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Sample records for glass marbles encapsulated

  1. High level waste forms: glass marbles and thermal spray coatings

    Treat, R.L.; Oma, K.H.; Slate, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process that converts high-level waste to glass marbles and then coats the marbles has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The process consists of a joule-heated glass melter, a marble-making device based on a patent issued to Corning Glass Works, and a coating system that includes a plasma spray coater and a marble tumbler. The process was developed under the Alternative Waste Forms Program which strived to improve upon monolithic glass for immobilizing high-level wastes. Coated glass marbles were found to be more leach-resistant, and the marbles, before coating were found to be very homogeneous, highly impact resistant, and conductive to encapsulation in a metal matric for improved heat transfer and containment. Marbles are also ideally suited for quality assurance and recycling. However, the marble process is more complex, and marbles require a larger number of canisters for waste containment and have a higher surface area than do glass monoliths

  2. Consolidated waste forms: glass marbles and ceramic pellets

    Treat, R.L.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    Glass marbles and ceramic pellets have been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the multibarrier concept for immobilizing high-level radioactive waste. These consolidated waste forms served as substrates for the application of various inert coatings and as ideal-sized particles for encapsulation in protective matrices. Marble and pellet formulations were based on existing defense wastes at Savannah River Plant and proposed commercial wastes. To produce marbles, glass is poured from a melter in a continuous stream into a marble-making device. Marbles were produced at PNL on a vibratory marble machine at rates as high as 60 kg/h. Other marble-making concepts were also investigated. The marble process, including a lead-encapsulation step, was judged as one of the more feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes. To produce ceramic pellets, a series of processing steps are required, which include: spray calcining - to dry liquid wastes to a powder; disc pelletizing - to convert waste powders to spherical pellets; sintering - to densify pellets and cause desired crystal formation. These processing steps are quite complex, and thereby render the ceramic pellet process as one of the least feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes

  3. The Tower and Glass Marbles Problem

    Denman, Richard T.; Hailey, David; Rothenberg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Catseye Marble company tests the strength of its marbles by dropping them from various levels of their office tower, to find the highest floor from which a marble will not break. We find the smallest number of drops required and from which floor each drop should be made. We also find out how these answers change if a restriction is placed on…

  4. Molecular glasses for nuclear waste encapsulation

    Ropp, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a molecular glass based upon a polymerized phosphate of aluminum (PAP), indium or gallium overcomes all of the prior objections to use of glass as a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) encapsulation agent. This HLW glass product could not be made to devitrify, dissolved all of the oxides found in calcine, including the difficultly soluble ones, did not form microcrystallites in the melt or subsequent glass-casting, and possessed a hydrolytic etching rate to boiling water even lower than that of HLW-ZBS glass. A precursor compound, M(H 2 PO 4 ) 3 , is prepared, where M is a trivalent metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, indium and gallium. The impurity level is carefully controlled so as not to exceed 300 ppm total. The precursor crystals may be washed to remove excess phosphoric acid as desired. HLW is added to the crystals and the mixture is then heated at a controlled heating rate to induce solid state polymerization and to form a melt at 1350 degrees C in which the HLW oxides dissolve rapidly

  5. Development and testing of matrices for the encapsulation of glass and ceramic nuclear waste forms

    Wald, J.W.; Brite, D.W.; Gurwell, W.E.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Bunnell, L.R.; Gray, W.J.; Blair, H.T.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    This report details the results of research on the matrix encapsulation of high level wastes at PML over the past few years. The demonstrations and tests described were designed to illustrate how the waste materials are effected when encapsulated in an inert matrix. Candidate materials evaluated for potential use as matrices for encapslation of pelletized ceramics or glass marbles were categorized into four groups: metals, glasses, ceramics, and graphite. Two processing techniques, casting and hot pressing, were investigated as the most promising methods of formation or densification of the matrices. The major results reported deal with the development aspects. However, chemical durability tests (leach tests) of the matrix materials themselves and matrix-waste form composites are also reported. Matrix waste forms can provide a low porosity, waste-free barrier resulting in increased leach protection, higher impact strength and improved thermal conductivity compared to unencapsulated glass or ceramic waste materials. Glass marbles encapsulated in a lead matrix offer the most significant improvement in waste form stability of all combinations evaluated. This form represents a readily demonstrable process that provides high thermal conductivity, mechanical shock resistance, radiation shielding and increased chemical durability through both a chemical passivation mechanism and as a physical barrier. Other durable matrix waste forms evaluated, applicable primarily to ceramic pellets, involved hot-pressed titanium or TiO 2 materials. In the processing of these forms, near 100% dense matrices were obtained. The matrix materials had excellent compatibility with the waste materials and superior potential chemical durability. Cracking of the hot-pressed ceramic matrix forms, in general, prevented the realization of their optimum properties

  6. Insertion of marble waste in the production chain of glass wool

    Rodrigues, G.F.; Alves, J.O.; Espinosa, D.C.R.; Tenorio, J.A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The work aimed the study of the recycle of the waste from marble cutting, aiming the reuse as partial raw material in the production of glass wool. Glass wool are materials with chemical and mechanical resistance, durability and lightness, and also important thermo-acoustic properties. A mixture of the waste with chemical additives was melted in a laboratory electric furnace using temperature of 1450 deg C. The melted material was directly poured in a water-filled recipient aiming the rapidly cooling. Samples of the produced material were characterized by XRD, SEM and DTA. The results showed that the residue from marble cutting can be inserted into the productive chain of glass wool, providing a decrease in the extraction of mineral resources, a profitable destination for this waste, and a economy for the companies producer of thermo-acoustic insulators. (author)

  7. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    Zhang, Lianbin; Cha, Dong Kyu; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a

  8. Study of the incorporation of marble and granite wastes in the raw material to produce glass wool

    Rodrigues, Girley Ferreira; Junca, Eduardo; Telles, Victor Bridi; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Alves, Joner Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to characterize materials obtained from the melted mixture containing marble and granite wastes, and also chemical reagents. Using the characterization results was defined the feasibility of reuse of the marble and granite wastes, through the incorporation in the raw material to produce glass wool (a material with great consumer market as thermo-acoustic insulator). The batch was poured in a water-filled recipient and also in a Herty viscometer at temperatures of 1400, 1450 and 1500 °C. Samples of produced materials were characterized by morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy, by atomic structure using X-ray Diffraction, and by thermal behavior using Differential Thermal Analysis. The total amount of marble and granite wastes can reach about 79% replacement in relation to the total weight of the raw material used in the glass wool production. (author)

  9. Processing glass-pyrochlore composites for nuclear waste encapsulation

    Pace, S.; Cannillo, V.; Wu, J.; Boccaccini, D.N.; Seglem, S.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Glass matrix composites have been developed as alternative materials to immobilize nuclear solid waste, in particular actinides. These composites are made of soda borosilicate glass matrix, into which particles of lanthanum zirconate pyrochlore are encapsulated in concentrations of 30 vol.%. The fabrication process involves powder mixing followed by hot-pressing. At the relatively low processing temperature used (620 deg. C), the pyrochlore crystalline structure of the zirconate, which is relevant for containment of radioactive nuclei, remains unaltered. The microstructure of the composites exhibits a homogeneous distribution of isolated pyrochlore particles in the glass matrix and strong bonding at the matrix-particle interfaces. Hot-pressing was found to lead to high densification (95% th.d.) of the composite. The materials are characterized by relatively high elastic modulus, flexural strength, hardness and fracture toughness. A numerical approach using a microstructure-based finite element solver was used in order to investigate the mechanical properties of the composites

  10. Self-assembled nanotextures impart broadband transparency to glass windows and solar cell encapsulants

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles T.

    2017-10-01

    Most optoelectronic components and consumer display devices require glass or plastic covers for protection against the environment. Optical reflections from these encapsulation layers can degrade the device performance or lessen the user experience. Here, we use a highly scalable self-assembly based approach to texture glass surfaces at the nanoscale, reducing reflections by such an extent so as to make the glass essentially invisible. Our nanotextures provide broadband antireflection spanning visible and infrared wavelengths (450-2500 nm) that is effective even at large angles of incidence. This technology can be used to improve the performance of photovoltaic devices by eliminating reflection losses, which can be as much as 8% for glass encapsulated cells. In contrast, solar cells encapsulated with nanotextured glass generate the same photocurrent as when operated without a cover. Ultra-transparent windows having surface nanotextures on both sides can withstand three times more optical fluence than commercial broadband antireflection coatings, making them useful for pulsed laser applications.

  11. Nuclear-waste encapsulation by metal-matrix casting

    Nelson, R.G.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.

    1981-05-01

    Several encapsulation casting processes are described that were developed or used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to embed simulated high-level wastes of two different forms (glass marbles and ceramic pellets) in metal matrices. Preliminary evaluations of these casting processes and the products are presented. Demonstrations have shown that 5- to 10-mm-dia glass marbles can be encapsulated on an engineering scale with lead or lead alloys by gravity or vacuum processes. Marbles approx. 12 mm in dia were successfully encapsulated in a lead alloy on a production scale. Also, 4- to 9-mm-dia ceramic pellets in containers of various sizes were completely penetrated and the individual pellets encased with aluminum-12 wt % silicon alloy by vacuum processes. Indications are that of the casting processes tested, aluminum 12 wt % silicon alloy vacuum-cast around ceramic pellets had the highest degree of infiltration or coverage of pellet surfaces

  12. Encapsulation of TRISO particle fuel in durable soda-lime-silicate glasses

    Heath, Paul G.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Stennett, Martin C.; Hand, Russell J.; Meyer, Willem C.H.M.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2013-01-01

    Tri-Structural Isotropic (TRISO) coated particle-fuel is a key component in designs for future high temperature nuclear reactors. This study investigated the suitability of three soda lime silicate glass compositions, for the encapsulation of simulant TRISO particle fuel. A cold press and sinter (CPS) methodology was employed to produce TRISO particle–glass composites. Composites produced were determined to have an aqueous durability, fracture toughness and Vickers’ hardness comparable to glasses currently employed for the disposal of high level nuclear wastes. Sintering at 700 °C for 30 min was found to remove all interconnected porosity from the composite bodies and oxidation of the outer pyrolytic carbon layer during sintering was prevented by processing under a 5% H 2 /N 2 atmosphere. However, the outer pyrolytic carbon layer was not effectively wetted by the encapsulating glass matrix. The aqueous durability of the TRISO particle–glass composites was investigated using PCT and MCC-1 tests combined with geochemical modelling. It was found that durability was dependent on silicate and calcium solution saturation. This study provides significant advancements in the preparation of TRISO particle encapsulant waste forms. The potential for the use of non-borosilicate sintered glass composites for TRISO particle encapsulation has been confirmed, although further refinements are required

  13. Encapsulation of TRISO particle fuel in durable soda-lime-silicate glasses

    Heath, Paul G.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Stennett, Martin C.; Hand, Russell J. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Robert Hadfield Building, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Meyer, Willem C.H.M. [Necsa, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, PO Box 582, Pretoria, Gauteng (South Africa); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Robert Hadfield Building, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Tri-Structural Isotropic (TRISO) coated particle-fuel is a key component in designs for future high temperature nuclear reactors. This study investigated the suitability of three soda lime silicate glass compositions, for the encapsulation of simulant TRISO particle fuel. A cold press and sinter (CPS) methodology was employed to produce TRISO particle–glass composites. Composites produced were determined to have an aqueous durability, fracture toughness and Vickers’ hardness comparable to glasses currently employed for the disposal of high level nuclear wastes. Sintering at 700 °C for 30 min was found to remove all interconnected porosity from the composite bodies and oxidation of the outer pyrolytic carbon layer during sintering was prevented by processing under a 5% H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmosphere. However, the outer pyrolytic carbon layer was not effectively wetted by the encapsulating glass matrix. The aqueous durability of the TRISO particle–glass composites was investigated using PCT and MCC-1 tests combined with geochemical modelling. It was found that durability was dependent on silicate and calcium solution saturation. This study provides significant advancements in the preparation of TRISO particle encapsulant waste forms. The potential for the use of non-borosilicate sintered glass composites for TRISO particle encapsulation has been confirmed, although further refinements are required.

  14. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2012-07-26

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a responsive block copolymer-grafted mesoporous silica shell and magnetite core (see figure; P2VP-b-PDMS: poly(2-vinylpyridine-b- dimethylsiloxane)). Desirable properties of the liquid marbles include that they rupture upon ultraviolet illumination and can be remotely manipulated by an external magnetic field. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Insertion of marble waste in the production chain of glass wool; Insercao do residuo de marmore na cadeia produtiva da la de vidro

    Rodrigues, G.F.; Alves, J.O.; Espinosa, D.C.R.; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: girleyf@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The work aimed the study of the recycle of the waste from marble cutting, aiming the reuse as partial raw material in the production of glass wool. Glass wool are materials with chemical and mechanical resistance, durability and lightness, and also important thermo-acoustic properties. A mixture of the waste with chemical additives was melted in a laboratory electric furnace using temperature of 1450 deg C. The melted material was directly poured in a water-filled recipient aiming the rapidly cooling. Samples of the produced material were characterized by XRD, SEM and DTA. The results showed that the residue from marble cutting can be inserted into the productive chain of glass wool, providing a decrease in the extraction of mineral resources, a profitable destination for this waste, and a economy for the companies producer of thermo-acoustic insulators. (author)

  16. Gas Marbles: Much Stronger than Liquid Marbles

    Timounay, Yousra; Pitois, Olivier; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    Enwrapping liquid droplets with hydrophobic particles allows the manufacture of so-called "liquid marbles" [Aussillous and Quéré Nature (London) 411, 924 (2001); , 10.1038/35082026Mahadevan Nature (London)411, 895 (2001), 10.1038/35082164]. The recent intensive research devoted to liquid marbles is justified by their very unusual physical and chemical properties and by their potential for various applications, from microreactors to water storage, including water pollution sensors [Bormashenko Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 16, 266 (2011), 10.1016/j.cocis.2010.12.002]. Here we demonstrate that this concept can be successfully applied for encapsulating and protecting small gas pockets within an air environment. Similarly to their liquid counterparts, those new soft-matter objects, that we call "gas marbles," can sustain external forces. We show that gas marbles are surprisingly tenfold stronger than liquid marbles and, more importantly, they can sustain both positive and negative pressure differences. This magnified strength is shown to originate from the strong cohesive nature of the shell. Those interesting properties could be exploited for imprisoning valuable or polluted gases or for designing new aerated materials.

  17. Mechanical performance of encapsulated restorative glass-ionomer cements for use with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART).

    Molina, Gustavo Fabián; Cabral, Ricardo Juan; Mazzola, Ignacio; Lascano, Laura Brain; Frencken, Jo E

    2013-01-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach was suggested to be a suitable method to treat enamel and dentine carious lesions in patients with disabilities. The use of a restorative glass-ionomer with optimal mechanical properties is, therefore, very important. To test the null-hypotheses that no difference in diametral tensile, compressive and flexural strengths exists between: (1) The EQUIA system and (2) The Chemfil Rock (encapsulated glass-ionomers; test materials) and the Fuji 9 Gold Label and the Ketac Molar Easymix (hand-mixed conventional glass-ionomers; control materials); (3) The EQUIA system and Chemfil Rock. Specimens for testing flexural (n = 240) and diametral tensile (n=80) strengths were prepared according to standardized specifications; the compressive strength (n=80) was measured using a tooth-model of a class II ART restoration. ANOVA and Tukey B tests were used to test for significant differences between dependent and independent variables. The EQUIA system and Chemfil Rock had significantly higher mean scores for all the three strength variables than the Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix (α=0.05). The EQUIA system had significant higher mean scores for diametral tensile and flexural strengths than the Chemfil Rock (α=0.05). The two encapsulated high-viscosity glass-ionomers had significantly higher test values for diametral tensile, flexural and compressive strengths than the commonly used hand-mixed high-viscosity glass-ionomers.

  18. The encapsulation of nuclear waste in a magnesium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic

    Luk, K.M.

    1999-07-01

    The use of Magnesium aluminosilicate (MAS) glass-ceramics for the immobilisation of nuclear waste has been investigated. Nuclear waste is currently immobilised in a borosilicate glass. It is possible that immobilisation in an MAS glass-ceramic will reduce processing temperature of the waste, offer greater thermal and chemical stabilities and chemical durabilities. The primary reason for investigating sintered glass-ceramics is the possible advent of wastes containing high levels of refractory elements such as zirconia from the future reprocessing techniques such as electrochemical dissolution. In the first instance zirconia was used as a simulated waste with the principal of encapsulating zirconia with the minimum of porosity. Attempts were made to encapsulate 0, 20 and 40 volume % of zirconia in MAS sintering at temperatures of around 950 deg. C. It was found that the main cause of porosity was the agglomeration of fine zirconia powder. Three Taguchi experiments to optimise conditions for encapsulation of zirconia in MAS were carried out. In each case 10 volume % of zirconia was encapsulated. A Taguchi L 8 was carried out to optimise thermal conditions and powder characteristics. A Taguchi L 9 was carried out to improve knowledge of the thermal characteristics and an L 16 was carried out to provide information on curvature of thermal parameters and powder particle sizes. The conditions predicted to be optimum from these Taguchi experiments were a temperature of 940 - 960 deg. C, a heating rate of 30 deg. C/min, a hold time of 30 - 50 minutes and particle sizes of 2-4 and ∼ 15μm respectively. Densifications of up to 99% have been observed. Tapping experiments were carried out in an attempt to remove the pressing stage from processing. MAS was tapped into an alumina crucible with and without the addition of a dead weight. Almost fully dense MAS pellets were produced. This is an indication that it may be possible to process glass-ceramic waste forms in their final

  19. Comparison of silicone and spin-on glass packaging materials for light-emitting diode encapsulation

    Chang, Liann-Be; Pan, Ke-Wei; Yen, Chia-Yi [Department of Electronic Engineering and Green Technology Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Jeng, Ming-Jer, E-mail: mjjeng@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering and Green Technology Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chun-Te; Hu, Sung-Cheng; Kuo, Yang-Kuao [Chemical Systems Research Division, Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology Armaments Bureau, MND, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    Traditional white light light-emitting diode (LED) encapsulation is performed by mixed phosphors and silicone coating on LED die. However, this encapsulation with silicone coating incurs overheated temperatures and yellowing problem. Therefore, this work attempts to replace silicone paste by using spin-on-glass (SOG) materials. Experimental results indicate that although initial brightness of SOG-based packaging is lower than that of silicone packaging, its light attenuation is significantly lower than that of silicone for a long lighting time. After the LED power is turned on for 12 h, the brightness of LED with silicone and SOG material packaging decreases from 84 to 48 lm and 73 to 59 lm, respectively. Therefore, SOG material provides an alternative packaging solution for high power LED lighting applications. - Highlights: • Spin-on-glass (SOG) material was used to replace silicone coating for LED packaging. • Initial brightness of SOG packaging is lower than that of silicone packaging. • Over time, light attenuation in SOG is much lower than that in silicone. • Color rendering index and brightness of LED packaging was optimized by Taguchi method.

  20. Encapsulation of lead from hazardous CRT glass wastes using biopolymer cross-linked concrete systems

    Kim, Daeik; Quinlan, Michael; Yen, Teh Fu

    2009-01-01

    Discarded computer monitors and television sets are identified as hazardous materials due to the high content of lead in their cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Over 98% of lead is found in CRT glass. More than 75% of obsolete electronics including TV and CRT monitors are in storage because appropriate e-waste management and remediation technologies are insufficient. Already an e-waste tsunami is starting to roll across the US and the whole world. Thus, a new technology was developed as an alternative to current disposal methods; this method uses a concrete composite crosslinked with minute amounts of biopolymers and a crosslinking agent. Commercially available microbial biopolymers of xanthan gum and guar gum were used to encapsulate CRT wastes, reducing Pb leachability as measured by standard USEPA methods. In this investigation, the synergistic effect of the crosslinking reaction was observed through blending two different biopolymers or adding a crosslinking agent in biopolymer solution. This CRT-biopolymer-concrete (CBC) composite showed higher compressive strength than the standard concrete and a considerable decrease in lead leachability

  1. Liquid Marbles

    Khalil, Kareem

    2012-12-01

    Granulation, the process of formation of granules from a combination of base powders and binder liquids, has been a subject of research for almost 50 years, studied extensively for its vast applications, primarily to the pharmaceutical industry sector. The principal aim of granulation is to form granules comprised of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s), which have more desirable handling and flowability properties than raw powders. It is also essential to ensure an even distribution of active ingredients within a tablet with the goal of achieving time‐controlled release of drugs. Due to the product‐specific nature of the industry, however, data is largely empirical [1]. For example, the raw powders used can vary in size by two orders of magnitude with narrow or broad size distributions. The physical properties of the binder liquids can also vary significantly depending on the powder properties and required granule size. Some significant progress has been made to better our understanding of the overall granulation process [1] and it is widely accepted that the initial nucleation / wetting stage, when the binder liquid first wets the powders, is key to the whole process. As such, many experimental studies have been conducted in attempt to elucidate the physics of this first stage [1], with two main mechanisms being observed – classified by Ivenson [1] as the “Traditional description” and the “Modern Approach”. See Figure 1 for a graphical definition of these two mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the latter approach [1] and a new, exciting development in this field is the Liquid Marble. This interesting formation occurs when a liquid droplet interacts with a hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) powder. The droplet can become encased in the powder, which essentially provides a protective “shell” or “jacket” for the liquid inside [2]. The liquid inside is then isolated from contact with other solids or liquids and has some

  2. Randomized clinical trial of encapsulated and hand-mixed glass-ionomer ART restorations: one-year follow-up.

    Freitas, Maria Cristina Carvalho de Almendra; Fagundes, Ticiane Cestari; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Cardia, Guilherme Saintive; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima

    2018-01-18

    This prospective, randomized, split-mouth clinical trial evaluated the clinical performance of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC; Riva Self-Cure, SDI), supplied in capsules or in powder/liquid kits and placed in Class I cavities in permanent molars by the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach. A total of 80 restorations were randomly placed in 40 patients aged 11-15 years. Each patient received one restoration with each type of GIC. The restorations were evaluated after periods of 15 days (baseline), 6 months, and 1 year, according to ART criteria. Wilcoxon matched pairs, multivariate logistic regression, and Gehan-Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. Patients were evaluated after 15 days (n=40), 6 months (n=34), and 1 year (n=29). Encapsulated GICs showed significantly superior clinical performance compared with hand-mixed GICs at baseline (p=0.017), 6 months (p=0.001), and 1 year (p=0.026). For hand-mixed GIC, a statistically significant difference was only observed over the period of baseline to 1 year (p=0.001). Encapsulated GIC presented statistically significant differences for the following periods: 6 months to 1 year (p=0.028) and baseline to 1 year (p=0.002). Encapsulated GIC presented superior cumulative survival rate than hand-mixed GIC over one year. Importantly, both GICs exhibited decreased survival over time. Encapsulated GIC promoted better ART performance, with an annual failure rate of 24%; in contrast, hand-mixed GIC demonstrated a failure rate of 42%.

  3. Mold-filling experiments for validation of modeling encapsulation. Part 1, "wine glass" mold.

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Altobelli, Stephen A. (New Mexico Resonance, Albuquerque, NM); Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2005-06-01

    The C6 project 'Encapsulation Processes' has been designed to obtain experimental measurements for discovery of phenomena critical to improving these processes, as well as data required in the verification and validation plan (Rao et al. 2001) for model validation of flow in progressively complex geometries. We have observed and recorded the flow of clear, Newtonian liquids and opaque, rheologically complex suspensions in two mold geometries. The first geometry is a simple wineglass geometry in a cylinder and is reported here in Part 1. The results in a more realistic encapsulation geometry are reported in Part 2.

  4. Are encapsulated anterior glass-ionomer restoratives better than their hand-mixed equivalents?

    Dowling, Adam H

    2009-02-01

    The performance of encapsulated anterior GI restoratives were compared with their hand-mixed equivalents for the range of powder to liquid mixing ratios routinely encountered clinically. The clinically induced variability of powder to liquid mixing variations of an anhydrous GI restorative formulation was also compared with conventional GI restorative formulations that contained a polyalkenoic acidic liquid.

  5. Thermo-mechanical behaviour during encapsulation of glass in a steel vessel

    Nakhodchi, S.; Smith, D.J.; Thomas, B.G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative numerical simulations and qualitative evaluations are conducted to elucidate thermo-mechanical behaviour during pouring and solidification of molten glass into a stainless-steel cylindrical container. Residual stress and structural integrity in this casting/vitrification process is important because it can be used for long-term storage of high-level nuclear wastes. The predicted temperature and stress distributions in the glass and container agree well with previous measurements of the temperature histories and residual stresses. Three different thermal-stress models are developed using the finite-element method and compared. Two simple slice models were developed based on the generalized plane strain assumption as well as a detailed two-dimensional axi-symmetric model that adds elements according to the stages of pouring glass into the stainless steel container. The results reveal that mechanical interaction between the glass and the wall of the stainless steel container generates residual tensile stresses that approach the yield strength of the steel. Together, these results reveal important insights into the mechanism of stress generation in the process, the structural integrity of the product, and accuracy of the modelling-tool predictions. - Highlights: • Source of residual stresses in glass and stainless steel containers (canisters) is discussed. • Final residual stresses in both glass and container is quantified. • Simple models presented for simulation of complicated casting process. • Comparison between detailed and simple FE modeling.

  6. Porous glass matrix method for encapsulating high-level nuclear wastes

    Macedo, P.B.; Tran, D.C.; Simmons, J.H.; Saleh, M.; Barkatt, A.; Simmons, C.J.; Lagakos, N.; DeWitt, E.

    1979-01-01

    A novel process which uses solidified porous high-silica glass powder to fixate radioactive high-level wastes is described. The process yields cylinders consisting of a core of high-silica glass containing the waste elements in its structure and a protective layer also of high-silica glass completely free of waste elements. The process can be applied to waste streams containing 0 to 100% solids. The core region exhibits a higher coefficient of thermal expansion and a lower glass transition temperature than the outer protective layer. This leads to mechanical strengthening of the glass and good resistance to stress corrosion by the development of a high residual compressive stress on the surface of the sample. Both the core and the protective layer exhibit extremely high chemical durability and offer an effective fixation of the radioactive waste elements, including 239 Pu and 99 Tc which have long half-lives, for calculated periods of more than 1 million years, when temperatures are not allowed to rise above 100 0 C

  7. Mechanical performance of encapsulated restorative glass-ionomer cements for use with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART)

    Molina, G.F.; Cabral, R.J.; Mazzola, I.; Lascano, L.B.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach was suggested to be a suitable method to treat enamel and dentine carious lesions in patients with disabilities. The use of a restorative glass-ionomer with optimal mechanical properties is, therefore, very important. OBJECTIVE: To test the

  8. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for a PMMA/glass Concentrator Photovoltaic System

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T; Gray, Matthew H.; Araki, Kenji; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2014-04-08

    The durability of polymeric encapsulation materials was examined using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36 months cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/ polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelastic imaging, and fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. The results of the study including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.

  9. Material development in the SI sub 3 N sub 4 system using glass encapsulated Hip'ing

    Corbin, N.D.; Sundberg, G.J.; Siebein, K.N.; Willkens, C.A.; Pujari, V.K.; Rossi, G.A.; Hansen, J.S.; Chang, C.L.; Hammarstrom, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report covers a two-year program to develop fully dense Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix SiC whisker composites with enhanced properties over monolithic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. The primary goal was to develop a composite with a fracture toughness > 10 MPa{radical}m, capable of using high pressure glass encapsulated HIP'ing. Coating methods were developed to apply thin (<150nm) stoichiometric BN layers to SiC whiskers and also to apply a dual coating of SiC over carbon to the whiskers. Fracture toughness of the composites was determined to increase as the quantity of whiskers (or elongated grains) with their axis perpendicular to the crack plane increased. Of the interface compositions evaluated in this effort, carbon was determined to be the most effective for increasing toughness. The highest toughnesses (6.8--7.0 MPa{radical}m) were obtained with uniaxially aligned carbon coated whiskers. There was no evidence of the carbon coating compromising the oxidation resistance of the composites at 1370{degree}C.

  10. Ionic liquid marbles.

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2007-10-09

    Liquid marbles have been reported during this decade and have been argued to be potentially useful for microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip applications. The liquid marbles described to date have been composed of either water or glycerol as the liquid and hydrophobized lycopodium or silica as the stabilizing particles. Both of these components are potentially reactive and do not permit the use of organic chemistry; the liquids are volatile. We report the use of perfluoroalkyl particles (oligomeric (OTFE) and polymeric (PTFE) tetrafluoroethylene, which are unreactive) to support/stabilize a range of ionic liquid marbles. Ionic liquids are not volatile and have been demonstrated to be versatile solvents for chemical transformations. Water marbles prepared with OTFE are much more robust than those prepared with hydrophobized lycopodium or silica.

  11. Encapsulation of biomaterials in porous glass-like matrices prepared via an aqueous colloidal sol-gel process

    Liu, Dean-Mo; Chen, I-Wei

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for the encapsulation of biologically important proteins into transparent, porous silica matrices by an alcohol-free, aqueous, colloidal sol-gel process, and to the biological materials encapsulated thereby. The process is exemplified by studies involving encapsulated cytochrome c, catalase, myoglobin, and hemoglobin, although non-proteinaceous biomaterials, such as active DNA or RNA fragments, cells or even tissues, may also be encapsulated in accordance with the present methods. Conformation, and hence activity of the biomaterial, is successfully retained after encapsulation as demonstrated by optical characterization of the molecules, even after long-term storage. The retained conformation of the biomaterial is strongly correlated to both the rate of gelation and the subsequent drying speed of the encapsulatng matrix. Moreover, in accordance with this process, gelation is accelerated by the use of a higher colloidal solid concentration and a lower synthesis pH than conventional methods, thereby enhancing structural stability and retained conformation of the biomaterials. Thus, the invention also provides a remarkable improvement in retaining the biological activity of the encapsulated biomaterial, as compared with those involved in conventional alkoxide-based processes. It further provides new methods for the quantitative and qualitative detection of test substances that are reactive to, or catalyzed by, the active, encapsulated biological materials.

  12. Electrowetting of liquid marbles

    Newton, M I; Herbertson, D L; Elliott, S J; Shirtcliffe, N J; McHale, G

    2007-01-01

    Electrowetting of water drops on structured superhydrophobic surfaces are known to cause an irreversible change from a slippy (Cassie-Baxter) to a sticky (Wenzel) regime. An alternative approach to using a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface to obtain a non-wetting system is to use a liquid marble on a smooth solid substrate. A liquid marble is a droplet coated in hydrophobic grains, which therefore carries its own solid surface structure as a conformal coating. Such droplets can be considered as perfect non-wetting systems having contact angles to smooth solid substrates of close to 180 0 . In this work we report the electrowetting of liquid marbles made of water coated with hydrophobic lycopodium grains and show that the electrowetting is completely reversible. Marbles are shown to return to their initial contact angle for both ac and dc electrowetting and without requiring a threshold voltage to be exceeded. Furthermore, we provide a proof-of-principle demonstration that controlled motion of marbles on a finger electrode structure is possible

  13. Fabrication of superhydrophobic fluorinated silica nanoparticles for multifunctional liquid marbles

    Shang, Qianqian; Hu, Lihong; Hu, Yun; Liu, Chengguo; Zhou, Yonghong

    2018-01-01

    A facile one-pot method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic fluorinated silica nanoparticles is reported. Fluorinated aggregated silica (A-SiO2/FAS) nanoparticles were synthesized by controlling the nanoparticles assembly, in situ fixation and overgrowth of particle seeds with the assist of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in ethanol/water solution and then modification with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) molecules. Such kind of A-SiO2/FAS nanoparticles showed superhydrophobicity and was not wetted by water, thus it could be served as the encapsulating shells to manipulate liquid droplets. Liquid marbles fabricated from A-SiO2/FAS nanoparticles were used for ammonia gas sensing or emitting by taking advantage of the porosity and superhydrophobicity of the liquid marble shells. In addition, the posibility of A-SiO2/FAS-based liquid marbles as microreactor for dopamine polymerization also was explored.

  14. Preparation and encapsulation performance of Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic for high temperature thermal storage

    Li, Ruguang; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Cheng, Xiaomin; Liu, Fengli

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Al_2O_3-B_2O_3-SiO_2 has good chemical durability, corrosion resistance and dense structure. • The material rarely used in high temperature thermal storage. • The material was prepared and characterized in the paper. - Abstract: In this paper, Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), further, the porosity was detected by Archimedes principle, thermo physical properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively. The phase composition was detected by XRD, and the morphology was observed by SEM. The results indicated that the thermal conductivities of the Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic were between 1.3 and 1.5 W·(m·K)"−"1, and the material had good thermal stability in the range of 300–900 °C. The porosity and apparent density were increased with the temperature. The porosity of Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic in ranging from 1.2 to 9.6%, the apparent density were between 2.12 and 2.67 g·cm"−"3, and heat capacities were between 0.64 and 0.79 kJ/(kg·K). All the results indicated that the Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic can be applied as encapsulation material in high temperature latent thermal energy storage.

  15. The Blue Marble

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  16. Liquid Marbles: From Industrial to Medical Applications

    Roxana-Elena Avrămescu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Liquid marbles are versatile structures demonstrating a pseudo-Leidenfrost wetting regime formed by encapsulating microscale volumes of liquid in a particle shell. The liquid core is completely separated from the exterior through air pockets. The external phase consists of hydrophobic particles, in most cases, or hydrophilic ones distributed as aggregates. Their interesting features arise from the double solid-fluid character. Thus, these interesting formations, also known as “dry waters”, have gained attention in surface science. This review paper summarizes a series of proposed formulations, fabrication techniques and properties, in correlation with already discovered and emerging applications. A short general review of the surface properties of powders (contact angle, superficial tension is proposed, followed by a presentation of liquid marbles’ properties (superficial characteristics, elasticity, self-propulsion etc.. Finally, applications of liquid marbles are discussed, mainly as helpful and yet to be exploited structures in the pharmaceutical and medical field. Innovative pharmaceutical forms (Pickering emulsions are also means of use taken into account as applications which need further investigation.

  17. Glasses

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  18. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  19. Liquid marbles: Physics and applications

    Therefore, designing the porosity of the sheath can ... manufactured in the traditional rolling process and those manufactured by the dropping of water droplets onto a ..... Continuous production of liquid marbles would involve heating at low ...

  20. Dynamics of nanoparticle self-assembly into superhydrophobic liquid marbles during water condensation.

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Chinn, Jeff; Walker, Marlon L; Scott, John Henry J; Chinn, Amy; Jones, Wanda

    2011-12-27

    Nanoparticles adsorbed onto the surface of a drop can fully encapsulate the liquid, creating a robust and durable soft solid with superhydrophobic characteristics referred to as a liquid marble. Artificially created liquid marbles have been studied for about a decade but are already utilized in some hair and skin care products and have numerous other potential applications. These soft solids are usually formed in small quantity by depositing and rolling a drop of liquid on a layer of hydrophobic particles but can also be made in larger quantities in an industrial mixer. In this work, we demonstrate that microscale liquid marbles can also form through self-assembly during water condensation on a superhydrophobic surface covered with a loose layer of hydrophobic nanoparticles. Using in situ environmental scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we study the dynamics of liquid marble formation and evaporation as well as their interaction with condensing water droplets. We demonstrate that the self-assembly of nanoparticle films into three-dimensional liquid marbles is driven by multiple coalescence events between partially covered droplets and is aided by surface flows causing rapid nanoparticle film redistribution. We also show that droplet and liquid marble coalescence can occur due to liquid-to-liquid contact or squeezing of the two objects into each other as a result of compressive forces from surrounding droplets and marbles. Irrelevant of the mechanism, coalescence of marbles and drops can cause their rapid movement across and rolling off the edge of the surface. We also demonstrate that the liquid marbles randomly moving across the surface can be captured and immobilized by hydrophilic surface patterns.

  1. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  2. Deformation of ferrofluid marbles in the presence of a permanent magnet.

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2013-11-12

    This paper investigates the deformation of ferrofluid marbles in the presence of a permanent magnet. Ferrofluid marbles are formed using a water-based ferrofluid and 1 μm hydrophobic polytetrafluoride particles. A marble placed on a Teflon coated glass plate deforms under gravity. In the presence of a permanent magnet, the marble is further deformed with a larger contact area. The geometric parameters are normalized by the radius of an undistorted spherical marble. The paper first discusses a scaling relationship between the dimensionless radius of the contact area as well as the dimensionless height and the magnetic Bond number. The dimensionless contact radius is proportional to the fourth root of the magnetic bond number. The dimensionless height scales with the inverse square root of the magnetic Bond number. In the case of a moving marble dragged by a permanent magnet, the deformation is evaluated as the difference between advancing and receding curvatures of the top view. The dimensionless height and the contact diameter of the marble do not significantly depend on the speed or the capillary number. The scaling analysis and experimental data show that the deformation is proportional to the capillary number.

  3. Biofouling of marbles by oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Karaca, Zeki; Öztürk, Ayten; Çolak, Emel

    2015-08-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms disfigure the surfaces of different types of stone. Stone structure is damaged by the activity of photoautotrophic and other microorganisms. However, to date few, investigations have been undertaken into the relationship between microorganisms and the properties of different types of marble. In this study, biological activity of photoautotrophic microorganisms on three types of marble (Yatagan White, Giallo Anticato and Afyon White) was investigated under laboratory conditions over a short period of time. The three types of marble supported the growth of phototrophic microbial communities on their outer and inner layers, turning their original colour from white to a yellowish green colour. The porosity of the marble types facilitated filamentous microbial growth in the presence of water. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the accumulation of aggregates such as small spherical, fibrillar, calcified globular bodies on the inner surfaces of the marbles. This suggests that the microscopic characteristics of particular marble types may stimulate the growth of certain types of microorganisms.

  4. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    McCulley, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  5. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficients for marble

    Basyigit, C; Akkurt, I; Kilincarslan, S; Akkurt, A

    2005-01-01

    The total linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm -1 ) have been obtained using the XCOM program at photon energies of 1 keV to 1 GeV for six different natural marbles produced in different places in Turkey. The individual contribution of photon interaction processes to the total linear attenuation coefficients for marble has been investigated. The calculated results were also compared with the measurements. The results obtained for marble were also compared with concrete. (note)

  6. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    Krebs, Frederik C. [The Danish Polymer Centre, RISOE National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows for transporting oxygen and water sensitive devices outside a glove box environment after sealing and enables sharing of devices between research groups such that efficiency and stability can be evaluated in different laboratories. (author)

  7. The geochemical chararateristics of the marble deposits east of ...

    ), marbles were investigated with the view to establishing marble occurrences and their geochemical characteristics. Crystalline rocks of the Nigerian Basement Complex (migmatite – gneiss complex) underlie the area. Ten marble bodies were ...

  8. Comparison of glass surfaces as a countertop material to existing surfaces

    Turo, Laura A.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-09-01

    Gleen Glass, a small production glass company that creates countertops, was selected for the Technology Assistance Program through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Gleen Glass was seeking material property analysis comparing glass as a countertop material to current surfaces (i.e. marble, granite and engineered stone). With samples provided from Gleen Glass, testing was done on granite, marble, and 3 different glass surfaces ('Journey,' 'Pebble,' and 'Gleen'). Results showed the glass surfaces have a lower density, lower water absorption, and are stronger in compressive and flexural tests as compared to granite and marble. Thermal shock tests showed the glass failed when objects with a high thermal mass are placed directly on them, whereas marble and granite did not fracture under these conditions.

  9. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF MARBLE OCCURRENCE IN ...

    The marble deposit is characterised by both local resistivity highs (in the range of 20-61 ohm-m within an immediate background of less than 10 ohm-m and low magnetic effect of less than 800 gammas. The outline of the marble deposit based on the above characteristic has an approximately NE-SW trend with a lateral and ...

  10. Influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in marble

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Kashiwaya, Koki; Nishida, Yuki; , Toshinori, Ii

    2017-06-01

    Understanding subcritical crack growth in rock is essential for determining appropriate measures to ensure the long-term integrity of rock masses surrounding structures and for construction from rock material. In this study, subcritical crack growth in marble was investigated experimentally, focusing on the influence of the surrounding environment on the relationship between the crack velocity and stress intensity factor. The crack velocity increased with increasing temperature and/or relative humidity. In all cases, the crack velocity increased with increasing stress intensity factor. However, for Carrara marble (CM) in air, we observed a region in which the crack velocity still increased with temperature, but the increase in the crack velocity with increasing stress intensity factor was not significant. This is similar to Region II of subcritical crack growth observed in glass in air. Region II in glass is controlled by mass transport to the crack tip. In the case of rock, the transport of water to the crack tip is important. In general, Region II is not observed for subcritical crack growth in rock materials, because rocks contain water. Because the porosity of CM is very low, the amount of water contained in the marble is also very small. Therefore, our results imply that we observed Region II in CM. Because the crack velocity increased in both water and air with increasing temperature and humidity, we concluded that dry conditions at low temperature are desirable for the long-term integrity of a carbonate rock mass. Additionally, mass transport to the crack tip is an important process for subcritical crack growth in rock with low porosity.

  11. The Marble-Hand Illusion.

    Senna, Irene; Maravita, Angelo; Bolognini, Nadia; Parise, Cesare V

    2014-01-01

    Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participants' hand with a small hammer, while progressively replacing the natural sound of the hammer against the skin with the sound of a hammer hitting a piece of marble. After five minutes, the hand started feeling stiffer, heavier, harder, less sensitive, unnatural, and showed enhanced Galvanic skin response (GSR) to threatening stimuli. Notably, such a change in skin conductivity positively correlated with changes in perceived hand stiffness. Conversely, when hammer hits and impact sounds were temporally uncorrelated, participants did not spontaneously report any changes in the perceived properties of the hand, nor did they show any modulation in GSR. In two further experiments, we ruled out that mere audio-tactile synchrony is the causal factor triggering the illusion, further demonstrating the key role of material information conveyed by impact sounds in modulating the perceived material properties of the hand. This novel bodily illusion, the 'Marble-Hand Illusion', demonstrates that the perceived material of our body, surely the most stable attribute of our bodily self, can be quickly updated through multisensory integration.

  12. Damage Recovery in Carrara Marble

    Meyer, G.; Brantut, N.; Mitchell, T. M.; Meredith, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the effect of confining pressure on the recovery of elastic wave velocities following deformation episodes in Carrara Marble. Dry Carrara Marble cores were deformed in the ductile regime (Pc = 40 MPa) up to 3% axial strain. After deformation, samples were held at constant stress conditions for extended periods of time (5-8 days) whilst continuously recording volumetric strain and seismic wave velocities. The velocity data were used to invert for microcrack densities using an effective medium approach. Finally, thin sections were produced to characterise the microstructures after recovery. During deformation, elastic wave speeds decreased with increasing strain by more than 30% of the value for the intact rock due to the formation of distributed microcracks. Under constant hydrostatic pressure, wave speeds progressively recovered 12-90% of the initial drop, depending on the applied confining pressure. In contrast, the strain recovery (deformation towards the initial shape of the sample) during holding time is negligible (of the order of 10-4). Tests performed under nonhydrostatic (triaxial) stress conditions during recovery showed some time-dependent creep deformation together with very significant recovery of wave velocities. The recovery is interpreted as a progressive reduction in crack density within the sample. The process is highly dependent on confining pressure, which favours it. We propose that the driving process for wave speed recovery is the time-dependent increase of contact area between crack surfaces due to the formation and growth of asperity contacts. We develop a micromechanical model for crack closure driven by asperity creep, which shows a good fit to the experimental data. Most of the recovery is achieved in the initial few hours, implying it is the fastest recovery or healing process, and thus occurs prior to any chemical healing or mineral precipitation. Our data corroborate field observations of post-seismic fault behavior.

  13. Marble Ageing Characterization by Acoustic Waves

    Boudani, Mohamed El; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas; Martinez, Loïc; Hébert, Ronan; Rolland, Olivier; Forst, Sébastien; Vergès-Belmin, Véronique; Serfaty, Stéphane

    In cultural heritage, statue marble characterization by acoustic waves is a well-known non-destructive method. Such investigations through the statues by time of flight method (TOF) point out sound speeds decrease with ageing. However for outdoor stored statues as the ones in the gardens of Chateau de Versailles, ageing affects mainly the surface of the Carrara marble. The present paper proposes an experimental study of the marble acoustic properties variations during accelerated laboratory ageing. The surface degradation of the marble is reproduced in laboratory for 29 mm thick marble samples by using heating/cooling thermal cycles on one face of a marble plate. Acoustic waves are generated by 1 MHz central frequency contact transducers excited by a voltage pulse placed on both sides of the plate. During the ageing and by using ad hoc transducers, the marble samples are characterized in transmission, along their volume by shear, compressional TOF measurements and along their surface by Rayleigh waves measurements. For Rayleigh waves, both TOF by transducers and laser vibrometry methods are used to detect the Rayleigh wave. The transmission measurements point out a deep decrease of the waves speeds in conjunction with a dramatic decrease of the maximum frequency transmitted. The marble acts as a low pass filter whose characteristic frequency cut decreases with ageing. This pattern occurs also for the Rayleigh wave surface measurements. The speed change in conjunction with the bandwidth translation is shown to be correlated to the material de-structuration during ageing. With a similar behavior but reversed in time, the same king of phenomena have been observed trough sol-gel materials during their structuration from liquid to solid state (Martinez, L. et all (2004). "Chirp-Z analysis for sol-gel transition monitoring". Ultrasonics, 42(1), 507-510.). A model is proposed to interpret the acoustical measurements

  14. Carrara Marble: a nomination for Global Heritage Stone Resource

    primavori, piero

    2014-05-01

    In the collective memory, in ordinary people, or in any technical office not devoted expressly to stone, marble is automatically associated with the word Carrara (Italy). Indisputably, for decades and decades, there has been this word association: marble means Carrara and Carrara means marble. In few other commodity sectors is a word so automatically associated with a name, engendering an identification process that, despite the inexorable onslaught of globalization, continues to exist. Carrara Marble, probably one of the most famous dimension stone in the world, has been recently designated as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource". The additional designation of "Global Ornamental Stone" has also been proposed. Quarried since pre-Roman times, this marble is the testimonial of an area/industry that was able - for a variety of reasons not easily repeatable in future stone history - from the dawn of the stone sector to trigger a flywheel-effect on a global scale. The term Carrara Marble, geographically referable to the marbles extracted in the sorroundings of Carrara town, is in reality a general one, erroneously used since long time to define a multitude of different marbles (more than two hundred commercial varieties) extracted in the whole Apuane Alps region, Nortwestern Tuscany, Italy. The district of Carrara Marble is part of a wider territory where five important extractive areas can be recognized: Lunigiana, Garfagnana, Versilia, Massa and the Carrara area sensu stricto. This region is approximately 30 km long and 12 km wide, with marble outcrops, useful for commercial purposes, covering over 75 km2. The Carrara Marble is currently excavated in more than 100 quarries, at a rate of about 1.500.000 tons per year, is processed almost everywhere, and sold all over the world. The most important commercial designations are the following: 1) "Marmo Bianco"/"Marmo Ordinario" (Carrara White marble/Ordinary marble); 2) "Marmo Venato" (Veined marble); 3) "Marmo

  15. Encapsulated scintillation detector

    Toepke, I.L.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation detector crystal is encapsulated in a hermetically sealed housing having a glass window. The window may be mounted in a ring by a compression seal formed during cooling of the ring and window after heating. The window may be chemically bonded to the ring with or without a compression seal. The ring is welded to the housing along thin weld flanges to reduce the amount of weld heat which must be applied. A thin section is provided to resist the flow of welding heat to the seal between the ring and the window thereby forming a thermal barrier. The thin section may be provided by a groove cut partially through the wall of the ring. A layer of PTFE between the tubular body and the crystal minimizes friction created by thermal expansion. Spring washers urge the crystal towards the window. (author)

  16. Material development in the SI{sub 3}N{sub 4} system using glass encapsulated Hip`ing. Final report, Phase 2: DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    Corbin, N.D.; Sundberg, G.J.; Siebein, K.N.; Willkens, C.A.; Pujari, V.K.; Rossi, G.A.; Hansen, J.S.; Chang, C.L.; Hammarstrom, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report covers a two-year program to develop fully dense Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix SiC whisker composites with enhanced properties over monolithic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. The primary goal was to develop a composite with a fracture toughness > 10 MPa{radical}m, capable of using high pressure glass encapsulated HIP`ing. Coating methods were developed to apply thin (<150nm) stoichiometric BN layers to SiC whiskers and also to apply a dual coating of SiC over carbon to the whiskers. Fracture toughness of the composites was determined to increase as the quantity of whiskers (or elongated grains) with their axis perpendicular to the crack plane increased. Of the interface compositions evaluated in this effort, carbon was determined to be the most effective for increasing toughness. The highest toughnesses (6.8--7.0 MPa{radical}m) were obtained with uniaxially aligned carbon coated whiskers. There was no evidence of the carbon coating compromising the oxidation resistance of the composites at 1370{degree}C.

  17. Colorado Yule Marble; building stone of the Lincoln Memorial

    McGee, Elaine S.

    1999-01-01

    The Colorado Yule marble, quarried in Marble, Colo., is a very pure white marble, and it has been widely acclaimed for its quality and purity. This marble has been used for many prominent buildings; one of the most notable is the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., built nearly 80 years ago. Although most of the marble in the memorial appears to be in very good condition, some of the stones have developed pronounced surficial roughness and show a significant loss of carved details and rounded edges compared with adjacent stones. Because adjacent blocks of marble receive nearly identical exposure to weathering agents that cause deterioration of the marble, it seems very likely that this pronounced difference in durability of adjacent stones arises from some inherent characteristic of the marble. The Colorado Yule marble is a nearly pure calcite marble with minor inclusions of mica, quartz, and feldspar. Compositions of the calcite and the inclusion phases in the marble are typical for those phases. The calcite grains that compose the marble are irregularly shaped and range from 100 to 600 micrometers in diameter. The texture of the marble is even, with a slight preferred directional elongation that is visible when the marble is cut in certain directions. Physical tests of the marble show that its strength is comparable to that of other marbles typically used in buildings. Variations in the durability of the marble, like those seen at the Lincoln Memorial, are not related to variations in calcite composition or to the presence of inclusions in the marble. Most likely, the variations arise from differences in the calcite grain boundaries and the degree to which the grains interlock with one another. Weak grain boundaries that permit water or solutions to penetrate into the marble and dissolve the calcite grains at their edges cause the marble to disaggregate or ?sugar.? Subtle differences in texture that occur in the marble from various parts of the quarry probably

  18. Self-healing woven glass fabric/epoxy composites with the healant consisting of micro-encapsulated epoxy and latent curing agent

    Yin Tao; Zhou Lin; Rong Minzhi; Zhang Mingqiu

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a study of self-healing woven glass fabric reinforced epoxy composites. The healing agent was a two-component one synthesized in the authors' laboratory, which consisted of epoxy-loaded urea-formaldehyde microcapsules as the polymerizable binder and CuBr 2 (2-methylimidazole) 4 (CuBr 2 (2-MeIm) 4 ) as the latent hardener. Both the microcapsules and the matching catalyst were pre-embedded and pre-dissolved in the composites' matrix, respectively. When the microcapsules are split by propagating cracks, the uncured epoxy can be released into the damaged areas and then consolidated under the catalysis of CuBr 2 (2-MeIm) 4 that was homogeneously distributed in the composites' matrix on a molecular scale. As a result, the cracked faces can be bonded together. The influence of the content of the self-healing agent on the composites' tensile properties, interlaminar fracture toughness and healing efficiency was evaluated. It was found that a healing efficiency over 70% relative to the fracture toughness of virgin composites was obtained in the case of 30 wt% epoxy-loaded microcapsules and 2 wt% latent hardener

  19. Greek marbles: determination of provenance by isotopic analysis.

    Craig, H; Craig, V

    1972-04-28

    A study has been made of carbon-13 and oxygen-18 variations in Greek marbles from the ancient quarry localities of Naxos, Paros, Mount Hymettus, and Mount Pentelikon. Parian, Hymettian, and Pentelic marbles can be clearly distinguished by the isotopic relationships; Naxian marbles fall into two groups characterized by different oxygen-18/oxygen-16 ratios. Ten archeological samples were also analyzed; the isotopic data indicate that the "Theseion" is made of Pentelic marble and a block in the Treasury of Siphnos at Delphi is probably Parian marble.

  20. Liquid Marble Coalescence and Triggered Microreaction Driven by Acoustic Levitation.

    Chen, Zhen; Zang, Duyang; Zhao, Liang; Qu, Mengfei; Li, Xu; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Lixin; Geng, Xingguo

    2017-06-27

    Liquid marbles show promising potential for application in the microreactor field. Control of the coalescence between two or among multiple liquid marbles is critical; however, the successful merging of two isolated marbles is difficult because of their mechanically robust particle shells. In this work, the coalescence of multiple liquid marbles was achieved via acoustic levitation. The dynamic behaviors of the liquid marbles were monitored by a high-speed camera. Driven by the sound field, the liquid marbles moved toward each other, collided, and eventually coalesced into a larger single marble. The underlying mechanisms of this process were probed via sound field simulation and acoustic radiation pressure calculation. The results indicated that the pressure gradient on the liquid marble surface favors the formation of a liquid bridge between the liquid marbles, resulting in their coalescence. A preliminary indicator reaction was induced by the coalescence of dual liquid marbles, which suggests that expected chemical reactions can be successfully triggered with multiple reagents contained in isolated liquid marbles via acoustic levitation.

  1. POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATION

    Kalb, P.

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene microencapsulation physically homogenizes and incorporates mixed waste particles within a molten polymer matrix, forming a solidified final waste form upon cooling. Each individual particle of waste is embedded within the polymer block and is surrounded by a durable, leach-resistant coating. The process has been successfully applied for the treatment of a broad range of mixed wastes, including evaporator concentrate salts, soil, sludges, incinerator ash, off-gas blowdown solutions, decontamination solutions, molten salt oxidation process residuals, ion exchange resins, granular activated carbon, shredded dry active waste, spill clean-up residuals, depleted uranium powders, and failed grout waste forms. For waste streams containing high concentrations of soluble toxic metal contaminants, additives can be used to further reduce leachability, thus improving waste loadings while meeting or exceeding regulatory disposal criteria. In this configuration, contaminants are both chemically stabilized and physically solidified, making the process a true stabilization/solidification (S/S) technology. Unlike conventional hydraulic cement grouts or thermosetting polymers, thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene require no chemical. reaction for solidification. Thus, a stable, solid, final waste form product is assured on cooling. Variations in waste chemistry over time do not affect processing parameters and do not require reformulation of the recipe. Incorporation of waste particles within the polymer matrix serves as an aggregate and improves the mechanical strength and integrity of the waste form. The compressive strength of polyethylene microencapsulated waste forms varies based on the type and quantity of waste encapsulated, but is typically between 7 and 17.2 MPa (1000 and 2500 psi), well above the minimum strength of 0.4 MPa (160 psi) recommended by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste forms in support of 10 CFR 61

  2. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  3. Dating implications from solar bleaching of thermoluminescence of ancient marble

    Liritzis, I.; Galloway, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of Thermoluminescence (TL) from Greek marble quarried at Paros, Naxos, Pendeli, Hymitos, Thassos, which have been known since ancient time are presented. The results concern i) the solar bleaching of TL, ii) the solar transmission through marble thicknesses up to 16 mm, and iii) the implications for potential dating of ancient carbed marble monuments/objects. The bleaching rate for marbles is very fast during the first hour of exposure. The solar penetration is at least 35 mm for long exposures. Beyond the 2 mm marble slab for exposure times 90-120 hours of sunshine, the residual bleached TL level is not reached. The bleached TL reaches a plateau which serves as the 'zero time' upon which the archaeological TL dose subsequently builds up and gives the age of a marble monument. (author)

  4. Investigation of Turkish marbles as shielding materials

    Atasoy, H.; Tarcan, G.; Doekmen, S.

    1992-01-01

    The natural Turkish marbles, especially Usak Green (UG), Aegean Purple (AP), and Marmara White (MW) were tested as shielding materials using standard gamma sources such as Co-60, Cs-137 and Eu-152. The experiment showed that UG, AP and MW are very effective shields against gamma-rays. The result for this experiment is that the gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of UG, AP and MW are almost equal for the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 1.4 MeV. Also, the elemental compositions of the natural UG, AP and MW marbles have been determined by fast and thermal neutron activation analysis and fourteen elements including Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, V, Ti, Mn, Fe, La, Ba and Sc have been found using the gamma spectroscopic method. The range of element contents of all Turkish marbles are remarkably different, but most of the elements are common such as Ca, Fe, Na, Cl, Mg, Si. (orig.)

  5. Anciet marble quarries in Lesvos island Greece

    Mataragkas, M.; Mataragkas, D.

    2009-04-01

    ANCIENT MARBLE QUARRIES IN LESBOS ISLAND, GREECE Varti- Matarangas M.1 & Matarangas D. 1 Institute of Geological and Mining Exploration (IGME), Olympic Village, Entrance C, ACHARNAE 13677, GREECE myrsini@igme.gr , myrsini@otenet.g r A B S T R A C T Ten ancient marble quarries of Lesbos Island, most of them previously unknown, have been studied, in the frame of the research study on the ancient marble quarries in the Aegean Sea. In the present paper the geological, petrological and morphological features of the aforementioned quarries are examined. Concerning the six ancient quarries located in the areas of Tarti, Agia Paraskevi (Tsaf), Mageiras, Loutra, Latomi (Plomari) and Thermi, the authochthonous neopaleozoic unit constitutes their geological formation, while their hosting lithological formations are the included crystalline limestone lens like beds. In two ancient quarries in the areas Moria and Alyfanta, the geological formation is the authochthonous upper Triassic series and the hosting lithological formation the upper Triassic carbonate sequence, while in the areas of Akrasi-Abeliko and Karyni, the geological formation is the thrust Triassic unit and the lithological hosting formations are the included strongly deformed or not crystalline limestone lenticular beds. Furthermore, the petrographic features were also determined permitting the identification of the building stones that have been used.

  6. Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of marble of Bela Pola deposite

    Shijakova-Ivanova, Tena; Boev, Blazho; Panov, Zoran; Pavlov, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents mineralogical characteristics of marbles from the Bela Pola deposit. We have made mineralogical-chemical analyses of marbles and associated minerals in them. The investigation was carried out at the Faculty of natural and technical sciences - Shtip. Marbles from Bela Pola are dolomite and dolomite-calcite types. Microscope investigations have shown that marbles from Bela Pola have granoblastic structure but at some places it can be found with porphyroblastic structures. Percentage on calcite and dolomite is: 94.08% dolomite, 6.25% is calcite in white marbles. On the other hand calcite is present with 93% in gray marbles. Except dolomite and calcite also appear the following accessoring minerals: quartz, fluorite, corundum and paragonite. In general, after summarizing all the facts, which have resulted from this research we could say that, the Bela Pola marbles are massive, compact and white with high quality. In accordance to all formerly mentioned features, this marbles can be classified in the commercial group of marbles suitable for external application or internal design

  7. IMPACT OF MARBLE MINING ON SOIL PROPERTIES IN A PART ...

    Dr Osondu

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 4 No.2 2011 ... The effects of marble mining activities on the properties of soils of Igbeti marble area, Oke-Ogun,. Southwestern Nigeria .... 45´ and 4º 15´E in Olorunsogo Local.

  8. Use of Waste Marble Dust for Stabilization of Clayey Soil

    Altug SAYGILI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of utilizing waste marble dust in stabilizing problematic soils (especially swelling clays. The research work was divided into two sections. The first section deals with the shear strength parameters and swelling characteristics, the second section deals with the microstructural investigation of the improved problematic soils. The marble dust addition ratios which have been studied were 0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % by weight. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of soil and marble dust samples were investigated. In addition, SEM analyses were performed on the specimens. Test results indicate that marble dust addition improved the shear strength parameters and reduced the swell potential of the tested clay samples. Marble dust had a noticeable role in the hydration process because of high calcium content. Obtained results showed that marble dust addition to the clay samples will reduce the cost of constructing structures on problematic soils, and finding new utilization areas for waste marble dust will decrease environmental pollution. Utilizing waste marble dust materials in problematic soils will have great contribution to the economy and conservation of resources.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.11966

  9. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  10. Thermal behaviour of selected Czech marble samples

    Plevová, Eva; Kožušníková, Alena; Vaculíková, Lenka; Simha Martynková, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 2 (2010), s. 657-664 ISSN 1388-6150. [Conference on Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis /10./. Zakopane, 30.08.2009-03.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP105/07/P416; GA ČR GA105/08/1398 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : TMA * anisotropy * optical microscopy * marbles Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.752, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l47881208wk471t1/fulltext.pdf

  11. Encapsulation by Janus spheroids

    Li, Wei; Liu, Ya; Brett, Genevieve; Gunton, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The micro/nano encapsulation technology has acquired considerable attention in the fields of drug delivery, biomaterial engineering, and materials science. Based on recent advances in chemical particle synthesis, we propose a primitive model of an encapsulation system produced by the self-assembly of Janus oblate spheroids, particles with oblate spheroidal bodies and two hemi-surfaces coded with dissimilar chemical properties. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate the encapsulation sys...

  12. Performance Evaluation of Concrete using Marble Mining Waste

    Kore, Sudarshan Dattatraya; Vyas, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    A huge amount waste (approximately 60%) is generated during mining and processing in marble industries. Such waste can be best utilized in infrastructure development works. Coarse aggregate 75% by weight was replaced by aggregate obtained from marble mining waste. The impact of marble waste as a partial replacement for conventional coarse aggregate on the properties of concrete mixes such as workability, compressive strength, permeability, abrasion, etc. was evaluated. The test results revealed that the compressive strength was comparable to that of control concrete. Other properties such as workability of concrete increased, water absorption reduced by 17%, and resistance to abrasion was marginally increased by 2% as compared to that of control concrete. Ultrasonic pulse velocity and FTIR results show improvement in quality of concrete with crushed marble waste. From the TGA analysis it was confirmed that, aggregate produced from marble waste shows better performance under elevated temperature than that of conventional aggregates.

  13. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-01

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

  14. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  15. Encapsulation of nuclear wastes

    Arnold, J.L.; Boyle, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Toxic waste materials are encapsulated by the method wherein the waste material in liquid or finely divided solid form is uniformly dispersed in a vinyl ester resin or an unsaturated polyester and the resin cured under conditions that the exotherm does not rise above the temperature at which the integrity of the encapsulating material is destroyed

  16. The Puzzle of a Marble in a Spinning Pipe

    2015-05-01

    MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Puzzle of a Marble in a Spinning Pipe 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT What trajectory does a marble follow if it is held...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Physics Education 50 (3) 279 1. Problem statement A marble is placed one-third of the length along a

  17. Determination of marble provenance: limits of isotopic analysis

    Germann, K.; Holzmann, G.; Winkler, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Provenance determination of Thessalian stelae marbles using the C/O isotopic analysis proved to be misleading, as the isotopic composition even in very small quarrying areas is heterogeneous and isotopic coincidence of marbles from very distant sources occurs. Therefore additional geological features must be taken into consideration and preference should be given to combinations of both petrographical and geochemical properties. Geological field work to establish the range of possible marble sources and the variability within these sources is one of the prerequisites of provenance studies. (author)

  18. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  19. Marble protection: An inorganic electrokinetic approach

    Meloni, Paola, E-mail: paola.meloni@dimcm.unica.it [Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering (DIMCM), University of Cagliari, Via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Manca, Francesco, E-mail: ing.francesco.manca@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering (DIMCM), University of Cagliari, Via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Carcangiu, Gianfranco, E-mail: gcarcan@unica.it [Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria (IGAG), CNR, Piazza d’Armi, 09123 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    The influence of an electric potential difference in an aqueous solution was studied as a method for depositing a calcium oxalate coating over a weathered carbonatic stone. Samples of weathered Carrara white marble were treated at 15 and 50 °C for 5 h in an electrokinetic cell, specifically conceived for this study, containing a solution of ammonium oxalate (4% by weight), and were subsequently characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The electrokinetic treatment proved to be a cost effective and time saving process, able to produce a thick and homogeneous calcium oxalate coating over the stone surface that improves its chemical and physical resistance in low pH environments, and is able to protect the stone from the by-products of urban pollution.

  20. Pressure Stimulated Currents (PSCin marble samples

    F. Vallianatos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical behaviour of marble samples from Penteli Mountain was studied while they were subjected to uniaxial stress. The application of consecutive impulsive variations of uniaxial stress to thirty connatural samples produced Pressure Stimulated Currents (PSC. The linear relationship between the recorded PSC and the applied variation rate was investigated. The main results are the following: as far as the samples were under pressure corresponding to their elastic region, the maximum PSC value obeyed a linear law with respect to pressure variation. In the plastic region deviations were observed which were due to variations of Young s modulus. Furthermore, a special burst form of PSC recordings during failure is presented. The latter is emitted when irregular longitudinal splitting is observed during failure.

  1. Marble protection: An inorganic electrokinetic approach

    Meloni, Paola; Manca, Francesco; Carcangiu, Gianfranco

    2013-05-01

    The influence of an electric potential difference in an aqueous solution was studied as a method for depositing a calcium oxalate coating over a weathered carbonatic stone. Samples of weathered Carrara white marble were treated at 15 and 50 °C for 5 h in an electrokinetic cell, specifically conceived for this study, containing a solution of ammonium oxalate (4% by weight), and were subsequently characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The electrokinetic treatment proved to be a cost effective and time saving process, able to produce a thick and homogeneous calcium oxalate coating over the stone surface that improves its chemical and physical resistance in low pH environments, and is able to protect the stone from the by-products of urban pollution.

  2. Marble protection: An inorganic electrokinetic approach

    Meloni, Paola; Manca, Francesco; Carcangiu, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    The influence of an electric potential difference in an aqueous solution was studied as a method for depositing a calcium oxalate coating over a weathered carbonatic stone. Samples of weathered Carrara white marble were treated at 15 and 50 °C for 5 h in an electrokinetic cell, specifically conceived for this study, containing a solution of ammonium oxalate (4% by weight), and were subsequently characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The electrokinetic treatment proved to be a cost effective and time saving process, able to produce a thick and homogeneous calcium oxalate coating over the stone surface that improves its chemical and physical resistance in low pH environments, and is able to protect the stone from the by-products of urban pollution.

  3. Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets

    Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

  4. Characterization of material composite marble-polyester

    Corpas, F. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we characterize a new material composite, formed with a polyester and crushed white marble mixture. The final purpose is double: to obtain a material for applications sufficiently competitive after an economic viability study, increasing the yield of the main commodity, using waste marble and improving the jobs in the quarries area. From the results obtained, we deduce then that this material could be used to inside and outside adornment.

    En este trabajo, caracterizamos un nuevo material compuesto, formado con una mezcla de poliéster y de mármol blanco triturado. El propósito final es doble: por un lado obtener un material para aplicaciones lo suficientemente competitivas como para que se pueda iniciar un estudio económico de viabilidad, aumentando el rendimiento de la materia prima y mejorando las salidas laborales de las comarcas extractoras. Para la caracterización del material se ha determinado el porcentaje adecuado de poliéster. Así como las propiedades mecánicas (flexión, compresión y dureza, químicas, fatiga térmica y su influencia a la exposición solar In order to characterized of material, we have determined the suitable porcentage of polyester Also we have carried out a study of the mechanical (stretching, resistance to traction, hardeness and thermal fatigue chemicals properties and solar radiation influence. De los resultados obtenidos, este material podría ser utilizado para ornamentación tanto de interior como de exterior.

  5. Population genetic diversity of marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus ...

    Cheng Zhao

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... Indian Academy of Sciences. ONLINE ... east Asia, especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and. Vietnam (Inger and ... cial culture of marble goby has suffered from germplasm degradation ..... Southeast Asia. Through ...

  6. Characterization of marble waste for manufacture of artificial stone

    Aguiar, M.C.; Silva, A.G.P.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to study the characterization of marble waste for the manufacture of artificial stone. The characterization of the waste was performed through X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results indicated that the marble waste presents typical composition of a dolomite, calcite marble, and their minerals are: Calcite (CaCO_3) and dolomite (MgCa (CO_3)_2. The waste presented predominance of particles below 200 mesh screen. This may be interesting for the production of artificial stone better visual appearance, such as marmoglass, for example. The results indicate that the use of marble waste for production of artificial stone is feasible and environmentally friendly alternative to give a destination for this waste generated in the order of millions of tons representing serious environmental problem. (author)

  7. Encapsulation with structured triglycerides

    Lipids provide excellent materials to encapsulate bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical applications. Lipids are renewable, biodegradable, and easily modified to provide additional chemical functionality. The use of structured lipids that have been modified with photoactive properties are ...

  8. Development of the next generation reactor analysis code system, MARBLE

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Hazama, Taira; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Chiba, Go; Kugo, Teruhiko; Ishikawa, Makoto; Tatsumi, Masahiro; Hirai, Yasushi; Hyoudou, Hideaki; Numata, Kazuyuki; Iwai, Takehiko; Jin, Tomoyuki

    2011-03-01

    A next generation reactor analysis code system, MARBLE, has been developed. MARBLE is a successor of the fast reactor neutronics analysis code systems, JOINT-FR and SAGEP-FR (conventional systems), which were developed for so-called JUPITER standard analysis methods. MARBLE has the equivalent analysis capability to the conventional system because MARBLE can utilize sub-codes included in the conventional system without any change. On the other hand, burnup analysis functionality for power reactors is improved compared with the conventional system by introducing models on fuel exchange treatment and control rod operation and so on. In addition, MARBLE has newly developed solvers and some new features of burnup calculation by the Krylov sub-space method and nuclear design accuracy evaluation by the extended bias factor method. In the development of MARBLE, the object oriented technology was adopted from the view-point of improvement of the software quality such as flexibility, expansibility, facilitation of the verification by the modularization and assistance of co-development. And, software structure called the two-layer system consisting of scripting language and system development language was applied. As a result, MARBLE is not an independent analysis code system which simply receives input and returns output, but an assembly of components for building an analysis code system (i.e. framework). Furthermore, MARBLE provides some pre-built analysis code systems such as the fast reactor neutronics analysis code system. SCHEME, which corresponds to the conventional code and the fast reactor burnup analysis code system, ORPHEUS. (author)

  9. Stable isotope identification of Greek and Turkish marbles

    Coleman, M.; Walker, S.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses have been used to test the provenance of the marble of some Attic sarcophagi in the British Museum collection. Of three believed to be of Pentelic marble, only one has been so confirmed. Analyses of fragmentary sarcophagi of similar workmanship has confirmed their Proconnesian origin. Data from fragments of Sidamara sarcophagi have supplemented observations of technique, finish and dimensions of carved figures and decoration to determine whether the fragments come from the same sarcophagus. (author)

  10. Inorganic Substrates and Encapsulation Layers for Transient Electronics

    2014-07-01

    as substrates and encapsulating materials, with demonstrated options that range from films of silk fibroin, polycaprolactone (PCL), polyglycolic...PDMS) (Dow Corning , USA) coated on glass slides to facilitate processing. SiO2 (~1 μm) was deposited by PECVD on these foils for electrical...with laminating the foils Fe, Mo, W, and Zn, ~10 μm thick (Goodfellow, USA) on glass slides coated with PDMS (Dow Corning Co., USA) as temporary

  11. Development of the versatile reactor analysis code system, MARBLE2

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Jin, Tomoyuki; Hazama, Taira; Hirai, Yasushi

    2015-07-01

    The second version of the versatile reactor analysis code system, MARBLE2, has been developed. A lot of new functions have been added in MARBLE2 by using the base technology developed in the first version (MARBLE1). Introducing the remaining functions of the conventional code system (JOINT-FR and SAGEP-FR), MARBLE2 enables one to execute almost all analysis functions of the conventional code system with the unified user interfaces of its subsystem, SCHEME. In particular, the sensitivity analysis functionality is available in MARBLE2. On the other hand, new built-in solvers have been developed, and existing ones have been upgraded. Furthermore, some other analysis codes and libraries developed in JAEA have been consolidated and prepared in SCHEME. In addition, several analysis codes developed in the other institutes have been additionally introduced as plug-in solvers. Consequently, gamma-ray transport calculation and heating evaluation become available. As for another subsystem, ORPHEUS, various functionality updates and speed-up techniques have been applied based on user experience of MARBLE1 to enhance its usability. (author)

  12. The Marble Types of Thassos Island through the Ages

    Laskaridis, Kostas; Patronis, Michael; Papatrechas, Christos; Schouenborg, Björn

    2013-04-01

    The first references to the "white whole-grain" marble of Thassos Island, Greece, date back to the 6th century BC when stones were quarried at Alyki peninsula and at Fanari and Vathy capes. Since that time, Thassos marble was exported to Samothraki and other neighbouring islands, Asia Minor coastal cities, Southern Greece and Rome. In ancient times, there were two principal types of marble quarries in Thassos: (a) those producing material for the construction of temples and for the creation of various art pieces, i.e. ornamental stones, and (b) those for extraction of rough blocks for export. This paper aims at describing the Thassos marble, the geological setting in brief, its historic use and future supply possibilities and other reasons why it is a time-enduring ornamental stone. The aesthetical characteristics and the physical mechanical properties of its two main types (i.e. calcitic and dolomitic) are described and evaluated. The relevant results justify the wide application range and the continuous use of Thassos marble from ancient to present times and confirm the ability of this stone to survive over time. Keywords: Thassos, Marble, Ornamental Stones, Physical Mechanical Properties, Historic use

  13. Optical transmission properties of Pentelic and Paros marble.

    Weigand, Rosa; García, Pablo A; Campos Acosta, Joaquín; Storch de Gracia, Jacobo

    2015-02-01

    Ancient Greek and Roman sources report that the statue of Zeus in Olympia had a head, and in particular eyes, similar to the description of Zeus by Homer, so we think that the statue was visible to the human eye. Since the temple was 12 m high, and had a small door and no windows, the illumination of the statue by conventional media is questionable. The aim of this paper is to characterize the optical transmission of Paros and Pentelic marble to demonstrate that it was possible to have the Zeus temple illuminated through the roof marble tiles. Spectral absolute transmittance measurements were taken in samples with different thicknesses using a calibrated spectrophotometer, as well as total transmittance measurements using a luxmeter. The results show that both types of marble transmit light and that Pentelic marble has a higher transmittance in the visible range than Paros marble in some cases and hence could have been one reason, among others, to change the type of marble in the roof in antiquity.

  14. Capillary origami: superhydrophobic ribbon surfaces and liquid marbles

    Glen McHale

    2011-03-01

    known to apply to superhydrophobic surfaces. The results are given for both droplets being wrapped by thin ribbons and for solid grains encapsulating droplets to form liquid marbles.

  15. Dynamic mechanical behaviors of Fangshan marble

    Wei Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic strength parameters are extensively used in mining engineering and rock mechanics. However, there are no widely accepted dynamic failure models for rocks. In this study, the dynamic punching shear strength, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS and tensile strength of fine-grained Fangshan marble (FM are first measured by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB system. The pulse-shaping technique is then implemented to maintain the dynamic force balance in SHPB tests. Experimental results show that the dynamic punching shear strength, UCS and tensile strength increase with the loading rate. A recently developed dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory is then used to interpret the testing data. In this model, the angle of internal friction ϕ is assumed to be independent of loading rate and is obtained using the static strength values. According to the dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory, the dynamic UCS and the dynamic tensile strength are predicted from the dynamic punching shear strength. Furthermore, based on this dynamic theory, the dynamic UCS is predicted from the dynamic tensile strength. The consistency between the predicted and measured dynamic strengths demonstrates that the dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory is applicable to FM.

  16. Glasses and nuclear waste vitrification

    Ojovan, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Glass is an amorphous solid material which behaves like an isotropic crystal. Atomic structure of glass lacks long-range order but possesses short and most probably medium range order. Compared to crystalline materials of the same composition glasses are metastable materials however crystallisation processes are kinetically impeded within times which typically exceed the age of universe. The physical and chemical durability of glasses combined with their high tolerance to compositional changes makes glasses irreplaceable when hazardous waste needs immobilisation for safe long-term storage, transportation and consequent disposal. Immobilisation of radioactive waste in glassy materials using vitrification has been used successfully for several decades. Nuclear waste vitrification is attractive because of its flexibility, the large number of elements which can be incorporated in the glass, its high corrosion durability and the reduced volume of the resulting wasteform. Vitrification involves melting of waste materials with glass-forming additives so that the final vitreous product incorporates the waste contaminants in its macro- and micro-structure. Hazardous waste constituents are immobilised either by direct incorporation into the glass structure or by encapsulation when the final glassy material can be in form of a glass composite material. Both borosilicate and phosphate glasses are currently used to immobilise nuclear wastes. In addition to relatively homogeneous glasses novel glass composite materials are used to immobilise problematic waste streams. (author)

  17. Review of encapsulation technologies

    Shaulis, L.

    1996-09-01

    The use of encapsulation technology to produce a compliant waste form is an outgrowth from existing polymer industry technology and applications. During the past 12 years, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been researching the use of this technology to treat mixed wastes (i.e., containing hazardous and radioactive wastes). The two primary encapsulation techniques are microencapsulation and macroencapsulation. Microencapsulation is the thorough mixing of a binding agent with a powdered waste, such as incinerator ash. Macroencapsulation coats the surface of bulk wastes, such as lead debris. Cement, modified cement, and polyethylene are the binding agents which have been researched the most. Cement and modified cement have been the most commonly used binding agents to date. However, recent research conducted by DOE laboratories have shown that polyethylene is more durable and cost effective than cements. The compressive strength, leachability, resistance to chemical degradation, etc., of polyethylene is significantly greater than that of cement and modified cement. Because higher waste loads can be used with polyethylene encapsulant, the total cost of polyethylene encapsulation is significantly less costly than cement treatment. The only research lacking in the assessment of polyethylene encapsulation treatment for mixed wastes is pilot and full-scale testing with actual waste materials. To date, only simulated wastes have been tested. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site had planned to conduct pilot studies using actual wastes during 1996. This experiment should provide similar results to the previous tests that used simulated wastes. If this hypothesis is validated as anticipated, it will be clear that polyethylene encapsulation should be pursued by DOE to produce compliant waste forms

  18. Investigation of low glass transition temperature on COTS PEM's reliability for space applications

    Sandor, M.; Agarwal, S.; Peters, D.; Cooper, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics (PEM) reliability is affected by many factors. Glass transition temperature (Tg) is one such factor. In this presentation issues relating to PEM reliability and the effect of low glass transition temperature epoxy mold compounds are presented.

  19. RESEARCHING OF MEAT AND FAT COLOUR AND MARBLING IN BEEF

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies of meat and fat colour and marbling in Longissimus dorsi of different cattle — beef-producing (Aberdeen-Angus,Herefordbreeds and dual-purpose (Simmental, Black-and-white breeds — allowed to define groups by the colour values according to Lab international colour model. Measurements were performed 24 hours post-mortem between 12th and 13th ribs. It was found that different ranges of meat colour differed primarily in L* (lightness and a* (redness values, while b* (yellowness values did not significantly differ. The highest differentiation between ranges of fat colour was noted in b* values, whereas L* and a* slightly differed. Moreover, visual assessment of beef marbling by four grades (small, moderate, good, and rich and instrumental (microstructural analysis using a computer image analysis system were carried out. The morphometric study of marbling was conducted in accordance with the principles of system quantitative analysis. To perform quantitative measurements, object analysis parameters (area were specified. Both automatic and manual measurements of specified parameters were used. The study of Longissimus dorsi marbling established high agreement between visual and instrumental evaluations of marbling.

  20. Introducing a new aspect in marble quarry rehabilitation in Greece

    Kaliampakos, D. C.; Mavrikos, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    For many years the marble extraction sector of the Greek mining industry has been in conflict with the public, especially in terms of rehabilitation of marble quarry sites. One of the main reasons for that is that the marble extraction sector has been unable to adjust to the existing legislative guidelines for the rehabilitation, such as extensive backfilling and re-vegetation. In the majority of cases these methods fail due to erosion of the backfill soil and adverse climatic conditions. As a result the number of abandoned marble quarry sites is continuously increasing. The present paper suggests a different approach regarding the rehabilitation of marble quarries. More specifically, the paper questions the applicability, the effectiveness, and the social usefulness of the above-mentioned guidelines and suggests the establishment of new land-uses, which are based on an in-depth analysis of the area’s special features, by taking full advantage of its potentials. What is more, the rehabilitation scheme proposes that the new land-uses and the quarrying activity may co-exist and operate simultaneously for a long period of time.

  1. Radiotracer studies in cavernous marble at Kamathikhairy Dam site, Pench Project (Maharashtra)

    Nath, Ravendra; Mahajan, N.M.; Vaidya, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotracer studies with tritiated water at Pench Project site conclusively proved that the cavernous marble upstream of the saddle dam is continuous with the marble occuring near the spillway portion of the main dam and that there is fast subterranean flow of water through the cavernous marble here. It is also established that this marble band upstream of the dam is interconnected with the marble band occuring in the vicinity of Pali village about 3 km downstream of the dam. Though big unclogged subterranean channels do not seem to exist in this region, which might have resulted in heavy leakage from the impounded reservoir, yet the possibility of some leakage of the water through the cavernous marble cannot be ruled out, due to the interconnection of the marble occuring upstream of the dam with the downstream marble band. (author)

  2. Erasmus syndrome in a marble worker

    S. Bello

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Erasmus syndrome is defined as the association of silica exposure and subsequent development of systemic sclerosis. The limited number of cases reported in the literature mainly involves miners and only sporadically other professionals. We describe a case of Erasmus syndrome in a marble worker. A 68 year old man came to our observation complaining pelvic and scapular girdle pain, evening fever, intense weakness and emaciation for about 1 month. He also reported to have had Raynaud’s phenomenon in his hands for the last 13 years. Also, his occupational history revealed a chronic exposure to silica dust. The patient presented pain in his shoulders and hips, moderate skin thickening and sclerosis in his hands and fingers extending proximally to his wrists. The diagnosis of systemic sclerosis was determined according to his clinical and medical history, the positivity of anti-Scl 70 antibodies, the nailfold capillaroscopy suggestive of an active scleroderma pattern and the detection of a mild restrictive pulmonary syndrome. The evaluation of the organbased complications excluded a gastroenterological and cardiovascular involvement, while the chest computed tomography (CT detected multiple small nodules with a mantle distribution and enlarged lymph nodes with no signs of interstitial lung disease and fibrosis. Additional tests (positron emission tomography-CT, flexible bronchoscopy and broncho-alveolar lavage excluded infectious diseases and cancer. However, given the pulmonary involvement, we performed a histological examination of the parenchyma and lymph nodes, which revealed a picture of pneumoconiosis. In the end, the occupational history and the findings from the diagnostic procedures led to the diagnosis of pulmonary silicosis. The precise definition of the pulmonary involvement was essential to the therapeutic approach to this patient.

  3. Erasmus syndrome in a marble worker.

    Bello, S; Rinaldi, A; Trabucco, S; Serafino, L; Bonali, C; Lapadula, G

    2015-12-30

    Erasmus syndrome is defined as the association of silica exposure and subsequent development of systemic sclerosis. The limited number of cases reported in the literature mainly involves miners and only sporadically other professionals. We describe a case of Erasmus syndrome in a marble worker. A 68 year old man came to our observation complaining pelvic and scapular girdle pain, evening fever, intense weakness and emaciation for about 1 month. He also reported to have had Raynaud's phenomenon in his hands for the last 13 years. Also, his occupational history revealed a chronic exposure to silica dust. The patient presented pain in his shoulders and hips, moderate skin thickening and sclerosis in his hands and fingers extending proximally to his wrists. The diagnosis of systemic sclerosis was determined according to his clinical and medical history, the positivity of anti-Scl 70 antibodies, the nailfold capillaroscopy suggestive of an active scleroderma pattern and the detection of a mild restrictive pulmonary syndrome. The evaluation of the organbased complications excluded a gastroenterological and cardiovascular involvement, while the chest computed tomography (CT) detected multiple small nodules with a mantle distribution and enlarged lymph nodes with no signs of interstitial lung disease and fibrosis. Additional tests (positron emission tomography-CT, flexible bronchoscopy and broncho-alveolar lavage) excluded infectious diseases and cancer. However, given the pulmonary involvement, we performed a histological examination of the parenchyma and lymph nodes, which revealed a picture of pneumoconiosis. In the end, the occupational history and the findings from the diagnostic procedures led to the diagnosis of pulmonary silicosis. The precise definition of the pulmonary involvement was essential to the therapeutic approach to this patient.

  4. DETERMINATION OF THERMAL RESPONSE OF CARRARA AND SNEZNIKOVSKY MARBLE USED AS A BUILDING MATERIALS

    Veronika Petráňová

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical weathering of marble, widely used as a cladding material on buildings, is one of the most common damaging mechanism caused by anisotropic thermal expansion of calcite grains. The extent of marble deterioration depends mainly on stone fabric and texture. Dry cuboids of Carrara marble and marble from Dolni Morava quarry were subjected to microscopic analysis and thermal cycling, to determine the thermal expansion related to stone fabric and predominant lattice orientation of grains (i.e. texture.

  5. Integrated Thermal-Energy Analysis of Innovative Translucent White Marble for Building Envelope Application

    Federica Rosso; Anna Laura Pisello; Franco Cotana; Marco Ferrero

    2014-01-01

    Marble is a natural material, used in the construction field since antiquity. It has always been used to communicate monumentality and solidity. Nowadays new technologies permit marble to express new languages: particularly, translucent marble technology overturns the concept of solidity. The main issue to address is the lack of thermal-energy performance of such a thin stone layer as the only facade component. Conversely, Bianco Carrara and Statuario marbles, for instance, have intrinsic be...

  6. Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Artificial Stone with Marble Calcite Waste and Epoxy Resin

    Silva, Fernanda Souza; Ribeiro, Carlos Eduardo Gomes; Rodriguez, Rubén Jesus Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    The incorporation of calcite marble waste in epoxy resin for the production of artificial stone can represent a technical-economical method and environmentally viable, reducing the amount of discarded residue in the environment, and adding economic value to marble waste and enabling the generation of jobs. The production of natural stone in Brazil recorded an exorbitant amount of waste generated in marble processing. Only 75% of marble taken from the deposits it becomes the finished product t...

  7. DETERMINATION OF THERMAL RESPONSE OF CARRARA AND SNEZNIKOVSKY MARBLE USED AS A BUILDING MATERIALS

    Veronika Petráňová; Jaroslav Valach; Alberto Viani; Marta Peréz Estébanez

    2016-01-01

    Physical weathering of marble, widely used as a cladding material on buildings, is one of the most common damaging mechanism caused by anisotropic thermal expansion of calcite grains. The extent of marble deterioration depends mainly on stone fabric and texture. Dry cuboids of Carrara marble and marble from Dolni Morava quarry were subjected to microscopic analysis and thermal cycling, to determine the thermal expansion related to stone fabric and predominant lattice orientation of grains (i....

  8. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter; Ekendahl, Ann-Mari

    2005-12-01

    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark

  9. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  10. Utilisation of Waste Marble Dust as Fine Aggregate in Concrete

    Vigneshpandian, G. V.; Aparna Shruthi, E.; Venkatasubramanian, C.; Muthu, D.

    2017-07-01

    Concrete is the important construction material and it is used in the construction industry due to its high compressive strength and its durability. Now a day’s various studies have been conducted to make concrete with waste material with the intention of reducing cost and unavailability of conventional materials. This paper investigates the strength properties of concrete specimens cast using waste marble dust as replacement of fine aggregate. The marble pieces are finely crushed to powdered and the gradation is compared with conventional fine aggregate. Concrete specimen were cast using wmd in the laboratory with different proportion (25%, 50% and 100%) by weight of cement and from the studies it reveals that addition of waste marble dust as a replacement of fine aggregate marginally improves compressive, tensile and flexural strength in concrete.

  11. Midwest nukes tumble, rock industry: Byron, Marble Hill, Zimmer

    Nogee, A.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear industry is suffering from a lack of investor confidence because of cancelled projects and the unprecedented rejection of an operating license for Commonwealth Edison's Byron plant on grounds that the utility failed to meet quality assurance responsibilities. When plans to complete the Zimmer and Marble Hill nuclear plants were abandoned, Bechtel came forward with a financing plan that, while rejected for Zimmer and Marble Hill, could lead to future bailouts. Both Zimmer and Marble Hill plants could be partially converted to coal. The loss of investor confidence in nuclear plants is largely due to political pressures brought on by a combination of citizen intervenors, whistle blowers on construction sites and disagreements between participating utilities. A rise in stock prices followed the cancellation announcements and the lowered investment security ratings

  12. Preparation and analysis of a marble reference material

    Carmo Freitas, M.; Moens, L.; Seabra e Barros, J.

    1988-01-01

    A 7 kg stone of a Carrara marble was reduced to grains smaller than 100 μm, mixed and homogenized in order to prepare a marble reference material. The homogeneity was tested for 16 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Through a one-way analysis of variance based on several analyses of each of 15 bottles and within the same bottle, it was concluded that the inter-bottle heterogeneity is not greater than the intra-bottle heterogeneity. Results on the concentration of major and trace elements in the marble reference material, obtained by different laboratories and different techniques, are given. The limestone certified reference material KALKSTEIN KH was used to evaluate measurement accuracy, to intercalibrate laboratories, and to provide compatibility of measurement data. (author) 10 refs.; 12 tabs

  13. 75 FR 64303 - Vermont Marble Power, Division of Omya Inc.; Central Vermont Public Service Corporation; Notice...

    2010-10-19

    ...-029; 2445-023; 2558-029] Vermont Marble Power, Division of Omya Inc.; Central Vermont Public Service... Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene October 12, 2010. On August 31, 2010, Vermont Marble Power... relicensing. Applicant Contacts: For transferor: Todd Allard, Operations Engineer Omya, Inc., Vermont Marble...

  14. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  15. Microchemical Plant in a Liquid Droplet: Plasmonic Liquid Marble for Sequential Reactions and Attomole Detection of Toxin at Microliter Scale.

    Han, Xuemei; Koh, Charlynn Sher Lin; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Chew, Wee Shern; Ling, Xing Yi

    2017-11-15

    Miniaturizing the continuous multistep operations of a factory into a microchemical plant offers a safe and cost-effective approach to promote high-throughput screening in drug development and enforcement of industrial/environmental safety. While particle-assembled microdroplets in the form of liquid marble are ideal as microchemical plant, these platforms are mainly restricted to single-step reactions and limited to ex situ reaction monitoring. Herein, we utilize plasmonic liquid marble (PLM), formed by encapsulating liquid droplet with Ag nanocubes, to address these issues and demonstrate it as an ideal microchemical plant to conduct reaction-and-detection sequences on-demand in a nondisruptive manner. Utilizing a two-step azo-dye formation as our model reaction, our microchemical plant allows rapid and efficient diazotization of nitroaniline to form diazonium nitrobenzene, followed by the azo coupling of this intermediate with target aromatic compound to yield azo-dye. These molecular events are tracked in situ via SERS measurement through the plasmonic shell and further verified with in silico investigation. Furthermore, we apply our microchemical plant for ultrasensitive SERS detection and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA) with detection limit down to 10 amol, which is 50 000-fold lower than the BPA safety limit. Together with the protections offered by plasmonic shell against external environments, these collective advantages empower PLM as a multifunctional microchemical plant to facilitate small-volume testing and optimization of processes relevant in industrial and research contexts.

  16. Experimental Investigation on Deformation Failure Characteristics of Crystalline Marble Under Triaxial Cyclic Loading

    Yang, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Wen-Ling; Ranjith, P. G.

    2017-11-01

    The deformation failure characteristics of marble subjected to triaxial cyclic loading are significant when evaluating the stability and safety of deep excavation damage zones. To date, however, there have been notably few triaxial experimental studies on marble under triaxial cyclic loading. Therefore, in this research, a series of triaxial cyclic tests was conducted to analyze the mechanical damage characteristics of a marble. The post-peak deformation of the marble changed gradually from strain softening to strain hardening as the confining pressure increased from 0 to 10 MPa. Under uniaxial compression, marble specimens showed brittle failure characteristics with a number axial splitting tensile cracks; in the range of σ 3 = 2.5-7.5 MPa, the marble specimens assumed single shear fracture characteristics with larger fracture angles of about 65°. However, at σ 3 = 10 MPa, the marble specimens showed no obvious shear fracture surfaces. The triaxial cyclic experimental results indicate that in the range of the tested confining pressures, the triaxial strengths of the marble specimens under cyclic loading were approximately equal to those under monotonic loading. With the increase in cycle number, the elastic strains of the marble specimens all increased at first and later decreased, achieving maximum values, but the plastic strains of the marble specimens increased nonlinearly. To evaluate quantitatively the damage extent of the marble under triaxial cyclic loading, a damage variable is defined according to the irreversible deformation for each cycle. The evolutions of the elastic modulus for the marble were characterized by four stages: material strengthening, material degradation, material failure and structure slippage. Based on the experimental results of the marble specimens under complex cyclic loading, the cohesion of the marble decreased linearly, but the internal friction angles did not depend on the damage extent. To describe the peak strength

  17. 77 FR 70159 - Marble River, LLC v. Noble Clinton Windpark I, LLC, Noble Ellenburg Windpark, LLC, Noble...

    2012-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-20-000] Marble River... Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, Marble River, LLC (Marble River or Complainant.... (NYISO or Respondent), alleging that Noble failed to pay Marble River for headroom created by common...

  18. Encapsulation Efficiency, Oscillatory Rheometry

    Z. Mohammad Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid-based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using a modified thermal method. Only one melting peak in DSC curve of gamma oryzanol bearing liposomes was observed which could be attributed to co-crystallization of both compounds. The addition of gamma oryzanol, caused to reduce the melting point of 5% (w/v lecithin-based liposome from 207°C to 163.2°C. At high level of lecithin, increasing of liposome particle size (storage at 4°C for two months was more obvious and particle size increased from 61 and 113 to 283 and 384 nanometers, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of gamma oryzanol increased from 60% to 84.3% with increasing lecithin content. The encapsulation stability of oryzanol in liposome was determined at different concentrations of lecithin 3, 5, 10, 20% (w/v and different storage times (1, 7, 30 and 60 days. In all concentrations, the encapsulation stability slightly decreased during 30 days storage. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed relatively spherical to elliptic particles which indicated to low extent of particles coalescence. The oscillatory rheometry showed that the loss modulus of liposomes were higher than storage modulus and more liquid-like behavior than solid-like behavior. The samples storage at 25°C for one month, showed higher viscoelastic parameters than those having been stored at 4°C which were attributed to higher membrane fluidity at 25°C and their final coalescence.Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using modified thermal method. Only one

  19. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of the marbled rockfish ...

    Key Laboratory for Marine Living Resources and Molecular Engineering, College of Marine Science,. Zhejiang ... MgCl2, 0.2 mM dNTPs, 0.2 μM of the forward and reverse ..... and tolerance, and oxygen consumption of the marbled rockfish,.

  1. Janus droplets: liquid marbles coated with dielectric/semiconductor particles.

    Bormashenko, Edward; Bormashenko, Yelena; Pogreb, Roman; Gendelman, Oleg

    2011-01-04

    The manufacturing of water droplets wrapped with two different powders, carbon black (semiconductor) and polytetrafluoroethylene (dielectric), is presented. Droplets composed of two hemispheres (Janus droplets) characterized by various physical and chemical properties are reported first. Watermelon-like striped liquid marbles are reported. Janus droplets remained stable on solid and liquid supports and could be activated with an electric field.

  2. Characterization of agua de Ramon marbles, Cordoba Province, Argentina

    Tourn, S.; Castro, L. . E mail: selvia@fcen.uba.ar, lilianacastro@fibertel.com.ar

    2004-01-01

    Agua de Ramon district is located in the NW of Cordoba, Argentina, between 3 49' and 30 0 52' S and 65 0 21' and 65 0 24' W, in the Eastern Pampean Range setting. It was a very important tungsten district until the end of 1950'decade when tungsten mining became of no economic interest. The objective is to report for the first time the petrological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of several marble lenses located in the sourthern of the area. Marble outcrops are lenticular ranging from 1 m to 80 m in length and 0.50 m to 20 m width. They appear massive, fine-grained and in light colors (white, pale green, very light brown and pale gray). These last varieties show a distinct banded structure due to little differences in color. These marbles are mainly composed of magnesian calcite accompanied by minor amounts of dolomite, forsterite, humite group minerals, tremolite, talc, serpentine and clinochlore, and scheelite, sphene, apatite and opaque minerals like hematite, magnetite, illmenite, pirrothite and pyrite as accessory minerals. Major chemical analyses indicate a relatively high SiO2 and MgO content, and minor CaO, in comparison with marbles of this type. Mineral paragenesis was useful to evaluate metamorphism conditions in this area [es

  3. Surveying marbled murrelets at inland forested sites: a guide

    Peter W.C. Paton; C. John Ralph; Harry R. Carter; S. Kim Nelson

    1990-01-01

    The marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), a seabird, nests in forested stands from southeast Alaska south to Santa Cruz, California. Because of this species' close association with old-growth forests, researchers and land managers need a method to assess murrelet distribution and use patterns throughout its range. This guide describes a...

  4. Cutting of Two Marble Dummy Crystals in Industrial Prototype Conditions

    De Forni, Armando; Limia-Conde, Francisco; Morino, René

    1997-01-01

    Two marble samples were cut to specified conditions with the tooling set designed for the mass processing of the 110'000 PbWO4 crystals of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter. We wanted to test in particular the reproducibility of the electrical contact on the reference sphere, the accuracy of the new positioning tools at each cutting operation in their respective positions

  5. Faculty of Law: MaRBLe for Lawyers

    Akkermans, Bram; Bastiaens, Ellen; van Tilburg, Jonathan; van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    The Maastricht University Research Based Learning (MaRBLe) project offered a unique but challenging opportunity to the law faculty. Working with undergraduate (or bachelor) students on research was already part of regular, i.e. curricular, teaching activities, but the number of students and

  6. Development of comprehensive and versatile framework for reactor analysis, MARBLE

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Hazama, Taira; Numata, Kazuyuki; Jin, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have developed a neutronics code system for reactor analysis. • The new code system covers all five phases of the core design procedures. • All the functionalities are integrated and validated in the same framework. • The framework supports continuous improvement and extension. • We report results of validation and practical applications. - Abstract: A comprehensive and versatile reactor analysis code system, MARBLE, has been developed. MARBLE is designed as a software development framework for reactor analysis, which offers reusable and extendible functions and data models based on physical concepts, rather than a reactor analysis code system. From a viewpoint of the code system, it provides a set of functionalities utilized in a detailed reactor analysis scheme for fast criticality assemblies and power reactors, and nuclear data related uncertainty quantification such as cross-section adjustment. MARBLE includes five sub-systems named ECRIPSE, BIBLO, SCHEME, UNCERTAINTY and ORPHEUS, which are constructed of the shared functions and data models in the framework. By using these sub-systems, MARBLE covers all phases required in fast reactor core design prediction and improvement procedures, i.e. integral experiment database management, nuclear data processing, fast criticality assembly analysis, uncertainty quantification, and power reactor analysis. In the present paper, these functionalities are summarized and system validation results are described

  7. Assembly of greek marble inscriptions by isotopic methods.

    Herz, N; Wenner, D B

    1978-03-10

    Classical Greek inscriptions cut in marble, whose association as original stelai by archeological methods was debatable, were selected for study. Using traditional geological techniques and determinations of the per mil increments in carbon-13 and oxygen-18, it was determined that fragments could be positively assigned to three stelai, but that fragments from three other stelai had been incorrectly associated.

  8. Chapter 22: Marbled Murrelet Food Habits and Prey Ecology

    Esther E. Burkett

    1995-01-01

    Information on food habits of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) was compiled from systematic studies and anecdotal reports from Alaska to California. Major differences between the winter and summer diets were apparent, with euphausiids and mysids becoming more dominant during winter and spring. The primary invertebrate prey items were...

  9. Etching and image analysis of the microstructure in marble

    Alm, Ditte; Brix, Susanne; Howe-Rasmussen, Helle

    2005-01-01

    of grains exposed on that surface are measured on the microscope images using image analysis by the program Adobe Photoshop 7.0 with Image Processing Toolkit 4.0. The parameters measured by the program on microscope images of thin sections of two marble types are used for calculation of the coefficient...

  10. Chapter 36: Status of Forest Habitat of the Marbled Murrelet

    David A. Perry

    1995-01-01

    Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) have been shown to be dependant upon old-growth forests for nesting habitat. These forests have declined over the last century as they are cut for human use. This paper reviews the current status of old-growth forests along the west coast, in both the United States and Canada.

  11. The secret life of marbled murrelets: monitoring populations and habitats.

    Jonathan Thompson

    2007-01-01

    The marbled murrelet is a small diving seabird that occupies coastal waters from Alaska to central California. Murrelets have a unique nesting strategy that requires them to commute tens of miles inland, where they use large mossy branches on older conifers as platforms to balance their solitary egg. Populations have been declining for decades as the amount of nesting...

  12. Assessment of the Durability of Marble Cladding by Laboratory Exposure compared to Natural Exposure

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Leksø, Henrik; Grelk, Bent

    2003-01-01

    Marble exposed to temperature cycles at high relative humidity (RH) under laboratory conditions loose strength similar to loss of strength for the same marble exposed to natural climate. Two marble types from three different building facades in Copenhagen are studied. From each building a marble...... cladding panel exposed for the south facing natural climate during 29, 60 and 61 years, respectively, and a cladding panel of each of the marble types only exposed for indoor climate are cut in bars of size 30x30x300 mm. The bars from indoor are exposed to temperature cycles between 10 °C and 60 °C...... at nearly 100% RH and at nearly 0% RH. The strength of the natural exposed marble as well as the laboratory-exposed marble are measured as flexural strength under concentrated load using four-point loading. Analysis of the strength test show that it is possible to transfer test results for laboratory...

  13. Novel Hydroxyapatite Coatings for the Conservation of Marble and Limestone

    Naidu, Sonia

    Marble and limestone are calcite-based materials used in the construction of various structures, many of which have significant artistic and architectural value. Unfortunately, due to calcite's high dissolution rate, these stones are susceptible to chemically-induced weathering in nature. Limestone, due to its inherent porosity, also faces other environmental weathering processes that cause weakening from disintegration at grain boundaries. The treatments presently available are all deficient in one way or another. The aim of this work is to examine the feasibility of using hydroxyapatite (HAP) as a novel protective coating for marble and limestone, with two goals: i) to reduce acid corrosion of marble and ii) to consolidate physically weathered limestone. The motivation for using HAP is its low dissolution rate and structural compatibility with calcite. Mild, wet chemical synthesis routes, in which inorganic phosphate-based solutions were reacted with marble and limestone, alone and with other precursors, were used to produce HAP films. Film nucleation, growth and phase evolution were studied on marble to understand film formation and determine the optimal synthesis route. An acid resistance test was developed to investigate the attack mechanism on marble and quantify the efficacy of HAP-based coatings. Film nucleation and growth were dependent on substrate surface roughness and increased with calcium and carbonate salt additions during synthesis. Acid attack on marble occurred via simultaneous dissolution at grain boundaries, twin boundaries and grain surfaces. HAP provided intermediate protection against acid attack, when compared to two conventional treatments. Its ability to protect the stone from acid was not as significant as predicted from dissolution kinetics and this was attributed to incomplete coverage and residual porosity within the film, arising from its flake-like crystal growth habit, which enabled acid to access the underlying substrate. The

  14. Natural radioactivity and dose from marble used as building material

    Iqbal, M.

    1999-01-01

    The activities of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K radionuclides have been measured in marble chips collected from the factories in Islamabad, Pakistan using NaI(TI) gamma ray spectrometer. The spectrometry system was calibrated with a reference material RGI obtained from IAEA. The activity measurements were based upon 1460.8 keV, 1764.5 keV and 2614.6 keV energies of /sup 40/K, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th, respectively. The spectrum stripping was done by matrix inversion method. The calculated specific activities of the marble samples varied from 4 Bq.kg/sup -1/ to 63 Bq.kg/sup -1/ for /sup 40/K. The Radium equivalent activities, have been calculated and were found to vary from 26 Bq.kg/sup -1/ to 100 Bq.kg/sup -1/, respectively. These values are within the limit by OECD (Ra /sub eq/ < 370 Bq.kg/sup -1/) and ICRP-60 (Ra/sub eq/ < 100 Bq.kg/sup -1/ for the safe use of the construction materials for dwelling. H/sub ex/ and h/sub in/ indices ranges from 0.0716 to 0.2692 and from 0.0831 to 0.4277, respectively which are also less than 1 according to OECD limit. The calculated values of overall absorbed dose rate for marble samples varies from 13 nGy.h/sup -1/ to 46 nGy.h/sup -1/. Dose rate (nGy/hr per Bq/kg) using Ingree code at a distance of 1 meter from floor varies from 10 to 65 for /sup 226/Ra, 11 to 53 for /sup 232/Th and 1 to 9 for /sup 40/K for all marble samples. All these results indicate that marble samples under study are safe for use as a construction material. (author)

  15. Protocol proposal for radon concentration mensuration from granitic rocks in marble factory

    Del Claro, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ( 238 U and 235 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. Radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), the thoron ( 220 Rn), radio ( 2 '2'6Ra), thorium ( 23 '2Th) and potassium ( 40 K) may occur in materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. Thus, the radioactivity from marbles and granites is of importance, so that under certain conditions these materials radioactivity levels can be hazardous requiring the implementation of mitigation measurements. This research presents a technical protocol marble factories for the control human exposure to natural radioactivity exhaled from granitic rocks. The protocol was based on measurements of the 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentration in Brazilian granite rocks commonly nationally and exported. The 222 Rn and 220 Rn measurements were done using the AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and RAD7 (Durridge Company) apparatus, respectively. The samples of granite were sealed in glass jars for 40 days in to achieve secular equilibrium between 226 Ra and 222 Rn radionuclides. The measurements were performed on Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the Federal Technological University of Parana. Also, solid-state nuclear track detectors CR-39 were installed in a marble factory environments located in Curitiba - Parana for the evaluation of 222 Rn concentrations in workplaces. The CR-39 detectors were exposed for about 90 days and submitted to etching process. The alpha particle tracks were observed using an optical microscope. Some granite samples analyzed presented 222 Rn concentrations of attention, since the average values ranged from 3 ± 1 Bq/m 3 to 2087 ± 19 Bq/m 3 . The results obtained

  16. Selective encapsulation by Janus particles

    Li, Wei, E-mail: wel208@mrl.ucsb.edu [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ruth, Donovan; Gunton, James D. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Rickman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation to examine encapsulation in a system comprising Janus oblate spheroids and isotropic spheres. More specifically, the impact of variations in temperature, particle size, inter-particle interaction range, and strength is examined for a system in which the spheroids act as the encapsulating agents and the spheres as the encapsulated guests. In this picture, particle interactions are described by a quasi-square-well patch model. This study highlights the environmental adaptation and selectivity of the encapsulation system to changes in temperature and guest particle size, respectively. Moreover, we identify an important range in parameter space where encapsulation is favored, as summarized by an encapsulation map. Finally, we discuss the generalization of our results to systems having a wide range of particle geometries.

  17. Integrated Thermal-Energy Analysis of Innovative Translucent White Marble for Building Envelope Application

    Federica Rosso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marble is a natural material, used in the construction field since antiquity. It has always been used to communicate monumentality and solidity. Nowadays new technologies permit marble to express new languages: particularly, translucent marble technology overturns the concept of solidity. The main issue to address is the lack of thermal-energy performance of such a thin stone layer as the only facade component. Conversely, Bianco Carrara and Statuario marbles, for instance, have intrinsic benefits as natural cool materials, due to their high solar reflectance and thermal emissivity. Thus, this paper analyzes the thermal-energy and environmental behavior of marble facade for a new designed building in New York City. An integrated analysis of the energy performance of the marble skin is performed through a preliminary experimental characterization, carried out for two different types of naturally white marble, for comparative purposes. Then, a dynamic simulation model of the building is developed to evaluate year-round benefits and drawbacks of the translucent marble envelope in terms of indoor thermal comfort and air-conditioning requirement. The analysis showed how the proposed marble facade is able to decrease the energy requirement for cooling up to 6%, demonstrating possible relevant perspectives for marble-based facades, even in energy-efficient buildings.

  18. Update on cellular encapsulation.

    Smith, Kate E; Johnson, Robert C; Papas, Klearchos K

    2018-05-06

    There is currently a significant disparity between the number of patients who need lifesaving transplants and the number of donated human organs. Xenotransplantation is a way to address this disparity and attempts to enable the use of xenogeneic tissues have persisted for centuries. While immunologic incompatibilities have presented a persistent impediment to their use, encapsulation may represent a way forward for the use of cell-based xenogeneic therapeutics without the need for immunosuppression. In conjunction with modern innovations such as the use of bioprinting, incorporation of immune modulating molecules into capsule membranes, and genetic engineering, the application of xenogeneic cells to treat disorders ranging from pain to liver failure is becoming increasingly realistic. The present review discusses encapsulation in the context of xenotransplantation, focusing on the current status of clinical trials, persistent issues such as antigen shedding, oxygen availability, and donor selection, and recent developments that may address these limitations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  20. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  1. Physical Properties of AR-Glass Fibers in Continuous Fiber Spinning Conditions

    Lee, Ji-Sun; Lee, MiJai; Lim, Tae-Young; Lee, Youngjin; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Ho [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Soong-Keun [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, a glass fiber is fabricated using a continuous spinning process from alkali resistant (AR) glass with 4 wt%zirconia. In order to confirm the melting properties of the marble glass, the raw material is placed into a Pt crucible and melted at 1650 ℃ for 2 h, and then annealed. In order to confirm the transparency of the clear marble glass, the visible transmittance is measured and the fiber spinning condition is investigated by using high temperature viscosity measurements. A change in the diameter is observed according to the winding speed in the range of 100–900 rpm; it is also verified as a function of the fiberizing temperature in the range of 1200–1260 ℃. The optimum winding speed and spinning temperature are 500 rpm and 1240 ℃, respectively. The properties of the prepared spinning fiber are confirmed using optical microscope, tensile strength, modulus, and alkali-resistant tests.

  2. Radiation Shielding Properties of Some Marbles in Turkey

    Guenoglu, K.; Akkurt, I.

    2011-01-01

    Especially after development of technology, radiation started to be used in a large fields such as medicine, industry and energy. Using radiation in those fields bring hazardous effect of radiation into humancell. Thus radiation protection becomes important in physics. Although there are three ways for radiation protection, shielding of the radiation is the most commonly used method. Natural Stones such as marble is used as construction material especially in critical building and thus its radiation shielding capability should be determined.In this study, gamma ray shielding properties of some different types of marble mined in Turkey, have been measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. The measured results were also compared with the theoretical calculations XCOM.

  3. Radiation Shielding Properties of Some Marbles in Turkey

    Günoǧlu, K.; Akkurt, I.

    2011-12-01

    Especially after development of technology, radiation started to be used in a large fields such as medicine, industry and energy. Using radiation in those fields bring hazordous effect of radition into humancell. Thus radiation protection becomes important in physics. Although there are three ways for radiation protection, shielding of the radiation is the most commonly used method. Natural Stones such as marble is used as construction material especially in critical building and thus its radiation shielding capability should be determined. In this study, gamma ray shielding properties of some different types of marble mined in Turkey, have been measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. The measured results were also compared with the theoretical calculations XCOM.

  4. Effective atomic number and electron density of marble concrete

    Akkurt, I.; El-Khayatt, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and effective electron density (N e ) of different type concrete have been measured and the results were compared with the calculation obtained using the mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) obtained via XCOM in the photon energy range of 1 keV-100 GeV. Six different concrete in where marble has been used in the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 %, has been used in the study. (author)

  5. Pulsed Thermography for Depth Profiling in Marble Sulfation

    Bison, P.; Clarelli, F.; Vannozzi, A.

    2015-06-01

    Deterioration of stones is a complex problem and one of the main concern for people working in the field of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. One important point in cultural heritage is to obtain information about the damage in a non-invasive way. By this paper, we propose a new non-invasive tool that permits evaluation of the thickness of (gypsum) grown (sulfation) on marble stones, using a mathematical model on data detected by pulsed infrared thermography.

  6. Radon and thoron emanation from various marble materials: impact on the workers

    Misdaq, M.A.; Amghar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Uranium ( 238 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) concentrations were measured inside different pulverized marble material samples by using a method based on determining detection efficiencies of the CR-39 and LR-115 II solid state nuclear track detectors for the emitted alpha particles. Radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) alpha-activities per unit volume were evaluated inside and outside the marble samples studied. Radon emanation coefficient was determined for the considered marble samples. Alpha- and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon, thoron and their progenies were measured in the atmosphere of a marble factory. Equilibrium factors between radon and its progeny and thoron and its decay products were evaluated in the air of the studied marble factory. The committed equivalent doses due to short-lived radon decay products were determined in different regions of the respiratory tract of workers in the considered marble factory

  7. Micro-Encapsulation of Probiotics

    Meiners, Jean-Antoine

    Micro-encapsulation is defined as the technology for packaging with the help of protective membranes particles of finely ground solids, droplets of liquids or gaseous materials in small capsules that release their contents at controlled rates over prolonged periods of time under the influences of specific conditions (Boh, 2007). The material encapsulating the core is referred to as coating or shell.

  8. Glass sealing

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  9. MARBLE: A system for executing expert systems in parallel

    Myers, Leonard; Johnson, Coe; Johnson, Dean

    1990-01-01

    This paper details the MARBLE 2.0 system which provides a parallel environment for cooperating expert systems. The work has been done in conjunction with the development of an intelligent computer-aided design system, ICADS, by the CAD Research Unit of the Design Institute at California Polytechnic State University. MARBLE (Multiple Accessed Rete Blackboard Linked Experts) is a system of C Language Production Systems (CLIPS) expert system tool. A copied blackboard is used for communication between the shells to establish an architecture which supports cooperating expert systems that execute in parallel. The design of MARBLE is simple, but it provides support for a rich variety of configurations, while making it relatively easy to demonstrate the correctness of its parallel execution features. In its most elementary configuration, individual CLIPS expert systems execute on their own processors and communicate with each other through a modified blackboard. Control of the system as a whole, and specifically of writing to the blackboard is provided by one of the CLIPS expert systems, an expert control system.

  10. Verde Macael: A Serpentinite Wrongly Referred to as a Marble

    Santiago del Barrio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Serpentinites are used in both exterior and interior locations, but not all serpentinites are equal: they vary in physical-mechanical behavior and are not all suitable for similar uses. The serpentinites most commonly used worldwide come from India, Pakistan or Egypt. Spain has traditionally quarried two ultramafic massifs, one in Galicia (Verde Pirineos and one in Andalucía (Verde Macael. Some of these quarries were small family-run businesses. In both cases, these rocks are commercially available as “green marble.” These serpentinites commonly have a high degree of carbonation, but the process does not always take place with the same intensity. Carbonate can act as a cementing agent of the other phases, increasing the mechanical strength parameters. As a result, an improvement in the strength conditions is achieved, but a misinterpretation of the suitability of the rock may occur because a perception among users that “green marble” is similar to geologically defined marble. This may lead to inappropriate applications as an ornamental stone. At a time of economic crisis in Europe, the natural stone sector is encouraged to invest in research to identify the best quality products that can compete profitably with those currently being imported from other countries. This paper provides a comparison of properties of the Verde Macael serpentinite with a true marble in the hope of contributing to improving the natural stone industrial sector.

  11. Development of gypsum alteration on marble and limestone

    McGee, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Blackened alteration crusts of gypsum plus particulates that form on sheltered areas on marble and limestone buildings pose a challenge for rehabilitation and cleaning. Fresh marble and limestone samples exposed at monitored exposure sites present conditions of simple geometry and well-documented exposures but have short exposure histories (one to five years). The gypsum alteration crusts that develop on these samples provide insight into the early stages and rate of alteration crust formation. Alteration crusts from buildings give a longer, but less well known exposure history and present much more complex surfaces for gypsum accumulation. Integrated observations and measurements of alteration crusts from exposure samples and from buildings identify four factors that are important in the formation and development of alteration crusts on marble and limestone: (1) pollution levels, (2) exposure to rain or washing, (3) geometry of exposure of the stone surface, and (4) permeability of the stone. The combination of these factors contributes to both the distribution and the physical characteristics of the gypsum crusts which may affect cleaning decisions.

  12. Crack Coalescence in Molded Gypsum and Carrara Marble

    Wong, N.; Einstein, H. H.

    2007-12-01

    This research investigates the fracturing and coalescence behavior in prismatic laboratory-molded gypsum and Carrara marble specimens, which consist of either one or two pre-existing open flaws, under uniaxial compression. The tests are monitored by a high speed video system with a frame rate up to 24,000 frames/second. It allows one to precisely observe the cracking mechanisms, in particular if shear or tensile fracturing takes place. Seven crack types and nine crack coalescence categories are identified. The flaw inclination angle, the ligament length and the bridging angle between two flaws have different extents of influence on the coalescence patterns. For coplanar flaws, as the flaw inclination angle increases, there is a general trend of variation from shear coalescence to tensile coalescence. For stepped flaws, as the bridging angle changes from negative to small positive, and further up to large positive values, the coalescence generally progresses from categories of no coalescence, indirect coalescence to direct coalescence. For direct coalescence, it generally progresses from shear, mixed shear-tensile to tensile as the bridging angle increases. Some differences in fracturing and coalescence processes are observed in gypsum and marble, particularly the crack initiation in marble is preceded by the development of macroscopic white patches, but not in gypsum. Scanning Electron Microprobe (SEM) study reveals that the white patches consist of zones of microcracks (process zones).

  13. Encapsulation of Clay Platelets inside Latex Particles

    Voorn, D.J.; Ming, W.; Herk, van A.M.; Fernando, R.H.; Sung, Li-Piin

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent attempts in encapsulating clay platelets inside latex particles by emulsion polymerization. Face modification of clay platelets by cationic exchange has been shown to be insufficient for clay encapsulation, leading to armored latex particles. Successful encapsulation of

  14. Review of metal-matrix encapsulation of solidified radioactive high-level waste

    Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-05-01

    Literature describing previous and current work on the encapsulation of solidified high-level waste forms in a metal matrix was reviewed. Encapsulation of either stabilized calcine pellets or glass beads in alloys by casting techniques was concluded to be the most developed and direct approach to fabricating solid metal-matrix waste forms. Further characterizations of the physical and chemical properties of metal-matrix waste forms are still needed to assess the net attributes of metal-encapsulation alternatives. Steady-state heat transfer properties of waste canisters in air and water environments were calculated for four reference waste forms: (1) calcine, (2) glass monoliths, (3) metal-encapsulated calcine, and (4) metal-encapsulated glass beads. A set of criteria for the maximum allowable canister centerline and surface temperatures and heat generation rates per canister at the time of shipment to a Federal repository was assumed, and comparisons were made between canisters of these reference waste forms of the shortest time after reactor discharge that canisters could be filled and the subsequent ''interim'' storage times prior to shipment to a Federal repository for various canister diameters and waste ages. A reference conceptual flowsheet based on existing or developing technology for encapsulation of stabilized calcine pellets is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are presented

  15. Electrochromic Glasses.

    1980-07-31

    this glass and that dipole-dipole correlations contribute to the "ferroelectric-like" character of this amorphous system. The TeO2 -W03 glasses can only...shows the dielectric constant and Fig. I(b) glass from pure TeO2 ot pure WO. In addition, glass the tan 8 of the WO glass as a function of temperature... glasses containing WO, in various glass forming nitworks of LifO-B1O0, Na:O-BzO,, and TeO2 were prepared from reagent grade oxides at 800 C - 9SO C in

  16. Consolidation of sugaring marble by hydroxyapatite: some recent developments on producing and treating decayed samples

    Sassoni, Enrico; Graziani, Gabriela; Franzoni, Elisa; Scherer, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Consolidation of sugaring marble (i.e., marble affected by granular disaggregation) still lacks fully effective solutions. Consequently, the use of an innovative phosphate-based treatment, aimed at bonding calcite grains by formation of hydroxyapatite at grain boundaries, has recently been proposed. In this paper, firstly a novel method for producing artificially decayed marble samples, by contact with a heating plate, is proposed. Then, some results are presented about the effectiveness and ...

  17. Portraits and Colour-codes in ancient Rome: The Polychromy of white marble Portraits

    Skovmøller, Amalie

    The polychromy of ancient white marble sculpture has for the last 20 years become a focus of international awareness; from academics and the general public alike. Research results are gathered from scientific examinations of the “white” marbles, which unit e museums and universities in ambitious...... issues of colour on sculptural marble form, and which seeks to establish polychromy research in general within a traditional archaeological research field....

  18. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma

    Adesh S Manchanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN is a benign cutaneous or mucosal neural tumor which, usually, presents as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic, papule or nodule showing striking predilection for the face. It occurs commonly in middle age, and there is no sex predilection. Oral PEN are not common, and these lesions must be distinguished from other peripheral nerve sheath tumors such as the neurofibroma, neurilemma (schwannoma, and traumatic neuroma. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of PEN is to avoid the misdiagnosis of neural tumors that may be associated with systemic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B. Here, we present a case of benign PEN of the gingiva in the left anterior mandibular region, laying importance on immunohistochemical staining in diagnosing such lesions.

  19. Liposome-encapsulated chemotherapy

    Børresen, B.; Hansen, A. E.; Kjær, A.

    2018-01-01

    Cytotoxic drugs encapsulated into liposomes were originally designed to increase the anticancer response, while minimizing off-target adverse effects. The first liposomal chemotherapeutic drug was approved for use in humans more than 20years ago, and the first publication regarding its use...... to inherent issues with the enhanced permeability and retention effect, the tumour phenomenon which liposomal drugs exploit. This effect seems very heterogeneously distributed in the tumour. Also, it is potentially not as ubiquitously occurring as once thought, and it may prove important to select patients...... not resolve the other challenges that liposomal chemotherapy faces, and more work still needs to be done to determine which veterinary patients may benefit the most from liposomal chemotherapy....

  20. New process encapsulates

    Mueller, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the various aspects of this study indicate that the encapsulation process is not only capable of reducing the percent of Radon-222 emanation but also reduces the possibility of the leaching of toxic elements. Radon-222 emanation after solidification showed a 93.51% reduction from the slurry. The Gamma Spectral Analyses of short-lived Radon daughters supported the above findings. Leach studies on solidified refinery waste and transformer oils indicate there is a significant reduction in the possibility of toxic substances leaching out of the solidified samples. Further studies are needed to confirm the results of this investigation; however, the present findings indicate that the process could substantially reduce Radon-222 exhalation into the environment from uranium tailings ponds and reduce toxic leachates from hazardous waste materials

  1. Solid-Phase Immunoassay of Polystyrene-Encapsulated Semiconductor Coreshells for Cardiac Marker Detection

    Sanghee Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid-phase immunoassay of polystyrene-encapsulated semiconductor nanoparticles was demonstrated for cardiac troponin I (cTnI detection. CdSe/ZnS coreshells were encapsulated with a carboxyl-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticle to capture the target antibody through a covalent bonding and to eliminate the photoblinking and toxicity of semiconductor luminescent immunosensor. The polystyrene-encapsulated CdSe/ZnS fluorophores on surface-modified glass chip identified cTnI antigens at the level of ~ng/mL. It was an initial demonstration of diagnostic chip for monitoring a cardiovascular disease.

  2. Measuring the Coefficient of Friction of a Small Floating Liquid Marble.

    Ooi, Chin Hong; Nguyen, Anh Van; Evans, Geoffrey M; Dao, Dzung Viet; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-12-02

    This paper investigates the friction coefficient of a moving liquid marble, a small liquid droplet coated with hydrophobic powder and floating on another liquid surface. A floating marble can easily move across water surface due to the low friction, allowing for the transport of aqueous solutions with minimal energy input. However, the motion of a floating marble has yet to be systematically characterised due to the lack of insight into key parameters such as the coefficient of friction between the floating marble and the carrier liquid. We measured the coefficient of friction of a small floating marble using a novel experimental setup that exploits the non-wetting properties of a liquid marble. A floating liquid marble pair containing a minute amount magnetite particles were immobilised and then released in a controlled manner using permanent magnets. The capillarity-driven motion was analysed to determine the coefficient of friction of the liquid marbles. The "capillary charge" model was used to fit the experimental results. We varied the marble content and carrier liquid to establish a relationship between the friction correction factor and the meniscus angle.

  3. Marble-hosted ruby deposits of the Morogoro Region, Tanzania

    Balmer, Walter A.; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Fritz, Harald; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan

    2017-10-01

    The ruby deposits of the Uluguru and Mahenge Mts, Morogoro Region, are related to marbles which represent the cover sequence of the Eastern Granulites in Tanzania. In both localities the cover sequences define a tectonic unit which is present as a nappe structure thrusted onto the gneissic basement in a north-western direction. Based on structural geological observations the ruby deposits are bound to mica-rich boudins in fold hinges where fluids interacted with the marble-host rock in zones of higher permeability. Petrographic observations revealed that the Uluguru Mts deposits occur within calcite-dominated marbles whereas deposits in the Mahenge Mts are found in dolomite-dominated marbles. The mineral assemblage describing the marble-hosted ruby deposit in the Uluguru Mts is characterised by corundum-dolomite-phlogopite ± spinel, calcite, pargasite, scapolite, plagioclase, margarite, chlorite, tourmaline whereas the assemblage corundum-calcite-plagioclase-phlogopite ± dolomite, pargasite, sapphirine, titanite, tourmaline is present in samples from the Mahenge Mts. Although slightly different in mineral assemblage it was possible to draw a similar ruby formation history for both localities. Two ruby forming events were distinguished by textural differences, which could also be modeled by thermodynamic T-XCO2 calculations using non-ideal mixing models of essential minerals. A first formation of ruby appears to have taken place during the prograde path (M1) either by the breakdown of diaspore which was present in the original sedimentary precursor rock or by the breakdown of margarite to corundum and plagioclase. The conditions for M1 metamorphism was estimated at ∼750 °C at 10 kbar, which represents granulite facies conditions. A change in fluid composition towards a CO2 dominated fluid triggered a second ruby generation to form. Subsequently, the examined units underwent a late greenschist facies overprint. In the framework of the East African Orogen we

  4. Reinforcement of natural rubber hybrid composites based on marble sludge/Silica and marble sludge/rice husk derived silica

    Khalil Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A research has been carried out to develop natural rubber (NR hybrid composites reinforced with marble sludge (MS/Silica and MS/rice husk derived silica (RHS. The primary aim of this development is to scrutinize the cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of such hybrid composite. The use of both industrial and agricultural waste such as marble sludge and rice husk derived silica has the primary advantage of being eco-friendly, low cost and easily available as compared to other expensive fillers. The results from this study showed that the performance of NR hybrid composites with MS/Silica and MS/RHS as fillers is extremely better in mechanical and swelling properties as compared with the case where MS used as single filler. The study suggests that the use of recently developed silica and marble sludge as industrial and agricultural waste is accomplished to provide a probable cost effective, industrially prospective, and attractive replacement to the in general purpose used fillers like china clay, calcium carbonate, and talc.

  5. OSR encapsulation basis -- 100-KW

    Meichle, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for a change in the Operations Safety Requirement (OSR) encapsulated fuel storage requirements in the 105 KW fuel storage basin which will permit the handling and storing of encapsulated fuel in canisters which no longer have a water-free space in the top of the canister. The scope of this report is limited to providing the change from the perspective of the safety envelope (bases) of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Operations Safety Requirements (OSR). It does not change the encapsulation process itself

  6. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  7. Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis; Review

    Norman O. Machado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the peritoneum with an unknown aetiology. Also known as abdominal cocoon, the condition occurs when loops of the bowel are encased within the peritoneal cavity by a membrane, leading to intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and nonspecific clinical features, it is often misdiagnosed. The condition presents with recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction and can be idiopathic or secondary; the latter is associated with predisposing factors such as peritoneal dialysis or abdominal tuberculosis. In the early stages, patients can be managed conservatively; however, surgical intervention is necessary for those with advanced stage intestinal obstruction. A literature review revealed 118 cases of SEP; the mean age of these patients was 39 years and 68.0% were male. The predominant presentation was abdominal pain (72.0%, distension (44.9% or a mass (30.5%. Almost all of the patients underwent surgical excision (99.2% without postoperative complications (88.1%.

  8. Encapsulation process for diffraction gratings.

    Ratzsch, Stephan; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2015-07-13

    Encapsulation of grating structures facilitates an improvement of the optical functionality and/or adds mechanical stability to the fragile structure. Here, we introduce novel encapsulation process of nanoscale patterns based on atomic layer deposition and micro structuring. The overall size of the encapsulated structured surface area is only restricted by the size of the available microstructuring and coating devices; thus, overcoming inherent limitations of existing bonding processes concerning cleanliness, roughness, and curvature of the components. Finally, the process is demonstrated for a transmission grating. The encapsulated grating has 97.5% transmission efficiency in the -1st diffraction order for TM-polarized light, and is being limited by the experimental grating parameters as confirmed by rigorous coupled wave analysis.

  9. Glass consistency and glass performance

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  10. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  11. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  12. Hydroxycalciopyrochlore from a regionally metamorphic marble at Bližná, Southwestern Czech Republic

    Drábek, M.; Frýda, J.; Šarbach, M.; Skála, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 194, č. 1 (2017), s. 49-59 ISSN 0077-7757 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : hydroxycalciopyrochlore * pyrochlore * carbonatite-like marble * marble * Moldanubian Varied Group Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.811, year: 2016

  13. Chapter 1: Ecology and Conservation of the Marbled Murrelet in North America: An Overview

    C. John Ralph; Jr. Hunt; Martin G. Raphael; John F. Piatt

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Marbled Murrelet has become a focus of much controversy. It was listed as threatened in Washington, Oregon, and California by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in February 1993. In order to aid the various agencies with management, the Marbled Murrelet Conservation Assessment was formed to bring together scientists, managers, and others to...

  14. Carbon and oxygen isotopic ratio bi-variate distribution for marble artifacts quarry assignment

    Pentia, M.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical description, by a Gaussian bi-variate probability distribution of 13 C/ 12 C and 18 O/ 16 O isotopic ratios in the ancient marble quarries has been done and the new method for obtaining the confidence level quarry assignment for marble artifacts has been presented. (author) 8 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  15. Trend Analysis of Sales of Marble Product in Glister Success (Nig ...

    Marketing models are important in analyses and forecasting of performance of mineral markets. The sale trend of the past can be extrapolated into the future. This study sourced the sales of marble chipping in tons in Glister Success Ltd, Ilorin and modeled its performance in order to evaluate the performance of marble ...

  16. Colloidal glasses

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Colloidal glasses. Glassy state is attained when system fails to reach equilibrium due to crowding of constituent particles. In molecular glasses, glassy state is reached by rapidly lowering the temperature. In colloidal glasses, glassy state is reached by increasing the ...

  17. Optical transmission properties of Pentelic and Paros marble

    Weigand Talavera, Rosa María; García, Pablo A.; Campos Acosta, Joaquín; Storch de Gracía, Jacobo

    2015-01-01

    AncientGreek and Roman sources report that the statue of Zeus in Olympia had a head, and in particular eyes, similar to the description of Zeus by Homer, so we think that the statue was visible to the human eye. Since the temple was 12mhigh, and had a small door and no windows, the illumination of the statue by conventionalmedia is questionable. The aimof this paper is to characterize the optical transmission of Paros and Pentelic marble to demonstrate that it was possible to have the Zeus te...

  18. 76 FR 26280 - Vermont Marble Power Division of Omya Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    2011-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2558-029] Vermont Marble... Marble Power Division of Omya Inc. e. Name of Project: Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project. f. Location.... Applicant Contact: Todd Allard, Operations Engineer, Vermont Marble Power Division of Omya Inc., 9987 Carver...

  19. 75 FR 18192 - Vermont Marble Power Division of Omya Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the...

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2558-029] Vermont Marble.... Date Filed: March 31, 2010. d. Applicant: Vermont Marble Power Division of Omya Inc. e. Name of Project... Marble Power Division of Omya Inc., 9987 Carver Road, Suite 300, Cincinnati, OH 45242, (513) 387-4344. i...

  20. Statistical Analysis of 3-Point Bending Properties of Polymer Concretes Made From Marble Powder Waste, Sand Grains, and Polyester Resin

    Benzannache, N.; Bezazi, A.; Bouchelaghem, H.; Boumaaza, M.; Amziane, S.; Scarpa, F.

    2018-01-01

    The mechanical performance of concrete polymer beams subjected to 3-point bending was investigated. The polymer concrete incorporates marble powder waste and quarry sand. The results obtained showed that the type of sand, and amount of marble powder and sand aggregate affected the resistance of the polymer concrete beams significantly. The marble waste increased their bending strength by reducing the porosity of polymer concrete.

  1. Environmental and economic aspects of using marble fine waste in the manufacture of facing ceramic materials

    Zemlyanushnov Dmitriy Yur'evich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work considers economic expediency of using marble fine waste in facing ceramic materials manufacture by three-dimensional coloring method. Adding marble fine waste to the charge mixture reduces the production cost of the final product. This waste has a positive impact on the intensification of drying clay rocks and raw as a whole, which increases production efficiency. Using marble fine waste as a coloring admixture makes it possible to manufacture more environmentally friendly construction material with the use of wastes of hazard class 3 instead of class 4. At the same time, disposal areas and environmental load in the territories of mining and marble processing reduce significantly. Replacing ferrous pigments with manganese oxide for marble fine waste reduces the cost of the final product and the manufacture of facing ceramic brick of a wide range of colors - from dark brown to yellow.

  2. Multidisciplinary Approaches to Radiation Balanced Lasers (MARBLe): 1st Annual Progress Report

    Hehlen, Markus Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL) and New Mexico Consortium (NMC), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The initial main modifications of the existing μPD crystal-growth system at LANL have been completed. This now gives us the new capability to develop the growth of crystalline RBL materials by both the μPD and the Bridgman method. Quantitative mass spectrometry of the growth atmosphere was conducted to identify possible sources of gaseous trace species (primarily hydrogen) that could cause the undesired reduction of Yb3+ to Yb2+ during the crystal growth. Hydrogen was found to be at sufficiently low levels to not be a respective concern. Studies on the thermal decomposition of YbF3 to form Yb2+ are currently underway in collaboration with MARBLe team member Prof. Pauzauskie. First samples of Yb3+-doped YLiF4 (YLF:Yb) and undoped LiLuF4 (LLF) were grown, and MARBLe team member Prof. Sheik-Bahae has performed measurements of laser-induced heating (YLF:Yb) and background absorption coefficient (LLF). We discovered that one or several of the YF3, LiF, and YbF3 precursors contains organic impurities that chemically reduce to black residue during the high-temperature growth in oxygen-free argon atmosphere. A process for removal of these residues prior to growth is being considered. Comparing the results from incongruently melting YLF with those of congruently melting LLF indicate that a congruently melting material is preferred for Bridgman growth. Crystal-growth experiments with LLF are currently underway. The results of these studies on Yb3+ doped materials will be directly applicable to the future growth of Er3+ and Tm3+ doped as well as Yb3+, Nd3+ co-doped RBL crystals. There was no activity on the parallel effort of developing rareearth- doped chalcogenide glasses. The primary reason was a lack of manpower due to a delayed hiring of a student. In September 2017, we have hired a Postdoctoral Researcher who will be

  3. Silicate glasses

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    Vitrification of liquid high-level radioactive wastes has received the greatest attention, world-wide, compared to any other HLW solidification process. The waste form is a borosilicate-based glass. The production of phosphate-based glass has been abandoned in the western world. Only in the Soviet Union are phosphate-based glasses still being developed. Vitrification techniques, equipment and processes and their remote operation have been developed and studied for almost thirty years and have reached a high degree of technical maturity. Industrial demonstration of the vitrification process has been in progress since 1978. This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e., borosilicate glasses

  4. A novel numerical model to predict the morphological behavior of magnetic liquid marbles using coarse grained molecular dynamics concepts

    Polwaththe-Gallage, Hasitha-Nayanajith; Sauret, Emilie; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Saha, Suvash C.; Gu, YuanTong

    2018-01-01

    Liquid marbles are liquid droplets coated with superhydrophobic powders whose morphology is governed by the gravitational and surface tension forces. Small liquid marbles take spherical shapes, while larger liquid marbles exhibit puddle shapes due to the dominance of gravitational forces. Liquid marbles coated with hydrophobic magnetic powders respond to an external magnetic field. This unique feature of magnetic liquid marbles is very attractive for digital microfluidics and drug delivery systems. Several experimental studies have reported the behavior of the liquid marbles. However, the complete behavior of liquid marbles under various environmental conditions is yet to be understood. Modeling techniques can be used to predict the properties and the behavior of the liquid marbles effectively and efficiently. A robust liquid marble model will inspire new experiments and provide new insights. This paper presents a novel numerical modeling technique to predict the morphology of magnetic liquid marbles based on coarse grained molecular dynamics concepts. The proposed model is employed to predict the changes in height of a magnetic liquid marble against its width and compared with the experimental data. The model predictions agree well with the experimental findings. Subsequently, the relationship between the morphology of a liquid marble with the properties of the liquid is investigated. Furthermore, the developed model is capable of simulating the reversible process of opening and closing of the magnetic liquid marble under the action of a magnetic force. The scaling analysis shows that the model predictions are consistent with the scaling laws. Finally, the proposed model is used to assess the compressibility of the liquid marbles. The proposed modeling approach has the potential to be a powerful tool to predict the behavior of magnetic liquid marbles serving as bioreactors.

  5. Large outbreaks of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper.

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-07-11

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100-200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1-2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  6. Microchemical identification of macael white marble in some spanish monuments

    Bello, M. A.

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The white marble from Macael quarries (Almería, Spain has been identified in some monuments of the Southern of Spain; the use of other white marble types has also been confirmed. The microchemical identification has been carried out by means a previously described graphical method (Bello and Martín,1991. Fourteen trace elements have been analyzed from both quarry and building material samples by using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry in order to apply the enrichment diagrams for trace elements (EDTE for identification purposes.

    Ha sido confirmado el empleo del mármol blanco procedente de las canteras de Macael (Almería en varios monumentos del Sur de España; también se ha constatado el empleo de otros tipos de mármol blanco. La identificación del mármol de Macael mediante técnicas microquícas ha sido realizada mediante un método gráfico propuesto por los autores (1. Han sido analizados catorce elementos traza en las muestras de cantera y de los edificios mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica y de emisión de llama, al objeto de construir los diagramas de enriquecimiento de elementos traza (EDTE, con fines de identificación.

  7. Radiation doses due to the natural radioactivity in Pakistan marble

    Tufail, M.; Iqbal, M.; Mirza, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    In view of its high potential for containing large amounts of radioactive materials and due to its wide-spread use as construction and facing material worldwide, radiation doses received from the marble used in dwellings have been determined. As a first step, specific activity measurements were made using a NaI(TI) gamma ray spectrometer using the spectrum stripping technique. For the samples studied, the average values of specific activities for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K have been found to be 27, 26 and 58 Bg kg -1 respectively. The mesh-adaptive, volume-integral method based code INGRE (Mirza et al. 1991) gave calculated values of the dose equivalent rates inside the standard room (Tufail et al.,1994) due to 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K; these were found to lie between 5-77,12-52 and 1-11 nGy h -1 respectively. The values of whole body dose equivalent rates have been found to lie in the 27-108 nGy h -1 range. As these values are below internationally accepted maximum permissible values, therefore marble available in Pakistan can safely be used in dwellings as a construction material. (author)

  8. Rare earths in the Leadville Limestone and its marble derivates

    Jarvis, J.C.; Wildeman, T.R.; Banks, N.G.

    1975-01-01

    Samples of unaltered and metamorphosed Leadville Limestone (Mississippian, Colorado) were analyzed by neutron activation for ten rare-earth elements (REE). The total abundance of the REE in the least-altered limestone is 4-12 ppm, and their distribution patterns are believed to be dominated by the carbonate minerals. The abundances of the REE in the marbles and their sedimentary precursors are comparable but the distribution patterns are not. Eu is enriched over the other REE in the marbles, and stratigraphically upward in the formation (samples located progressively further from the heat source), the light REE become less enriched relative to the heavy REE. The Eu anomaly is attributed to its ability, unique among the REE, to change from the 3+ to 2+ oxidation state. Whether this results in preferential mobilization of the other REE or whether this reflects the composition of the pore fluid during metamorphism is unknown. Stratigraphically selective depletion of the heavy REE may be attributed to more competition for the REE between fluid and carbonate minerals in the lower strata relative to the upper strata. This competition could have been caused by changes in the temperature of the pore fluid or to the greater resistance to solution of the dolomite in the lower parts of the formation than the calcite in the upper parts

  9. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness. PMID:25019942

  10. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  11. Coseismic microstructures of experimental fault zones in Carrara marble

    Ree, Jin-Han; Ando, Jun-ichi; Han, Raehee; Shimamoto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    Experimental fault zones developed in Carrara marble that were deformed at seismic slip rates (1.18-1.30 m s-1) using a high-velocity-rotary-shear apparatus exhibit very low friction (friction coefficient as low as 0.06) at steady state due to nanoparticle lubrication of the decomposition product (lime). The fault zones show a layered structure; a central slip-localization layer (5-60 μm thick) of lime nanograins mantled by gouge layers (5-150 μm thick) and a plastically deformed layer (45-500 μm thick) between the wall rock and gouge layer in the marginal portion of cylindrical specimens. Calcite grains of the wall rock adjacent to the slip zone deform by dislocation glide when subjected to frictional heating and a lower strain rate than that of the principal slip zone. The very fine (2-5 μm) calcite grains in the gouge layer show a foam structure with relatively straight grain boundaries and 120° triple junctions. This foam structure is presumed to develop by welding at high temperature and low strain once slip is localized along the central layer. We suggest that a seismic event can be inferred from deformed marbles, given: (i) the presence of welded gouge with foam structure in a fault zone where wall rocks show no evidence of thermal metamorphism and (ii) a thin plastically deformed layer immediately adjacent to the principal slip zone of a cataclastic fault zone.

  12. [Encapsulation of a mechatronic implant that restores the ability to accommodate].

    Rheinschmitt, L; Gengenbach, U; Bretthauer, G

    2010-12-01

    In order to restore the ability of accommodation of the human eye, a lens implant manufactured by micro system technology can be used. This highly integrated Artificial Accommodation System contains sensitive electronics as well as moving components in order to adapt its refractive power. One challenge of the production of this system is the encapsulation. It has to be a biocompatible and long-term reliable package. In this paper the advantages of a hermetic glass package over other approaches of encapsulation are introduced. Concepts of production for a glass package are presented. The package is thereby optimised to be placed in the optical path of the eye, but it can also be used for the encapsulation of other implants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Nano vitrocerâmica de escória de aciaria Glass-ceramic from steelmaking slag

    Eduardo Bellini Ferreira; Edgar Dutra Zanotto; Luis Augusto Marconi Scudeller

    2002-01-01

    The manufacture of glass-ceramics is an alternative route for the commercial use of metallurgical slags. Such types of glass-ceramics may find commercial applications owing to their low cost, good mechanical properties and superior visual aspect. Besides, due to the elimination of that industrial residue from the environment and also due to the possibility of replacement of natural stones such as marbles and granites, the use of slags is an activity with strong ecological appeal. While the us...

  14. Non-invasive neutron diffraction analysis of marbles from the 'Edificio con Tre Esedre' in Villa Adriana

    Filabozzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; De Pascale, M.P.; Gorini, G.; Kockelmann, W.; Chapon, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    Roman marble fragments from the Villa Adriana at Tivoli (Rome) have been characterised by neutron diffraction. This study aimed at distinguishing between different marble types on the basis of the mineral phase compositions and the crystallographic textures. It is demonstrated that on a multi-detector time-offlight neutron diffractometer a quantitative bulk texture analysis can be performed on a stationary marble sample in a matter of minutes. This potentially allows investigating large sample series or bulky, intact marble objects in a completely nondestructive manner. The texture information, along with other structure details, can be used as characterising feature to address questions of attribution and restoration of archaeological marble objects

  15. Gene Co-expression Analysis to Characterize Genes Related to Marbling Trait in Hanwoo (Korean) Cattle.

    Lim, Dajeong; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Kuk; Cho, Yong-Min; Chai, Han-Ha; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Kim, Heebal

    2013-01-01

    Marbling (intramuscular fat) is an important trait that affects meat quality and is a casual factor determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. It is a complex trait and has many biological pathways related to muscle and fat. There is a need to identify functional modules or genes related to marbling traits and investigate their relationships through a weighted gene co-expression network analysis based on the system level. Therefore, we investigated the co-expression relationships of genes related to the 'marbling score' trait and systemically analyzed the network topology in Hanwoo (Korean cattle). As a result, we determined 3 modules (gene groups) that showed statistically significant results for marbling score. In particular, one module (denoted as red) has a statistically significant result for marbling score (p = 0.008) and intramuscular fat (p = 0.02) and water capacity (p = 0.006). From functional enrichment and relationship analysis of the red module, the pathway hub genes (IL6, CHRNE, RB1, INHBA and NPPA) have a direct interaction relationship and share the biological functions related to fat or muscle, such as adipogenesis or muscle growth. This is the first gene network study with m.logissimus in Hanwoo to observe co-expression patterns in divergent marbling phenotypes. It may provide insights into the functional mechanisms of the marbling trait.

  16. Characterization of Genes for Beef Marbling Based on Applying Gene Coexpression Network

    Dajeong Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marbling is an important trait in characterization beef quality and a major factor for determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. In particular, marbling is a complex trait and needs a system-level approach for identifying candidate genes related to the trait. To find the candidate gene associated with marbling, we used a weighted gene coexpression network analysis from the expression value of bovine genes. Hub genes were identified; they were topologically centered with large degree and BC values in the global network. We performed gene expression analysis to detect candidate genes in M. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling scores 2 to 7 using qRT-PCR. The results demonstrate that transmembrane protein 60 (TMEM60 and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD are associated with increasing marbling fat. We suggest that the network-based approach in livestock may be an important method for analyzing the complex effects of candidate genes associated with complex traits like marbling or tenderness.

  17. Gene Co-expression Analysis to Characterize Genes Related to Marbling Trait in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle

    Dajeong Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marbling (intramuscular fat is an important trait that affects meat quality and is a casual factor determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. It is a complex trait and has many biological pathways related to muscle and fat. There is a need to identify functional modules or genes related to marbling traits and investigate their relationships through a weighted gene co-expression network analysis based on the system level. Therefore, we investigated the co-expression relationships of genes related to the ‘marbling score’ trait and systemically analyzed the network topology in Hanwoo (Korean cattle. As a result, we determined 3 modules (gene groups that showed statistically significant results for marbling score. In particular, one module (denoted as red has a statistically significant result for marbling score (p = 0.008 and intramuscular fat (p = 0.02 and water capacity (p = 0.006. From functional enrichment and relationship analysis of the red module, the pathway hub genes (IL6, CHRNE, RB1, INHBA and NPPA have a direct interaction relationship and share the biological functions related to fat or muscle, such as adipogenesis or muscle growth. This is the first gene network study with m.logissimus in Hanwoo to observe co-expression patterns in divergent marbling phenotypes. It may provide insights into the functional mechanisms of the marbling trait.

  18. The effects of air pollution and climatic factors on atmospheric corrosion of marble under field exposure

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Nishimura, Rokuro; Tsujino, Yoshio; Satoh, Yukihiro; Thi Phuong Thoa, Nguyen; Yokoi, Masayuki; Maeda, Yasuaki

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of marble was evaluated in terms of SO 2 concentration as air pollution and climatic factors such as rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and so on under the field exposure. Marble of calcite type (CaCO 3 ) was exposed to outdoor atmospheric environment with and without a rain shelter at four test sites in the southern part of Vietnam for 3-month, 1- and 2-year periods from July 2001 to September 2003. The thickness loss of marble was investigated gravimetrically. X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescent methods were applied to study corrosion products on marble. The corrosion product of marble was only gypsum (CaSO 4 . 2H 2 O) and was washed out by rain under the unsheltered exposure condition. It was found that the most substantial factors influencing the corrosion of marble were rainfall, SO 2 concentration in the air and relative humidity. Based on the results obtained, we estimated the dose-response functions for the atmospheric corrosion of marble in the southern part of Vietnam

  19. Stochastic melting of the marble cake mantle: Evidence from local study of the East Pacific Rise at 12050'N

    Prinzhofer, A.; Lewin, E.; Allegre, C.J.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1989-01-01

    Isotopes (Nd, Sr and Pb) and trace elements (REE, Ba, Sr, Rb) have been measured on a set of basaltic glasses from a restricted area (40x10 km) at 12 0 50'N on the East Pacific Rise. The huge variation of incompatible element concentrations (factor 70 for Ba concentrations), and the variable degrees of correlation between element concentrations cannot be explained by usual models of melting and fractional crystallization. A rough correlation between the Ce/Yb ratio and the isotopic ratios favors a ''source effect'' for the genesis of the glasses. We have developed a model including both partial melting process acting on a heterogeneous mantle source with two components (peridotites and pyroxenites; ''marble cake mantle'' of Allegre and Turcotte) and fractional crystallization. The purpose of this model is not to obtain values of the four parameters involved (degree of melting in the peridotites, in the pyroxenites, proportion of pyroxenites involved in the melting, degree of fractional crystallization) for each analyzed glass, but to model the whole set of glasses by stochastic genesis and sampling of liquids. We have used the stochastic procedure for the four controlled parameters, currently generating 10,000 ''samples''. Our preferred model for this portion of the East Pacific Ridge is obtained with a degree of melting in the peridotites and in the pyroxenites varying uniformly from 6 to 20%, and from 6 to 50% respectively. The degree of mixing between liquids issued from the two sources varies from 0 to 100%, and the degree of fractional crystallization remains small, without noticeable effect on the concentrations, varying from 0 to 6%. (orig.)

  20. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  1. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    Ribeiro, J F; Sousa, R; Cunha, D J; Vieira, E M F; Goncalves, L M; Silva, M M; Dupont, L

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber. (paper)

  2. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Cunha, D. J.; Vieira, E. M. F.; Silva, M. M.; Dupont, L.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si3N4). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber.

  3. Encapsulation and handling of spent nuclear fuel for final disposal

    Loennerberg, B.; Larker, H.; Ageskog, L.

    1983-05-01

    The handling and embedding of those metal parts which arrive to the encapsulation station with the fuel is described. For the encapsulation of fuel two alternatives are presented, both with copper canisters but with filling of lead and copper powder respectively. The sealing method in the first case is electron beam welding, in the second case hot isostatic pressing. This has given the headline of the two chapters describing the methods: Welded copper canister and Pressed copper canister. Chapter 1, Welded copper canister, presents the handling of the fuel when it arrives to the encapsulation station, where it is first placed in a buffer pool. From this pool the fuel is transferred to the encapsulation process and thereby separated from fuel boxes and boron glass rod bundles, which are transported together with the fuel. The encapsulation process comprises charging into a copper canister, filling with molten lead, electron beam welding of the lid and final inspection. The transport to and handling in the final repository are described up to the deposition and sealing in the deposition hole. Handling of fuel residues is treated in one of the sections. In chapter 2, Pressed copper canister, only those parts of the handling, which differ from chapter 1 are described. The hot isostatic pressing process is given in the first sections. The handling includes drying, charging into the canister, filling with copper powder, seal lid application and hot isostatic pressing before the final inspection and deposition. In the third chapter, BWR boxes in concrete moulds, the handling of the metal parts, separated from the fuel, are dealt with. After being lifted from the buffer pool they are inserted in a concrete mould, the mould is filled with concrete, covered with a lid and after hardening transferred to its own repository. The deposition in this repository is described. (author)

  4. Study of curved glass photovoltaic module and module electrical isolation design requirements

    1980-06-01

    The design of a 1.2 by 2.4 m curved glass superstrate and support clip assembly is presented, along with the results of finite element computer analysis and a glass industry survey conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Installed costs for four curved glass module array configurations are estimated and compared with cost previously reported for comparable flat glass module configurations. Electrical properties of candidate module encapsulation systems are evaluated along with present industry practice for the design and testing of electrical insulation systems. Electric design requirements for module encapsulation systems are also discussed.

  5. Dynamic Loading of Carrara Marble in a Heated State

    Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen; Li, Zhihuan; Kang, Hyeong Min; Teh, Cee Ing

    2017-06-01

    Useable land is a finite space, and with a growing global population, countries have been exploring the use of underground space as a strategic resource to sustain the growth of their society and economy. However, the effects of impact loading on rocks that have been heated, and hence the integrity of the underground structure, are still not fully understood and has not been included in current design standards. Such scenarios include traffic accidents and explosions during an underground fire. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the dynamic load capacity of Carrara marble at elevated temperatures. Dynamic uniaxial compression tests are performed on Carrara marble held at various temperatures using a split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) setup with varying input force. A customized oven is included in the SHPB setup to allow for testing of the marble specimens in a heated state. After the loading test, a three-wave analysis is performed to obtain the dynamic stress-strain curve of the specimen under loading. The fragments of the failed specimens were also collected and dry-sieved to obtain the particle size distribution. The results reveal that the peak stress of specimens that have been heated is negatively correlated with the heating temperature. However, the energy absorbed by the specimens at peak stress at all temperatures is similar, indicating that a significant amount of energy is dissipated via plastic deformation. Generally, fragment size is also found to show a negative correlation with heating temperature and loading pressure. However, in some cases this relationship does not hold true, probably due to the occurrence of stress shadowing. Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics has been found to be generally applicable to specimens tested at low temperatures; but at higher temperatures, Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics will give a more accurate prediction. Another contribution of this study is to show that other than the peak stress of the

  6. A Rb-Sr isotope study of a young granite sheet at Marble Delta, southern Natal

    Naidoo, D.D.; Eglington, B.M.; Harmer, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotope data are presented for two apophyses of a granite sheet intrusive into marble at Marble Delta, southern Natal. Granite samples collected near the margins of these apophyses contain calcite and are thought to have been contaminated by the marble during intrusion of the granite magma. In contrast, those further away from contacts lack calcite. The 'uncontaminated' granite samples define an isochron date of 899 ± 11 Ma. This data is thought to represent the intrusive age of the granite sheet. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION OF MARBLE IN THE GREEK ROMAN HADRIANIC BATHS IN LEPTIS MAGNA, LIBYA

    Nabil.A. ABD EL-TAWAB

    2012-01-01

    The Hadrianic Baths is one of the most important archaeological sites in Leptis Magna- Libya. It was built at the command of Emperor Hadrian in the early 2nd century CE; they represent some of the most lavish structures of Leptis Magna. It is unique in design and building technique. It was built of limestone, marble and brick. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of marble. The marble in the monuments can be classified into several types, based on its color, texture, chemical composi...

  8. Production and properties of artificial antimicrobial marble; Jushikei zinzo dairiseki no kokin kako

    Amano, Ryozo; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki [INAX Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    There are many cases in which they are suitable for the growth of the microorganism on bathrooms and lavatories, kitchens, etc., which are the place where the artificial marble product is installed. Therefore, the generation of the fouling of the microorganism by the aberrant growth is also abounding. Then, it developed the antimicrobe artificial marble for the purpose of suppressing growth of bacteria in the surface of the product. Here, this paper describes the gist in doing antimicrobial treatment in the resin systems artificial marble product. (NEDO)

  9. Marble waste characterization as a desulfurizing slag component for steel

    Coleti, J.L.; Grillo, F.F.; Tenorio, J.A.S.; De Oliveira, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The current steel market requires from steel plants better quality of its products. As a result, steel plants need to search for improvements and costs reduction in its process. Hence, the residue of marble containing significant quantities of calcium and magnesium carbonates, raw materials of steel refining slag, was characterized in order to replace the conventional lime used. Therefore, it will be possible to reduce the cost and volume of waste produced by the ornamental rock industry. The following methods were applied to test the waste potential: SEM with EDS, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence (EDX), Thermogravimetry (TG) and analysis of surface area and particle size by the BET method using dispersion leisure. The results indicated the feasibility of waste as raw material in the composition of desulfurizing slags. (author)

  10. EPR and TL correlation in some powdered Greek white marbles

    Baieetto, Vanessa; Villeneuve, Gerard; Guibert, Pierre; Schvoerer, Max

    2000-01-01

    Thermoluminescence of white powdered marble samples, chosen to display different EPR spectra, were studied. Two peaks at 280 deg. C and 360 deg. C can be observed among the TL glow curves while the EPR spectra exhibit two signals: the A signal with g perp =2.0038 and g par =2.0024 due to the SO - 3 centre and the B one with g 1 =2.0005; g 2 =2.0001; g 3 =1.9998 due to mechanical powder reduction (drilling). Owing to heating and simultaneous experiments, a correlation have been established: the 280 deg. C TL peak is associated to the A signal and thus to the SO - 3 centre and the 360 deg. C TL peak is caused by mechanical treatment corresponding to the B EPR signal

  11. EPR and TL correlation in some powdered Greek white marbles

    Baieetto, Vanessa E-mail: crpaa@montaigne.u-bordeaux.fr; Villeneuve, Gerard; Guibert, Pierre; Schvoerer, Max

    2000-02-01

    Thermoluminescence of white powdered marble samples, chosen to display different EPR spectra, were studied. Two peaks at 280 deg. C and 360 deg. C can be observed among the TL glow curves while the EPR spectra exhibit two signals: the A signal with g{sub perp}=2.0038 and g{sub par} =2.0024 due to the SO{sup -}{sub 3} centre and the B one with g{sub 1}=2.0005; g{sub 2}=2.0001; g{sub 3}=1.9998 due to mechanical powder reduction (drilling). Owing to heating and simultaneous experiments, a correlation have been established: the 280 deg. C TL peak is associated to the A signal and thus to the SO{sup -}{sub 3} centre and the 360 deg. C TL peak is caused by mechanical treatment corresponding to the B EPR signal.

  12. EPR and TL correlation in some powdered Greek white marbles.

    Baïetto, V; Villeneuve, G; Guibert, P; Schvoerer, M

    2000-02-01

    Thermoluminescence of white powdered marble samples, chosen to display different EPR spectra, were studied. Two peaks at 280 degrees C and 360 degrees C can be observed among the TL glow curves while the EPR spectra exhibit two signals: the A signal with g perpendicular = 2.0038 and g parallel = 2.0024 due to the SO3- centre and the B one with g1 = 2.0005; g2 = 2.0001; g3 = 1.9998 due to mechanical powder reduction (drilling). Owing to heating and simultaneous experiments, a correlation have been established: the 280 degrees C TL peak is associated to the A signal and thus to the SO3- centre and the 360 degrees C TL peak is caused by mechanical treatment corresponding to the B EPR signal.

  13. Detection of endolithic spatial distribution in marble stone.

    Casanova Municchia, A; Percario, Z; Caneva, G

    2014-10-01

    The penetration of endolithic microorganisms, which develop to depths of several millimetres or even centimetres into the stone, and the diffusion of their extracellular substances speeds up the stone deterioration process. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a confocal laser scanning microscopy with a double-staining, a marble rock sample by observing the endolithic spatial distribution and quantifying the volume they occupied within the stone, in order to understand the real impact of these microorganisms on the conservation of stone monuments. Often the only factors taken into account by biodeterioration studies regarding endolithic microorganisms, are spread and depth of penetration. Despite the knowledge of three-dimensional spatial distribution and quantification of volume, it is indispensable to understand the real damage caused by endolithic microorganisms to stone monuments. In this work, we analyze a marble rock sample using a confocal laser scanning microscopy stained with propidium iodide and Concavalin-A conjugate with the fluorophore Alexa Fluor 488, comparing these results with other techniques (SEM microscope, microphotographs of polished cross-sections and thin-section, PAS staining methods), An image analysis approach has also been applied. The use of confocal laser scanning microscopy with double staining shows clear evidence of the presence of endolithic microorganisms (cyanobacteria and fungi) as well as the extracellular polymeric substance matrix in a three-dimensional architecture as part of the rock sample, this technique, therefore, seems very useful when applied to restoration interventions on stone monuments when endolithic growth is suspected. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Encapsulated Curcumin for Transdermal Administration

    Purpose: To develop a proniosomal carrier system of curcumin for transdermal delivery. Methods: Proniosomes of curcumin were prepared by encapsulation of the drug in a mixture of Span 80, cholesterol and diethyl ether by ether injection method, and then investigated as a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS).

  15. Device for encapsulating radioactive materials

    Suthanthiran, K.

    1994-01-01

    A capsule for encapsulating radioactive material for radiation treatment comprising two or more interfitting sleeves, wherein each sleeve comprises a closed bottom portion having a circumferential wall extending therefrom, and an open end located opposite the bottom portion. The sleeves are constructed to fit over one another to thereby establish an effectively sealed capsule container. 3 figs

  16. Reactants encapsulation and Maillard Reaction

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades many efforts have been addressed to the control of Maillard Reaction products in different foods with the aim to promote the formation of compounds having the desired color and flavor and to reduce the concentration of several potential toxic molecules. Encapsulation, already

  17. Technology of mammalian cell encapsulation

    Uludag, H; De Vos, P; Tresco, PA

    2000-01-01

    Entrapment of mammalian cells in physical membranes has been practiced since the early 1950s when it was originally introduced as a basic research tool. The method has since been developed based on the promise of its therapeutic usefulness in tissue transplantation. Encapsulation physically isolates

  18. Cosmos & Glass

    Beim, Anne

    1996-01-01

    The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne....

  19. Glass Glimpsed

    Lock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology.......Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology....

  20. Spin glasses

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  1. Sequencing and Characterization of Divergent Marbling Levels in the Beef Cattle ( Muscle Transcriptome

    Dong Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marbling is an important trait regarding the quality of beef. Analysis of beef cattle transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extend the genetic information resources and would support further studies on beef cattle. RNA sequencing was performed in beef cattle using the Illumina High-Seq2000 platform. Approximately 251.58 million clean reads were generated from a high marbling (H group and low marbling (L group. Approximately 80.12% of the 19,994 bovine genes (protein coding were detected in all samples, and 749 genes exhibited differential expression between the H and L groups based on fold change (>1.5-fold, p<0.05. Multiple gene ontology terms and biological pathways were found significantly enriched among the differentially expressed genes. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on marbling formation in beef cattle and may be applied to improve breeding programs for cattle and closely related mammals.

  2. Petrology and geochemistry of the marbles and calcosilicated rocks from Ipira, Bahia - Brazil

    Oliveira, M.A.F.T. de.

    1976-01-01

    This work explains a study of marbles and diopsitites from Serra das Panelas, Ipira, Bahia, Brazil. Petrographic analysis, chemistry some elements, trace elements and rare earths, isotopic analysis of Strontium, carbon and oxigen, and geochronological determinations were done. The ages founded correspond to Transamazonic Orogenetic cicle, with Archean age, confirmed by the 18 O values found, which give to marble, ages about 2.500 my. The mineralogy and the texture give to marble an invulgar aspect, making a confusion with carbonate. The petrochemical data and the geochemistry of 13 C and 18 O isotopes showed that the marble and diopsitites was formed from the old marine carbonates. The geochemistry of rare earth suggests a strong correlation with carbonitic and alkaline rocks. An hybrid origem to this rocks is proposed. (C.D.G.) [pt

  3. Utah Marbles and Mars Blueberries: Comparitive Terrestrial Analogs for Hematite Concretions on Mars

    Chan, M. A.; Beitler, B.; Parry, W. T.; Ormö, J.; Komatsu, G.

    2005-03-01

    Compelling comparisons show why Utah iron oxide-cemented "marbles" are a good analog for Mars hematite "blueberries". Terrestrial examples offer valuable models for interpreting the diagenetic history and importance of water on Mars.

  4. Monolayer nanoparticle-covered liquid marbles derived from a sol-gel coating

    Li, Xiaoguang; Wang, Yiqi; Huang, Junchao; Yang, Yao; Wang, Renxian; Geng, Xingguo; Zang, Duyang

    2017-12-01

    A sol-gel coating consisting of hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was used to produce monolayer NP-covered (mNPc) liquid marbles. The simplest approach was rolling a droplet on this coating, and an identifiable signet allowed determination of the coverage ratio of the resulting liquid marble. Alternatively, the particles were squeezed onto a droplet surface with two such coatings, generating surface buckling from interfacial NP jamming, and then a liquid marble was produced via a jamming-relief process in which water was added into the buckled droplet. This process revealed an ˜7% reduction in particle distance after interfacial jamming. The mNPc liquid marbles obtained by the two methods were transparent with smooth profiles, as naked droplets, and could be advantageously used in fundamental and applied researches for their unique functions.

  5. Determination of geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics in Bilecik Marble, Turkey

    Yerel Kandemir, Suheyla; Ozbay, Nurgul

    2014-05-01

    Natural stones are one of the oldest known building materials. There are more than 400 natural stone in Turkey. Recently, the demand for the natural stone types in markets has been increasing rapidly. For this reason, the geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics of natural stone are very important. Bilecik province is located at the northwest part of Turkey and it is surrounded by Sakarya, Bursa, Eskisehir and Kutahya city. Bilecik is one of the important marble industry regions of Turkey. Thus, the geochemical and natural radioactivity characteristics of Bilecik marble are very important. In this study, Bilecik marble was collected to determine the geochemistry and natural radioactivity. Then, analyses of geochemical and natural radioactivity in the marble samples are interpreted. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This study is supported by Bilecik Seyh Edebali University scientific project (Project Number =2011-02-BIL.03-04).

  6. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  7. Making Marble Tracks Can Involve Lots of Fun as Well as STEM Learning

    Nagel, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Marble tracks are a very popular toy and big ones can be found in science centres in many countries. If children want to make a marble track themselves it is quite a job. It takes a long time, they can take up a lot of space and most structures are quite fragile, as the materials used can very quickly prove unfit for the task and do not last very…

  8. EPR OF Mn2+ IMPURITIES IN CALCITE: A DETAILED STUDY PERTINENT TO MARBLE PROVENANCE DETERMINATION

    Weihe, H.; Piligkos, S.; Barra, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Mn2+ impurities in calcite, and therefore also in marble, may be accurately reproduced by a traditional spin Hamiltonian formalism. The success of such a treatment, however, very much depends on the spin Hamiltonian parameters...... having the correct signs as well as magnitudes. We present data that determine the sign of the axial anisotropy parameter and thereby facilitate future quantum mechanical characterizations of marble electron paramagnetic resonance spectra that supplement provenance determination....

  9. Mechanical Assessment of Fire Damage of the Ancient Greek Temple of Marble Stone

    山田, 眞生

    2016-01-01

    Historical masonry heritages buildings existing in earthquake-prone countries have been affected many times by earthquakes in their long histories. The Parthenon, Athens in Greece is one of the most famous buildings, and it well known that the Parthenon was damaged seriously by earthquakes and especially human disasters. Therefore, restoration works have been performed carefully since 1975. In addition, marble stone constructions, for example marble column, also suffered serious damage by two...

  10. Impact of marbling art therapy activities on the anxiety levels of psychiatric patients

    Utaş Akhan, Latife; Atasoy, Nuray

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Study was conducted to explore the impact of marbling art therapy on the anxiety levels of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Methods: Data for the study were at a university hospital and in the psychiatric service,polyclinic of a State Hospital with 34 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 34 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Investigations were carried out with study groups and a control group.Findings:Following marbling, it was found that there were signi...

  11. Switchable Opening and Closing of a Liquid Marble via Ultrasonic Levitation.

    Zang, Duyang; Li, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Zhai, Zhicong; Geng, Xingguo; Binks, Bernard P

    2015-10-27

    Liquid marbles have promising applications in the field of microreactors, where the opening and closing of their surfaces plays a central role. We have levitated liquid water marbles using an acoustic levitator and, thereby, achieved the manipulation of the particle shell in a controlled manner. Upon increasing the sound intensity, the stable levitated liquid marble changes from a quasi-sphere to a flattened ellipsoid. Interestingly, a cavity on the particle shell can be produced on the polar areas, which can be completely healed when decreasing the sound intensity, allowing it to serve as a microreactor. The integral of the acoustic radiation pressure on the part of the particle surface protruding into air is responsible for particle migration from the center of the liquid marble to the edge. Our results demonstrate that the opening and closing of the liquid marble particle shell can be conveniently achieved via acoustic levitation, opening up a new possibility to manipulate liquid marbles coated with non-ferromagnetic particles.

  12. Role of marble microstructure in near-infrared laser-induced damage during laser cleaning

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Elert, Kerstin; Sebastian, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    When marble is cleaned by nanosecond neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers (1064 nm), strongly absorbing surface contaminants are removed at fluences substantially below the damage threshold for the much less absorptive marble substrate. Recent studies have shown, however, that unacceptable roughening of the marble surface also may occur at low fluences due to removal of individual grains. In order to elucidate this effect, we have compared the low-fluence response of marbles with two different grain sizes and single-crystal calcite, in the fluence range 0.12-1.25 J cm-2. Damage was greater in fine-grained than coarse-grained marble, and did not occur in the single-crystal calcite at these fluences. The temperature rise following defect-mediated absorption triggers thermal plasma emission and generates shock waves; the concomitant surface damage depends on the size and crystallographic orientation of the crystals. Laser irradiation anneals the defects and increases ''crystallite size.'' The implications for the laser-assisted cleaning of marble artworks are outlined

  13. Laboratory Investigations for the Role of Flushing Media in Diamond Drilling of Marble

    Bhatnagar, A.; Khandelwal, Manoj; Rao, K. U. M.

    2011-05-01

    Marble is used as a natural stone for decorative purposes from ages. Marble is a crystalline rock, composed predominantly of calcite, dolomite or serpentine. The presence of impurities imparts decorative pattern and colors. The diamond-based operations are extensively used in the mining and processing of marble. Marble is mined out in the form of blocks of cuboids shape and has to undergo extensive processing to make it suitable for the end users. The processing operation includes slabbing, sizing, polishing, etc. Diamond drilling is also commonly used for the exploration of different mineral deposits throughout the world. In this paper an attempt has been made to enhance the performance of diamond drilling on marble rocks by adding polyethylene-oxide (PEO) in the flushing water. The effect of PEO added with the drilling water was studied by varying different machine parameters and flushing media concentration in the laboratory. The responses were rate of penetration and torque at bit-rock interface. Different physico-mechanical properties of marble were also determined. It was found that flushing water added with PEO can substantially enhance the penetration rates and reduce the torque developed at the bit-rock interface as compared to plain flushing water.

  14. Micro- and macroscopic study on the porosity of marble as a function of temperature and impregnation

    Malaga-Starzec, K.; Akesson, U.; Lindqvist, J. E.; Schouenborg, B.

    2003-04-01

    The thermal weathering of marble is demonstrated by the progressive granular decohesion that leads to an increased porosity and subsequently to loss of strength. In order to determine how temperature cycling initiates changes in the porosity of fresh and impregnated stones: two chemically and petrographically very different marble types were tested for water absorption and ultrasonic velocity propagation and analysed by fluorescence microscopy and nitrogen adsorption. The influence of the impregnation materials: GypStop P17 and P22, both silica sols with different particle size, on changes of the porosity was also evaluated. A separate long-term study of thermal expansion was additionally performed on fresh unimpregnated samples. The results indicated that inter-granular decohesion was more pronounced for the calictic marble than the dolomitic marble. The impregnation materials had a mitigating effect on the granular decohesion. Use of fluorescence microscopy, among the other methods, appears to give inexpensive and reliable information about internal structure of the marbles. A better understanding of the effect that temperature has on the porosity of marble could be used as a guide for election of suitable stone material for exterior use as well as an indication for appropriate conditioning of the samples before physical properties testing.

  15. Comparison of Different Encapsulating Adhesives to Enhance the Efficiencies and Lifetimes of Polymeric Solar Cells

    Chung, Ming-Hua; Chen, Chen-Ming; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong; Tang, Rong-Ming; Tsai, Yu Sheng; Chu, Wei-Ping; Liu, Mark O.; Juang, Fuh-Shyang

    2009-04-01

    Polymeric solar cells (PSCs) with a derivative of C60 [[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)], and 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) as active layers have been fabricated. The PSC devices were also packaged with glass and novel UV glues to improve their lifetimes and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). After encapsulation with UV glue I, II, and III, the PCEs of PSCs reached 4, 4.82, and 6%, respectively, and their half-lifetimes increased to 16-18, 26-28, and 90 h, respectively, while the PCEs and half-lifetimes of PSCs without encapsulation were 3.76% and 2.5 h, respectively.

  16. Sputtered Encapsulation as Wafer Level Packaging for Isolatable MEMS Devices: A Technique Demonstrated on a Capacitive Accelerometer

    Azrul Azlan Hamzah

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses sputtered silicon encapsulation as a wafer level packaging approach for isolatable MEMS devices. Devices such as accelerometers, RF switches, inductors, and filters that do not require interaction with the surroundings to function, could thus be fully encapsulated at the wafer level after fabrication. A MEMSTech 50g capacitive accelerometer was used to demonstrate a sputtered encapsulation technique. Encapsulation with a very uniform surface profile was achieved using spin-on glass (SOG as a sacrificial layer, SU-8 as base layer, RF sputtered silicon as main structural layer, eutectic gold-silicon as seal layer, and liquid crystal polymer (LCP as outer encapsulant layer. SEM inspection and capacitance test indicated that the movable elements were released after encapsulation. Nanoindentation test confirmed that the encapsulated device is sufficiently robust to withstand a transfer molding process. Thus, an encapsulation technique that is robust, CMOS compatible, and economical has been successfully developed for packaging isolatable MEMS devices at the wafer level.

  17. Zeolite encapsulation of H2

    Cooper, S.; Lakner, J.F.

    1982-08-01

    Experiments with H 2 have shown that it is possible to encapsulate gases in the structure of certain molecular sieves. This method may offer a better means of temporarily storing and disposing of tritium over some others presently in use. The method may also prove safer, and may enable isotope separation, and removal of 3 He. Initial experiments were performed with H 2 to screen potential candidates for use with tritium

  18. GLASS BOX

    Curtis, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The goals of this effort were to develop Glass Box capabilities to allow for the capturing of analyst activities and the associated data resources, track and log the results of automated processing...

  19. A Multi-analytical Approach for the Characterization of Marbles from Lesser Himalayas (Northwest Pakistan)

    Fahad, M.; Iqbal, Y.; Riaz, M.; Ubic, R.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    2015-12-01

    The KP province of Pakistan hosts widespread deposits of thermo-metamorphic marbles that were extensively used as a building and ornamental stones since the time of earliest flourishing civilization in this region known as Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC). The macroscopic characteristics of 22 marble varieties collected from three different areas of Lesser Himalayas (Northwest Pakistan), its chemical, mineralogical, petrographic features, temperature conditions of metamorphic re-crystallization, and the main physical properties are presented in order to provide a solid basis for possible studies on the provenance and distribution of building stones from this region. The results provide a set of diagnostic parameters that allow discriminating the investigated marbles and quarries. Studied marbles overlap in major phase assemblage, but the accessory mineral content, chemistry, the maximum grain size (MGS) and other petrographic characteristics are particularly useful in the distinction between them. On the basis of macroscopic features, the studied marbles can be classifies into four groups: (i) white (ii) grey-to-brown veined, (iii) brown-reddish to yellowish and (iv) dark-grey to blackish veined marbles. The results show that the investigated marbles are highly heterogeneous in both their geochemical parameters and minero-petrographic features. Microscopically, the white, grey-to-brown and dark-grey to blackish marbles display homeoblastic/granoblastic texture, and the brown-reddish to yellowish marbles display a heteroblastic texture with traces of slightly deformed polysynthetic twining planes. Minero-petrography, XRD, SEM and EPMA revealed that the investigated marbles chiefly consist of calcite along with dolomite, quartz, muscovite, pyrite, K-feldspar, Mg, Ti and Fe-oxides as subordinates. The magnesium content of calcite coexisting with dolomite was estimated by both XRD and EPMA/EDS, indicating the metamorphic temperature of re-crystallization from 414

  20. Investigation of low glass transition temperature on COTS PEMs reliability

    Sandor, M.; Agarwal, S.

    2002-01-01

    Many factors influence PEM component reliability.One of the factors that can affect PEM performance and reliability is the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the encapsulant or underfill. JPL/NASA is investigating how the Tg and CTE for PEMs affect device reliability under different temperature and aging conditions. Other issues with Tg are also being investigated. Some preliminary data will be presented on glass transition temperature test results conducted at JPL.

  1. Migration studies of fission product nuclides in rocks. Pt.5: Diffusion and permeability of nuclide 125I in marble

    Wen Ruiyuan; Gao Hongcheng; Wang Xiangyun

    1996-01-01

    The migration behaviour of nuclide 125 I, as a simulation of the long lived fission product 129 I, in marble is studied in self-designed cells. A series of the most important parameters of diffusion and permeability (e.g., intrinsic diffusion coefficient, dispersion coefficient and interstitial flow velocity, etc.) are determined. Based on the differential equation of the nuclide migration, the distribution function and numerical solution of 125 I in marble are presented. The results show that the migration velocity of 125 I in marble is fast, indicating that it is not suitable to dispose nuclear waste in marble

  2. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  3. Expansion of the marbled crayfish in Slovakia: beginning of an invasion in the Danube catchment?

    Boris Lipták

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The marbled crayfish, Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, is a taxon widely available in the aquarium pet trade, which has been introduced to open waters in several European countries and in Madagascar. Recent studies confirmed this parthenogenetically reproducing crayfish as a high-risk invasive species, and vector of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci. It has been first discovered in Slovakia in 2010, but the status of the local population was not studied since then. Due to enlarged sampling area around the first report and one locality, where we presupposed the crayfish occurrence, we identified new marbled crayfish populations. Here, we report presence of three newly established marbled crayfish populations in Slovakia. Two populations are located critically close to the Váh River, a major tributary of the Danube River; one of them being directly connected to the Váh River via a side channel during occasional floods. The third established marbled crayfish population was found at the mouth of a thermal stream flowing into the Nitra River, a tributary of the Váh River. In this stream, crayfish coexist with other exotic fish and gastropod species of aquarium origin. We presume that the reported localities may serve as a source for further expansion of the marbled crayfish in the mid-part of the Danube catchment. Floods, active dispersal (including overland, passive dispersal by zoochory or anthropogenic translocations are among the major drivers facilitating the marbled crayfish colonization. We have not detected the crayfish plague pathogen in any of the studied populations. However, if spreading further, the marbled crayfish will encounter established populations of crayfish plague carriers in the Danube River, in which case they may acquire the pathogen by horizontal transmission and contribute to spread of this disease to indigenous European crayfish species.

  4. Characterization methodology for re-using marble slurry in industrial applications

    Marras, Graziella; Careddu, Nicola; Peretti, Roberto; Bortolussi, Augusto

    2017-04-01

    In the effort towards waste minimization and circular economy, natural stone waste is one of the foremost parameter to turn scientific community attention. At this time, calcium carbonate has a great importance in industrial fields and currently there is the necessity of appreciate the potential value of marble waste and convert it into marketable products. A large amount of residues is produced in ornamental stone sector with different dimension and particle size. The research focused on marble slurry, recovered at the end of the treatment plant in the filter-press section. The aim of this paper is to propose a defined way to characterize marble slurry, primarily composed of micronized particles, in order to obtain useful data to make a comparison with market specifications. In particular the proposed characterization methodology follows the indicated steps: Leaching test (TCLP) - Grain size distribution and bulk density - Mineralogical analyses - X-Ray diffraction - Chemical analysis - Loss on ignition - SEM determination - Colorimetric and bright analysis. Marble slurry samples, collected by different dimension stone treatment plants in Orosei marble district (Sardinia - Italy), were analyzed by physical, mineralogical and chemical determinations and the obtained data were evaluated for compatibility with the CaCO3 specifications required by a definite industrial sector, seeing as how CaCO3 product specifications vary depending on the utilization. The importance of this investigation is to characterize completely the "waste" that must apply for further uses and to identify the feasibility to substitute marketable micronized CaCO3 with marble slurry. Further goal is to enhance the environmental advantages of re-using stone waste by reducing marble waste landfills and by applying raw material substitution, in accordance with regulatory requirements, thus pursuing the objective to convert natural stone waste into by-product with a renewed environmental and economic

  5. Electromagnetic and ultrasonic investigations on a roman marble slab

    Capizzi, Patrizia; Cosentino, Pietro L.

    2010-05-01

    The archaeological Museum of Rome (Museo delle Terme di Diocleziano) asked our group about the physical consistency of a marble slab (II - III century AD) that has recently fallen down during the transportation for an exhibition. In fact, due to insurance conflict, it was necessary to control the new fractures due to the recent accident and distinguish them from the ancient ones. The sculptured slab (today's size is 1280 x 70 x 9 cm), cut at the ends for a re-use as an inscription in the rear face, was restored (assemblage of different broken parts and cleaning) in contemporary times. We used different methodologies to investigate the slab: namely a pacometer (Protovale Elcometer) to individuate internal coupling pins, GPR (2000 MHz) and Ultrasonic (55 kHz) tomographic high-density surveys to investigate the internal extension of all the visible fractures and to search for the unknown internal ones. For every methodology used the quality of the acquired data was relatively high. They have been processed and compared to give a set of information useful for the bureaucratic problems of the Museum. Later on, the data have been processed in depth, for studying how to improve the data processing and for extracting all the information contained in the whole set of experimental data. Finally, the results of such a study in depth are exposed in detail.

  6. DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION OF MARBLE IN THE GREEK ROMAN HADRIANIC BATHS IN LEPTIS MAGNA, LIBYA

    Nabil.A. ABD EL-TAWAB

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hadrianic Baths is one of the most important archaeological sites in Leptis Magna- Libya. It was built at the command of Emperor Hadrian in the early 2nd century CE; they represent some of the most lavish structures of Leptis Magna. It is unique in design and building technique. It was built of limestone, marble and brick. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of marble. The marble in the monuments can be classified into several types, based on its color, texture, chemical composition and the constituent mineral. The Hadrianic Baths is subjected to severe degradation, due to the climate, which is typically marine. This site suffered from different weathering forms, for example, disintegration of grains, pitting, chipping, frequent flaking, multiple-flaking, fissures and biodeterioration. These weathering forms were produced by many deterioration factors, such as moisture, salt weathering, biological and micro-biological factors, changes in temperature and wind erosion. The aim of this study is to characterize the building materials at the Hadrianic Baths, especially marble, and to evaluate the role of groundwater and sea weathering on the strength of the marble exposed to the coastline of the Mediterranean. Many samples were collected from limestone, marble, mortar, plaster and salts, for analysis and investigation. Several scientific techniques were used in the study of the morphology and texture. Those methods include microscopy, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, polarized light microscopy (PLM and stereo microscopy. A qualitative identification of organic and inorganic chemical species was performed by using techniques such as energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD and microbial investigation were also done. Our results indicated that the deterioration of marble was caused by the aggressive action of environmental agents. SEM observations indicated the occurrence of microcracks and particle aggregates

  7. Encapsulation methods for organic electrical devices

    Blum, Yigal D.; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijian

    2013-06-18

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device encapsulated by alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The encapsulation methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  8. Perspective of metal encapsulation of waste

    Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual flow sheet is presented for encapsulating solid, stabilized calcine (e.g., supercalcine) in a solid lead alloy, using existing or developing technologies. Unresolved and potential problem areas of the flow sheet are outlined and suggestions are made as how metal encapsulation might be applied to other solid wastes from the fuel cycle. It is concluded that metal encapsulation is a technique applicable to many forms of solid wastes and is likely to meet future waste isolation criteria and regulations

  9. Functional Design of Dielectric-Metal-Dielectric-Based Thin-Film Encapsulation with Heat Transfer and Flexibility for Flexible Displays.

    Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Seungyeop; Jeon, Yongmin; Kim, Hyuncheol; Chang, Ki Soo; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2017-08-16

    In this study, a new and efficient dielectric-metal-dielectric-based thin-film encapsulation (DMD-TFE) with an inserted Ag thin film is proposed to guarantee the reliability of flexible displays by improving the barrier properties, mechanical flexibility, and heat dissipation, which are considered to be essential requirements for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) encapsulation. The DMD-TFE, which is composed of Al 2 O 3 , Ag, and a silica nanoparticle-embedded sol-gel hybrid nanocomposite, shows a water vapor transmission rate of 8.70 × 10 -6 g/m 2 /day and good mechanical reliability at a bending radius of 30 mm, corresponding to 0.41% strain for 1000 bending cycles. The electrical performance of a thin-film encapsulated phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) was identical to that of a glass-lid encapsulated PHOLED. The operational lifetimes of the thin-film encapsulated and glass-lid encapsulated PHOLEDs are 832 and 754 h, respectively. After 80 days, the thin-film encapsulated PHOLED did not show performance degradation or dark spots on the cell image in a shelf-lifetime test. Finally, the difference in lifetime of the OLED devices in relation to the presence and thickness of a Ag film was analyzed by applying various TFE structures to fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) that could generate high amounts of heat. To demonstrate the difference in heat dissipation effect among the TFE structures, the saturated temperatures of the encapsulated FOLEDs were measured from the back side surface of the glass substrate, and were found to be 67.78, 65.12, 60.44, and 39.67 °C after all encapsulated FOLEDs were operated at an initial luminance of 10 000 cd/m 2 for sufficient heat generation. Furthermore, the operational lifetime tests of the encapsulated FOLED devices showed results that were consistent with the measurements of real-time temperature profiles taken with an infrared camera. A multifunctional hybrid thin-film encapsulation

  10. HISTORY AND TOURIST VALORIZATION OF THE RUSCHIȚA MARBLE QUARRY (CARAȘ-SEVERIN COUNTY, ROMANIA

    D.-R. TODOR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available History and Tourist Valorization of the Ruschița Marble Quarry (Caraș-Severin County, Romania. With an area of over 40 ha, the marble quarry located north of Ruschița village, Rusca Montană commune, Caraș-Severin County is the largest exploitation perimeter of this kind on the territory of Romania and one of the largest in Europe. Many works were written about the Ruschița marble quarry across time, especially regarding geology, but very little was talked about its tourism potential. If generally, the vast majority of the extractive areas are not at all attractive from the tourist point of view, having rather a repulsive appearance, the marble quarry from Ruschița proves the contrary, both by the greatness and sizes of exploitation and by the surrounding area, constituted of a very diversified mountain relief and an abundant forest vegetation. That is why, we consider useful an attraction and integration in the tourist circuit of this spectacular anthropogenic monument, unique in Romania, comparable to the Carrara (Italy marble quarries. This paper makes a pleading in this respect.

  11. Radiation dose estimation and mass attenuation coefficients of marble used in Turkey

    Cevik, U.; Damla, N.; Kobya, A.I.; Celik, A.; Kara, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the natural radioactivity in marble samples used in Turkey was measured by means of gamma spectrometry. The results showed that the specific activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ranged from 10 to 92 Bq kg -1 , from 4 to 122 Bq kg -1 and from 28 to 676 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The radiological hazards in marble samples due to the natural radioactivity were inferred from calculations of radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ), indoor absorbed dose rate in air values, the annual effective dose and gamma and alpha indexes. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values. The measurements showed that marble samples used in Turkey have low level of natural radioactivity; therefore, the use of these types of marble in dwellings is safe for inhabitants. Mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) were obtained both experimentally and theoretically for different marble samples produced in Turkey by using gamma-ray transmission method. Experimental values showed a good agreement with the theoretical values.

  12. Isotopic studies of marbles in the Sanbagawa metamorphic terrain, central Shikoku, Japan

    Wada, Hideki; Enami, Masaki; Yanagi, Takeru.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopic studies were carried out on marbles occurring in crystalline schists and epidote amphibolites of the Sanbagawa metamorphic terrain, central Shikoku, Japan, in order to estimate metamorphic temperatures and to elucidate their origin. Carbon isotopic fractionation between calcite and graphite shows the metamorphic temperature of 460 deg C at the transitional part between the garnet and albite-biotite zones. Marbles are isotopically classified into two groups. (1) some marbles in epidote amphibolite masses show characteristically negative delta 13 C values and low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios. These marbles are interpreted as have been derived from magmatic or deep-seated carbonates. (2) marbles collected from the crystalline schists and from the marginal part of epidote amphibolite masses, have high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and delta 13 C values similar to those of typical sedimentary carbonates. They were probably derived from sedimentary carbonates and/or carbonates re-equilibrated with metamorphic fluid segregated from crystalline schists during the Sanbagawa metamorphism. (author)

  13. Neutron activation analysis applied to assemblage problems in fragmented marble sculptures

    Sangermano, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    One of the major problems encountered in assemblage work on fragmented marble sculptures is determining if two pieces were originally joined together when there are no remaining material links between the two. This work deals with solving this problem by using Neutron Activation Analysis techniques. Samples from a block of sculpture grade Georgian marble were analyzed. The following trace elements were identified on the basis of their gamma ray energies and their half-life studies: 165 Dy, 155 Sm, 152 Eu, 56 Mn, 24 Na, 85 Sr, 51 Ti, 80 Br, 27 Mg, 52 V, 42 K, 28 Al, 46 Sc, 141 Ce, 198 Au, 140 La, 122 Sb, and 124 Sb. The next step in this work was to determine whether the trace elements, which were originally trapped in the marble during metamorphosis, formed concentration patterns which extended over short distances in the stone. A block of sculpture grade Colorado marble was cut into a number of slices and these slices were analyzed for the trace elements they contained. The concentration patterns formed by these impurities were followed through successive layers of the stone. The ability to follow these ''fingerprint'' concentration patterns over short distances in marble was further tested by analyzing two adjoining segments of a Roman wall relief at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California. The trace impurity ''fingerprints'' were successfully matched between the wrist and hand segments of this piece

  14. Finite-element modelling of thermal micracking in fresh and consolidated marbles

    Weiss, T.; Fuller, E.; Siegesmund, S.

    2003-04-01

    The initial stage of marble weathering is supposed to be controlled by thermal microcracking. Due to the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients of calcite, the main rock forming mineral in marble, stresses are caused which lead to thermally-induced microcracking, especially along the grain boundaries. The so-called "granular disintegration" is a frequent weathering phenomenon observed for marbles. The controlling parameters are the grain size, grain shape and grain orientation. We use a finite-element approach to constrain magnitude and directional dependence of thermal degradation. Therefore, different assumptions are validated including the fracture toughness of the grain boundaries, the effects of the grain-to-grain orientation and bulk lattice preferred orientation (here referred to as texture). The resulting thermal microcracking and bulk rock thermal expansion anisotropy are validated. It is evident that thermal degradation depends on the texture. Strongly textured marbles exhibit a clear directional dependence of thermal degradation and a smaller bulk thermal degradation than randomly oriented ones. The effect of different stone consolidants in the pore space of degraded marble is simulated and its influence on mechanical properties such as tensile strength are evaluated.

  15. The protection of different Italian marbles with two partially flourinated acrylic copolymers

    Poli, T.; Toniolo, L.; Chiantore, O.

    Committing stone protection to polymeric materials started in the sixties but the study and knowledge of the complex and multiple interactions between stone and polymers has only been carried out recently. It's important to note that, together with the factors related to the polymeric system itself, intrinsic properties of the stone substrate, like composition, porosity, and crystalline characteristics, play a relevant role. In this paper the issues related to protection of three different Italian marbles have been investigated: Candoglia marble, employed in the building of the Milan Cathedral, Carrara marble, widely used in sculpture and historical architecture, and S. Giuliano marble, used in the building of the Pisa Cathedral and its famous leaning tower. Specimens coming from blocks of the three quarried stones have been characterized, treated with two new partially fluorinated acrylic copolymers, 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate/methyl acrylate (TFEMA/MA), and trifluoromethyl-2,2,2-trifluorethyl methacrylate/methyl acrylate (HFIMA/MA), and tested according to UNI-Normal Italian protocol. All the measurements including capillary water absorption, static contact angles, colour variation, water vapour permeability, and SEM morphological analysis have been carried out before and after the polymeric treatment. The aim of this work is to evaluate the protective efficacy of these two new partially fluorinated acrylic copolymers on the three different marbles, and to correlate the different behaviours with the polymers' properties and with the stone substrates characteristics.

  16. Analysis of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Marble Particles Floor-Tile Composite

    Parikin; Arslan, A.; Ismoyo, A.H.; Jodi, H.E.; Nurhasanah, S.

    2002-01-01

    Two criteria that very predictable to quality products of marble particles composite floor-tile are physical and mechanical properties. Simple manufacturing was conducted from powdering refuges of marble to molding and drying the specimens at ambient atmosphere. The characterization, to observe; density, crystal structure, microstructure, hardness and compressive/bending strength of the material, was performed in Serpong and IPB-Bogor. The analysis shows that polymeric crystallization was occurred by HEXA and the density and the hardness generally rise up with the improvements in mesh and composition of marble particles. But it is not always followed by the real improvements of compressive and bending strength, which related to the material stiffness. The curves figured that these two strengths give the maximum values at 60% composition of marble particles. It can be concluded that density and hardness are dependent on mesh and composition, whereas the stiffness (modulus) is only correlation with composition of particulate. The theoretical modulus of marble particles composite floor-tile has been evaluated at about 56.19 GPa. (author)

  17. The acute and long-term neurotoxic effects of MDMA on marble burying behaviour in mice.

    Saadat, Kathryn S; Elliott, J Martin; Colado, M Isabel; Green, A Richard

    2006-03-01

    When mice are exposed to harmless objects such as marbles in their cage they bury them, a behaviour sometimes known as defensive burying. We investigated the effect of an acute dose of MDMA (èecstasy') and other psychoactive drugs on marble burying and also examined the effect of a prior neurotoxic dose of MDMA or p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) on burying. Acute administration of MDMA produced dose-dependent inhibition of marble burying (EC50: 7.6 micro mol/kg). Other drugs that enhance monoamine function also produced dose-dependent inhibition: methamphetamine PCA paroxetine MDMA GBR 12909 methylphenidate. None of these drugs altered locomotor activity at a dose that inhibited burying. A prior neurotoxic dose of MDMA, which decreased striatal dopamine content by 60%, but left striatal 5-HT content unaltered, did not alter spontaneous marble burying 18 or 40 days later. However, a neurotoxic dose of PCA which decreased striatal dopamine by 60% and striatal 5-HT by 70% attenuated marble burying 28 days later. Overall, these data suggest that MDMA, primarily by acutely increasing 5-HT function, acts like several anxiolytic drugs in this behavioural model. Long-term loss of cerebral 5-HT content also produced a similar effect. Since this change was observed only after 28 days, it is probably due to an adaptive response in the brain.

  18. Characteristics and Health Benefit of Highly Marbled Wagyu and Hanwoo Beef

    Gotoh, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the characteristics and health benefit of highly marbled Wagyu and Hanwoo beef. Marbling of Wagyu and Hanwoo beef has been increased in Japan and Korea to meet domestic consumer preferences. Wagyu and Hanwoo cattle have high potential of accumulating intramuscular fat (IMF) and producing highly marbled beef. The IMF content varies depending on the feeding of time, finishing diet, and breed type. IMF increases when feeding time is increased. The rate of IMF increase in grain-fed cattle is faster than that in pasture-fed cattle. Fatty acid composition are also different depending on breeds. Highly marbled Wagyu and Hanwoo beef have higher proportions of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) due to higher concentrations of oleic acid. MUFAs have little effect on total cholesterol. They are heart-healthy dietary fat because they can lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol while increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Clinical trials have indicated that highly marbled beef does not increase LDL-cholesterol. This review also emphasizes that high oleic acid beef such as Wagyu and Hanwoo beef might be able to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:28115881

  19. Glass compositions

    France, P W

    1985-05-30

    A fluoride glass for use in the production of optical fibres has an enhanced D/H ratio, preferably such that OD:OH is at least 9:1. In the example, such a glass is prepared by treating with D/sub 2/O a melt comprising 51.53 mole per cent ZrF/sub 4/, 20.47 mole per cent BaF/sub 2/, 5.27 mole per cent LaF/sub 3/, 3.24 mole per cent AlF/sub 3/, and 19.49 mole per cent LiF.

  20. THz imaging of majolica tiles and biological attached marble fragments

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Devices exploiting waves in the frequency range from 0.1 THz to 10 THz (corresponding to a free-space wavelength ranging from 30 μm to 3 mm) deserve attention as diagnostic technologies for cultural heritage. THz waves are, indeed, non-ionizing radiations capable of penetrating into non-metallic materials, which are opaque to both visible and infrared waves, without implying long term risks to the molecular stability of the exposed objects and humans. Moreover, THz surveys involve low poewr probing waves, are performed without contact with the object and, thanks to the recent developments, which have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems, maybe performed in loco (i.e. in the place where the artworks are usually located). On the other hand, THz devices can be considered as the youngest among the sensing and imaging electromagnetic techniques and their actual potentialities in terms of characterization of artworks is an ongoing research activity. As a contribution within this context, we have performed time of flight THz imaging [1,2] on ceramic and marble objects. In particular, we surveyed majolica tiles produced by Neapolitan ceramists in the 18th and 19th centuries with the aim to gather information on their structure, constructive technique and conservation state. Moreover, we investigated a Marmo di Candoglia fragment in order to characterize the biological attach affecting it. All the surveys were carried out by using the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) developed by Z-Omega and available at the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA). This system is equipped with fiber optic coupled transmitting and receiving probes and with an automatic positioning system enabling to scan a 150 mm x 150 mm area under a reflection measurement configuration. Based on the obtained results we can state that the use of THz waves allows: - the reconstruction of the object topography; - the geometrical

  1. Marble Canyon 10 x 20 NTMS area Arizona: data report

    Heffner, J.D.

    1980-07-01

    Results of ground water and stream/surface sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Marble Canyon 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. The target sampling density for all media collected was one site per 12 square kilometers. This resulted in 884 sediment samples being collected; however, dry conditions and sparse population resulted in the collection of only 2 ground water samples. Grand Canyon National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and much Indian tribal land in the southern half of the quadrangle were not sampled. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements for sediment samples are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Data from ground water include: water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); physical measurements (water temperature, and scintillometer readings); and elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, He, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include: water chemistry measurements (where available) for pH, conductivity, and alkalinity; and elemental analyses(U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Histograms, cumulative frequency, and areal distribution plots for most elements; Log U/Th, Log U/Hf, and Log U/(Th + Hf) ratios; and scintillometer readings are included

  2. Characterization of the material produced using marble waste and reagents aiminig production of rock wool

    Rodrigues, Girley Ferreira; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Alves, Joner Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize materials produced from the mixture of marble waste and chemical reagents. The materials were homogenized, melted and cooled in order to obtain materials with similar characteristics of rock wools. The batch was poured in a water-filled recipient and also in a Herty viscometer at three temperatures. Samples of produced materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis. Results of this study indicate that it is possible the incorporation of marble waste in the production process of rock wool, replacing approximately 15% of the raw material used to fabricate this material. This process represents a technological breakthrough since it allows the reuse of marble waste, and also represents a possible decrease in rock wool production cost, which is a material with a growing market as thermo acoustic insulator. (author)

  3. Effect of Static-Dynamic Coupling Loading on Fracture Toughness and Failure Characteristics in Marble

    Z. Q. Yin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fracture experiments in a notched semi-circular bend configuration were conducted to test the dynamic fracture toughness of a marble under static-dynamic coupling load using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar. The fracture process of the specimen was monitored using a high speed (HS camera. Based on digital image correlation (DIC and strain gauges, the full-field strain fields and time-to-fracture of the marble were measured under static-dynamic coupling load. Experimental results show that dynamic fracture toughness was well determined, and the HS-DIC technique provides reliable full-field strain fields in the specimens under static-dynamic coupling loads. The failure characteristics of the marble under external impact were affected obviously by pre-compression stress. Increase of axial pre-compression stress was helpful to improve the crack propagation velocity, and dynamic crack initiation toughness was decreased.

  4. 78 FR 52984 - Stone Age Interiors, Inc.; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite Including On-Site Leased...

    2013-08-27

    ....; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment... Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Colorado Springs, Colorado (hereafter collectively referred to as..., Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, including on-site leased workers from Express...

  5. Provenance of white marbles from the nabatean sites of Qase Al Bint and colonnaded street baths at Petra, Jordan

    Abu-Jaber, Nizar; al-Saad, Ziad; Shiyyab, Adnan; Degryse, Patrick

    Intercultural relations and trade are important components of understanding of historical interrelationships between regions and cultures. One of the most interesting objects of trade is stone, because of the expense and difficulty of its transport. Thus, the source of marble used in the Nabatean city of Petra was investigated using established petrological, geochemical and isotopic analyses. Specifically, marble from Qasr al Bint and the Colonnaded Street baths were sampled and investigated. The results of these analyses show that the marbles came from sources in Asia Minora and Greece. The most likely sources of the marble are the quarries of Thasos, Penteli, Prokennesos and Dokimeion. The choice of marble followed the desired utilitarian and aesthetic function of the stone. These results show that active trade in stone was part of the cultural interaction of the period.

  6. Rapid method to determine actinides and 89/90Sr in limestone and marble samples

    Maxwell, S.L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, J.B.; Utsey, R.C.; Sudowe, Ralf; McAlister, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in limestone and marble samples has been developed that utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the sample. Following rapid pre-concentration steps to remove sample matrix interferences, the actinides and 89 / 90 Sr are separated using extraction chromatographic resins and measured radiometrically. The advantages of sodium hydroxide fusion versus other fusion techniques will be discussed. This approach has a sample preparation time for limestone and marble samples of <4 h. (author)

  7. Early Cretaceous Ductile Deformation of Marbles from the Western Hills of Beijing, North China Craton

    Feng, H.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    During the Early Cretaceous tectonic lithosphere extension, the pre-mesozoic rocks from the Western Hills in the central part of the North China Craton suffered from weak metamorphism but intense shear deformation. The prominent features of the deformation structures are the coexisting layer-parallel shear zones and intrafolia folds, and the along-strike thickness variations of the marble layers from the highly sheared Mesoproterozoic Jing'eryu Formation. Platy marbles are well-developed in the thinner layers, while intrafolia folds are often observed in the thicker layers. Most folds are tight recumbent folds and their axial planes are parallel to the foliations and layerings of the marbles. The folds are A-type folds with hinges being always paralleling to the stretching lineations consistently oriented at 130°-310° directions throughout the entire area. SPO and microstructural analyses of the sheared marbles suggest that the thicker layers suffered from deformations homogeneously, while strain localization can be distinguished in the thinner layers. Calcite twin morphology and CPO analysis indicate that the deformation of marbles from both thinner and thicker layers happened at temperatures of 300 to 500°C. The above analysis suggests that marbles in the thicker layers experienced a progressive sequence of thermodynamic events: 1) regional metamorphism, 2) early ductile deformation dominated by relatively higher temperature conditions, during which all the mineral particles elongated and oriented limitedly and the calcite grains are deformed mainly by mechanical twinning, and 3) late superimposition of relatively lower temperature deformation and recrystallization, which superposed the early deformation, and made the calcites finely granulated, elongated and oriented by dynamical recrystallization along with other grains. Marbles from the thinner layers, however, experienced a similar, but different sequence of thermo-dynamic events, i.e. regional

  8. Characteristics of a calcite "limestone"-marble from Macedonia, used as flux material

    Hristova E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase characteristics of calcite "limestone"-marble from Banjany area village (near Skopje, Macedonia were examined by means of XRD, SEM microscope in polarizing and reflected lights, chemical, DT/TG-analyses. It was concluded as follows: - calcite (CaCO3 is a major mineral component (cca 80-90 % prevailing in the marble over the other minerals - dolomite is generally of minor importance (cca 10-20 % in the rock - quartz, micas graphite, pyrite represent typical accessories. As result of the mentioned phase characteristics, this raw materials was for a long time (more than 30 years used as flux in the iron and steel metallurgy in Macedonia.

  9. Preliminary investigation of cryopreservation by encapsulation ...

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Brassidium Shooting Star, a new commercial ornamental orchid hybrid, were cryopreserved by an encapsulation-dehydration technique. The effects of PLB size, various sucrose concentrations in preculture media and sodium alginate concentration for encapsulation were the main ...

  10. Different encapsulation strategies for implanted electronics

    Winkler Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in implant technology include increasing application of electronic systems in the human body. Hermetic encapsulation of electronic components is necessary, specific implant functions and body environments must be considered. Additional functions such as wireless communication systems require specialized technical solutions for the encapsulation.

  11. Encapsulation of nodal segments of lobelia chinensis

    Weng Hing Thong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lobelia chinensis served as an important herb in traditional chinese medicine. It is rare in the field and infected by some pathogens. Therefore, encapsulation of axillary buds has been developed for in vitro propagation of L. chinensis. Nodal explants of L. chinensis were used as inclusion materials for encapsulation. Various combinations of calcium chloride and sodium alginate were tested. Encapsulation beads produced by mixing 50 mM calcium chloride and 3.5% sodium alginate supported the optimal in vitro conversion potential. The number of multiple shoots formed by encapsulated nodal segments was not significantly different from the average of shoots produced by non-encapsulated nodal segments. The encapsulated nodal segments regenerated in vitro on different medium. The optimal germination and regeneration medium was Murashige-Skoog medium. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated nodal segments were hardened, acclimatized and established well in the field, showing similar morphology with parent plants. This encapsulation technology would serve as an alternative in vitro regeneration system for L. chinensis.

  12. Glass: Rotary Electric Glass Furnace

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    Compared to conventional gas-fired furnaces, the new rotary electric furnace will increase energy efficiency while significantly reducing air emissions, product turnaround time, and labor costs. As this informative new fact sheet explains, the thousand different types of glass optical blanks produced for the photonics industry are used for lasers, telescopes, cameras, lights, and many other products.

  13. Limonene encapsulation in freeze dried gellan systems.

    Evageliou, Vasiliki; Saliari, Dimitra

    2017-05-15

    The encapsulation of limonene in freeze-dried gellan systems was investigated. Surface and encapsulated limonene content was determined by measurement of the absorbance at 252nm. Gellan matrices were both gels and solutions. For a standard gellan concentration (0.5wt%) gelation was induced by potassium or calcium chloride. Furthermore, gellan solutions of varying concentrations (0.25-1wt%) were also studied. Limonene was added at two different concentrations (1 and 2mL/100g sample). Gellan gels encapsulated greater amounts of limonene than solutions. Among all gellan gels, the KCl gels had the greater encapsulated limonene content. However, when the concentration of limonene was doubled in these KCl gels, the encapsulated limonene decreased. The surface limonene content was significant, especially for gellan solutions. The experimental conditions and not the mechanical properties of the matrices were the dominant factor in the interpretation of the observed results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural glass analogues to alteration of nuclear waste glass: A review and recommendations for further study

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review previous work on the weathering of natural glasses; and to make recommendations for further work with respect to studying the alteration of natural glasses as it relates quantifying rates of dissolution. the first task was greatly simplified by the published papers of Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) and Byers, Jercinovic, and Ewing (1987). The second task is obviously the more difficult of the two and the author makes no claim of completeness in this regard. Glasses weather in the natural environment by reacting with aqueous solutions producing a rind of secondary solid phases. It had been proposed by some workers that the thickness of this rind is a function of the age of the glass and thus could be used to estimate glass dissolution rates. However, Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) point out that in general the rind thickness does not correlate with the age of the glass owing to the differences in time of contact with the solution compared to the actual age of the sample. It should be noted that the rate of glass dissolution is also a function of the composition of both the glass and the solution, and the temperature. Quantification of the effects of these parameters (as well as time of contact with the aqueous phase and flow rates) would thus permit a prediction of the consequences of glass-fluid interactions under varying environmental conditions. Defense high- level nuclear waste (DHLW), consisting primarily of liquid and sludge, will be encapsulated by and dispersed in a borosilicate glass before permanent storage in a HLW repository. This glass containing the DHLW serves to dilute the radionuclides and to retard their dispersion into the environment. 318 refs

  15. Natural glass analogues to alteration of nuclear waste glass: A review and recommendations for further study

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review previous work on the weathering of natural glasses; and to make recommendations for further work with respect to studying the alteration of natural glasses as it relates quantifying rates of dissolution. the first task was greatly simplified by the published papers of Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) and Byers, Jercinovic, and Ewing (1987). The second task is obviously the more difficult of the two and the author makes no claim of completeness in this regard. Glasses weather in the natural environment by reacting with aqueous solutions producing a rind of secondary solid phases. It had been proposed by some workers that the thickness of this rind is a function of the age of the glass and thus could be used to estimate glass dissolution rates. However, Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) point out that in general the rind thickness does not correlate with the age of the glass owing to the differences in time of contact with the solution compared to the actual age of the sample. It should be noted that the rate of glass dissolution is also a function of the composition of both the glass and the solution, and the temperature. Quantification of the effects of these parameters (as well as time of contact with the aqueous phase and flow rates) would thus permit a prediction of the consequences of glass-fluid interactions under varying environmental conditions. Defense high- level nuclear waste (DHLW), consisting primarily of liquid and sludge, will be encapsulated by and dispersed in a borosilicate glass before permanent storage in a HLW repository. This glass containing the DHLW serves to dilute the radionuclides and to retard their dispersion into the environment. 318 refs.

  16. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  17. Nitrate glass

    Kirilenko, I.A.; Vinogradov, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental evidence on behaviour of nitrate glasses is reviewed in terms of relationships between the presence of water in vitrescent nitrate systems and the properties of the systems. The glasses considered belong to systems of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 - Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; Hg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; NaNO 3 -Mg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; M-Zn(NO 3 ) 3 , where M is a mixture of 20% mass NaNO 3 and 80% mass Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , and Zn is a rare earth ion. Nitrate glass is shown to be a product of dehydration. Vitrification may be regarded as a resusl of formation of molecular complexes in the chain due to hydrogen bonds of two types, i.e. water-water, or water-nicrate group. Chain formation, along with low melting points of the nitrates, hinder crystallization of nitrate melts. Provided there is enough water, this results in vitrification

  18. Algoma-type Neoproterozoic BIFs and related marbles in the Seridó Belt (NE Brazil)

    Sial, Alcides N.; Campos, Marcel S.; Gaucher, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The Jucurutu Formation in the Seridó Belt, northeastern Brazil, encompasses fine-to coarse-grained amphibolite-facies marbles, locally with cross-bedding and stromatolites. Banded iron formations (BIF) at three localities in this belt comprise itabirites (actinolite- or cummingtonite-itabirite an...

  19. Genetics of Marbling in Wagyu Revealed by the Melting Temperature of Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Lipids

    Sally S. Lloyd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme marbling or intramuscular deposition of lipid is associated with Wagyu breeds and is therefore assumed to be largely inherited. However, even within 100% full blood Wagyu prepared under standard conditions, there is unpredictable scatter of the degree of marbling. Here, we evaluate melting temperature (Tm of intramuscular fat as an alternative to visual scores of marbling. We show that “long fed” Wagyu generally has Tm below body temperature but with a considerable range under standardized conditions. Individual sires have a major impact indicating that the variation is genetic rather than environmental or random error. In order to measure differences of lower marbling breeds and at shorter feeding periods, we have compared Tm in subcutaneous fat samples from over the striploin. Supplementary feeding for 100 to 150 days leads to a rapid decrease in Tm of 50% Red Wagyu (Akaushi : 50% European crosses, when compared to 100% European. This improvement indicates that the genetic effect of Wagyu is useful, predictable, and highly penetrant. Contemporaneous DNA extraction does not affect the measurement of Tm. Thus, provenance can be traced and substitution can be eliminated in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  20. Declining Marbled Murrelet density, but not productivity, in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Martin G. Raphael

    2018-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is federally threatened in part of its range in western North America. Information on density and productivity is important for managing populations. Over an 18-yr period, we monitored murrelet density and productivity ratios during the breeding season along 170 km of shoreline of the San Juan Islands...

  1. Investigation of the Effects of Marble Material Properties on the Surface Quality

    Sümeyra Cevheroğlu Çıra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of material properties of marble on surface roughness and glossiness. For this purpose, four types of limestones were investigated. Physicomechanical properties of samples were determined through laboratory measurements. Mineralogical and petrographical characterizations were made using thin-section analysis. X-ray fluorescence (XRF semiquantitative method was used for chemical analysis. Six different grinding-polishing tests for each marble unit were done under fixed operational conditions using the same abrasive series. Relationship between the material properties and the surface quality was investigated. Although the polishing-grinding tests were conducted under the same operational conditions, different levels of roughness and glossiness were observed on different samples. Data obtained from the study proved that the main cause of this difference is textural and chemical composition variations of the marble specimen. Moreover, statistical evaluations showed that porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, and indirect tensile strength have strong effects on the surface roughness and glossiness of the marble specimen. The presence of an inverse relationship between the glossiness and roughness levels was determined as the result of this study as well.

  2. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    Doherty, B.; Pamplona, M.; Selvaggi, R.; Miliani, C.; Matteini, M.; Sgamellotti, A.; Brunetti, B.

    2007-01-01

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments

  3. Study of marble provenience in antique artifacts found at Histria and Tomis

    Pentia, M.; Sharp, Z.; Nedelcu, L.; Alexandrescu-Vianu, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of assigning a correct provenience of ancient marble artifacts in detecting forgeries and in associating broken or separated fragments is obvious. The first use of isotopic analysis for marble provenience studies was that of Craig and Craig in 1972. The stable isotopic signature technique uses the deviation ratios for 13 C / 12 C and 18 O / 16 O relative to a conventional standard. This deviation is expressed as δ 13 C and δ 18 O. By statistical treatment of the data from the data base of some classical Greek and Roman marble quarries it could be possible to locate and to fix the extension of every quarry distribution point (δ 13 C, δ 18 O) as a scatter plot of these values. The quarry statistical characteristics could be described by a bivariate Gaussian distribution. Some marble artifacts found at Histria and Tomis sites were analyzed to determine their provenience using stable isotopic analysis and petrography. The main petrographic features are accessory mineral content, grain size, structures and texture. Comparison between the isotopic values of the samples and the ancient quarry data base was carried out by statistical methods. This allowed to find for every sample the confidence level of the provenience of any quarry of the data base, or the probability that any random point ( 13 C/ 12 C, 18 O/ 16 O) of a specific quarry falls to a distance greater than that of the measured sample point. (authors)

  4. GROWTH AND COLOUR PERFORMANCE OF THE CROSSBREED MARBLE STRAIN Betta splendens AND Betta imbellis

    Eni Kusrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Betta ornamental fish of marble strain is a strain which is prefered by the hobbyists, because of its unique color, expensive price, and difficult to obtain the fish color strains. Therefore strain marble betta fish is still dominant for export quality for national and international contests. The aim of this study was to observe the growth and color performance of the crossedbreed marble strains of wild betta, Betta imbellis crossed with Betta splendens. The hybrids of B. imbellis (f x B. splendens (m (D had a specific length and weight rate, (1,113 ± 0.04%/day; 2,531 ± 0.14%/day; 26.61 ± 2.02 mm which was better than that of the hybrids B. imbellis (m x B. splendens (f (C (1,099 ± 0.02%/day; 2,244 ± 0.13%/day; 25.97 ± 1.33 mm; and 0.0027 ± 0.0003 mm. However, the survival rate of the C hybrids (42.19 ± 11.42% was higher than those of D (33.67%-17.08%. Based on the obtained results of the color identification the hybrids had as many as 15 characters of color, homozygous strains of marble which became the target of as much as 1%.

  5. Pyrite-pyrrhotite intergrowths in calcite marble from Bistriški Vintgar, Slovenia

    Zavašnik, J

    2016-01-01

    Roman marble quarry in Bistrica gorge in southern Pohorje Mt. (north-eastern Slovenia) is situated in a 20 m thick lens of layered marble, at the contact zone between granodiorite and metamorphites. Grey and yellowish non-homogenous calcite marble is heavily included by mica, quartz, feldspars, zoisite, pyrite and amphiboles. In the present research, we have studied numerous pyrite (FeS 2 ) crystals associated with yellowish-bronze non-stoichiometric pyrrhotite (Fe 1−x S), not previously reported from this locality. SEM investigation revealed unusual sequence of crystallisation: primary skeletal pyrrhotite matrix is sparsely overgrown by well-crystalline pyrite, both being overgrown by smaller, well-developed hexagonal pyrrhotite crystals of the second generation. With TEM we identify the pyrrhotite as 5T-Fe 1-x S phase, where x is about 0.1 and is equivalent to Fe 9 S 10 . The pyrite-pyrrhotite coexistence allows us a construction of fO 2 -pH diagram of stability fields, which reflects geochemical conditions at the time of marble re-crystallisation. (paper)

  6. More about the Puzzle of a Marble in a Spinning Pipe

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    What trajectory in the laboratory frame does a marble follow if it is held inside a freely rotating pipe and then suddenly released so that it can slide frictionlessly outward along the pipe? A previously published solution is only valid for a pipe of small moment of inertia (so that it is either low in mass or short in length).

  7. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    Doherty, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Pamplona, M. [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica do Instituto Superior Tecnico Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Selvaggi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Miliani, C. [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)]. E-mail: miliani@thch.unipg.it; Matteini, M. [CNR Istituto, Conservazione e Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali (ICVBC), Via Madonna del Piano, 10, Edifico C-50019, Florence (Italy); Sgamellotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Brunetti, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments.

  8. The localization of marbles from busts of the Residence at Munich

    Riederer, J.; Hoefs, J.

    1980-01-01

    51 Greek, Roman and Renaissance marble busts from the Antiquarium of the Residence in Munich were studied for their C- and O-isotopic composition. Apart from some overlapping values, this technique permits - contrary to microscopic and chemical methods - localization of different Turkish, Greek and Italian marbel deposits. (orig.) [de

  9. Genetics of Marbling in Wagyu Revealed by the Melting Temperature of Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Lipids

    Valenzuela, Jose L.; Steele, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme marbling or intramuscular deposition of lipid is associated with Wagyu breeds and is therefore assumed to be largely inherited. However, even within 100% full blood Wagyu prepared under standard conditions, there is unpredictable scatter of the degree of marbling. Here, we evaluate melting temperature (Tm) of intramuscular fat as an alternative to visual scores of marbling. We show that “long fed” Wagyu generally has Tm below body temperature but with a considerable range under standardized conditions. Individual sires have a major impact indicating that the variation is genetic rather than environmental or random error. In order to measure differences of lower marbling breeds and at shorter feeding periods, we have compared Tm in subcutaneous fat samples from over the striploin. Supplementary feeding for 100 to 150 days leads to a rapid decrease in Tm of 50% Red Wagyu (Akaushi) : 50% European crosses, when compared to 100% European. This improvement indicates that the genetic effect of Wagyu is useful, predictable, and highly penetrant. Contemporaneous DNA extraction does not affect the measurement of Tm. Thus, provenance can be traced and substitution can be eliminated in a simple and cost-effective manner. PMID:29201894

  10. Low breeding propensity and wide-ranging movements by marbled murrelets in Washington

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Martin G. Raphael; Thomas D. Bloxton; Patrick G. Cunningham

    2016-01-01

    The marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a threatened seabird that forages in nearshore marine waters but nests inland, commonly in older coniferous forests. Information on ranging behavior and breeding propensity can be useful for informing management, especially when comparisons can be made between declining or threatened populations...

  11. 76 FR 61599 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Marbled Murrelet

    2011-10-05

    ... marbled murrelet nesting habitat include timber harvest, salvage logging, hazard tree removal, road... terrestrial environment, the presence of platforms (large branches or deformities) used for nesting in trees... milder, wetter conditions that favor development of larger trees and more abundant moss cover. The...

  12. Effect of Addition of A Marble Dust on Drying Shrinkage Cracks of Cement Mortar Reinforced with Various Fibers

    Basim Thabit Al-Khafaji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is conducted to study the effect of addition of marble powder (marble dust and different fibers on drying shrinkage cracks and some properties of fibers reinforcment cement mortar. Steel molds having a trapezoidal section, and the end restrained at square shape with( 2.7 meter at length are used to study restrained drying shrinkage of cement mortar. Specimens of ( compressive .flextural. splitting strength were cast. The admixture (marble dust was used to replacie weight of cement with three levels of (4%, 8% and 16% and the fiber hemp and sisal fiber were added for all mixes with proportion by volum of cement . All specimens were cured for (14 days. Average of three results was taken for any test of compressive, tensil and flextural strength. The experimental results showed that the adding of this admixture(marble dust cause adelay in a formation of cracks predicted from a drying shrinkage ,decreases of its width , and hence increases of (compressive, splitting tensil and flextural strength at levels of (4%, and 8%. Thus there is a the positive effect when fiberes added for all mixes of cement mortar with addition of (marble dust. All The admixtures (marble dust and fibers have the obvious visible effect in the delay of the information of shrinkage cracks and the decrease of its width as Compared to the cement mortar mixes when marble dust added a alone.

  13. Carbon mineralization in mine tailing ponds amended with pig slurries and marble wastes

    Raul Zornoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective application of organic residues to reclaim soils requires the optimization of the waste management to minimize CO2 emissions and optimize soil C sequestration efficiency. In this study, the short-term effects of pig slurry amendment alone and together with marble waste on organic matter mineralization in two tailing ponds from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain were investigated in a field remediation experiment. The treatments were: marble waste (MW, pig slurry (PS, marble waste + pig slurry (MW+PS, and control. Soil carbon mineralization was determined using a static chamber method with alkali absorption during 70 days. Soil respiration rates in all plots were higher the first days of the experiment owing to higher soil moisture and higher mean air temperature. MW plots followed the same pattern than control plots, with similar respiration rates. The addition of pig slurry caused a significant increase in the respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots, respiration rates were lower than in PS plots. The cumulative quantities of C-CO2 evolved from the pig slurry mineralization were fitted to a first-order kinetic model explaining 90% of the data. This model implies the presence of only one mineralisable pool (C0. The values of the index C0*constant rate/added C were similar for PS plots in both tailing ponds, but lower in the MW+PS treatment, suggesting that the application of marble reduces the degradability of the organic compounds present in the pig slurry. Thus, the application of marble wastes contributes to slow down the loss of organic matter by mineralization.

  14. Protocol proposal for radon concentration mensuration from granitic rocks in marble factory; Proposta de protocolo para medicao de concentracoes de radonio proveniente de rochas graniticas em marmorarias

    Del Claro, Flavia

    2016-11-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) and thorium ({sup 232}Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. Radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), the thoron ({sup 220}Rn), radio ({sup 2}'2'6Ra), thorium ({sup 23}'2Th) and potassium ({sup 40}K) may occur in materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. Thus, the radioactivity from marbles and granites is of importance, so that under certain conditions these materials radioactivity levels can be hazardous requiring the implementation of mitigation measurements. This research presents a technical protocol marble factories for the control human exposure to natural radioactivity exhaled from granitic rocks. The protocol was based on measurements of the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentration in Brazilian granite rocks commonly nationally and exported. The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn measurements were done using the AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and RAD7 (Durridge Company) apparatus, respectively. The samples of granite were sealed in glass jars for 40 days in to achieve secular equilibrium between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn radionuclides. The measurements were performed on Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the Federal Technological University of Parana. Also, solid-state nuclear track detectors CR-39 were installed in a marble factory environments located in Curitiba - Parana for the evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentrations in workplaces. The CR-39 detectors were exposed for about 90 days and submitted to etching process. The alpha particle tracks were observed using an optical microscope. Some granite samples analyzed presented {sup 222}Rn concentrations of attention, since the average

  15. Utilization of the waste from the marble industry for application in transport infrastructure: mechanical properties of cement pastes

    Prošek, Zdeněk; Trejbal, Jan; Topič, Jaroslav; Plachý, Tomáš; Tesárek, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    This article is focused on the mechanical testing of cement-based samples containing a micronized waste marble powder used as replacement of standard binders. Tested materials consisted of cement CEM I 42.5 R (Radotín, Czech Republic) and three different amounts of the marbles (25, 50 and 70 wt. %). Standard bending and compressive tests of the prismatic samples having dimensions equal to 40 × 40 × 160 mm were done in order to reveal an influence of marble amount on flexural and compressive strength, respectively. Moreover, the dynamic modulus of elasticity and dynamic shear modulus were examined and compared after 7 and 28 days of mixture curing.

  16. Nutritional management of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis with ...

    Keywords: intradialytic parenteral nutrition, nutritional management, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis ... reflection of fluid retention and the underlying inflammatory process, ... The patient appeared weak and frail, with severe generalised muscle ... was recommended on diagnosis of EPS to prevent further peritoneal.

  17. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  18. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: a case report

    Candido, Paula de Castro Menezes; Werner, Andrea de Freitas; Pereira, Izabela Machado Flores; Matos, Breno Assuncao; Pfeilsticker, Rudolf Moreira; Silva Filho, Raul, E-mail: paulacmcandido@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Felicio Rocho, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, a rare cause of bowel obstruction, was described as a complication associated with peritoneal dialysis which is much feared because of its severity. The authors report a case where radiological findings in association with clinical symptoms have allowed for a noninvasive diagnosis of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, emphasizing the high sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography to demonstrate the characteristic findings of such a condition. (author)

  19. Encapsulated Islet Transplantation: Where Do We Stand?

    Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Bal, Sumeet; Tuch, Bernard E

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets encapsulated within immuno-protective microcapsules is a strategy that has the potential to overcome graft rejection without the need for toxic immunosuppressive medication. However, despite promising preclinical studies, clinical trials using encapsulated islets have lacked long-term efficacy, and although generally considered clinically safe, have not been encouraging overall. One of the major factors limiting the long-term function of encapsulated islets is the host's immunological reaction to the transplanted graft which is often manifested as pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO). PFO forms a barrier on the capsule surface that prevents the ingress of oxygen and nutrients leading to islet cell starvation, hypoxia and death. The mechanism of PFO formation is still not elucidated fully and studies using a pig model have tried to understand the host immune response to empty alginate microcapsules. In this review, the varied strategies to overcome or reduce PFO are discussed, including alginate purification, altering microcapsule geometry, modifying alginate chemical composition, co-encapsulation with immunomodulatory cells, administration of pharmacological agents, and alternative transplantation sites. Nanoencapsulation technologies, such as conformal and layer-by-layer coating technologies, as well as nanofiber, thin-film nanoporous devices, and silicone based NanoGland devices are also addressed. Finally, this review outlines recent progress in imaging technologies to track encapsulated cells, as well as promising perspectives concerning the production of insulin-producing cells from stem cells for encapsulation.

  20. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  1. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  2. Characterization and durability testing of a glass-bonded ceramic waste form

    Johnson, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a glass bonded ceramic waste form for encapsulating the fission products and transuranics from the conditioning of metallic reactor fuel. This waste form is currently being scaled to the multi-kilogram size for encapsulation of actual high level waste. This paper will present characterization and durability testing of the ceramic waste form. An emphasis on results from application of glass durability tests such as the Product Consistency Test and characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The information presented is based on a suite of tests utilized for assessing product quality during scale-up and parametric testing

  3. Characterization of marble waste for manufacture of artificial stone; Caracterizacao de residuo de marmore para fabricacao de rocha artificial

    Aguiar, M.C.; Silva, A.G.P., E-mail: maricostalonga2@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF/LAMAV), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados; Gadioli, M.C.B. [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (CETEM/NR-ES), Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, ES (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This work aims to study the characterization of marble waste for the manufacture of artificial stone. The characterization of the waste was performed through X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results indicated that the marble waste presents typical composition of a dolomite, calcite marble, and their minerals are: Calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) and dolomite (MgCa (CO{sub 3}){sub 2}. The waste presented predominance of particles below 200 mesh screen. This may be interesting for the production of artificial stone better visual appearance, such as marmoglass, for example. The results indicate that the use of marble waste for production of artificial stone is feasible and environmentally friendly alternative to give a destination for this waste generated in the order of millions of tons representing serious environmental problem. (author)

  4. Characterization of leached surface layers on simulated high-level waste glasses by sputter-induced optical emission

    Houser, C.; Tsong, I.S.T.; White, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The leaching process in simulated waste encapsulant glasses was studied by measuring the compositional depth-profiles of H (from water), the glass framework formers Si and B, the alkalis Na and Cs, the alkaline earths Ca and Sr, the transition metals Mo and Fe, the rare-earths La, Ce, and Nd, using the technique of sputter-induced optical emission. The leaching process of these glasses is highly complex. In addition to alkali/hydrogen exchange, there is breakdown of the glass framework, build-up of barrier layers on the surface, and formation of layered reaction zones of distinctly different chemistry all within the outer micrometer of the glass

  5. "Belgian black and red marbles" as potential candidates for Global Heritage Stone Resource

    Tourneur, Francis; Pereira, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    The Paleozoic substrate of South Belgium is rich in compact limestones, able to take a good polished finishing and to be used as "marbles". Among them, the black and red varieties were and still are of special importance, intensively exploited and largely exported, almost worldwide. The pure black marbles were extracted mostly from Frasnian (Upper Devonian) and Viséan (Lower Carboniferous) strata, in many localities like Namur, Dinant, Theux and Basècles. Today only the Frasnian variety is still exploited in a spectacular underground quarry in Golzinne, close to the town of Gembloux. These black marbles, already known in Antiquity, were exported since the Middle Age, first in Western Europe, then, from the 19th c., at a larger scale, almost worldwide. Among their most frequent uses figured of course funeral objects, like the epitaph of the Pope Adrian the 1st, offered by Charlemagne and preserved in the St-Pieter basilica in Rom. Another famous reference is the tombs of the Dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, with white crystalline marble and alabaster. The red marbles are limestones from reefal origin, forming mudmounds more or less rich in fossils of Late Frasnian (Late Devonian) age. They show a strong variability in colors, from dark red to light pinkish grey, and in texture, with many sedimentary structures and/or tectonic veins. The outcrops are non-stratified, which allows extraction of large blocks, for example for high columns. Known in the Roman time, they were intensively exploited since at least the 16th c. During the 19th and beginning of 20th c., more than hundred quarries were active in South Belgium, from Rance at West to Chaudfontaine at East, around Philippeville and Rochefort. They were largely used both in civil and religious buildings, mostly for inside decoration, for examples as altars or fireplaces. Among the most symbolic places, the Belgian red marbles were massively employed in Versailles, like in the famous "Galerie des Glaces". But many

  6. Use of a bovine genome array to identify new biological pathways for beef marbling in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle

    Lim Da-jeong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling (intramuscular fat is a valuable trait that impacts on meat quality and an important factor determining price of beef in the Korean beef market. Animals that are destined for this high marbling market are fed a high concentrate ration for approximately 30 months in the Korean finishing farms. However, this feeding strategy leads to inefficiencies and excessive fat production. This study aimed to identify candidate genes and pathways associated with intramuscular fat deposition on highly divergent marbling phenotypes in adult Hanwoo cattle. Results Bovine genome array analysis was conducted to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs in m. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling score 2 to 7. Three data-processing methods (MAS5.0, GCRMA and RMA were used to test for differential expression (DE. Statistical analysis identified 21 significant transcripts from at least two data-processing methods (P . All 21 differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR. Results showed a high concordance in the gene expression fold change between the microarrays and the real time PCR data. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway analysis demonstrated that some genes (ADAMTS4, CYP51A and SQLE over expressed in high marbled animals are involved in a protein catabolic process and a cholesterol biosynthesis process. In addition, pathway analysis also revealed that ADAMTS4 is activated by three regulators (IL-17A, TNFα and TGFβ1. QRT-PCR was used to investigate gene expression of these regulators in muscle with divergent intramuscular fat contents. The results demonstrate that ADAMTS4 and TGFβ1 are associated with increasing marbling fat. An ADAMTS4/TGFβ1 pathway seems to be associated with the phenotypic differences between high and low marbled groups. Conclusions Marbling differences are possibly a function of complex signaling pathway interactions between muscle and fat. These results suggest that ADAMTS4

  7. Recycling of Glass

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  8. Encapsulation in the food industry: a review.

    Gibbs, B F; Kermasha, S; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

    1999-05-01

    Encapsulation involves the incorporation of food ingredients, enzymes, cells or other materials in small capsules. Applications for this technique have increased in the food industry since the encapsulated materials can be protected from moisture, heat or other extreme conditions, thus enhancing their stability and maintaining viability. Encapsulation in foods is also utilized to mask odours or tastes. Various techniques are employed to form the capsules, including spray drying, spray chilling or spray cooling, extrusion coating, fluidized bed coating, liposome entrapment, coacervation, inclusion complexation, centrifugal extrusion and rotational suspension separation. Each of these techniques is discussed in this review. A wide variety of foods is encapsulated--flavouring agents, acids bases, artificial sweeteners, colourants, preservatives, leavening agents, antioxidants, agents with undesirable flavours, odours and nutrients, among others. The use of encapsulation for sweeteners such as aspartame and flavours in chewing gum is well known. Fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials can be employed as encapsulating materials. Various methods exist to release the ingredients from the capsules. Release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signalled by changes in pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In the food industry, the most common method is by solvent-activated release. The addition of water to dry beverages or cake mixes is an example. Liposomes have been applied in cheese-making, and its use in the preparation of food emulsions such as spreads, margarine and mayonnaise is a developing area. Most recent developments include the encapsulation of foods in the areas of controlled release, carrier materials, preparation methods and sweetener immobilization. New markets are being developed and current research is underway to reduce the high production costs and lack of food-grade materials.

  9. Cytokine production induced by non-encapsulated and encapsulated Porphyromonas gingivalis strains

    Kunnen, A.; Dekker, D.C.; van Pampus, M.G.; Harmsen, H.J.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Abbas, F.; Faas, M.M.

    Objective: Although the exact reason is not known, encapsulated gram-negative Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are more virulent than non-encapsulated strains. Since difference in virulence properties may be due to difference in cytokine production following recognition of the bacteria or their

  10. Inhibition of acid mine drainage and immobilization of heavy metals from copper flotation tailings using a marble cutting waste

    Tozsin, Gulsen

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) with high concentrations of sulfates and metals is generated by the oxidation of sulfide bearing wastes. CaCO3-rich marble cutting waste is a residual material produced by the cutting and polishing of marble stone. In this study, the feasibility of using the marble cutting waste as an acid-neutralizing agent to inhibit AMD and immobilize heavy metals from copper flotation tailings (sulfide- bearing wastes) was investigated. Continuous-stirring shake-flask tests were conducted for 40 d, and the pH value, sulfate content, and dissolved metal content of the leachate were analyzed every 10 d to determine the effectiveness of the marble cutting waste as an acid neutralizer. For comparison, CaCO3 was also used as a neutralizing agent. The average pH value of the leachate was 2.1 at the beginning of the experiment ( t = 0). In the experiment employing the marble cutting waste, the pH value of the leachate changed from 6.5 to 7.8, and the sulfate and iron concentrations decreased from 4558 to 838 mg/L and from 536 to 0.01 mg/L, respectively, after 40 d. The marble cutting waste also removed more than 80wt% of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from AMD generated by copper flotation tailings.

  11. Ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography for encapsulation quality inspection

    Czajkowski, Jakub

    2011-08-28

    We present the application of ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of thin, protective films used in printed electronics. Two types of sample were investigated: microscopy glass and organic field effect transistor (OFET) structure. Samples were coated with thin (1-3 μm) layer of parylene C polymer. Measurements were done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti: sapphire femtosecond laser, photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. Submicron resolution offered by the UHR-OCT system applied in the study enables registration of both interfaces of the thin encapsulation layer. Complete, volumetric characterisation of protective layers is presented, demonstrating possibility to use OCT for encapsulation quality inspection. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  12. Eosinophilic myositis resulted from Sarcocystis infection in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle

    Tohru Kimura

    Full Text Available Partial changes of color (greenish to brownish were found in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle. The disseminated lesions of the skeletal muscles were histopathologically examined in relation to Sarcocystis infection. The lesions in the muscles showed granulomas with inflammatory cell infiltration. The sarcocysts had a distinct wall, which was radically striated by palisading villar protrusions. The sarcocyst wall was surrounded by degenerative eosinophils and necrotic muscle fibers. In conclusion, eosinophilic myositis in prime marbled beef of Japanese black cattle resulted from Sarcocystis spp. infection. The muscular lesions were characterized by the presence of granulomas and capsulated sarcocysts surrounded by numerous eosinophils. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 500-502

  13. Analysis of thermal stability of ceramic engobes developed with marble reject

    Carlos, E.M.; Assis, R.B.; Sousa, R.F.; Galvao, A.C.P.; Mendes, J.U.L.

    2014-01-01

    Considering the technological growth and technical production in the ceramic industry, ceramic mass formulations were evaluated with addition of marble residue to substitute the quartz for obtaining of engobes. Five formulations were prepared varying the proportions of raw material, sieved at 200 mesh, ball mill homogenised, characterized by fluorescence (FRX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples were separated from the formulations for thermal analysis (TG / DSC) and dilatometry. The specimens were prepared in uniaxial press (25 Mpa). The FIII and FIV formulations presented satisfactory results, evidencing the potential of replacing quartz by the marble residue in ceramic formulation for engobes, minimizing the environmental impact by the undue discard of waste, reducing costs and increasing the range of raw materials for the coatings industry

  14. Bending of marble with intrinsic length scales: a gradient theory with surface energy and size effects

    Vardoulakis, I.; Kourkoulis, S.K.; Exadaktylos, G.

    1998-01-01

    A gradient bending theory is developed based on a strain energy function that includes the classical Bernoulli-Euler term, the shape correction term (microstructural length scale) introduced by Timoshenko, and a term associated with surface energy (micromaterial length scale) accounting for the bending moment gradient effect. It is shown that the last term is capable to interpret the size effect in three-point bending (3PB), namely the decrease of the failure load with decreasing beam length for the same aspect ratio. This theory is used to describe the mechanical behaviour of Dionysos-Pentelikon marble in 3PB. Series of tests with prismatic marble beams of the same aperture but with different lengths were conducted and it was concluded that the present theory predicts well the size effect. (orig.)

  15. Strength and deformation behaviors of veined marble specimens after vacuum heat treatment under conventional triaxial compression

    Su, Haijian; Jing, Hongwen; Yin, Qian; Yu, Liyuan; Wang, Yingchao; Wu, Xingjie

    2017-10-01

    The mechanical behaviors of rocks affected by high temperature and stress are generally believed to be significant for the stability of certain projects involving rocks, such as nuclear waste storage and geothermal resource exploitation. In this paper, veined marble specimens were treated to high temperature treatment and then used in conventional triaxial compression tests to investigate the effect of temperature, confining pressure, and vein angle on strength and deformation behaviors. The results show that the strength and deformation parameters of the veined marble specimens changed with the temperature, presenting a critical temperature of 600 °C. The triaxial compression strength of a horizontal vein (β = 90°) is obviously larger than that of a vertical vein (β = 0°). The triaxial compression strength, elasticity modulus, and secant modulus have an approximately linear relation to the confining pressure. Finally, Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown criteria were respectively used to analyze the effect of confining pressure on triaxial compression strength.

  16. 3D Visualization of Sheath Folds in Roman Marble from Ephesus, Turkey

    Wex, Sebastian; Passchier, Cornelis W.; de Kemp, Eric A.; Ilhan, Sinan

    2013-04-01

    Excavation of a palatial 2nd century AD house (Terrace House Two) in the ancient city of Ephesus, Turkey in the 1970s produced 10.313 pieces of colored, folded marble which belonged to 54 marble plates of 1.6 cm thickness that originally covered the walls of the banquet hall of the house. The marble plates were completely reassembled and restored by a team of workers over the last 6 years. The plates were recognized as having been sawn from two separate large blocks of "Cipollino verde", a green mylonitized marble from Karystos on the Island of Euboea, Greece. After restoration, it became clear that all slabs had been placed on the wall in approximately the sequence in which they had been cut off by a Roman stone saw. As a result, the marble plates give a full 3D insight in the folded internal structure of 1m3 block of mylonite. The restoration of the slabs was recognized as a first, unique opportunity for detailed reconstruction of the 3D geometry of m-scale folds in mylonitized marble. Photographs were taken of each slab and used to reconstruct their exact arrangement within the originally quarried blocks. Outlines of layers were digitized and a full 3D reconstruction of the internal structure of the block was created using ArcMap and GOCAD. Fold structures in the block include curtain folds and multilayered sheath folds. Several different layers showing these structures were digitized on the photographs of the slab surfaces and virtually mounted back together within the model of the marble block. Due to the serial sectioning into slabs, with cm-scale spacing, the visualization of the 3D geometry of sheath folds was accomplished with a resolution better than 4 cm. Final assembled 3D images reveal how sheath folds emerge from continuous layers and show their overall consistency as well as a constant hinge line orientation of the fold structures. Observations suggest that a single deformation phase was responsible for the evolution of "Cipollino verde" structures

  17. Capacitive Sensing for Contact-less Proximity Detection in Industrial Marble Machines

    Sergio Saponara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and experimental characterization of capacitive sensors, plus the relevant front-end acquisition circuitry, for process control in industrial marble machines. The new developed sensing system allows detecting, in real-time and without any contact, the presence of stone samples under the abrasive/cutting heads in an industrial machine. The obtained detection signal is needed as a feedback to improve the automatic control of the polishing/cutting process in marble industry. Different types of sensors are proposed whose performances are assessed through experimental test campaigns considering real industrial working conditions. Compared to state-of-art sensors the proposed solutions allow for a reliable detection while being of low complexity and robust to harsh environment conditions.

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of Greek dolomitic marble surface interacted with uranium and thorium in aqueous solutions

    Godelitsas, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Misaelides, P.

    2008-01-01

    The surface of a typical Greek (Thassian) dolomitic marble was studied after interaction with U- and Th-containing aqueous solutions (1000 mg/L, free-drift experiments for 1 week at atmospheric P CO 2 ), using 12 C-RBS and Laser μ-Raman spectroscopy. Powder-XRD and SEM-EDS were also applied to investigate the phases deposited on the surface of the interacted samples. The obtained results indicated a considerable removal of U from the aqueous medium mainly due to massive surface precipitation of amorphous UO 2 -hydroxide phases forming a relatively thick (μm-sized) coating on the carbonate substrate. The interaction of Th with dolomitic marble surface is also intense leading to a formation of an amorphous Th-hydroxide layer of similar thickness but of significantly lower elemental atomic proportion

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of Greek dolomitic marble surface interacted with uranium and thorium in aqueous solutions

    Godelitsas, A. [Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Athens, 15784 Zographou, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: agodel@geol.uoa.gr; Kokkoris, M. [School of Applied Mathematics and Physics, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zographou, Athens (Greece); Chatzitheodoridis, E. [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zographou, Athens (Greece); Misaelides, P. [Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2008-05-15

    The surface of a typical Greek (Thassian) dolomitic marble was studied after interaction with U- and Th-containing aqueous solutions (1000 mg/L, free-drift experiments for 1 week at atmospheric P{sub CO{sub 2}}), using {sup 12}C-RBS and Laser {mu}-Raman spectroscopy. Powder-XRD and SEM-EDS were also applied to investigate the phases deposited on the surface of the interacted samples. The obtained results indicated a considerable removal of U from the aqueous medium mainly due to massive surface precipitation of amorphous UO{sub 2}-hydroxide phases forming a relatively thick ({mu}m-sized) coating on the carbonate substrate. The interaction of Th with dolomitic marble surface is also intense leading to a formation of an amorphous Th-hydroxide layer of similar thickness but of significantly lower elemental atomic proportion.

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of Greek dolomitic marble surface interacted with uranium and thorium in aqueous solutions

    Godelitsas, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Misaelides, P.

    2008-05-01

    The surface of a typical Greek (Thassian) dolomitic marble was studied after interaction with U- and Th-containing aqueous solutions (1000 mg/L, free-drift experiments for 1 week at atmospheric PCO2), using 12C-RBS and Laser μ-Raman spectroscopy. Powder-XRD and SEM-EDS were also applied to investigate the phases deposited on the surface of the interacted samples. The obtained results indicated a considerable removal of U from the aqueous medium mainly due to massive surface precipitation of amorphous UO2-hydroxide phases forming a relatively thick (μm-sized) coating on the carbonate substrate. The interaction of Th with dolomitic marble surface is also intense leading to a formation of an amorphous Th-hydroxide layer of similar thickness but of significantly lower elemental atomic proportion.

  1. Textural attributes and oxidative stability of pork longissimus muscle injected with marbling-like emulsified lipids.

    Ma, Lizhen; Xiong, Youling L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to create marbling-like fat in lean pork with acceptable oxidative stability through the injection of canola/olive oil-substituted emulsions. Pork loins were injected with 5% water as control (CW) or 5% emulsion containing no tocopherols (E) or 0.07% tocopherols (ET) and stored at 2 °C in an oxygen-enriched package for up to 3 weeks. Lipid oxidation was totally inhibited in ET pork but increased 3-fold to 0.20mg malonaldehyde/kg in CW and E pork after 3 weeks. ET treatment also had a positive effect on meat red color. Emulsion-containing pork, showing less protein oxidation (carbonyl and disulfide formation), had reduced drip loss and shear force than CW samples (Pemulsions could create marbling-like texture in lean pork without compromising oxidative stability. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants for microelectronic devices

    Baikerikar, Kiran K.

    2000-10-01

    Plastic encapsulated microelectronic devices consist of a silicon chip that is physically attached to a leadframe, electrically interconnected to input-output leads, and molded in a plastic that is in direct contact with the chip, leadframe, and interconnects. The plastic is often referred to as the molding compound, and is used to protect the chip from adverse mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrical environments. Encapsulation of microelectronic devices is typically accomplished using a transfer molding process in which the molding compound is cured by heat. Most transfer molding processes suffer from significant problems arising from the high operating temperatures and pressures required to fill the mold. These aspects of the current process can lead to thermal stresses, incomplete mold filling, and wire sweep. In this research, a new strategy for encapsulating microelectronic devices using photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants (PLEs) has been investigated. The PLEs consist of an epoxy novolac-based vinyl ester resin (˜25 wt.%), fused silica filler (70--74 wt.%), and a photoinitiator, thermal initiator, and silane coupling agent. For these encapsulants, the use of light, rather than heat, to initiate the polymerization allows precise control over when the reaction starts, and therefore completely decouples the mold filling and the cure. The low viscosity of the PLEs allows for low operating pressures and minimizes problems associated with wire sweep. In addition, the in-mold cure time for the PLEs is equivalent to the in-mold cure times of current transfer molding compounds. In this thesis, the thermal and mechanical properties, as well as the viscosity and adhesion of photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants, are reported in order to demonstrate that a UV-curable formulation can have the material properties necessary for microelectronic encapsulation. In addition, the effects of the illumination time, postcure time, fused silica loading, and the inclusion

  3. Encapsulation layer design and scalability in encapsulated vertical 3D RRAM

    Yu, Muxi; Fang, Yichen; Wang, Zongwei; Chen, Gong; Pan, Yue; Yang, Xue; Yin, Minghui; Yang, Yuchao; Li, Ming; Cai, Yimao; Huang, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Here we propose a novel encapsulated vertical 3D RRAM structure with each resistive switching cell encapsulated by dielectric layers, contributing to both the reliability improvement of individual cells and thermal disturbance reduction of adjacent cells due to the effective suppression of unwanted oxygen vacancy diffusion. In contrast to the traditional vertical 3D RRAM, encapsulated bar-electrodes are adopted in the proposed structure substituting the previous plane-electrodes, thus encapsulated resistive switching cells can be naturally formed by simply oxidizing the tip of the metal bar-electrodes. In this work, TaO x -based 3D RRAM devices with SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 as encapsulation layers are demonstrated, both showing significant advantages over traditional unencapsulated vertical 3D RRAM. Furthermore, it was found thermal conductivity and oxygen blocking ability are two key parameters of the encapsulation layer design influencing the scalability of vertical 3D RRAM. Experimental and simulation data show that oxygen blocking ability is more critical for encapsulation layers in the relatively large scale, while thermal conductivity becomes dominant as the stacking layers scale to the sub-10 nm regime. Finally, based on the notable impacts of the encapsulation layer on 3D RRAM scaling, an encapsulation material with both excellent oxygen blocking ability and high thermal conductivity such as AlN is suggested to be highly desirable to maximize the advantages of the proposed encapsulated structure. The findings in this work could pave the way for reliable ultrahigh-density storage applications in the big data era. (paper)

  4. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Bhatia, Rimple; Singh, Anup K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  5. Study of marbles from Middle Atlas (Morocco): elemental, mineralogical and structural analysis

    Khrissi, S.; Bejjit, L.; Haddad, M.; Falguères, C.; Ait Lyazidi, S.; El Amraoui, M.

    2018-05-01

    A series of marbles sampled from the region of Middle Atlas (Morocco), are characterized by different complementary spectroscopic techniques. X-Ray fluorescence is used to determine elemental composition of rock while X-Ray diffraction and the Raman spectroscopy are used to determine major crystalline phases (calcite and dolomite) and minor ones (quartz).The samples display typical EPR spectra of Mn2+ in calcite and reveal the presence of Fe3+ ions.

  6. Transformation of the Surface Structure of Marble under the Action of a Shock Wave

    Shcherbakov, I. P.; Vettegren, V. I.; Bashkarev, A. Ya.; Mamalimov, R. I.

    2018-01-01

    The structure of marble fracture fragments formed after the destruction under the action of a shock wave have been analyzed by Raman, infrared, and luminescence spectroscopic techniques. It has been found that calcite I in the surface layer of fragments with thicknesses of about 2 μm is transformed into high-pressure phase calcite III. At the same time, concentrations of Mn2+, Eu3+, and other ions decrease to about onefourth of their initial values.

  7. Radiological significance of marble used for construction of dwellings in Bangladesh

    Ghose, S.; Asaduzzaman, Kh.; Zaman, N.

    2012-01-01

    The natural γ-radiation in samples of a variety of marbles imported into Bangladesh for use in building construction was measured, employing γ-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector. From the measured γ-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 226 Ra (29.31 ± 2.06 to 46.99 ± 2.97 Bq.kg -1 ), 232 Th (42.91 ± 2.53 to 62.92 ± 3.37 Bq.kg -1 ) and 40 K (824.42 ± 15.42 to 1071.58 ± 20.14 Bq.kg -1 ). The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the world average activity of soil. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), the hazard indices, the gamma activity concentration index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were estimated for the potential radiological hazard of the marble. The Ra eq values of all marble samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq.kg -1 , equivalent to a dose of 1.5 mSv.y -1 . The average values of the external and internal hazard indices are less than unity. The average indoor absorbed dose rate (121.25 nGy.h -1 ) is higher than the population-weighted average of 84 nGy.h -1 , whereas the corresponding annual dose limit falls within an average value of 0.60 mSv, which is an order of magnitude below the limit specified for building materials in the literature. The present results indicate that using marble in building construction in Bangladesh does not pose any significant radiological hazard. (authors)

  8. Radiological significance of marble used for construction of dwellings in Bangladesh

    Ghose, S. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO, Box 158, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Division, 4 Kazi Nauru Islam Avenue, Ramna, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Asaduzzaman, Kh. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO, Box 158, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Zaman, N. [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2012-01-15

    The natural {gamma}-radiation in samples of a variety of marbles imported into Bangladesh for use in building construction was measured, employing {gamma}-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector. From the measured {gamma}-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for {sup 226}Ra (29.31 {+-} 2.06 to 46.99 {+-} 2.97 Bq.kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (42.91 {+-} 2.53 to 62.92 {+-} 3.37 Bq.kg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (824.42 {+-} 15.42 to 1071.58 {+-} 20.14 Bq.kg{sup -1}). The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the world average activity of soil. The radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the hazard indices, the gamma activity concentration index, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were estimated for the potential radiological hazard of the marble. The Ra{sub eq} values of all marble samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq.kg{sup -1}, equivalent to a dose of 1.5 mSv.y{sup -1}. The average values of the external and internal hazard indices are less than unity. The average indoor absorbed dose rate (121.25 nGy.h{sup -1}) is higher than the population-weighted average of 84 nGy.h{sup -1}, whereas the corresponding annual dose limit falls within an average value of 0.60 mSv, which is an order of magnitude below the limit specified for building materials in the literature. The present results indicate that using marble in building construction in Bangladesh does not pose any significant radiological hazard. (authors)

  9. Marble Deterioration and Climate: Examples from the Schlossbrücke Berlin

    Pirskawetz, S.; Siegesmund, S.; Weise, F.; Rieffel, Y.; Plagge, R.

    2012-04-01

    Protective structures for works of art or antique artefacts have a long architectural tradition and have been known in Germany since the 19th century. The effect of such covers on the microclimate around artworks of natural stone, and hence, their protective capability are insufficiently documented and understood. In 2007, an inter-disciplinary model project and part of a pilot study coordinated by the Berlin State Office for the Protection of Monuments was planned with the aim of developing an innovative winter covering system for marble statuaries located on the Schlossbrücke in Berlin. Such a system would need to fulfil the various requirements for structural stability, aesthetics, climate and practical use. This applied research represents the first complex scientific study of the sustainability of a winter covering system. A climate monitoring system was designed to create a dense database for the numerical prediction of the effect of protective systems, and to compare the given climate conditions to the known factors influencing the marble deterioration. Based on these findings a prototype of an innovative shelter was designed and tested. The project shows, that beside a temporary covering regular inspection and maintenance combined with regular cleaning ensures an effective and sustainable protection of marble sculptures. Such a maintenance program is the precondition for preserving the sculptures of the Schlossbrücke as a historical ensemble. Important scientific results of the project are transferable to similar objects of Carrara marble. The results throw a new light on the conventional protection of such objects and leads to a discussion on the necessity of an all-season protection.

  10. A procedure to detect flaws inside large size marble blocks by ultrasound

    Bramanti, Mauro; Bozzi, Edoardo

    1999-01-01

    In stone and marble industry there is considerable interest in the possibility of using ultrasound diagnostic techniques for non-destructive testing of large size blocks in order to detect internal flaws such as faults, cracks and fissures. In this paper some preliminary measurements are reported in order to acquire basic knowledge of the fundamental properties of ultrasound, such as propagation velocity and attenuation, in the media here considered. We then outline a particular diagnostic pr...

  11. Digital Study and Web-based Documentation of the Colour and Gilding on Ancient Marble Artworks

    Siotto, Eliana; Palma, Gianpaolo; Potenziani, Marco; Scopigno, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Greek and Roman marble artworks have been deeply studied from a typological and stylistic point of view, while there is still a limited knowledge on the pigments, dyes, binders and technical expedients used by Roman artists. In a renewed scientific interest towards the ancient polychromy (colour and gilding), a digital methodological and multidisciplinary approach can provide valuable information to better investigate and understand this fundamental aspect and to get a complete sense on Greek...

  12. The marble head of a statuette from Mediana (excavations in 2001)

    Plemić Bojana

    2013-01-01

    During the archaeological excavations in Mediana in 2001, the head of a marble statuette of exceptional beauty and craftsmanship was discovered. It was an isolated discovery, the sculpture probably having been imported from some Greek artistic centre or an eastern Mediterranean workshop, presenting a part of a larger ensemble of sculptures that had adorned an imperial villa with peristyle. Since the head was found in pieces and being just part of a sculptural representation with no reliable a...

  13. Thermal Analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy and Optical Microscopy as a Tool for Characterization of Marble

    Plevová, Eva; Kožušníková, Alena; Vaculíková, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 9 (2009), s. 149-150 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /61./. 07.09.2009-11.09.2009, Tatranské Matliare] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP105/07/P416; GA ČR GA105/08/1398 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : marbles * thermal analysis * thermomechanical analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  14. Multidisciplinary approaches to radiation-balanced lasers (MARBLE): a MURI program by AFOSR (Conference Presentation)

    Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2017-02-01

    An overview of the diverse research activities under the newly funded MURI project by AFOSR will be presented. The main goal is to advance the science of radiation-balanced lasers, also known as athermal lasers, in order to mitigate the thermal degradation of the high-power laser beams. The MARBLE project involves researchers from four universities and spans research activities in rare-earth doped crystals and fibers to semiconductor disc lasers.

  15. Utilization of marble from Bejui mine - Currais Novos/RN in ceramic mass

    Farias, D.S.U. de; Souza, M.M. de; Almeida, A.B.D. de; Lima, T.C. de; Nobrega, L.F.P. de M.; Mendes, L.B.

    2016-01-01

    Mining in Mine Brejui, in Currais Novos - RN, is related to the extraction of scheelite, however the marble of the region is not fully tapped. Aiming to provide a utility to this carbonate rock very abundant in the Serido region, this work is to evaluate, from its chemical and other tests, the addition of marble in the ceramic mass. For the analysis, the samples were collected, then comminuted and sieved to #200 and, right after, characterized by fluorescence X-ray method (FRX). The results indicate a high concentration of CaO (95%), a flux element, and very low content of Fe_2O_3 and SO_3 (less than 0.6%). After produced the samples, there were performed the water absorption tests and linear shrinkage, which has indicate satisfactory results and classifying them as porcelain. Therefore, with the significant potential of the marble, other laboratory tests may be performed to analyze its incorporation in the formulation of ceramic bodies, being economically viable and adding proper use and commercial value to the rock. (author)

  16. Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties

    Omar M. Omar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Green concrete are generally composed of recycling materials as hundred or partial percent substitutes for aggregate, cement, and admixture in concrete. Limestone waste is obtained as a by-product during the production of aggregates through the crushing process of rocks in rubble crusher units. Using quarry waste as a substitute of sand in construction materials would resolve the environmental problems caused by the large-scale depletion of the natural sources of river and mining sands. This paper reports the experimental study undertaken to investigate the influence of partial replacement of sand with limestone waste (LSW, with marble powder (M.P as an additive on the concrete properties. The replacement proportion of sand with limestone waste, 25%, 50%, and 75% were practiced in the concrete mixes except in the concrete mix. Besides, proportions of 5%, 10% and 15% marble powder were practiced in the concrete mixes. The effects of limestone waste as fine aggregate on several fresh and hardened properties of the concretes were investigated. The investigation included testing of compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and permeability. It was found that limestone waste as fine aggregate enhanced the slump test of the fresh concretes. But the unit weight concretes were not affected. However, the good performance was observed when limestone waste as fine aggregate was used in presence of marble powder.

  17. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Marble sludge/natural rubber composites

    Bhatti, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the possible utilization of Marble Sludge (MS) in Natural Rubber (NR) composites, which would reduce both the environmental pollution and product cost. Marble waste in the form of sludge is taken from Mangopir Marble industrial area Karachi. The sludge was dried, grinded and passed through desire sieves (20, 37 and 75 micro m) and incorporated in the formulation of NR composites. The physical characteristics of dry MS were carried out in order to identify all components by instrumental techniques. Different micro sized particles of MS (20, 37 and 75 micro-m) were added with different loading (10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 phr). Mechanical properties of MS filled NR composites were studied. It was found that tensile strength and tear strength increased with increasing the MS till 70 phr. Further addition of MS in the composites decreased both strengths. Elongation at break and rebound resilience decreased with increasing MS loading, while modulus, (100%, 200% and 300% elongation), hardness, compression set and abrasion loss increased with increase loading of MS. All mechanical properties of smaller micro size MS particle (20 micro-m) filled NR composites have higher values then 37 and 75 micro-m size particle. The results of mechanical properties after aging show that the tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break and rebound resilience values decreased while hardness, compression set and abrasion loss values increased. (author)

  18. Evaluation of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards caused by different marbles of India

    Ramasamy, V.; Ponnusamy, V.; Hemalatha, J.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Gajendiran, V.

    2005-01-01

    The samples used in this study are of various coloured varieties of marbles collected from marble dealers. The specific activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K has been determined by gamma ray spectrometry. The materials showed concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K which were found to be dramatically variable depending on mineral content and type of formation. Using FTIR and thin section analyses, quartz, feldspar, calcite and mafic minerals present in the samples have been determined quantitatively. From our experimental data, it can be seen that the geochemical parameters such as SiO 2 or mafic minerals or CaCO 3 may be considered to be an appropriate index to select the marbles of low radiological risk. The average specific activities of 40 K are found to be higher than 232 Th, 238 U. The ratio of Th/U was calculated and correlated. Assessment of radiological hazards was made by calculating radium equivalent activities, external and internal hazard indices which were found to vary from 30.92 to 54.45, 0.08 to 0.14 and 0.10 to 0.17 Bq/kg, respectively. The observed values are lower than the recommended limits. (author)

  19. Torque-Controlled Adaptive Speed Control on a CNC Marble Saw Machine

    Ugur Simsir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although CNC marble saw machines can automatically cut marble slabs to desired dimensions, saw speed and feed rate are selected by operator according to stone parameters, features of the saw, and its immersion depth. If the feed rate is selected lower than the optimal value, there will be time-loss and capacity deficiencies or if it is selected faster, cutting quality will decrease, spindle motor will draw more current, and saw blade will corrode faster. While cutting especially thick materials, saw may be stacked in the stone, cutting quality may be impaired, saw blade may be abraded earlier, precision quality may go down because of increase in measurement errors, and machine may be damaged with the increase in vibrations when improper feed rates are selected. Because of nonhomogeneity of the slabs and deterioration of the saw blade, operator cannot determine a persistent feed rate. This study is targeted to find saw speeds according to saw diameter and optimum feed rate by means of limiting vibrations and current drawn from saw motor and torque accordingly in order to increase working performance of CNC marble saw machines. Thanks to adaptive adjustment of feed rate, one can save on material as well as time, labour, and cost by making use of optimum energy.

  20. Cupriavidus metallidurans biomineralization ability and its application as a bioconsolidation enhancer for ornamental marble stone.

    Daskalakis, Markos I; Magoulas, Antonis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Katsikis, Ioannis; Bakolas, Asterios; Karageorgis, Aristomenis P; Mavridou, Athena; Doulia, Danae; Rigas, Fotis

    2014-08-01

    Bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation of a Cupriavidus metallidurans isolate was investigated to develop an environmentally friendly method for restoration and preservation of ornamental stones. Biomineralization performance was carried out in a growth medium via a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach using, as design factors, the temperature, growth medium concentration, and inoculum concentration. The optimum conditions were determined with the aid of consecutive experiments based on response surface methodology (RSM) and were successfully validated thereafter. Statistical analysis can be utilized as a tool for screening bacterial bioprecipitation as it considerably reduced the experimental time and effort needed for bacterial evaluation. Analytical methods provided an insight to the biomineral characteristics, and sonication tests proved that our isolate could create a solid new layer of vaterite on marble substrate withstanding sonication forces. C. metallidurans ACA-DC 4073 provided a compact vaterite layer on the marble substrate with morphological characteristics that assisted in its differentiation. The latter proved valuable during spraying minimum amount of inoculated media on marble substrate under conditions close to an in situ application. A sufficient and clearly distinguishable layer was identified.

  1. The marble quarries of Macael. From “free and communal” to council property

    Carretero Gómez, A.; Aznar Sánchez, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The fate of the inhabitants of Macael has been closely linked to the production of marble from time immemorial. The scope of these resources transcended local borders during the latter part of last century; thus, in the last few years, the marble extracted from the surroundings of Macael accounted for over 40% of the national production, with Spain being one of the leading world producers of this ornamental rock. This paper analyzes the changes that have taken place in the quarry access system since 1573, when the town of Macael was surveyed, up to the present time. After many historical changes in which the people of Macael have had to fight for ownership of the quarries, both against private interests and public administration, the assets which were communal, and therefore freely accessible to the locals, became the property of the Local Council, which at present also holds the exploitation concession of the marble resources and the power to grant leases to entrepreneurs wishing to extract this mineral. [es

  2. Effect of Thermal Environment on the Mechanical Behaviors of Building Marble

    Haijian Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature and thermal environment can influence the mechanical properties of building materials worked in the civil engineering, for example, concrete, building rock, and steel. This paper examines standard cylindrical building marble specimens (Φ50 × 100 mm that were treated with high temperatures in two different thermal environments: vacuum (VE and airiness (AE. Uniaxial compression tests were also carried out on those specimens after heat treatment to study the effect that the thermal environment has on mechanical behaviors. With an increase in temperature, the mechanical behavior of marble in this study indicates a critical temperature of 600°C. Both the peak stress and elasticity modulus were larger for the VE than they were for the AE. The thermal environment has an obvious influence on the mechanical properties, especially at temperatures of 450∼750°C. The failure mode of marble specimens under uniaxial compression is mainly affected by the thermal environment at 600°C.

  3. Determination of the origin and texture of marble artifacts using stable isotopes

    Dotsika, E.; Poutoukis, D.; Zisi, N.; Psomiadis, D.

    2009-04-01

    For the characterization of marble and the identification of the origin of marble artifacts, samples from several ancient monuments of Greece were analyzed using several techniques: stable isotopes of carbonates (13C, 18O), XRD analysis and optical microscopy, from which information can be obtained on the origin and texture of the marble used for the production of the artifacts. The full range of grain sizes and isotopic signatures that occur in a lot of different quarries has been measured and presented. In a δ13C versus δ18O diagram, the fields corresponding to all known ancient quarries (from Penteli, Cyclades, especially Naxos (Mela, Apol, Apir, Senax), Keros, Paros (Parlak, Parlyc) and Asia Minor (Prokon)) are reported. The plots representing the analyzed samples are also shown on the same diagram. The final results of the study indicate the origin of the carbonate material of the artefacts from each of the ancient monument. In cases that the samples plot on overlapping areas, a further study is proposed, using the maximum grain size of the material.

  4. Spin glasses

    Mookerjee, Abhijit

    1976-01-01

    ''Spin glasses'', are entire class of magnetic alloys of moderate dilution, in which the magnetic atoms are far enough apart to be unlike the pure metal, but close enough so that the indirect exchange energy between them (mediated by the s-d interaction between local moments and conduction electrons) dominates all other energies. Characteristic critical phenomena displayed such as freezing of spin orientation at 'Tsub(c)' and spreading of magnetic ordering, are pointed out. Anomalous behaviour, associated with these critical phenomena, as reflected in : (i) Moessbauer spectroscopy giving hyperfine splitting at Tsub(c), (ii) maxima in susceptibility and remanent magnetism, (iii) thermopower maxima and change in slope, (iv) Characteristic cusp in susceptibility and its removal by very small magnetic fields, and (v) conductivity-resistivity measurements, are discussed. Theoretical developments aimed at explaining these phenomena, in particular, the ideas from percolation and localisation theories, and the approach based on the gellations of polymers, are discussed. Finally, a new approach based on renormalisation group in disordered systems is also briefly mentioned. (K.B.)

  5. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jansson, Peter [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2014-10-02

    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  6. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have...... fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness...... of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error...

  7. Encapsulation - how it will be achieved

    Barlow, P.

    1990-01-01

    The work of the new Encapsulation Plant at British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL) Sellafield site is described in this article. Intermediate-level radioactive materials are encapsulated in a cement matrix in 500 litre stainless steel drums suitable for storage, transport and disposal. The drums will be stored in an above-ground air-cooled store until UK Nirex Limited have built the planned underground disposal facility. The concept of product specification is explored as it applies to the four stages of nuclear waste management, namely, processing, storage, transport and disposal. By following this approach the encapsulation plant will work within government regulations and the public concerns over safety and environmental issues can be met. U.K

  8. Accelerated Lifetime Testing of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells Encapsulated by Polyisobutylene.

    Shi, Lei; Young, Trevor L; Kim, Jincheol; Sheng, Yun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yifeng; Feng, Zhiqiang; Keevers, Mark J; Hao, Xiaojing; Verlinden, Pierre J; Green, Martin A; Ho-Baillie, Anita W Y

    2017-08-02

    Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have undergone rapid progress. However, unstable performance caused by sensitivity to environmental moisture and high temperature is a major impediment to commercialization of PSCs. In the present work, a low-temperature, glass-glass encapsulation technique using high performance polyisobutylene (PIB) as the moisture barrier is investigated on planar glass/FTO/TiO 2 /FAPbI 3 /PTAA/gold perovskite solar cells. PIB was applied as either an edge seal or blanket layer. Electrical connections to the encapsulated PSCs were provided by either the FTO or Au layers. Results of a "calcium test" demonstrated that a PIB edge-seal effectively prevents moisture ingress. A shelf life test was performed and the PIB-sealed PSC was stable for at least 200 days. Damp heat and thermal cycling tests, in compliance with IEC61215:2016, were used to evaluate different encapsulation methods. Current-voltage measurements were performed regularly under simulated AM1.5G sunlight to monitor changes in PCE. The best results we have achieved to date maintained the initial efficiency after 540 h of damp heat testing and 200 thermal cycles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, these are among the best damp heat and thermal cycle test results for perovskite solar cells published to date. Given the modest performance of the cells (8% averaged from forward and reverse scans) especially with the more challenging FAPbI 3 perovskite material tested in this work, it is envisaged that better stability results can be further achieved when higher performance perovskite solar cells are encapsulated using the PIB packaging techniques developed in this work. We propose that heat rather than moisture was the main cause of our PSC degradation. Furthermore, we propose that preventing the escape of volatile decomposition products from the perovskite solar cell materials is the key for stability. PIB encapsulation is a very promising packaging solution for perovskite

  9. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  10. Encapsulated social perception of emotional expressions.

    Smortchkova, Joulia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the detection of emotional expressions is, in its early stages, informationally encapsulated. I clarify and defend such a view via the appeal to data from social perception on the visual processing of faces, bodies, facial and bodily expressions. Encapsulated social perception might exist alongside processes that are cognitively penetrated, and that have to do with recognition and categorization, and play a central evolutionary function in preparing early and rapid responses to the emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Suitability of cement encapsulated ILW for transport

    Fitzpatrick, J.

    1989-01-01

    ILW arising during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel is to be encapsulated in cement in nominal 500-litre drums. It is important that the waste package produced can be safely transported to a deep repository. Preliminary assessments of the performances of waste packages during transport for a number of the ILW streams to be generated at Sellafield have been carried out. The results show that the proposed encapsulation process produces a waste package which can be transported to an acceptable standard of safety and which does not prejudice any aspects of transport. (author)

  12. A facile method to prepare superparamagnetic iron oxide and hydrophobic drug-encapsulated biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles

    Cheng K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Wei Cheng, Shan-hui Hsu Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs have a wide range of biomedical applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting, and hyperthermia therapy. Aggregation of SPIO NPs can occur because of the hydrophobic surface and high surface energy of SPIO NPs. Here, we developed a facile method to encapsulate SPIO NPs in amphiphilic biodegradable polymer. Anionic biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs with ~35 nm size and different chemistry were prepared by waterborne processes. SPIO NPs were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. SPIO NPs were then added to the aqueous dispersion of PU NPs, followed by application of high-frequency (~20 kHz ultrasonic vibration for 3 min. This method rendered SPIO-PU hybrid NPs (size ~110 nm suspended in water. SPIO-PU hybrid NPs contained ~50–60 wt% SPIO and retained the superparamagnetic property (evaluated by a magnetometer as well as high contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. SPIO-PU NPs also showed the ability to provide cell hyperthermic treatment. Using the same ultrasonic method, hydrophobic drug (Vitamin K3 [VK3] or (9-(methylaminomethylanthracene [MAMA] could also be encapsulated in PU NPs. The VK3-PU or MAMA-PU hybrid NPs had ~35 nm size and different release profiles for PUs with different chemistry. The encapsulation efficiency for VK3 and MAMA was high (~95% without burst release. The encapsulation mechanism may be attributed to the low glass transition temperature (Tg and good mechanical compliance of PU NPs. The new encapsulation method involving waterborne biodegradable PU NPs is simple, rapid, and effective to produce multimodular NP carriers. Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide, polyurethane, drug release, hybrid nanoparticles

  13. A facile method to prepare superparamagnetic iron oxide and hydrophobic drug-encapsulated biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles.

    Cheng, Kuo-Wei; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) have a wide range of biomedical applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging, targeting, and hyperthermia therapy. Aggregation of SPIO NPs can occur because of the hydrophobic surface and high surface energy of SPIO NPs. Here, we developed a facile method to encapsulate SPIO NPs in amphiphilic biodegradable polymer. Anionic biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs) with ~35 nm size and different chemistry were prepared by waterborne processes. SPIO NPs were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation. SPIO NPs were then added to the aqueous dispersion of PU NPs, followed by application of high-frequency (~20 kHz) ultrasonic vibration for 3 min. This method rendered SPIO-PU hybrid NPs (size ~110 nm) suspended in water. SPIO-PU hybrid NPs contained ~50-60 wt% SPIO and retained the superparamagnetic property (evaluated by a magnetometer) as well as high contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. SPIO-PU NPs also showed the ability to provide cell hyperthermic treatment. Using the same ultrasonic method, hydrophobic drug (Vitamin K3 [VK3]) or (9-(methylaminomethyl) anthracene [MAMA]) could also be encapsulated in PU NPs. The VK3-PU or MAMA-PU hybrid NPs had ~35 nm size and different release profiles for PUs with different chemistry. The encapsulation efficiency for VK3 and MAMA was high (~95%) without burst release. The encapsulation mechanism may be attributed to the low glass transition temperature (Tg) and good mechanical compliance of PU NPs. The new encapsulation method involving waterborne biodegradable PU NPs is simple, rapid, and effective to produce multimodular NP carriers.

  14. Immobilization of radioactive wastes in glasses and ceramics

    Zanotto, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive liquid wastes arises from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to recover uranium and plutonium. Immobilization of such wastes in solid form and disposal of the solidified wastes in safe places, to prevent contamination of the human environment, are topics of considerable interest for both the scientific community and the public in general. The great majority of materials candidate for the encapsulation of radioactive wastes are inorganic non-metalic, such as glasses, glass-ceramics, special cements, calcined ceramics and few more. Among these materials, certain glasses have received special attention, and are being studied for over twenty years. It is estimated that about US$2 billion have already been spent in these studies. The disposal (long term storage) of these solid wastes may be possible in deep geological formations, salt mines, the ocean bed, by evacuation to the outer space, etc. A brief review on the several options avaiable for encapsulation and disposal of high level radioactive liquid wastes is presented, along with the relative merits and disadvantages of the candidate materials for encapsulation. A few suggestions for the solution of the Brazilian problem are advanced. (Author) [pt

  15. Glass forms for immobilization of Hanford wastes

    Schulz, W.W.; Dressen, A.L.; Hobbick, C.W.; Babad, H.

    1975-03-01

    Approximately 140 million liters of solid salt cake (mainly NaNO 3 ), produced by evaporation of aged alkaline high-level liquid wastes, will be stored in underground tanks when the present Hanford Waste Management Program is completed in the early 1980's. At this time also, large volumes of various other solid radioactive wastes (sludges, excavated Pu-contaminated soil, and doubly encapsulated 137 CsCl and 90 SrF 2 ) will be stored on the Hanford Reservation. All these solid wastes can be converted to immobile silicate and aluminosilicate glasses of low water leachability by melting them at 1100 0 to 1400 0 C with appropriate amounts of basalt (or sand) and other glass-formers such as B 2 O 3 or CaO. Reviewed in this paper are formulations and other melt conditions used successfully in batch tests to make glasses from actual and synthetic wastes; leachability and other properties of these glasses show them to be satisfactory vehicles for immobilization of the Hanford wastes. (U.S.)

  16. Modeling an array of encapsulated germanium detectors

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    A probability model has been presented for understanding the operation of an array of encapsulated germanium detectors generally known as composite detector. The addback mode of operation of a composite detector has been described considering the absorption and scattering of γ-rays. Considering up to triple detector hit events, we have obtained expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the cluster detector, which consists of seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. Results have been obtained for the miniball detectors comprising of three and four seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. The formalism has been extended to the SPI spectrometer which is a telescope of the INTEGRAL satellite and consists of nineteen hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. This spectrometer comprises of twelve detector modules surrounding the cluster detector. For comparison, we have considered a spectrometer comprising of nine detector modules surrounding the three detector configuration of miniball detector. In the present formalism, the operation of these sophisticated detectors could be described in terms of six probability amplitudes only. Using experimental data on relative efficiency and fold distribution of cluster detector as input, the fold distribution and the peak-to-total, peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for the SPI spectrometer and other composite detectors at 1332 keV. Remarkable agreement between experimental data and results from the present formalism has been observed for the SPI spectrometer.

  17. Encapsulation of thermal energy storage media

    Dhau, Jaspreet; Goswami, Dharendra; Jotshi, Chand K.; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2017-09-19

    In one embodiment, a phase change material is encapsulated by forming a phase change material pellet, coating the pellet with flexible material, heating the coated pellet to melt the phase change material, wherein the phase change materials expands and air within the pellet diffuses out through the flexible material, and cooling the coated pellet to solidify the phase change material.

  18. Antidiabetic Activity from Gallic Acid Encapsulated Nanochitosan

    Purbowatiningrum; Ngadiwiyana; Ismiyarto; Fachriyah, E.; Eviana, I.; Eldiana, O.; Amaliyah, N.; Sektianingrum, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a health problem in the world because it causes death. One of the phenolic compounds that have antidiabetic activity is gallic acid. However, the use of this compound still provides unsatisfactory results due to its degradation during the absorption process. The solution offered to solve the problem is by encapsulated it within chitosan nanoparticles that serve to protect the bioactive compound from degradation, increases of solubility and delivery of a bioactive compound to the target site by using freeze-drying technique. The result of chitosan nanoparticle’s Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that chitosan nanoparticle’s size is uniform and it is smaller than chitosan. The value of encapsulation efficiency (EE) of gallic acid which encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles is about 50.76%. Inhibition test result showed that gallic acid-chitosan nanoparticles at 50 ppm could inhibite α-glucosidase activity in 28.87% with 54.94 in IC50. So it can be concluded that gallic acid can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it could inhibit α-glucosidase.

  19. Magic ferritin: A novel chemotherapeutic encapsulation bullet

    Simsek, Ece; Akif Kilic, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The dissociation of apoferritin into subunits at pH 2 followed by its reformation at pH 7.4 in the presence of doxorubicin-HCl gives rise to a solution containing five doxorubicin-HCl molecules trapped within the apoferritin. This is the first report showing that ferritin can encapsulate an anti-cancer drug into its cavity

  20. Bioactive Compounds And Encapsulation Of Yanang ( Tiliacora ...

    Furthermore, this paper reports the design of the experimental method for optimization of Yanang encapsulation using three independent variables: the ratio of core material (Yanang), to wall material (gum Arabic), gum Arabic concentration and inlet temperature of spray drying on bioactive compounds stability. The stability ...

  1. Secure Hybrid Encryption from Weakened Key Encapsulation

    D. Hofheinz (Dennis); E. Kiltz (Eike); A. Menezes

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe put forward a new paradigm for building hybrid encryption schemes from constrained chosen-ciphertext secure (CCCA) key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) plus authenticated symmetric encryption. Constrained chosen-ciphertext security is a new security notion for KEMs that we propose. It

  2. Anisotropic silica mesostructures for DNA encapsulation

    The encapsulation of biomolecules in inert meso or nanostructures is an important step towards controlling drug delivery agents. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are of immense importance owing to their high surface area, large pore size, uniform particle size and chemical inertness. Reverse micellar method with ...

  3. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  4. Oxygen Measurements in Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin

    Phiri, Joshua Benjamin

    Liposome encapsulated hemoglobins (LEH's) are of current interest as blood substitutes. An analytical methodology for rapid non-invasive measurements of oxygen in artificial oxygen carriers is examined. High resolution optical absorption spectra are calculated by means of a one dimensional diffusion approximation. The encapsulated hemoglobin is prepared from fresh defibrinated bovine blood. Liposomes are prepared from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate using a bath sonication method. An integrating sphere spectrophotometer is employed for diffuse optics measurements. Data is collected using an automated data acquisition system employing lock-in -amplifiers. The concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives are evaluated from the corresponding extinction coefficients using a numerical technique of singular value decomposition, and verification of the results is done using Monte Carlo simulations. In situ measurements are required for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives because most encapsulation methods invariably lead to the formation of methemoglobin, a nonfunctional form of hemoglobin. The methods employed in this work lead to high resolution absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin and other derivatives in red blood cells and liposome encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH). The analysis using singular value decomposition method offers a quantitative means of calculating the fractions of oxyhemoglobin and other hemoglobin derivatives in LEH samples. The analytical methods developed in this work will become even more useful when production of LEH as a blood substitute is scaled up to large volumes.

  5. Nanoprecipitation process: From encapsulation to drug delivery.

    Martínez Rivas, Claudia Janeth; Tarhini, Mohamad; Badri, Waisudin; Miladi, Karim; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Nazari, Qand Agha; Galindo Rodríguez, Sergio Arturo; Román, Rocío Álvarez; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2017-10-30

    Drugs encapsulation is a suitable strategy in order to cope with the limitations of conventional dosage forms such as unsuitable bioavailability, stability, taste, and odor. Nanoprecipitation technique has been used in the pharmaceutical and agricultural research as clean alternative for other drug carrier formulations. This technique is based on precipitation mechanism. Polymer precipitation occurs after the addition of a non-solvent to a polymer solution in four steps mechanism: supersaturation, nucleation, growth by condensation, and growth by coagulation that leads to the formation of polymer nanoparticles or aggregates. The scale-up of laboratory-based nanoprecipitation method shows a good reproducibility. In addition, flash nanoprecipitation is a good strategy for industrial scale production of nanoparticles. Nanoprecipitation is usually used for encapsulation of hydrophobic or hydrophilic compounds. Nanoprecipitation was also shown to be a good alternative for the encapsulation of natural compounds. As a whole, process and formulation related parameters in nanoprecipitation technique have critical effect on nanoparticles characteristics. Biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymers have been used for the preparation of nanoparticles intended to in vivo studies. Literature studies have demonstrated the biodistribution of the active loaded nanoparticles in different organs after administration via various routes. In general, in vitro drug release from nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation includes two phases: a first phase of "burst release" which is followed by a second phase of prolonged release. Moreover, many encapsulated active molecules have been commercialized in the pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antidiabetic activity from cinnamaldydhe encapsulated by nanochitosan

    Purbowatingrum; Ngadiwiyana; Fachriyah, E.; Ismiyarto; Ariestiani, B.; Khikmah

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats due to reduced function of insulin. Treatment of diabetes can be done by insulin therapy or hypoglycemic drugs. Hypoglycemic drugs usually contain compounds that can inhibit the action of α-glucosidase enzymes that play a role in breaking carbohydrates into blood sugar. Cinnamaldehyde has α-glucosidase inhibit activity because it has a functional group of alkene that is conjugated with a benzene ring and a carbonyl group. However, the use of this compound still provides unsatisfactory results due to its degradation during the absorption process. The solution offered to solve the problem is by encapsulated it within chitosan nanoparticles that serve to protect the bioactive compound from degradation, increases of solubility and delivery of a bioactive compound to the target site by using freeze-drying technique. The value of encapsulation efficiency (EE) of cinnamaldyhde which encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles is about 74%. Inhibition test result showed that cinnamaldehyde-chitosan nanoparticles at 100 ppm could inhibit α-glucosidase activity in 23.9% with 134,13 in IC50. So it can be concluded that cinnamaldehyde can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it could inhibit α-glucosidase.

  8. Process for encapsulating active agents in gels

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the

  9. Treatment of Diabetes with Encapsulated Islets

    de Vos, Paul; Spasojevic, Milica; Faas, Marijke M.; Pedraz, JL; Orive, G

    2010-01-01

    Cell encapsulation has been proposed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases since it allows for transplantation of cells in the absence of undesired immunosuppression. The technology has been proposed to be a solution for the treatment of diabetes since it potentially allows a mandatory

  10. Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs) Reliability Guide

    Sandor, M.

    2000-01-01

    It is reported by some users and has been demonstrated by others via testing and qualification that the quality and reliability of plastic-encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) manufactured today are excellent in commercial applications and closely equivalent, and in some cases superior to their hemetic counterparts.

  11. lead glass brick

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  12. Synthetic Polymers at Interfaces: Monodisperse Emulsions Multiple Emulsions and Liquid Marbles

    Sun, Guanqing

    The adsorption of polymeric materials at interfaces is an energetically favorable process which is investigated in much diversified fields, such as emulsions, bubbles, foams, liquid marbles. Pickering emulsion, which is emulsion stabilized by solid particles has been investigated for over one century and preparation of Pickering emulsion with narrow size distribution is crucial for both the theoretical study of the stabilization mechanism and practical application, such as templated fabrication of colloidosomes. The precise control over the size and functionality of polymer latices allows the preparation of monodisperse Pickering emulsions with desired sizes through SPG membrane emulsification at rather rapid rate compared to microfludic production. Double or multiple emulsions have long been investigated but its rapid destabilization has always been a major obstacle in applying them into practical applications. The modern living polymerization techniques allow us to prepare polymers with designed structure of block copolymers which makes it possible to prepare ultra-stable multiple emulsions. The precise tuning of the ratio of hydrophobic part over the hydrophilic can unveil the stabilization mechanism. Liquid marble is a new type of materials of which liquid droplets are coated by dry particles. The coating of an outer layer of dry particles renders the liquid droplets non-sticky at solid surface which is useful in transportation of small amount of liquid without leakage at extreme low friction force. The property of liquid marbles relies largely on the stabilizers and the drying condition of polymeric latices is shown to have great influence on the property of liquid marbles. Firstly, an introduction to the interfacial and colloidal science with special attention to topics on emulsions, multiple emulsion and liquid marbles is given in Chapter 1. The unique features of an interface and a discussion on the definition of colloids are introduced prior to the

  13. Petrographic characterization and provenance determination of the white marbles used in the Roman sculptures of Forum Sempronii (Fossombrone, Marche, Italy)

    Antonelli, Fabrizio; Columbu, Stefano; Lezzerini, Marco; Miriello, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    The Roman municipium of Forum Sempronii (Fossombrone, Marche) was located along the `Via Consolare Flaminia', in the stretch of road where it ran along the final sector of the valley of the River Metauro ( Mataurus). The ancient colony of Forum Sempronii, which is cited by Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, was found in the second century BC, probably on the site of an earlier community and its activity continued until the end of the fifth century AD. During ancient and more recent archaeological excavations, many fragments of coloured stones and marbles, and some white marble sculptures have been unearthed. In this paper, we report the results of the provenance identification of the white marbles used for the sculptures found in the archaeological site of Forum Sempronii and now displayed at the local archaeological museum. The determination of the source origin of the white marbles used for the sculptures has been established by mineralogical-petrographic and geochemical analyses. Microscopic study of thin sections together with carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios indicate that more than one type of white marbles was used: Pentelikon, Lunense, and Thasian.

  14. The Underwater Recovery of Monumental Marble Column Drums from an Ancient Shipwreck at Kızılburun, Turkey

    Carlson, Deborah N.

    2016-08-01

    In the first century B.C., a stone carrier sank off the Aegean coast of Turkey at Kızılburun transporting all the elements of a monumental marble column, including a single Doric capital and eight drums. The 60-tonne cargo lay at a depth of 45-48 m and was excavated in its entirety by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University between 2005 and 2011. Ongoing research has shown that the Doric column pieces in the Kızılburun cargo originated in the marble quarries on Proconnesus Island in the Sea of Marmara and were very likely heading for the Temple of Apollo at Claros when the ship sank just 50 km short of its destination. The complete recovery of the ship's cargo posed a unique set of methodological challenges involving lifting the multi-tonne marble drums without disturbing the delicate waterlogged wooden hull remains preserved beneath. This report summarizes the solutions developed over five seasons in order to rig, hoist, move, and ultimately raise to the surface eight large ancient marble column drums (as well as all the other marble artifacts in the cargo) from a depth of almost 50 m under water.

  15. Reconnaissance investigation of high-calcium marble in the Beaver Creek area, St. Lawrence County, New York

    Brown, C. Ervin

    1978-01-01

    Three belts of marble of the Grenville Series were mapped in the Beaver Creek drainage basin, St. Lawrence County, N.Y. One of these, on the west side of Beaver Creek, consists of coarsely crystalline pure calcitic marble that occurs in a zone at least 10 by 0.8 km in extent. Samples of marble show CaCO3 content to be greater than 93 percent, and some samples contain greater than 96 percent, and only small amounts of MgO and Fe203 are present. Marble in two other belts to the east of Beaver Creek are variable in composition, but locally have high content of calcium carbonate material. The marble deposit west of Beaver Creek has a chemical composition favorable for specialized chemical, industrial, and metallurgical uses. Another favorable aspect of the deposit is its proximity to inexpensive water transportation on the St. Lawrence Seaway only 27.5 km away by road, at Ogdensburg, N.Y.

  16. Constraints on the depositional age and tectonometamorphic evolution of marbles from the Biharia Nappe System (Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Reiser Martin Kaspar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Basement rocks from the Biharia Nappe System in the Apuseni Mountains comprise several dolomite and calcite marble sequences or lenses which experienced deformation and metamorphic overprint during the Alpine orogeny. New Sr, O and C-isotope data in combination with considerations from the lithological sequences indicate Middle to Late Triassic deposition of calcite marbles from the Vulturese-Belioara Series (Biharia Nappe s.str.. Ductile deformation and large-scale folding of the siliciclastic and carbonatic lithologies is attributed to NW-directed nappe stacking during late Early Cretaceous times (D2. The studied marble sequences experienced a metamorphic overprint under lower greenschist- facies conditions (316-370 °C based on calcite - dolomite geothermometry during this tectonic event. Other marble sequences from the Biharia Nappe System (i.e. Vidolm and Baia de Arieș nappes show similarities in the stratigraphic sequence and their isotope signature, together with a comparable structural position close to nappe contact. However, the dataset is not concise enough to allow for a definitive attribution of a Mesozoic origin to other marble sequences than the Vulturese-Belioara Series.

  17. Biocompatible Hydrogels for Microarray Cell Printing and Encapsulation

    Akshata Datar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drug screening processes are a time-consuming and expensive endeavor, but highly rewarding when they are successful. To identify promising lead compounds, millions of compounds are traditionally screened against therapeutic targets on human cells grown on the surface of 96-wells. These two-dimensional (2D cell monolayers are physiologically irrelevant, thus, often providing false-positive or false-negative results, when compared to cells grown in three-dimensional (3D structures such as hydrogel droplets. However, 3D cell culture systems are not easily amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS, thus inherently low throughput, and requiring relatively large volume for cell-based assays. In addition, it is difficult to control cellular microenvironments and hard to obtain reliable cell images due to focus position and transparency issues. To overcome these problems, miniaturized 3D cell cultures in hydrogels were developed via cell printing techniques where cell spots in hydrogels can be arrayed on the surface of glass slides or plastic chips by microarray spotters and cultured in growth media to form cells encapsulated 3D droplets for various cell-based assays. These approaches can dramatically reduce assay volume, provide accurate control over cellular microenvironments, and allow us to obtain clear 3D cell images for high-content imaging (HCI. In this review, several hydrogels that are compatible to microarray printing robots are discussed for miniaturized 3D cell cultures.

  18. Glass and nuclear wastes

    Sombret, C.

    1982-10-01

    Glass shows interesting technical and economical properties for long term storage of solidified radioactive wastes by vitrification or embedding. Glass composition, vitrification processes, stability under irradiation, thermal stability and aqueous corrosion are studied [fr

  19. Microstructuring of glasses

    Hülsenberg, Dagmar; Bismarck, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    As microstructured glass becomes increasingly important for microsystems technology, the main application fields include micro-fluidic systems, micro-analysis systems, sensors, micro-actuators and implants. And, because glass has quite distinct properties from silicon, PMMA and metals, applications exist where only glass devices meet the requirements. The main advantages of glass derive from its amorphous nature, the precondition for its - theoretically - direction-independent geometric structurability. Microstructuring of Glasses deals with the amorphous state, various glass compositions and their properties, the interactions between glasses and the electromagnetic waves used to modify it. Also treated in detail are methods for influencing the geometrical microstructure of glasses by mechanical, chemical, thermal, optical, and electrical treatment, and the methods and equipment required to produce actual microdevices.

  20. White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries

    Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at

  1. Measurement of optical glasses

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  2. Testing the effectiveness of automated acoustic sensors for monitoring vocal activity of Marbled Murrelets Brachyramphus marmoratus

    Cragg, Jenna L.; Burger, Alan E.; Piatt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptic nest sites and secretive breeding behavior make population estimates and monitoring of Marbled Murrelets Brachyramphus marmoratus difficult and expensive. Standard audio-visual and radar protocols have been refined but require intensive field time by trained personnel. We examined the detection range of automated sound recorders (Song Meters; Wildlife Acoustics Inc.) and the reliability of automated recognition models (“recognizers”) for identifying and quantifying Marbled Murrelet vocalizations during the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons at Kodiak Island, Alaska. The detection range of murrelet calls by Song Meters was estimated to be 60 m. Recognizers detected 20 632 murrelet calls (keer and keheer) from a sample of 268 h of recordings, yielding 5 870 call series, which compared favorably with human scanning of spectrograms (on average detecting 95% of the number of call series identified by a human observer, but not necessarily the same call series). The false-negative rate (percentage of murrelet call series that the recognizers failed to detect) was 32%, mainly involving weak calls and short call series. False-positives (other sounds included by recognizers as murrelet calls) were primarily due to complex songs of other bird species, wind and rain. False-positives were lower in forest nesting habitat (48%) and highest in shrubby vegetation where calls of other birds were common (97%–99%). Acoustic recorders tracked spatial and seasonal trends in vocal activity, with higher call detections in high-quality forested habitat and during late July/early August. Automated acoustic monitoring of Marbled Murrelet calls could provide cost-effective, valuable information for assessing habitat use and temporal and spatial trends in nesting activity; reliability is dependent on careful placement of sensors to minimize false-positives and on prudent application of digital recognizers with visual checking of spectrograms.

  3. Utilization of Integrated Geophysical Techniques to Delineate the Extraction of Mining Bench of Ornamental Rocks (Marble

    Julián Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low yields in ornamental rock mining remain one of the most important problems in this industry. This fact is usually associated with the presence of anisotropies in the rock, which makes it difficult to extract the blocks. An optimised planning of the exploitation, together with an improved geological understanding of the deposit, could increase these yields. In this work, marble mining in Macael (Spain was studied to test the capacity of non-destructive geophysical prospecting methods (GPR and ERI as tools to characterize the geology of the deposit. It is well-known that the ERI method provides a greater penetration depth. By using this technique, it is possible to distinguish the boundaries between the marble and the underlying micaschists, the morphology of the unit to be exploited, and even fracture zones to be identified. Therefore, this technique could be used in the early stages of research, to estimate the reserves of the deposit. The GPR methodology, with a lower penetration depth, is able to offer more detailed information. Specifically, it detects lateral and vertical changes of the facies inside the marble unit, as well as the anisotropies of the rock (fractures or holes. This technique would be suitable for use in a second stage of research. On the one hand, it is very useful for characterization of the texture and fabric of the rock, which allows us to determine in advance its properties, and therefore, the quality for ornamental use. On the other hand, the localization of anisotropy using the GPR technique will make it possible to improve the planning of the rock exploitation in order to increase yields. Both integrated geophysical techniques are effective for assessing the quality of ornamental rock and thus can serve as useful tools in mine planning to improve yields and costs.

  4. Northwest Forest Plan—the first 10 years (1994-2003): status and trends of populations and nesting habitat for the marbled murrelet.

    Mark H. Huff; Martin G. Raphael; Sherri L. Miller; S. Kim Nelson; Jim Baldwin

    2006-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) is a large-scale ecosystem management plan for federal land in the Pacific Northwest. Marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) populations and habitat were monitored to evaluate effectiveness of the Plan. The chapters in this volume summarize information on marbled murrelet ecology and present the monitoring...

  5. 78 FR 37586 - Stone Age Interiors, Inc., D/B/A Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Including On-Site Leased...

    2013-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,440] Stone Age Interiors, Inc., D/B/A Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment... Marble and Granite, Colorado Springs, Colorado (subject firm). The negative determination was issued on...

  6. Recent progress on thin-film encapsulation technologies for organic electronic devices

    Yu, Duan; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Zheng; Tao, Ye; Liu, Yun-Fei

    2016-03-01

    Among the advanced electronic devices, flexible organic electronic devices with rapid development are the most promising technologies to customers and industries. Organic thin films accommodate low-cost fabrication and can exploit diverse molecules in inexpensive plastic light emitting diodes, plastic solar cells, and even plastic lasers. These properties may ultimately enable organic materials for practical applications in industry. However, the stability of organic electronic devices still remains a big challenge, because of the difficulty in fabricating commercial products with flexibility. These organic materials can be protected using substrates and barriers such as glass and metal; however, this results in a rigid device and does not satisfy the applications demanding flexible devices. Plastic substrates and transparent flexible encapsulation barriers are other possible alternatives; however, these offer little protection to oxygen and water, thus rapidly degrading the devices. Thin-film encapsulation (TFE) technology is most effective in preventing water vapor and oxygen permeation into the flexible devices. Because of these (and other) reasons, there has been an intense interest in developing transparent barrier materials with much lower permeabilities, and their market is expected to reach over 550 million by 2025. In this study, the degradation mechanism of organic electronic devices is reviewed. To increase the stability of devices in air, several TFE technologies were applied to provide efficient barrier performance. In this review, the degradation mechanism of organic electronic devices, permeation rate measurement, traditional encapsulation technologies, and TFE technologies are presented.

  7. Thin-section microscopy of decayed crystalline marble from the garden sculptures of Schoenbrunn Palace in Vienna

    Weber, J.; Beseler, S.; Sterflinger, K.

    2007-01-01

    Sterzing marble, a crystalline white marble used in the late-Baroque garden sculptures of Schoenbrunn Palace in Vienna, was studied by means of thin-section and scanning electron microscopy in order to obtain a better understanding of its surface decay caused by atmospheric weathering. Following the classification of distinct phenomena of deterioration by visual on-site inspection, the microstructural features including surface erosion, micro-cracking, soiling, black crust formation, and microbiological infestation are exemplified by microscopical images and are briefly discussed. The results proved useful for evaluating and understanding the various types of marble decay for creating a safer basis for establishing the procedural principles aimed at conservation and maintenance of the sculptures

  8. Investigating the effect of using granite and marble as a building material on the radiation exposure of humans

    Ebaid, Y. Y.; Bakr, W. F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively study the radiological hazards of granite and marble used as a building material in Egypt. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined using high-resolution hyper-pure germanium detectors in 25 samples of different types of commercially available granite and marble. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data for Egypt and other countries. In order to assess the radiological impact, the radiation hazard parameters such as radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) and hazard level index (γ) were calculated. The internal and external dose rates due to natural radionuclides in granite and marble were also calculated. The data obtained were considered as helpful in regulating the use of building materials in Egypt. (authors)

  9. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  10. Acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles and mitigation of biofouling

    Qamar, Adnan

    2017-08-31

    Provided herein is a universally applicable biofouling mitigation technology using acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles that disrupt biofilm or biofilm formation. For example, a method of reducing biofilm formation or removing biofilm in a membrane filtration system is provided in which a feed solution comprising encapsulated microbubbles is provided to the membrane under conditions that allow the encapsulated microbubbles to embed in a biofilm. Sonication of the embedded, encapsulated microbubbles disrupts the biofilm. Thus, provided herein is a membrane filtration system for performing the methods and encapsulated microbubbles specifically selected for binding to extracellular polymeric substances (EFS) in a biofilm.

  11. Bone scan and SPECT/CT findings in marble bone disease

    Kapoor, Jiten; Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Woril (India)

    2012-03-15

    Marble bone disease or osteopetrosis, is a rare inborn disorder characterized by the failure of osteoclasts to resorb bone. Overall incidence of the disease is estimated to be 1 case in 100,000-500,000 population. Whereas the radiographic features of the disease are well known, information on bone scan imaging is sparse in the literature. We present technitium 99m methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc MDP) bone scan features of osteopetrosis, along with single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography(SPECT/CT) correlation in a young male.

  12. Chemical Resistance of Ornamental Compound Stone Produced with Marble Waste and Unsaturated Polyester

    Ribeiro, Carlos E. Gomes; Rodriguez, Rubén J. Sánchez; Vieira, Carlos M. Fontes

    Ornamental compound stone are produced by industry for decades, however, few published studies describe these materials. Brazil has many deposits of stone wastes and a big potential to produce these materials. This work aims to evaluate the chemical resistance of ornamental compound stones produced with marble waste and unsaturated polyester. An adaptation of Annex H of ABNT NBR 13818:97 standard, with reagents commonly used in household products, was used. The results were compared with those obtained for natural stone used in composite production.

  13. L'Innocenza Perduta (Lost Innocence: Conserving a Carrara Marble Statue

    Chris Cleere

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the conservation of 'L'Innocenza Perduta (Lost Innocence', a marble statue by the Florentine sculptor Emilio Santarelli. As the statue is on open display at University College London and is accessible to the public, it has been vulnerable to destructive elements, including airborne pollutants and vandalism. Cleaning was done by steam and poultice. However, during the cleaning process it became clear that the capital and plinth required more complicated conservation treatments due to considerable cracking of the stone.

  14. Pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in marbled water frog Telmatobius marmoratus: first record from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia.

    Cossel, John; Lindquist, Erik; Craig, Heather; Luthman, Kyle

    2014-11-13

    The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been associated with amphibian declines worldwide but has not been well-studied among Critically Endangered amphibian species in Bolivia. We sampled free-living marbled water frogs Telmatobius marmoratus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Isla del Sol, Bolivia, for Bd using skin swabs and quantitative polymerase chain reactions. We detected Bd on 44% of T. marmoratus sampled. This is the first record of Bd in amphibians from waters associated with Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. These results further confirm the presence of Bd in Bolivia and substantiate the potential threat of this pathogen to the Critically Endangered, sympatric Titicaca water frog T. culeus and other Andean amphibians.

  15. Bone scan and SPECT/CT findings in marble bone disease

    Kapoor, Jiten; Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    Marble bone disease or osteopetrosis, is a rare inborn disorder characterized by the failure of osteoclasts to resorb bone. Overall incidence of the disease is estimated to be 1 case in 100,000-500,000 population. Whereas the radiographic features of the disease are well known, information on bone scan imaging is sparse in the literature. We present technitium 99m methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc MDP) bone scan features of osteopetrosis, along with single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography(SPECT/CT) correlation in a young male.

  16. Using acoustic emissions to enhance fracture toughness calculations for CCNBD marble specimens

    K. Kaklis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rock fracture mechanics has been widely applied to blasting, hydraulic fracturing, mechanical fragmentation, rock slope analysis, geophysics, earthquake mechanics and many other science and technology fields. Development of failure in brittle materials is associated with microcracks, which release energy in the form of elastic waves called acoustic emissions. In the present study, acoustic emission (AE measurements were carried out during cracked chevron notched Brazilian disc (CCNBD tests on Nestos marble specimens. The fracture toughness of different modes of loading (mode-I and –II is calculated and the results are discussed in conjunction with the AE parameters.

  17. Thin film Encapsulations of Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Tsai Fa-Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various encapsulated films for flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs were studied in this work, where gas barrier layers including inorganic Al2O3 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition, organic Parylene C thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and their combination were considered. The transmittance and water vapor transmission rate of the various organic and inorgabic encapsulated films were tested. The effects of the encapsulated films on the luminance and current density of the OLEDs were discussed, and the life time experiments of the OLEDs with these encapsulated films were also conducted. The results showed that the transmittance are acceptable even the PET substrate were coated two Al2O3 and Parylene C layers. The results also indicated the WVTR of the PET substrate improved by coating the barrier layers. In the encapsulation performance, it indicates the OLED with Al2O3 /PET, 1 pair/PET, and 2 pairs/PET presents similarly higher luminance than the other two cases. Although the 1 pair/PET encapsulation behaves a litter better luminance than the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation, the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation has much better life time. The OLED with 2 pairs/PET encapsulation behaves near double life time to the 1 pair encapsulation, and four times to none encapsulation.

  18. Hybrid chip-on-board LED module with patterned encapsulation

    Soer, Wouter Anthon; Helbing, Rene; Huang, Guan

    2018-02-27

    Different wavelength conversion materials, or different concentrations of a wavelength conversion material are used to encapsulate the light emitting elements of different colors of a hybrid light emitting module. In an embodiment of this invention, second light emitting elements (170) of a particular color are encapsulated with a transparent second encapsulant (120;420;520), while first light emitting elements (160) of a different color are encapsulated with a wavelength conversion first encapsulant (110;410;510). In another embodiment of this invention, a particular second set of second and third light emitting elements (170,580) of different colors is encapsulated with a different encapsulant than another first set of first light emitting elements (160).

  19. New trends in encapsulation of liposoluble vitamins.

    Gonnet, M; Lethuaut, L; Boury, F

    2010-09-15

    Liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and carotenoids have many benefits on health. They are provided mainly by foods. At pharmacological doses, they can also be used to treat skin diseases, several types of cancer or decrease oxidative stress. These molecules are sensitive to oxidation, thus encapsulation might constitute an appropriate mean to preserve their properties during storage and enhance their physiological potencies. Formulation processes have been adapted for sensitive molecule, limiting their exposure to high temperature, light or oxygen. Each administration pathway, oral, systemic, topical, transdermal and local, requires different particle sizes and release profile. Encapsulation can lead to greater efficiency allowing smaller administration doses thus diminishing potential hypervitaminosis syndrome appearance and side effects. Carrier formulation can be based on vitamin dissolution in lipid media and its stabilization by surfactant mixture, on its entrapment in a matrix or molecular system. Suitability of each type of carrier will be discussed for each pathway. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy

  1. Encapsulation of high temperature thermoelectric modules

    Salvador, James R.; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Park, Youngsam

    2017-07-11

    A method of encapsulating a thermoelectric device and its associated thermoelectric elements in an inert atmosphere and a thermoelectric device fabricated by such method are described. These thermoelectric devices may be intended for use under conditions which would otherwise promote oxidation of the thermoelectric elements. The capsule is formed by securing a suitably-sized thin-walled strip of oxidation-resistant metal to the ceramic substrates which support the thermoelectric elements. The thin-walled metal strip is positioned to enclose the edges of the thermoelectric device and is secured to the substrates using gap-filling materials. The strip, substrates and gap-filling materials cooperatively encapsulate the thermoelectric elements and exclude oxygen and water vapor from atmospheric air so that the elements may be maintained in an inert, non-oxidizing environment.

  2. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    Knecht, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy.

  3. Hanford waste encapsulation: strontium and cesium

    Jackson, R.R.

    1976-06-01

    The strontium and cesium fractions separated from high radiation level wastes at Hanford are converted to the solid strontium fluoride and cesium chloride salts, doubly encapsulated, and stored underwater in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). A capsule contains approximately 70,000 Ci of 137 Cs or 70,000 to 140,000 Ci of 90 Sr. Materials for fabrication of process equipment and capsules must withstand a combination of corrosive chemicals, high radiation dosages and frequently, elevated temperatures. The two metals selected for capsules, Hastelloy C-276 for strontium fluoride and 316-L stainless steel for cesium chloride, are adequate for prolonged containment. Additional materials studies are being done both for licensing strontium fluoride as source material and for second generation process equipment

  4. Characterization of the main types of marble extracted in the area of Macael (Almeria, southeastern Spain) and its historical importance

    Navarro, R.; Cruz, A.S.; Arriaga, L.; Baltuille, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The marble from Macael is one of the most important ornamental stones found in Spain. It has been used not only as a building material but also as a decorative element, especially the type nown as “White Macael “. There is evidence of its use dating back over 4000 years. One of the most prominent examples is the Courtyard of the Lions in the Alhambra (Granada), but it is also possible to see some eleme Its in the Roman amphitheatre of Mérida (Badajoz), in Italica (Sevilla), in the palace of Medina Azahara (Córdoba) and in the Royal Palace of Madrid, amongst dozens of palaces and churches throughout the country. In this study we describe the use that this material has had throughout history and the main features and properties of the different varieties of “White Macael”, “Grey Macael”, “Anasol” (calcite marbles) and “Yellow Macael” (dolomitic marbles). They all have mineralogical, physical and mechanical features that make them suitable for almost all uses. Calcite marbles have porosity, absorption and density values lower than dolomite marbles, whilst the latter have more resistance to compression, similar flexural strength under concentrated load, and lower resistance to breaking load at dowel hole than the calcitic marbles. The values of abrasion resistance are also better in the dolomite marbles, whilst the slip resistance is similar in all cases. As far as decay is concerned, the dolomitic marbles, with the exception of the variety Amarillo Triana, suffer more in the frost resistance test but less by the action of salts, with the exception of the White Macael Rio (calcitic) which is the variety that has less alteration. Regarding the status of the stone sector in the region, it is noteworthy that, despite a 60% drop in sales in the domestic market, exports in 2012 increased by 49 % compared to the previous year. The data we present provides increased knowledge of one of the most common building materials in our country with the aim of

  5. A sand budget for Marble Canyon, Arizona: implications for long-term monitoring of sand storage change

    Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent U.S. Geological Survey research is providing important insights into how best to monitor changes in the amount of tributary-derived sand stored on the bed of the Colorado River and in eddies in Marble Canyon, Arizona. Before the construction of Glen Canyon Dam and other dams upstream, sandbars in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons were replenished each year by sediment-rich floods. Sand input into the Colorado River is crucial to protecting endangered native fish, animals, and plants and cultural and recreational resources along the river in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park.

  6. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  7. Multiple Glass Ceilings

    Russo, Giovanni; Hassink, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Both vertical (between job levels) and horizontal (within job levels) mobility can be sources of wage growth. We find that the glass ceiling operates at both margins. The unexplained part of the wage gap grows across job levels (glass ceiling at the vertical margin) and across the deciles of the intra-job-level wage distribution (glass ceiling at the horizontal margin). This implies that women face many glass ceilings, one for each job level above the second, and that the glass ceiling is a p...

  8. Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses

    Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...

  9. Encapsulated Ball Bearings for Rotary Micro Machines

    2007-01-01

    occurrence as well as the overall tribological properties of the bearing mechanism. Firstly, the number of stainless steel balls influences not only the load...stacks.iop.org/JMM/17/S224 Abstract We report on the first encapsulated rotary ball bearing mechanism using silicon microfabrication and stainless steel balls...The method of capturing stainless steel balls within a silicon race to support a silicon rotor both axially and radially is developed for rotary micro

  10. Encapsulating peritonitis: computed tomography and surgical correlation

    Kadow, Juliana Santos; Fingerhut, Carla Jeronimo Peres; Fernandes, Vinicius de Barros; Coradazzi, Klaus Rizk Stuhr; Silva, Lucas Marciel Soares; Penachim, Thiago Jose, E-mail: vinicius.barros.fernandes@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro

    2014-07-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare and frequently severe entity characterized by total or partial involvement of small bowel loops by a membrane of fibrous tissue. The disease presents with nonspecific clinical features of intestinal obstruction, requiring precise imaging diagnosis to guide the treatment. The present report emphasizes the importance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of this condition and its confirmation by surgical correlation. (author)

  11. Micelle-encapsulated fullerenes in aqueous electrolytes

    Ala-Kleme, T., E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Maeki, A.; Maeki, R.; Kopperoinen, A.; Heikkinen, M.; Haapakka, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2013-03-15

    Different micellar particles Mi(M{sup +}) (Mi=Triton X-100, Triton N-101 R, Triton CF-10, Brij-35, M{sup +}=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}) have been prepared in different aqueous H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}/MOH background electrolytes. It has been observed that these particles can be used to disperse the highly hydrophobic spherical [60]fullerene (1) and ellipsoidal [70]fullerene (2). This dispersion is realised as either micelle-encapsulated monomers Mi(M{sup +})1{sub m} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub m} or water-soluble micelle-bound aggregates Mi(M{sup +})1{sub agg} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub agg}, where especially the hydration degree and polyoxyethylene (POE) thickness of the micellar particle seems to play a role of vital importance. Further, the encapsulation microenvironment of 1{sub m} was found to depend strongly on the selected monovalent electrolyte cation, i.e., the encapsulated 1{sub m} is accommodated in the more hydrophobic microenvironment the higher the cationic solvation number is. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different micellar particles is used to disperse [60]fullerene and [70]fullerene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene monomers or aggregates are dispersed encaging or bounding by micelles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective facts are hydration degree and polyoxyethylene thickness of micelle.

  12. Ultrasonographic findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Hae Kyung; Moon, Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwon, Kwi Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyangi University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of the patients with sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP). Thirteen patients with surgically confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were involved in this study. Because of intestinal obstruction, all patients had received operations. Among 13 patients, 12 cases had continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 2 months-12 years and 4 months from (mean; 6 years and 10 months), owing to chronic renal failure and one patient had an operation due to variceal bleeding caused by liver cirrhosis. On ultrasonographic examination, all patients showed loculated ascites which were large (n=7) or small (n=6) in amount with multiple separations. The small bowel loops were tethered posteriorly perisaltic movement and covered with the thick membrane. The ultrasonographic of findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were posteriorly tethered small bowels covered with a thick membrane and loculated ascites with multiple septa. Ultrasonographic examination can detect the thin membrane covering the small bowel loops in the early phase of the disease, therefore ultrasonography would be a helpful modality to diagnose SEP early.

  13. Leaching of glass

    Hench, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    Understanding surface compositional profiles of glasses over a range of 0-2000 A with a variety of analytical instruments shows that five general types of glass surfaces exist. The surface character of a glass article depends upon bulk composition and environmental history during which surface dealkalization, film formation, and network dissolution can occur. Environmental-surface interactions generally result in complex compositional profiles of all the constituents in a glass. Durable glasses almost always develop a stable surface film which has a higher concentration of network formers than the bulk composition. Compositional effects that are used to improve glass durability usually improve the stability of the surface films. Durability tests or service conditions that lead to film destruction are especially severe for the most silicate glasses. 43 references

  14. Micro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials: A Review of Encapsulation, Safety and Thermal Characteristics

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been identified as potential candidates for building energy optimization by increasing the thermal mass of buildings. The increased thermal mass results in a drop in the cooling/heating loads, thus decreasing the energy demand in buildings. However, direct incorporation of PCMs into building elements undermines their structural performance, thereby posing a challenge for building integrity. In order to retain/improve building structural performance, as well as improving energy performance, micro-encapsulated PCMs are integrated into building materials. The integration of microencapsulation PCMs into building materials solves the PCM leakage problem and assures a good bond with building materials to achieve better structural performance. The aim of this article is to identify the optimum micro-encapsulation methods and materials for improving the energy, structural and safety performance of buildings. The article reviews the characteristics of micro-encapsulated PCMs relevant to building integration, focusing on safety rating, structural implications, and energy performance. The article uncovers the optimum combinations of the shell (encapsulant and core (PCM materials along with encapsulation methods by evaluating their merits and demerits.

  15. Status review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Piatt, John F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, Vicki L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  16. Comparative study of pulsed laser cleaning applied to weathered marble surfaces

    Ortiz, P., E-mail: mportcal@upo.es [Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Seville (Spain); Antúnez, V.; Ortiz, R.; Martín, J.M. [Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Seville (Spain); Gómez, M.A. [Instituto Andaluz de Patrimonio Histórico, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Hortal, A.R.; Martínez-Haya, B. [Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    The removal of unwanted matter from surface stones is a demanding task in the conservation of cultural heritage. This paper investigates the effectiveness of near-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses for the cleaning of surface deposits, iron oxide stains and different types of graffiti (black, red and green sprays and markers, and black cutting-edge ink) on dolomitic white marble. The performance of the laser techniques is compared to common cleaning methods on the same samples, namely pressurized water and chemical treatments. The degree of cleaning achieved with each technique is assessed by means of colorimetric measurements and X-ray microfluorescence. Eventual morphological changes induced on the marble substrate are monitored with optical and electronic microscopy. It is found that UV pulsed laser ablation at 266 nm manages to clean all the stains except the cutting-edge ink, although some degree of surface erosion is produced. The IR laser pulses at 1064 nm can remove surface deposits and black spray acceptably, but a yellowing is observed on the stone surface after treatment. An economic evaluation shows that pulsed laser cleaning techniques are advantageous for the rapid cleaning of small or inaccessible surface areas, although their extensive application becomes expensive due to the long operating times required.

  17. Structural analysis of sheath folds in the Sylacauga Marble Group, Talladega slate belt, southern Appalachians

    Mies, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Remnant blocks of marble from the Moretti-Harrah dimension-stone quarry provide excellent exposure of meter-scale sheath folds. Tubular structures with elliptical cross-sections (4 ???Ryz ??? 5) are the most common expression of the folds. The tubes are elongate subparallel to stretching lineation and are defined by centimeter-scale layers of schist. Eccentrically nested elliptical patterns and opposing asymmetry of folds ('S' and 'Z') are consistent with the sheath-fold interpretation. Sheath folds are locally numerous in the Moretti-Harrah quarry but are not widely distributed in the Sylacauga Marble Group; reconnaissance in neighboring quarries provided no additional observations. The presence of sheath folds in part of the Talladega slate belt indicates a local history of plastic, non-coaxial deformation. Such a history of deformation is substantiated by petrographic study of an extracted hinge from the Moretti-Harrah quarry. The sheath folds are modeled as due to passive amplification of initial structures during simple shear, using both analytic geometry and graphic simulation. As indicated by these models, relatively large shear strains (y ??? 9) and longitudinal initial structures are required. The shear strain presumably relates to NW-directed displacement of overlying crystalline rocks during late Paleozoic orogeny. ?? 1993.

  18. Comparative study of pulsed laser cleaning applied to weathered marble surfaces

    Ortiz, P.; Antúnez, V.; Ortiz, R.; Martín, J.M.; Gómez, M.A.; Hortal, A.R.; Martínez-Haya, B.

    2013-01-01

    The removal of unwanted matter from surface stones is a demanding task in the conservation of cultural heritage. This paper investigates the effectiveness of near-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses for the cleaning of surface deposits, iron oxide stains and different types of graffiti (black, red and green sprays and markers, and black cutting-edge ink) on dolomitic white marble. The performance of the laser techniques is compared to common cleaning methods on the same samples, namely pressurized water and chemical treatments. The degree of cleaning achieved with each technique is assessed by means of colorimetric measurements and X-ray microfluorescence. Eventual morphological changes induced on the marble substrate are monitored with optical and electronic microscopy. It is found that UV pulsed laser ablation at 266 nm manages to clean all the stains except the cutting-edge ink, although some degree of surface erosion is produced. The IR laser pulses at 1064 nm can remove surface deposits and black spray acceptably, but a yellowing is observed on the stone surface after treatment. An economic evaluation shows that pulsed laser cleaning techniques are advantageous for the rapid cleaning of small or inaccessible surface areas, although their extensive application becomes expensive due to the long operating times required.

  19. Application of preliminary risk analysis at marble finishing plants in Recife's metropolitan area.

    de Melo Neto, Rútilo P; Kohlman Rabbani, Emilia R

    2012-01-01

    The finishing of marble occurs in quarries all over Brazil, being the most significant dimension of the ornamental stone sector, with 7,000 businesses. Recife's Metropolitan Area (RMR) contains approximately 106 marble quarries, 25 of them unionized. The study focused on the application of Preliminary Risk Analysis, conducted at two unionized quarries: M1, a small business; and the second, M2, considered a micro enterprise. In this analysis both the administrative and the productive sectors were evaluated. The fieldwork was done in the month of December 2010. The study revealed that the two quarries carried moderate risks in the administrative sector, mainly due to ergonomic factors, and that in the productive sectors the risks were high, specifically because of excess noise, dust material, and precarious electrical installations. Using the results of the qualitative analysis as a base, the need for quantitative study presents itself in order to determine the most adequate modes of protection to be of assistance in the management of these risks, guaranteeing the safety and health of the worker and consequently the improvement in productivity in this sector.

  20. Comparative study of pulsed laser cleaning applied to weathered marble surfaces

    Ortiz, P.; Antúnez, V.; Ortiz, R.; Martín, J. M.; Gómez, M. A.; Hortal, A. R.; Martínez-Haya, B.

    2013-10-01

    The removal of unwanted matter from surface stones is a demanding task in the conservation of cultural heritage. This paper investigates the effectiveness of near-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses for the cleaning of surface deposits, iron oxide stains and different types of graffiti (black, red and green sprays and markers, and black cutting-edge ink) on dolomitic white marble. The performance of the laser techniques is compared to common cleaning methods on the same samples, namely pressurized water and chemical treatments. The degree of cleaning achieved with each technique is assessed by means of colorimetric measurements and X-ray microfluorescence. Eventual morphological changes induced on the marble substrate are monitored with optical and electronic microscopy. It is found that UV pulsed laser ablation at 266 nm manages to clean all the stains except the cutting-edge ink, although some degree of surface erosion is produced. The IR laser pulses at 1064 nm can remove surface deposits and black spray acceptably, but a yellowing is observed on the stone surface after treatment. An economic evaluation shows that pulsed laser cleaning techniques are advantageous for the rapid cleaning of small or inaccessible surface areas, although their extensive application becomes expensive due to the long operating times required.

  1. Deciphering the social structure of Marbled Murrelets from behavioral observations at sea

    Speckman, Suzann G.; Piatt, John F.; Springer, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    We surveyed Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) daily from small boats in Auke Bay and Fritz Cove, Alaska, from May through August 1992 and 1993. Differences in numbers of juveniles and in the timing of their presence in the study area between the two years indicated that breeding phenology was late and productivity was low in 1992 compared to 1993. This difference was consistent with variability in the physical environment. Of 99 fish identified in the bills of fish-holding adult murrelets, 81 (82%) were Pacific Sand Lance (Ammodytes hexapterus). Counts of fish-holding adult murrelets were significantly higher in the evening than at any other time of day. Time of day had no significant effects on counts of fledglings, indicating that juveniles were moving into and out of the study area during the day. Murrelets were predominantly found in groups of two or more, even during incubation, suggesting that murrelets incur an appreciable benefit, such as increased foraging efficiency, from foraging in groups. For both summers, there was no correlation between counts of murrelets on the water and numbers of murrelet detections in the adjacent forest. We suggest that many behavior patterns of the Marbled Murrelet (displaying, choosing of mates, and pair-bonding, finding of nest sites and successful foraging of juveniles) may be socially facilitated.

  2. SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS OF LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE GENE AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH MARBLING QUALITY IN LOCAL SHEEPS

    H. Hidayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is a key enzyme that plays in metabolism and transport lipoprotein andtherefore has an influence on blood triglyceride levels. LPL controls triacylglycerol partitioning betweenadipose tissue and muscle that increases fat storage or provides energy in the form of fatty acids formuscle growth. The research was aimed to explore Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of LPL gene andto associate SNP with marbling quality. A total of 66 genomic DNAs consisted of sumatera thin-tail edsheep (50 heads and garut sheep (16 heads were used in this study. Polymerase Chain Reaction wasused to amplify genomic DNA and direct sequencing method was to identify polymorphism sequences.The sequences were analyzed with Bio Edit and MEGA 5.2. The BLAST sequence was obtained fromgene bank X.68308.1. The association between the genotype and marbling quality was analyze by oneway ANOVA and further between mean differences were tested using least sgnificant difference. Theresults showed that 3 novel SNPs i.e. insertion g.26>C; insertion g.27> G and c.192T>C on garut sheepand a SNP insertion g.26>C/G on sumatera thin-tail ed sheep. The diversity of LPL gene at c.192T>Cwas associated with heneicosanoic acid, whereas TT genotype (0.04% was higher than CC (0.03% andCT (0.02%.

  3. Carbon isotope geothermometry of graphite-bearing marbles from Central Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    Wand, U.; Muehle, K.

    1988-01-01

    In order to estimate the peak metamorphic temperatures in high-grade regional metamorphic marbles from central Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica), 13 C/ 12 C isotope ratios have been measured for coexisting carbonate and graphite pairs. The δ 13 C values of carbonates (calcite ± dolomite) and graphite vary from -0.1 to +4.6 permill (PDB) and from -3.3 to +1.7 permill, respectively. The isotopic fractionation between carbonate and graphite ranges from 2.9 to 4.0 permill and is similar to the Δ 13 C (carb-gr) values observed in other East Antarctic and non-Antarctic granulite-facies marbles. The metamorphic temperatures calculated using the equation of VALLEY and O'NEIL (1981) for calcite-graphite pairs are predominantly in the range 700 0 - 800 0 C (x n=5 ± s = 730 0 ± 30 0 C) and agree well with metamorphic temperatures derived from mineral chemical studies in this East Antarctic region. (author)

  4. Marbled Murrelets Select Distinctive Nest Trees within Old-Growth Forest Patches

    Michael P. Silvergieter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal old-growth forests of North America's Pacific Coast are renowned both for their commercial and ecological value. This study adds to growing evidence that selective harvesting of the largest trees may have a disproportionate ecological impact. Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus, a threatened species, nest almost exclusively in these old-growth forests. Detailed knowledge of nesting habitat selection provides guidance for habitat management and conservation. Habitat selection for this species has been studied at a variety of scales using ground and remote methods. However, because Marbled Murrelet nesting activity is limited to a single mossy platform on a single tree, we investigated nest tree selection within old-growth forest patches, using a set of 59 forest patches containing active nests. Nest trees were usually distinctive compared with neighboring trees in the surrounding 25 m radius patch. They averaged 15 to 20% taller than neighboring trees depending on region, had significantly larger stem diameters, more potential nesting platforms, and more moss. They had the most extreme values of height and width about three times as often as expected by chance. An analysis of moss platform use as a function of number of platforms per platform tree suggests that murrelets select individual platforms, rather than platform trees per se. Nonetheless, highly selective logging practices that remove high-value trees from stands may also remove trees most likely to be selected by nesting murrelets.

  5. A novel approach to fabricate dye-encapsulated polymeric micro- and nanoparticles by thin film dewetting technique.

    Chatterjee, Manosree; Hens, Abhiram; Mahato, Kuldeep; Jaiswal, Namita; Mahato, Nivedita; Nagahanumaiah; Chanda, Nripen

    2017-11-15

    A new method is reported for fabrication of polymeric micro- and nanoparticles from an intermediate patterned surface originated by dewetting of a polymeric thin film. Poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) or PLGA, a biocompatible polymer is used to develop a thin film over a clean glass substrate which dewets spontaneously in the micro-/nano-patterned surface of size range 50nm to 3.5µm. Since another water-soluble polymer, poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) is coated on the same glass substrate before PLGA thin film formation, developed micro-/nano-patterns are easily extracted in water in the form of micro- and nanoparticle mixture of size range 50nm to 3.0µm. This simplified method is also used to effectively encapsulate a dye molecule, rhodamine B inside the PLGA micro-/nanoparticles. The developed dye-encapsulated nanoparticles, PLGA-rhodamine are separated from the mixture and tested for in-vitro delivery application of external molecules inside human lung cancer cells. For the first time, the use of thin film dewetting technique is reported as a potential route for the synthesis of polymeric micro-/nanoparticles and effective encapsulation of external species therein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Research on Glass Frit Deposition Based on the Electrospray Process

    Yifang Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrospray technology is used to easily deposit the glass frit into patterns at a micro-scale level. First, far-field electrospray process was carried out with a mixture of glass frit in the presence of ethanol. A uniform, smooth, and dense glass frit film was obtained, verifying that the electrospray technology was feasible. Then, the distance between the nozzle and the substrate was reduced to 2 mm to carry out near-field electrospray. The experimental process was improved by setting the range of the feed rate of the substrate to match both the concentration and the flow rate of the solution. Spray diameter could be less at the voltage of 2 kV, in which the glass frit film was expected to reach the minimum line width. A uniform glass frit film with a line width within the range of 400–500 μm was prepared when the speed of the substrate was 25 mm/s. It indicates that electrospray is an efficient technique for the patterned deposition of glass frit in wafer-level hermetic encapsulation.

  7. The clumped-isotope geochemistry of exhumed marbles from Naxos, Greece

    Ryb, U.; Lloyd, M. K.; Stolper, D. A.; Eiler, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    Exhumation and accompanying retrograde metamorphism alter the compositions and textures of metamorphic rocks through deformation, mineral-mineral reactions, water-rock reactions, and diffusion-controlled intra- and inter-mineral atomic mobility. Here, we demonstrate that these processes are recorded in the clumped- and single-isotope (δ13 C and δ18 O) compositions of marbles, which can be used to constrain retrograde metamorphic histories. We collected 27 calcite and dolomite marbles along a transect from the rim to the center of the metamorphic core-complex of Naxos (Greece), and analyzed their carbonate single- and clumped-isotope compositions. The majority of Δ47 values of whole-rock samples are consistent with exhumation- controlled cooling of the metamorphic complex. However, the data also reveal that water-rock interaction, deformation driven recrystallization and thermal shock associated with hydrothermal alteration may considerably impact the overall distribution of Δ47 values. We analyzed specific carbonate fabrics influenced by deformation and fluid-rock reaction to study how these processes register in the carbonate clumped-isotope system. Δ47 values of domains drilled from a calcite marble show a bimodal distribution. Low Δ47 values correspond to an apparent temperature of 260 °C and are common in static fabrics; high Δ47 values correspond to an apparent temperature of 200 °C and are common in dynamically recrystallized fabrics. We suggest that the low Δ47 values reflect diffusion-controlled isotopic reordering during cooling, whereas high Δ47 values reflect isotopic reordering driven by dynamic recrystallization. We further studied the mechanism by which dynamic recrystallization may alter Δ47 values by controlled heating experiments. Results show no significant difference between laboratory reactions rates in the static and dynamic fabrics, consistent with a mineral-extrinsic mechanism, in which slip along crystal planes was associated

  8. Glass formulation development and offgas analysis of microwave melter powder samples

    Semones, G.B.; Hoffman, C.R.; Phillips, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    Production of nuclear materials for defense applications has resulted in the accumulation of vast amounts of nuclear waste. This contaminated waste is in a variety of forms that require subsequent reprocessing to isolate and encapsulate the nuclear (e.g., uranium, plutonium, strontium, cesium, and americium) and toxic (e.g., lead, chromium, and cadmium) constituents. The encapsulating material must possess good chemical and mechanical durability to resist leaching of the nuclear and toxic constituents into the environment during permanent storage at a waste repository. Glass is an ideal encapsulating material because its open structure allows the introduction of different waste forms and the final vitreous product possesses a high degree of chemical stability. Microwave heating and melting is a relatively new advancement in glass processing which uses microwave radiation to heat the glass formers to adequate temperatures for sintering or melting. An advantage to this technique is that it enables more rapid heating than traditional heating mechanisms. This decrease in cycle time may help to limit exposure to workers encapsulating radioactive and/or toxic waste

  9. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological questions with the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish: A review and perspectives.

    Vogt, Gunter

    2018-03-01

    In the last 15 years, considerable attempts have been undertaken to develop the obligately parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis as a new model in biology. Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring that are genetically identical to the mother, making this crustacean particularly suitable for research in epigenetics. Now, a draft genome, transcriptome and genome-wide methylome are available opening new windows for research. In this article, I summarize the biological advantages and genomic and epigenetic features of marbled crayfish and, based on first promising data, discuss what this new model could contribute to answering of ''big'' biological questions. Genome mining is expected to reveal new insights into the genetic specificities of decapod crustaceans, the genetic basis of arthropod reproduction, moulting and immunity, and more general topics such as the genetic underpinning of adaptation to fresh water, omnivory, biomineralization, sexual system change, behavioural variation, clonal genome evolution, and resistance to cancer. Epigenetic investigations with the marbled crayfish can help clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in gene regulation, tissue specification, adult stem cell regulation, cell ageing, organ regeneration and disease susceptibility. Marbled crayfish is further suitable to elucidate the relationship between genetic and epigenetic variation, the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic signatures and the contribution of epigenetic phenotype variation to the establishment of social hierarchies, environmental adaptation and speciation. These issues can be tackled by experiments with highly standardized laboratory lineages, comparison of differently adapted wild populations and the generation of genetically and epigenetically edited strains.

  10. Genetic analyses of historic and modern marbled murrelets suggest decoupling of migration and gene flow after habitat fragmentation

    M. Zachariah Peery; Laurie A. Hall; Sellas. Anna; Steven R. Beissinger; Craig Moritz; Martine Berube; Martin G. Raphael; S. Kim Nelson; Richard T. Golightly; Laura McFarlane-Tranquilla; Scott H. Newman; Per J. Palsboll

    2009-01-01

    The dispersal of individuals among fragmented populations is generally thought to prevent genetic and demographic isolation, and ultimately reduce extinction risk. In this study, we show that a century of reduction in coastal old-growth forests, as well as a number of other environmental factors, has probably resulted in the genetic divergence of marbled murrelets (...

  11. Marble in Israel : A. Shadmon. Ministry of Development, State of Israel, Jerusalem, 1965, 56 pp., 36 fig., 2 tables

    Manten, A.A.

    The booklet Marble in Israel is announced to be the first in a series of reports on the mineral building commodities of Israel, which series will summarize the information available on the subject at the Quarries Section of the Israel Geological Survey and the Office of the Controller of Mines.

  12. Digital processing of SEM images for the assessment of evaluation indexes of cleaning interventions on Pentelic marble surfaces

    Moropoulou, A.; Delegou, E.T.; Vlahakis, V.; Karaviti, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, digital processing of scanning-electron-microscopy images utilized to assess cleaning interventions applied on the Pentelic marble surfaces of the National Archaeological Museum and National Library in Athens, Greece. Beside mineralogical and chemical characterization that took place by scanning-electron-microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, the image-analysis program EDGE was applied for estimating three evaluation indexes of the marble micro-structure. The EDGE program was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the evaluation of cleaning interventions applied on Philadelphia City Hall. This computer program analyzes scanning-electron-microscopy images of stone specimens cut in cross-section for measuring the fractal dimension of the exposed surfaces, the stone near-surface fracture density, the shape factor (a surface roughness factor) and the friability index which represents the physico-chemical and physico-mechanical stability of the stone surface. The results indicated that the evaluation of the marble surface micro-structure before and after cleaning is achieved by the suggested indexes, while the performance of cleaning interventions on the marble surfaces can be assessed

  13. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

    Kadioglu, M; Kadioglu, Y K

    2008-01-01

    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble

  14. Provenance of marbles used for building the internal spiral staircase of the bell tower of St. Nicholas Church (Pisa, Italy)

    Lezzerini, Marco; Antonelli, Fabrizio; Gallello, Gianni; Ramacciotti, Mirco; Parodi, Luca; Alberti, Antonio; Pagnotta, Stefano; Legnaioli, Stefano; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the provenance of marbles used as architectural elements (bases, shafts and capitals of columns) for building the internal spiral staircase of the medieval bell tower of St. Nicholas Church at Pisa, Italy. Accordingly, the 45 collected marble samples have been analysed by optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mass spectroscopy for carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratio analysis; additionally, SEM-EDS analysis have been performed to complement data about accessory minerals. By comparison with literature data on the main sources of the white Mediterranean marbles used in ancient times, the results show that the analysed samples are mainly white crystalline marbles from Carrara (Italy) and, subordinately, from other Tuscan and Eastern Mediterranean quarrying areas. In fact, Mt. Pisano and Campiglia M.ma (Tuscany, Italy) and Marmara (Turkey), Paros, Mt. Penteli, Thasos (Greece) are minor sources. The other coloured stones identified on the strength of their macroscopic features are quartzites from Mt. Pisano area and granitoids from Sardinia and Island of Elba (Italy). Occasionally, a very limited number of architectonical elements made up of Acquabona limestone from Rosignano Marittimo (Livorno, Italy), red limestone with ammonites (the so-called "Rosso Ammonitico") and black limestone belonging to the Tuscan Nappe sequence, outcropping at northwest of Pisa in the nearby Monti d'Oltre Serchio area, are present.

  15. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

    Kadioglu, M [Ankara University Faculty of Letters Archeological Department Ankara (Turkey); Kadioglu, Y K [Ankara University Engineering Faculty Geol. Eng. Department Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kadioglu@humanity.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: kadi@eng.ankara.edu.tr

    2008-07-01

    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble.

  16. Logistic regression accuracy across different spatial and temporal scales for a wide-ranging species, the marbled murrelet

    Carolyn B. Meyer; Sherri L. Miller; C. John Ralph

    2004-01-01

    The scale at which habitat variables are measured affects the accuracy of resource selection functions in predicting animal use of sites. We used logistic regression models for a wide-ranging species, the marbled murrelet, (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in a large region in California to address how much changing the spatial or temporal scale of...

  17. Meeting reproductive demands in a dynamic upwelling system: foraging strategies of a pursuit-diving seabird, the marbled murrelet

    M. Zachariah Peery; Scott H. Newman; Curt D. Storlazzi; Steven R. Beissinger

    2009-01-01

    Seabirds maintain plasticity in their foraging behavior to cope with energy demands and foraging constraints that vary over the reproductive cycle, but behavioral studies comparing breeding and nonbreeding individuals are rare. Here we characterize how Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) adjust their foraging effort in response to changes...

  18. Cloning and characterization of 29 tetranucleotide and two dinucleotide polymorphic microsatellite loci from the endangered marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus)

    Rew, MB; Peery, MZ; Beissinger, Steven R.; Berube, M; Lozier, JD; Rubidge, EM; Palsboll, PJ

    We developed 31 novel, polymorphic microsatellite loci in the marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), a critically endangered seabird. Variability was tested on 15 individuals from the Santa Cruz, California population, with each locus characterized by two to 12 alleles. Observed levels of

  19. Genome Sequence of Carbon Dioxide-Sequestering Serratia sp. Strain ISTD04 Isolated from Marble Mining Rocks

    Kumar, Manish; Gazara, Rajesh Kumar; Verma, Sandhya; Kumar, Madan; Verma, Praveen Kumar; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    The Serratia sp. strain ISTD04 has been identified as a carbon dioxide (CO2)-sequestering bacterium isolated from marble mining rocks in the Umra area, Rajasthan, India. This strain grows chemolithotrophically on media that contain sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as the sole carbon source. Here, we report the genome sequence of 5.07?Mb Serratia sp. ISTD04.

  20. Comics and the Structure of Childhood Feeling: Sublimation and the Play of Pretending in Gilbert Hernandez's "Marble Season"

    Lewkowich, David

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I study the narrative structure of comics as a means to describe the ways that indeterminate modes of representation can allow the reader to imagine that which in childhood can never be fully expressed. Analyzing a number of panels from Gilbert Hernandez's graphic novel, "Marble Season," I describe a conceptual link…

  1. Strontium geochemistry and carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of Lower Proterozoic dolomite and calcite marbles from the Marmorilik Formation, West Greenland

    Garde, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Marmorilik Formation, Rinkian mobile belt, West Greenland, is a large, Lower Proterozoic carbonate-rock sequence, deformed and metamorphosed under greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions. The pre-deformation thickness of the sequence is at least 2000 m, with about 1400 m of dolomite marble and 350 m of calcite marble. Strontium contents of forty-two dolomite and calcite marbles range from 30 to 100 ppm and 300 to 800 ppm, respectively, whereas samples with calcite of secondary origin have strontium contents between 80 ppm and 200 ppm. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were determined for forty calcite and dolomite marbles as -0.2+-1.0 per 1000 delta 13 C and -9.9+-1.5 per 1000 delta 18 O (vs. PDB) and are compatible with the isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed carbonates of similar age. Calcite from eight calciumsilicate rocks, breccias and calcite veins is significantly more negative in delta 13 C and delta 18 O. Five 13 C analyses of graphite in marble range from -9.6 to -14 per 1000. Possible post-depositional changes in the strontium content and carbon and oxygen isotope compositions are discussed. It is concluded that (a) the calcite marbles are not dedolomites and are therefore of primary origin, (b) the delta 13 C and delta 18 O values of the marbles are primary or diagenetic (i.e., pre-metamorphic), and (c) the isotopic composition of the graphite is compatible with, though not necessarily evidence for, a biogenic origin. (Auth.)

  2. 汎用炉心解析システムMARBLE2の開発

    横山 賢治; 神 智之; 平井 康志; 羽様 平

    2015-01-01

    汎用炉心解析システムMARBLEの第2版であるMARBLE2を開発した。MARBLE2では第1版(MARBLE1)で開発した基盤技術を利用して各種の機能拡張を行った。MARBLE1では導入できていなかった従来システム(JOINT-FR、SAGEP-FR)の機能を導入し、従来システムのほぼ全ての解析機能を統一されたユーザインターフェースを持つMARBLE上のサブシステムSCHEME上で実行できるようになった。特にMARBLE2では、MARBLE1では対応できていなかった感度解析にも対応できるようになった。また、将来の拡張性や柔軟性を確保するために、独自ソルバーの開発や改良を行った。更に、原子力機構で開発された解析コードやライブラリを導入し、同様にSCHEME上で利用できるように整備した。その他、外部機関で開発された解析コード等も必要に応じて導入した。これにより、gamma線計算や発熱計算等が可能となった。また、MARBLE上のもうひとつのサブシステムである高速炉実機燃焼解析システムORPHEUSの改良として、MARBLE1での利用経験をもとに各種の機能拡張や高速化を行いユーザ利便性...

  3. Encapsulation of iron nanoparticles in alginate biopolymer for trichloroethylene remediation

    Bezbaruah, Achintya N.; Shanbhogue, Sai Sharanya; Simsek, Senay; Khan, Eakalak

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles (10–90 nm) were encapsulated in biodegradable calcium-alginate capsules for the first time for application in environmental remediation. Encapsulation is expected to offers distinct advances over entrapment. Trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation was 89–91% in 2 h, and the reaction followed pseudo first order kinetics for encapsulated NZVI systems with an observed reaction rate constant (k obs ) of 1.92–3.23 × 10 −2 min −1 and a surface normalized reaction rate constant (k sa ) of 1.02–1.72 × 10 −3 L m −2 min −1 . TCE degradation reaction rates for encapsulated and bare NZVI were similar indicating no adverse affects of encapsulation on degradation kinetics. The shelf-life of encapsulated NZVI was found to be four months with little decrease in TCE removal efficiency.

  4. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection, volume 1

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulation material system requirements, material selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available are presented. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described. Available encapsulation technology and data are presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. The operational and environmental loads that encapsulation system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that are identified to have the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the flat plate solar array project are described. Available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  5. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 7: Module encapsulation

    Cuddihy, E.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Encapsulation Task was to develop, demonstrate, and qualify photovoltaic (PV) module encapsulation systems that would provide 20 year (later decreased to 30 year) life expectancies in terrestrial environments, and which would be compatible with the cost and performance goals of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project. The scope of the Encapsulation Task included the identification, development, and evaluation of material systems and configurations required to support and protect the optically and electrically active solar cell circuit components in the PV module operating environment. Encapsulation material technologies summarized include the development of low cost ultraviolet protection techniques, stable low cost pottants, soiling resistant coatings, electrical isolation criteria, processes for optimum interface bonding, and analytical and experimental tools for evaluating the long term durability and structural adequacy of encapsulated modules. Field testing, accelerated stress testing, and design studies have demonstrated that encapsulation materials, processes, and configurations are available that meet the FSA cost and performance goals.

  6. Fractography of glass

    Tressler, Richard

    1994-01-01

    As the first major reference on glass fractography, contributors to this volume offer a comprehensive account of the fracture of glass as well as various fracture surface topography Contributors discuss optical fibers, glass containers, and flatglass fractography In addition, papers explore fracture origins; the growth of the original flaws of defects; and macroscopic fracture patterns from which fracture patterns evolve This volume is complete with photographs and schematics

  7. Diamond turning of glass

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  8. Glass to contain wastes

    Moncouyoux, M.; Jacquet-Francillon, M.

    1994-01-01

    Here are the tables and figures presented during the conference on the glass to confine high level radioactive wastes: definition, fabrication, storage and disposal. The composition of glasses are detailed, their properties and the vitrification proceeding. The behaviour of these glasses in front of water, irradiation and heat are shown. The characteristics of parcels are given according to the radiation protection rule, ALARA principle, the concept of multi-barriers and the geological stability

  9. Glass microspheres for brachytherapy

    Prado, Miguel O.; Prastalo, Simon; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan M.; Repetto Llamazares, A.H.V.

    2007-01-01

    We developed the capacity to produce glass microspheres containing in their structure one or more radioactive isotopes useful for brachytherapy. We studied the various facts related with their production: (Rare earth) alumino silicate glass making, glass characterization, microspheres production, nuclear activation through (n,γ) nuclear reactions, mechanical characterization before and after irradiation. Corrosion tests in simulated human plasma and mechanical properties characterization were done before and after irradiation. (author) [es

  10. Sugaring marble in the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy): characterization of naturally and artificially weathered samples and first results of consolidation by hydroxyapatite

    Sassoni, Enrico; Franzoni, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The so-called sugaring of marble is a very common degradation phenomenon, affecting both historical monuments and modern buildings, which is originated by environmental temperature fluctuations. Thermal cycles are indeed responsible for micro-cracks formation at the boundaries between calcite grains, so that marble is subjected to granular disintegration and can be reduced to a sugar-like powder of isolated calcite grains by just the pressure of a finger. Since no effective, compatible and durable treatment for sugaring marble consolidation is currently available, in this paper a novel consolidating treatment recently proposed for limestone, based on the formation of hydroxyapatite inside the stone, was investigated for weathered marble. To test the new treatment on suitably decayed marble samples, some naturally sugaring marbles from the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy, nineteenth century) were firstly characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurement. Then, artificially weathered samples were produced by heating fresh Carrara marble samples at 400 °C for 1 h. The effects of artificial weathering were characterized using the same techniques as above, and a very good agreement was found between microstructure and mechanical features of naturally and artificially weathered samples. Then, the hydroxyapatite-based treatment was tested on the so-obtained artificially weathered samples, and the treatment effects were characterized by UPV, MIP and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydroxyapatite-based treatment exhibited a remarkable ability of restoring marble cohesion and a good compatibility in terms of modifications in pore size distribution, which leads to regard this treatment as a very promising consolidant for weathered marble.

  11. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

  12. Thermoresponsive latexes for fragrance encapsulation and release.

    Popadyuk, N; Popadyuk, A; Kohut, A; Voronov, A

    2016-04-01

    To synthesize cross-linked latex particles protecting the encapsulated fragrance at ambient temperatures and facilitating the release of cargo at the temperature of the surface of the skin that varies in different regions of the body between 33.5 and 36.9°C. Poly(stearyl acrylate) (PSA), a polymer with long crystallizable alkyl side chains (undergoes order-disorder transitions at 45°C), was chosen as the main component of the polymer particles. As a result, new thermoresponsive polymer particles for fragrance encapsulation were synthesized and characterized, including assessing the performance of particles in triggered release by elevated temperature. To obtain network domains of various crystallinity, stearyl acrylate was copolymerized with dipropylene glycol acrylate caprylate (DGAC) (comonomer) in the presence of a dipropylene glycol diacrylate sebacate (cross-linker) using the miniemulsion process. Comonomers and a cross-linker were mixed directly in a fragrance during polymerization. Fragrance release was evaluated at 25, 31, 35 and 39°C to demonstrate a new material potential in personal/health care skin-related applications. Particles protect the fragrance from evaporation at 25°C. The fragrance release rate gradually increases at 31, 35 and 39°C. Two slopes were found on release plots. The first slope corresponds to a rapid fragrance release. The second slope indicates a subsequent reduction in the release rate. Crystalline-to-amorphous transition of PSA triggers the release of fragrances from cross-linked latex particles at elevated temperatures. The presence of the encapsulated fragrance, as well as the inclusion of amorphous fragments in the polymer network, reduces the particle crystallinity and enhances the release. Release profiles can be tuned by temperature and controlled by the amount of loaded fragrance and the ratio of comonomers in the feed mixture. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Analysis of Double-encapsulated Fuel Rods

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Medvedev, Pavel G [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Perez, Danielle Marie [Idaho National Laboratory; Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    In an LWR fuel rod, the cladding encapsulates the fuel, contains fission products, and transfers heat directly to the water coolant. In some situations, it may be advantageous to separate the cladding from the coolant through use of a secondary cladding or capsule. This may be done to increase confidence that the fuel or fission products will not mix with the coolant, to provide a mechanism for controlling the rod temperature, or to place multiple experimental rodlets within a single housing. With an axisymmetric assumption, it is possible to derive closed-form expressions for the temperature profile in a fuel rod using radially-constant thermal conductivity in the fuel. This is true for both a traditional fuel-cladding rod and a double-encapsulated fuel (fuel, cladding, capsule) configuration. Likewise, it is possible to employ a fuel performance code to analyse both a traditional and a double-encapsulated fuel. In the case of the latter, two sets of gap heat transfer conditions must be imposed. In this work, we review the equations associated with radial heat transfer in a cylindrical system, present analytic and computational results for a postulated power and gas mixture history for IFA-744, and describe the analysis of the AFC-2A, 2B metallic fuel alloy experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor, including the effect of a release of fission products into the cladding-capsule gap. The computational results for these two cases were obtained using BISON, a fuel performance code under development at Idaho National Laboratory.

  14. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Baj, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant...... capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin...

  15. Encapsulation of electroless copper patterns into diamond films

    Pimenov, S.M.; Shafeev, G.A.; Lavrischev, S.V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The results are reported on encapsulating copper lines into diamond films grown by a DC plasma CVD. The process includes the steps of (i) laser activation of diamond for electroless metal plating, (ii) electroless copper deposition selectively onto the activated surface regions, and (iii) diamond regrowth on the Cu-patterned diamond films. The composition and electrical properties of the encapsulated copper lines were examined, revealing high purity and low electrical resistivity of the encapsulated electroless copper.

  16. Investigations into encapsulation of intermediate level wastes containing organic components

    Palmer, J.

    1988-01-01

    A product evaluation programme was set up to investigate the properties of a variety of matrix-waste formulations prior to their encapsulation. The waste/matrix forms were defined and characterised and waste pretreatments studied. Potential encapsulation matrices were investigated for their suitability for individual waste streams. The physical, chemical and thermal properties, radiation stability and leaching behaviour of the formulations were studied. Operational and design limits for the encapsulation plant were defined. (U.K.)

  17. Silicate glasses. Chapter 1

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e. borosilicate glass. A historical overview of waste form development programs in nine countries is followed by a summary of the design criteria for borosilicate glass compositions glass compositions. In the sections on glass properties the waste form is characterized in terms of potential alterations under the influence of heat, thermal gradients, radiation, aqueous solutions and combinations thereof. The topics are phase transformations, mechanical properties, radiation effects and chemical durability. The results from studies of volcanic glasses, as natural analogues for borosilicate nuclear waste glasses in order to verify predictions obtained from short-term tests in the laboratory, have been compiled in a special section on natural analogues. A special section on advanced vitrification techniques summarizes the various actual and potential processing schemes and describes the facilities. The literature has been considered until 1985. (author). 430 refs.; 68 figs.; 29 tabs

  18. Glass and vitrification

    Barton, J.L.; Vacher, R.; Moncouyoux, J.P.; Vernaz, E.

    1997-01-01

    Most glasses used as materials are oxides glasses that are produced by a quick quench of a liquid. Glasses are characterized by the absence of periodicity in the atomic arrangements, they do not have symmetries and do not present order over a long distance. This series of 4 short articles present: 1) the properties of glass and its industrial story, 2) the glass structure, 3) a forty years long story of glass as dies used to confine wastes and 4) the methodology used to study the behaviour of glass over very long periods of time. This methodology is based on 5 steps: 1) define and specify the material to study (the prediction of long term alteration of a material is nonsense unless you know well its initial properties), 2) identify all the alteration processes that are likely to happen, determine their kinetics and the influence of environmental parameters, 3) develop mathematical models in order to simulate long-term behaviour of glasses, 4) determine the release rates of the radionuclides confined in the glass, and 5) validate data and models, it is not possible to expect a complete validation of a model that will be extrapolated over tens of thousands of years, nevertheless some ways of validation can lead to a satisfactory level of confidence taking into account reasonable uncertainties. (A.C.)

  19. Encapsulation Processing and Manufacturing Yield Analysis

    Willis, P.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation system is presented. This work is part of the materials baseline needed to demonstrate a 30 year module lifetime capability. Process and compound variables are both being studied along with various module materials. Results have shown that EVA should be stored rolled up, and enclosed in a plastic bag to retard loss of peroxide curing agents. The TBEC curing agent has superior shelf life and processing than the earlier Lupersol-101 curing agent. Analytical methods were developed to test for peroxide content, and experimental methodologies were formalized.

  20. Method of encapsulating waste radioactive material

    Forrester, J.A.; Rootham, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    When encapsulating radioactive waste including radioactive liquid having a retardant therein which retards the setting of cements by preventing hydration at cement particles in the mix, the liquid is mixed with ordinary Portland cement and subjected, in a high shear mixer, to long term shear far in excess of that needed to form ordinary grout. The controlled utilization of the retardants plus shear produces a thixotropic paste with extreme moldability which will not bleed, and finally sets more rapidly than can be expected with normal cement mixtures forming a very strong product. (author)

  1. Encapsulation of high temperature molten salts

    Oxley, James D.; Mathur, Anoop Kumar

    2017-05-16

    The present disclosure relates to a method of encapsulating microcapsules containing relatively high temperature phase change materials and the microcapsules so produced. The microcapsules are coated with an inorganic binder, film former and an inorganic filler. The microcapsules may include a sacrificial layer that is disposed between the particle and the coating. The microcapsules may also include an inner coating layer, sacrificial layer and outer coating layer. The microcapsules are particularly useful for thermal energy storage in connection with, e.g., heat collected from concentrating solar collectors.

  2. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    George, C.; Al-Zwae, K.; Nair, S.; Cast, J.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP

  3. Process for the encapsulation of radioactive wastes

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.; Hill, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste material, particularly radioactive ion exchange resin in the wet condition, is encapsulated in a polyurethane by dispersing the waste in an aqueous emulsion of an organic polyol, a polyisocyanate and an hydraulic cement and allowing the emulsion to set to form a monolithic block. If desired the emulsion may also contain additional filler e.g. sand or aggregate to increase the density of the final product. Preferred polyurethanes are those made from a polyester polyol and an organic diisocyanate, particularly hexamethylene diisocyanate. (author)

  4. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    George, C. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cheriangeorge@hotmail.com; Al-Zwae, K. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Nair, S. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Cast, J.E.I. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP.

  5. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Geological and blocky modeling of Qareh Qeshlaq marble deposit in order to optimizing the production planning of quarry

    Jafar Abdollahi Sharif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Qareh Qeshlaq marble quarry as one of the valuable resources of ornamental stones in West Azarbaijan province formed through thermal carbonate springs while its mineral deposit thickness is limited in comparison with surface extension. In the present research, geological and blocky modeling of the marble deposit was carried out in order to develop a production planning for this quarry, identifying the position of single-marketable-block extracted from it and increasing its economical aspects for exploitation. During the study, in addition to preparing a geological and blocky model for the quarry, firstly the optimum dimensions of its extractable single marketable-block were quantified and then through representing the confining surfaces equation of marble strata in the computer, the optimal maximum dimension and the number and exact location of the single marketable-blocks were determined and presented to the operating team. Based on the findings of these studies and according to the existing 83 exploratory boreholes data, it is possible to extract 183 single marketable-block pink marble and 103 single marketable-block malachite both with 1.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 m raw dimensions while only 2 single marketable-block alabaster layer with 1.3 × 2.5 × 2.5 m dimensions. The results also show that with applying extraction consideration, regarding the productivity coefficient of the layers, and removing the gradual color changes zone, the maximum thickness of the single marketable-blocks for the pink marble, malachite, and alabaster will become 1.65, 1.65 and 1.4 m, respectively.

  7. Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads: Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point

    2015-01-01

    under Short-Term Loads Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra...Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point Jason C. Weale and Devinder S. Sodhi Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) U.S...Division of Polar Programs operates an over-sea-ice traverse from McMurdo Station to rou- tinely resupply Marble Point Camp. The traverse requires that

  8. Characterization of glass and glass ceramic nuclear waste forms

    Lutze, W.; Borchardt, J.; De, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of solidified nuclear waste forms, glass and glass ceramic compositions and the properties (composition, thermal stability, crystallization, phase behavior, chemical stability, mechanical stability, and radiation effects) of glasses and glass ceramics are discussed. The preparation of glass ceramics may be an optional step for proposed vitrification plants if tailored glasses are used. Glass ceramics exhibit some improved properties with respect to glasses. The overall leach resistance is similar to that of glasses. An increased leach resistance may become effective for single radionuclides being hosted in highly insoluble crystal phases mainly when higher melting temperatures are applicable in order to get more leach resistant residual glass phases. The development of glass ceramic is going on. The technological feasibility is still to be demonstrated. The potential gain of stability when using glass ceramics qualifies the material as an alternative nuclear waste form

  9. Preliminary assessment of modified borosilicate glasses for chromium and ruthenium immobilization

    Farid, Osama M. [Reactors Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt, P.O. 13759, Inshas, Cairo (Egypt); Centre of Nuclear Engineering (CNE), Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Abdel Rahman, R.O., E-mail: alaarehab@yahoo.com [Hot Laboratory Center, Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt, P.O. 13759, Inshas, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-01-15

    The feasibility of using modified alkali borosilicate glasses for ruthenium and chromium immobilization is preliminary assessed by investigating the immobilization system structure under normal conditions. Within this context, reference alkali borosilicate, and simulated Magnox-modified glasses were prepared and studied. The results indicate that ruthenium is immobilized in the vitreous structure as encapsulated RuO{sub 2} crystallites that act as seeds for heterogeneous nucleation of other crystalline phases. The presence of Zn, as modifier, has contributed to chromium immobilization in zincochromite spinel structure, whereas Ca is accommodated in the vitreous structure. Immobilization performance was evaluated by conducting conservative static leach test and studying the leached glass. Leached glass morphology was altered, where near surface reference glass is leached over 400 nm and simulated Magnox-modified sample is altered over 300 nm. Normalized release rates are within normal range for borosilicate material. For simulated Magnox-modified sample, Ca and alkali structural element, i.e. Na and Li, are leached via ion-exchange reaction. The ion-exchanged fraction equals 1.06 × 10{sup −8} mol/m{sup 2} s and chromium has slightly lower normalized release rate value than ruthenium. - Highlights: • The presence of modifiers and waste oxides led to localized de-vitrification. • Ruthenium is encapsulated within the vitreous glass network as RuO{sub 2} crystals. • Chromium is immobilized within the zincochromite spinel structure. • Pitting and cracks induced by leaching did not affect the immobilization performance.

  10. Improving the standard of the standard for glass ionomers: an alternative to the compressive fracture strength test for consideration?

    Dowling, Adam H

    2012-03-01

    Three strength tests (compressive, three point flexure and biaxial) were performed on three glass ionomer (GI) restoratives to assess the most appropriate methodology in terms of validity and reliability. The influence of mixing induced variability on the data sets generated were eliminated by using encapsulated GIs.

  11. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Strength of Attachment: An Interlaboratory Study Towards a Climate-Specific Test

    Miller, David; Annigoni, Eleonora; Ballion, Amal; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; Burns, David M.; Chen, Xinxin; Feng, Jiangtao; French, Roger H.; Fowler, Sean; Honeker, Christian C.; Kempe, Michael; Khonkar, Hussam; Kohl, Michael; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Phillips, Nancy H.; Scott, Kurt P.; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Wohlgemuth, John

    2016-06-06

    Reduced strength of attachment of the encapsulant resulting from the outdoor environment, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, may decrease photovoltaic (PV) module lifetime by enabling widespread corrosion of internal components. To date, few studies exist showing how the adhesion of PV components varies with environmental stress. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide an understanding that will be used to develop climatic specific module tests. Factors examined in the study included the UV light source (lamp type), temperature, and humidity to be proposed for use in accelerated aging tests. A poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) formulation often used in veteran PV installations was studied using a compressive shear test - to quantify the strength of attachment at the EVA/glass interface. Replicate laminated glass/polymer/glass coupon specimens were weathered at 12 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers or field aging. Shear strength, shear strain, and toughness were measured using a mechanical load-frame for the compressive shear test, with subsequent optical imaging and electron microscopy of the separated surfaces.

  12. For production of ceramic plates coating using waste kaolin, granite and marble

    Sales, J.L.; Morais, C.R.S.; Lima, L.M.R.; Altidis, M.E.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to benefit and characterize waste from kaolin, marble and granite studying their thermal properties and spectroscopic in employment perspective on ceramic production of flooring boards. The residues were benefited through the process of dry grinding mill in greyhounds and passed through sieve 0.074 mm (ABNT No. 200), observing their suitability for the formulation of ceramic pastes. Tests were performed physicochemical characterization (particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) and thermal (differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry). The results showed that these residues showed satisfactory properties for the purpose for which it proposes, and contribute to reducing environmental impacts, allowing the reuse of the production of ceramic plates (author)

  13. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26324735

  14. Multiphase boudinage: a case study of amphibolites in marble in the Naxos migmatite core

    Virgo, Simon; von Hagke, Christoph; Urai, Janos L.

    2018-02-01

    In multiply deformed terrains multiphase boudinage is common, but identification and analysis of these is difficult. Here we present an analysis of multiphase boudinage and fold structures in deformed amphibolite layers in marble from the migmatitic centre of the Naxos metamorphic core complex. Overprinting between multiple boudinage generations is shown in exceptional 3-D outcrop. We identify five generations of boudinage, reflecting the transition from high-strain high-temperature ductile deformation to medium- to low-strain brittle boudins formed during cooling and exhumation. All boudin generations indicate E-W horizontal shortening and variable direction of bedding parallel extension, evolving from subvertical extension in the earliest boudins to subhorizontal N-S extension during exhumation. Two phases of E-W shortening can be inferred, the first associated with lower crustal synmigmatic convergent flow and the second associated with exhumation and N-S extension, possibly related to movement of the North Anatolian Fault.

  15. Monitoring Disaster-Related Power Outages Using NASA Black Marble Nighttime Light Product

    Wang, Z.; Román, M. O.; Sun, Q.; Molthan, A. L.; Schultz, L. A.; Kalb, V. L.

    2018-04-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of disruptions to the electricity grid, including the magnitude, spatial extent, timing, and duration of net power losses, is needed to improve situational awareness of disaster response and long-term recovery efforts. Satellite-derived Nighttime Lights (NTL) provide an indication of human activity patterns and have been successfully used to monitor disaster-related power outages. The global 500 m spatial resolution National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Black Marble NTL daily standard product suite (VNP46) is generated from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) onboard the NASA/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi- NPP) satellite, which began operations on 19 January 2012. With its improvements in product accuracy (including critical atmospheric and BRDF correction routines), the VIIRS daily Black Mable product enables systematic monitoring of outage conditions across all stages of the disaster management cycle.

  16. Bowing and expansion of natural stone panels: marble and limestone testing and assessment

    Grelk, Bent

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural stone has been used as a building material for centuries. In the past, load bearing members were made of entirely of stone, but in the last 50 years new processing techniques have made the production and use of thin facade cladding a profitable venture. Unfortunately however, marble facades on buildings in Europe and elsewhere have undergone severe deterioration. The EC-financed TEAM project (2000-2005 studied the bowing observed on marble facades in both cold and warm climates. TEAM’s main objectives were to understand and explain the expansion, bowing, and strength loss mechanisms governing the decay of marble- and limestone-clad facades, and to draft new European standards to prevent the use of marble and limestone poorly suited to outdoor cladding. A survey of some 200 buildings afforded a clear picture of the geographical, geological and climatic scope of the problem. Detailed case studies of six buildings resulted in a facade assessment methodology that included a monitoring system and risk assessment. Both laboratory and field research was conducted on almost 100 different types of stone from different countries and in place in different climates. The outcome was the determination of the decay mechanisms and critical factors. Two test methods and respective precision statements, one for bowing and the other for irreversible thermal expansion in high humidity conditions, were prepared for submission to CEN TC 246.La piedra natural se ha empleado como material de construcción durante siglos. En el pasado, se solía utilizar en elementos de carga, pero en los últimos 50 años las nuevas técnicas de procesamiento han permitido que sea comercialmente rentable producir y utilizar revestimientos para fachadas de espesor reducido. Desafortunadamente, numerosas fachadas de mármol de edificios tanto en Europa como fuera de ella han sufrido graves problemas derivados del deterioro de la piedra. El proyecto TEAM (2000

  17. MONITORING DISASTER-RELATED POWER OUTAGES USING NASA BLACK MARBLE NIGHTTIME LIGHT PRODUCT

    Z. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Timely and accurate monitoring of disruptions to the electricity grid, including the magnitude, spatial extent, timing, and duration of net power losses, is needed to improve situational awareness of disaster response and long-term recovery efforts. Satellite-derived Nighttime Lights (NTL provide an indication of human activity patterns and have been successfully used to monitor disaster-related power outages. The global 500 m spatial resolution National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Black Marble NTL daily standard product suite (VNP46 is generated from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB onboard the NASA/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi- NPP satellite, which began operations on 19 January 2012. With its improvements in product accuracy (including critical atmospheric and BRDF correction routines, the VIIRS daily Black Mable product enables systematic monitoring of outage conditions across all stages of the disaster management cycle.

  18. The marble head of a statuette from Mediana (excavations in 2001

    Plemić Bojana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the archaeological excavations in Mediana in 2001, the head of a marble statuette of exceptional beauty and craftsmanship was discovered. It was an isolated discovery, the sculpture probably having been imported from some Greek artistic centre or an eastern Mediterranean workshop, presenting a part of a larger ensemble of sculptures that had adorned an imperial villa with peristyle. Since the head was found in pieces and being just part of a sculptural representation with no reliable attributes, the question of its identification is a difficult task. It was possible to determine, using stylistic traits' analysis that the statuette was made under the influence of Hellenistic cult sculpture, namely that it followed the rules of the school of Praxiteles. On the other hand, the iconographic elements, in particular that of the hairstyle, lead us to the conclusion that this statuette could represent one of two Roman goddesses, either Venus or Diana.

  19. PSI decides to write off most of its $2.7B Marble Hill investment

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    After the Indiana Supreme Court ruled last November that the utility may not recover its investment from the cancelled plant, Public Service Indiana (PSI) decided to write off a substantial portion of the $2.7 million already invested in the cancelled Marble Hill nuclear plant. The board will omit common stock dividends for three years and the preferred stock dividend for the first quarter. It will also accept a negotiated rate settlement of 8.2% increase. A 5% emergency surcharge will become permanent. The settlement calls for the utility to restrict capital expenditures over the next three years to the $285.1 million already budgeted for construction. Opposition from a consumers group argues that ratepayers should not be the risk bearers for PSI, but the utility argues that its long-term financial health depends on attracting and keeping investors

  20. Study of sulphation of Candoglia marble by means of micro X-ray diffraction experiments

    Pedrazzani, R.; Alessandri, I.; Bontempi, E.; Cappitelli, F.; Cianci, M.; Pantos, E.; Toniolo, L.; Depero, L. E.

    2006-06-01

    This research is aimed at assessing the particular kind of damage caused by the interaction between atmospheric pollution and the marble surface of a magnificent late gothic church, Milan Cathedral, restored in the early 1970s. On the basis of visual inspections and diagnostic investigations the facade appears to be seriously damaged by surface erosion and thick black crusts; biological crusts, micro-fractures and detachments are widely present. This paper reports on SR-μXRD data collected at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), Daresbury Laboratory, and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Source (ESRF) from selected samples, covered with black crusts, originating from the Milan Cathedral facade. Mineralogical maps of the deterioration layers have been recorded by two spatial resolutions (5-100 μm), from the bulk of the stone material to the outer layer of the black surface. These maps help in elucidating the mechanism of formation of the black crusts.

  1. Viscous effects in liquid encapsulated liquid bridges

    Johnson, Duane T.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical derivation of the surface deflections and the streamfunctions for the flow inside a liquid encapsulated liquid bridge has been derived using an asymptotic expansion about a small capillary number. The model assumes an initially flat and cylindrical interface under the assumption that the densities of both fluids are equal. To simplify the analysis, the top and bottom walls are assumed to be stress-free and the Reynolds number is assumed to be negligible. Flow is generated either by a moving outer wall (shear-driven flow) or by applying a temperature difference across the top and bottom walls (Marangoni-driven flow). The resulting equations show that for the shear-driven flow, as the viscosity ratio increases, the surface deflections increase monotonically. For the Marangoni-driven flow there exist values of the viscosity ratio where the surface deflections reach a minimum and then switch signs. This investigation shows that it may be possible in more realistic systems to use an outer encapsulating liquid of the proper viscosity ratio to stabilize the liquid-liquid interface during float zone crystal growth

  2. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon

    Legakis Nikolaos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. Case presentation A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Conclusion Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  3. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon).

    Serafimidis, Costas; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Vernadakis, Spyros; Rallis, George; Giannopoulos, George; Legakis, Nikolaos; Peros, George

    2006-02-13

    Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  4. Relaxations in spin glasses: Similarities and differences from ordinary glasses

    Ngai, K.L.; Rajagopal, A.K.; Huang, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Relaxation phenomena have become a major concern in the physics of spin glasses. There are certain resemblances of these relaxation properties to those of ordinary glasses. In this work, we compare the relaxation properties of spin glasses near the freezing temperature with those of glasses near the glass transition temperature. There are similarities between the two types of glasses. Moreover, the relaxation properties of many glasses and spin glasses are in conformity with two coupled ''universality'' relations predicted by a recent model of relaxations in condensed matter

  5. [Methylophaga murata sp. nov.: a haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylotroph from deteriorating marble].

    Doronina, N V; Li, Ts D; Ivanova, E G; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2005-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium (strain Kr3) isolated from material scraped off the deteriorating marble of the Moscow Kremlin masonry has been found to be able to utilize methanol, methylamine, trimethylamine, and fructose as carbon and energy sources. Its cells are gram-negative motile rods multiplying by binary fission. Spores are not produced. The isolate is strictly aerobic and requires vitamin B12 and Na+ ions for growth. It is oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduces nitrates to nitrites. Growth occurs at temperatures between 0 and 42 degrees C (with the optimum temperatures being 20-32 degrees C), pH values between 6 and 11 (with the optimum at 8-9), and NaCl concentrations between 0.05 and 3 M (with the optimum at 0.5-1.5 M). The dominant cellular phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin. The major cellular fatty acids are palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), and octadecenoic (C18:1) acids. The major ubiquinone is Q8. The isolate accumulates ectoine and glutamate, as well as a certain amount of sucrose, to function as osmoprotectants and synthesizes an exopolysaccharide composed of carbohydrate and protein components. It is resistant to heating at 70 degrees C, freezing, and drying; utilizes methanol, with the resulting production of formic acid, which is responsible for the marble-degrading activity of the isolate; and implements the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of its DNA is 44.6 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA homology levels (23-41%) with neutrophilic and alkaliphilic methylobacteria from the genus Methylophaga, the isolate has been identified as a new species, Methylophaga murata (VKM B-2303T = NCIMB 13993T).

  6. Marbled texture of sputtered Al/Si alloy thin film on Si

    Gentile, M.G. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Center, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vishay Intertechnology, Diodes Division, Via Liguria 49, 10071 Borgaro Torinese, Turin (Italy); Muñoz-Tabares, J.A.; Chiodoni, A. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Space Human Robotics, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Sgorlon, C. [Vishay Intertechnology, Diodes Division, Via Liguria 49, 10071 Borgaro Torinese, Turin (Italy); Para, I. [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Carta, R.; Richieri, G. [Vishay Intertechnology, Diodes Division, Via Liguria 49, 10071 Borgaro Torinese, Turin (Italy); Bejtka, K. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Space Human Robotics, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Merlin, L. [Vishay Intertechnology, Diodes Division, Via Liguria 49, 10071 Borgaro Torinese, Turin (Italy); Vittone, E. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Center, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    DC magnetron sputtering is a commonly used technique for the fabrication of silicon based electronic devices, since it provides high deposition rates and uniform large area metallization. However, in addition to the thickness uniformity, coating optical uniformity is a crucial need for semiconductor industrial processes, due to the wide use of optical recognition tools. In the silicon-based technology, aluminum is one of the most used materials for the metal contact. Both the pre-deposition substrate cleaning and the sputtering conditions determine the quality and the crystalline properties of the final Al deposited film. In this paper is shown that not all the mentioned conditions lead to good quality and uniform Al films. In particular, it is shown that under certain standard process conditions, Al/Si alloy (1% Si) metallization on a [100] Si presents a non-uniform reflectivity, with a marbled texture caused by flakes with milky appearance. This optical inhomogeneity is found to be caused by the coexistence of randomly orient Al/Si crystal, with heteroepitaxial Al/Si crystals, both grown on Si substrate. Based on the microstructural analysis, some strategies to mitigate or suppress this marbled texture of the Al thin film are proposed and discussed. - Highlights: • Sputtered Al/Si layers deposited on Si present evident optical non-uniformity • It could be an issue for optical recognition tools used in semiconductor industries • Optical non-uniformity is due to randomly oriented growth of Al grains. • Substrate misorientation and process temperature can mitigate the problem.

  7. Development of common user data model for APOLLO3 and MARBLE and application to benchmark problems

    Yokoyama, Kenji

    2009-07-01

    A Common User Data Model, CUDM, has been developed for the purpose of benchmark calculations between APOLLO3 and MARBLE code systems. The current version of CUDM was designed for core calculation benchmark problems with 3-dimensional Cartesian, 3-D XYZ, geometry. CUDM is able to manage all input/output data such as 3-D XYZ geometry, effective macroscopic cross section, effective multiplication factor and neutron flux. In addition, visualization tools for geometry and neutron flux were included. CUDM was designed by the object-oriented technique and implemented using Python programming language. Based on the CUDM, a prototype system for a benchmark calculation, CUDM-benchmark, was also developed. The CUDM-benchmark supports input/output data conversion for IDT solver in APOLLO3, and TRITAC and SNT solvers in MARBLE. In order to evaluate pertinence of CUDM, the CUDM-benchmark was applied to benchmark problems proposed by T. Takeda, G. Chiba and I. Zmijarevic. It was verified that the CUDM-benchmark successfully reproduced the results calculated with reference input data files, and provided consistent results among all the solvers by using one common input data defined by CUDM. In addition, a detailed benchmark calculation for Chiba benchmark was performed by using the CUDM-benchmark. Chiba benchmark is a neutron transport benchmark problem for fast criticality assembly without homogenization. This benchmark problem consists of 4 core configurations which have different sodium void regions, and each core configuration is defined by more than 5,000 fuel/material cells. In this application, it was found that the results by IDT and SNT solvers agreed well with the reference results by Monte-Carlo code. In addition, model effects such as quadrature set effect, S n order effect and mesh size effect were systematically evaluated and summarized in this report. (author)

  8. Sodalite as a vehicle to increase Re retention in waste glass simulant during vitrification

    Luksic, Steven A., E-mail: steven.luksic@pnnl.gov; Riley, Brian J.; Parker, Kent E.; Hrma, Pavel

    2016-10-15

    Technetium (Tc) retention during Hanford waste vitrification can be increased if the volatility can be controlled. Incorporating Tc into a thermally stable mineral phase, such as sodalite, is one way to achieve increased retention. Here, rhenium (Re)-bearing sodalite was tested as a vehicle to transport perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup −}), a nonradioactive surrogate for pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup −}), into high-level (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glass simulants. After melting HLW and LAW simulant feeds, the retention of Re in the glass was measured and compared with the Re retention in glass prepared from a feed containing Re{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Phase analysis of sodalite in both these glasses across a profile of temperatures describes the durability of Re-sodalite during the feed-to-glass transition. The use of Re sodalite improved the Re retention by 21% for HLW glass and 85% for LAW glass, demonstrating the potential improvement in Tc-retention if TcO{sub 4}{sup −} were to be encapsulated in a Tc-sodalite prior to vitrification. - Highlights: • Re retention is improved by incorporation into sodalite structure. • LAW-type glass shows lower retention but larger improvement with Re-sodalite. • Sodalite is stable to higher temperatures in high-alumina glass melts.

  9. Evaluation of Structural Cellular Glass

    Adams, M. A.; Zwissler, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary design information presented. First report discusses state of structural-cellular-glass programs as of June 1979. Second report gives further details of program to develop improved cellular glasses and to characterize properties of glasses and commercially available materials.

  10. Electric glass capturing markets

    Wikman, K.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Electric glass has found its place on the construction market. In public buildings, electrically heatable windows are becoming the leading option for large glass walls. Studies on detached houses, both new and renovated, show that floor heating combined with electrically heatable windowpanes is the best choice with respect to resident`s comfort. (orig.)

  11. Radioresistance of inorganic glasses

    Vorob'ev, A.A.; Zavadovskaya, E.K.; Fedorov, B.V.; Starodubtsev, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Regularities are considered in the variation of properties of glass due to irradiations. On the basis of previous theoretical statements and experimental investigations, it is inferred that the irradiation resistance of glasses of the same type, synthesis conditions, content of impurities and amount of imperfections, is a function of the ''element-oxygen'' bond energy. The irradiation resistance depends on the number and the nature of glass structure imperfections. The averaged level of bonding forces is indicative of the glass formation temperature; the imperfections in glasses are formed in structure elements whose amount predominates as compared to the others. Electric charges which accumulate on the crack surface tend to increase its size, thus lessening even further the electric strength of the dielectric. The greater the irradiation time, the greater the number of irradiation imperfections causing a drop in the electric strength of glass. When choosing a glass for service in a radiation field, it is necessary to select those of a highest temperature of glass formation and with a least amount of imperfections

  12. Nucleation in ZBLAN glasses

    de Leede, G.L.A.; Waal, de H.

    1989-01-01

    Nucleation rates were detd. in a ZrF4-BaF2-NaF-LaF3-AlF3 glass (ZBLAN) using an optical method. The results were compared with a similar glass having a slightly different compn. The difference in the nucleation rate is explained by classical nucleation theory using calcd. free-energy differences

  13. Degradation of partially immersed glass: A new perspective

    Chinnam, R. K.; Fossati, P. C. M.; Lee, W. E.

    2018-05-01

    The International Simple Glass (ISG) is a six-component borosilicate glass which was developed as a reference for international collaborative studies on high level nuclear waste encapsulation. Its corrosion behaviour is typically examined when it is immersed in a leaching solution, or when it is exposed to water vapour. In this study, an alternative situation is considered in which the glass is only partially immersed for 7 weeks at a temperature of 90 °C. In this case, half of the glass sample is directly in the solution itself, and the other half is in contact with a water film formed by condensation of water vapour that evaporated from the solution. This results in a different degradation behaviour compared to standard tests in which the material is fully immersed. In particular, whilst in standard tests the system reaches a steady state with a very low alteration rate thanks to the formation of a protective gel layer, in partially-immersed tests this steady state could not be reached because of the continuous alteration from the condensate water film. The constant input of ions from the emerged part of the sample caused a supersaturation of the solution, which resulted in early precipitation of secondary crystalline phases. This setup mimics storage conditions once small amounts of water have entered a glass waste form containing canister. It offers a more realistic outlook of corrosion mechanisms happening in such situations than standard fully-immersed corrosion tests.

  14. Laser ablation of silicate glasses doped with transuranic actinides

    Gibson, J.K.; Haire, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Direct sampling laser ablation plasma mass spectrometry (DS-LAMS) was applied to silica glasses doped with 237 Np, 242 Pu or 241 Am using a unique instrument recently installed into a transuranic glovebox. The primary goal was to assess the utility of mass spectrometry of directly ablated ions for facile evaluation of actinide (An) constituents of silicate glass immobilization matrices used for encapsulation of radionuclides. The instrument and general procedures have been described elsewhere. Three high-purity silicate glasses prepared by a sol-gel process (SG) and one conventional high-temperature (HT; melting point ∼ 1,450 C) borosilicate glass were studied. These glasses comprised the following constituents, with compositions expressed in mass percentages: Np-HT ∼ 30% SiO 2 + 6% B 2 O 3 + 3% BaO + 13% Al 2 O 3 + 10% PbO + 30% La 2 O 3 + 8% 237 NpO 2 ; Np-SG ∼ 70% SiO 2 + 30% 237 NpO 2 ; Pu-SG ∼ 70% SiO 2 + 30% 242 PuO 2 ; Am-SG ∼ 85% SiO 2 + 15% 241 AmO 2

  15. Mechanical relaxation in glasses

    Hiki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties of glasses and the characteristics of mechanical relaxation in glasses were briefly reviewed, and then our studies concerned were presented. Experimental methods adopted were viscosity, internal friction, ultrasonic attenuation, and Brillouin scattering measurements. The specimens used were several kinds of inorganic, organic, and metallic glasses. The measurements were mainly carried out from the room temperature up to the glass transition temperature, and the relaxation time was determined as a function of temperature. The 'double relaxation' composed of two Arrhenius-type relaxations was observed in many materials. In both relaxations, the 'compensation effect' showing a correlation of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was observed. These results were explained by considering the 'complex relaxation' due to cooperative motions of atoms or group of atoms. Values of activation energy near the glass transition determined by the various experimental methods were compared with each other

  16. Polymorphism in glasses

    Landa, L.M.; Nikolaeva, I.N.

    1979-01-01

    To defect phase interfaces and spasmodic properties change, the inhomogeneity and the second radiation effects in quartz glass, metamict phase and intermediate states have been investigated. When irradiating with fast neutrons the transformation of quartz glass - metamict phase occurs completely. The transformation is completed at 2x10 20 part./cm 2 dose. Thermal treatment not only increases the number of inhomogeneities but also results in increasing quartz glass density. Annealing transforms the metamict phase into common quartz glass at 1400 K. The fact, that thermal treatment results in the complete transformation of metamict phase into quartz glass, and the inverse transformation occurs only partially, is quite regular, as the metamict phase has a lesser entropy and is a more ordered state. It is shown that different amorphous phases of a chemical composition have different structures and properties, that there are interfaces between them, and the transformation from one state to another in microvolumes is realized spasmodically and requires expenditure of energy

  17. Glass leaching performance

    Chick, L.A.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1983-05-01

    Current understanding of the leaching performance of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is summarized. The empirical model of waste glass leaching behavior developed shows that at high water flow rates the glass leach rate is kinetically limited to a maximum value. At intermediate water flow rates, leaching is limited by the solution concentration of silica and decreases with decreasing water flow rates. Release of soluble elements is controlled by silica dissolution because silica forms the binding network of the glass. At low water flow rates, mass loss rates reach values controlled by formation rates of alteration minerals, or by diffusion of dissolution products through essentially stagnant water. The parameters reviewed with respect to their quantifiable influence on leaching behavior include temperature, pH, leachant composition, glass composition, thermal history, and radiation. Of these, temperature is most important since the rate of mass loss approximately doubles with each 10 0 C increase in dilute solutions. The pH has small effects within the 4 to 10 range. The chemical composition of the leachant is most important with regard to its influence on alteration product formation. Glass composition exhibits the largest effects at high flow rates where improved glasses leach from ten to thirty times slower than glass 76 to 68. The effects of the thermal history (devitrification) of the glass are not likely to be significant. Radiation effects are important primarily in that radiolysis can potentially drive pH values to less than 4. Radiation damage to the glass causes insignificant changes in leaching performance

  18. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Marble Dust Particulate-Filled Needle-Punched Nonwoven Jute Fiber/Epoxy Composite

    Sharma, Ankush; Patnaik, Amar

    2018-03-01

    The present investigation evaluates the effects of waste marble dust, collected from the marble industries of Rajasthan, India, on the mechanical properties of needle-punched nonwoven jute fiber/epoxy composites. The composites with varying filler contents from 0 wt.% to 30 wt.% marble dust were prepared using vacuum-assisted resin-transfer molding. The influences of the filler material on the void content, tensile strength, flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), and thermal conductivity of the hybrid composites have been analyzed experimentally under the desired optimal conditions. The addition of marble dust up to 30 wt.% increases the flexural strength, ILSS, and thermal conductivity, but decreases the tensile strength. Subsequently, the fractured surfaces of the particulate-filled jute/epoxy composites were analyzed microstructurally by field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Laboratory study of SO2 dry deposition on limestone and marble: Effects of humidity and surface variables

    Spiker, E. C.; Hosker, R.P.; Weintraub, V.C.; Sherwood, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dry deposition of gaseous air pollutants on stone and other materials is influenced by atmospheric processes and the chemical characteristics of the deposited gas species and of the specific receptor material. Previous studies have shown that relative humidity, surface moisture, and acid buffering capability of the receptor surface are very important factors. To better quantify this behavior, a special recirculating wind tunnel/environmental chamber was constructed, in which wind speed, turbulence, air temperature, relative humidity, and concentrations of several pollutants (SO2, O3, nitrogen oxides) can be held constant. An airfoil sample holder holds up to eight stone samples (3.8 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick) in nearly identical exposure conditions. SO2 deposition on limestone was found to increase exponentially with increasing relative humidity (RH). Marble behaves similarly, but with a much lower deposition rate. Trends indicate there is little deposition below 20% RH on clean limestone and below 60% RH on clean marble. This large difference is due to the limestone's greater porosity, surface roughness, and effective surface area. These results indicate surface variables generally limit SO2 deposition below about 70% RH on limestone and below at least 95% RH on marble. Aerodynamic variables generally limit deposition at higher relative humidity or when the surface is wet.The dry deposition of gaseous air pollutants on stone and other materials is influenced by atmospheric processes and the chemical characteristics of the deposited gas species and of the specific receptor material. Previous studies have shown that relative humidity, surface moisture, and acid buffering capability of the receptor surface are very important factors. To better quantify this behavior, a special recirculating wind tunnel/environmental chamber was constructed, in which wind speed, turbulence, air temperature, relative humidity, and concentrations of several pollutants (SO2, O3

  20. Considerations for successful transplantation of encapsulated pancreatic islets

    de Vos, P; Hamel, AF; Tatarkiewicz, K

    Encapsulation of pancreatic islets allows for transplantion in the absence of immunosuppression. The technology is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected for the host immune system by an artificial membrane. Encapsulation offers a solution to the shortage of donors in clinical