneration was studied. When treated with 1 mg/LIBA for 1h, the explants showed the most rapid propagation. The mini-stem fragments high root regeneration ratio (96.7%), short root regeneration period (18.2-/+2.0 d), large number of new roots per explant (6.3-/+1.8), and long total root length (6.8-/+3.5 cm), demonstrating that this technique can be a simple and efficient method for rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas of potential industrial value.

  7. An integrated automatic system for the eddy-current testing of the steam generator tubes

    Woo, Hee Gon; Choi, Seong Su [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    This research project was focused on automation of steam generator tubes inspection for nuclear power plants. ECT (Eddy Current Testing) inspection process in nuclear power plants is classified into 3 subprocesses such as signal acquisition process, signal evaluation process, and inspection planning and data management process. Having been automated individually, these processes were effectively integrated into an automatic inspection system, which was implemented in HP workstation with expert system developed (author). 25 refs., 80 figs.

  8. An integrated automatic system for the eddy-current testing of the steam generator tubes

    Woo, Hee Gon; Choi, Seong Su [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    This research project was focused on automation of steam generator tubes inspection for nuclear power plants. ECT (Eddy Current Testing) inspection process in nuclear power plants is classified into 3 subprocesses such as signal acquisition process, signal evaluation process, and inspection planning and data management process. Having been automated individually, these processes were effectively integrated into an automatic inspection system, which was implemented in HP workstation with expert system developed (author). 25 refs., 80 figs.

  9. Influence of Aroclor 1242 Concentration on Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biotransformations in Hudson River Test Tube Microcosms

    Fish, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    When 93.3 to 933 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added to Hudson River sediment test tube microcosms, the rates of polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations increased with increasing Aroclor 1242 concentration after a 4- to 8-week acclimation period. In contrast, when 37.3 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added, polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations occurred at slow constant rates. PMID:16535387

  10. High heat flux tests at divertor relevant conditions on water-cooled swirl tube targets

    Schlosser, J.; Boscary, J.

    1994-01-01

    High heat flux experiments were performed to provide a technology for heat flux removal under NET/ITER relevant conditions. The water-cooled rectangular test sections were made of hardened copper with a stainless steel twisted tape installed inside a circular channel and one-side heated. The tests aimed to investigate the heat transfer and the critical heat flux in the subcooled boiling regime. A CHF data base of 63 values was established. Test results have shown the thermalhydraulic ability of swirl tubes to sustain an incident heat flux up to a 30 MW.m -2 range. (author) 10 refs.; 7 figs

  11. Lead extraction from waste funnel cathode-ray tubes glasses by reaction with silicon carbide and titanium nitride

    Yot, Pascal G.; Mear, Francois O.

    2009-01-01

    As a possibility to clean waste CRT glass, treatment of lead-containing glass with a reducing agent, SiC or TiN, leads to a porous material containing metallic lead, Pb(0), located on the surface of the pore, and unreduced lead, Pb(II). The influences of reducing agent content, of the time, and at last of the temperature on lead reduction were analysed. Our investigations have pointed out significant differences as a function of the used reducing agent. CRT glass heat treated with SiC lead to less Pb(0), compared to TiN as shown by X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It has been also evidenced that lead reduction occurs on randomized zones inside the sample leading to macroscopic lead beads inside glassy samples. XPS and XAS measurements were also carried out to investigate the local structure of lead and have evidenced a change of role of lead inside the glassy framework in function of the used conditions.

  12. The Aphrodite boiling crisis program. Analysis of CHF tests performed on a vertical tube

    Souyri, A.; Conan, S.; Portesse, A.; Tremblay, D.

    1992-09-01

    In order to develop a comprehensive modelling of the boiling crisis phenomenon, the APHRODITE experimental program has been set up at ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE. Aiming at a better mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon, this program will investigate the influence of the experimental conditions (among which the mockup geometry and the boundary conditions) and the two-phase flow patterns via void fraction distributions. It has involved the construction of a R12 test loop, which can deliver a large thermal-hydraulic parameter ranges, and the development of a gamma-ray tomograph. The first experiments have been carried out on a vertical Inconel tube, 6 meters long with a bore diameter of 13 mm and a thickness of 0.5 mm. This electrically heated test section is heavily instrumented with 168 thermocouples welded along the tube, on its outer surface. After a refined calibration of the experimental procedure, a critical heat flux data bank has been collected within large pressure, mass velocity and critical steam quality ranges. These results are firstly compared with other CHF data obtained in similar conditions. Then several empirical correlations and a theoretical model for similar prediction in tubes are tested against these data

  13. Determining the dissolution rates of actinide glasses: A time and temperature Product Consistency Test study

    Daniel, W.E.; Best, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Vitrification has been identified as one potential option for the e materials such as Americium (Am), Curium (Cm), Neptunium (Np), and Plutonium (Pu). A process is being developed at the Savannah River Site to safely vitrify all of the highly radioactive Am/Cm material and a portion of the fissile (Pu) actinide materials stored on site. Vitrification of the Am/Cm will allow the material to be transported and easily stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Am/Cm glass has been specifically designed to be (1) highly durable in aqueous environments and (2) selectively attacked by nitric acid to allow recovery of the valuable Am and Cm isotopes. A similar glass composition will allow for safe storage of surplus plutonium. This paper will address the composition, relative durability, and dissolution rate characteristics of the actinide glass, Loeffler Target, that will be used in the Americium/Curium Vitrification Project at Westinghouse Savannah River Company near Aiken, South Carolina. The first part discusses the tests performed on the Loeffler Target Glass concerning instantaneous dissolution rates. The second part presents information concerning pseudo-activation energy for the one week glass dissolution process

  14. A cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by miniature pulse tube cryocooler

    Chen, L B; Liu, S X; Gu, K X; Zhou, Y; Wang, J J

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by a miniature pulse tube cryocooler. At present, tensile tests are widely applied to measure the mechanical properties of materials; most of the cryogenic tensile testing apparatus are designed for samples with standard sizes, while for non-standard size samples, especially for microsamples, the tensile testing cannot be conducted. The general approach to cool down the specimens for tensile testing is by using of liquid nitrogen or liquid helium, which is not convenient: it is difficult to keep the temperature of the specimens at an arbitrary set point precisely, besides, in some occasions, liquid nitrogen, especially liquid helium, is not easily available. To overcome these limitations, a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus cooled by a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler has been designed, built and tested. The operating temperatures of the developed tensile testing apparatus cover from 20 K to room temperature with a controlling precision of ±10 mK. The apparatus configurations, the methods of operation and some cooling performance will be described in this paper. (paper)

  15. Compressive fatigue tests on a unidirectional glass/polyester composite at cryogenic temperatures

    Stone, E.L.; El-Marazki, L.O.; Young, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The fatigue testing of a unidirectional glass-reinforced polyester composite at cryogenic temperatures to simulate the cyclic compressive loads of the magnet support struts in a superconductive magnetic energy storage unit is reported. Right circular cylindrical specimens were tested at 77, 4.2 K and room temperature at different stress levels using a 1-Hz haversine waveform imposed upon a constant baseload in a load-controlled closed-loop electrohydraulic test machine. Two failure modes, uniform mushrooming near one end and a 45 deg fracture line through the middle of the specimen, are observed, with no systematic difference in fatigue life between the modes. Fatigue lives obtained at 77 and 4.2 K are found to be similar, with fatigue failure at 100,000 cycles occurring at stress levels of 70 and 75% of the ultimate compressive strengths of specimens at room temperature and 77 K, respectively. The room temperature fatigue lives of the glass/polyester specimens are found to be intermediate between those reported for glass/epoxy composites with different glass contents costing over twice as much

  16. Plan for glass waste form testing for NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    Aines, R.D.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of glass waste form testing is to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from breached glass waste containers. This information will be used to qualify glass waste forms with respect to the release requirements. It will be the basis of the source term from glass waste for repository performance assessment modeling. This information will also serve as part of the source term in the calculation of cumulative releases after 100,000 years in the site evaluation process. It will also serve as part of the source term input for calculation of cumulative releases to the accessible environment for 10,000 years after disposal, to determine compliance with EPA regulations. This investigation will provide data to resolve information needs. Information about the waste forms which is provided by the producer will be accumulated and evaluated; the waste form will be tested, properties determined, and mechanisms of degradation determined; and models providing long-term evaluation of release rates designed and tested. 23 refs

  17. Heat transfer test in a tube using CO2 at supercritical pressures

    Kim, Hwan Yeol; Kim, Hyungrae; Song, Jin Ho; Cho, Bong Hyun; Bae, Yoon Yeong

    2005-01-01

    Heat transfer test facility, which is named as SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt Generation), has been constructed in KAERI for the study of heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in a single tube, single rod and rod bundle at supercritical CO 2 conditions. The tests with supercritical water are difficult it terms of cost and effort, since the critical pressure and temperature of water are as high as 22.12 MPa and 374.14degC. As a substitute for water, CO 2 is selected for the test since the critical pressure and temperature of CO 2 are 7.38 MPa and 31.05degC that are much lower than those of water. This paper describes the design characteristics of the SPHINX and the experimental investigations on the heat transfer and pressure drop of a vertical single tube with an inside diameter of 4.4 mm with upward flow of supercritical CO 2 . The geometry of the single tube is the same as that of Kyushu University test performed with Freon (R22) for the direct comparison of a medium effect. The tests were performed with various heat and mass fluxes at a given pressure. The range of mass flux is 400∼1200 kg/m 2 s and the heat flux is chosen up to 150 kW/m 2 . The selected pressure are 7.75, 8.12, and 8.85 MPa. The test results are investigated and compared with the previous tests. (author)

  18. Measurement of the viscoelastic compliance of the eustachian tube using a modified forced-response test.

    Ghadiali, Samir N; Federspiel, William J; Swarts, J Douglas; Doyle, William J

    2002-01-01

    Eustachian tube compliance (ETC) was suggested to be an important determinate of function. Previous attempts to quantify ETC used summary measures that are not clearly related to the physical properties of the system. Here, we present a new method for measuring ETC that conforms more closely to the engineering definition of compliance. The forced response test was modified to include oscillations in applied flow after the forced tubal opening. Pressure and flow were recorded during the standard and modified test in 12 anesthetized cynomolgus monkeys. The resulting pressure-flow, hysteresis loops were compared with those predicted by a simple fluid-structure model of the Eustachian tube with linear-elastic or viscoelastic properties. The tubal compliance index (TCI) and a viscoelastic compliance (C(v)) were calculated from these data for each monkey. The behavior of a viscoelastic, but not a linear elastic model accurately reproduced the experimental data for the monkey. The TCI and C(v) were linearly related, but the shared variance in these measures was only 63%. This new method for measuring ETC captures all information contained in the traditional TCI, but also provides information regarding the contribution of wall viscosity to Eustachian tube mechanics.

  19. Application of numerical analysis techniques to eddy current testing for steam generator tubes

    Morimoto, Kazuo; Satake, Koji; Araki, Yasui; Morimura, Koichi; Tanaka, Michio; Shimizu, Naoya; Iwahashi, Yoichi

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the application of numerical analysis to eddy current testing (ECT) for steam generator tubes. A symmetrical and three-dimensional sinusoidal steady state eddy current analysis code was developed. This code is formulated by future element method-boundary element method coupling techniques, in order not to regenerate the mesh data in the tube domain at every movement of the probe. The calculations were carried out under various conditions including those for various probe types, defect orientations and so on. Compared with the experimental data, it was shown that it is feasible to apply this code to actual use. Furthermore, we have developed a total eddy current analysis system which consists of an ECT calculation code, an automatic mesh generator for analysis, a database and display software for calculated results. ((orig.))

  20. Test of a proportional tube modulus used to localize the electromagnetic showers in a calorimeter

    Lees, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    In this work are given results of a test in an electron-hadron beam (5-92 GeV) of the prototype of a position detector. This position detector consists of proportional tubes with charge division readout; it will be used in the end cap electromagnetic calorimeter ('bouchon') of the UA1 experiment at CERN (pantip collisions at a center of mass energy of 540 GeV). This detector gives the position of the showers, and also a coarse value of their energy. Results about properties of the tubes (saturation phenomena, position and energy accuracies) and, then, results about the development of high energy electromagnetic showers in lead-plastic sandwich are given here [fr

  1. Materials tests and analyses of Faraday shield tubes for ICRF [ion cyclotron resonant frequency] antennas

    King, J.F.; Baity, F.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Walls, J.C.; Taylor, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) antennas for heating fusion plasmas require careful analysis of the materials selected for the design and the successful fabrication of high integrity braze bonds. Graphite tiles are brazed to Inconel 625 Faraday shield tubes to protect the antenna from the plasma. The bond between the graphite and Inconel tube is difficult to achieve due to the different coefficients of thermal expansion. A 2-D stress analysis showed the graphite could be bonded to Inconel with a Ag-Cu-Ti braze alloy without cracking the graphite. Brazing procedures and nondestructive examination methods have been developed for these joints. This paper presents the results of our joining development and proof testing. 2 refs., 3 figs

  2. Fatigue testing on samples from Zircaloy-4 tubes type SEU-43

    Olaru, V.; Ionescu, V.; Nitu, A.; Ionescu, D.; Voicu, F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the testing of samples worked from Zicaloy-4 tubes (as-received.. metallurgical state), utilized in the composition of the CANDU SEU-43 fuel bundle. These tests are intended to simulate their behaviour in a power cycling process inside the reactor. The testing process is of low cycle fatigue type, done outside of the reactor, on ''C-ring'' samples, cut along the transversal direction. These samples are tested at 1%, 2% and 3% amplitude deformation, at room temperature. The calibration curves for both types of tube (small and big diameter) are determined by using the finite element analyses with the ANSYS computer code. The cycling test results are in the form of a fatigue life curve (N-e) for zircaloy-4 used in the SEU-43 fuel bundle. The curve is determined by the experimental dependency between the number of cycles to fracture and the deformation amplitude. The low cycle fatigue mechanical tests done at room temperature together with electronic microscopy analyses have reflected the characteristic behaviour of the zircaloy-4 metal in the given environment conditions. (authors)

  3. Mechanical Properties of a High Lead Glass Used in the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Smith, Nathan A.; Ersahin, Akif

    2015-01-01

    The elastic constants, strength, fracture toughness, slow crack growth parameters, and mirror constant of a high lead glass supplied as tubes and funnels were measured using ASTM International (formerly ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials) methods and modifications thereof. The material exhibits lower Young's modulus and slow crack growth exponent as compared to soda-lime silica glass. Highly modified glasses exhibit lower fracture toughness and slow crack growth exponent than high purity glasses such as fused silica.

  4. Long term testing of materials for tube shielding, stage 2; Laangtidsprovning av tubskyddsmaterial, etapp 2

    Norling, Rikard; Hjoernhede, Anders; Mattsson, Mattias

    2012-02-15

    temperature. It varies from a few months to several years. The cost of replacing tube shielding is significant, which calls for improved materials. In a previous study [1] various materials have been tested in the WtE CFB-boiler P14 at Haendeloe in Norrkoeping, Sweden. The study showed that several materials may be cost effective candidates for replacing 253MA, but the test period was too short for safe predictions. This work includes exposures at the same position, but with extended test period up to almost 12000 h to verify the previous results. In addition results from exposures in the WtE CFB-boiler Hoegdalen P6 in Stockholm, Sweden is included. This boiler suffers in particular from severe erosion of the tube shielding requiring it to be exchanged every few months

  5. Glass consistency and glass performance

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  6. Proof-testing and probabilistic lifetime estimation of glass fibers for sensor applications.

    Komachiya, M; Minamitani, R; Fumino, T; Sakaguchi, T; Watanabe, S

    1999-05-01

    The mechanical reliability of sensing glass fiber is one of the important problems in the practical use of fiber-optic sensors. To ensure long-term reliability on a mass-production level, a method of proof-testing is applied to a sensing glass fiber that will be subjected to mechanical deformation in its service situation. We propose to employ a higher strain level (screening level) in the proof-testing with a fiber-recoating technique that can suppress excessive damage during the testing. We consider a standard lifetime of 15 years of automotive applications and ensure a practical level of failure probability by a model calculation by using the strength data of a prototype fiber with the method of fracture-mechanics theory.

  7. Fragmentation of Solid Materials Using Shock Tubes. Part 1: First Test Series in a Small Diameter Shock Tube

    2017-01-01

    spreadsheet output. More specifically, two passes were made in Excel. In the first pass, logic functions and VBA code were used to enforce a lower limit...2006. [2] Pacific Supply, [Online]. Available: http://pacificsupply.paccoast.com/index.html. [ Accessed 15 October 2015]. [3] CR Laurence, [Online...Available: http://www.crlaurence.com/apps/contentloader/ default.aspx?content=www.crlaurence.com/adv/glass_and_glazing/index_us.html. [ Accessed

  8. Demonstration test of the spent fuel rod cutting process with tube cutter mechanism

    Lee, Jong Youl; Jung, Jae Hoo; Hong, Dong Hee; Yoon, Ji Sup; Lee, Eun Pyo

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, the verification by computer graphics technology for the spent fuel rod cutting devise which belongs to the spent fuel disassembly processes, the performance tests of the real device, and the demonstration tests with tube cutter mechanism are described. The graphical design system is used throughout the design stages from conceptual design to motion analysis like collision detection. By using this system, the device and the process are optimized. The performance test of the real device and the demonstration test using the tube cutter mechanism in the hot cell are carried out. From these results, the spent fuel rod cutting device is improved based on the considerations of circularity of the rod cross-section, debris generation, and fire risk etc. Also, this device is improved to be operated automatically via remote control system considering later use in closed environment like Hot-cell (radioactive area) and the modulization in the structure of this device makes maintenance easy. The result of the performance test and the demonstration in this report is expected to contribute to the optimization of the pre-treatment processes for the reuse of the spent fuel like DUPIC process and the final disposal

  9. Single cells for forensic DNA analysis--from evidence material to test tube.

    Brück, Simon; Evers, Heidrun; Heidorn, Frank; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a method that, while providing morphological quality control, allows single cells to be obtained from the surfaces of various evidence materials and be made available for DNA analysis in cases where only small amounts of cell material are present or where only mixed traces are found. With the SteREO Lumar.V12 stereomicroscope and UV unit from Zeiss, it was possible to detect and assess single epithelial cells on the surfaces of various objects (e.g., glass, plastic, metal). A digitally operated micromanipulator developed by aura optik was used to lift a single cell from the surface of evidence material and to transfer it to a conventional PCR tube or to an AmpliGrid(®) from Advalytix. The actual lifting of the cells was performed with microglobes that acted as carriers. The microglobes were held with microtweezers and were transferred to the DNA analysis receptacles along with the adhering cells. In a next step, the PCR can be carried out in this receptacle without removing the microglobe. Our method allows a single cell to be isolated directly from evidence material and be made available for forensic DNA analysis. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Removing Eddy-current probe wobble noise from steam generator tubes testing using wavelet transform

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun; Upadhyaya, Belle R.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most import nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applied to steam generator tubes inspection is the electromagnetic Eddy-Current testing (ECT). The signals generated in this NDE, in general, contain many noises which make difficult the interpretation and analysis of ECT signals. One of the noises present in the signals is the probe wobble noise, which is caused by the existing slack between the probe and the tube. In this work, Wavelet Transform (WT) is used in the probe wobble de-noising. WT is a relatively recent mathematical tool, which allows local analysis of non stationary signals such as ECT signals. This is a great advantage of WT when compared with other analysis tools such as Fourier Transform. However, using WT involves wavelets and coefficients selection as well as choosing the number of decomposition level needed. This work presents a probe wobble de-noising method when used in conjunction with the traditional ECT evaluation. Comparative results using several WT applied do Eddy-Current signals are presented in a reliable way, in other words, without loss of inherent defect information. A stainless steel tube, with 2 artificial defects generated by electro-erosion, was inspected by a ZETEC MIZ-17ET ECT equipment. The signals were de-noised through several different WT and the results are presented. The method offer good results and is a promising method because allows for the removal of Eddy-Current signals probe wobble effect without loss of essential signal information. (author)

  11. Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of the Weld Zone of welded pipe and tubing

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes general ultrasonic testing procedures for the detection of discontinuities in the weld and adjacent heat affected zones of welded pipe and tubing by scanning with relative motion between the search unit and pipe or tube. When contact or unfocused immersion search units are employed, this practice is intended for tubular products having specified outside diameters ≥2 in. (≥50 mm) and specified wall thicknesses of 1/8to 11/16 in. (3 to 27 mm). When properly focused immersion search units are employed, this practice may also be applied to material of smaller diameter and thinner wall. Note 1—When contact or unfocused immersion search units are used, precautions should be exercised when examining pipes or tubes near the lower specified limits. Certain combinations of search unit size, frequency, thin–wall thicknesses, and small diameters could cause generation of unwanted sound waves that may produce erroneous examination results. 1.2 All surfaces of material to be examined in ...

  12. The testing of sanitizers efficacy to enterococci adhered on glass surfaces

    Margita Čanigová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test the ability of 6 strains of enterococci to adhere on glass surfaces in environment with different content of milk residues and then to evaluate efficacy of 2 commercial sanitizers (alkaline and acidic used in milk production. Tested enterococci were isolated from milk, dairy products and from rinse water after sanitation milking machine. Suspension of enterococci (8 log CFU.ml-1 was prepared in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, PBS with content 0.1% and 1% of skimmed reconstituted milk. Glass plates were immersed into bacterial suspension for 1 h at 37 °C. The number of enterococci adhered on glass surface in PBS achieved an average value 3.47 log CFU.mm-2, in PBS with 0.1% of milk 2.90 CFU.mm-2, in PBS with 1% of milk 2.63 CFU.mm-2. Differences between the tested files were not statistically significant (p >0.05. In the second part of work the glass plates with adhered enterococci were exposed to the effect of alkaline sanitizer (on basis of NaOH and NaClO, respectively acidic sanitizer (on basis of H3PO4. Sanitation solutions were prepared and tested according to manufacturer recommendations (concentration 0.25%, contact time 20 min, temperature   20 °C. Alkaline sanitation solution was 100% effective against all tested enterococci regardless to content of milk residues in environment. Acidic sanitation solution was 100% effective only against E. faecalisD (isolated from rinse water after sanitation. Average value of reduction of enterococci with acidic sanitation solution, which were on glass plates in environment PBS was 2.84 CFU.mm-2, in PBS with 0.1% of milk was 2.45 CFU.mm-2 and in PBS with 1% of milk was 2.16 CFU.mm-2. It can be concluded, that increase of milk residues in environment decrease the adhesion of enterococci on glass surface, but also effectiveness of acidic sanitation solution.

  13. Crack growth of throughwall flaw in Alloy 600 tube during leak testing

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Majumdar, Saurin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of leak testing was conducted at a constant pressure and room temperature. • The time-dependent increase in the leak rate was observed. • The fractography revealed slip offsets and crystallographic facets. • Time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip caused the slip offsets. • Fatigue by jet/structure interaction caused the crystallographic facets. - Abstract: We examined the issue of whether crack growth in a full thickness material can occur in a leaking crack. A series of leak tests was conducted at a room temperature and constant pressure (17.3 MPa) with Alloy 600 tube specimens containing a tight rectangular throughwall axial fatigue crack. To exclude a potential pulsation effect by a high pressure pump, the test water was pressurized by using high pressure nitrogen gas. Fractography showed that crack growth in the full thickness material can occur in the leaking crack by two mechanisms: time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip and fatigue induced by jet/structure interaction. The threshold leak rate at which the jet/structure interaction was triggered was between 1.3 and 3.3 L/min for the specific heat of the Alloy 600 tube tested

  14. Tc and Re Behavior in Borosilicate Waste Glass Vapor Hydration Tests

    McKeown, David A.; Buechele, Andrew C.; Pegg, Ian L.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Shuh, David K.

    2007-01-01

    Technetium (Tc), found in some nuclear wastes, is of particular concern with regard to long-term storage, because of its long-lived radioactivity and high mobility in the environment. Tc and rhenium (Re), commonly used as a non-radioactive surrogate for Tc, were studied to assess their behavior in borosilicate glass under hydrothermal conditions in the Vapor Hydration Test (VHT). X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were made on the original Tc- and Re-containing glasses and their corresponding VHT samples, and show different behavior for Tc and Re under VHT conditions. XAS indicates that, despite starting with different Tc(IV) and Tc(VII) distributions in each glass, the VHT samples have 100% Tc(IV)O 6 environments. SEM shows complete alteration of the original glass, Tc enrichment near the sample surface, and Tc depletion in the center. Perrhenate (Re(VII)O 4 - ) is dominant in both Re-containing samples before and after the VHT, where Re is depleted near the VHT sample surface and more concentrated toward the center. (authors)

  15. Assessment of CCFL model of RELAP5/MOD3 against simple vertical tubes and rod bundle tests

    Cho, Sung Jae; Arne, Nam Sung; Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Hho Jung

    1991-01-01

    The CCFL model used in RELAP5/MOD3 version 5m5 has been assessed against simple vertical tubes and rod bundle tests performed at a facility of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The effect of changes in tube diameter and nodalization of tube section were investigated. The roles of interfacial drags on the flooding characteristics are discussed. Difference between the calculation and the experiment are also discussed. A comparison between model assessment results and the test data showed that the calculated value lay well on the experimental flooding curve specified by user, but the pressure jump before onset of flooding was not calculated

  16. Chemical Composition Analysis and Product Consistency Tests of the ORP Phase 5 Nepheline Study Glasses

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Caldwell, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-02-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for a series of simulated high-level waste glass compositions fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These data will be used in the development of improved models for the prediction of nepheline crystallization in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  17. Test beam analysis of the first CMS drift tube muon chamber

    Albajar, C; Arce, P; Autermann, C; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bontenackels, M; Caballero, J; Cavallo, F R; Cerrada, M; Cirio, R; Colino, N; Conti, E; de la Cruz, B; Dal Corso, F; Dallavalle, G M; Fernández, C; Fernández de Troconiz, J; Fouz-Iglesias, M C; García-Abia, P; García-Raboso, A; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giacomelli, P; Gonella, F; Gulmini, M; Hebbeker, T; Hermann, S; Höpfner, K; Jiménez, I; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Lacaprara, S; Marcellini, S; Mariotti, C; Maron, G; Maselli, S; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Montanari, C; Montecassiano, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Odorici, F; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Peroni, C; Perrotta, A; Puerta, J; Reithler, H; Romero, A; Romero, L; Ronchese, P; Rossi, A; Rovelli, T; Sacchi, R; Sowa, M; Staiano, A; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Vaniev, V; Vanini, S; Ventura, Sandro; Villanueva, C; Willmott, C; Zotto, P L; Zumerle, G

    2004-01-01

    In October 2001 the first produced CMS Barrel Drift Tube (DT) Muon Chamber was tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) using a muon beam. A Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) was attached to the top of the DT chamber, and, for the first time, both detectors were operated coupled together. The performance of the DT chamber was studied for several operating conditions, and for gamma rates similar to the ones expected at LHC. In this paper we present the data analysis; the results are considered fully satisfactory.

  18. Test beam analysis of the first CMS drift tube muon chamber

    Albajar, C.; Amapane, N.; Arce, P.; Autermann, C.; Bellato, M.; Benettoni, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Bontenackels, M.; Caballero, J.; Cavallo, F.R.; Cerrada, M.; Cirio, R.; Colino, N.; Conti, E.; Cruz, B. de la; Corso, F. dal; Dallavalle, G.M.; Fernandez, C.; Troconiz, J.F. de; Fouz, M.C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Garcia-Raboso, A.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giacomelli, P.; Gonella, F.; Gulmini, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Hermann, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Jimenez, I.; Josa, I.; Lacaprara, S.; Marcellini, S.; Mariotti, C.; Maron, G.; Maselli, S.; Meneguzzo, A.T.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Montecassiano, F.; Navarria, F.L.; Odorici, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peroni, C.; Perrotta, A.; Puerta, J.; Reithler, H.; Romero, A.; Romero, L.; Ronchese, P.; Rossi, A.; Rovelli, T.; Sacchi, R.; Sowa, M.; Staiano, A.; Toniolo, N.; Torassa, E.; Vaniev, V.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Villanueva, C.; Willmott, C.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.

    2004-01-01

    In October 2001 the first produced CMS Barrel Drift Tube (DT) Muon Chamber was tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) using a muon beam. A Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) was attached to the top of the DT chamber, and, for the first time, both detectors were operated coupled together. The performance of the DT chamber was studied for several operating conditions, and for gamma rates similar to the ones expected at LHC. In this paper we present the data analysis; the results are considered fully satisfactory

  19. Signal to noise ratio enhancement for Eddy Current testing of steam generator tubes in PWR's

    Georgel, B.

    1985-01-01

    Noise reduction is a compulsory task when we try to recognize and characterize flaws. The signals we deal with come from Eddy Current testings of steam generator steel tubes. We point out the need for a spectral invariant in digital spectral analysis of 2 components signals. We make clear the pros and cons of classical passband filtering and suggest the use of a new noise cancellation method first discussed by Moriwaki and Tlusty. We generalize this tricky technique and prove it is a very special case of the well-known Wiener filter. In that sense the M-T method is shown to be optimal. 6 refs

  20. Test beam analysis of the first CMS drift tube muon chamber

    Albajar, C.; Amapane, N.; Arce, P.; Autermann, C.; Bellato, M.; Benettoni, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Bontenackels, M.; Caballero, J.; Cavallo, F.R.; Cerrada, M.; Cirio, R.; Colino, N.; Conti, E.; Cruz, B. de la; Corso, F. dal; Dallavalle, G.M.; Fernandez, C.; Troconiz, J.F. de E-mail: jorge.troconiz@uam.es; Fouz, M.C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Garcia-Raboso, A.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giacomelli, P.; Gonella, F.; Gulmini, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Hermann, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Jimenez, I.; Josa, I.; Lacaprara, S.; Marcellini, S.; Mariotti, C.; Maron, G.; Maselli, S.; Meneguzzo, A.T.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Montecassiano, F.; Navarria, F.L.; Odorici, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peroni, C.; Perrotta, A.; Puerta, J.; Reithler, H.; Romero, A.; Romero, L.; Ronchese, P.; Rossi, A.; Rovelli, T.; Sacchi, R.; Sowa, M.; Staiano, A.; Toniolo, N.; Torassa, E.; Vaniev, V.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Villanueva, C.; Willmott, C.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G

    2004-06-11

    In October 2001 the first produced CMS Barrel Drift Tube (DT) Muon Chamber was tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) using a muon beam. A Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) was attached to the top of the DT chamber, and, for the first time, both detectors were operated coupled together. The performance of the DT chamber was studied for several operating conditions, and for gamma rates similar to the ones expected at LHC. In this paper we present the data analysis; the results are considered fully satisfactory.

  1. Sensitive technique for detecting outer defect on tube with remote field eddy current testing

    Kobayashi, Noriyasu; Nagai, Satoshi; Ochiai, Makoto; Jimbo, Noboru; Komai, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    In the remote field eddy current testing, we proposed the method of enhancing the magnetic flux density in the vicinity of an exciter coil by controlling the magnetic flux direction for increasing the sensitivity of detecting outer defects on a tube and used the flux guide made of a magnetic material for the method. The optimum structural shape of the flux guide was designed by the magnetic field analysis. On the experiment with the application of the flux guide, the magnetic flux density increased by 59% and the artificial defect detection signal became clear. We confirmed the proposed method was effective in a high sensitivity. (author)

  2. Limits to the Recognizability of Flaws in Non-Destructive Testing Steam-Generator Tubes for Nuclear-Power Plants

    Kuhlmann, A.; Adamsky, F.-J.

    1965-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there are nuclear reactors under construction with steam generators inside the reactor pressure-vessel. As a result design repairs of steam- generator tubes are very difficult and cause large shut-down times of the nuclear-power plant. It is known that numerous troubles in operating conventional power plants are results of steam-generator tube damages. Because of the high total costs of these reactors it. is necessary to construct the steam generators especially in such a manner that the load factor of the power plant is as high as possible. The Technischer Überwachungs-Verein Rheinland was charged to supervise and to test fabrication and construction of the steam generators to see that this part of the plant was as free of defects as possible. The experience gained during this work is of interest for manufacture and construction of steam generators for nuclear-power plants in general. This paper deals with the efficiency limits of non-destructive testing steam-generator tubes. The following tests performed will be discussed in detail: (a) Automatic ultrasonic testing of the straight tubes in the production facility; (b) Combined ultrasonic and radiographic testing of the bent tubes and tube weldings; (c) Other non-destructive tests. (author) [fr

  3. Influence of the centrifuge time of primary plasma tubes on routine coagulation testing.

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Manzato, Franco; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2007-07-01

    Preparation of blood specimens is a major bottleneck in the laboratory throughput. Reliable strategies for reducing the time required for specimen processing without affecting quality should be acknowledged, especially for laboratories performing stat analyses. The present investigation was planned to establish a minimal suitable centrifuge time for primary samples collected for routine coagulation testing. Five sequential primary vacuum tubes containing 0.109 mol/l buffered trisodium citrate were collected from 10 volunteers and were immediately centrifuged on a conventional centrifuge at 1500 x g, at room temperature for 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 min, respectively. Hematological and routine coagulation testing, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen, were performed. The centrifugation time was inversely associated with residual blood cell elements in plasma, especially platelets. Statistically significant variations from the reference 15-min centrifuge specimens were observed for fibrinogen in samples centrifuged for 5 min at most and for the activated partial thromboplastin time in samples centrifuged for 2 min at most. Meaningful biases related to the desirable bias were observed for fibrinogen in samples centrifuged for 2 min at most, and for the activated partial thromboplastin time in samples centrifuged for 1 min at most. According to our experimental conditions, a 5-10 min centrifuge time at 1500 x g may be suitable for primary tubes collected for routine coagulation testing.

  4. Code Assessment of SPACE 2.19 using LSTF Steam Generator Tube Rupture Test

    Kim, Minhee; Kim, Seyun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The SPACE is a best estimated two-phase three-field thermal-hydraulic analysis code used to analyze the safety and performance of pressurized water reactors. As a result of the development, the 2.19 version of the code was released through the successive various verification and validation works. The present work is on the line of expanding the work by Kim et al. In this study, results produced by the SPACE 2.19 code were compared with the experimental data from JAERI's LSTF Test Run LSTF SB-SG-06 experiment simulating a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) transient. In order to identify the predictability of SPACE 2.19, the LSTF steam generator tube rupture test was simulated. To evaluate the computed results, LSTF SB-SG-06 test data simulating the SGTR and the RELAP5/ MOD3.1 are used. The calculation results indicate that the SPACE 2.19 code predicted well the sequence of events and the major phenomena during the transient, such as the asymmetric loop behavior, reactor coolant system cooldown and heat transfer by natural circulation, the primary and secondary system depressurization by the pressurizer auxiliary spray and the steam dump using the intact loop steam generator relief valve.

  5. QuantiFERON–TB Gold In-Tube test performance in Denmark

    Hermansen, Thomas; Lillebaek, Troels; Hansen, Ann-Brit E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT) in extreme age groups. The test performance has been reported to be impaired in children and elderly, but reports are diverging. The aim of this study was to evaluate QFT performance in patients with and without......, the overall QFT performance was good. The sensitivity in children (≥ 1) was high although few children were included, whereas sensitivity declined with increasing age. Indeterminate rates were higher in infants and elderly. In contrast to current guidelines, our data suggest that the QFT performs well...... in children ≥ 1 years in low endemic regions but that the test should be used with care among the elderly....

  6. Development and testing of matrices for the encapsulation of glass and ceramic nuclear waste forms

    Wald, J.W.; Brite, D.W.; Gurwell, W.E.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Bunnell, L.R.; Gray, W.J.; Blair, H.T.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    This report details the results of research on the matrix encapsulation of high level wastes at PML over the past few years. The demonstrations and tests described were designed to illustrate how the waste materials are effected when encapsulated in an inert matrix. Candidate materials evaluated for potential use as matrices for encapslation of pelletized ceramics or glass marbles were categorized into four groups: metals, glasses, ceramics, and graphite. Two processing techniques, casting and hot pressing, were investigated as the most promising methods of formation or densification of the matrices. The major results reported deal with the development aspects. However, chemical durability tests (leach tests) of the matrix materials themselves and matrix-waste form composites are also reported. Matrix waste forms can provide a low porosity, waste-free barrier resulting in increased leach protection, higher impact strength and improved thermal conductivity compared to unencapsulated glass or ceramic waste materials. Glass marbles encapsulated in a lead matrix offer the most significant improvement in waste form stability of all combinations evaluated. This form represents a readily demonstrable process that provides high thermal conductivity, mechanical shock resistance, radiation shielding and increased chemical durability through both a chemical passivation mechanism and as a physical barrier. Other durable matrix waste forms evaluated, applicable primarily to ceramic pellets, involved hot-pressed titanium or TiO 2 materials. In the processing of these forms, near 100% dense matrices were obtained. The matrix materials had excellent compatibility with the waste materials and superior potential chemical durability. Cracking of the hot-pressed ceramic matrix forms, in general, prevented the realization of their optimum properties

  7. Application of automatic inspection system to nondestructive test of heat transfer tubes of primary pressurized water cooler in the high temperature engineering test reactor. Joint research

    Takeda, Takeshi; Furusawa, Takayuki

    2001-07-01

    Heat transfer tubes of a primary pressurized water cooled (PPWC) in the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) form the reactor pressure boundary of the primary coolant, therefore are important from the viewpoint of safety. To establish inspection techniques for the heat transfer tubes of the PPWC, an automatic inspection system was developed. The system employs a bobbin coil probe, a rotating probe for eddy current testing (ECT) and a rotating probe for ultrasonic testing (UT). Nondestructive test of a half of the heat transfer tubes of the PPWC was carried out by the automatic inspection system during reactor shutdown period of the HTTR (about 55% in the maximum reactor power in this paper). The nondestructive test results showed that the maximum signal-to-noise ratio was 1.8 in ECT. Pattern and phase of Lissajous wave, which were obtained for the heat transfer tube of the PPWC, were different from those obtained for the artificially defected tube. In UT echo amplitude of the PPWC tubes inspected was lower than 20% of distance-amplitude calibration curve. Thus, it was confirmed that there was no defect in depth, which was more than the detecting standard of the probes, on the outer surface of the heat transfer tubes of the PPWC inspected. (author)

  8. DATA SUMMARY REPORT SMALL SCALE MELTER TESTING OF HLW ALGORITHM GLASSES MATRIX1 TESTS VSL-07S1220-1 REV 0 7/25/07

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    Eight tests using different HLW feeds were conducted on the DM100-BL to determine the effect of variations in glass properties and feed composition on processing rates and melter conditions (off-gas characteristics, glass processing, foaming, cold cap, etc.) at constant bubbling rate. In over seven hundred hours of testing, the property extremes of glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, and T{sub 1%}, as well as minimum and maximum concentrations of several major and minor glass components were evaluated using glass compositions that have been tested previously at the crucible scale. Other parameters evaluated with respect to glass processing properties were +/-15% batching errors in the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs) to the feed, and variation in the sources of boron and sodium used in the GFCs. Tests evaluating batching errors and GFC source employed variations on the HLW98-86 formulation (a glass composition formulated for HLW C-106/AY-102 waste and processed in several previous melter tests) in order to best isolate the effect of each test variable. These tests are outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to the Test Specification for this work. The present report provides summary level data for all of the tests in the first test matrix (Matrix 1) in the Test Plan. Summary results from the remaining tests, investigating minimum and maximum concentrations of major and minor glass components employing variations on the HLW98-86 formulation and glasses generated by the HLW glass formulation algorithm, will be reported separately after those tests are completed. The test data summarized herein include glass production rates, the type and amount of feed used, a variety of measured melter parameters including temperatures and electrode power, feed sample analysis, measured glass properties, and gaseous emissions rates. More detailed information and analysis from the melter tests with complete emission chemistry, glass durability, and

  9. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de proceso de sellado de capsulas para probetas de vigilancia de la vasija en nucleoelectricas

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R. [ININ, Km 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  10. Non-destructive testing of high pressure fibre reinforced composites tubes by computed tomography

    Klimek, L. [Qualitaetszentrum Dortmund (Germany); Monstadt, H.; Boedecker, T. [EFMT, Bochum (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    For new applications of fibre reinforced composites, new non-destructive testing methods are required which on the one hand can be used as a quality testing method and on the other hand as an in-service inspection method during the life of a product. Special attention should be paid to the defect sensitivity and to a detailed classification of visible defects. Defining a detectable standard, comparable investigations were carried out using the Ultra Fast Scanner which is located at the Entwicklungs- und Forschungszentrum fuer Mikrotherapie gGmbH (EFMT) and the industrial scanner of the Qualitaetszentrum Dortmund GmbH u. Co. KG (QZ-DO). The investigation object is a high pressure tube which is made up of three different diameter structures. There can be distinguished between three types of tube layers. Digital image processing has been used to get more information form measured data. We developed two different types of digital image filters: A SIGMA and a Contrast Sensitive Weights (CSW) image filter and made a comparative study. (orig./RHM)

  11. A Simple Test Tube-Based ELISA Experiment for the High-School Classroom*

    Brokaw, Ann; Cobb, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Immunology is gaining prominence both in the media as well as on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in Biology. One of the challenges of teaching modern biological topics such as immunology and biochemistry in the high-school setting is the increased reliance on expensive technology in the research world. To begin to bridge this widening gap, we devised an experiment using a novel macroscale enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that is suitable for AP-level high-school biology classrooms as well as entry-level collegiate laboratories. This novel method does not require a plate reader for data analysis, but instead relies on more common and inexpensive equipment such as a clinical test tube centrifuge and a simple test tube spectrophotometer. The experimental plan focuses on students measuring antibody concentrations in “unknown” samples and includes the collection and analysis of a standard curve using reagents prepared by the instructor. Students will be introduced to enzyme action, quantitative laboratory technique, antibodies, and the immune system, with the overall goal being to explore and highlight the inherent connections within the fields of biochemistry and immunology. PMID:20689684

  12. Cumulative damage fatigue tests on nuclear reactor Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes at room temperature and 3000C

    Pandarinathan, P.R.; Vasudevan, P.

    1980-01-01

    Cumulative damage fatigue tests were conducted on the Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes at room temperature and 300 0 C on the modified Moore type, four-point-loaded, deflection-controlled, rotating bending fatigue testing machine. The cumulative cycle ratio at fracture for the Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes was found to depend on the sequence of loading, stress history, number of cycles of application of the pre-stress and the test temperature. A Hi-Lo type fatigue loading was found to be very much damaging at room temperature and this feature was not observed in the tests at 300 0 C. Results indicate significant differences in damage interaction and damage propagation under cumulative damage tests at room temperature and at 300 0 C. Block-loading fatigue tests are suggested as the best method to determine the life-time of Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes under random fatigue loading during their service in the reactor. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of the mechanical properties of silica glasses by indentation tests

    Juhasz, A. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Voeroes, G. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Tasnadi, P. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Kovacs, I. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Somogyi, I. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary) Brody Research Center, G.E. Tungsram, Budapest (Hungary)); Szoellosi, J. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary) Brody Research Center, G.E. Tungsram, Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-11-01

    Soda lime silica glasses were investigated by continuous indentation tests. The load indentation depth curves were taken during the loading as well as the unloading period by a computer controlled MTS machine. It was found that the loading force is a quadratic function of the indentation depth during both the loading and unloading stage of the deformation. The validity of the quadratic relationship in the case of the unloading stage seems to be characteristic only for glasses. Taking into account the elastic relaxation of the indentation depth an estimation is given for the size of the hydrostatic core which is necessary to symmetrize the stress field around the indenter. Using the measured length of the radial cracks started from the corners of the Vickers indentation pattern the K[sub IC] values were calculated. (orig.).

  14. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  15. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs

  16. Fever in the test tube--towards a human(e) pyrogen test.

    Schindler, Stephanie; Fennrich, Stefan; Crameri, Reto; Jungi, Thomas W; Montag, Thomas; Hartung, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The human whole blood IL-1 test exploits the reaction of monocytes/macrophages for the detection of pyrogens: human whole blood taken from healthy volunteers is incubated in the presence of the test sample in any form, be it a solution, a powder or even solid material. Pyrogenic contaminations initiate the release of the "endogenous pyrogen" Interleukin-1beta determined by ELISA after incubation. In order to understand any differences between the pyrogenic activity in this test and the existing live rabbit test (species differences versus aberrant response of the particular blood sample), the rabbit whole blood test was developed. This approach could also help to avoid the use of putatively infectious human blood for pyrogen testing in vitro.

  17. 全玻璃真空管太阳能阵列供暖系统性能试验%Experiment on performance of all-glass vacuum tube solar array heating system

    李金平; 孔莹; 许哲; 司泽田

    2017-01-01

    As a kind of conversion device of solar energy, the solar collector is the most important part of the solar heating system. Among various solar collectors, all-glass vacuum tube solar collector is regarded as more favourable than other collectors in both technical and economic perspectives, so domestic and foreign experts have studied several aspects of it. But the current studies usually focus on the heating performance of the solar system during the whole heating season and the influence factors of the collecting efficiency of the all-glass vacuum tube solar collector, and there is barely research on the hourly and dynamic heating performance of solar heating system in a monomer building under different operating ways. With the purpose of studying the above problems, an all-glass tube solar heating system is fabricated on a monomer building, combined with a low-temperature floor radiation heating. The system is composed of 6 groups of standpipe all-glass vacuum tube solar collectors which have uniform structure parameters, a low-temperature floor radiation heating device, a circulating pump, a valve, a conductor and other accessories. Every group of solar collector comprises 40 all-glass vacuum tubes with the external diameter of 58 mm and the length of 1800 mm, and a storage tank with the volume of 400 L, which is installed on a rack with an angle of 45° facing south. The contour aperture area of solar collector is about 3.85 m2, so the total contour aperture area of the array is about 23.1 m2. The monomer building locates in Minqin County, Gansu Province, China. Its building area is 117 m2 and actual heating area is 87 m2. The operation mode of system is as follows: Daily 17:30-23:00 is set to be heating time; during this period, the controller controls the water pump to circulate hot water at a constant flow rate, stop for 5 min every operating for 8 min. In the experiment, the values of various parameters, such as the solar irradiance, the inlet and outlet

  18. Design and fabrication of hafnium tube to control the power of the irradiation test fuel in HANARO

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H

    2003-05-01

    For the irradiation test at HANARO, non-instrumentation capsule was manufactured and hafnium tube was used to control LHGR of HANARO. Hafnium tube can control the irradiation condition of HANARO similar to that of commercial reactor. Hafnium tube thickness was determined by the LHGR calculated at OR-4 irradiation hole to be installed the non-instrumented capsule. To fabricate the hafnium tube with hafnium plate, the fabrication method was determined by using the hafnium mechanical properties. And the tensile strength of hafnium was confirmed by tensile test. This report is confirmed the LHGR control at the OR-4 and the Hafnium fabrication for in used which the AFPCAP non-instrumented irradiation capsule.

  19. Computer control in nondestructive testing illustrated by an automatic ultrasonic tube inspection system

    Gundtoft, H.E.; Nielsen, N.

    1976-06-01

    In Risoe's automatic tube inspection system, data (more than half a million per tube) from ultrasonic dimension measurements and defect inspections are fed into a computer that simultaneously calculates and evaluates the results. (author)

  20. GERDA test facility for pressurized water reactors with straight tube steam generators

    Ahrens, G.; Haury, G.; Lahner, K.; Schatz, A.

    1983-01-01

    A number of large-scale experimental facilities have been constructed and operate in order to experiment on the thermodynamic and thermohydraulic behaviour of nuclear facilities in case of LOCA. Most of them were designed for ''large leak'' accidents, but as ''small leak'' accidents became the focus of interest, such experiments were also carried out. Experiments carried out with this arrangement for PWR-type reactors with straight-tube steam generators are only partially evaluable. BBR and B and W therefore cooperated in the construction of the test facility GERDA, designed for testing reactors of BBR design. It supplied relevant experimental results for the nuclear power plant at Muelheim-Kaerlich. (orig.) [de

  1. Ferrocyanide safety program: Final report on adiabatic calorimetry and tube propagation tests with synthetic ferrocyanide materials

    Fauske, H.F.; Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Based on Fauske and Associates, Inc. Reactive System Screening Tool tests, the onset or initiation temperature for a ferrocyanide-nitrate propagating reaction is about 250 degrees Celcius. This is at about 200 degrees Celcius higher than current waste temperatures in the highest temperature ferrocyanide tanks. Furthermore, for current ambient waste temperatures, the tube propagation tests show that a ferrocyanide concentration of 15.5 wt% or more is required to sustain a propagation reaction in the complete absence of free water. Ignoring the presence of free water, this finding rules out propagating reactions for all the Hanford flowsheet materials with the exception of the ferrocyanide waste produced by the original In Farm flowsheet

  2. A standardized procedure for eddy-current testing of stainless steel, thin-walled nuclear fuel element cladding tubes

    Barat, P.; Raj, B.; Bhattacharya, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thin-walled nuclear fuel cladding tubes made of AISI 316 stainless steel have been examined by eddy-current testing. Standardization of the procedures has required investigations on optimizing the test frequency, finding a method to locate a defect with respect to the probe reference end, and the use of standard defects and sequential metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing, to understand the influence of the nature of defects on the impedance output signals. Test frequency and method of locating the defect were optimized by the use of standard defects made by machining in reference cladding tubes. Subsequent metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing revealed mainly clusters of inclusions but also other types of defects. The effect of the distribution of inclusions along the length of the tube on the impedance output is discussed. (author)

  3. Standardized procedure for eddy-current testing of stainless steel, thin-walled nuclear fuel element cladding tubes

    Barat, P; Raj, B; Bhattacharya, D K [Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India)

    1982-10-01

    Thin-walled nuclear fuel cladding tubes made of AISI 316 stainless steel have been examined by eddy-current testing. Standardization of the procedures has required investigations on optimizing the test frequency, finding a method to locate a defect with respect to the probe reference end, and the use of standard defects and sequential metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing, to understand the influence of the nature of defects on the impedance output signals. Test frequency and method of locating the defect were optimized by the use of standard defects made by machining in reference cladding tubes. Subsequent metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing revealed mainly clusters of inclusions but also other types of defects. The effect of the distribution of inclusions along the length of the tube on the impedance output is discussed.

  4. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat

  5. Decreases in blood ethanol concentrations during storage at 4 °C for 12 months were the same for specimens kept in glass or plastic tubes

    A.W. Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stability of ethanol was investigated in blood specimens in glass or plastic evacuated tubes after storage in a refrigerator at 4 °C for up to 12 months. Methods: Sterile blood, from a local hospital, was divided into 50 mL portions and spiked with aqueous ethanol (10% w/v to give target concentrations of 0.20, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 g/L. Ethanol was determined in blood by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC with an analytical imprecision of <3% (coefficient of variation, CV%. Aliquots of blood were re-analysed after 2, 7, 14, 28, 91, 182 and 364 days of storage at 4 °C. Results: The standard deviation (SD of analysis by HS-GC was 0.0059 g/L at 0.20 g/L and 0.0342 g/L at 3.00 g/L, corresponding to CVs of 2.9% and 1.1%, respectively. The decreases in blood ethanol content were analytically significant after 14–28 days of storage for both glass and plastic tubes The mean (lowest and highest loss of ethanol after 12 months storage was 0.111 g/L (0.084–0.129 g/L for glass tubes and 0.112 g/L (0.088–0.140 g/L for plastic tubes. The corresponding percentage losses of ethanol were 43–45% at a starting concentration of 0.20 g/L and 3.9–4.1% at 3.00 g/L. Conclusion: The concentration of ethanol in blood gradually decreases during storage at 4 °C. After 12 months storage the absolute decrease in concentration was ~0.11 g/L when the starting concentration ranged from 0.20 to 3.0 g/L. Decreases in ethanol content were the same for specimens kept in glass or plastic evacuated tubes. Keywords: Alcohol, Analysis, Blood, Ethanol stability, Plastic vs glass tubes, Storage conditions

  6. Development and validation of a simulation tool dedicated to eddy current non destructive testing of tubes

    Reboud, Ch.

    2006-09-01

    Eddy current testing (ECT) technique is widely used in industrial fields such as iron and steel industry. Dedicated simulation tools provide a great assistance for the optimisation of ECT processes. CEA and the Vallourec Research Center have collaborated in order to develop a simulation tool of ECT of tubes. The volume integral method has been chosen for the resolution of Maxwell equations in a stratified medium, in order to get accurate results with a computation time short enough to carry out optimisation or inversion procedures. A fast model has been developed for the simulation of ECT of non magnetic tubes using specific external probes. New flaw geometries have been modelled: holes and notches with flat bottom. Validations of the developments, which have been integrated to the CIVA platform, have been carried out using experimental data recorded in laboratory conditions and in. industrial conditions, successively. The integral equations derived are solved using the Galerkin variant of the method of moments with pulse functions as projection functions. In order to overcome some memory limitations, other projection functions have been considered. A new discretization scheme based on non-uniform B-Splines of degree 1 or 2 has been implemented, which constitutes an original contribution to the existing literature. The decrease of the mesh size needed to get a given accuracy on the result may lead to the simulation of more complex ECT configurations. (author)

  7. Fabrication and characterization of MCC [Materials Characterization Center] approved testing material---ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 glasses

    Wald, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    Materials Characterization Center glasses ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 are designed to simulate high-level waste glasses that are likely to result from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuels. The three Approved Testing Materials (ATMs) are borosilicate glasses based upon the MCC-76-68 glass composition. One radioisotope was added to form each ATM. The radioisotopes added to form ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 were 241 Am, 237 Np, and 239 Pu, respectively. Each of the ATM lots was produced in a nominal lot size of 450 g from feed stock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1200/degree/C in a platinum crucible. Each ATM was then cast into bars. Analyzed compositions of these glasses are listed. The nonradioactive elements were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP), and the radioisotope analyses were done by alpha energy analysis. Results are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiographic testing methods for welds of thin titanium plates and thin wall tubes

    1984-01-01

    This standard stipulates the testing method by X-ray radiography for the welded parts of titanium plates and titanium tubes with thickness not exceeding 8 mm. The other items than those stipulated here shall be in accordance with JIS Z 3107-1973 ''Testing method by radiography for the welded part of titanium and method of grade classification of radiographs''. As the photographing method of radiographs, the performance of the equipment and materials for testing, the direction of X-ray irradiation, the thickness of parent materials and welds, the use of penetrameters, the arrangement for photographing, the requirement for radiographs and the observation of radiographs are specified. The X-ray apparatuses, photo-sensitive materials and the tools for photographing and observation must be such that the radiographs clearly showing the defects in the welds being tested can be taken or observed. The JIS Z 3107 is insufficient for the test of thin materials like titanium, therefore, this standard was set down. As the thickness of welds, the thickness of parent materials was taken. In this standard, the titanium penetrameters were adopted because they can be made and they conform to practical state. If magnified photographing is carried out with microfocus X-ray apparatuses, precise photographing can be made. (Kako, I.)

  10. Improvement of ISI techniques by multi-frequency eddy current testing method for steam generator tube in PWR plant

    Endo, Takashi; Kamimura, Takeo; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Araki, Yasuo; Fukui, Shigetaka.

    1982-05-01

    Eddy current flaw detection techniques are applied to the in-service inspection (ISI) of steam generator tubes in pressurized water reactors (PWR) plant. To improve the reliability and operating efficiency of the plants, efforts are being made to develop eddy current testing methods of various kinds. Multi-frequency eddy current testing method, one of new method, has recently been applied to actual heat exchanger tubes, contributing to the improvement of the detectability and signal evaluation of the ISI. The outline of multi-frequency eddy current testing method and its effects on the improvement of flaw detecting and signal evaluation accuracy are described. (author)

  11. Basophil activation test: food challenge in a test tube or specialist research tool?

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold-standard to diagnose food allergy; however, it is a labour and resource-intensive procedure with the risk of causing an acute allergic reaction, which is potentially severe. Therefore, OFC are reserved for cases where the clinical history and the results of skin prick test and/or specific IgE do not confirm or exclude the diagnosis of food allergy. This is a significant proportion of patients seen in Allergy clinics and results in a high demand for OFC. The basophil activation test (BAT) has emerged as a new diagnostic test for food allergy. With high diagnostic accuracy, it can be particularly helpful in the cases where skin prick test and specific IgE are equivocal and may allow reducing the need for OFC. BAT has high specificity, which confers a high degree of certainty in confirming the diagnosis of food allergy and allows deferring the performance of OFC in patients with a positive BAT. The diagnostic utility of BAT is allergen-specific and needs to be validated for different allergens and in specific patient populations. Standardisation of the laboratory methodology and of the data analyses would help to enable a wider clinical application of BAT.

  12. Audiometric Testing Guideline Adherence in Children Undergoing Tympanostomy Tubes: A Population-Based Study.

    Beyea, Jason A; Rosen, Emily; Stephens, Trina; Nguyen, Paul; Hall, Stephen F

    2018-02-01

    Objective Tympanostomy tube (TT) insertion is the most common ambulatory surgery performed on children. American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Founda-tion (AAO-HNSF) Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) recommend hearing testing for all pediatric TT candidates. The aim of this study was to assess audiometric testing in this population. Study Design Retrospective population-based cohort study. Setting All hospitals in the Canadian province of Ontario. Subjects and Methods All patients 12 years of age and younger who underwent at least 1 TT procedure between January 1993 and June 2016. The primary outcomes were the percentage of patients who underwent a hearing test within 1 year before and/or 1 year after surgery. Results A total of 316,599 bilateral TT procedures were performed during the study period (1993 to 2016). Presurgical hearing tests increased from 55.7% to 74.9%, and postsurgical hearing tests increased from 42.2% to 68.9%. Younger surgeons demonstrated a greater adherence to the CPGs (relative risk [RR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08-1.38; P = .001). Remarkably, there was not a spike in preoperative hearing tests following the introduction of the CPGs in 2013 (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.85-1.47; P = .432). Presurgical hearing testing ranged from 26.1% to 83.5% across health regions. Conclusion In this cohort of children who underwent TT placement, the trends of preoperative and postoperative audiometric testing are increasing but are still lower than recommended by the CPGs, despite a tripling of practicing audiologists. This study describes the current state of testing in Ontario and highlights issues of access to audiology services, possible parent preferences, and the importance of ongoing continuing medical education for all health care practitioners.

  13. Development of intelligent Eddy Current Testing (ECT) system for PWR steam generator tube inspection

    Kawata, K.; Kawase, N.; Kurokawa, M.; Asada, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The intelligent ECT system was developed for the inspection of heat transfer tubes of the steam generator of the PWR plant. It consists of intelligent probe, data acquisition unit and data analysis system. The probe combines 24 channels inclined lay out drive coils and thin film pick-up coils with built-in electric circuits to provide high inspection capability equivalent to rotating coil ECT and high-speed inspection equivalent to conventional bobbin coil ECT. The advanced data analysis system that has filtering and automatic analysis functions is also developed to enable fast and precise analysis of large volume inspection data. The system was qualified by confirmation tests in FY 2003 to show thinned thickness sizing accuracy within ± 5%. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Time-lapse cinematography of the capillary tube cell migration inhibition test.

    Bray, M A

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of human and guinea pig cell migration inhibition have been studied using time-lapse cinematography of cells migrating from capillary tubes. Guinea pig and human cells exhibit markedly different kinetics in the absence of inhibitors. Specific antigen causes a dose-related inhibition of migration for up to 60 h using guinea pig cells and a peak of inhibition after 18 h using the human leucocyte system. The timing of measurement of maximum activity more critical for the latter test. The kinetics of lymphokine generation have been examined and the migration inhibitory activity of the plant mitogen (PHA), a Kurloff cell product and a continuous cell line supernatant have been compared with the inhibitory profiles of lymphokine preparations and specific antigen.

  15. Darwin's concepts in a test tube: parallels between organismal and in vitro evolution.

    Díaz Arenas, Carolina; Lehman, Niles

    2009-02-01

    The evolutionary process as imagined by Darwin 150 years ago is evident not only in nature but also in the manner in which naked nucleic acids and proteins experience the "survival of the fittest" in the test tube during in vitro evolution. This review highlights some of the most apparent evolutionary patterns, such as directional selection, purifying selection, disruptive selection, and iterative evolution (recurrence), and draws parallels between what happens in the wild with whole organisms and what happens in the lab with molecules. Advances in molecular selection techniques, particularly with catalytic RNAs and DNAs, have accelerated in the last 20 years to the point where soon any sort of complex differential hereditary event that one can ascribe to natural populations will be observable in molecular populations, and exploitation of these events can even lead to practical applications in some cases.

  16. Comparison of manual mycobacteria growth indicator tube and epsilometer test with agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    N Karabulut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antimycobacterial susceptibility tests take weeks, and delayed therapy can lead to spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, rapid, accurate and cost-effective methods are required for proper therapy selection. In this study, the Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT and epsilometer test (Etest methods were compared to the agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility tests against isoniazid (INH, rifampin (RIF, streptomycin (STM and ethambutol (ETM of 51 M. tuberculosis complex isolates were analyzed by the MGIT, Etest and agar proportion methods. Results: The concordance between MGIT/Etest and agar proportion methods was 98% for INH and 100% for RIF, STM, ETM. There were not statistically significant differences in results of the susceptibility tests between MGIT/Etest and the reference agar proportion method. Conclusion: The results have shown that MGIT and Etest methods can be used instead of the agar proportion method, because these two methods are more rapid and easier than the agar proportion method.

  17. Verification of neutron pad and 17 x 7 guide tube designs by preoperational tests on the Trojan I power plant

    Bloyd, C.N.; Singleton, N.R.; Ciaramitaro, W.

    1976-05-01

    The internals vibration measurement program carried out on the Trojan-1 reactor during preoperational testing is described. The flow induced response of a 17 x 17 guide tube and the neutron pad core barrel were deduced from the plant test data and compared with the expected responses. The results showed good agreement with expected vibration levels

  18. Testing of the effect of the entry beam tube windows of the silicon detectors of the ionisation radiation

    Kopestansky, J.; Tykva, R.; Stanek, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with testing of the entry beam tube windows of the silicon detectors of the ionisation radiation with surface barrier.The influence of the parameters of basic material and modified technologic preparation on the size and homogeneity of the windows was tested

  19. Some problems in the technique of high-voltage testing of the accelerating tube gaps in electrostatic accelerators

    Romanov, V.A.; Ivanov, V.V.; Mukhametshin, V.I.; Dmitriev, E.P.; Kidalov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Problems arising during high-voltage testing and training of accelerating taubes of electrostatic accelrators are discussed. A rig and technique of the accelerating tube testing and program designed for the processing of the data obtained and sorting out of the samples investigated are described

  20. Study of tensile test behavior of austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes in cold worked condition

    Terui, Clarice, E-mail: clarice.terui@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CINA/CTMSP), Iperó, SP (Brazil). Centro Industrial Nuclear da Marinha; Lima, Nelson B. de, E-mail: nblima@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    These austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes are potential candidates to be used in fuel elements of nuclear power plants (as PWR - Pressurized Water Reactor). So, their metallurgical condition and mechanical properties, as the tensile strength and yield strength, normally are very restrict in demanding project and design requirements. Several full size tensile tests at room temperature and high temperature (315 deg C) were performed in these seamless tubes in cold-worked condition. The results of specified tensile and yield strengths were achieved but the elongation of the tube, in the geometry of the component, could not be measured at high temperature due to unconventional mode of rupture (helical mode without separation of parts). The average value of elongation was obtained from stress-strain curves of hot tensile tests and was around 5%. The results obtained in this research show that this behavior of the full size tensile test samples of thin-walled tube (wall thickness less than 0.5 mm) in high temperature (315°C) is due to the combination of the manufacturing process, the material (crystallographic structure and chemical composition) and the final geometry of the component. In other words, the strong crystallographic texture of material induced by tube drawing process in addition with the geometry of the component are responsible for the behavior in hot uniaxial tensile tests. (author)

  1. Simulated body-fluid tests and electrochemical investigations on biocompatibility of metallic glasses

    Lin, C.H.; Huang, C.H.; Chuang, J.F.; Lee, H.C.; Liu, M.C.; Du, X.H.; Huang, J.C.; Jang, J.S.C.; Chen, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the in-vitro and electrochemical investigations of four metallic glasses (MGs) for finding potential MG-based bio-materials. The simulation body-fluid Hanks solution is utilized for testing the corrosion resistance of MGs, and microorganisms of Escherichia coli are used in testing the bio-toxicity. In addition, a simple cyclic voltammetry method is used for rapid verification of the potential electrochemical responses. It is found that the Zr-based MG can sustain in the body-fluid, exhibiting the best corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability. The microbiologic test shows that E. coli can grow on the surface of the Zr-based metallic glass, confirming the low cell toxicity of this Zr-based MG. Highlights: ► Vanadium is added in Cu–Zr–Al alloy to induce B2-CuZr formation. ► The more induced B2-CuZr phase can improve compressive plasticity. ► The plasticity improvement might be caused by B2 phase dynamic coarsening.

  2. Single Tube Rupture at Cold Side of Steam Generator Simulation Test Report Using the ATLAS

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a postulated SGTR event of the APR1400 was experimentally investigated with the ATLAS. In order to simulate a double-ended rupture of a single U-tube in the APR1400, the SGTR-CL-01 test was performed with the ATLAS. The main objectives of this test were not only to provide a physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the SGTR but also to produce integral effect experimental data to validate the safety analysis code. In the present report, major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Following the reactor trip induced by high steam generator level (HSGL) signal, the primary system pressure decreased and the secondary system pressure increased until the MSSVs was opened. The MSSVs repeated on and off status depending on the secondary system pressure during the whole test period. Due to the break flow, the collapsed water level of the affected steam generator showed milder decrease than that of the intact steam generator. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for a SGTR simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants

  3. Experimental evaluation of emergency operating procedures on multiple steam generator tube rupture in INER integral system test facility

    Liu, T.J.; Lin, Y.M.; Lee, C.H.; Chang, C.Y.; Hong, W.T.

    1997-01-01

    The multiple steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) scenario in Westinghouse type pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been investigated at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) Integral System Test (IIST) facility. This reduced-height and reduced-pressure test facility was designed to simulate the main features of Maanshan nuclear power plant. The SGTR test scenario assumes the double-ended break of one-, two- and six- tubes without other failures. The major operator actions follow the related symptom-oriented Emergency Operating Procedure (EOP) on the reference plant. This study focuses on the investigation of thermal-hydraulics phenomena and the adequacy of associated EOP to limit primary-to-secondary leakage. Through this study, it is found that the adequacy of current EOP in minimizing the radioactivity release demands early substantial operator involvement, especially in the multi-tubes break events. Also, the detailed mechanism of the main thermal-hydraulic phenomena during the SGTR transient are explored. (author)

  4. Hybrid composite laminates reinforced with Kevlar/carbon/glass woven fabrics for ballistic impact testing.

    Randjbaran, Elias; Zahari, Rizal; Jalil, Nawal Aswan Abdul; Majid, Dayang Laila Abang Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  5. Hybrid Composite Laminates Reinforced with Kevlar/Carbon/Glass Woven Fabrics for Ballistic Impact Testing

    Elias Randjbaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  6. Vibration tests on single heat exchanger tubes in air and static water

    Collinson, A.E.; Warneford, I.P.

    1978-07-01

    The vibrational characteristics of a 7 span straight tube and a 26 span U-tube have been investigated for the effects of fluid medium (air/water), tube-grid clearance, tube-grid contact force, vibration transmission and scale. Measured frequency response and mode shapes compared favourably with theoretical values, vibration with pin-pin tube support being most readily excited. The frequency reduction on immersion in water corresponded to an added mass equivalent to the liquid displaced mass. Dynamic magnifiers varied in the range 12 to 135 with mean values of 30 to 40 in water and 45 to 60 in air. Principal vibration modes and damping values were reproducible in a half-scale model of a U-tube. (author)

  7. Multifrequency Eddy current testing of heat exchange tubes with a rotating probe

    Levy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Multi-frequency eddy current analyses have been used in France industrially since 1975. In light of the experienced gained during many steam generator inspections, this technique was applied to the examination of sheet and tube heat exchangers featuring tubes in very different materials such as copper, stainless steel and titanium. The principle of multi-frequency Eddy current inspection is first reviewed, using the example of a condenser with nickel alloy tubes (Inconel, Incoloy). This is followed by the description of a specific application of this technique to a condenser with titanium tubes, analyzed with a rotating local probe [fr

  8. Autobiologies on YouTube: Narratives of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing

    Harris, Anna; Kelly, Susan E.; Wyatt, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing personal genomics market, little is known about how people engage with the possibilities offered by direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing. In order to help address this gap, this study deploys narrative analysis of YouTube videos posted by individuals who have purchased DTC genetic testing for disease. Genetic testing is said to be contributing to new states of illness, where individuals may become “patients-in-waiting.” In the videos analyzed, we found a new form of storytelling about this ambiguous state of illness, which we refer to as autobiology. Autobiology – the study of, and story about, one's own biology – concerns narratives of sense-making through forms of biological practice, as well as wayfaring narratives which interweave genetic markers and family histories of disease. These autobiologies – part of a broader shift toward public stories about genetics and other healthcare technologies – exhibit playfulness, as well as being bound with consumerist practices. PMID:24772003

  9. Sex in a test tube: testing the benefits of in vitro recombination.

    Pesce, Diego; Lehman, Niles; de Visser, J Arjan G M

    2016-10-19

    The origin and evolution of sex, and the associated role of recombination, present a major problem in biology. Sex typically involves recombination of closely related DNA or RNA sequences, which is fundamentally a random process that creates but also breaks up beneficial allele combinations. Directed evolution experiments, which combine in vitro mutation and recombination protocols with in vitro or in vivo selection, have proved to be an effective approach for improving functionality of nucleic acids and enzymes. As this approach allows extreme control over evolutionary conditions and parameters, it also facilitates the detection of small or position-specific recombination benefits and benefits associated with recombination between highly divergent genotypes. Yet, in vitro approaches have been largely exploratory and motivated by obtaining improved end products rather than testing hypotheses of recombination benefits. Here, we review the various experimental systems and approaches used by in vitro studies of recombination, discuss what they say about the evolutionary role of recombination, and sketch their potential for addressing extant questions about the evolutionary role of sex and recombination, in particular on complex fitness landscapes. We also review recent insights into the role of 'extracellular recombination' during the origin of life.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. PDMS/glass microfluidic cell culture system for cytotoxicity tests and cells passage

    Ziolkowska, K.; Jedrych, E.; Kwapiszewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid (PDMS/glass) microfluidic cell culture system (MCCS) integrated with the concentration gradient generator (CGG) is presented. PDMS gas permeability enabled cells' respiration in the fabricated microdevices and excellent glass hydrophilicity allowed successful cells' seeding...

  11. Approximating a free-field blast environment in the test section of an explosively driven conical shock tube

    Stewart, J. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents experimental data on incident overpressures and the corresponding impulses obtained in the test section of an explosively driven 10° (full angle) conical shock tube. Due to the shock tube's steel walls approximating the boundary conditions seen by a spherical sector cut out of a detonating sphere of energetic material, a 5.3-g pentolite shock tube driver charge produces peak overpressures corresponding to a free-field detonation from an 816-g sphere of pentolite. The four test section geometries investigated in this paper (open air, cylindrical, 10° inscribed square frustum, and 10° circumscribed square frustum) provide a variety of different time histories for the incident overpressures and impulses, with a circumscribed square frustum yielding the best approximation of the estimated blast environment that would have been produced by a free-field detonation.

  12. Applicability test of glass lining material for high-temperature acidic solutions of sulfuric acid in thermochemical water-splitting IS process

    Iwatsuki, Jin; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Onuki, Kaoru; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    A key issue for realizing the thermochemical IS process for hydrogen production is the selection of materials for working with high-temperature acidic solutions of sulfuric acid and hydriodic acid. Glass lining material is a promising candidate, which is composed of steel having good strength and glass having good corrosion resistance. Since the applicability of glass lining material depends strongly on the service condition, corrosion tests using glass used in glass lining material and heat cycle tests using glass lining piping were carried out to examine the possibility of using the glass lining material with high-temperature acidic solutions of sulfuric acid. It was confirmed that the glass lining materials exhibited sufficient corrosion resistance and heat resistance in high-temperature sulfuric acid of the IS process. (author)

  13. Tensile testing and damage analysis of woven glass-cloth/epoxy laminates at low temperature

    Kumagai, S.; Shindo, Y.; Horiguchi, K.

    2002-01-01

    In order to evaluate the tensile properties of SL-ES30 glass-cloth/epoxy laminates for superconducting magnets in fusion energy systems, tensile tests were examined both experimentally and analytically. The tensile tests were conducted in accordance with JIS K 7054 at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The general specimen geometry was a rectangular dog-bone shape with constant gage length, but with each specimen size having a different specimen width. The experimental finding provides the data for analytical modeling. The model utilizes two damage variables which are determined from experimental data. A finite element method coupled with damage was adopted for the extensional analysis. The effects of temperature, specimen geometry and gripping method on the tensile properties are examined

  14. Supersonic Panel Flutter Test Results for Flat Fiber-Glass Sandwich Panels with Foamed Cores

    Tuovila, W. J.; Presnell, John G., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    Flutter tests have been made on flat panels having a 1/4 inch-thick plastic-foam core covered with thin fiber-glass laminates. The testing was done in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers from 1.76 t o 2.87. The flutter boundary for these panels was found to be near the flutter boundary of thin metal panels when compared on the basis of an equivalent panel stiffness. The results also demonstrated that the depth of the cavity behind the panel has a pronounced influence on flutter. Changing the cavity depth from 1 1/2 inches to 1/2 inch reduced the dynamic pressure at start of flutter by 40 percent. No flutter was obtained when the spacers on the back of the panel were against the bottom of the cavity.

  15. Fluid-Elastic Instability Tests on Parallel Triangular Tube Bundles with Different Mass Ratio Values under Increasing and Decreasing Flow Velocities

    Xu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of increasing and decreasing flow velocities on the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles, the responses of an elastically mounted tube in a rigid parallel triangular tube bundle with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.67 were tested in a water tunnel subjected to crossflow. Aluminum and stainless steel tubes were tested, respectively. In the in-line and transverse directions, the amplitudes, power spectrum density functions, response frequencies, added mass coefficients, and other results were obtained and compared. Results show that the nonlinear hysteresis phenomenon occurred in both tube bundle vibrations. When the flow velocity is decreasing, the tubes which have been in the state of fluid-elastic instability can keep on this state for a certain flow velocity range. During this process, the response frequencies of the tubes will decrease. Furthermore, the response frequencies of the aluminum tube can decrease much more than those of the stainless steel tube. The fluid-elastic instability constants fitted for these experiments were obtained from experimental data. A deeper insight into the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles was also obtained by synthesizing the results. This study is beneficial for designing and operating equipment with tube bundles inside, as well as for further research on the fluid-elastic instability of tube bundles.

  16. Corrosion tests in Baltic sea water on heat exchanger tubes of various metallic materials

    Henrikson, S.; Knutsson, L.

    1975-05-01

    Seventeen different tube materials have been exposed to continuous and intermittent flow in Baltic Sea water (0.4 % Cl - ) at 50 deg C for a maximum of 15 000 hours. During testing the specimens have been examined at certain intervals. After testing the specimens have been examined visually and metallographically. The following materials were completely resistant: titanium, CuNi30Mn1Fe, Alloy 825 and the austenitic steels Cr18Ni24Mo4.5, Cr20Ni25Mo4.5Cu and Cr24Ni24Mo2Ti. The ferritic-austenitic steels Cr18Ni5Mo2Si and Cr25Ni5Mo1.5 on the other hand, seem to be attacked by local intercrystalline corrosion in the vicinity of the welds. The same type of attack occurs, against expectations, even in the entirely ferritic steels, especially in Cr21Mo3Ti; this attack was however shown to be caused by surface carburization. Admiralty brass (2.5 m/s), aluminium brass (3.0 m/s) and CuNi10Fe1Mn (3.5 m/s) have been attacked by erosion corrosion. The same type of attack, although to a considerably smaller extent, has also been observed for the three aluminium materials (2.5 m/s). (author)

  17. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-01

    In Phase 1 a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347 RA-85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 Ta modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for approximately 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were assembled on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, the probe was installed in the reheater activity of the boiler and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The results will be presented for the preliminary metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 16,000 hours of exposure. Continued metallurgical and interpretive analysis is still on going.

  18. Mechanical Tests Plan after Neutron Irradiation for SMART SG Tube Materials in a Hot Cell

    Ahn, Sang Bok; Baik, Seung Jai; Kim, Do Sik; Yoo, Byung Ok; Jung, Yang Hong; Song, Woong Sub; Choo, Kee Nam; Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Yong Sun; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2010-01-01

    An advanced integral PWR, SMART (System- Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is being developed in KAERI. It has compact size and a relatively small power rating compared to a conventional reactor. The main components such as the steam generators, main circulation pumps are located in the reactor vessel. Therefore they are damaged from neutron irradiations generated from nuclear fuel fissions during operation. The SMART SG tubes which are 17 mm in a diameter and 2.5 mm in a thickness will be made of Alloy 690. To ensure the operation safety the post irradiation examinations is necessary to evaluate the deterioration levels of various original properties. Specially the amount of mechanical properties change should be reflected and revised to design data. For that tensile, fracture, hardness test are planned and under preparations. In this paper the detailed plans are reviewed. Three kinds of materials having different heat treatment procedures are prepared to fabricate specimens. The capsules installed the specimens are going to be irradiated in HANARO. Finally the tests for them will be performed in IMEF, Irradiated Materials Examination Facility at KAERI

  19. Atmospheres in a Test Tube: state of the art at the Astronomical Observatory of Padova.

    Erculiani, M. S.; Claudi, R.; Cocola, L.; Giro, E.; La Rocca, N.; Morosinotto, T.; Poletto, L.; Barbisan, D.; Billi, D.; Bonato, M.; D'Alessandro, M.; Galletta, G.; Meneghini, M.; Trivellin, N.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Pace, E.; Schierano, D.; Micela, G.

    At the Astronomical observatory of Padova we are trying to answer some questions about the detectability of biosignatures in the exoplanetary atmospheres, working in the framework of the project Atmosphere in a Test Tube. In particular we are investigating how the presence of photosynthetic biota living on the surface of a planet orbiting in the HZ of an M type star may modify the atmospheric gas abundances. This can be achieved in laboratory with an environmental simulator called MINI - LISA. The simulator allows to modify the temperature and the pressure inside a test chamber, where a selected population of photosynthetic bacteria is arranged. We'll focalize our experiments on the following bacteria: Acaryochloris marina, Halomicronema hongdechloris, Leptolyngbya sp.1 and Chlorogloeopsis fritschii. The first two bacteria are naturally provided with NIR light metabolizers, like Chl-d and Chl-f, while the last two can develop such pigments if grown in NIR light. The experiment will lead us to obtain useful data to be compared with the ones expected either by the future space missions (JWST, ARIEL) and ground based new instrumentation (SPHERE@VLT; GPI@GEMINI; PCS@E-ELT). In this talk we discuss the layout of the experiment and its state of art.

  20. Fragmentation of Solid Materials Using Shock Tubes. Part 2: First Test Series in a Large Diameter Shock Tube

    2017-12-01

    series used improved experimental techniques to reduce obscuration due to smoke and fire which, again, increased the number of observed fragments (iii...minimally-reinforced concrete masonry unit (CMU) wall, and one 8-ft x 8-ft reinforced concrete panel, each carefully fabricated and mounted to replicate...develops a vertical compressive force that resists horizontal flexure. Figure 4. A view of CMU sample set-up used in Test 20. 6 Figure 5

  1. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  2. Final Report - Enhanced LAW Glass Formulation Testing, VSL-07R1130-1, Rev. 0, dated 10/05/07

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of this work was to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work [2, 5, 6] for Envelope A, B and C waste compositions for development of compliant glass compositions targeting five high sodium-sulfur waste loading regions. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, and tests on the DM10 melter system. The DM10 was used for several previous tests on LAW compositions to determine the maximum feed sulfur concentrations that can be processed without forming secondary sulfate phases on the surface of the melt pool. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The tests were conducted to provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. As described above, the main objective was to identify the limits of waste loading in compliant glass formulations spanning the range of expected Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 3} concentrations in the LAW glasses.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material - ATM-1 glass

    Wald, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The Materials Characterization Center Approved Testing Material ATM-1 is a borosilicate glass that incorporates nonradioactive constituents and uranium to represent high-level waste (HLW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Its composition is based upon the simulated HLW glass type 76-68 to which depleted uranium has been added as UO 2 . Three separate lots of ATM-1 glass have been fabricated, designated ATM-1a, ATM-1b, and ATM-1c. Limited analyses and microstructural evaluations were conducted on each type. Each lot of ATM-1 glass was produced from a feedstock melted in an air atmosphere at between 1150 to 1200 0 C and cast into stress annealed rectangular bars. Bars of ATM-1a were nominally 1.3 x 1.3 x 7.6 cm (approx.36 g each), bars of ATM-1b were nominally 2 x 2.5 x 17.5 cm (approx.190 g each) and bars of ATM-1c were nominally 1.9 x 1.9 x 15 cm (approx.170 g each). Thirteen bars of ATM-1a, 14 bars of ATM-1b, and 6 bars of ATM-1c were produced. Twelve random samples from each of lots ATM-1a, ATM-1b, and ATM-1c were analyzed. The concentrations (except for U and Cs) were obtained by Inductively-Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy analysis. Cesium analysis was performed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, while uranium was analyzed by Pulsed Laser Fluorometry. X-ray diffraction analysis of four samples indicated that lot ATM-1a had no detectable crystalline phases (<3 wt %), while ATM-1b and ATM-1c contained approx.3 to 5 wt % iron-chrome spinel crystals. These concentrations of secondary spinel component are not considered uncommon. Scanning electron microscopy examination of fracture surfaces revealed only a random, apparently crystalline, second phase (1-10 μm diam) and a random distribution of small voids or bubbles (approx.1 μm nominal diam)

  4. Design and test of the borosilicate glass burnable poison rod for Qinshan nuclear power plant core

    Huang Jinhua; Sun Hanhong

    1988-08-01

    Material for the burnable poison of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant core is GG-17 borosilicate glass. The chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of GG-17 is very close to Pyrex-7740 glass used by Westinghouse. It is expected from the results of the experiments that the borosilicate glass burnable poison rod can be successfully used in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant due to good physical, mechanical, corrosion-resistant and irradiaton properties for both GG-17 glass and cold-worked stainless steel cladding. Change of material for burnable poison from boron-bearing stainless steel to borosilicate glass will bring about much more economic benefit to Qinshan Naclear Power Plant

  5. Post test analyses of Revisa benchmark based on a creep test at 1100 Celsius degrees performed on a notched tube

    Fischer, M.; Bernard, A.; Bhandari, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the Euratom 4. Framework Program of the European Commission, REVISA Project deals with the Reactor Vessel Integrity under Severe Accidents. One of the tasks consists in the experimental validation of the models developed in the project. To do this, a benchmark was designed where the participants use their models to test the results against an experiment. The experiment called RUPTHER 15 was conducted by the coordinating organisation, CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) in France. It is a 'delayed fracture' test on a notched tube. Thermal loading is an axial gradient with a temperature of about 1130 C in the mid-part. Internal pressure is maintained at 0.8 MPa. This paper presents the results of Finite Element calculations performed by Framatome-ANP using the SYSTUS code. Two types of analyses were made: -) one based on the 'time hardening' Norton-Bailey creep law, -) the other based on the coupled creep/damage Lemaitre-Chaboche model. The purpose of this paper is in particular to show the influence of temperature on the simulation results. At high temperatures of the kind dealt with here, slight errors in the temperature measurements can lead to very large differences in the deformation behaviour. (authors)

  6. A comparison of the test tube and the dialysis tubing in vitro methods for estimating the bioavailability of phosphorus in feed ingredients for swine.

    Bollinger, David W; Tsunoda, Atsushi; Ledoux, David R; Ellersieck, Mark R; Veum, Trygve L

    2005-05-04

    The validity of a simplified in vitro test tube (TT) method was compared with a more complicated dialysis tubing (DT) method to estimate the percentage of available phosphorus (P) in 41 plant origin and five animal origin feed ingredients for swine. The TT method using 1.0 or 0.25 g samples was compared with the DT method using 1.0 g samples at two pancreatic incubation times (2 vs 4 h) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each DT and TT method treatment was replicated three and six times, respectively. Both methods utilize three enzymatic digestions: (i) predigestion with endoxylanase and beta-glucanase for 1 h, (ii) pepsin digestion for 2 h, and (iii) pancreatin digestion for 2 or 4 h. For the TT method, the entire procedure was conducted in a 50 mL conical centrifuge tube and replicated six times. For the DT method, the first two digestions were conducted in a 10 mL plastic syringe before the contents were quantitatively transferred into a segment of DT for the pancreatic digestion. The percentages of hydrolyzed P for plant origin ingredients measured by the DT method using 1.0 g samples and the TT method using 0.25 g samples were highly correlated (r = 0.94-0.97, P or = 0.4) with published in vivo available P values. In conclusion, the accuracy and validity of the TT method using 0.25 g samples with a 2 h pancreatic digestion time was equal to or superior to the DT method using 1.0 g samples with a 4 h pancreatic digestion time for estimating P availability in plant origin feed ingredients.

  7. Tackling bioactive glass excessive in vitro bioreactivity: Preconditioning approaches for cell culture tests.

    Ciraldo, Francesca E; Boccardi, Elena; Melli, Virginia; Westhauser, Fabian; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2018-05-21

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are being increasingly considered for biomedical applications in bone and soft tissue replacement approaches thanks to their ability to form strong bonding with tissues. However, due to their high reactivity once in contact with water-based solutions BGs rapidly exchange ions with the surrounding environment leading in most cases to an undesired increase of the pH under static in vitro conditions (due to alkaline ion "burst release"), making difficult or even impossible to perform cell culture studies. Several pre-conditioning treatments have been therefore proposed in laboratories worldwide to limit this problem. This paper presents an overview of the different strategies that have been put forward to pre-treat BG samples to tackle the pH raise issue in order to enable cell biology studies. The paper also discusses the relevant criteria that determine the selection of the optimal pre-treatment depending on the BG composition and morphology (e.g. particles, scaffolds). Bioactive glasses (BGs), since their discovery in 1971 by L.L Hench, have been widely used for bone replacement and repair, and, more recently, they are becoming highly attractive for bone and soft tissue engineering applications. BGs have in fact the ability to form a strong bond with both hard and soft tissues once in contact with biological fluid. The enhanced interaction of BGs with the biological environment is based on their significant surface bioreactivity. This surface effect of BGs is, on the other hand, problematic for cell biology studies by standard (static) cell culture methods: an excessive bioreactivity leads in most cases to a rapid and dramatic increase of the pH of the surrounding medium, which results in cell death and makes cell culture tests on BG samples impossible. The BG research community has been aware of this for many years and numerous pre-treatments have been proposed by different groups worldwide to limit this problem. For the first time, we have

  8. Glass composition effects on the results of MCC-1, MCC-3 and pulsed-flow leach tests

    Barkatt, A.; Adiga, R.; Adel-Hadadi, M.A.; Barkatt, A.; Feng, X.; Sousanpour, W.

    1989-01-01

    Glass composition effects on the results of MCC-1, MCC-3 and pulsed-flow leach tests are summarized. Major components of the glasses studied are included. The leachant in all cases was de-ionized water and the temperature was 90 degree C. Test duration of the MCC-1 and MCC-3 was 28 days. The total time in the pulsed-flow test was 112 days. In the MCC-1 test, the results indicate that the forward rate characteristic of the kinetics of leaching in unsaturated environments is relatively independent (within a factor of 2) of such variations. The MCC-3 results reflect the extent of glass dissolution under conditions where the extent of interaction is large enough to cause the solution in contact with the glass to approach saturation with respect to silica and other scarcely soluble components. The pulsed-flow results show that at longer periods of time the dependence of leachate composition on glass composition decreases again and that leachate concentrations approach stabilization at levels which are much lower than the MCC-3 limits

  9. Heat transfer test in a vertical tube using CO2 at supercritical pressures

    Kim, Hwan Yeol; Kim, Hyungrae; Song, Jin Ho; Cho, Bong Hyun; Bae, Yoon Yeong

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer test facility, SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt Generation), was constructed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for an investigation of the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of supercritical CO 2 at the various geometries of the test section. The test data will be used for the reactor core design of the SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor). As a working fluid, CO 2 was selected to make use of the low critical pressure and temperature of CO 2 compared with water. An experimental study was carried out in the SPHINX to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop at a vertical single tube with an inside diameter of 4.4 mm in case of an upward flow of supercritical CO 2 . The heat and mass fluxes were varied at a given pressure. The mass flux was in the range of 400-1,200 kg/m 2 s and the heat flux was chosen up to 150 kW/m 2 . The selected pressures were 7.75, 8.12, and 8.85 MPa. A heat transfer deterioration occurred at the lower mass fluxes. The experimental heat transfer coefficients were compared with the ones predicted by several existing correlations. The standard deviation was about 20% for each correlation and an apparent discrepancy was not found among the correlations. The major components of the pressure drop were a gravitational pressure drop and a frictional pressure drop. The frictional pressure drop increases as the mass flux and heat flux increase. (author)

  10. Dynamic loads on human and animal surrogates at different test locations in compressed-gas-driven shock tubes

    Alay, E.; Skotak, M.; Misistia, A.; Chandra, N.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic loads on specimens in live-fire conditions as well as at different locations within and outside compressed-gas-driven shock tubes are determined by both static and total blast overpressure-time pressure pulses. The biomechanical loading on the specimen is determined by surface pressures that combine the effects of static, dynamic, and reflected pressures and specimen geometry. Surface pressure is both space and time dependent; it varies as a function of size, shape, and external contour of the specimens. In this work, we used two sets of specimens: (1) anthropometric dummy head and (2) a surrogate rodent headform instrumented with pressure sensors and subjected them to blast waves in the interior and at the exit of the shock tube. We demonstrate in this work that while inside the shock tube the biomechanical loading as determined by various pressure measures closely aligns with live-fire data and shock wave theory, significant deviations are found when tests are performed outside.

  11. Construction and test of high precision drift-tube (sMDT) chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    Nowak, Sebastian; Kroha, Hubert; Schwegler, Philipp; Sforza, Federico

    2014-01-01

    For the upgrade of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in March 2014 new muon tracking chambers (sMDT) with drift-tubes of 15 mm diameter, half of the value of the standard ATLAS Monitored Drift-Tubes (MDT) chambers, and 10~$\\mu$m positioning accuracy of the sense wires have been constructed. The new chambers are designed to be fully compatible with the present ATLAS services but, with respect to the previously installed ATLAS MDT chambers, they are assembled in a more compact geometry and they deploy two additional tube layers that provide redundant rack information. The chambers are composed of 8 layers of in total 624 aluminium drift-tubes. The assembly of a chamber is completed within a week. A semi-automatized production line is used for the assembly of the drift-tubes prior to the chamber assembly. The production procedures and the quality control tests of the single components and of the complete chambers will be discussed. The wire position in the completed chambers have been measured by using a coordinate me...

  12. Manufacturing immunity to disease in a test tube: the magic bullet realized.

    Lerner, Richard A

    2006-12-11

    Although it took over one hundred years, Ehrlich's concept of the magic bullet is now a reality. Today, therapeutic antibodies are, arguably, the most important class of new drugs for the treatment of illnesses ranging from Alzheimer's disease to cancer. The emergence of therapeutic antibodies had to wait for advances in immunochemistry that allowed construction of antibodies in vitro. The centerpiece of the new technology is the combinatorial antibody library, which essentially allows one to synthesize an artificial immune system with a diversity that exceeds that of the natural repertoire. The construction of such libraries was perceived to be difficult because, if the natural immune system was to be used as the starting material, construction of the libraries would entail protocols that are the opposite of usual cloning. In gene cloning one starts with complexity and reduces it to a singularity. In the generation of diversity by construction of combinatorial antibody libraries, one starts with a collection of clones, randomly expands their complexity, and then returns them to recoverable singularities. The methods developed to accomplish this seemingly formidable task now allow construction of antibodies in a test tube to any antigen. These synthetic antibodies may be qualitatively and quantitatively superior to those of nature.

  13. Test Method Variability in Slow Crack Growth Properties of Sealing Glasses

    Salem, J. A.; Tandon, R.

    2010-01-01

    The crack growth properties of several sealing glasses were measured by using constant stress rate testing in 2 and 95 percent RH (relative humidity). Crack growth parameters measured in high humidity are systematically smaller (n and B) than those measured in low humidity, and crack velocities for dry environments are 100x lower than for wet environments. The crack velocity is very sensitive to small changes in RH at low RH. Biaxial and uniaxial stress states produced similar parameters. Confidence intervals on crack growth parameters that were estimated from propagation of errors solutions were comparable to those from Monte Carlo simulation. Use of scratch-like and indentation flaws produced similar crack growth parameters when residual stresses were considered.

  14. Development of a gradient tube method for examining microbial ...

    2013-06-24

    Jun 24, 2013 ... as brackish and salt marshes and these biofilms may be an important component ... the bottom of a sterile 15 mℓ glass test tube, a 5 mℓ molten agarose plug ... B. Field-scale floating sulphur biofilm reactor developed to enable.

  15. Inspection of heat transfer tubes after mock-up tests of miniaturized apparatus for the acid recovery evaporator. Contract research

    Hamada, Shozo; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Yanagihara, Takao; Doi, Masamitu; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2001-10-01

    The demonstration test for the acid recovery evaporator and the dissolver used in the major equipment of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), has been carried out. The mock-up miniature equipment has been employed to it. This test had been performed from April in 1998. The total time of demonstration test using the mock-up equipment is about two and half years, which corresponds to about 20,000 hours. After that, four of the seven heat transfer tubes used in the evaporator were drawn out and the corrosion level and the mechanical properties were evaluated for one of them. As a result, intergranular corrosion was recognized in the inner surface of the heat transfer tube and the corrosion depth at the grain boundary was statistically shown to be about one grain from the inner surface. Further, no change in mechanical properties was observed and growth of intergranular cracks in the inner surface of the specimen was found after flattering test. (author)

  16. Using an ultra-high speed camera to capture a tube expansion test

    Snyman, Izak M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available of the tube was estimated by viewing each image and extracts the expansion position in terms of pixels at specific locations, using the PFV software from Photron. Fifteen of the 32 images were used for this exercise....

  17. Evaluation of the inner wall axial cracks of steam generator tubes by eddy current test

    Hur, Do Haeng; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Doek Hyun; Han, Jung Ho

    2001-01-01

    For the enhancement of ECT reliability on the primary water stress corrosion cracks of nuclear steam generator tubes, it is important to comprehend the signal characteristics on crack morphology and to select an appropriate probe type. In this paper, the sizing accuracy and the detectability for the inner wall axial cracks of tubes were quantitatively evaluated using the electric discharge machined notches and the corrosion cracks which were developed on the operating steam generator tubes. The difference of eddy current signal characteristics between pancake and axial coil were also investigated. The results obtained from this study provide a useful information for more precise evaluation on the inner wall axial cracks of steam generator tubes.

  18. [Partial thyroxine binding globulin deficiency in test tube infants: report of cases and literature review].

    Fang, Y L; Wang, C L; Liang, L

    2016-06-02

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of twins with thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) deficiency and to find SERPINA7 gene mutations. Data(2015) related to clinical characteristics, serum biochemistry, gene mutations and pedigree of two children with TBG deficiency were collected in the First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medicine, Zhejiang University. The related literature was searched form China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, National Center for Biotechnology Information and PubMed (up to December 2015) by using search terms "Thyroxine binding globulin deficiency, gene, mutation" . Both patients were diagnosed as central hypothyroidism at the beginning and treated with L-thyroxine. Both of the identical twins of the triplet were observed for mutation in exon3, c. 631G﹥A(p.A211T), a new mutation had not been reported, but their parents and another non-identical triplet brother were normal. Literature review showed that 23 foreign cases with SERPINA7 gene mutation had been reported, however, no Chinese with SERPINA7 gene mutation had been reported. Among reported cases it was shown that SERPINA7 gene mutations located in exon, intron, promoter and enhancer. Up to now, 49 variants had been identified, 41 of them located in the mutated genes. Including these two cases, patients with thyroxine binding globulin deficiency were characterized by reduced serum TH levels, but normal free TH and TSH and absence of clinical manifestations. The new mutation of SERPINA7 gene c. 631G﹥A(p.A211T)is not transmitted via the known X chromosome linked heredity, and as the cases were test tube triplet infants, it is a de novo mutation. The serum thyroid function tests of TBG deficiency showed decreased TT4, TT3 and normal TSH and TBG deficiency is often misdiagnosed as central hypothyroidism.

  19. Thermal-hydraulic tests of steam-generator tube-support-plate crevices. Volume 2. Appendixes I through S. Final report

    Cassell, D.S.; Vroom, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A test program was conducted to determine for selected steam generator tube supports the thermal/hydraulic conditions at the inception of dryout as indicated by a tube wall temperature excursion, to determine the pressure drop across the supports, and to obtain photographic documentation of the flow upstream and downstream of the supports. A multi-tube steam generator model was used and testing performed over the range of typcal PWR steam generator operating conditions. These appendices contain information on instrumentation calibration, test model and loop calibration, error analysis, test model thermal-hydraulic analyses, index of lab materials and log sheets, index of two-phase flow still photographs, index of high speed movies and video, test data printouts, test model and loop fabrication drawings, procedure for silver brazing tubewall thermocouples, and procedure for esablishing tube-tube support line contact

  20. Statistical flaw strength distributions for glass fibres: Correlation between bundle test and AFM-derived flaw size density functions

    Foray, G.; Descamps-Mandine, A.; R’Mili, M.; Lamon, J.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper investigates glass fibre flaw size distributions. Two commercial fibre grades (HP and HD) mainly used in cement-based composite reinforcement were studied. Glass fibre fractography is a difficult and time consuming exercise, and thus is seldom carried out. An approach based on tensile tests on multifilament bundles and examination of the fibre surface by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used. Bundles of more than 500 single filaments each were tested. Thus a statistically significant database of failure data was built up for the HP and HD glass fibres. Gaussian flaw distributions were derived from the filament tensile strength data or extracted from the AFM images. The two distributions were compared. Defect sizes computed from raw AFM images agreed reasonably well with those derived from tensile strength data. Finally, the pertinence of a Gaussian distribution was discussed. The alternative Pareto distribution provided a fair approximation when dealing with AFM flaw size.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material: ATM-9 glass

    Wald, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    The Materials Characterization Center ATM-9 glass is designed to be representative of glass to be produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. ATM-9 glass contains all of the major components of the DWPF glass and corresponds to a waste loading of 29 wt %. The feedstock material for this glass was supplied by Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC, as SRL-165 Black Frit to which was added Ba, Cs, Md, Nd, Zr, as well as 99 Tc, depleted U, 237 Np, 239+240 Pu, and 243 Am. The glass was produced under reducing conditions by the addition of 0.7 wt % graphite during the final melting process. Three kilograms of the glass were produced from April to May of 1984. On final melting, the glass was formed into stress-annealed rectangular bars of two sizes: 1.9 x 1.9 x 10 cm and 1.3 x 1.3 x 10 cm. Seventeen bars of each size were made. The analyzed composition of ATM-9 glass is listed. Examination by optical microscopy of a single transverse section from one bar showed random porosity estimated at 0.36 vol % with nominal pore diameters ranging from approx. 5 μm to 200 μm. Only one distinct second phase was observed and it was at a low concentraction level in the glass matrix. The phase appeared as spherical metallic particles. X-ray diffraction analysis of this same sample did not show any diffraction peaks from crystalline components, indicating that the glass contained less than 5 wt % of crystalline devitrification products. The even shading on the radiograph exposure indicated a generally uniform distribution of radioactivity throughout the glass matrix, with no distinct high-concentration regions

  2. Wastage-resistant characteristics of 12Cr steel tube material. Small leak sodium-water reaction test

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito

    2004-03-01

    In the water leak accident of a steam generator designed for a sodium cooled reactor in the Feasibility Study, the localization of tube failure propagation by using an advanced water leak detector will be required from the viewpoints of the safety and economical efficiency of the plant. So far, the conventional knowledge and analytical tools have been used in the investigation and evaluation of water leak phenomenon; nevertheless, there was neither test data nor the study of quantitative evaluation on the corrosion behavior, so-called wastage-resistant characteristics, of 12Cr steel tube material in sodium-water reactions. Wastage tests for the 12Cr steel tube material were conducted in small water leaks by use of the Sodium-Water Reaction Test Rig (SWAT-1R), and the data of wastage rate were obtained in the parameter of water leak rate under the constant sodium temperature and distance between leak and target tubes. The test results lead to the following conclusions: (1) The wastage-resistibility of 12Cr steel is 1.6 times greater than that of 9Cr steel and is 2.7 times greater than that of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. (2)The wastage-resistibility of 12Cr steel increases in smaller water leaks; especially in water leak rates of 1 g/sec or less, it is more excellent than that of SUS321 stainless steel used as Monju superheater tube material. (3) Based on the correlation of wastage rate for the 9Cr steel, the correlation for the 12Cr steel has been obtained to be used for the evaluation of tube failure propagation. As the correlation of wastage rate for the 12Cr steel is based on the correlation for the 9Cr steel, it gives enough conservatism in smaller water leaks. To serve in accurately evaluating the tube failure propagation in smaller water leaks, it is necessary to obtain new correlation of wastage rate for the 12Cr steel based on the data in the wide range of water leak rates. (author)

  3. A simple in vitro test tube method for estimating the bioavailability of phosphorus in feed ingredients for swine.

    Bollinger, David W; Tsunoda, Atsushi; Ledoux, David R; Ellersieck, Mark R; Veum, Trygve L

    2004-04-07

    A simplified in vitro test tube (TT) method was developed to estimate the percentage of available P in feed ingredients for swine. The entire digestion procedure with the TT method consists of three consecutive enzymatic digestions carried out in a 50-mL conical test tube: (1) Pre-digestion with endo-xylanase and beta-glucanase for 1 h, (2) peptic digestion for 2 h, and (3) pancreatic digestion for 2 or 4 h. The TT method is simpler and much easier to perform compared to the dialysis tubing (DT) method, because dialysis tubing is not used. Reducing sample size from 1.0 to 0.25 g for the TT method improved results. In conclusion, the accuracy and validity of the TT method is equal to that of our more complicated DT method (r = 0.97, P < 0.001), designed to mimic the digestive system of swine, for estimating the availability of P in plant-origin feed ingredients.

  4. Effect of fatigue testing on the properties of Glass-Epoxy composites using the acoustic tool

    Menail Younès

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the experimental results of the influence of mechanical fatigue on composite material. The plates of Glass fiber with SR 1500 epoxy resin with SD 2505 composite were realized by vacuum molding. Experimental tests were carried out on a standard hydraulic machine INSTRON 8516. The machine is interfaced with a dedicated computer for controlling and data acquisition. The fatigue tests were performed using sinusoidal type of waveform at a displacement control with frequency of 10 Hz. The evolution of Young’s modulus and strain based on fatigue gives us an idea about the resistance of the material. Degradation of mechanical properties was observed, and the results have showed that the Young’s modulus of plates undergo only minor changes. In fact, the residual stiffness and residual strength decrease when the cycle number of fatigue increase (100 to 50000 cycles, indicating that the studied composites have experienced some forms of mechanical damage.The mechanical tests were backed by Acoustic Emission Monitoring (AEM during the load cycle, in order to understand the nature of the failure process in the composites such as fiber breakage, matrix crazing, matrix debonding and delamination etc.

  5. Standard test method for measurement of roll wave optical distortion in heat-treated flat glass

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of the peak-to-valley depth and peak-to-peak distances of the out-of-plane deformation referred to as roll wave which occurs in flat, heat-treated architectural glass substrates processed in a heat processing continuous or oscillating conveyance oven. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This test method does not address other flatness issues like edge kink, ream, pocket distortion, bow, or other distortions outside of roll wave as defined in this test method. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Tests for development of estimation technology of reactor core deformation. Report No.1: fundamental mechanical properties of wrapper tube (test report)

    Nishiura, Takeo; Shimazaki, Yuji; Horikiri, Morito

    1998-10-01

    Mechanical properties such as local contact compression stiffness, bending stiffness, deformation properties, material properties, and friction properties of a wrapper tube structure were clarified experimentally, which can be used as the basic data for development of estimation technology of reactor core deformation. Contents of the Tests data as follows: (1) Effects of load supporting boundary conditions, whether or not a contact-proof pad is attached, and length of duct, on cross section deformation of wrapper tube were made clear as the local contact compression stiffness characteristics. (2) Bending stiffness does not depend on the difference of load supporting boundary conditions. The property of cross section deformation under bending load was obtained. (3) The deformation modes and the strain distributions were obtained by the deformation tests of wrapper tube. (4) The stress-strain diagrams including plastic range under various strain variation rates were obtained by the material tests at room temperature. (5) The static and the dynamic friction coefficients by various contact angles and the contact loads between contact-proof pads of two wrapper tubes were obtained by friction property tests. (author)

  7. Operation of the UKK-2 facility for tube complex testing and way of its further improvement

    Ogarkov, N.V.; Senyutkin, P.A.; Silaev, A.N.; Topychkanov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The UKK-2 ultrasonic 8-channel facility for complex control is designed for control of continuity, wall thickness of 0.3-1.0 mm, inner diameter of tubes and external diameter of 7-15 mm. Utilization of UKK-2 increased reliability of control, stabilized tube quality at a higher level, increased control efficiency 2-3 times. The most noticeable shortcomings of the UKK-2 are as follows: impossibility of differential separation of tubes rejected by sizes, by rectifiable and nonrectifiable rejects as well as absence of devices for mechanized loading, unloading and grading the tubes. The flowsheet, design and technological shortcomings of the facility are discovered during its operation. Ways of further improvement of the facility are as follows: development of the system for control result analysis on the basis of a microcomputer, equipment with devices for loading, unloading and grading the tubes; development of more reliable electron devices and units, means of automated diagnostics and automated tuning, increase of the level of metrological provision, improvement of hardware and software of the facility

  8. Improving the standard of the standard for glass ionomers: an alternative to the compressive fracture strength test for consideration?

    Dowling, Adam H

    2012-03-01

    Three strength tests (compressive, three point flexure and biaxial) were performed on three glass ionomer (GI) restoratives to assess the most appropriate methodology in terms of validity and reliability. The influence of mixing induced variability on the data sets generated were eliminated by using encapsulated GIs.

  9. Experimental simulations of interactions between glass and environmental materials, from laboratory benches to in-site testing

    Godon, N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 26 long-duration tests simulating a variety of storage conditions. The effects of the back-filling materials, glass cracking and the nature of the host rock are discussed. Moreover, two experiments have been in progress for over 15 and 7 years in a granite medium and a clay medium. (author)

  10. Ultrasonic testing of canning tubes in stainless steel of the EL 4 reactor

    Prot, A.; Monnier, P.

    1964-01-01

    From all the methods possible for controlling thin cans the one chosen, for numerous reasons, vas that making use of ultrasonic techniques. A method has been developed which should make it possible to carry out a rapid and efficient industrial control of canning tubes, The reasons for the choice of the ultrasonic method are given in detail, together with the principles of the method and the actual control parameters. In the present state of our research, it should be possible to control at least 50 000 tubes a year. Improvements brought about in the details of the control technique itself should make it possible to increase this rate considerably. (authors) [fr

  11. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

  12. Long term testing and evaluation of PV modules with and without Sunarc antireflective coating of the cover glass

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Han, Jiangong

    2015-01-01

    Two Photovoltaic (PV) modules have been manufactured by Swemodule. One with Sunarc antireflective coated glass and one without glass surface treatment. The modules have been tested at DTU during 16 months under realistic outdoor conditions. Exactly the same polycrystalline cells were used...... in the modules. No cleaning of the glass has been made except for removal of bird droppings and leaves on single cells that could give a very wrong comparison. The PV modules were mounted due south at 45 degree tilt angle. They were connected to the electric grid with small 250W module inverters from Involar...... that also realized the MPP tracking to give the maximum output of each module. The electric power output was measured both on the AC and DC side and with different measurement equipment to be sure about the accuracy in improvement. The results indicate a potential long term improvement in a system from 3...

  13. Glass Melting under microgravity. ; Space experiment by Mori astronaut. Mujuryokuka deno glass yoyu. ; Morisan no uchu jikken

    Makihara, M. (Osaka National Research Institute, Osaka (Japan))

    1993-03-01

    A space experiment on glass melting under microgravity was performed in a space shuttle in September 1992. The experiment has been intended to make glass from glass material floating in air by heating and melting it with light and an acoustic levitation furnace. The acoustic levitation furnace used in the experiment has been arranged so that a sound wave from a speaker makes a steady wave in a cylindrical quartz glass core tube with a length of 16 cm and a diameter of 4 cm, and a test sample can be retained floating in a valley of central wave pressures. The test sample retained floating has been collected and heated by light from a 500-W halogen lamp. Behavior of molten glass liquid under microgravity has been investigated. The glass material powder spheres have been melted completely and made into glass without crystallization. With regard to flows generated in the test sample placed in the acoustic levitation furnace, a glass spot containing cobalt oxide has been attached onto part of the test sample surface for observation. As a result, the spot has been incorporated in the glass without developing diffusion. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Nondestructive inspection of the tubes of TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor heat exchanger by eddy current testing

    Silva Junior, Silverio F.; Silva, Roger F.; Oliveira, Paulo F.; Barreto, Erika S.; Ribeiro, Isabela G.; Fraiz, Felipe C.

    2013-01-01

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA MARK 1 reactor is an open pool type reactor, cooled light water. It is used for research activities, personnel training and radioisotopes production, in operation since 1960 at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN/CNEN. It operates at a maximum thermal power of 100 kW and usually, the fuel cooling is done by natural circulation. If necessary, an external auxiliary cooling system, with a shell-and-tube type heat exchanger, can be used to improve the water heat removal. As part of the ageing management program of the reactor, a nondestructive evaluation of their heat exchanger stainless steel tubes will be performed, in order to verify its integrity. The examinations will be performed using the eddy current test method, which allows the detection and characterization of structural discontinuities in the wall of the tubes, if existing. For this purpose, probes and reference standards were designed and manufactured at CDTN facilities and test procedures were established and validated. In this paper, a description of the proposed infrastructure as well as the test methodology to be used in the examinations are presented and discussed. (author)

  15. DHC velocity comparison of CANDU Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube for the difference of test environments

    Cho, S. Y.; Kim, Y. S.; Oh, D. Z.; Yim, K. S.; Yim, Y. W.

    2001-01-01

    Zr-2.5Nb Pressure tube was used in the distilled water under high temperature and pressure. However, the evaluation of DHCV for pressure tube was limited in the air until now. Therefore, it was necessary for DHCV both in the air and in the distilled water under high temperature and pressure to evaluate. In advance, new DHC equipment simulating the real operating condition in the distilled water under high temperature and pressure was developed and DHCV test was conducted by this equipment. The test was carried out under simulated condition using distilled water of 250 .deg. C, 86bar and this result was compared with of DHCV in the air of 250 .deg. C. DHCV of the distilled water was ranged from 8.42x10 -8 to 9.92x 10 -8 m/s and the average value was 9.01x 10 -8 m/s. As compared with the air condition, it was found that characteristics of DHCV was not affected by the distilled water of high temperature and pressure. At the same temperature, DHCV of the irradiated pressure tube was faster than that of test result

  16. Improvement of Eddy Current testing methods of steam generator tubings due to field experience

    Comby, R.; Meurgey, P.; David, B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the main stages of the long rotating probe developed by EDF, this probe detects stress corrosion cracks. The method has been validated by the examination of numerous cracked tubes that the probe detected before. Methods to better characterize the signals with regard to the defects are being improved to avoid a complementary examination of the rolling zone more particularly [fr

  17. High Mach Number Scramjet Test Flows in the X3 Expansion Tube

    Gildfind, D. E.; Sancho, J.; Morgan, R. G.

    The University of Queensland (UQ) has two free-piston driven expansion tube facilities; X2 has a total length of 23 m and was originally commissioned in 1995 [1]; X3 is much longer at 62 m, and was commissioned in 2001 [2].

  18. Design and testing of access-tube TDR soil water sensor

    We developed the design of a waveguide on the exterior of an access tube for use in time-domain reflectometry (TDR) for in-situ soil water content sensing. In order to optimize the design with respect to sampling volume and losses, we derived the electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by a TDR sensor...

  19. 9 CFR 147.1 - The standard tube agglutination test. 1

    2010-01-01

    ... may be done with a suitable pencil on etched portions of the tube, or by means of fast-gum labels. (3..., high agglutinability, but are not sensitive to negative and nonspecific sera. The stock cultures may be... for at least 20 hours at 37 °C. (h) The results shall be recorded as: N, or − (negative) when the...

  20. Fast and Accurate Non-destructive Testing System for Inspection of Canning Tubes

    Gundtoft, Hans Erik; Nielsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    The authors describe the development of an inspection bench for the non-destructive examination of canning tubes. The bench is original in that the internal diameter is calculated from exact measurement of the outer diameter and the wall thickness. The transducers for inspection and control are r...

  1. Standard practice for in situ examination of ferromagnetic Heat-Exchanger tubes using remote field testing

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes procedures to be followed during remote field examination of installed ferromagnetic heat-exchanger tubing for baseline and service-induced discontinuities. 1.2 This practice is intended for use on ferromagnetic tubes with outside diameters from 0.500 to 2.000 in. [12.70 to 50.80 mm], with wall thicknesses in the range from 0.028 to 0.134 in. [0.71 to 3.40 mm]. 1.3 This practice does not establish tube acceptance criteria; the tube acceptance criteria must be specified by the using parties. 1.4 Units—The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this practice to establ...

  2. Fabrication and characterization of MCC [Materials Characterization Center] approved testing material: ATM-10 glass

    Maupin, G.D.; Bowen, W.M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1988-04-01

    The Materials Characterization Center ATM-10 glass represents a reference commercial high-level waste form similar to that which will be produced by the West Valley Nuclear Service Co. Inc., West Valley, New York. The target composition and acceptable range of composition were defined by the sponsor, West Valley Nuclear Service. The ATM-10 glass was produced in accordance with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory QA Manual for License-Related Programs, MCC technical procedures, and MCC QA Plan that were in effect during the course of the work. The method and procedure to be used in the fabrication and characterization of the ATM-10 glass were specified in two run plans for glass preparation and a characterization plan. All of the ATM-10 glass was produced in the form of bars 1.9 /times/ 1.9 /times/ 10 cm nominal size, and 93 g nominal mass. A total of 15 bars of ATM-10 glass weighing 1394 g was produced. The production bars were characterized to determine the mean composition, oxidation state, and microstructure of the ATM-10 product. Table A summarizes the characterization results. The ATM-10 glass meets all specifications. The elemental composition and oxidation state of the glass are within the specifications of the client. Visually, the ATM-10 glass bars appear uniformly glassy and generally without exterior features. Microscopic examination revealed low (less than 2 wt %) concentractions of 3-μm iron-chrome (suspected spinel) crystals and /approximately/0.5-μm ruthenium inclusions scattered randomly throughout the glassy matrix. Closed porosity, with pores ranging in diameter from 5 to 250 μm, was observed in all samples. 4 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs

  3. Opinion and knowledge among hospital medical staff regarding diagnosis of diabetes and proper usage of a specific test tube for glucose analysis.

    Bar-Dayan, Y; Bogaiov, A; Boaz, M; Landau, Z; Wainstein, J

    2014-02-01

    Accuracy of blood sugar values, as examined by glucose analysis, has significant importance on the diagnosis of diabetes and follow up of diabetes treatment. Usage of a designated test tube significantly improves the accuracy of measurement. Knowledge of the medical staff is a major determinant in the current usage of such a technology. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge exhibited by medical staff in the diabetes field and specifically for the usage of a designated tube to test blood glucose level. A prospective study. The staff of the internal and surgical departments and outpatient clinics at the Wolfson Medical Center completed a questionnaire that assessed the level of knowledge about the designated glucose test tube, other randomly used test tubes, the parameters that influence the blood glucose values in a non-designated tube and the diagnosis of diabetes. A number of 160 questionnaires (50% from internal departments, 36% from surgical departments and 14% from outpatient clinics) were analysed. The majority of the staff members (65%) knew that diabetes is diagnosed by glucose levels in blood. Of the 35% that did not know, 91% were nurses. The majority (75%) knew that diabetes is diagnosed during fasting conditions; however, most of the staff indicated that 12 h is needed. Only 25% knew of the designated test tube, and most of the staff indicated that a regular chemistry tube was the tube of choice for them. The staff exhibited poor level of knowledge regarding the parameters that influence the quality of the test. Staff members are not aware of the various aspects of diabetes diagnosis and the designated test tube for glucose measurements, and most of them use a tube that gives inaccurate measurements, therefore there is an urgent need to improve diabetes knowledge among staff members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  5. Computer simulations of rare earth sites in glass: experimental tests and applications to laser materials

    Weber, M.J.

    1984-11-01

    Computer simulations of the microscopic structure of BeF 2 glasses using molecular dynamics are reviewed and compared with x-ray and neutron diffraction, EXAFS, NMR, and optical measurements. Unique information about the site-to-site variations in the local environments of rare earth ions is obtained using optical selective excitation and laser-induced fluorescence line-narrowing techniques. Applications and limitations of computer simulations to the development of laser glasses and to predictions of other static and dynamic properties of glasses are discussed. 35 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  6. Test plan: Effects of phase separation on waste loading for high level waste glasses

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the Tanks Focus Area's (TFA) effort to increase waste loading for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification at various facilities in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, the occurrence of phase separation in waste glasses spanning the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) composition ranges were studied during FY99. The type, extent, and impact of phase separation on glass durability for a series of HLW glasses, e.g., SRS-type and INEEL-type, were examined

  7. Sulfur Solubility Testing and Characterization of LAW Phase 1 Matrix Glasses

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-02-24

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides chemical analysis results for a series of simulated low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. These data will be used in the development of improved sulfur solubility models for LAW glass. A procedure developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for producing sulfur saturated melts (SSMs) was carried out at both SRNL and PNNL to fabricate the glasses characterized in this report. This method includes triplicate melting steps with excess sodium sulfate, followed by grinding and washing to remove unincorporated sulfur salts. The wash solutions were also analyzed as part of this study.

  8. Test and evaluation of the BBC CQK 200-4 modulator tube for the MFTF sustaining neutral beam power supply system

    Eckard, R.D.; Van Ness, H.W.; Hesselgrave, D.

    1979-01-01

    The BBC CQK 200-4 Tube was tested by Aydin at LLL, to confirm that it would switch 90 kV after conducting 88 amperes for 30 seconds. The CQK 200-4 is a recent modification of the CQK 200-3, an Rf transmitter tube designed for continuous loading, to increase the anode hold-off voltage to 150 kV. During the design life of the tube it will be subjected to 10 5 to 10 6 cyclic thermal loads. Two concerns are that (1) during the 30 second high current load, the screen grid may have excessive dissipation causing a loss of control of the tube, and (2) the cyclic temperature-induced stresses in the anode may cause fatigue failures that will reduce the tube's useful life. The first concern was addressed by performing full scale tests at the LLL test facility

  9. Contribution to perfecting eddy current testing of steam generator tubes of sodium cooled breeders: description of the Monacault loop for the study of sodium deposit influence

    Lapicore, A.; Lemarquis, J.C.; Oberlin, C.; Pigeon, M.

    1981-12-01

    In the event of sodium-water reaction in the steam generator of a sodium cooled breeder reactor, it is essential to be able to monitor the local loss of thickness of the tubes located in the reaction area. A method for monitoring the tubes by an eddy current probe is being developed for Super Phenix. The sodium deposits on the outer wall of the tubes, as well as their prolonged contact with high temperature sodium are likely to bring about a change in the signals picked up. A test loop, Monacault, has been built in order to clarify the importance of these parameters (effect of sodium deposits, reproducibility of the wetting at different temperatures). It includes three test cells containing the sample tubes having a total of 61 standard defects to be tested. The first results on the wetting of tubes are given and discussed [fr

  10. Terahertz and Thermal Testing of Glass-Fiber Reinforced Composites with Impact Damages

    T. Chady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on glass-fiber reinforced composites, due to their growing popularity and high diversity of industrial applications, are becoming an increasingly popular branch of the nondestructive testing. Mentioned composites are used, among other applications, in wind turbine blades and are exposed to various kinds of damages. The equipment reliability requirements force the development of accurate methods of their health monitoring. In this paper we present the study of composite samples with impact damages, using three methods: terahertz time domain inspection, active thermography with convective excitation, and active thermography with microwave excitation. The results of discrete Fourier transform of obtained time sequences of signals will be presented as well as some image processing of resulting amplitude and phase images. Proposed experimental methods combined with harmonic analysis are efficient tool of defects detection and allowed to detect flaws in examined specimens. Reader may find it interesting that in spite of differences in nature of applied experimental methods, one technique of signal processing (harmonic analysis gave adequate and comparable results in each case.

  11. Determination of Material Properties Near the Glass Transition Temperature for an Isogrid Boom

    Blandino, Joseph R.; Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were performed and results obtained to determine the temperature dependence of the modulus of elasticity for a thermoplastic isogrid tube. The isogrid tube was subjected to axial tensile loads of 0-100 lbf and strain was measured at room and elevated temperatures of 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 190, and 200 F. These were based on tube manufacturer specifying an incorrect glass transition temperature of 210 F. Two protocols were used. For the first protocol the tube was brought to temperature and a tensile test performed. The tube was allowed to cool between tests. For the second protocol the tube was ramped to the desired test temperature and held. A tensile test was performed and the tube temperature ramped to the next test temperature. The second protocol spanned the entire test range. The strain rate was constant at 0.008 in/min. Room temperature tests resulted in the determination of an average modulus of 2.34 x 106 Psi. The modulus decreased above 100 F. At 140 F the modulus had decreased by 7.26%. The two test protocols showed good agreement below 160 F. At this point the glass transition temperature had been exceeded. The two protocols were not repeated because the tube failed.

  12. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 1

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics include: melter overview, design basis, materials, vessel configuration, insulation, refractory configuration, electrical isolation, electrodes, riser and pour spout heater design, dome heaters, feed tubes, drain valves, differential pressure pouring, and melter test results. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs

  13. Flow mixing inside a control-rod guide tube – Experimental tests and CFD simulations

    Angele, Kristian; Odemark, Ylva; Cehlin, Mathias; Hemström, Bengt; Högström, Carl-Maikel; Henriksson, Mats; Tinoco, Hernan; Lindqvist, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers a combined experimental and computational effort carried out at Vattenfall Research and Development AB in order to study the thermal mixing in the annular region between a top tube and a control-rod stem. The low frequency thermal fluctuations in this region can result in problems with thermal fatigue and have caused cracks in the control-rod stems of several nuclear reactors (). The flow in the vertical annular region formed by the top tube and the control-rod stem is characterized by the mixing of hot bypass flow with cold crud-removal flow. The crud-removal flow is flowing upwards along the control-rod stem, and the warmer bypass flow is entering through eight horizontal holes positioned in the lower part of the guide tube and four holes in the upper part of the top tube, forming jets. Two full-scale models of a control rod, including the control-rod stem and the guide tube, were constructed. The first model, designed to work at atmospheric conditions, was made of Plexiglass, in order to be able to visualize the mixing process, whereas the second one was made of steel to allow for a higher temperature difference between the two flows, and the heating of the top tube. CFD simulations of the case at atmospheric conditions were also carried out. Both the experiments and the simulations showed that the mixing region between the cold crud-removal flow and the warm bypass flow is dominated by large flow structures coming from above. The process is characterized by low frequency, high amplitude temperature fluctuations. The process is basically hydrodynamic, caused by the downward transport of flow structures originated at the upper bypass inlets. The damping thermal effects through buoyancy is of secondary importance, as also the scaling analysis shows, however a slight damping of the temperature fluctuations can be seen due to natural convection due to a pre-heating of the cold crud-removal flow. The comparison between numerical and experimental

  14. "Glass Formulation and Testing with TWRS LAW Simulants," Final Report to Duratek Inc. and BNFL Inc.

    Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Buechele, Andrew C. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kim, C. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Lai, Shan-Tao T. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Del Rosario, G. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Yan, Q. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-06-22

    This report presents the results of glass formulation development with TWRS LAW simulants that was conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America during TWRS Phase I.

  15. Ferruleless coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube cold-test characteristics simulated with micro-SOS

    Schroeder, Dana L.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional, electromagnetic circuit analysis code, Micro-SOS, can be used to reduce expensive and time consuming experimental 'cold-testing' of traveling-wave tube (TWT) circuits. The frequency-phase dispersion and beam interaction impedance characteristics of a ferruleless coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube slow-wave circuit were simulated using the code. Computer results agree closely with experimental data. Variations in the cavity geometry dimensions of period length and gap-to-period ratio were modeled. These variations can be used in velocity taper designs to reduce the radiofrequency (RF) phase velocity in synchronism with the decelerating electron beam. Such circuit designs can result in enhanced TWT power and efficiency.

  16. Study on chromosome aberrations test determinated by micro-whole blood culture in vacuum blood collection tube

    Zhong Zhihong; Han Fang'an; Ge Qinjuan; Wu Xiao; Chen Juan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop an easier and efficient method of culturing the chromosome and analyzing the aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes. Methods: Micro whole was cultured for 54 hours in home-made vacuum blood collection tube, and then collection, slice-making, microscopy detection for the chromosome aberrations was done. The difference of the results was analysed by comparing with the common method. Results: For 60 radiologists and 30 contrasts, the chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes were examed by this system, the lymphocytes and chromosome were clear and alive and easier to analyse. Compared with the common method, there was no significantly difference between the two analyzing results. Conclusion: The chromosome aberrations test by micro whole blood culture in vacuum blood collection tube is easier and efficient, and is worthy of being widely popularized. (authors)

  17. Lay out and materials for in pile tritium transport testing of breeder-inside-tube pin assemblies

    Alvani, C.; Casadio, S.; Mancini, M.R.; Nannetti, C.A.; Avon, J.; Ravel, S.; Pruzzo, G.; Terrosi; Roux, N.; Terlain, A.; and others.

    1994-01-01

    An irradiation experiment (90 FPD in SILOE reactor) has been designed in order to evaluate the in-situ effect of red-ox power of sweeping gas (helium with 100 vpm of H 2 /H 2 O with relative concentrations varying from pure H 2 to pure H 2 O ) on tritium removal from LiAlO 2 and Li 2 ZrO 3 ; and tritium permeation through AlSl-316L SS tubes with bare and coated surfaces. The conditions and materials explored were selected in order to test possible improvements with respect to critical issues for the 'Breeder Inside Tube' (BIT) blanket concept development. (author) 6 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Numerical simulations of eddy current testing signals of steam generator tubes by 3-D finite element method

    Sakai, Takayuki; Soneda, Naoki

    1996-01-01

    In every inspection of Japanese PWR plants, all of steam generator tubes are inspected using Eddy Current Testing (ECT) method. However, the relationships between the ECT signals and the defect shapes are known only for the representative shapes of defects. In order to improve the reliability of inspections and the capability of ECT probes, development of numerical simulation technique of the ECT signals for arbitrarily shaped defects is essential. In this study, three-dimensional finite element code is developed to simulate the ECT signals for any kinds of defects in the SG tubes. The code is fully vectorized so that it runs on the supercomputers very efficiently. The simulation results agree very well with the experimental results. Sensitivity analyses are performed to investigate the relationships between the defect shapes and the ECT signals. (author)

  19. Environmental Testing of Tritium-Phosphor Glass Vials for Use in Long-Life Radioisotope Power Conversion Units

    Zemcov, Michael; Cardona, Pedro; Parkus, James; Patru, Dorin; Yost, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Power generation in extreme environments, such as the outer solar system, the night side of planets, or other low-illumination environments, currently presents a technology gap that challenges NASA's ambitious scientific goals. We are developing a radioisotope power cell (RPC) that utilizes commercially available tritium light sources and standard 1.85 eV InGaP2 photovoltaic cells to convert beta particle energy to electric energy. In the test program described here, we perform environmental tests on commercially available borosilicate glass vials internally coated with a ZnS luminescent phosphor that are designed to contain gaseous tritium in our proposed power source. Such testing is necessary to ensure that the glass containing the radioactive tritium is capable of withstanding the extreme environments of launch and space for extended periods of time.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material: ATM-WV/205 glass

    Maupin, G.D.; Bowen, W.M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The ATM-WV/205 glass was produced in accordance with PNL's QA Manual for License-Related Programs, MCC technical procedures, and MCC QA Plan that were in effect during the course of this work. The method and procedure to be used in the fabrication and characterization of the ATM-WV/205 glass were specified in two run plans for glass preparation and a characterization plan. The ATM-WV/205 glass meets all specifications. The elemental composition and oxidation state of the glass are within the sponsor's specifications. Visually, the ATM-WV/205 glass bars appear uniformly glassy and generally without exterior features. Microscopic examination and x-ray diffraction revealed low (about 0.5 wt %) concentrations of 3-μm iron chrome spinel crystals and 1-μm ruthenium inclusions scattered randomly throughout the glassy matrix. Closed porosity, with pores ranging in diameter from 20 to 135 μm, was observed in all samples. 3 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs

  1. Magnesium diboride on inner wall of copper tube: A test case for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Wenura K. Withanage

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Superconductor magnesium diboride is considered one of the viable materials to substitute bulk niobium for superconducting radio frequency cavities. Utilizing a MgB_{2} coating on the inner wall of a copper cavity will allow operation at higher temperatures (20–25 K than Nb cavities due to the high transition temperature of MgB_{2} (39 K and the high thermal conductivity of Cu. In this paper, we present results of MgB_{2} coating on Cu tubes with similar dimensions to a 3 GHz cavity, as the first step towards coating the actual cavity, using the hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition technique. The results show successful coating of a uniform MgB_{2} layer on the inner wall of the Cu tubes with T_{c} as high as 37 K.

  2. Magnesium diboride on inner wall of copper tube: A test case for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Withanage, Wenura K.; Lee, N. H.; Penmatsa, Sashank V.; Wolak, M. A.; Nassiri, A.; Xi, X. X.

    2017-10-01

    Superconductor magnesium diboride is considered one of the viable materials to substitute bulk niobium for superconducting radio frequency cavities. Utilizing a MgB2 coating on the inner wall of a copper cavity will allow operation at higher temperatures (20-25 K) than Nb cavities due to the high transition temperature of MgB2 (39 K) and the high thermal conductivity of Cu. In this paper, we present results of MgB2 coating on Cu tubes with similar dimensions to a 3 GHz cavity, as the first step towards coating the actual cavity, using the hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition technique. The results show successful coating of a uniform MgB2 layer on the inner wall of the Cu tubes with Tc as high as 37 K.

  3. Real time flaw detection and characterization in tube through partial least squares and SVR: Application to eddy current testing

    Ahmed, Shamim; Miorelli, Roberto; Calmon, Pierre; Anselmi, Nicola; Salucci, Marco

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes Learning-By-Examples (LBE) technique for performing quasi real time flaw localization and characterization within a conductive tube based on Eddy Current Testing (ECT) signals. Within the framework of LBE, the combination of full-factorial (i.e., GRID) sampling and Partial Least Squares (PLS) feature extraction (i.e., GRID-PLS) techniques are applied for generating a suitable training set in offine phase. Support Vector Regression (SVR) is utilized for model development and inversion during offine and online phases, respectively. The performance and robustness of the proposed GIRD-PLS/SVR strategy on noisy test set is evaluated and compared with standard GRID/SVR approach.

  4. Design of a Kaplan turbine for a wide range of operating head -Curved draft tube design and model test verification-

    KO, Pohan; MATSUMOTO, Kiyoshi; OHTAKE, Norio; DING, Hua

    2016-11-01

    As for turbomachine off-design performance improvement is challenging but critical for maximising the performing area. In this paper, a curved draft tube for a medium head Kaplan type hydro turbine is introduced and discussed for its significant effect on expanding operating head range. Without adding any extra structure and working fluid for swirl destruction and damping, a carefully designed outline shape of draft tube with the selected placement of center-piers successfully supresses the growth of turbulence eddy and the transport of the swirl to the outlet. Also, more kinetic energy is recovered and the head lost is improved. Finally, the model test results are also presented. The obvious performance improvement was found in the lower net head area, where the maximum efficiency improvement was measured up to 20% without compromising the best efficiency point. Additionally, this design results in a new draft tube more compact in size and so leads to better construction and manufacturing cost performance for prototype. The draft tube geometry parameter designing process was concerning the best efficiency point together with the off-design points covering various water net heads and discharges. The hydraulic performance and flow behavior was numerically previewed and visualized by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Shear Stress Transport turbulence model. The simulation was under the assumption of steady-state incompressible turbulence flow inside the flow passage, and the inlet boundary condition was the carefully simulated flow pattern from the runner outlet. For confirmation, the corresponding turbine efficiency performance of the entire operating area was verified by model test.

  5. Construction and test of new precision drift-tube chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    Kroha, H., E-mail: kroha@mpp.mpg.de; Kortner, O.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Takasugi, E.

    2017-02-11

    ATLAS muon detector upgrades aim for increased acceptance for muon triggering and precision tracking and for improved rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions of the detector with increasing LHC luminosity. The small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half of the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages of the MDTs, but have an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, minimizing construction time and personnel. Sense wire positioning accuracies of 5 μm have been achieved in serial production for large-size chambers comprising several hundred drift tubes. The construction of new sMDT chambers for installation in the 2016/17 winter shutdown of the LHC and the design of sMDT chambers in combination with new RPC trigger chambers for replacement of the inner layer of the barrel muon spectrometer are in progress.

  6. Construction and test of new precision drift-tube chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    Kroha, H.; Kortner, O.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Takasugi, E.

    2017-02-01

    ATLAS muon detector upgrades aim for increased acceptance for muon triggering and precision tracking and for improved rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions of the detector with increasing LHC luminosity. The small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half of the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages of the MDTs, but have an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, minimizing construction time and personnel. Sense wire positioning accuracies of 5 μm have been achieved in serial production for large-size chambers comprising several hundred drift tubes. The construction of new sMDT chambers for installation in the 2016/17 winter shutdown of the LHC and the design of sMDT chambers in combination with new RPC trigger chambers for replacement of the inner layer of the barrel muon spectrometer are in progress.

  7. Construction and Test of New Precision Drift-Tube Chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    INSPIRE-00218480

    2017-02-11

    ATLAS muon detector upgrades aim for increased acceptance for muon triggering and precision tracking and for improved rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions of the detector with increasing LHC luminosity. The small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half of the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages of the MDTs, but have an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, minimizing construction time and personnel. Sense wire positioning accuracies of 5 ?micons have been achieved in serial production for large-size chambers comprising several hundred drift tubes. The construction of new sMDT chambers for installation in the 2016/17 winter shutdown of the LHC and the design of sMDT chambers in combination with new R...

  8. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material: ATM-11 glass

    Wald, J.W.; Daniel, J.L.

    1986-08-01

    ATM-11 glass is designed to be representative of defense high-level waste glasses that will be produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina. It is representative of a 300-year-old nuclear waste glass and was intended as a conservative compromise between 10-year-old waste and 1000-year-old waste. The feedstock material for this glass was supplied by Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC, as SRL-165 black frit to which was added Ba, Cs, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pd, Rb, Ru, Sr, Te, Y, and Zr, as well as 241 Am, 237 Np, /sup 239+240/Pu, 151 Sm, 99 Tc, and depleted U. The glass was melted under the reducing conditions that resulted from the addition of 0.7 wt% graphite during the final melting process. Nearly 3 kg of ATM-11 glass were produced from a feedstock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1250 0 C in Denver Fire Clay crucibles. After final melting, the glass was formed into stress-annealed rectangular bars 1.9 x 1.9 x 10 cm nominal size. Twenty-six bars were cast with a nominal weight of about 100 g each. The analyzed composition of ATM-11 glass is tabulated. Examination of a single transverse section from one bar by reflected light microscopy showed random porosity estimated at 0.4 vol% with nominal pore diameters ranging from ∼5 μm to 175 μm. A distinct randomly distributed second phase was observed at a very low concentration in the glass matrix as agglomerated, metallic-like clusters. One form of the aggregates contained mainly a high concentration of iron, while a second form had regions of high nickel concentration, and of high palladium concentration. All aggregates also contained a low concentration of technetium and/or ruthenium. An autoradiograph of the sample provided an indication of the total radionuclide ditribution. X-ray diffraction analysis of this same sample indicates that the glass probably contained 5 wt% crystalline material

  9. A Study on the Small Punch Test for Fracture Strength Evaluation of CANDU Pressure Tube Embrittled by Hydrogen

    Nho, Seung Hwan; Ong, Jang Woo; Yu, Hyo Sun; Chung, Se Hi

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of small punch(SP) test using miniaturized specimens as a method for fracture strength evaluation of CANDU pressure tube embrittled by hydrogen. According to the test results, the fracture strength evaluation as a function of hydrogen concentration at -196 .deg. C was much better than that at room temperature, as the difference of SP fracture energy(Esp) with hydrogen concentration was more significant at -196 .deg. C than at room temperature for the hydrogen concentration up to 300ppm-H. It was also observed that the peak of average AE energy, the cumulative average AE energy and the cumulative average AE energy per equivalent fracture, strain increased with the increase of hydrogen concentration. From the results of load-displacement behaviors, Esp behaviors, macro- and micro-SEM fractographs and AE test it has been concluded that the SP test method using miniaturized specimen(10mmx10mmx0.5mm) will be a useful test method to evaluate the fracture strength for CANDU pressure tube embrittled by hydrogen

  10. Development of Micro-welding Technology of Cladding Tube with Temperature Sensor for Nuclear Fuel Irradiation Test

    Kim, Soo Sung; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, D. Y

    2006-01-15

    Laser welding technology is widely used to fabricate some products of nuclear fuel in the nuclear industry. Especially, micro-laser welding is one of the key technology to be developed to fabricate precise products of fuel irradiation test. We have to secure laser welding technology to perform various instrumentations for fuel irradiation test. The instrumented fuel irradiation test at a research reactor is needed to evaluate the performance of the developed nuclear fuel. The fuel elements can be designed to measure the center line temperature of fuel pellets during the irradiation test by using temperature sensor. The thermal sensor was composed of thermocouple and sensor sheath. Micro-laser welding technology was adopted to seal between seal tube and sensor sheath with thickness of 0.15mm. The soundness of weld area has to be confirmed to prevent fission gas of the fuel from leaking out of the element during the fuel irradiation test. In this study, fundamental data for micro-laser welding technology was proposed to seal temperature sensor sheath of the instrumented fuel element. And, micro-laser welding for dissimilar metals between sensor sheath and seal tube was characterized by investigating welding conditions. Moreover, the micro-laser welding technology is closely related to advanced industry. It is expected that the laser material processing technology will be adopted to various applications in the industry.

  11. Reinforcing effect of glass-fiber mesh on complete dentures in a test model with a simulated oral mucosa.

    Yu, Sang-Hui; Oh, Seunghan; Cho, Hye-Won; Bae, Ji-Myung

    2017-11-01

    Studies that evaluated the strength of complete dentures reinforced with glass-fiber mesh or metal mesh on a cast with a simulated oral mucosa are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the mechanical properties of maxillary complete dentures reinforced with glass-fiber mesh with those of metal mesh in a new test model, using a simulated oral mucosa. Complete dentures reinforced with 2 types of glass-fiber mesh, SES mesh (SES) and glass cloth (GC) and metal mesh (metal) were fabricated. Complete dentures without any reinforcement were prepared as a control (n=10). The complete dentures were located on a cast with a simulated oral mucosa, and a load was applied on the posterior artificial teeth bilaterally. The fracture load, elastic modulus, and toughness of a complete denture were measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The fracture load and elastic modulus were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance, and the toughness was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=.05). The Tukey multiple range test was used as a post hoc test. The fracture load and toughness of the SES group was significantly higher than that of the metal and control groups (P<.05) but not significantly different from that of the GC group. The elastic modulus of the metal group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<.05), and no significant differences were observed in the SES and GC groups. Compared with the control group, the fracture load and toughness of the SES and GC groups were higher, while those of the metal group were not significantly different. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Solution exchange corrosion testing with the glass-zeolite ceramic waste form in demineralized water at 900C

    Simpson, L. J.

    1998-01-01

    A ceramic waste form of glass-bonded zeolite is being developed for the long-term disposition of fission products and transuranic elements in wastes from the U.S. Department of Energy's spent nuclear fuel conditioning activities. Solution exchange corrosion tests were performed on the ceramic waste form and its potential base constituents of glass, zeolite 5A, and sodalite as part of an effort to qualify the ceramic waste form for acceptance into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. Solution exchange tests were performed at 90 C by replacing 80 to 90% of the leachate with fresh demineralized water after set time intervals. The results from these tests provide information about corrosion mechanisms and the ability of the ceramic waste form and its constituent materials to retain waste components. The results from solution exchange tests indicate that radionuclides will be preferentially retained in the zeolites without the glass matrix and in the ceramic waste form, with respect to cations like Li, K, and Na. Release results have been compared for simulated waste from candidate ceramic waste forms with zeolite 5A and its constituent materials to determine the corrosion behavior of each component

  13. Isothermal Amplification for MicroRNA Detection: From the Test Tube to the Cell.

    Deng, Ruijie; Zhang, Kaixiang; Li, Jinghong

    2017-04-18

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that act as pivotal post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, thus involving in many fundamental cellular processes such as cell proliferation, migration, and canceration. The detection of miRNAs has attracted significant interest, as abnormal miRNA expression is identified to contribute to serious human diseases such as cancers. Particularly, miRNAs in peripheral blood have recently been recognized as important biomarkers potential for liquid biopsy. Furthermore, as miRNAs are expressed heterogeneously in different cells, investigations into single-cell miRNA expression will be of great value for resolving miRNA-mediated regulatory circuits and the complexity and heterogeneity of miRNA-related diseases. Thus, the development of miRNA detection methods, especially for complex clinic samples and single cells is in great demand. In this Account, we will present recent progress in the design and application of isothermal amplification enabling miRNA detection transition from the test tube to the clinical sample and single cell, which will significantly advance our knowledge of miRNA functions and disease associations, as well as its translation in clinical diagnostics. miRNAs present a huge challenge in detection because of their extremely short length (∼22 nucleotides) and sequence homology (even with only single-nucleotide variation). The conventional golden method for nucleic acid detection, quantitative PCR (qPCR), is not amenable to directly detecting short RNAs and hardly enables distinguishing between miRNA family members with very similar sequences. Alternatively, isothermal amplification has emerged as a powerful method for quantification of nucleic acids and attracts broad interest for utilization in developing miRNA assays. Compared to PCR, isothermal amplification can be performed without precise control of temperature cycling and is well fit for detecting short RNA or DNA. We and other

  14. Flexural Behavior of GFRP Tubes Filled with Magnetically Driven Concrete.

    Xie, Fang; Chen, Ju; Dong, Xinlong; Feng, Bing

    2018-01-08

    Experimental investigation of GFRP (glass fiber reinforced polymer) tubes that were filled with magnetically driven concrete was carried out to study the flexural behavior of specimens under bending. Specimens having different cross section and lengths were tested. The test specimens were fabricated by filling magnetically driven concrete into the GFRP tubes and the concrete was vibrated using magnetic force. Specimens vibrated using vibrating tube were also tested for comparison. In addition, specimens having steel reinforcing bars and GFRP bars were both tested to study the effect of reinforcing bars on the magnetically driven concrete. The load-displacement curves, load-strain curves, failure mode, and ultimate strengths of test specimens were obtained. Design methods for the flexural stiffness of test specimens were also discussed in this study.

  15. Optimized Synthesis of Foam Glass from Recycled CRT Panel Glass

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Most of the panel glass from cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is landfilled today. Instead of landfilling, the panel glass can be turned into new environment-friendly foam glass. Low density foam glass is an effective heat insulating material and can be produced just by using recycle glass and foaming...... additives. In this work we recycle the CRT panel glass to synthesize the foam glass as a crucial component of building and insulating materials. The synthesis conditions such as foaming temperature, duration, glass particle size, type and concentrations of foaming agents, and so on are optimized...... by performing systematic experiments. In particular, the concentration of foaming agents is an important parameter that influences the size of bubbles and the distribution of bubbles throughout the sample. The foam glasses are characterised regarding density and open/closed porosity. Differential scanning...

  16. SRL in-situ tests in the United Kingdom: Part 2, Surface analyses of SRS waste glass buried for one and two years in limestone at Ballidon, UK

    Namboodri, C.G. Jr.; Wicks, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A multiphase experimental program to assess and understand waste glass behavior under a wide range of conditions has been in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for over a decade. An important part of this experimental effort is to assess the effects of repository relevant conditions on performance of SRS waste glass, in both controlled laboratory tests, as well as in actual field experiments. In laboratory test, SRS waste glass, simulated and in many cases also fully radioactive, has been tested in environments of salt, basalt, shale, granite, clay and tuff. In field experiments, there are four joint international programs being conducted in four different countries, involving burial of SRS simulated waste glass in granite, limestone, clay and salt geologies. This report discusses the SRS waste glass studies in limestone at Ballidon, UK

  17. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  18. A flow test for calibrating 177 core tubes of 1/5-scale reactor flow model for Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4

    Lee, Byung Jin; Jang, Ho Cheol; Cheong, Jong Sik; Kuh, Jung Eui

    1990-01-01

    A flow test was performed to find out the hydraulic characteristics of every one of 177 core tubes, representing a fuel assembly respectively, as a preparatory step of 1/5 scale reactor flow model test for Yonggwang Nuclear Units (hereafter YGN) 3 and 4. The axial hydraulic resistance of the fuel assembly was simulated in the square core tube with six orifice plates positioned along the tube length; core support structure below each fuel assembly was done in the core upstream geometry section of the test loop. For each core tube the pressure differentials across the inlet, exit orifice plate and overall tube length were measured, along with the flow rates and temperatures of the test fluid. The measured pressure drops were converted to pressure loss or flow metering coefficients. The metering coefficient of the inlet orifice plate was sensitive to the configuration and location of the upstream geometry. The hydraulic resistance of the core tubes were reasonably coincided with a target value and consistent. The polynomial curve fits of the calibrated coefficients for the 177 core tubes were obtained with reasonable data scatters

  19. Scramjet test flow reconstruction for a large-scale expansion tube, Part 1: quasi-one-dimensional modelling

    Gildfind, D. E.; Jacobs, P. A.; Morgan, R. G.; Chan, W. Y. K.; Gollan, R. J.

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale free-piston driven expansion tubes have uniquely high total pressure capabilities which make them an important resource for development of access-to-space scramjet engine technology. However, many aspects of their operation are complex, and their test flows are fundamentally unsteady and difficult to measure. While computational fluid dynamics methods provide an important tool for quantifying these flows, these calculations become very expensive with increasing facility size and therefore have to be carefully constructed to ensure sufficient accuracy is achieved within feasible computational times. This study examines modelling strategies for a Mach 10 scramjet test condition developed for The University of Queensland's X3 facility. The present paper outlines the challenges associated with test flow reconstruction, describes the experimental set-up for the X3 experiments, and then details the development of an experimentally tuned quasi-one-dimensional CFD model of the full facility. The 1-D model, which accurately captures longitudinal wave processes, is used to calculate the transient flow history in the shock tube. This becomes the inflow to a higher-fidelity 2-D axisymmetric simulation of the downstream facility, detailed in the Part 2 companion paper, leading to a validated, fully defined nozzle exit test flow.

  20. Scramjet test flow reconstruction for a large-scale expansion tube, Part 1: quasi-one-dimensional modelling

    Gildfind, D. E.; Jacobs, P. A.; Morgan, R. G.; Chan, W. Y. K.; Gollan, R. J.

    2018-07-01

    Large-scale free-piston driven expansion tubes have uniquely high total pressure capabilities which make them an important resource for development of access-to-space scramjet engine technology. However, many aspects of their operation are complex, and their test flows are fundamentally unsteady and difficult to measure. While computational fluid dynamics methods provide an important tool for quantifying these flows, these calculations become very expensive with increasing facility size and therefore have to be carefully constructed to ensure sufficient accuracy is achieved within feasible computational times. This study examines modelling strategies for a Mach 10 scramjet test condition developed for The University of Queensland's X3 facility. The present paper outlines the challenges associated with test flow reconstruction, describes the experimental set-up for the X3 experiments, and then details the development of an experimentally tuned quasi-one-dimensional CFD model of the full facility. The 1-D model, which accurately captures longitudinal wave processes, is used to calculate the transient flow history in the shock tube. This becomes the inflow to a higher-fidelity 2-D axisymmetric simulation of the downstream facility, detailed in the Part 2 companion paper, leading to a validated, fully defined nozzle exit test flow.

  1. Characteristics Testing of the ECT Bobbin Probe for S/G Tube Inspection

    Nam, Min Woo; Lee, Hee Jong; Cho, Chan Hee; Yoo, Hyun Joo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The bobbin probe technique is basically one of the important ECT methods for the steam generator tube integrity assessment that is practiced during each plant outage. The bobbin probe also is the essential component which consists of the whole ECT examination system, and provides a decisive data for the evaluation of tube integrity in compliance with acceptance criteria described in specific procedures. The selection of probe is especially important because the quality of acquired ECT data is determined by the probe design characteristics, such as geometry and operation frequency, and has an important effect on examination results. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has recently defined the procedures for the qualification of eddy current hardware and technique. These procedures provide two basic methods for qualification. Flawed tube removed from operation, or artificial flaw is required for the original qualification of technique combined with related flaw mechanism. In case where the original qualification has been completed, the concept of equivalency may be used to extend the original qualification to similar probe designs. The qualified acquisition technique may be modified to substitute or replace instruments or probes without re-qualification provided that the range of essential variables defined in the examination technique specification sheet are met. In this case, both the original and replaced instrument or probe shall be characterized utilizing EPRI Guideline supplement 'H1'. This study is the result of the comparative performance evaluation of bobbin coil eddy current probes manufactured by KEPRI and a foreign manufacturer. As a result of this study, although there were minor differences between the two probe types, it was evaluated that the two probes were almost identical in the significant performance characteristics described in the EPRI guideline

  2. Coaxial guiding assembly for internal through-passing probe for eddy current testing of tubes

    Kubis, S.; Holec, P.

    1989-01-01

    The device features guiding cases mounted on springs provided on the peripheries with two rows of radial openings into which are wound flexible fibres parallel with the case axis. The advantage of the design is that active elements which provide the coaxial guiding of the probe are oriented in the direction of the probe movement. This significantly reduces friction between the probe and the internal wall of the tube and thereby also wear of the guide parts of the probe. (J.B.). 2 figs

  3. Characteristics Testing of the ECT Bobbin Probe for Steam Generator Tube Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant

    Nam, Min Woo; Lee, Hee Jong; Cho, Chan hee; Yoo, Hyun Joo

    2010-01-01

    The steam generator management program(SGMP) has recently defined the procedures for the qualification of eddy current hardware and technique. These procedures provide two basic methods for qualification. The first way is to qualify the equipment or the probe by using the flaw mechanism and method of the pulled tubes from the heat exchangers or the artificial flawed tubes. The second way is to verify the equivalency with the characteristics of the qualified equipment or probe. In this case, the qualified equipment or probe may be modified to substitute or replace instruments or probes without re-qualification provided that the range of essential variables defined in the examination technique specification sheet are met. This study is to describe the result of the comparative performance evaluation of bobbin coil eddy current probes manufactured by KEPCO Research Institute and probes manufactured by a foreign manufacturer. As a result of this study, although there were minor differences between the two kinds of probes, it was evaluated that the two kinds of probes were almost identical in the significant performance characteristics described in the KEPCO Research Institute guideline

  4. Characteristics Testing of the ECT Bobbin Probe for Steam Generator Tube Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant

    Nam, Min Woo; Lee, Hee Jong; Cho, Chan hee; Yoo, Hyun Joo [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    The steam generator management program(SGMP) has recently defined the procedures for the qualification of eddy current hardware and technique. These procedures provide two basic methods for qualification. The first way is to qualify the equipment or the probe by using the flaw mechanism and method of the pulled tubes from the heat exchangers or the artificial flawed tubes. The second way is to verify the equivalency with the characteristics of the qualified equipment or probe. In this case, the qualified equipment or probe may be modified to substitute or replace instruments or probes without re-qualification provided that the range of essential variables defined in the examination technique specification sheet are met. This study is to describe the result of the comparative performance evaluation of bobbin coil eddy current probes manufactured by KEPCO Research Institute and probes manufactured by a foreign manufacturer. As a result of this study, although there were minor differences between the two kinds of probes, it was evaluated that the two kinds of probes were almost identical in the significant performance characteristics described in the KEPCO Research Institute guideline

  5. Application of the NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] unsaturated test method to actinide doped SRL [Savannah River Laboratory] 165 type glass

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1990-08-01

    The results of tests done using the Unsaturated Test Method are presented. These tests, done to determine the suitability of glass in a potential high-level waste repository as developed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, simulate conditions anticipated for the post-containment phase of the repository when only limited contact between the waste form and water is expected. The reaction of glass occurs via processes that are initiated due to glass/water vapor and glass/liquid water contact. Vapor interaction results in the initiation of an exchange process between water and the more mobile species (alkalis and boron) in the glass. The liquid reaction produces interactions similar to those seen in standard leaching tests, except due to the limited amount of water present and the presence of partially sensitized 304L stainless steel, the formation of reaction products greatly exceeds that found in MCC-1 type leach tests. The effect of sensitized stainless steel on the reaction is to enhance breakdown of the glass matrix thereby increasing the release of the transuranic elements from the glass. However, most of the Pu and Am released is entrained by either the metal components of the test or by the reaction phases, and is not released to solution. 16 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs

  6. Comparative experiments for tube agglutination test of pullorum antiserum with gamma ray Co/sup 60/ irradiated salmonella pullorum

    Seo, B K [City Univ. of Seoul, Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1976-01-01

    An agglutinability between naturally infected positive chicken serum of pullorum disease and hyperimmunized rabbit antiserum was compared. And the following results were obtained and summarized. On the agglutinability, Salmonella pullorum antigen which irradiated gamma-ray was better than another both formalized and heated antigen. Time of judgemented as positive titer in the tube agglutination test to the naturally infected positive chicken serum was it most suitable for 12 hours at 37/sup 0/C. Agglutination titer of positive immune chicken serum against gamma-ray irradiate Salmonella pullorum were as 320 approximately 640x.

  7. Performance test results of mock-up model test facility with a full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Kato, Michio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Research on a hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane, chemical reaction; CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O {yields} 3H{sub 2}O + CO, has been carried out to couple with the HTTR for establishment of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization technology and contribution to hydrogen energy society in future. The mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube test facility, a model simulating one reaction tube of a steam reformer of the HTTR hydrogen production system in full scale, was fabricated to perform tests on controllability, hydrogen production performance etc. under the same pressure and temperature conditions as those of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The design and fabrication of the test facility started from 1997, and the all components were installed until September in 2001. In a performance test conducted from October in 2001 to February in 2002, performance of each component was examined and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}{sub N}/h was successfully produced with high-temperature helium gas. This report describes the performance test results on components performance, hydrogen production characteristics etc., and main troubles and countermeasures. (author)

  8. Performance test results of mock-up model test facility with a full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Kato, Michio

    2003-03-01

    Research on a hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane, chemical reaction; CH 4 + H 2 O → 3H 2 O + CO, has been carried out to couple with the HTTR for establishment of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization technology and contribution to hydrogen energy society in future. The mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube test facility, a model simulating one reaction tube of a steam reformer of the HTTR hydrogen production system in full scale, was fabricated to perform tests on controllability, hydrogen production performance etc. under the same pressure and temperature conditions as those of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The design and fabrication of the test facility started from 1997, and the all components were installed until September in 2001. In a performance test conducted from October in 2001 to February in 2002, performance of each component was examined and hydrogen of 120m 3 N /h was successfully produced with high-temperature helium gas. This report describes the performance test results on components performance, hydrogen production characteristics etc., and main troubles and countermeasures. (author)

  9. Scratch test induced shear banding in high power laser remelted metallic glass layers

    Matthews, D. T. A.; Ocelik, V.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Laser remelted surface layers of a Cu-based metallic glass forming alloy have been produced with fully amorphous depths up to 350 mu m for single track widths of around 1.3 mm and have been checked by transmission of synchrotron radiation. They have been subjected to indentation hardness and scratch

  10. Glass-aluminium bonded joints ; testing, comparing and designing for the ATP

    Richemont, S.A.J. de; Veer, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the research to the bonded joints of the All Transparent Pavilion (ATP), an experimental project built in November 2004 at the faculty of Architecture in Delft. The pavilion is designed to use structural glass elements, bonded with Delo Photobond GB 368, a photo-catalytic

  11. FY2016 Update on ILAW Glass Testing for Disposal at IDF

    Brown, E. E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, D. J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-04-12

    This status report provides a FY2016 update on work performed to collect information on the corrosion behavior of LAW glasses to support the IDF PA. In addition to the development of the baseline operating envelope for the WTP, since 2003, VSL has developed a wide range of LAW formulations that achieve considerably higher waste loadings than the WTP baseline formulations.

  12. Test of magnetic shielding cases for a 3'' phototube attached to a lead glass counter

    Ogawa, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.

    1985-09-01

    Effect of a magnetic shielding for a phototube of 3'' diameter attached to a lead glass counter has been studied using permalloy shielding cases with two kinds of shapes. Both cases show sufficient shielding effect with magnetic field up to around 30 gauss. (author)

  13. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  14. Final Report for Crucible -Scale Radioactive Vitrification and Product Test of Waste Envelope B (AZ-102) Low-Activity Waste Glass

    CRAWFORD, CHARLES

    2004-01-01

    A proof-of-technology demonstration for the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) was performed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). As part of this demonstration, treated AZ-102 Low-Activity Waste supernate was vitrified using a crucible-scale furnace. Initial glass samples were quench-cooled and characterized for metals and radionuclides. The glass was also durability tested using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Product Consistency Test (PCT) protocol. These tests used the AZ-102 glass formulation Low Activity Waste (LAW) B88 that targeted AZ-102 waste loading at 5 wt% Na2O. After these initial results were obtained with the quench-cooled LAWB88 glass, a prototypical container centerline cooling (CCC) program was supplied to SRTC by WTP. A portion of the quench-cooled LAWB88 glass was remelted and centerline cooled. Samples from the CCC low-activity AZ-102 glass waste form were durability tested using the PCT and characterized for crystalline phase identification.This final report documents the characterization and durability of this AZ-102 glass

  15. Inversion of lithium heparin gel tubes after centrifugation is a significant source of bias in clinical chemistry testing.

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-09-25

    This study was planned to establish whether random orientation of gel tubes after centrifugation may impair sample quality. Eight gel tubes were collected from 17 volunteers: 2 Becton Dickinson (BD) serum tubes, 2 Terumo serum tubes, 2 BD lithium heparin tubes and 2 Terumo lithium heparin tubes. One patient's tube for each category was kept in a vertical, closure-up position for 90 min ("upright"), whereas paired tubes underwent bottom-up inversion every 15 min, for 90 min ("inverted"). Immediately after this period of time, 14 clinical chemistry analytes, serum indices and complete blood count were then assessed in all tubes. Significant increases were found for phosphate and lipaemic index in all inverted tubes, along with AST, calcium, cholesterol, LDH, potassium, hemolysis index, leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets limited to lithium heparin tubes. The desirable quality specifications were exceeded for AST, LDH, and potassium in inverted lithium heparin tubes. Residual leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets and cellular debris were also significantly increased in inverted lithium heparin tubes. Lithium heparin gel tubes should be maintained in a vertical, closure-up position after centrifugation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Test Summary Report Vitrification Demonstration of an Optimized Hanford C-106/AY-102 Waste-Glass Formulation

    Goles, Ronald W.; Buchmiller, William C.; Hymas, Charles R.; MacIsaac, Brett D.

    2002-01-01

    In order to further the goal of optimizing Hanford?s HLW borosilicate flowsheet, a glass formulation effort was launched to develop an advanced high-capacity waste form exhibiting acceptable leach and crystal formation characteristics. A simulated C-106/AY-102 waste envelop inclusive of LAW pretreatment products was chosen as the subject of these nonradioactive optimization efforts. To evaluate this optimized borosilicate waste formulation under continuous dynamic vitrification conditions, a research-scale Joule-heated ceramic melter was used to demonstrate the advanced waste form?s flowsheet. The main objectives of this melter test was to evaluate (1) the processing characteristics of the newly formulated C-106/AY-102 surrogate melter-feed stream, (2) the effectiveness of sucrose as a glass-oxidation-state modifier, and (3) the impact of this reductant upon processing rates

  17. Thin walled Nb tubes for suspending test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Lee, B.H. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)]. E-mail: bhl@physics.uwa.edu.au; Ju, L. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia); Blair, D.G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-02-13

    In a previous Letter, we have shown that the use of orthogonal ribbons could provide a better mirror suspension technique in interferometric gravitational wave antennas. One of the key improvements presented by the orthogonal ribbon is the reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser. We have considered more elaborate geometries in recent simulations and obtained a suspension that provides further reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser, as well as in the direction orthogonal to the laser. This thin walled niobium tube suspension exhibits a reduction in the number of violin modes to 5 in each direction up to a frequency of 5 kHz. Furthermore, the violin mode thermal noise peaks can be reduced in amplitude by 30 dB.

  18. Thin walled Nb tubes for suspending test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Lee, B.H.; Ju, L.; Blair, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous Letter, we have shown that the use of orthogonal ribbons could provide a better mirror suspension technique in interferometric gravitational wave antennas. One of the key improvements presented by the orthogonal ribbon is the reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser. We have considered more elaborate geometries in recent simulations and obtained a suspension that provides further reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser, as well as in the direction orthogonal to the laser. This thin walled niobium tube suspension exhibits a reduction in the number of violin modes to 5 in each direction up to a frequency of 5 kHz. Furthermore, the violin mode thermal noise peaks can be reduced in amplitude by 30 dB

  19. Mechanical design, fabrication and initial tests on prototype drift tube linac at IUAC

    Sacharias, J.; Mehta, R.; Hariwal, R.V.; Ajithkumar, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Drift Tube Linac (DTL) project is a major subsection of High Current Injector project at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC). It has been designed to accelerate ions from 180 keV/u to 1.8 MeV/u, using six IH type RF resonators operating at 97 MHz. The required output energy of the DTL is decided by the minimum input velocity of nearly 6% of velocity of light, required for the existing superconducting LINAC. IH type resonators are the preferred choice for multiple gap DTL applications due to their high shunt impedance values. The mechanical design and CNC machining of parts and assembly of DTL were carried out at IUAC to validate the electrical design. (author)

  20. Test of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes for the LHCb scintillator pad detector

    Aguiló, Ernest; Comerma-Montells, A; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Graciani, Ricardo; Grauges, Eugeni; Vilasis Cardona, Xavier; Xirgu, Xavier; Bohner, Gerard; Bonnefoy, Romeo; Borras, David; Cornat, Remi; Crouau, Michel; Deschamps, Olivier; Jacquet, Philippe; Lecoq, Jacques; Monteil, Stephane; Perret, Pascal; Reinmuth, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment (The LHCb Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC 98-4) is designed to study B meson physics in the LHC proton-proton collider at CERN. The Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) has been designed to complete the calorimeter information performing an e/gamma identification for the experiment level-0 trigger system. The detection technology consists in transmitting scintillation light by means of both Wavelength Shifting and clear fibers to fast multi- anode photomultiplier tubes. In this paper, it is described the instrumentation and setup used to characterize the baseline photomultiplier solution (Hamamatsu R5900-00-M64) together with the scintillators and optical fibers for the SPD at LHCb.