Sample records for glass laser pumped

  1. Efficient room temperature cw Yb:glass laser pumped by a 946nm Nd:YAG laser

    Koch, R.; Clarkson, W.A.; Hanna, D.C.; Jiang, S.; Myers, M.J.; Rhonehouse, D.; Hamlin, S.J.; Griebner, U.; Schönnagel, H.


    By pumping with a cw diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 946nm laser operation of a new Yb-doped phosphate glass with 440mW cw output power and a slope efficiency of 48% with respect to the absorbed pump power was achieved at room temperature

  2. Development of laser diode pumped Nd:glass slab laser driver for the inertial fusion energy

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Kanabe, Tadashi; Yasuhara, Ryo


    A diode-pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) is promising candidate of reactor driver for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). As a first step of a driver development for the IFE, we are developing a laser diode pumped zig-zag Nd:glass slab laser amplifier system HALNA 10 (High Average-power Laser for Nuclear-fusion Application) which can generated an output of 10 J per pulse at 1053 nm in 10 Hz operation. The water-cooled zig zag Nd:glass slab is pumped from both sides by 803 nm AIGaAs laser diode (LD) module, each LD module has an emitting area of 420 mm x 10 mm and two LD modules generate in total 218 (max.) kW peak power with 2.6 kW/cm 2 peak intensity at 10 Hz repetition rate. We have obtained in first-stage experiment 8.5 J output energy at 0.5 Hz with a beam quality of 2 times diffraction limited far-field pattern, which nearly confirmed our conceptual design. Since the key issue for the IFE DPSSL drive module were almost satisfactory, we have a confidence that a next 100 J x 10 Hz DPSSL module (HALNA 100) can be constructed. Thermal effects in laser slab, Faraday rotator, Faraday isolator and Pockets cell and their managements are discussed.

  3. Analysis of Nd3+:glass, solar-pumped, high-powr laser systems

    Zapata, L. E.; Williams, M. D.


    The operating characteristics of Nd(3+):glass lasers energized by a solar concentrator were analyzed for the hosts YAG, silicate glass, and phosphate glass. The modeling is based on the slab zigzag laser geometry and assumes that chemical hardening methods for glass are successful in increasing glass hardness by a factor of 4. On this basis, it was found that a realistic 1-MW solar-pumped laser might be constructed from phosphate glass 4 sq m in area and 2 mm thick. If YAG were the host medium, a 1-MW solar-pumped laser need only be 0.5 sq m in area and 0.5 cm thick, which is already possible. In addition, Nd(3+) doped glass fibers were found to be excellent solar-pumped laser candidates. The small diameter of fibers eliminates thermal stress problems, and if their diameter is kept small (10 microns), they propagate a Gaussian single mode which can be expanded and transmitted long distances in space. Fiber lasers could then be used for communications in space or could be bundled and the individual beams summed or phase-matched for high-power operation.

  4. Laser diode pumped ND: Glass slab laser for inertial fusion energy

    Yamanaka, M.; Kanabe, T.; Matsui, H.


    As a first step of a driver development for the inertial fusion energy, we are developing a laser-diode-pumped zig-zag Nd:glass slab laser amplifier system HALNA 10 (High Average-power Laser for Nuclear-fusion Application) which can generate an output of 10 J per pulse at 1053 nm in 10 Hz operation. The water-cooled zig-zag Nd:glass slab is pumped from both sides by 803-nm AlGaAs laser-diode(LD) module; each LD module has an emitting area of 420 mm x 10 mm and two LD modules generated in total 218 (max.) kW peak power with 2.6kW/cm 2 peak intensity at 10 Hz repetition rate. We have obtained in a preliminary experiment a 8.5 J output energy at 0.5 Hz with beam quality of 2 times diffraction limited far-field pattern, which nearly confirmed our conceptual design. (author)

  5. Flashlamp pumped Ti-sapphire laser for ytterbium glass chirped pulse amplification

    Nishimura, Akihiko; Ohzu, Akira; Sugiyama, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; and others


    A flashlamp pumped Ti:sapphire laser is designed for ytterbium glass chirped pulse amplification. A high quality Ti:sapphire rod and a high energy long pulse discharging power supply are key components. The primary step is to produce the output power of 10 J per pulse at 920 nm. (author)

  6. Glass marking with diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser; Handotai reiki Nd:YLF laser ni yoru glass marking

    Sakai, F.; Hayashi, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The compact marking system based on a beam scanning system in which the fourth harmonic (FHG: 262 nm in wavelength) of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF (Nd:LiYf4) laser is used for the source of ultraviolet light is described. The result of application to the glass marking that caused a problem due to the generation of cracks is also explained. The machining characteristics significantly vary depending on the type of glass. During actual marking, sample processing must be beforehand carried out to optimize the processing conditions after confirming that there is no problem in practical use. For marking on the glass used for liquid-crystal board, it is valid to improve the density of a dot and increase the number of shots per dot for obtaining high visibility. However, cracks may occur in the clearance of each dot because of the thermal effect. Therefore, the processing conditions must be optimized according to the glass type and crack generation state. The generation of cracks can be suppressed by setting the processing conditions to the optimum level. As a result, satisfactory marking is obtained. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Diode-pumped glass laser (10 J X 10 HZ) development

    Tadashi Kanabe; Toshiyuki Kawashima; Masanobu Yamanaka; Masahiro Nakatsuka; Yasukazu Izawa; Takeshi Kanzaki; Hirofumi Kan; Sadao Nakai


    A high-energy, high beam quality, diode-pumped 1053-nm Nd:phosphate glass laser amplifier has been demonstrated in order to verify the conceptual design of HALNA (High Average-power Laser for Nuclear-fusion Application): a diode-pumped solid-state laser based on a water-cooled zig-zag slab optical geometry. This amplifier yielded 8.5 J output energy per pulse at 0.5 Hz in a 20 ns pulse of two times the diffraction limit beam quality with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 10.9%. The experimental results revealed that the primary requirements for the IFE driver, such as diode-pumping, energy storage and extraction efficiencies, and beam quality have been fulfilled

  8. Development of LD pumped 10 J x 10 Hz Nd: Glass slab laser system

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Kanabe, Tadashi; Matsui, Hideki


    As a first step of a driver development for the inertial fusion energy, we are developing a diode-pumped zig-zag Nd: glass slab laser amplifier system which can generate an output of 10 J per pulse at 1053 nm in 10 Hz operation. The water-cooled zig-zag Nd: glass slab is pumped from both sides by 803-nm AlGaAs laser-diode (LD) module; each LD module has an emitting area of 420 mm x 10 mm and two LD modules generated in total 200 kW peak power with 2.5 kW/cm 2 peak intensity at 10 Hz repetition rate. We have obtained in a preliminary experiment a 8.5 J output energy at 0.5 Hz with beam quality of 2 times diffraction limited far-field pattern. (author)

  9. Characterization of high power flashlamps and application to Nd:glass laser pumping

    Powell, H.T.; Erlandson, A.C.; Jancaitis, K.S.


    Detailed spectral and temporal measurements of the output radiation from Xe flashlamps are reported together with their use in predicting the pumping efficiency of Nd-doped laser glass. We have made absolute spectral-intensity measurements for 0.5, 1.5, and 4.2-cm-bore flashlamps for input powers ranging from 5 to 90 kW/cm 2 and pulselengths of 600 μs. Under quasi-stationary conditions these flashlamps emit essentially identical spectra when excited at equal input power per unit-area of the bore. This behavior is characteristic of an optically-thick radiator although it is not completely clear why flashlamps should behave this way. A simple model is also described which accounts for the transient response of flashlamps by characterizing the output spectra and radiation efficiencies in terms of the radiant output power rather than the electrical input power. 23 refs., 16 figs

  10. Research and development of improving the pumping efficiency of phosphate laser glass: Final report

    Izumitani, T.


    It is well known that Pt inclusion in laser glass remarkably lowers the damage threshold by laser beam. Present commercial laser glasses are produced so as to minimize the Pt inclusion. However, the damage due to small Pt inclusion, which has never seriously caused the laser damage in a lower fluence level, is getting to be a problem as the output fluence of laser increases. In NOVA system, most of laser glasses were damaged at fluence of 3 to 4 J/cm 2 . Since NOVA has been planned to operate at 10 J/cm 2 , this damage threshold is absolutely unacceptable and it should be increased. In this report we will show the basic conception to make a Pt inclusion free glass and its experimental results

  11. End-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with high energy and narrow pulse for glass carving

    Ling, Ming; Jin, Guang-yong; Tan, Xue-chun; Wu, Zhi-chao; Liang, Zhu


    In order to raise the accuracy of glass carving and improve deep cutting, a novel diode end-pumed solid-state laser is researched. Selecting proper volume of laser crytal, one continue wave laser diode which longitudinally pumped Nd:YAG crystal is performed and an applied optics coupling system is designed with self focusing.Computing with ray trace software and MATLAB software, the best parameter is obtained, so pumping beam is coupled efficiently to Nd:YAG.Used a Cr4+:YAG crystal with the singnal transmission of 82% and a line plane-concave cavity, nanosecond narrow pulse is gotten. After two thermal-electrical coolers kept the laser to work at constant temperature instead of water cooling, the volume of laser is markedly reduced. The method of thermal-electrical cooling could increase the system efficiency,achieve the effect of low mode output.Experimental results indicate that the maximum laser output energy in 1064 nm is 118mJ,pulse width is 5 ns, conversion efficiency from light to light is 15.7% under the condition of the incident power of 5 W and the diameter of the output laser spot is less than 1 mm. This end-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with the light output of high quality and long life, which has 0.01 mm accuracy after lens focusing can satisfy the glass carving with higher precision, rapid speed as well as easy control. It can be used in carving all kinds of glass and replace current CO2 laser.

  12. Computational model of dual q-switching and lasing processes of the pulsed Cr4+:YAG laser pumped by Nd-glass laser

    Abdul Ghani, B.; Hammadi, M.


    A mathematical model describing the absorption and oscillation processes of intracavity Cr 4+ : YAG crystal pumped by Nd-glass laser has been developed, in order to describe the temporal behavior of laser-absorber system. The model has been assumed that the Cr 4+ ions excited to a higher level by excited state absorption, followed by relaxation directly to the upper laser level through fast channel, and indirectly through slow proposed intermediate channel at different lifetimes. The model offers simple kinetic mechanisms for pulsed solid state lasers and also the influence of the variations of the laser input parameters (pumping rate, maximum amplification coefficient and loss coefficient) on the output pulse characteristics of the passive Q-switched Nd-glass and pulsed Cr 4+ : YAG lasers. The model estimates the temporal behavior of the population densities of different levels and laser beam densities as well as predicts the nanosecond output laser pulses of passive Q-switched Nd-glass laser and pulsed Cr 4+ : YAG laser. The calculated results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data in the literature. (author)

  13. Laser-induced nonlinear crystalline waveguide on glass fiber format and diode-pumped second harmonic generation

    Shi, Jindan; Feng, Xian


    We report a diode pumped self-frequency-doubled nonlinear crystalline waveguide on glass fiber. A ribbon fiber has been drawn on the glass composition of 50GeO2-25B2O3-25(La,Yb)2O3. Surface channel waveguides have been written on the surface of the ribbon fiber, using space-selective laser heating method with the assistance of a 244 nm CW UV laser. The Raman spectrum of the written area indicates that the waveguide is composed of structure-deformed nonlinear (La,Yb)BGeO5 crystal. The laser-induced surface wavy cracks have also been observed and the forming mechanism of the wavy cracks has been discussed. Efficient second harmonic generation has been observed from the laser-induced crystalline waveguide, using a 976 nm diode pump. 13 μW of 488 nm output has been observed from a 17 mm long waveguide with 26.0 mW of launched diode pump power, corresponding to a normalized conversion efficiency of 4.4%W-1.

  14. Effect of thermal lens on beam quality and mode matching in LD pumped Er-Yb-codoped phosphate glass microchip laser

    Liu Shujing; Song Feng; Cai Hong; Li Teng; Tian Bin; Wu Zhaohui; Tian Jianguo [Photonics Center, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Fabrication for Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics Materials (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)


    The theoretical values of the thermal focal length and laser beam waist are derived from the theoretical model and transformation theory, respectively. The values of thermal focal length, laser beam waist and the far field divergence angle were experimentally measured in a laser diode (LD) pumped erbium-ytterbium(Er-Yb)-codoped phosphate microchip glass laser. As an extension of thermal effect studies, we investigate the role of thermal lens on beam quality and the mode matching between the pump and the laser, which affects laser efficiency in TEM{sub 00} operation. The study shows that the experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  15. High-efficiency ytterbium-free erbium-doped all-glass double cladding silicate glass fiber for resonantly-pumped fiber lasers.

    Qiang, Zexuan; Geng, Jihong; Luo, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Shibin


    A highly efficient ytterbium-free erbium-doped silicate glass fiber has been developed for high-power fiber laser applications at an eye-safe wavelength near 1.55 μm. Our preliminary experiments show that high laser efficiency can be obtained from a relatively short length of the gain fiber when resonantly pumped at 1535 nm in both core- and cladding-pumping configurations. With a core-pumping configuration as high as 75%, optical-to-optical efficiency and 4 W output power were obtained at 1560 nm from a 1 m long gain fiber. When using a cladding-pumping configuration, approximately 13 W output power with 67.7% slope efficiency was demonstrated from a piece of 2 m long fiber. The lengths of silicate-based gain fiber are much shorter than their silica-based counterparts used in other experiments, which is significantly important for high-power narrow-band and/or pulsed laser applications.

  16. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    Prelas, Mark


    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  17. Solar pumped laser

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Weaver, W. R. (Inventor)


    A solar pumped laser is described in which the lasant is a gas that will photodissociate and lase when subjected to sunrays. Sunrays are collected and directed onto the gas lasant to cause it to lase. Applications to laser propulsion and laser power transmission are discussed.

  18. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    Jassby, D.L.


    A nuclear pumped laser is described comprising: a toroidal fusion reactor, the reactor generating energetic neutrons; an annular gas cell disposed around the outer periphery of the reactor, the cell including an annular reflecting mirror disposed at the bottom of the cell and an annular output window disposed at the top of the cell; a gas lasing medium disposed within the annular cell for generating output laser radiation; neutron reflector material means disposed around the annular cell for reflecting neutrons incident thereon back into the gas cell; neutron moderator material means disposed between the reactor and the gas cell and between the gas cell and the neutron reflector material for moderating the energy of energetic neutrons from the reactor; converting means for converting energy from the moderated neutrons to energy pumping means for pumping the gas lasing medium; and beam compactor means for receiving output laser radiation from the annular output window and generating a single output laser beam therefrom

  19. Optically pumped laser systems

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.


    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  20. Thermal fracture and pump limit of Nd: glass

    Wang Mingzhe; Ma Wen; Tan Jichun; Zhang Yongliang; Li Mingzhong; Jing Feng


    Based on published fracture experiments and 3D transient finite-element analyses, and taking the first principal stress as the criterion and the Griffith crack theory to determine the critical fracture stress, a Weibull statistical model is established to predict the fracture possibility of Nd: glass with certain pump parameters. Other issues which limit the pump power are also presented. The results show that the fracture limit of laser medium depends on the optical polishing technology. For a short pulse and high energy Nd: glass laser, taking America's polishing technology in the 1990s as reference,the pump saturation limits the pump power to 18 kW/cm 2 when the repetition rate is lower than 1 Hz, while the thermal fracture limits the pump power when the repetition rate is higher than 10 Hz. (authors)

  1. Diode laser pumping

    Skagerlund, L.E.


    A diode laser is pumped or pulsed by a repeated capacitive discharge. A capacitor is periodically charged from a dc voltage source via a transformer, the capacitor being discharged through the diode laser via a controlled switching means after one or more charging periods. During a first interval of each charging period the transformer, while unloaded, stores a specific amount of energy supplied from the dc voltage source. During a subsequent interval of the charging period said specific amount of energy is transmitted from the transformer to the capacitor. The discharging of the capacitor takes place during a first interval of a charging period. (auth)

  2. Direct solar-pumped lasers

    Lee, J. H.; Shiu, Y. J.; Weaver, W. R.


    The feasibility of direct solar pumping of an iodine photodissociation laser at lambda = 1.315 microns was investigated. Threshold inversion density and effect of elevated temperature (up to 670 K) on the laser output were measured. These results and the concentration of solar radiation required for the solar pumped iodine laser are discussed.

  3. Enhanced 2.7 μm emission from Er3+ doped oxyfluoride tellurite glasses for a diode-pump mid-infrared laser

    F. F. Zhang


    Full Text Available The influence of fluoride and shielding gas (O2 or Ar on the physical and spectroscopic properties of Er3+ doped TeO2-ZnO-ZnF2 glass system is investigated. The larger electronegativity of F than O accounts for the gradual decrease of refractive index, density, and J-O parameters with increasing ZnF2. An analysis on Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra reveals that the absorption coefficient of OH− around 3 μm as low as 0.247 cm−1 can be achieved when 30 mol% ZnF2 containing sample is treated with Ar gas during glass melting process. The reduction of OH− groups combined with the low multiphonon relaxation rate (207 s−1 contributes to the enhanced emissions at 1.5 and 2.7 μm, along with prolonged lifetimes of 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 levels. A high branching ratio (17.95% corresponding to the Er3+: 4I11/2 → 4I13/2 transition, the large absorption and emission cross section (0.44 × 10−20 cm2 and 0.45 × 10−20 cm2, and good gain cross section demonstrate that oxyfluoride tellurite glass could be a promising material for a diode-pump 2.7 μm fiber laser.

  4. Tunable femtosecond lasers with low pump thresholds

    Oppo, Karen

    The work in this thesis is concerned with the development of tunable, femtosecond laser systems, exhibiting low pump threshold powers. The main motive for this work was the development of a low threshold, self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser in order to replace the conventional large-frame argon-ion pump laser with a more compact and efficient all-solid-state alternative. Results are also presented for an all-solid-state, self-modelocked Cr:LiSAF laser, however most of this work is concerned with self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser systems. In chapter 2, the operation of a regeneratively-initiated, and a hard-aperture self- modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser, pumped by an argon-ion laser, is discussed. Continuous- wave oscillation thresholds as low as 160mW have been demonstrated, along with self-modelocked threshold powers as low as 500mW. The measurement and suppression of phase noise on modelocked lasers is discussed in chapter 3. This is followed by a comparison of the phase noise characteristics of the regeneratively-initiated, and hard-aperture self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 lasers. The use of a synchronously-operating, high resolution electron-optical streak camera in the evaluation of timing jitter is also presented. In chapter 4, the construction and self-modelocked operation of an all-solid-state Ti:Al2O3 laser is described. The all-solid-state alternative to the conventional argon-ion pump laser was a continuous-wave, intracavity-frequency doubled, diode-laser pumped Nd:YLF ring laser. At a total diode-laser pump power of 10W, this minilaser was capable of producing a single frequency output of 1W, at 523.5nm in a TEM00 beam. The remainder of this thesis looks at the operation of a self-modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser generating ultrashort pulses at wavelengths as long as 1053nm. The motive for this work was the development of an all-solid-state, self- modelocked Ti:Al2O3 laser operating at 1053nm, for use as a master oscillator in a Nd:glass power chain.

  5. Laser pumped lasers for isotope separation

    Fry, S.M.


    A study of the isotope separation laser requirements reveals that high pressure polyatomic molecular gas laser pumped lasers can attain the necessary characteristics including tunability, energy output, pulse width, and repetition rate. The results of a search, made for molecules meeting the appropriate requirements for one of several pump schemes utilizing a CO 2 laser and with output in the 12 μm or 16μm wavelength range, are presented. Several methods of pumping are reviewed and two novel pump schemes are presented. A laser pumped laser device design is given, and operation of this device and associated diagnostic equipment is confirmed by repeating experiments in OCS and NH 3 . The results of OCS laser experiments show that an improvement in pump rate and output per unit length is obtained with the device, using a wedged transverse pumping scheme. A new multi-line laser system in NH 3 pumped by a TEA CO 2 laser is reported. More than forty transitions spanning the wavelength range of 9.2 to 13.8 μm are observed and identified. A strong output at 12.08 μm is one of the closest lines yet found to the required laser isotope separation wavelength. Far infrared emission near 65 μm is observed and is responsible for populating levels which lase in pure ammonia near 12.3 μm. Buffer gas (e.g., N 2 or He) pressures of approximately 40--800 torr cause energy transfer by collision-induced rotationaltransitions from the pumped antisymmetric to the lasing symmetric levels in the nu 2 = 1 band of ammonia. Most of the observed lines are aP(J,K) transitions which originate from the nu 2 /sup s/ band. Measurements of the pressure dependence of the laser output shows that some lines lase at pressures greater than one atmosphere. Transient behavior of the 12.08 μm line is calculated from a simplified analytic model and these calculations are compared to the experimental results

  6. Numerical calculations of the absorption and oscillation processes in the nonlinear polarized crystal Cr4+:YAG pumped by Nd-glass laser

    Abdul Ghani, B.; Hammadi, M.


    A mathematical model describing the dynamic emission of intracavity isotropic Cr 4+ : YAG polarized solid-state saturable absorber as a tool of dual Q-switching and lasing processes 1.06 μm and 1.4 μm by double pumping pulse has been developed. This model describes the time evolution of interaction between the pumping laser pulse with a changed polarization state and the polarized absorber. (author)

  7. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary


    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  8. All-Glass Fiber Amplifier Pumped by Ultra-High Brightness Pumps


    coating can exceed its long-term damage threshold. Such a concern obviously does not apply to a fiber with gold protective coating [14]. Thus in... coated triple-clad fibers, we are developing triple-clad Yb fiber with gold coating for improved thermal management. 2.1 Pump laser The still an acrylate coating outside the glass clad for fiber handling and protection . Calculation shows that the temperature of the fiber acrylate

  9. A longitudinally-pumped laser (specifically, pulse-pumped lasers)

    Wojtkowiak, J


    A laser is proposed that employs travelling-wave pumping, for which no less than four electrodes, interconnected with coaxial transmission lines with a feed network, are placed at specific distances from each other in a discharge channel filled with an active medium. An expression is given for determining the length of the coaxial sections.

  10. Recent developments in laser glasses

    Weber, M.J.


    The past decade has witnessed a proliferation of new glass-forming compositions including oxides, halides, oxyhalides, and chalcogenides. Many of these glasses are applicable to lasers and have greatly expanded the range of optical properties and spectroscopic parameters available to the laser designer. Our knowledge and understanding of many properties of interest for laser action - transparency, linear and nonlinear refractive indices, and damage threshold of the host glass and the absorption spectrum, radiative and nonradiative transition probabilities, fluorescence wavelength, stimulated emission cross section, and spectroscopic inhomogeneities of the lasing ion Nd 3 + - are reviewed

  11. Cost Effective, Scalable Optically Pumped Molecular Laser

    Nicholson, Jeff


    An optically pumped, For laser was demonstrated operating at 4.0 micrometers. This is the first demonstration of an HBr laser by direct optical pumping of the 0 right arrow 3 vibrational overtone band at 1.34 micrometers...

  12. Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity

    Chang, Jim J.; Bass, Isaac L.; Zapata, Luis E.


    A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

  13. Simulations of longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier

    Takehisa, Kiwamu; Takemori, Satoshi


    Simulations of a copper laser pumped dye laser amplifier and new designs of the longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier are presented. The simulations take the consideration of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The new designs utilize a center-hole reflector instead of a dichroic mirror. The simulation results indicate that the poor spatial overlap between the pump beam and the dye beam in the transverse pumping not only reduces the laser output power, but also generates ASE strongly. The results also indicate that the longitudinal pumping is as efficient as the transverse pumping. (author)

  14. Fusion pumped laser

    Pappas, D.S.


    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    Deri, R.J.


    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a ∼ 200 (micro)s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and

  16. Diode-pumped laser with improved pumping system

    Chang, Jim J.


    A laser wherein pump radiation from laser diodes is delivered to a pump chamber and into the lasing medium by quasi-three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator light channels. The light channels have reflective side walls with a curved surface and reflective end walls with a curved surface. A flow tube between the lasing medium and the light channel has a roughened surface.

  17. Laser Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers


    Report N66001-83-C-0071, 17 April 1986, prepared for NOSC. 4.6 W.T. Welford, R. Winston , "The Option of Nonimaging Concentrators ," Academic Press, non-imac optics such as reflective or refractive flux concentrators . Simple considerations regarding the optimum pumping configuration, high marks...reduced if the arrays can stand-off from the Nd:YAG laser. As mentioned before, compound parabolic concentrators or refractive optics cat employed to

  18. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.


    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  19. Efficient laser-diode end-pumped Nd:GGG lasers at 1054 and 1067 nm.

    Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Camy, P; Doualan, J L; Moncorgé, R


    Efficient and compact laser-diode end-pumped Nd:GGG simultaneous multiwavelength continuous-wave lasers at ∼1059, ∼1060 and ∼1062  nm were first demonstrated in a free-running 30 mm plano-concave laser cavity. The maximum output power was up to 3.92 W with a slope efficiency of about 53.6% with respect to the absorbed pump power. By inserting a 0.1 mm optical glass plate acting as a Fabry-Pérot etalon, a single-wavelength laser at ∼1067  nm with a maximum output power of 1.95 W and a slope efficiency of 28.5% can be obtained. Multiwavelength lasers, including those at ∼1054 or ∼1067  nm, were also achievable by suitably tilting the glass etalon. These simultaneous multiwavelength lasers provide a potential source for terahertz wave generation.

  20. New Erbium Doped Antimony Glasses for Laser and Glass ...

    Because of the special spectroscopic properties of the rare earth ions, rare earth doped glasses are widely used in bulk and fiber lasers or amplifiers. The modelling of lasers and searching for new laser transitions require a precise knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in different host glasses.

  1. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.


    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  2. Cladding For Transversely-Pumped Laser Rod

    Byer, Robert L.; Fan, Tso Yee


    Combination of suitable dimensioning and cladding of neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet of similar solid-state laser provides for more efficient utilization of transversely-incident pump light from diode lasers. New design overcomes some of limitations of longitudinal- and older transverse-pumping concepts and promotes operation at higher output powers in TEM00 mode.

  3. Ultra-stable, diode-pumped Nd-doped glass regenerative amplifier for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Crane, J.K.; Martinez, M.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.; Pratt, G.; Christensen, J.J.


    We describe a diode laser-pumped Nd:glass regenerative amplifier that amplifies temporally shaped pulses with low distortion, high pulse-to- pulse stability, and high gain. This laser amplifier is a prototype subsystem for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. 2 refs., 1 fig

  4. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon


    The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

  5. Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.


    Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

  6. Theoretcial studies of solar-pumped lasers

    Harries, W. L.; Fong, Z. S.


    A method of pumping a COhZ laser by a hot cavity was demonstrated. The cavity, heated by solar radiation, should increase the efficiency of solar pumped lasers used for energy conversion. Kinetic modeling is used to examine the behavior of such a COhZ laser. The kinetic equations are solved numerically vs. time and, in addition, steady state solutions are obtained analytically. The effect of gas heating filling the lower laser level is included. The output power and laser efficiency are obtained as functions of black body temperature and gas ratios (COhZ-He-Ar) and pressures. The values are compared with experimental results.

  7. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    Han, Kwang S.


    This semiannual progress report covers the period from March 1, 1987 to September 30, 1987 under NASA grant NAG1-441 entitled 'Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier'. During this period Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals have been tested for the solar-simulator pumped cw laser, and loss mechanisms of the laser output power in a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser also have been identified theoretically. It was observed that the threshold pump-beam intensities for both Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals were about 1000 solar constants, and the cw laser operation of the Nd:Cr:GSGG crystal was more difficult than that of the Nd:YAG crystal under the solar-simulator pumping. The possibility of the Nd:Cr:GSGG laser operation with a fast continuously chopped pumping was also observed. In addition, good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the experimental data on the loss mechanisms of a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser at various fill pressures and various lasants was achieved.

  8. Tapered diode laser pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael


    We successfully implemented a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser based on a 808 nm tapered diode pump laser. The tapered diode is developed at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute fur Hochstfrequenztechnik in Germany. Figure 2 shows the experimental setup and results of each pump source coupled into a 1.5 mm crystal...... laser, we show that tapered diode laser pumping potentially increase the power of 946 nm lasers by a factor of two and reduce the threshold by a factor of three....

  9. Status of Nuclear-Pumped Laser research

    Prelas, M.A.


    The field of Nuclear-Pumped lasers (NPLs) has progressed in many directions since the discovery of the first NPL in 1974. This paper discusses developments in the area of coupling nuclear energy to a laser media, kinetics, and the integration of nuclear reactors to a laser (or other types of energy conversion medium). Many questions about the process of nuclear-pumping have been examined since the discovery of the first NPL in 1974. During a period of time between 1974 and 1981, several types of lasers have been driven by nuclear reactions (ie rare gas lasers, impurity type lasers, molecular lasers, and an ion laser). Three of the lasers discovered, had demonstrated efficiencies of >1%. In addition, volume scaling of NPLs was demonstrated

  10. Ho:YLF pumped HBr laser

    Botha, LR


    Full Text Available , “Optically Pumped Mid-Infrared HBr Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2395–2400 (1994). 2. C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicolson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade Lasing of Molecular HBr in the Four Micron Region Pumped by a Nd:YAG laser...-Infrared Coherent Sources, (European Physical Society 2009) Invited Talk Mo3. 5. C. Bollig, H. J. Strauss, M. J. D. Esser, W. Koen, M.Schellhorn, D. Preussler, K. Nyangaza, C. Jacobs, E. H. Bernardi and L. R. Botha, “Compact Fibre-Laser-Pumped Ho:YLF Oscillator...

  11. Research on solar pumped liquid lasers

    Schneider, R. T.; Kurzweg, U. H.; Cox, J. D.; Weinstein, N. H.


    A solar pumped liquid laser that can be scaled up to high power (10Mw CW) for space applications was developed. Liquid lasers have the inherent advantage over gases in that they provide much higher lasant densities and thus high power densities. Liquids also have inherent advantages over solids in that they have much higher damage thresholds and are much cheaper to produce for large scale applications. Among the liquid laser media that are potential candidates for solar pumping, the POC13:Nd(3+):ZrC14 liquid was chosen for its high intrinsic efficiency as well as its relatively good stability against decomposition due to protic contamination. The development and testing of the laser liquid and the development of a large solar concentrator to pump the laser was emphasized. The procedure to manufacture the laser liquid must include diagnostic tests of the solvent purity (from protic contamination) at various stages in the production process.

  12. A micro surface tension pump (MISPU) in a glass microchip.

    Peng, Xing Yue Larry


    A non-membrane micro surface tension pump (MISPU) was fabricated on a glass microchip by one-step glass etching. It needs no material other than glass and is driven by digital gas pressure. The MISPU can be seen working like a piston pump inside the glass microchip under a microscope. The design of the valves (MISVA) and pistons (MISTON) was based on the surface tension theory of the micro surface tension alveolus (MISTA). The digital gas pressure controls the moving gas-liquid interface to open or close the input and output MISVAs to refill or drive the MISTON for pumping a liquid. Without any moving parts, a MISPU is a kind of long-lasting micro pump for micro chips that does not lose its water pumping efficiency over a 20-day period. The volumetric pump output varied from 0 to 10 nl s(-1) when the pump cycle time decreased from 5 min to 15 s. The pump head pressure was 1 kPa.

  13. Compact electron accelerator for pumping gas lasers

    Duncan, C.V.; Bradley, L.P.


    A description is given of the design and application of a simple e-beam generator for the repetitive pulse pumping of gas lasers. The circuit uses a low inductance Marx and series tuned pulse forming elements

  14. Exploding conducting film laser pumping apparatus

    Ware, K.D.; Jones, C.R.


    The 342-nm molecular iodine and the atomic iodine lasers have been optically pumped by intense light from exploding-metal-film discharges. Brightness temperatures for the exploding-film discharges were approximately 25,000 K. Although lower output energies were achieved for such discharges when compared to exploding-wire techniques, the larger surface area and smaller inductance inherent in the exploding-film should lead to improved efficiency for optically-pumped gas lasers.

  15. Research on solar pumped liquid lasers

    Cox, J. D.; Kurzweg, U. H.; Weinstein, N. H.; Schneider, R. T.


    A solar pumped liquid laser that can be scaled up to high power (10 mW CW) for space applications was developed. Liquid lasers have the advantage over gases in that they provide much higher lasant densities and thus high-power densities. Liquids also have advantages over solids in that they have much higher damage thresholds and are much cheaper to produce for large scale applications. Among the liquid laser media that are potential candidates for solar pumping, the POC13: Nd sup 3+:ZrC14 liquid was chosen for its high intrinsic efficiency and its relatively good stability against decomposition due to protic contamination. The development of a manufacturing procedure and performance testing of the laser, liquid and the development of an inexpensive large solar concentrator to pump the laser are examined.

  16. Radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser

    Kubo, Uichi; Ishiguro, Takahide


    This paper describes the radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser. It is compared YAG-SH (530 nm) with CVL (511, 578 nm) and CVL (511 nm) for pumping source. Influence of solvent in dye laser power was examined. The present experimental results show that efficiency of CVL (511 nm) pumped dye laser was most high. When the dye solution is at a standstill, the efficiency of dye laser with water and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (S.L.S., 2 %wt.) was most high among the four kinds of solvent. In the condition of dye solution flow, the water and S.L.S. or ethylene glycol was useful solvent for dye laser.

  17. Radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser

    Kubo, Uichi; Ishiguro, Takahide.


    This paper describes the radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser. It is compared YAG-SH (530 nm) with CVL (511, 578 nm) and CVL (511 nm) for pumping source. Influence of solvent in dye laser power was examined. The present experimental results show that efficiency of CVL (511 nm) pumped dye laser was most high. When the dye solution is at a standstill, the efficiency of dye laser with water and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (S.L.S., 2 %wt.) was most high among the four kinds of solvent. In the condition of dye solution flow, the water and S.L.S. or Ethylene Glycol was useful solvent for dye laser. (author)


    Caird, J.A.; Agrawal, V.; Bayramian, A.; Beach, R.; Britten, J.; Chen, D.; Cross, R.; Ebbers, C.; Erlandson, A.; Feit, M.; Freitas, B.; Ghosh, C.; Haefner, C.; Homoelle, D.; Ladran, T.; Latkowski, J.; Molander, W.; Murray, J.; Rubenchik, S.; Schaffers, K.; Siders, C.W.; Stappaerts, E.; Sutton, S.; Telford, S.; Trenholme, J.; Barty, C.J.


    We have developed preliminary conceptual laser system designs for the Laser ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) Fission Energy (LIFE) application. Our approach leverages experience in high-energy Nd:glass laser technology developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), along with high-energy-class diode-pumped solid-state laser (HEC-DPSSL) technology developed for the DOE's High Average Power Laser (HAPL) Program and embodied in LLNL's Mercury laser system. We present laser system designs suitable for both indirect-drive, hot spot ignition and indirect-drive, fast ignition targets. Main amplifiers for both systems use laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass slabs oriented at Brewster's angle, as in NIF, but the slabs are much thinner to allow for cooling by high-velocity helium gas as in the Mercury laser system. We also describe a plan to mass-produce pump-diode lasers to bring diode costs down to the order of $0.01 per Watt of peak output power, as needed to make the LIFE application economically attractive


    Caird, J A; Agrawal, V; Bayramian, A; Beach, R; Britten, J; Chen, D; Cross, R; Ebbers, C; Erlandson, A; Feit, M; Freitas, B; Ghosh, C; Haefner, C; Homoelle, D; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; Molander, W; Murray, J; Rubenchik, S; Schaffers, K; Siders, C W; Stappaerts, E; Sutton, S; Telford, S; Trenholme, J; Barty, C J


    We have developed preliminary conceptual laser system designs for the Laser ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) Fission Energy (LIFE) application. Our approach leverages experience in high-energy Nd:glass laser technology developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), along with high-energy-class diode-pumped solid-state laser (HEC-DPSSL) technology developed for the DOE's High Average Power Laser (HAPL) Program and embodied in LLNL's Mercury laser system. We present laser system designs suitable for both indirect-drive, hot spot ignition and indirect-drive, fast ignition targets. Main amplifiers for both systems use laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass slabs oriented at Brewster's angle, as in NIF, but the slabs are much thinner to allow for cooling by high-velocity helium gas as in the Mercury laser system. We also describe a plan to mass-produce pump-diode lasers to bring diode costs down to the order of $0.01 per Watt of peak output power, as needed to make the LIFE application economically attractive.

  20. Phosphate-core silica-clad Er/Yb-doped optical fiber and cladding pumped laser.

    Egorova, O N; Semjonov, S L; Velmiskin, V V; Yatsenko, Yu P; Sverchkov, S E; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Dianov, E M


    We present a composite optical fiber with a Er/Yb co-doped phosphate-glass core in a silica glass cladding as well as cladding pumped laser. The fabrication process, optical properties, and lasing parameters are described. The slope efficiency under 980 nm cladding pumping reached 39% with respect to the absorbed pump power and 28% with respect to the coupled pump power. Due to high doping level of the phosphate core optimal length was several times shorter than that of silica core fibers.

  1. Tunable diode-pumped-LNA laser

    Cassimi, A.; Hardy, V.; Hamel, J.; Leduc, M.


    Diode-pumped crystals provided recently new compact laser devices. We report the first end pumping of a La x Nd 1-x MgAl 11 O 19 (LNA) crystal using a 200mW diode array (Spectra Diode Lab). We also report the first results obtained with a 1mW diode (SONY). This C.W. laser can be tuned from 1.048μm to 1.086μm. Without selective elements in the cavity, the laser emits around 1.054μm with a threshold of 24mW and a slope efficiency of 4.4% (output mirror of transmission T = 1%) when pumped by the diode array. With the selective elements, the threshold increases to 100mW and we obtain a power of 4mW for a pump power of 200mW

  2. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.


    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  3. High-Power ZBLAN Glass Fiber Lasers: Review and Prospect

    Xiushan Zhu


    Full Text Available ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF, considered as the most stable heavy metal fluoride glass and the excellent host for rare-earth ions, has been extensively used for efficient and compact ultraviolet, visible, and infrared fiber lasers due to its low intrinsic loss, wide transparency window, and small phonon energy. In this paper, the historical progress and the properties of fluoride glasses and the fabrication of ZBLAN fibers are briefly described. Advances of infrared, upconversion, and supercontinuum ZBLAN fiber lasers are addressed in detail. Finally, constraints on the power scaling of ZBLAN fiber lasers are analyzed and discussed. ZBLAN fiber lasers are showing promise of generating high-power emissions covering from ultraviolet to mid-infrared considering the recent advances in newly designed optical fibers, beam-shaped high-power pump diodes, beam combining techniques, and heat-dissipating technology.

  4. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Kim, Khong Hon; Stock, Larry V.


    A XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator was developed which will be incorporated into the Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) system. The developed XeCl laser produces output energy of about 60 mJ per pulse. The pulse duration was about 10 nsec. The kinetic model for the solar-pumped laser was refined and the algorithm for the calculation of a set of rate equations was improved to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the calculation. The improved algorithm was applied to explain the existing experimental data taken from a flashlamp pumped iodine laser for three kinds of lasants, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, and t-C4F9I. Various solid laser materials were evaluated for solar-pumping. The materials studied were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and Cr:Nd:GSGG crystals. The slope efficiency of 0.17 percent was measured for the Nd:YLF near the threshold pump intensity which was 211 solar constants (29W/sq cm). The threshold pump intensity of the Nd:YAG was measured to be 236 solar constants (32W/sq cm) and the near-threshold slope efficiency was 0.12 percent. True CW laser operation of Cr:Nd:GSGG was possible only at pump intensities less than or equal to 1,500 solar constants (203 W/sq cm). This fact was attributed to the high thermal focusing effect of the Cr:Nd:GSGG rod.


    B. Tioua


    Full Text Available Because of the special spectroscopic properties of the rare earth ions, rare earth doped glasses are widely used in bulk and fiber lasers or amplifiers. The modelling of lasers and searching for new laser transitions require a precise knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in different host glasses. In this poster will offer new doped erbium glasses synthesized in silicate crucibles were obtained in the combination Sb2O3-WO3-Na2O. Several properties are measured and correlated with glass compositions. The absorption spectral studies have been performed for erbium doped glasses. The intensities of various absorption bands of the doped glasses are measured and the Judd-Ofelt parameters have been computed. From the theory of Judd-Ofelt, various radiative properties, such as transition probability, branching ratio and radiative life time for various emission levels of these doped glasses have been determined and reported. These results confirm the ability of antimony glasses for glass amplification.

  6. Laser optically pumped by laser-produced plasma

    Silfvast, W.T.; Wood, O.R. II.


    Laser solids, liquids and gases are pumped by a new technique in which the output from an efficient molecular laser, such as a CO 2 laser, ionizes a medium, such as xenon, into a generally cylindrical plasma volume, in proximity to the pumped laser body. Breakdown yields a visible and ultraviolet-radiation-emitting plasma in that volume to pump the laser body. The spectral radiance of the plasma is significantly higher than that produced by a dc-discharge-heated plasma at nearly all wavelengths in the plasma spectrum. The risetime of radiation from the laser-produced plasma can also be significantly shorter than that of a dc heated plasma. A further advantage resides in the fact that in some applications the attenuating walls needed by flashlamps may be eliminated with the result that laser threshold is more readily reached. Traveling wave excitation may be provided by oblique incidence of the pumping laser beam through the ionizable medium to create sequential ionization of portions of that medium along the length of the pumped laser body. (auth)

  7. Solar Pumped Lasers and Their Applications

    Lee, Ja H.


    Since 1980, NASA has been pursuing high power solar lasers as part of the space power beaming program. Materials in liquid, solid, and gas phases have been evaluated against the requirements for solar pumping. Two basic characteristics of solar insolation, namely its diffuse irradiance and 5800 K blackbody-like spectrum, impose rather stringent requirements for laser excitation. However, meeting these requirements is not insurmountable as solar thermal energy technology has progressed today, and taking advantage of solar pumping lasers is becoming increasingly attractive. The high density photons of concentrated solar energy have been used for mainly electric power generation and thermal processing of materials by the DOE Solar Thermal Technologies Program. However, the photons can interact with materials through many other direct kinetic paths, and applications of the concentrated photons could be extended to processes requiring photolysis, photosynthesis, and photoexcitation. The use of solar pumped lasers on Earth seems constrained by economics and sociopolitics. Therefore, prospective applications may be limited to those that require use of quantum effects and coherency of the laser in order to generate extremely high value products and services when conventional and inexpensive means are ineffective or impossible. The new applications already proposed for concentrated solar photons, such as destruction of hazardous waste, production of renewable fuel, production of fertilizer, and air/water pollution controls, may benefit from the use of inexpensive solar pumped laser matched with the photochemical kinetics of these processes.

  8. Solar pumped continuous wave carbon dioxide laser

    Yesil, O.; Christiansen, W. H.


    In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar pumped laser concept, gain has been measured in a CO2-He laser medium optically pumped by blackbody radiation. Various gas mixtures of CO2 and He have been pumped by blackbody radiation emitted from an electrically heated oven. Using a CO2 laser as a probe, an optical gain coefficient of 1.8 x 10 to the -3rd/cm has been measured at 10.6 microns for a 9:1 CO2-He mixture at an oven temperature of about 1500 K, a gas temperature of about 400 K and a pressure of about 1 torr. This corresponds to a small signal gain coefficient when allowance is made for saturation effects due to the probe beam, in reasonable agreement with a theoretical value.

  9. Diode laser-pumped Ho:YLF laser

    Hemmati, H.


    The author reports laser action in Ho:YLF at 2.06 μm following optical pumping with a cw diode laser array. Diode laser-pumped Nd-YAG and Ho:YAG have been reported recently. Lasers with a wavelength of 2 μm have medical and optical communication applications. The diode laser light is focused with a 60-mm focal length lens onto the YLF crystal. A high-reflectivity mirror with 100-mm radius of curvature was used as the output coupler. The lasing threshold was at 5 mWof incident power. This is higher than expected considering that a high reflector was used as the output coupler. However, a more uniform cooling of the crystal is expected to lower the lasing threshold. With 100 mW of pump power coupled into the crystal, --20 mW of 2-μm radiation was observed from this unoptimized setup. The 2-μm laser output is highly sensitive to output coupler alignment, YLF crystal temperature, and pump laser wavelength. The 20% optical conversion efficiency achieved in his preliminary measurements is expected to be improved by better crystal cooling, proper matching of laser wavelength to crystal absorption, variations in the concentration of Ho and sensitizers and use of a proper output coupler. A study of the parameters mentioned above and the effect of crystal temperature on the laser output is under way

  10. Threshold pump power of a solar-pumped dye laser

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.


    Threshold solar power for dye laser pumping has been determined by measuring the gain of a rhodamine 6G dye laser amplifier at various solar-simulated irradiances on an amplifier cell. The measured threshold was 20,000 solar constants (2.7 kW/sq cm) for the dye volume of 2 x 5 x 40 cu mm and the optimum dye concentration of 0.001 M. The threshold is about one-third of that achievable with a high-intensity solar concentrator.

  11. Scaling studies of solar pumped lasers

    Christiansen, W. H.; Chang, J.


    A progress report of scaling studies of solar pumped lasers is presented. Conversion of blackbody radiation into laser light has been demonstrated in this study. Parametric studies of the variation of laser mixture composition and laser gas temperature were carried out for CO2 and N2O gases. Theoretical analysis and modeling of the system have been performed. Reasonable agreement between predictions in the parameter variation and the experimental results have been obtained. Almost 200 mW of laser output at 10.6 micron was achieved by placing a small sapphire laser tube inside an oven at 1500 K the tube was filled with CO2 laser gas mixture and cooled by longitudinal nitrogen gas flow.

  12. Measurements and modeling of gain coefficients for neodymium laser glasses

    Linford, G.J.; Saroyan, R.A.; Trenholme, J.B.; Weber, M.J.


    Small-signal gain coefficients are reported for neodymium in silicate, phosphate, fluorophosphate, and fluoroberyllate laser glasses. Measurements were made in a disk amplifier under identical conditions. Using spectroscopic data as the input, amplifier gain is calculated as a fucntion of flashlamp energy, pumping pulse duration, disk thickness, and Nd-doping. The agreement between predicted and measured gains is generally with ;plus or minus;10 percent, consistent with experimental uncertainties in the model and the parameters used. The operating conditions which optimize amplifier performance and efficiency for a given laser glass may be found using spectroscopic data alone. This process can be extended to derive the most cost-effective staging of amplifier chains for fusion lasers. A discussion of the model and examples of calculations are presented

  13. Solar pumped laser technology options for space power transmission

    Conway, E. J.


    An overview of long-range options for in-space laser power transmission is presented. The focus is on the new technology and research status of solar-pumped lasers and their solar concentration needs. The laser options include gas photodissociation lasers, optically-pumped solid-state lasers, and blackbody-pumped transfer lasers. The paper concludes with a summary of current research thrusts.

  14. E-beam-pumped semiconductor lasers

    Rice, Robert R.; Shanley, James F.; Ruggieri, Neil F.


    The collapse of the Soviet Union opened many areas of laser technology to the West. E-beam- pumped semiconductor lasers (EBSL) were pursued for 25 years in several Soviet Institutes. Thin single crystal screens of II-VI alloys (ZnxCd1-xSe, CdSxSe1-x) were incorporated in laser CRTs to produce scanned visible laser beams at average powers greater than 10 W. Resolutions of 2500 lines were demonstrated. MDA-W is conducting a program for ARPA/ESTO to assess EBSL technology for high brightness, high resolution RGB laser projection application. Transfer of II-VI crystal growth and screen processing technology is underway, and initial results will be reported. Various techniques (cathodoluminescence, one- and two-photon laser pumping, etc.) have been used to assess material quality and screen processing damage. High voltage (75 kV) video electronics were procured in the U.S. to operate test EBSL tubes. Laser performance was documented as a function of screen temperature, beam voltage and current. The beam divergence, spectrum, efficiency and other characteristics of the laser output are being measured. An evaluation of the effect of laser operating conditions upon the degradation rate is being carried out by a design-of-experiments method. An initial assessment of the projected image quality will be performed.

  15. Electron-beam pumping of visible and ultraviolet gas lasers

    Bradley, L.P.


    Several techniques for using direct electron-pumping of gas lasers are reviewed. The primary objective is to categorize pump geometries and to give guidelines for gun selection and pulser design. Examples and application of pump technology are given

  16. High power operation of cladding pumped holmium-doped silica fibre lasers.

    Hemming, Alexander; Bennetts, Shayne; Simakov, Nikita; Davidson, Alan; Haub, John; Carter, Adrian


    We report the highest power operation of a resonantly cladding-pumped, holmium-doped silica fibre laser. The cladding pumped all-glass fibre utilises a fluorine doped glass layer to provide low loss cladding guidance of the 1.95 µm pump radiation. The operation of both single mode and large-mode area fibre lasers was demonstrated, with up to 140 W of output power achieved. A slope efficiency of 59% versus launched pump power was demonstrated. The free running emission was measured to be 2.12-2.15 µm demonstrating the potential of this architecture to address the long wavelength operation of silica based fibre lasers with high efficiency.

  17. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.


    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  18. High energy erbium laser end-pumped by a laser diode bar array coupled to a Nonimaging Optic Concentrator

    Tanguy , Eric; Feugnet , Gilles; Pocholle , Jean-Paul; Blondeau , R.; Poisson , M.A.; Duchemin , J.P.


    International audience; A high energy Er3+, Yb3+:glass laser end pumped by a laser diode array emitting at 980 nm coupled to a Nonimaging Optic Concentrator (NOC) is demonstrated. Energy up to 100 mJ and a 16% slope efficiency are achieved in a plano-plano laser cavity. The energy transfer coefficient from Yb3+ to Er3+ is estimated by a new method.

  19. Excimer Pumped Pulsed Tunable Dye Laser

    Littman, Michael G.


    It has been recently shown and reported for the first time at this meeting, that Excimer pumping of a single-mode, short-cavity, grazing-incidence, longitudinally-pumped pulsed dye laser is feasible. In this paper the key concepts upon which this latest development is based are presented and are in a somewhat unusual form. This manuscript describes five specific dye laser examples. The five examples represent a progression from the simplest type of dye laser to the single-mode version mentioned above. The examples thus serve as a tutorial introduction to potential users of dye lasers. The article is organized into five sections or STEPS, each of which describes a different pulsed dye laser. Since the subtle points about dye lasers are best appreciated only after one actually attempts to build a working model, a PROCEDURES category is included in which details about the construction of the particular form of laser are given. As one reads through this category, think of it as looking over the shoulder of the laser builder. The NOTES category which follows is a brief but essential discussion explaining why various components and procedures are used, as well as how laser performance specifications are obtained. This subsection can he viewed as a discussion with the laser builder concerning the reasons for specific actions and choices made in the assembly of the example laser. The last category contains COMMENTS which provide additional related information pertaining to the example laser that goes beyond the earlier annotated discussion. If you like, these are the narrator's comments. At the end of the article, after the five sequential forms of the laser have been presented, there is a brief summation.

  20. Laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers; Laser diode reiki Nd:YAG lasear

    Yuasa, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Nakayama, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers are expected to be applied to laser processing fields such as welding, cutting, drilling, and marking due to their potential for high efficiency and compactness. We are designing and developing laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers using numerical analysis simulation techniques such as ray tracing and thermal analysis. We have succeeded in achieving a laser power of more than 3 kW with 20% efficiency, which is the best ever obtained. In addition, we have developed a laser-diode pumped green laser by second harmonic generation, for precision machining on silicon wafers. (author)

  1. A new concept for solar pumped lasers

    Christiansen, W. H.


    A new approach is proposed in which an intermediate body heated by sunlight is used as the pumping source for IR systems, i.e., concentration solar radiation is absorbed and reradiated via an intermediate blackbody. This body is heated by focused sunlight to a high temperature and its heat losses are engineered to be small. The cooled laser tube (or tubes) is placed within the cavity and is pumped by it. The advantage is that the radiation spectrum is like a blackbody at the intermediate temperature and the laser medium selectively absorbs this light. Focusing requirements, heat losses, and absorption bandwidths of laser media are examined, along with energy balance and potential efficiency. The results indicate that for lasers pumped through an IR absorption spectrum, the use of an intermediate blackbody offers substantial and important advantages. The loss in radiative intensity for optical pumping by a lower-temperature body is partly compensated by the increased solid angle of exposure to the radiative environment.

  2. Ytterbium-Phosphate Glass for Microstructured Fiber Laser

    Ryszard Stępień


    Full Text Available In the paper, we report on the development of a synthesis and melting method of phosphate glasses designed for active microstructured fiber manufacturing. Non-doped glass synthesized in a P2O5-Al2O3-BaO-ZnO-MgO-Na2O oxide system served as the matrix material; meanwhile, the glass was doped with 6 mol% (18 wt% of Yb2O3, as fiber core. The glasses were well-fitted in relation to optical (refractive index and thermal proprieties (thermal expansion coefficient, rheology. The fiber with the Yb3+-doped core, with a wide internal photonic microstructure for a laser pump, as well as with a high relative hole size in the photonic outer air-cladding, was produced. The laser built on the basis of this fiber enabled achieving 8.07 W of output power with 20.5% slope efficiency against the launched pump power, in single-mode operation M2 = 1.59, from a 53 cm-long cavity.

  3. Method and system for homogenizing diode laser pump arrays

    Bayramian, Andy J


    An optical amplifier system includes a diode pump array including a plurality of semiconductor diode laser bars disposed in an array configuration and characterized by a periodic distance between adjacent semiconductor diode laser bars. The periodic distance is measured in a first direction perpendicular to each of the plurality of semiconductor diode laser bars. The diode pump array provides a pump output propagating along an optical path and characterized by a first intensity profile measured as a function of the first direction and having a variation greater than 10%. The optical amplifier system also includes a diffractive optic disposed along the optical path. The diffractive optic includes a photo-thermo-refractive glass member. The optical amplifier system further includes an amplifier slab having an input face and position along the optical path and separated from the diffractive optic by a predetermined distance. A second intensity profile measured at the input face of the amplifier slab as a function of the first direction has a variation less than 10%.

  4. Theoretical studies of solar pumped lasers

    Harries, Wynford L.


    One concept for collecting solar energy is to use large solar collectors and then use lasers as energy converters whose output beams act as transmission lines to deliver the energy to a destination. The efficiency of the process would be improved if the conversion could be done directly using solar pumped lasers, and the possibility of making such lasers is studied. There are many applications for such lasers, and these are examined. By including the applications first, the requirements for the lasers will be more evident. They are especially applicable to the Space program, and include cases where no other methods of delivering power seem possible. Using the lasers for conveying information and surveillance is also discussed. Many difficulties confront the designer of an efficient system for power conversion. These involve the nature of the solar spectrum, the method of absorbing the energy, the transfer of power into laser beams, and finally, the far field patterns of the beams. The requirements of the lasers are discussed. Specific laser configurations are discussed. The thrust is into gas laser systems, because for space applications, the laser could be large, and also the medium would be uniform and not subject to thermal stresses. Dye and solid lasers are treated briefly. For gas lasers, a chart of the various possibilities is shown, and the various families of gas lasers divided according to the mechanisms of absorbing solar radiation and of lasing. Several specific models are analyzed and evaluated. Overall conclusions for the program are summarized, and the performances of the lasers related to the requirements of various applications.

  5. Short-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumped in double-pulse single-beam non-normal incidence

    Zimmer, D.; Ros, D.; Guilbaud, O.; Habib, J.; Kazamias, S.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Ecker, B.; Aurand, B.; Kuehl, T.; Hochhaus, D. C.; Neumayer, P.


    We demonstrated a 7.36 nm Ni-like samarium soft-x-ray laser, pumped by 36 J of a neodymium:glass chirped-pulse amplification laser. Double-pulse single-beam non-normal-incidence pumping was applied for efficient soft-x-ray laser generation. In this case, the applied technique included a single-optic focusing geometry for large beam diameters, a single-pass grating compressor, traveling-wave tuning capability, and an optimized high-energy laser double pulse. This scheme has the potential for even shorter-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumping.

  6. Janus neodymium glass laser operations manual

    Auerbach, J.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Trainor, R.J.


    A manual, prepared to guide personnel in operating and maintaining the Janus glass laser system, is presented. System components are described in detail. Step-by-step procedures are presented for firing the laser and for performing routine maintenance and calibration procedures

  7. Antibacterial properties of laser spinning glass nanofibers.

    Echezarreta-López, M M; De Miguel, T; Quintero, F; Pou, J; Landin, M


    A laser-spinning technique has been used to produce amorphous, dense and flexible glass nanofibers of two different compositions with potential utility as reinforcement materials in composites, fillers in bone defects or scaffolds (3D structures) for tissue engineering. Morphological and microstructural analyses have been carried out using SEM-EDX, ATR-FTIR and TEM. Bioactivity studies allow the nanofibers with high proportion in SiO2 (S18/12) to be classified as a bioinert glass and the nanofibers with high proportion of calcium (ICIE16) as a bioactive glass. The cell viability tests (MTT) show high biocompatibility of the laser spinning glass nanofibers. Results from the antibacterial activity study carried out using dynamic conditions revealed that the bioactive glass nanofibers show a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on Sthaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) while the bioinert glass nanofibers show a bacteriostatic effect also dose-dependent. The antibacterial activity has been related to the release of alkaline ions, the increase of pH of the medium and also the formation of needle-like aggregates of calcium phosphate at the surface of the bioactive glass nanofibers which act as a physical mechanism against bacteria. The antibacterial properties give an additional value to the laser-spinning glass nanofibers for different biomedical applications, such as treating or preventing surgery-associated infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.


    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  9. Numerical simulation for nuclear pumped laser

    Sakasai, Kaoru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    To apply nuclear pumped laser of {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar gas to detect neutron, the optimum gas mixture was investigated by numerical simulation. When {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar mixture gas are irradiated by neutron, proton and triton with high velocity are produced by {sup 3}He(np)T and two charge particles ionized {sup 3}He, Ne and Ar which reacted each other and attained to 3p`(1/2){sub 0}-3S`(1/2). The calculation method is constructed by defining the rate equations of each ion and exited atom and the electron energy balance equation and by time integrating the simultaneous differential equations of the above two equations and the law of conservation of charge. Penning ionization and energy transport by elastic collision of neutral atom were considered in the transport process of electron energy direct ionization by secondary charge particle. Calculation time was 1 msec. The optimum component was shown 3 atm He, 24 Torr He and 8 Torr Ar by simulation. Laser oscilation was generated under the conditions 3.3 x 10{sup 14} (N/cm{sup 2}/5) thermal neutron flux at 50 cm laser cell length and 99% coefficient of reflection of mirror. After laser oscilation, laser output was proportional to neutron flux. These results showed nuclear pumped laser of {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar was able to detect optically neutron. (S.Y)

  10. Alkali-vapor laser-excimer pumped alkali laser

    Yue Desheng; Li Wenyu; Wang Hongyan; Yang Zining; Xu Xiaojun


    Based on the research internal and overseas, the principle of the excimer pumped alkali laser (XPAL) is explained, and the advantages and disadvantages of the XPAL are analyzed. Taking into consideration the difficulties that the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) meets on its development, the ability to solve or avoid these difficulties of XPAL is also analyzed. By summing up the achievements of the XPAL, the possible further prospect is proposed. The XPAL is of possibility to improve the performance of the DPAL. (authors)

  11. Diode pumped solid state laser by two diodes

    Li Mingzhong; Zhang Xiaomin; Liang Yue; Man Yongzai; Zhou Pizhang


    A Nd: YLF laser is pumped by home-made quantum well diode lasers. Datum of laser output energy 60 μJ and peak power 120 mw are observed at wavelength 1.047 μm. On the same pumping condition, the output power synchronously pumped by two diodes is higher than the total output power pumped by two diodes separately. The fluctuation is <3%. The results agree with theoretical analysis

  12. Efficiency and threshold pump intensity of CW solar-pumped solid-state lasers

    Hwang, In H.; Lee, Ja H.


    The authors consider the relation between the threshold pumping intensity, the material properties, the resonator parameters, and the ultimate slope efficiencies of various solid-state laser materials for solar pumping. They clarify the relation between the threshold pump intensity and the material parameters and the relation between the ultimate slope efficiency and the laser resonator parameters such that a design criterion for the solar-pumped solid-state laser can be established. Among the laser materials evaluated, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about 12.6 percent; however, it does not seem to be practical for a solar-pumped laser application because of its high threshold pump intensity. Cr:Nd:GSGG is the most promising for solar-pumped lasing. Its threshold pump intensity is about 100 air-mass-zero (AM0) solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12 percent when thermal deformation is completely prevented.

  13. Mathematical model of an optically pumped molecular laser

    Botha, LR


    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed that accurately predicts the performance of an optically pumped HBr laser. Relatively high conversion efficiency was achieved. Tm pumped Ho:YLF is a viable source for pumping HBr laser, while HBr can be scaled...

  14. Diode lasers optimized in brightness for fiber laser pumping

    Kelemen, M.; Gilly, J.; Friedmann, P.; Hilzensauer, S.; Ogrodowski, L.; Kissel, H.; Biesenbach, J.


    In diode laser applications for fiber laser pumping and fiber-coupled direct diode laser systems high brightness becomes essential in the last years. Fiber coupled modules benefit from continuous improvements of high-power diode lasers on chip level regarding output power, efficiency and beam characteristics resulting in record highbrightness values and increased pump power. To gain high brightness not only output power must be increased, but also near field widths and far field angles have to be below a certain value for higher power levels because brightness is proportional to output power divided by beam quality. While fast axis far fields typically show a current independent behaviour, for broadarea lasers far-fields in the slow axis suffer from a strong current and temperature dependence, limiting the brightness and therefore their use in fibre coupled modules. These limitations can be overcome by carefully optimizing chip temperature, thermal lensing and lateral mode structure by epitaxial and lateral resonator designs and processing. We present our latest results for InGaAs/AlGaAs broad-area single emitters with resonator lengths of 4mm emitting at 976nm and illustrate the improvements in beam quality over the last years. By optimizing the diode laser design a record value of the brightness for broad-area lasers with 4mm resonator length of 126 MW/cm2sr has been demonstrated with a maximum wall-plug efficiency of more than 70%. From these design also pump modules based on 9 mini-bars consisting of 5 emitters each have been realized with 360W pump power.

  15. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    Lee, J. H.


    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  16. Performance results for Beamlet: A large aperture multipass Nd glass laser

    Campbell, J.H.; Barker, C.E.; VanWonterghem, B.M.; Speck, D.R.; Behrendt, W.C.; Murray, J.R.; Caird, J.A.; Decker, D.E.; Smith, I.C.


    The Beamlet laser is a large aperture, flashlamp pumped Nd: glass laser that is a scientific prototype of an advanced Inertial Fusion laser. Beamlet has achieved third harmonic, conversion efficiency of near 80% with its nominal 35cm x 35cm square beam at mean 3ω fluences in excess of 8 J/cm 2 (3-ns). Beamlet uses an adaptive optics system to correct for aberrations and achieve less than 2 x diffraction limited far field spot size

  17. High-energy glass lasers

    Glaze, J.A.


    In order to investigate intense pulse propagation phenomena, as well as problems in laser and system design, a prototype single chain laser called CYCLOPS was constructed. This laser employs a 20-cm clear aperture disk amplifier in its final stage and produces a terawatt pulse whose brightness exceeds 10 18 watts/cm 2 -ster. The CYCLOPS system is summarized and aspects of nonlinear propagation phenomena that are currently being addressed are discussed. (MOW)

  18. An optimized design of rectangle pumping cell for nuclear reactor pumped laser

    Wan, J.-S.; Chen, L.-X.; Zhao, Z.-M.; Pan, X.-B.; Jing, C.-Y.; Zhao, X.-Q.; Liu, F.-H.


    Basing on our research of energy deposition in RPL (Reactor Pumped Laser) pumping cell and the laser power efficiency, a RPL test device on Pulsed Reactor has been designed. In addition, the laser beam power of the RPL test device is estimated in the paper. (author)

  19. Flow tube used to cool solar-pumped laser


    A flow tube has been designed and constructed to provide two major functions in the application of a laser beam for transmission of both sound and video. It maintains the YAG laser at the proper operating temperature of 300 degrees K under solar pumping conditions, and it serves as a pump cavity for the laser crystal.

  20. Amplified spontaneous emission in solar-pumped iodine laser

    Cho, Yong S.; Hwang, In H.; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.


    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from a long pulse, solar-simulating radiation pumped iodine laser amplifier is studied. The ASE threshold pump intensity is almost proportional to the inverse of the laser gain length when the gas pressure is constant in the laser tube.

  1. Power neodymium-glass amplifier of a repetitively pulsed laser

    Vinogradov, Aleksandr V; Gaganov, V E; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Krotov, V A; Martynenko, S P; Pozdnyakov, E V; Solomatin, I I [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)


    A neodymium-glass diode-pumped amplifier with a zigzag laser beam propagation through the active medium was elaborated; the amplifier is intended for operation in a repetitively pulsed laser. An amplifier unit with an aperture of 20 Multiplication-Sign 25 mm and a {approx}40-cm long active medium was put to a test. The energy of pump radiation amounts to 140 J at a wavelength of 806 nm for a pump duration of 550 {mu}s. The energy parameters of the amplifier were experimentally determined: the small-signal gain per pass {approx}3.2, the linear gain {approx}0.031 cm{sup -1} with a nonuniformity of its distribution over the aperture within 15%, the stored energy of 0.16 - 0.21 J cm{sup -3}. The wavefront distortions in the zigzag laser-beam propagation through the active element of the amplifier did not exceed 0.4{lambda} ({lambda} = 0.63 {mu}m is the probing radiation wavelength).

  2. Power neodymium-glass amplifier of a repetitively pulsed laser

    Vinogradov, Aleksandr V; Gaganov, V E; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Krotov, V A; Martynenko, S P; Pozdnyakov, E V; Solomatin, I I


    A neodymium-glass diode-pumped amplifier with a zigzag laser beam propagation through the active medium was elaborated; the amplifier is intended for operation in a repetitively pulsed laser. An amplifier unit with an aperture of 20 × 25 mm and a ∼40-cm long active medium was put to a test. The energy of pump radiation amounts to 140 J at a wavelength of 806 nm for a pump duration of 550 μs. The energy parameters of the amplifier were experimentally determined: the small-signal gain per pass ∼3.2, the linear gain ∼0.031 cm -1 with a nonuniformity of its distribution over the aperture within 15%, the stored energy of 0.16 - 0.21 J cm -3 . The wavefront distortions in the zigzag laser-beam propagation through the active element of the amplifier did not exceed 0.4λ (λ = 0.63 μm is the probing radiation wavelength).

  3. Modeling of a diode-pumped thin-disk cesium vapor laser

    An, Guofei; Cai, He; Liu, Xiaoxu; Han, Juhong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, You


    A diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) provides a significant potential for construction of high-powered lasers. Until now, a series of models have been established to analyze the kinetic process and most of them are based on the end-pumped alkali laser system in which the vapor cell are usually cylindrical and cuboid. In this paper, a mathematic model is constructed to investigate the kinetic processes of a diode pumped thin-disk cesium vapor laser, in which the cesium vapor and the buffer gases are beforehand filled in a sealed glass cell with a thin-disk structure. We systemically study the influences of the cell temperature and cell thickness on the output features of a thin-disk DPAL. Further, we study the thin-disk DPAL with the W-shaped resonator and multiple-disk configuration. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been any similar reports so far.

  4. Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J


    Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reactor operations for nuclear pumping of lasers

    Beck, G; Cooper, G [University of Illinois (United States)


    Experiments involving the measurement of gas parameters that are related to lasing, and lasing of various gas mixtures have comprised a major part of the utilization of the University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor since the upgrading of the facility was completed in 1969. A thru beam port, which was added during upgrading, has been the facility used for these measurements. The laser cell is placed in the port adjacent to the core. Alignment is then accomplished by using both ends of the port or by a mirror placed at the back side of the apparatus. The reactor has been operated in all modes (pulsing, square wave, and steady state) for the experiments although pulsing is the primary mode that is used. Laser enhancement has been obtained in several cases, but efforts toward direct pumping from the radiation alone have not as yet succeeded. Improved laser operation from direct pumping has been suggested with an emphasis on high-powered systems where the basic input energy is to be derived from a nuclear reactor.

  6. Solar-pumped gas laser development

    Wilson, J. W.


    The direct conversion of solar radiation into an inverted population for extraction in an optical cavity holds promise as a relatively simple system design. Broad-band photoabsorption in the visible or near-UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to ensure good solar absorption efficiency. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than approximately 10 A. The system should show chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. A search of electronic-vibrational transitions in diatomic molecules satisfying these conditions is now in progress. A photodissociation-pumped atomic iodine laser is now being tested under solar pumping conditions. Photodissociation studies for thallium spin-flip metastable formation will begin in the near future.

  7. Laser optical pumping of sodium and lithium atom beams

    Cusma, J.T.


    The method of optical pumping with a continuous wave dye laser has been used to produce beams of polarized 23 Na atoms and polarized 6 Li atoms. Optical pumping of a 23 Na atom beam using either a multimode dye laser or a single frequency dye laser with a double passed acousto-optic modulator results in electron spin polarizations of 0.70-0.90 and nuclear spin polarizations of 0.75-0.90. Optical pumping of a 6 Li atom beam using a single frequency dye laser either with an acousto-optic modulator or with Doppler shift pumping results in electron spin polarizations of 0.77-0.95 and nuclear spin polarizations greater than 0.90. The polarization of the atom beam is measured using either the laser induced fluorescence in an intermediate magnetic field or a 6-pole magnet to determine the occupation probabilities of the ground hyperfine sublevels following optical pumping. The results of the laser optical pumping experiments agree with the results of a rate equation analysis of the optical pumping process which predicts that nearly all atoms are transferred into a single sublevel for our values of laser intensity and interaction time. The use of laser optical pumping in a polarized ion source for nuclear scattering experiments is discussed. The laser optical pumping method provides a means of constructing an intense source of polarized Li and Na ions

  8. Development of short pulse laser pumped x-ray lasers

    Dunn, J; Osterheld, A L; Hunter, J R; Shlyaptsev, V N


    X-ray lasers have been extensively studied around the world since the first laboratory demonstration on the Novette laser at LLNL in 1984 [l]. The characteristic properties of short wavelength, high monochromaticity, collimation and coherence make x-ray lasers useful for various applications. These include demonstrations of biological imaging within the water window, interferometry of laser plasmas and radiography of laser-heated surfaces. One of the critical issues has been the high power pump required to produce the inversion. The power scaling as a function of x-ray laser wavelength follows a -k4 to law. The shortest x-ray laser wavelength of ∼ 35 (angstrom) demonstrated for Ni-like All was at the limit of Nova laser capabilities. By requiring large, high power lasers such as Nova, the shot rate and total number of shots available have limited the rapid development of x-ray lasers and applications. In fact over the last fifteen years the main thrust has been to develop more efficient, higher repetition rate x-ray lasers that can be readily scaled to shorter wavelengths. The recent state of progress in the field can be found in references. The objective of the project was to develop a soft x-ray laser (XRL) pumped by a short pulse laser of a few joules. In effect to demonstrate a robust, worlung tabletop x-ray laser at LLNL for the first time. The transient collisional scheme as proposed by Shlyaptsev et al [8, 9] was the candidate x-ray laser for study. The successful endeavour of any scientific investigation is often based upon prudent early decisions and the choice of this scheme was both sound and fruitful. It had been demonstrated very recently for Ne-like Ti at 326 A using a small tabletop laser [10] but had not yet reached its full potential. We chose this scheme for several reasons: (a) it was a collisional-type x-ray laser which has been historically the most robust; (b) it had the promise of high efficiency and low energy threshold for lasing; (c) the

  9. New photoionization lasers pumped by laser-induced plasma radiation

    Hube, M.; Dieckmann, M.; Beigang, R.; Welling, H.; Wellegehausen, B.


    Innershell photoionization of atomic gases and vapors by soft x rays from a laser-produced plasma is a potential method for making lasers at short wavelengths. Normally, in such experiments only a single plasma spot or plasma line is created for the excitation. This gives high excitation rates but only a short excitation length. At high excitation rates detrimental influences, such as amplified spontaneous emission, optical saturation, or quenching processes, may decrease or even destroy a possible inversion. Therefore, it seems to be more favorable to use a number of separated plasma spots with smaller excitation rates and larger excitation lengths. As a test, a three-plasma spot device was constructed and used in the well-known Cd-photoionization laser at 442 nm. With a 600-mJ Nd:YAH laser (pulse length, 8 ns) for plasma production, output energies up to 300 μJ have been measured, which is more than a doubling of so far obtained data. On innershell excitation, levels may be populated that allow direct lasers as in the case of Cd or that are metastable and cannot be directly coupled to lower levels. In this case modifications in the excitation process are necessary. Such modifications may be an optical pump process in the atom prior to the innershell photoionization or an optical pump process (population transfer process) after the innershell ionization, leading to Raman or anti-Stokes Raman-type laser emissions. With these techniques and the developed multiplasma spot excitation device a variety of new laser emissions in K and Cs ions have been achieved which are indicated in the level schemes

  10. Development of frequency tunable Ti:sapphire laser and dye laser pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    Yi, Jong Hoon; Horn, Roland; Wendt, K.


    We investigated lasing characteristics of two kinds of tunable laser, liquid dye laser and solid Ti:sapphire crystal laser, pumped by high pulse repetition rate Nd:YAG laser. Dye laser showed drastically reduced pulsewidth compared with that of pump laser and it also contained large amount of amplified spontaneous emission. Ti:sapphire laser showed also reduced pulsewidth. But, the laser conversion pump laser and Ti:sapphire laser pulse, we used a Brewster-cut Pockel's cell for Q-switching. The laser was frequency doubled by a type I BBO crystal outside of the cavity.

  11. Nonimaging concentrators for diode-pumped slab lasers

    Lacovara, Philip; Gleckman, Philip L.; Holman, Robert L.; Winston, Roland


    Diode-pumped slab lasers require concentrators for high-average power operation. We detail the properties of diode lasers and slab lasers which set the concentration requirements and the concentrator design methodologies that are used, and describe some concentrator designs used in high-average power slab lasers at Lincoln Laboratory.

  12. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua


    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  13. Solar-pumped lasers for space power transmission

    Taussig, R.; Bruzzone, C.; Nelson, L.; Quimby, D.; Christiansen, W.


    Multi-Megawatt CW solar-pumped lasers appear to be technologically feasible for space power transmission in the 1990s time frame. A new concept for a solar-pumped laser is presented which utilizes an intermediate black body cavity to provide a uniform optical pumping environment for the lasant, either CO or CO2. Reradiation losses are minimized with resulting high efficiency operation. A 1 MW output laser may weigh as little as 8000 kg including solar collector, black body cavity, laser cavity and ducts, pumps, power systems and waste heat radiator. The efficiency of such a system will be on the order of 10 to 20%. Details of the new concept, laser design, comparison to competing solar-powered lasers and applications to a laser solar power satellite (SPS) concept are presented.

  14. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk


    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  15. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk


    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  16. Solar pumping of solid state lasers for space mission: a novel approach

    Boetti, N. G.; Lousteau, J.; Negro, D.; Mura, E.; Scarpignato, G. C.; Perrone, G.; Milanese, D.; Abrate, S.


    Solar pumped laser (SPL) can find wide applications in space missions, especially for long lasting ones. In this paper a new technological approach for the realization of a SPL based on fiber laser technology is proposed. We present a preliminary study, focused on the active material performance evaluation, towards the realization of a Nd3+ -doped fiber laser made of phosphate glass materials, emitting at 1.06 μm. For this research several Nd3+ -doped phosphate glass samples were fabricated, with concentration of Nd3+ up to 10 mol%. Physical and thermal properties of the glasses were measured and their spectroscopic properties are described. The effect of Nd3+ doping concentration on emission spectra and lifetimes was investigated in order to study the concentration quenching effect on luminescence performance.

  17. Self-sustaining nuclear pumped laser-fusion reactor experiment

    Boody, F.P.; Choi, C.K.; Miley, G.H.


    The features of a neutron feedback nuclear pumped (NFNP) laser-fusion reactor equipment were studied with the intention of establishing the feasibility of the concept. The NFNP laser-fusion concept is compared schematically to electrically pumped laser fusion. The study showed that, once a method of energy storage has been demonstrated, a self-sustaining fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a ''blanket multiplication'' of two would be feasible using nuclear pumped Xe F* excimer lasers having efficiencies of 1 to 2 percent and D-D-T pellets with gains of 50 to 100

  18. Pump-induced refractive index changes in Tb{sup 3+} doped glasses

    Vieira, T.A.; Santos, J.F.M. dos; Auad, Y.M; Nunes, L.A.O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Astrath, N.G.C; Baesso, M.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, PR (Brazil); Catunda, T., E-mail: [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    It now well known in laser materials, that a refractive index change appears when the active ions are pumped from ground to excited state due to the polarizability difference between ground and excited states (metastable). In this paper this effect was investigated in Tb{sup 3+} doped glasses: calcium alumino phosphate (CAP), low-silica calcium aluminosilicate (LSCAS) and calcium aluminosilicate (CAS). The measurements were performed using the time resolved Z-scan technique, with an Ar{sup +} laser at 488 nm, close to the resonance of {sup 7}F{sub 6}→{sup 5}D{sub 4} absorption line, where {sup 5}D{sub 4} is a metastable state. We obtained for low-silica calcium aluminosilicate glass Δα{sub p}~10{sup −24} cm{sup 3} which is the highest value ever reported for a RE doped material. - Highlights: • Time resolved Z-scan measurements in 3 different Tb{sup 3+} doped glass. • Very high polarizability difference (Δα{sub p}), typically 1 order of magnitude higher than other rare earth ions. • Observations of higher order nonlinearities, such as-third, fifth and senventh order effects.

  19. Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass

    Foucher, C.; Guilhabert, B.; Laurand, N.; Dawson, M. D. [Institute of Photonics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)


    A mechanically flexible and wavelength-tunable laser with an ultra-thin glass membrane as substrate is demonstrated. The optically pumped hybrid device has a distributed feedback cavity that combines a colloidal quantum dot gain film with a grating-patterned polymeric underlayer, all on a 30-μm thick glass sheet. The total thickness of the structure is only 75 μm. The hybrid laser has an average threshold fluence of 450 ± 80 μJ/cm{sup 2} (for 5-ns excitation pulses) at an emitting wavelength of 607 nm. Mechanically bending the thin-glass substrate enables continuous tuning of the laser emission wavelength over an 18-nm range, from 600 nm to 618 nm. The correlation between the wavelength tunability and the mechanical properties of the thin laser structure is verified theoretically and experimentally.

  20. A Peristaltic Pump Integrated on a 100% Glass Microchip Using Computer Controlled Piezoelectric Actuators

    Yo Tanaka


    Full Text Available Lab-on-a-chip technology is promising for the miniaturization of chemistry, biochemistry, and/or biology researchers looking to exploit the advantages of a microspace. To manipulate fluid on a microchip, on-chip pumps are indispensable. To date, there have been several types of on-chip pumps including pneumatic, electroactive, and magnetically driven. However these pumps introduce polymers, metals, and/or silicon to the microchip, and these materials have several disadvantages, including chemical or physical instability, or an inherent optical detection limit. To overcome/avoid these issues, glass has been one of the most commonly utilized materials for the production of multi-purpose integrated chemical systems. However, glass is very rigid, and it is difficult to incorporate pumps onto glass microchips. This paper reports the use of a very flexible, ultra-thin glass sheet (minimum thickness of a few micrometers to realize a pump installed on an entirely glass-based microchip. The pump is a peristaltic-type, composed of four serial valves sealing a cavity with two penetrate holes using ultra-thin glass sheet. By this pump, an on-chip circulating flow was demonstrated by directly observing fluid flow, visualized via polystyrene tracking particles. The flow rate was proportional to the pumping frequency, with a maximum flow rate of approximately 0.80 μL/min. This on-chip pump could likely be utilized in a wide range of applications which require the stability of a glass microchip.

  1. Laser amplifier based on a neodymium glass rod 150 mm in diameter

    Shaykin, A A; Fokin, A P; Soloviev, A A; Kuzmin, A A; Shaikin, I A; Burdonov, K F; Khazanov, E A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Charukhchev, A V [Public Limited Company " Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering" , Leningrad region (Russian Federation)


    A unique large-aperture neodymium glass rod amplifier is experimentally studied. The small-signal gain distribution is measured at different pump energies. The aperture-averaged gain is found to be 2.3. The stored energy (500 J), the maximum possible pump pulse repetition rate, and the depolarisation in a single pulse and in a series of pulses with a repetition rate of one pulse per five minutes are calculated based on the investigations performed. It is shown that the use of this amplifier at the exit of the existing laser can increase the output pulse energy from 300 to 600 J. (lasers)


    V. Khramov


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Investigation method of thermo-optical distortions in solid-state lasers was developed and presented. The method can be easily used for research of small diameter (approximately 2 mm active elements. Method. The experimental method described in this paper is based on the registration of deviation of the energy center of the probe beam passing through the thermally stressed active element. Main Results. We have presented experimental results of the thermal lens optical power research in the active element made of Yb-Er glass pumped transversely by a laser diode in the following modes: without generating, free-running and Q-switching. We have submitted obtained dependences of the optical power on the pumping energy. The measurements have been performed for the two polarization components at two wavelengths (632.8 nm and 1550 nm showing the absence of explicit astigmatism of the thermal lens. Practical Relevance. Knowledge of the thermal regime of such lasers gives the possibility for more precise calculation of the resonator parameters in terms of the thermal lens occurrence.

  3. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien, E-mail: [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France)


    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  4. High power diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser systems active media robust modeling and analysis

    Kashef, Tamer M.; Mokhtar, Ayman M.; Ghoniemy, Samy A.


    Diode side-pumped solid-state lasers have the potential to yield high quality laser beams with high efficiency and reliability. This paper summarizes the results of simulation of the most predominant active media that are used in high power diode pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser systems. Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods laser systems were simulated using the special finite element analysis software program LASCAD. A performance trade off analysis for Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods was performed in order to predict the system optimized parameters and to investigate thermally induced thermal fracture that may occur due to heat load and mechanical stress. The simulation results showed that at the optimized values Nd:YAG rod achieved the highest output power of 175W with 43% efficiency and heat load of 1.873W/mm3. A negligible changes in laser output power, heat load, stress, and temperature distributions were observed when the Nd:YAG rod length was increased from 72 to 80mm. Simulation of Nd:glass at different rod diameters at the same pumping conditions showed better results for mechanical stress and thermal load than that of Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF which makes it very suitable for high power laser applications especially for large rod diameters. For large rod diameters Nd:YLF is mechanically weaker and softer crystal compared to Nd:YAG and Nd:glass due to its poor thermomechanical properties which limits its usage to only low to medium power systems.

  5. Optically pumped FIR lasers and their application in plasma diagnostics

    Bakos, J.S.


    The pysics and the construction of the far infrared lasers (FIRL) and of the infrared lasers pumping them are reviewed. The details of the construction, resonating and pumping systems, spectral and power characteristics of the FIRLs are discussed. Recently more than 1000 laser lines are known and used in the 27-80 mm wavelength range, but in many cases the laser kinetics are not fully understood, and some instability phenomena cannot be prevented. New nonlinear processes were found: two-photon pumping, hyper Raman laser tuning and relaxation phenomena. A broad application field, the plasma diagnostics by far infrared lasers is described. Scattering of infrared laser radiation can give new interesting information on the not understood effect of the anomalous transport in the high temperature plasma. (D.Gy.)

  6. Holes generation in glass using large spot femtosecond laser pulses

    Berg, Yuval; Kotler, Zvi; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi


    We demonstrate high-throughput, symmetrical, holes generation in fused silica glass using a large spot size, femtosecond IR-laser irradiation which modifies the glass properties and yields an enhanced chemical etching rate. The process relies on a balanced interplay between the nonlinear Kerr effect and multiphoton absorption in the glass which translates into symmetrical glass modification and increased etching rate. The use of a large laser spot size makes it possible to process thick glasses at high speeds over a large area. We have demonstrated such fabricated holes with an aspect ratio of 1:10 in a 1 mm thick glass samples.

  7. Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of Broadband-Pumped Lasers.

    Nechayev, Sergey; Rotschild, Carmel


    Broadband light sources are a wide class of pumping schemes for lasers including LEDs, sunlight and flash lamps. Recently, efficient coupling of broadband light to high-quality micro-cavities has been demonstrated for on-chip applications and low-threshold solar-pumped lasers via cascade energy transfer. However, the conversion of incoherent to coherent light comes with an inherent price of reduced efficiency, which has yet to be assessed. In this paper, we derive the detailed balance limit of efficiency of broadband-pumped lasers and discuss how it is affected by the need to maintain a threshold population inversion and thermodynamically dictated minimal Stokes' shift. We show that lasers' slope efficiency is analogous to the nominal efficiency of solar cells, limited by thermalisation losses and additional unavoidable Stokes' shift. The lasers' power efficiency is analogous to the detailed balance limit of efficiency of solar cells, affected by the cavity mirrors and impedance matching factor, respectively. As an example we analyze the specific case of solar-pumped sensitized Nd 3+ :YAG-like lasers and define the conditions to reach their thermodynamic limit of efficiency. Our work establishes an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of broadband-pumped lasers. Our general, yet flexible model also provides a way to incorporate other optical and thermodynamic losses and, hence, to estimate the efficiency of non-ideal broadband-pumped lasers.

  8. Direct solar pumping of semiconductor lasers: A feasibility study

    Anderson, Neal G.


    This report describes results of NASA Grant NAG-1-1148, entitled Direct Solar Pumping of Semiconductor Lasers: A Feasibility Study. The goals of this study were to provide a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of pumping semiconductor lasers in space with directly focused sunlight and to identify semiconductor laser structures expected to operate at the lowest possible focusing intensities. It should be emphasized that the structures under consideration would provide direct optical-to-optical conversion of sunlight into laser light in a single crystal, in contrast to a configuration consisting of a solar cell or storage battery electrically pumping a current injection laser. With external modulation, such lasers could perhaps be efficient sources for intersatellite communications. We proposed specifically to develop a theoretical model of semiconductor quantum-well lasers photopumped by a broadband source, test it against existing experimental data where possible, and apply it to estimating solar pumping requirements and identifying optimum structures for operation at low pump intensities. These tasks have been accomplished, as described in this report of our completed project. The report is organized as follows: Some general considerations relevant to the solar-pumped semiconductor laser problem are discussed in Section 2, and the types of structures chosen for specific investigation are described. The details of the laser model we developed for this work are then outlined in Section 3. In Section 4, results of our study are presented, including designs for optimum lattice-matched and strained-layer solar-pumped quantum-well lasers and threshold pumping estimates for these structures. It was hoped at the outset of this work that structures could be identified which could be expected to operate continuously at solar photoexcitation intensities of several thousand suns, and this indeed turned out to be the case as described in this section. Our project is

  9. Frequency-doubled diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika


    . However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2. The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20...... fs are measured. These results open the opportunity of establishing diode laser pumped Ti:sapphire lasers for e.g. biophotonic applications like retinal optical coherence tomography or pumping of photonic crystal fibers for CARS microscopy.......A single-pass frequency doubled high-power tapered diode laser emitting nearly 1.3 W of green light suitable for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The pump efficiencies reached 75 % of the values achieved with a commercial solid-state pump laser...

  10. Efficient Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Tm:fiber laser

    Koen, W


    Full Text Available A thulium fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser delivering 45.1 W in a near diffraction limited beam when pumped with 84.7 W is demonstrated. The optical-to-optical efficiency of 53 % compares favorably with similar Ho:YAG lasers....

  11. Cutting thin glass by femtosecond laser ablation

    Shin, Hyesung; Kim, Dongsik


    The femtosecond laser ablation process for cutting thin aluminoborosilicate glass sheets of thickness 100 μm was investigated with emphasis on effective cutting speed (Veff) and mechanical strength of diced samples. The process parameters including the laser fluence (F), overlap ratio (r) of the laser beam and polarization direction were varied at a fixed pulse repetition rate f = 1 kHz to find the optimal process condition that maximizes Veff and edge strength. A three-point bending test was performed to evaluate the front-side and back-side bending (edge) strength of the laser-cut samples. Veff was proportional to F unless r exceeded a critical value, at which excessive energy began to be delivered at the same spot. The front-side edge strength was bigger than the back-side strength because of the back-side damages such as chipping. Good edge strength, as high as ∼280 MPa (front-side) and ∼230 MPa (back-side), was obtained at F = 19 J/m2, r = 0.99, with laser polarization vertical to the cutting path.

  12. Solar pumped laser and its application to hydrogen production

    Imasaki, K.; Saiki, T.; Li, D.; Motokosi, S.; Nakatsuka, M.


    Solar pumped laser has been studied. Recently, a small ceramic laser pumped by pseudo solar light shows high efficiency of more than 40% which exceeds a solar cell. Such solar pumped laser can concentrate the large area of solar energy in a focused spot of small area. This fact implies the application of such laser for clean and future renewable energy source as hydrogen. For this purpose, 100 W level laboratory solar laser HELIOS is completed using disk ceramic active mirror laser to achieve high temperature. This laser is a kind of MOPA system. Oscillator of additional small laser is used. Laser light is generated in oscillator and is amplified in ceramic disks of solar pumped. The temperature from this system is to be more than 1500 K. We will use a simple graphite cavity for laser power absorption and to get a high temperature. We are also designing a 10 MW CW laser based on this technology. This may be expected an application of solar energy for hydrogen production with total efficiency of 30%

  13. Laser cutting sandwich structure glass-silicon-glass wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation

    Cai, Yecheng; Wang, Maolu; Zhang, Hongzhi; Yang, Lijun; Fu, Xihong; Wang, Yang


    Silicon-glass devices are widely used in IC industry, MEMS and solar energy system because of their reliability and simplicity of the manufacturing process. With the trend toward the wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP) technology, the suitable dicing method of silicon-glass bonded structure wafer has become necessary. In this paper, a combined experimental and computational approach is undertaken to investigate the feasibility of cutting the sandwich structure glass-silicon-glass (SGS) wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) method. A 1064 nm semiconductor laser cutting system with double laser beams which could simultaneously irradiate on the top and bottom of the sandwich structure wafer has been designed. A mathematical model for describing the physical process of the interaction between laser and SGS wafer, which consists of two surface heating sources and two volumetric heating sources, has been established. The temperature stress distribution are simulated by using finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS. The crack propagation process is analyzed by using the J-integral method. In the FEM model, a stationary planar crack is embedded in the wafer and the J-integral values around the crack front edge are determined using the FEM. A verification experiment under typical parameters is conducted and the crack propagation profile on the fracture surface is examined by the optical microscope and explained from the stress distribution and J-integral value.

  14. Theoretical studies of solar-pumped lasers

    Harries, W. L.


    Possible types of lasers were surveyed for solar power conversion. The types considered were (1) liquid dye lasers, (2) vapor dye lasers, and (3) nondissociative molecular lasers. These are discussed.

  15. Overview and future direction for blackbody solar-pumped lasers

    Deyoung, R. J.


    A review of solar-pumped blackbody lasers is given which addresses their present status and suggests future research directions. The blackbody laser concept is one system proposed to scale to multimegawatt power levels for space-to-space power transmissions for such applications as onboard spacecraft electrical or propulsion needs. Among the critical technical issues are the scalability to high powers and the laser wavelength which impacts the transmission optics size as well as the laser-to-electric converter at the receiver. Because present blackbody solar-pumped lasers will have laser wavelengths longer than 4 microns, simple photovoltaic converters cannot be used, and transmission optics will be large. Thus, future blackbody laser systems should emphasize near visible laser wavelengths.

  16. A solar simulator-pumped atomic iodine laser

    Lee, J. H.; Weaver, W. R.


    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar-pumped gas laser, was excited with a 4-kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator. Continuous lasing at 1.315 micron for over 10 ms was obtained for static filling of n-C3F7I vapor. By momentarily flowing the lasant, a 30-Hz pulsed output was obtained for about 200 ms. The peak laser power observed was 4 W for which the system efficiency reached 0.1%. These results indicate that direct solar pumping of a gas laser for power conversion in space is indeed feasible.

  17. Repetitive 1 Hz fast-heating fusion driver HAMA pumped by diode pumped solid state laser

    Mori, Yoshitaka; Sekine, Takashi; Komeda, Osamu


    We describe a repetitive fast-heating fusion driver called HAMA pumped by Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL) to realize the counter irradiation of sequential implosion and heating laser beams. HAMA was designed to activate DPSSL for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and to realize a unified ICF machine for power plants. The details of a four-beam alignment scheme and the results of the counter irradiation of stainless plates are shown. (author)

  18. Analysis of the pump-beam path in corner-pumped slab laser

    Chen Li; Qiang Liu; Mali Gong; Gang Chen; Ping Yan


    The propagation of the pump radiation in active slab elements is considered. Conditions of the total internal reflection of the pump radiation are obtained, and are used to construct a series of graphical illustrations of reflection characteristics of different active elements. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  19. Development of diode-pumped solid-state laser HALNA for fusion reactor driver

    Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Kanabe, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Osamu


    The diode-pumped slab laser for inertial fusion energy driver has been demonstrated, which produces the 1053-nm output energy of 10 J at 10 Hz. The glass slab laser amplifier has been pumped by quasi-CW 290 kW AlGaAs laser-diode arrays at 803 nm. The optical system can compensate for thermal effects by use of zig-zag optical propagation, image-relayed telescope, and 45deg Faraday rotator. The output energy of 10.6 J at 1 Hz with the optical to optical conversion efficiency of 19.9% has been successfully obtained. Also the 10 Hz operation has been performed with a 5.1 J output energy. (author)

  20. Quantum mechanical features of optically pumped CW FIR lasers

    Seligson, D.; Leite, J. R. R.; Sanchez, A.; Feld, M. S.; Ducloy, M.


    Quantum mechanical predictions for the gain of an optically pumped CW FIR laser are presented for cases in which one or both of the pump and FIR transitions are pressure or Doppler broadened. The results are compared to those based on the rate equation model. Some of the quantum mechanical predictions are verified in CH3OH.

  1. Pump polarization insensitive and efficient laser-diode pumped Yb:KYW ultrafast oscillator.

    Wang, Sha; Wang, Yan-Biao; Feng, Guo-Ying; Zhou, Shou-Huan


    We theoretically and experimentally report and evaluate a novel split laser-diode (LD) double-end pumped Yb:KYW ultrafast oscillator aimed at improving the performance of an ultrafast laser. Compared to a conventional unpolarized single-LD end-pumped ultrafast laser system, we improve the laser performance such as absorption efficiency, slope efficiency, cw mode-locking threshold, and output power by this new structure LD-pumped Yb:KYW ultrafast laser. Experiments were carried out with a 1 W output fiber-coupled LD. Experimental results show that the absorption increases from 38.7% to 48.4%, laser slope efficiency increases from 18.3% to 24.2%, cw mode-locking threshold decreases 12.7% from 630 to 550 mW in cw mode-locking threshold, and maximum output-power increases 28.5% from 158.4 to 221.5 mW when we switch the pump scheme from an unpolarized single-end pumping structure to a split LD double-end pumping structure.

  2. Laser ablation of toluene liquid for surface micro-structuring of silica glass

    Niino, H.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Sato, T.; Narazaki, A.; Gumpenberger, T.; Kurosaki, R.


    Microstructures with well-defined micropatterns were fabricated on the surfaces of silica glass using a laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) method by diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) UV laser at the repetition rate of 10 kHz. For a demonstration of flexible rapid prototyping as mask-less exposure system, the focused laser beam was directed to the sample by galvanometer-based point scanning system. Additionally, a diagnostics study of plume propagation in the ablated products of toluene solid film was carried out with an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera

  3. Novel laterally pumped by prism laser configuration for compact solid-state lasers

    Dascalu, T; Salamu, G; Sandu, O; Voicu, F; Pavel, N


    We propose a new laser configuration in which the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through a prism. The laser medium is square shaped and the prism is attached on one of its lateral sides, near one of the crystal extremities. The diode-laser fiber end is placed close to the prism hypotenuse, the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through the opposite surface of the prism and propagates into the crystal through total internal reflections. This laser geometry is simple to align and permits the realization of compact diode-pumped laser systems, as well as power scaling. A diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielding pulses of 2.1 mJ energy under a pump with pulses of 9.9 mJ is demonstrated. The laser slope efficiency is 0.22. Furthermore, this geometry enables one to obtain passively Q-switched lasers with the saturable absorber crystal placed between the resonator high-reflectivity mirror and the laser crystal. A Nd:YAG laser, passively Q-switched by a Cr 4+ :YAG crystal with initial transmission T 0 = 0.90, delivering laser output with a pulsed energy of 93 μJ, a duration of 26 ns and a pump threshold of 1.9 mJ, is realized in order to prove the concept. (letter)

  4. Seven-laser diode end-pumped Nd

    Berger, J.; Welch, D.F.; Streifer, W.; Scifres, D.R.; Smith, J.J.; Hoffman, H.J.; Peisley, D.; Radecki, D.


    End pumping of solid-state lasers by single semiconductor laser diode arrays (LDAs) is efficient, but the maximum pump power is limited by the source brightness and matching the TEM/sub 00/ Nd:YAG cavity mode. To increase the output power from a solid-state Nd:YAG laser, one option is to employ a multiplicity of LDA to provide more pump power than is available from a single source. The authors report herein a 660-mW cw TEM/sub 00/ Nd:YAG laser, end-pumped by seven LDA, with bundled optical fibers coupling the light from each diode to the Nd:YAG rod end. The maximum electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency attained was 4.7% at 560-mW Nd:YAG output power. The LDAs (SDL-2430-C, 100 μm wide) were mounted on separate thermoelectric coolers to tune emission wavelength to the Nd:YAG absorption bands. The diodes were operated at their rated output power (50,000 h mean time to failure). The 110/125-μm diam 0.37-N.A. fibers were butt coupled to the lasers and glued together into a hexagonal close pack. The authors have obtained the highest average power demonstrated to date in the TEM/sub 00/ mode from a Nd:YAG laser, reliably end-pumped by multiple laser diodes with good efficiency

  5. Flowing Air-Water Cooled Slab Nd: Glass Laser

    Lu, Baida; Cai, Bangwei; Liao, Y.; Xu, Shifa; Xin, Z.


    A zig-zag optical path slab geometry Nd: glass laser cooled through flowing air-water is developed by us. Theoretical studies on temperature distribution of slab and rod configurations in the unsteady state clarify the advantages of the slab geometry laser. The slab design and processing are also reported. In our experiments main laser output characteristics, e. g. laser efficiency, polarization, far-field divergence angle as well as resonator misalignment are investigated. The slab phosphate glass laser in combination with a crossed Porro-prism resonator demonstrates a good laser performance.

  6. A dye center laser pumped by emission from copper vapor and dye lasers

    Loktyushin, A A; Chernyshev, A I; Soldatov, A N; Sukhanov, V B; Troitskiy, V O


    LiF:F2+ lasing is reported for the case of pumping by total emission with frequencies of 570.6 and 578.2 nanometers or by a single yellow copper vapor laser line and emission from an oxazene-17 dye laser excited by emission from a Cu laser. Lasing with a mean power level of 23 milliwatts with a maximum at 911 nanometers is obtained. The maximum efficiency was 3.4 percent with pumping of the dye centers by emission from the yellow Cu laser line. The lasing characteristics of the laser for all the types of pumping used are given.

  7. An application of the theory of laser to nitrogen laser pumped dye laser

    Osman, Fatima Ahmed


    In this thesis we gave a general discussion on lasers, reviewing some of their properties, types and application. We also conducted an experiment where we obtained a dye laser pumped by nitrogen laser with a wave length of 337.1 nm and a power of 5 Mw.It was noticed that the produced radiation possesses characteristics different from those of other types of laser. This characteristics determine the tunability i.e the possibility of choosing the appropriately required wave-length of radiation for various applications.(Author)

  8. Capacitive-discharge-pumped copper bromide vapour laser

    Sukhanov, V B; Fedorov, V F; Troitskii, V O; Gubarev, F A; Evtushenko, Gennadii S


    A copper bromide vapour laser pumped by a high-frequency capacitive discharge is developed. It is shown that, by using of a capacitive discharge, it is possible to built a sealed off metal halide vapour laser of a simple design allowing the addition of active impurities into the working medium. (letters)

  9. Pulsed CH3OH terahertz laser radiation pumped by 9P(36) CO2 lasers

    Jiu Zhixian; Zuo Duluo; Miao Liang; Cheng Zuhai


    An efficient pulsed CH 3 OH terahertz (THz) laser pumped by a TEA CO 2 laser was investigated experimentally. A simple terahertz cavity and a TEA CO 2 laser for the optically pumped THz radiation were studied experimentally. To improve THz laser energy and photon conversion efficiency, two different TEA CO 2 lasers were developed to pump CH 3 OH. When CH 3 OH was pumped by the 9P(36) line with different powers of the CO 2 laser, the generation of terahertz radiation with energy as high as 0.307mJ and 23.75mJ were obtained, respectively. The corresponding photon conversion efficiencies were 0.29% and 2.4%. The photon conversion efficiency increases by a factor of about 8. Meanwhile, higher peak power of pump laser effectively improves the photon conversion efficiency. And the optimum THz laser pressure increases with narrower pulse width of pump laser because of increasing absorptive gases molecules of CH 3 OH with higher peak power of pump laser.

  10. Diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy

    Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Orth, C.D.


    The authors evaluate the prospect for development of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser driver in an inertial fusion energy power plant. Using a computer code, they predict that their 1 GWe design will offer electricity at 8.6 cents/kW · hr with the laser operating at 8.6% efficiency and the recycled power level at 31%. The results of their initial subscale experimental testbed of a diode-pumped solid state laser are encouraging, demonstrating good efficiencies and robustness

  11. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping Solid State Lasers

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baggott, Renee S.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    Most Lidar applications rely on moderate to high power solid state lasers to generate the required transmitted pulses. However, the reliability of solid state lasers, which can operate autonomously over long periods, is constrained by their laser diode pump arrays. Thermal cycling of the active regions is considered the primary reason for rapid degradation of the quasi-CW high power laser diode arrays, and the excessive temperature rise is the leading suspect in premature failure. The thermal issues of laser diode arrays are even more drastic for 2-micron solid state lasers which require considerably longer pump pulses compared to the more commonly used pump arrays for 1-micron lasers. This paper describes several advanced packaging techniques being employed for more efficient heat removal from the active regions of the laser diode bars. Experimental results for several high power laser diode array devices will be reported and their performance when operated at long pulsewidths of about 1msec will be described.

  12. Q-switched Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Tm:GdVO4 laser.

    Esser, MJD


    Full Text Available The authors have, through careful analysis of spectroscopic data, designed and demonstrated a diode-end-pumped, quasicontinuous wave Tm:GdVO4 laser operating at 1892 nm in order to pump a Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. The Ho:YLF maximum output energy...

  13. Design of ultrahigh brightness solar-pumped disk laser.

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana


    To significantly improve the solar-pumped laser beam brightness, a multi-Fresnel lens scheme is proposed for side-pumping either a single-crystal Nd:YAG or a core-doped ceramic Sm(3+) Nd:YAG disk. Optimum laser system parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. An ultrahigh laser beam figure of merit B of 53 W is numerically calculated, corresponding to a significant enhancement of more than 180 times over the previous record. 17.7 W/m(2) collection efficiency is also numerically attained. The strong thermal effects that have hampered present-day rod-type solar-pumped lasers can also be largely alleviated.

  14. Diode-laser-pump module with integrated signal ports for pumping amplifying fibers and method

    Savage-Leuchs,; Matthias, P [Woodinville, WA


    Apparatus and method for collimating pump light of a first wavelength from laser diode(s) into a collimated beam within an enclosure having first and second optical ports, directing pump light from the collimated beam to the first port; and directing signal light inside the enclosure between the first and second port. The signal and pump wavelengths are different. The enclosure provides a pump block having a first port that emits pump light to a gain fiber outside the enclosure and that also passes signal light either into or out of the enclosure, and another port that passes signal light either out of or into the enclosure. Some embodiments use a dichroic mirror to direct pump light to the first port and direct signal light between the first and second ports. Some embodiments include a wavelength-conversion device to change the wavelength of at least some of the signal light.

  15. Watt-level ~2 μm laser output in Tm3+-doped tungsten tellurite glass double-cladding fiber.

    Li, Kefeng; Zhang, Guang; Hu, Lili


    We report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a watt level cw fiber laser at ~2 μm from a piece of 40-cm-long newly developed highly thulium-doped (3.76 × 10(20) ions/cm(3)) tungsten tellurite glass double cladding fiber pumped by a commercial 800 nm laser diode. The maximum output power of the fiber laser reaches 1.12 W. The slope efficiency and the optical-optical efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump are 20% and 16%, respectively. The lasing threshold is 1.46 W, and the lasing wavelength is centered at 1937 nm.

  16. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.


    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers

  17. Development of continuous glass melting for production of Nd-doped phosphate glasses for the NIF and LMJ laser system

    Campbell, J. H.; Ficini-Dorn, G.; Hawley-Fedder, R.; McLean, M. J.; Suratwala, T.; Trombert, J. H.


    The NIF and LMJ laser systems require about 3380 and 4752 Nd-doped laser glass slabs, respectively. Continuous laser glass melting and forming will be used for the first time to manufacture these slabs. Two vendors have been chosen to produce the glass: Hoya Corporation and Schott Glass Technologies. The laser glass melting systems that each of these two vendors have designed, built and tested are arguably the most advanced in the world. Production of the laser glass will begin on a pilot scale in the fall of 1999

  18. Laser-diode pumped 40-W Yb:YAG ceramic laser.

    Hao, Qiang; Li, Wenxue; Pan, Haifeng; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Benxue; Pan, Yubai; Zeng, Heping


    We demonstrated a high-power continuous-wave (CW) polycrystalline Yb:YAG ceramic laser pumped by fiber-pigtailed laser diode at 968 nm with 400 mum fiber core. The Yb:YAG ceramic laser performance was compared for different Yb(3+) ion concentrations in the ceramics by using a conventional end-pump laser cavity consisting of two flat mirrors with output couplers of different transmissions. A CW laser output of 40 W average power with M(2) factor of 5.8 was obtained with 5 mol% Yb concentration under 120 W incident pump power. This is to the best of our knowledge the highest output power in end-pumped bulk Yb:YAG ceramic laser.

  19. Potential of solar-simulator-pumped alexandrite lasers

    Deyoung, Russell J.


    An attempt was made to pump an alexandrite laser rod using a Tamarak solar simulator and also a tungsten-halogen lamp. A very low optical laser cavity was used to achieve the threshold minimum pumping-power requirement. Lasing was not achieved. The laser threshold optical-power requirement was calculated to be approximately 626 W/sq cm for a gain length of 7.6 cm, whereas the Tamarak simulator produces 1150 W/sq cm over a gain length of 3.3 cm, which is less than the 1442 W/sq cm required to reach laser threshold. The rod was optically pulsed with 200 msec pulses, which allowed the alexandrite rod to operate at near room temperature. The optical intensity-gain-length product to achieve laser threshold should be approximately 35,244 solar constants-cm. In the present setup, this product was 28,111 solar constants-cm.

  20. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Optically pumped ultraviolet BR2 laser

    Kamrukov, A. S.; Kozlov, N. P.; Protasov, Yu S.; Ushmarov, E. Yu


    A report is given of lasing achieved for the first time in optically pumped molecular bromine (D' 3Π2g→A' 3π2u, λL approx 292 nm). It was pumped by thermal vacuum ultraviolet radiation emitted by plasmadynamic discharges of magnetoplasma compressors, formed directly in the laser active medium. An output energy of ~ 1.1 J was obtained per laser pulse of ~ 5-μs duration from a Br2:Ar approx 1:450 active mixture at a pressure of ~ 4 atm. A comparison was made of the experimental output parameters of optically pumped Br2, I2, and XeF (B-X) lasers when their geometries and excitation energies were identical.

  1. A cladding-pumped, tunable holmium doped fiber laser.

    Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W Andrew; Haub, John; Carter, Adrian


    We present a tunable, high power cladding-pumped holmium doped fiber laser. The laser generated >15 W CW average power across a wavelength range of 2.043 - 2.171 μm, with a maximum output power of 29.7 W at 2.120 μm. The laser also produced 18.2 W when operating at 2.171 µm. To the best of our knowledge this is the highest power operation of a holmium doped laser at a wavelength >2.15 µm. We discuss the significance of background losses and fiber design for achieving efficient operation in holmium doped fibers.

  2. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers for atomic and molecular physics

    Burd, S.; Leibfried, D.; Wilson, A. C.; Wineland, D. J.


    Experiments in atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics rely on lasers at many different wavelengths and with varying requirements on spectral linewidth, power and intensity stability. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers (OPSLs), when combined with nonlinear frequency conversion, can potentially replace many of the laser systems currently in use. We are developing a source for laser cooling and spectroscopy of Mg+ ions at 280 nm, based on a frequency quadrupled OPSL with the gain chip fabricated at the ORC at Tampere Univ. of Technology, Finland. This OPSL system could serve as a prototype for many other sources used in atomic and molecular physics.

  3. Direct pumping of ultrashort Ti:sapphire lasers by a frequency doubled diode laser

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika


    electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser. Autocorrelation measurements show that pulse widths of less than 20 fs can be expected with an average power of 52 mW when using our laser. These results indicate the high potential of direct diode laser pumped Ti: sapphire lasers to be used in applications....... When using our diode laser system, the optical conversion efficiencies from green to near-infrared light reduces to 75 % of the values achieved with the commercial pump laser. Despite this reduction the overall efficiency of the Ti: sapphire laser is still increased by a factor > 2 due to the superior...... like retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) or pumping of photonic crystal fibers for CARS (coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy) microscopy....

  4. Electron beam pumped KrF lasers for fusion energy

    Sethian, J.D.; Friedman, M.; Giuliani, J.L. Jr.; Lehmberg, R.H.; Obenschain, S.P.; Kepple, P.; Wolford, M.; Hegeler, F.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Weidenheimer, D.; Welch, D.; Rose, D.V.; Searles, S.


    In this paper, we describe the development of electron beam pumped KrF lasers for inertial fusion energy. KrF lasers are an attractive driver for fusion, on account of their demonstrated very high beam quality, which is essential for reducing imprint in direct drive targets; their short wavelength (248 nm), which mitigates the growth of plasma instabilities; and their modular architecture, which reduces development costs. In this paper we present a basic overview of KrF laser technology as well as current research and development in three key areas: electron beam stability and transport; KrF kinetics and laser propagation; and pulsed power. The work will be cast in context of the two KrF lasers at the Naval Research Laboratory, The Nike Laser (5 kJ, single shot), and The Electra Laser (400-700 J repetitively pulsed)

  5. The ISOLDE RILIS pump laser upgrade and the LARIS Laboratory

    Marsh, B. A.; Berg, L.-E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Launila, O. J.; Lindroos, M.; Losito, R.; Osterdahl, F. K.; Pauchard, T.; Pohjalainen, I. T.; Sassenberg, U.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjoedin, A. M.; Transtroemer, G.


    On account of its high efficiency, speed and unmatched selectivity, the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is the preferred method for ionizing the nuclear reaction products at the ISOLDE on-line isotope separator facility. By exploiting the unique electronic energy level 'fingerprint' of a chosen element, the RILIS process of laser step-wise resonance ionization enables an ion beam of high chemical purity to be sent through the mass selective separator magnet. The isobaric purity of a beam of a chosen isotope is therefore greatly increased. The RILIS, comprising of up to three frequency tunable pulsed dye lasers has been upgraded with the installation of a Nd:YAG pump laser as a replacement for the old Copper Vapor Laser (CVL) system. A summary of the current Nd:YAG pumped RILIS performance is given. To accompany the RILIS pump laser upgrade, a new ionization scheme for manganese has been developed at the newly constructed LAser Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (LARIS) laboratory and successfully applied for on-line RILIS operation. An overview of the LARIS facility is given along with details of the ionization scheme development work for manganese.

  6. Scaling of an Optically Pumped Mid-Infrared Rubidium Laser


    beam, and the saturation intensity, Isat , was calculated using Equation 4.6: = ℎ( + ) , (6) where h is the...4.91 mm2, the intensity of the laser at a pump energy of 0.05 mJ was 10.2 mW/cm2. Thus I/ Isat ~ 290, so ∆νsat should have been about 17 times... Isat ~ 5796, so ∆νsat should have been about 76∆νD, in reasonable agreement with the experimental result of 53∆νD. Rb Laser Output Energy vs. Pump

  7. Imaging femtosecond laser-induced electronic excitation in glass

    Mao Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.


    While substantial progress has been achieved in understanding laser ablation on the nanosecond and picosecond time scales, it remains a considerable challenge to elucidate the underlying mechanisms during femtosecond laser material interactions. We present experimental observations of electronic excitation inside a wide band gap glass during single femtosecond laser pulse (100 fs, 800 nm) irradiation. Using a femtosecond time-resolved imaging technique, we measured the evolution of a laser-induced electronic plasma inside the glass and calculated the electron number density to be on the order of 10 19 cm -3

  8. Composite polymer: Glass edge cladding for laser disks

    Powell, H.T.; Wolfe, C.A.; Campbell, J.H.; Murray, J.E.; Riley, M.O.; Lyon, R.E.; Jessop, E.S.


    Large neodymium glass laser disks for disk amplifiers such as those used in the Nova laser require an edge cladding which absorbs at 1 micrometer. This cladding prevents edge reflections from causing parasitic oscillations which would otherwise deplete the gain. Nova now utilizes volume-absorbing monolithic-glass claddings which are fused at high temperature to the disks. These perform quite well but are expensive to produce. Absorbing glass strips are adhesively bonded to the edges of polygonal disks using a bonding agent whose index of refraction matches that of both the laser and absorbing glass. Optical finishing occurs after the strips are attached. Laser disks constructed with such claddings have shown identical gain performance to the previous Nova disks and have been tested for hundreds of shots without significant degradation. 18 figs.

  9. Composite polymer-glass edge cladding for laser disks

    Powell, Howard T.; Riley, Michael O.; Wolfe, Charles R.; Lyon, Richard E.; Campbell, John H.; Jessop, Edward S.; Murray, James E.


    Large neodymium glass laser disks for disk amplifiers such as those used in the Nova laser require an edge cladding which absorbs at 1 micrometer. This cladding prevents edge reflections from causing parasitic oscillations which would otherwise deplete the gain. Nova now utilizes volume-absorbing monolithic-glass claddings which are fused at high temperature to the disks. These perform quite well but are expensive to produce. Absorbing glass strips are adhesively bonded to the edges of polygonal disks using a bonding agent whose index of refraction matches that of both the laser and absorbing glass. Optical finishing occurs after the strips are attached. Laser disks constructed with such claddings have shown identical gain performance to the previous Nova disks and have been tested for hundreds of shots without significant degradation.

  10. Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser pumped by a single laser diode

    Kopylov, D. A.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Mavritskiy, A. O.; Perminov, B. E.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Murzina, T. V.; Maydykovskiy, A. I.


    The performance of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a single 461 nm laser diode is presented for both the continuous-wave and the mode-locked regimes of operation. We introduce a simple astigmatism correction scheme for the laser diode beam consisting of two cylindrical lenses affecting the pump beam along the fast axis of the laser diode, which provides the mode-matching between the nearly square-shaped pump beam and the cavity mode. The resulting efficiency of the suggested Ti:Sapphire oscillator pumped by such a laser diode is analyzed for the Ti:sapphire crystals of 3 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm in length. We demonstrate that such a system provides the generation of ultrashort pulses up to 15 fs in duration with the repetition rate of 87 MHz, the average power being 170 mW.

  11. Development of Cr,Nd:GSGG laser as a pumping source of Ti:sapphire laser

    Tamura, Koji; Arisawa, Takashi


    Since efficiency of Cr,Nd doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (GSGG) laser is in principle higher than that of Nd:YAG laser, it can be a highly efficient pumping source for Ti:sapphire laser. We have made GSGG laser, and measured its oscillation properties. It was two times more efficient than Nd:YAG laser at free running mode operation. At Q-switched mode operation, fundamental output of 50 mJ and second harmonics output of 8 mJ were obtained. The developed laser had appropriate spatial profile, temporal duration, long time stability for solid laser pumping. Ti:sapphire laser oscillation was achieved by the second harmonics of GSGG laser. (author)

  12. Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in zinc phosphate glasses [Invited

    Fletcher, L.B.; Witcher, J.J.; Troy, N.; Reis, S.T.; Brow, R.K.; Martinez Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Krol, D.M.


    We have studied the relationship between the initial glass composition and the structural changes associated with laser-induced refractive index modification in a series of Er-Yb doped and undoped zinc phosphate glasses. White light microscopy and waveguide experiments are used together with Raman

  13. Low expansion and high gain Nd laser glasses

    Izumitani, Tetsuro; Peng, B.


    Due to the relationship between Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter and covalency, new laser glasses have been developed which have low expansion coefficients (85--91 x 10 -7 /cm C, 0--70 C) and high emission cross sections. They have good chemical properties, high Young's modulus and high thermal conductivities. These glasses are suitable for the National Ignition Facility

  14. Solar-simulator-pumped atomic iodine laser kinetics

    Wilson, H. W.; Raju, S.; Shiu, Y. J.


    The literature contains broad ranges of disagreement in kinetic data for the atomic iodine laser. A kinetic model of a solar-simulator-pumped iodine laser is used to select those kinetic data consistent with recent laser experiments at the Langley Research Center. Analysis of the solar-simulator-pumped laser experiments resulted in the following estimates of rate coefficients: for alkyl radical (n-C3F7) and atomic iodine (I) recombination, 4.3 x 10 to the 11th power (1.9) + or - cu cm/s; for n-C3F7I stabilized atomic iodine recombination (I + I) 3.7 x 10 to the -32nd power (2.3) + or -1 cm to the 6th power/s; and for molecular iodine (I2) quenching, 3.1 x 10 to the -11th power (1.6) + or - 1 cu cm/s. These rates are consistent with the recent measurements.

  15. Glass particles produced by laser ablation for ICP-MSmeasurements

    Gonzalez, J.; Liu, C.; Wen, S.; Mao, X.; Russo, R.E.


    Pulsed laser ablation (266nm) was used to generate glass particles from two sets of standard reference materials using femtosecond (150fs) and nanosecond (4ns) laser pulses with identical fluences of 50 J cm{sup -2}. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the collected particles revealed that there are more and larger agglomerations of particles produced by nanosecond laser ablation. In contrast to the earlier findings for metal alloy samples, no correlation between the concentration of major elements and the median particle size was found. When the current data on glass were compared with the metal alloy data, there were clear differences in terms of particle size, crater depth, heat affected zone, and ICP-MS response. For example, glass particles were larger than metal alloy particles, the craters in glass were less deep than craters in metal alloys, and damage to the sample was less pronounced in glass compared to metal alloys samples. The femtosecond laser generated more intense ICP-MS signals compared to nanosecond laser ablation for both types of samples, although glass sample behavior was more similar between ns and fs-laser ablation than for metals alloys.

  16. Laser emission in Nd3+ doped barium–titanium–silicate microspheres under continuous and chopped wave pumping in a non-coupled pumping scheme

    Martín, L L; Pérez-Rodríguez, C; Martín, I R; Navarro-Urrios, D; Ferrarese-Lupi, F; Garrido, B; Montserrat, J; Dominguez, C; Capuj, N


    Laser action using non-coupled excitation and detection of microspheres made of Nd 3+ doped barium–titanium–silicate glass has been demonstrated and measured. The microspheres have also been successfully deposited over Si 3 N 4 strip waveguides with a SiO 2 separation layer, thus enabling the laser emission extraction onto a CMOS compatible photonic circuit. The dynamics of the lasing wavelength and intensity has been studied as a function of the pump power and interpreted in terms of thermal effects generated through non-radiative recombination of the excited ions. (paper)

  17. Quantitative pump-induced wavefront distortions in laser-diode- and flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YLF laser rods

    Skeldon, M.D.; Saager, R.B.; Seka, W.


    Detailed interferometric measurements of the induced thermal distortions due to laser-diode and xenon flashlamp pumping of Nd:YLF are presented. The thermal distortions are quantified in terms of the primary aberrations of defocus, astigmatism, coma, and spherical. Defocus and astigmatism are shown to dominate the thermal aberrations. The measured defocus and astigmatism are converted to the conventional thermal-focal lengths in two perpendicular directions with respect to the Nd:YLF crystalline c axis for each of the two polarization states σ and π. A comparison of the thermal-focal lengths measured with the xenon flashlamp- and laser-diode-pumped rods is given when the rods are pumped to the same small-signal gain. The authors calculate effective dioptric-power coefficients from the data for comparison to those reported in the literature for krypton-flashlamp pumping. A thermal-time constant of 1.5 s is measured for the laser-diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser rod

  18. Cladding for transverse-pumped solid-state laser

    Byer, Robert L. (Inventor); Fan, Tso Y. (Inventor)


    In a transverse pumped, solid state laser, a nonabsorptive cladding surrounds a gain medium. A single tranverse mode, namely the Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) sub 00 mode, is provided. The TEM sub 00 model has a cross sectional diameter greater than a transverse dimension of the gain medium but less than a transverse dimension of the cladding. The required size of the gain medium is minimized while a threshold for laser output is lowered.

  19. Discharge pumped F/sub 2/ laser at 1580 A

    Pummer, H; Hohla, K; Diegelmann, M; Reilly, J P


    By pumping mixtures of F/sub 2/ and He in a fast uv-preionized discharge laser emission at 1578 A, probably stemming from the /sup 3/PI/sub 2g/ ..-->.. /sup 3/PI/sub 2u/ transition in molecular fluorine have been obtained. Observed energy is 8.5 mJ in pulses of 15 ns half-width. First experimental results on laser performance and scalability are given.

  20. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.


    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  1. High-power and highly efficient diode-cladding-pumped holmium-doped fluoride fiber laser operating at 2.94 microm.

    Jackson, Stuart D


    A high-power diode-cladding-pumped Ho(3+), Pr(3+)-doped fluoride glass fiber laser is demonstrated. The laser produced a maximum output power of 2.5 W at a slope efficiency of 32% using diode lasers emitting at 1,150 nm. The long-emission wavelength of 2.94 microm measured at maximum pump power, which is particularly suited to medical applications, indicates that tailoring of the proportion of Pr(3+) ions can provide specific emission wavelengths while providing sufficient de-excitation of the lower laser level.

  2. Forensic comparative glass analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Bridge, Candice M.; Powell, Joseph; Steele, Katie L.; Sigman, Michael E.


    Glass samples of four types commonly encountered in forensic examinations have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the purpose of discriminating between samples originating from different sources. Some of the glass sets were also examined by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Refractive index (RI) measurements were also made on all glass samples and the refractive index data was combined with the LIBS and with the LA-ICP-MS data to enhance discrimination. The glass types examined included float glass taken from front and side automobile windows (examined on the non-float side), automobile headlamp glass, automobile side-mirror glass and brown beverage container glass. The largest overall discrimination was obtained by employing RI data in combination with LA-ICP-MS (98.8% discrimination of 666 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence), while LIBS in combination with RI provided a somewhat lower discrimination (87.2% discrimination of 1122 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence). Samples of side-mirror glass were less discriminated by LIBS due to a larger variance in emission intensities, while discrimination of side-mirror glass by LA-ICP-MS remained high

  3. Optical vortex generation from a diode-pumped alexandrite laser

    Thomas, G. M.; Minassian, A.; Damzen, M. J.


    We present the demonstration of an optical vortex mode directly generated from a diode-pumped alexandrite slab laser, operating in the bounce geometry. This is the first demonstration of an optical vortex mode generated from an alexandrite laser or from any other vibronic laser. An output power of 2 W for a vortex mode with a ‘topological charge’ of 1 was achieved and the laser was made to oscillate with both left- and right-handed vorticity. The laser operated at two distinct wavelengths simultaneously, 755 and 759 nm, due to birefringent filtering in the alexandrite gain medium. The result offers the prospect of broadly wavelength tunable vortex generation directly from a laser.

  4. Properties of optical breakdown in BK7 glass induced by an extended-cavity femtosecond laser oscillator.

    Do, Binh T; Phillips, Mark C; Miller, Paul A; Kimmel, Mark W; Britsch, Justin; Cho, Seong-Ho


    Using an extended-cavity femtosecond oscillator, we investigated optical breakdown in BK7 glass caused by the accumulated action of many laser pulses. By using a pump-probe experiment and collecting the transmitted pump along with the reflected pump and the broadband light generated by the optical breakdown, we measured the build-up time to optical breakdown as a function of the pulse energy, and we also observed the instability of the plasma due to the effect of defocusing and shielding created by the electron gas. The spectrum of the broadband light emitted by the optical breakdown and the origin of the material modification in BK7 glass was studied. We developed a simple model of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma that is consistent with the observed behavior of the reflection, absorption, and transmission of the laser light.

  5. Experiments on resonantly photo-pumped x-ray lasers

    Nilsen, J.; Porter, J.L.; Da Silva, L.B.; MacGowan, B.; Beiersdorfer, P..; Elliott, S.R.; Young, B.K.


    We describe our recent effort to identify and study a promising resonantly photopumped x-ray laser scheme. In particular we will describe a scheme which uses the strong emission lines of a nickel-like ion to resonantly photo-pump a neon-like ion and enhance the lasing of the neon-like 3p → 3s transitions

  6. Efficient diode pumped ytterbium-doped fibre laser

    Harun, S.W.; Paul, M.C.; Moghaddam, M.R.A.; Das, S.; Sen, R.; Dhar, Anirban; Pal, M.; Bhadra, S.K.; Ahmad, H.


    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2010), s. 68-69 ISSN 0013-5194 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Fibre lasers * Oscillator * Diode-pumped Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.001, year: 2010

  7. Principle tests of reactor pumped laser of 3He-Ar-Xe system

    Chen Hande; Jin Xingxing; Yang Chengde


    A nuclear reactor-pumped laser was demonstrated firstly by using the 3 He(P,n) 3 H reaction to excite a 3 He-Ar-Xe laser. Lasing was observed on the 1.73 μm (5d (3/2) 1 -6p(5/2) 1 transition) in Xe I. The CAEP Pulsed Reactor (CFBR-II) was used as a source of fast neutrons moderated by a 50 mm thick polyethylene sleeve around the laser cell. A laser cell was constructed from K 9 glass tubing 600 mm long and Φ34 mm with each end cut at Brewster's angle (quartz). The laser cell was baked out to 10 -3 Pa prior to filling with research-grade mixture ( 3 He/Ar/Xe = 34.7: 34.7: 0.267 kPa). A dielectric-coated 2 m radius-curvature back mirror (99.7% reflectivity at 1.73 μm) and a flat output coupler (Φ30 mm) were used to form the optical cavity. The cavity optics were placed outside the cell as shown in Fig.3. A schematic of the experimental configuration is shown. Typical laser signals obtained with the Ge detector (-80 degree C) are also shown. Laser output lags the fast neutron pulse by the neutron thermalization time (∼278 μs). The observed light output was shown to be caused by stimulated emission, because the signal disappeared when the reflecting (flat) mirror was covered. This precludes the possibility that the phenomenon was the result of γ-radiation interaction with the detector or the air in the light path. The measured laser energy was 80 times the maximum possible fluorescence energy. The observed wavelength was measured to be 1.73 μm by using glass filters. Laser output duration was approximately 735 μs

  8. Nuclear-driven flashlamp pumping of the atomic iodine laser

    Miley, G.H.


    This report is a study of the atomic iodine laser pumped with nuclear- excited XeBr fluorescence. Preliminary experiments, conducted in the TRIGA reactor investigated the fluorescence of the excimer XeBr under nuclear pumping with 10 B and 3 He, for use as a flashlamp gas to stimulate the laser. These measurements included a determination of the fluorescence efficiency (light emitted in the wavelength region of interest, divided by energy deposited in the gas) of XeBr under nuclear pumping, with varying excimer mixtures. Maximum fluorescence efficiencies were approximately 1%. In order to better understand XeBr under nuclear excitation, a kinetics model of the system was prepared. The model generated the time-dependant concentrations of 20 reaction species for three pulse sizes, a TRIGA pulse, a fast burst reactor pulse, and an e-beam pulse. The modeling results predicted fluorescence efficiencies significantly higher (peak efficiencies of approximately 10%) than recorded in the fluorescence experiments. The cause of this discrepancy was not fully determined. A ray tracing computer model was also prepared to evaluate the efficiency with which nuclear-induced fluorescence generated in one cavity of a laser could be coupled into another cavity containing an iodine lasant. Finally, an experimental laser cell was constructed to verify that nuclear-induced XeBr fluorescence could be used to stimulate a laser. Lasing was achieved at 1.31 micron in the TRIGA using C 3 F 7 I, a common iodine lasant. Peak laser powers were approximately 20 mW. Measured flashlamp pump powers at threshold agreed well with literature values, as did lasant pressure dependency on laser operation

  9. Structural modification of silica glass by laser scanning

    Zhao Jian; Sullivan, James; Zayac, John; Bennett, Ted D.


    The thermophysical nature of rapid CO 2 laser heating of silica glass is explored using a numerical simulation that considers the structural state of the glass, as characterized by the fictive temperature. The fictive temperature reflects the thermodynamic temperature at which the glass structure would be in equilibrium. To demonstrate that the thermophysical model can accurately predict the structural change in the glass, the fictive temperature is measured experimentally utilizing the fact that the fictive temperature change corresponds to a change of glass properties that can be revealed through wet chemical etching. The relationship between the etch rate and the fictive temperature is determined by preparing and etching samples of known fictive temperature. Wet chemical etching is used to measure the fictive temperature over the entire laser affected zone and the results are found to compare favorably with the results of the thermophysical model. The model and experimental measurements demonstrate that rapid laser processing results in an increased fictive temperature near the surface of the glass. The fictive temperature increase is about 1000 K and is uniform to within 5% over the laser affected zone. Near the boundary of this zone, the fictive temperature transitions abruptly to the value of the surrounding untreated glass

  10. Efficient Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Tm:fiber laser

    Koen, W


    Full Text Available Laser sources emitting in the 2 micron region is of particular interest for applications in medicine, remote sensing (LIDAR) and directed infra-red countermeasures. In addition, they are also desirable pump sources for efficient optical parametric...

  11. Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said

    Sher, Mark H.; Macklin, John J.; Harris, Stephen E.


    A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

  12. Optical pumping of Rb by Ti:Sa laser and high-power laser diode

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Rychnovský, Jan; Lazar, Josef


    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2006), s. 350-354 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1065303; GA ČR GA102/04/2109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : optical pumping * Ti:Sa laser * laser diode * emission linewidth * spectroscopy * laser frequency stabilization Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2006

  13. Distributed feedback dye laser pumped with copper-vapor laser emission

    Mirza, S Yu; Soldatov, A N; Sukhanov, V B


    The power-spectrum characteristics of the emission of a distributed feedback dye laser pumped with a copper vapor laser have been studied. Laser action has been observed in five dyes over a tuning range of 530-723 nm with an efficiency of 12.4%. The specfic features of the distributed feedback dye laser operating at pulse repetition rates of 4 kHz are discussed.

  14. High-average-power laser medium based on silica glass

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro


    Silica glass is one of the most attractive materials for a high-average-power laser. We have developed a new laser material base don silica glass with zeolite method which is effective for uniform dispersion of rare earth ions in silica glass. High quality medium, which is bubbleless and quite low refractive index distortion, must be required for realization of laser action. As the main reason of bubbling is due to hydroxy species remained in the gelation same, we carefully choose colloidal silica particles, pH value of hydrochloric acid for hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate on sol-gel process, and temperature and atmosphere control during sintering process, and then we get a bubble less transparent rare earth doped silica glass. The refractive index distortion of the sample also discussed.

  15. Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system

    Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kado, Masataka; Tanaka, Momoko; Sasaki, Akira; Hasegawa, Noboru; Namba, Sinichi; Nagashima, Keisuke; Lu Peixiang; Takahashi, Kenjiro; Tai Renzhong; Kishimoto, Maki; Koike, Masato; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kilpio, Alexander V.; Tang Huajing


    Silver and tin slab targets were irradiated by line-focused chirped pulse amplification glass laser light. In this experiment, the laser pulses consisted of two pulses with 4 ps duration, separated by 1.2 ns. Strong amplification in the nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers at the wavelengths of 13.9 and 12.0 nm was demonstrated with pumping energy of 12 and 14 J, respectively, and gain-saturation behavior could be seen. A hydrodynamics simulation coupled with a collisional-radiative model was performed under the present experimental conditions, and the calculated result was compared with the experimental results

  16. Recent advances in phosphate laser glasses for high power applications

    Campbell, J.H.


    Recent advances in Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses for high-peak-power and high-average-power applications are reviewed. Compositional studies have progressed to the point that glasses can be tailored to have specific properties for specific applications. Non-radiative relaxation effects can be accurately modeled and empirical expressions have been developed to evaluate both intrinsic (structural) and extrinsic (contamination induced) relaxation effects. Losses due to surface scattering and bulk glass absorption have been carefully measured and can be accurately predicted. Improvements in processing have lead to high damage threshold (e.g. Pt inclusion free) and high thermal shock resistant glasses with improved edge claddings. High optical quality pieces up to 79 x 45 x 4cm 3 have been made and methods for continuous melting laser glass are under development

  17. Multi-megajoule Nd: glass fusion laser design

    Manes, K.R.


    New technologies make multi-megajoule glass lasers economically feasible. Laser architectures using harmonic switchout, target plane holographic injection, phase conjugation, continuous apodization and higher amplifier efficiencies have been devised. A plan for a multi-megajoule laser which can be built for an acceptable cost relies on manufacturing economies of scale and the demonstration of the new technologies presented here. These include continuous pour glass production, rapid harmonic crystal growth, switching of large blocks of power using larger capcaitors packed more economically and by using large identical parts counts

  18. Highly efficient solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana


    The recent progress in solar-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and Cr:Nd:YAG ceramic medium has revitalized solar laser researches, revealing a promising future for renewable reduction of magnesium from magnesium oxide. Here we show a big advance in solar laser collection efficiency by utilizing an economical Fresnel lens and a most widely used Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. The incoming solar radiation from the sun is focused by a 0.9 m diameter Fresnel lens. A dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary concentrator is employed to couple the concentrated solar radiation from the focal zone to a 4 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod within a conical pumping cavity. 12.3 W cw laser power is produced, corresponding to 19.3 W/m(2) collection efficiency, which is 2.9 times larger than the previous results with Nd:YAG single-crystal medium. Record-high slope efficiency of 3.9% is also registered. Laser beam quality is considerably improved by pumping a 3 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod.

  19. Magnetic composite Hydrodynamic Pump with Laser Induced Graphene Electrodes

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Hristovski, Ilija R.; Marinaro, Giovanni; Kosel, Jü rgen


    A polymer based magneto hydrodynamic pump capable of actuating saline fluids is presented. The benefit of this pumping concept to operate without any moving parts is combined with simple and cheap fabrication methods and a magnetic composite material, enabling a high level of integration. The operating principle, fabrication methodology and flow characteristics of the pump are detailed. The pump electrodes are created by laser printing of polyimide, while the permanent magnet is molded from an NdFeB powder - polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite. The cross-section area of the pump is 240 mm $^2$ . The electrode length is 5 mm. The magnetic characteristics of the NdFeB-PDMS composite indicate high degree of magnetization, which increases the pump efficiency. Using a saline solution similar to seawater, the pump produces 3.4 mm/s flow velocity at a voltage of 7.5V and a current density of 30 mA/cm $^2$ .

  20. Magnetic composite Hydrodynamic Pump with Laser Induced Graphene Electrodes

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah


    A polymer based magneto hydrodynamic pump capable of actuating saline fluids is presented. The benefit of this pumping concept to operate without any moving parts is combined with simple and cheap fabrication methods and a magnetic composite material, enabling a high level of integration. The operating principle, fabrication methodology and flow characteristics of the pump are detailed. The pump electrodes are created by laser printing of polyimide, while the permanent magnet is molded from an NdFeB powder - polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite. The cross-section area of the pump is 240 mm $^2$ . The electrode length is 5 mm. The magnetic characteristics of the NdFeB-PDMS composite indicate high degree of magnetization, which increases the pump efficiency. Using a saline solution similar to seawater, the pump produces 3.4 mm/s flow velocity at a voltage of 7.5V and a current density of 30 mA/cm $^2$ .

  1. High-power diode laser bars as pump sources for fiber lasers and amplifiers (Invited Paper)

    Bonati, G.; Hennig, P.; Wolff, D.; Voelckel, H.; Gabler, T.; Krause, U.; T'nnermann, A.; Reich, M.; Limpert, J.; Werner, E.; Liem, A.


    Fiber lasers are pumped by fibercoupled, multimode single chip devices at 915nm. That"s what everybody assumes when asked for the type of fiber laser pumps and it was like this for many years. Coming up as an amplifier for telecom applications, the amount of pump power needed was in the range of several watts. Highest pump powers for a limited market entered the ten watts range. This is a range of power that can be covered by highly reliable multimode chips, that have to survive up to 25 years, e.g. in submarine applications. With fiber lasers entering the power range and the application fields of rod and thin disc lasers, the amount of pump power needed raised into the area of several hundred watts. In this area of pump power, usually bar based pumps are used. This is due to the much higher cost pressure of the industrial customers compared to telecom customers. We expect more then 70% of all industrial systems to be pumped by diode laser bars. Predictions that bar based pumps survive for just a thousand hours in cw-operation and fractions of this if pulsed are wrong. Bar based pumps have to perform on full power for 10.000h on Micro channel heat sinks and 20.000h on passive heatsinks in industrial applications, and they do. We will show a variety of data, "real" long time tests and statistics from the JENOPTIK Laserdiode as well as data of thousands of bars in the field, showing that bar based pumps are not just well suitable for industrial applications on high power levels, but even showing benefits compared to chip based pumps. And it"s reasonable, that the same objectives of cost effectiveness, power and lifetime apply as well to thin disc, rod and slab lasers as to fiber lasers. Due to the pumping of fiber lasers, examples will be shown, how to utilize bars for high brightness fiber coupling. In this area, the automation is on its way to reduce the costs on the fibercoupling, similar to what had been done in the single chip business. All these efforts are

  2. Electrically pumped edge-emitting photonic bandgap semiconductor laser

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Zubrzycki, Walter J.


    A highly efficient, electrically pumped edge-emitting semiconductor laser based on a one- or two-dimensional photonic bandgap (PBG) structure is described. The laser optical cavity is formed using a pair of PBG mirrors operating in the photonic band gap regime. Transverse confinement is achieved by surrounding an active semiconductor layer of high refractive index with lower-index cladding layers. The cladding layers can be electrically insulating in the passive PBG mirror and waveguide regions with a small conducting aperture for efficient channeling of the injection pump current into the active region. The active layer can comprise a quantum well structure. The quantum well structure can be relaxed in the passive regions to provide efficient extraction of laser light from the active region.

  3. Design of a solar-pumped frequency-doubled 532 nm Nd:YVO4 laser

    Kittiboonanan, P.; Putchana, W.; Deeudomand, M.; Ratanavis, A.


    During the last year we have made progresson a development of a frequency-doubled 532 nm Nd:YVO4 laser pumped by solar light. The research aimed to demonstrate solar pumped lasers consisting of the optically contracted Nd:YVO4 crystal and KTP crystal with a system of laser mirrors deposited onto crystal sides. The Cassegrain reflector is used as the configuration. This solar pumped laser system is appealing for a variety applications including laser communication, imaging and defense applications.

  4. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.


    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  5. Optically Pumped Carbon Monoxide Cascade Laser

    Sawruk, Nicholas W


    ...) overtone band of the CO, which induced lasing on the (3,2) and (2,1) bands around 4.7um. The laser output was spectrally separated to determine the spectral and temporal evolution of the CO lasing pulse...

  6. Femtosecond Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by tapered diode lasers.

    Demirbas, Umit; Schmalz, Michael; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Petrich, Gale S; Kolodziejski, Leslie A; Fujimoto, James G; Kärtner, Franz X; Leitenstorfer, Alfred


    We report compact, low-cost and efficient Cr:Colquiriite lasers that are pumped by high brightness tapered laser diodes. The tapered laser diodes provided 1 to 1.2 W of output power around 675 nm, at an electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of about 30%. Using a single tapered diode laser as the pump source, we have demonstrated output powers of 500 mW and 410 mW together with slope efficiencies of 47% and 41% from continuous wave (cw) Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers, respectively. In cw mode-locked operation, sub-100-fs pulse trains with average power between 200 mW and 250 mW were obtained at repetition rates around 100 MHz. Upon pumping the Cr:Colquiriite lasers with two tapered laser diodes (one from each side of the crystal), we have observed scaling of cw powers to 850 mW in Cr:LiSAF and to 650 mW in Cr:LiCAF. From the double side pumped Cr:LiCAF laser, we have also obtained ~220 fs long pulses with 5.4 nJ of pulse energy at 77 MHz repetition rate. These are the highest energy levels reported from Cr:Colquiriite so far at these repetition rates. Our findings indicate that tapered diodes in the red spectral region are likely to become the standard pump source for Cr:Colquiriite lasers in the near future. Moreover, the simplified pumping scheme might facilitate efficient commercialization of Cr:Colquiriite systems, bearing the potential to significantly boost applications of cw and femtosecond lasers in this spectral region (750-1000 nm).

  7. Two-Photon Pumped Synchronously Mode-Locked Bulk GaAs Laser

    Cao, W. L.; Vaucher, A. M.; Ling, J. D.; Lee, C. H.


    Pulses 7 picoseconds or less in duration have been generated from a bulk GaAs crystal by a synchronous mode-locking technique. The GaAs crystal was optically pumped by two-photon absorption of the emission from a mode-locked Nd:glass laser. Two-photon absorption as the means of excitation increases the volume of the gain medium by increasing the pene-tration depth of the pump intensity, enabling generation of intra-cavity pulses with peak power in the megawatt range. Tuning of the wavelength of the GaAs emission is achieved by varying the temperature. A tuning range covering 840 nm to 885 nm has been observed over a temperature range from 97°K to 260°K. The intensity of the GaAs emission has also been observed to decrease as the temperature of the crystal is increased.

  8. Copper vapour laser with an efficient semiconductor pump generator having comparable pump pulse and output pulse durations

    Yurkin, A A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We report the results of experimental studies of a copper vapour laser with a semiconductor pump generator capable of forming virtually optimal pump pulses with a current rise steepness of about 40 A ns{sup -1} in a KULON LT-1.5CU active element. To maintain the operating temperature of the active element's channel, an additional heating pulsed oscillator is used. High efficiency of the pump generator is demonstrated. (lasers)

  9. Diode pumped cascade Er:Y2O3 laser

    Sanamyan, T


    A cascade, diode-pumped, continuous wave (CW), dual-wavelength operation in a 0.5% Er 3+ :Y 2 O 3 cryogenic ceramic laser is demonstrated for the first time. The laser operates on cascaded Er ( 4 I 11/2   →   4 I 13/2   →   4 I 15/2 ) transitions and can deliver 24 and 13 W at 1.6 and 2.7 μm, respectively. The overall efficiency with respect to the absorbed ∼980 nm power was 62%. This is, to our best knowledge, the first demonstration of an efficient, high power, cascade, erbium laser achieved in bulk solid-state lasers. The analysis of the output power, the laser’s wavelengths and slope efficiency for each individual laser transition are presented for pure CW operation mode. Also presented are the temporal behaviors of each laser line as a function of pump pulse duration in the quasi-CW regime. (letter)

  10. Krypton excimer laser oscillation by discharge pumping

    Shirai, Takahiro; Tabe, Yoshitaka; Kubodera, Shoichi; Sasaki, Wataru; Kawanaka, Junji


    We have demonstrated vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser oscillation of the krypton excimer (Kr 2 *) excited by a compact self-sustained discharge device. We have observed a spectral narrowing of the Kr 2 * emission centered at 147.8 nm. A deconvoluted spectral width is 0.5 nm (FWHM), which reveals a contrast to a 13 nm spectral width of the spontaneous emission. The Kr 2 * intensity has increased one order of magnitude when a charging voltage was increased larger than 29 kV. The success of the lasing in the VUV spectral region has been attributed to the success of a stable glow discharge of Kr at 10 atm. The pulse width of the VUV laser radiation is 400 ns (FWHM). The maximum output energy measured is as large as 150 μJ. (author)

  11. Electric-discharge-pumped nitrogen ion laser

    Laudenslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J.; Wittig, C.


    The routine operation is described of an N2(+) laser oscillating on the first negative band system of N2(+) which is produced in a preionized transverse discharge device. The discharge design incorporates features which favor the efficient production of the excitation transfer reaction of He2(+) with N2. A capacitive discharge switched by means of a high-current grounded grid thyratron is used to meet the design requirement of a volumetric discharge in high-pressure gas mixtures where the electric discharge need not have an ultrafast rise time (greater than 10 nsec) but should be capable of transferring large quantities of stored electric energy to the gas. A peak power of 180 kW in an 8-nsec laser pulse was obtained with a 0.1% mixture of N2 in helium at a total pressure of 3 atm. The most intense laser oscillations were observed on the (0,1) vibrational transition at 427.8 microns.

  12. Investigation of diode-laser pumped thulium-doped fluoride lasers

    Matos, Paulo Sergio Fabris de


    Tunable lasers emitting around 2.3 mum region are important in many areas, like gas detection, remote sensing and medical applications. Thulium has a large emission spectra around 2.3 mum with demonstrated tuning range of 2.2-2.45 mum using the YLF host. For efficient pump absorption, a high concentration sensitizer like ytterbium can be used. We demonstrate quasi-cw operation of the Yb:Tm:YLF laser, pumped at 960 nm with a 20 W diode bar achieving the highest output power reported so far of 620 mW. Simultaneous pumping of the 2.3 mm Yb:Tm:YLF laser at 685 nm and 960 nm is demonstrated, showing higher slope efficiency than 960 nm alone. Numerical simulations and analytical models show the best ratio of pump power between both wavelengths. (author)

  13. Mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser oscillators pumped by wavelength-multiplexed laser diodes

    Sugiyama, Naoto; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kannari, Fumihiko


    We directly pumped a Ti:sapphire laser by combining 478 and 520 nm laser diodes to prevent the effect of absorption loss induced by the pump laser of shorter wavelengths (∼450 nm). We obtain a continuous-wave output power of 660 mW at a total incident pump power of 3.15 W. We demonstrate mode locking using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror, and 126 fs pulses were obtained at a repetition rate of 192 MHz. At the maximum pump power, the average output power is 315 mW. Shorter mode-locked pulses of 42 and 48 fs were respectively achieved by Kerr-lens mode locking with average output powers of 280 and 360 mW at a repetition rate of 117 MHz.

  14. Wavefront improvement in an end-pumped high-power Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser.

    Shin, Jae Sung; Cha, Yong-Ho; Lim, Gwon; Kim, Yonghee; Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Hyeon Cheor; Kim, Sangin; Koh, Kwang Uoong; Kim, Hyun Tae


    Techniques for wavefront improvement in an end-pumped Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser amplifier were proposed and demonstrated experimentally. First, a study on the contact materials was conducted to improve the heat transfer between the slab and cooling blocks and to increase the cooling uniformity. Among many attempts, only the use of silicon oil showed an improvement in the wavefront. Thus, the appropriate silicone oil was applied to the amplifier as a contact material. In addition, the wavefront compensation method using a glass rod array was also applied to the amplifier. A very low wavefront distortion was obtained through the use of a silicone-oil contact and glass rod array. The variance of the optical path difference for the entire beam height was 3.87 μm at a pump power of 10.6 kW, and that for the 80% section was 1.69 μm. The output power from the oscillator was 3.88 kW, which means the maximum output extracted from the amplifier at a pump power of 10.6 kW.

  15. Future directions in 980-nm pump lasers: submarine deployment to low-cost watt-class terrestrial pumps

    Gulgazov, Vadim N.; Jackson, Gordon S.; Lascola, Kevin M.; Major, Jo S.; Parke, Ross; Richard, Tim; Rossin, Victor V.; Zhang, Kai


    The demands of global bandwidth and distribution are rising rapidly as Internet usage grows. This fundamentally means that more photons are flowing within optical cables. While transmitting sources launches some optical power, the majority of the optical power that is present within modern telecommunication systems originates from optical amplifiers. In addition, modern optical amplifiers offer flat optical gain over broad wavelength bands, thus making possible dense wavelength de-multiplexing (DWDM) systems. Optical amplifier performance, and by extension the performance of the laser pumps that drive them, is central to the future growth of both optical transmission and distribution systems. Erbium-doped amplifiers currently dominate optical amplifier usage. These amplifiers absorb pump light at 980 nm and/or 1480 nm, and achieve gain at wavelengths around 1550 nm. 980 nm pumps achieve better noise figures and are therefore used for the amplification of small signals. Due to the quantum defect, 1480 nm lasers deliver more signal photon per incident photon. In addition, 1480 nm lasers are less expensive than 980 nm lasers. Thus, 1480 nm pump lasers are used for amplification in situations where noise is not critical. The combination of these traits leads to the situation where many amplifiers contain 980 nm lasers to pump the input section of the Er- doped fiber with 1480 nm lasers being used to pump the latter section of Er fiber. This can be thought of as using 980 nm lasers to power an optical pre-amplifier with the power amplification function being pump with 1480 nm radiation. This paper will focus on 980 nm pump lasers and the impact that advances in 980 nm pump technology will have on optical amplification systems. Currently, 980 nm technology is rapidly advancing in two areas, power and reliability. Improving reliability is becoming increasingly important as amplifiers move towards employing more pump lasers and using these pump lasers without redundancy

  16. Dye laser with distributed feedback and with pumping by copper-vapor laser

    Mirza, S Yu; Soldatov, A N; Sukhanov, V B


    An experimental study was made for determining the characteristics of dye lasers with distributed feedback, not requiring intricate resonator structures, and the feasibility of their pumping with radiation from a metal-vapor laser. The experiments were performed with five different dyes lasing in the yellow-red (510.6 - 578.2 nm) range of the spectrum: rhodamine 110, 6G, S and ocazine 17,1 in ethyl alcohol solution. The optical equipment included a copper-vapor pumping laser with the gas-discharge tube inside a telescopic resonator of the unstable type. Pumping pulses of 20 ns duration were generated at 510.6 and 578.2 nm wavelengths and a 4 kHz repetition rate. The pumping power was varied by means of an interference filter smoothly adjustable through rotation. The pumping laser beam was focused by a cylindrical lens on the dye cell. At optimum dye concentrations, corresponding to a maximum attainable emission power, dye concentrate was added into the circulation system for determining the dependence of the pumping threshold power on the dye concentration. Also measured were the dependence of the emission efficiency on the pumping power and the tuning range of each dye laser. The efficiency was found to remain constant over the pumping power range from threshold level to eight times higher level. The results reveal different angles of laser beam divergence in the vertical plane and in the horizontal plane, the divergence angle being four times larger in the vertical plane. The conversion efficiency increased, without significant changes in spectral characteristics, with a single annular reflector instead of two reflectors. 9 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  17. Optically Pumped Far Infrared Molecular Lasers.


    and 4 were reported by Fetterman , et al. and Gullberg, et al.3 An additional FIR transition (i.e., G:sR(5,4) has been reported,5 but is not shown in...attempt has been made to frequency stabilize the experiment. Recently, Fetterman , et al. 11 performed "real-ti adctral analysis for FIR laser pulses...wave device known 4 as a Reflective Array Compressor (RAC) was developed for just this sort of problem in the radar community. Recently, Fetterman , et al

  18. Millwater Pumping System Optimization Improves Efficiency and Saves Energy at an Automotive Glass Plant


    In 2001, the Visteon automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee renovated its millwater pumping system. This improvement saved the plant $280,000 annually in energy and operating costs, reduced annual energy consumption by 3.2 million kilowatt-hours, reduced water consumption, improved system performance, and reduced use of water treatment chemicals.

  19. Development of high repetition rate ultra-short pulse solid state lasers pumped by laser diodes

    Ueda, Ken-ichi; Lu, Jianren; Takaichi, Kazunori; Yagi, Hideki; Yanagitani, Takakimi; Kaminskii, Alexander; Kawanaka, Junji


    A novel technique for ceramic lasers has been developed recently. Self-energy-driven sintering of nano-and micro particles created the fully transparent Nd:YAG ceramics. The ceramic YAG demonstrated high efficiency operation (optical-to-optical conversion of 60% in end pumping) and solid-phase crystals growth and the possible scaling were investigated principally. Typical performance of ceramic YAG laser has been reviewed. The present status and future prospect of the ceramic lasers technologies were discussed. (author)

  20. Optically pumped carbon dioxide laser mixtures. [using solar radiation

    Yesil, O.; Christiansen, W. H.


    This work explores the concept of blackbody radiation pumping of CO2 gas as a step toward utilization of solar radiation as a pumping source for laser action. To demonstrate this concept, an experiment was performed in which laser gas mixtures were exposed to 1500 K thermal radiation for brief periods of time. A gain of 2.8 x 10 to the -3rd reciprocal centimeters has been measured at 10.6 microns in a CO2-He gas mixture of 1 Torr pressure. A simple analytical model is used to describe the rate of change of energy of the vibrational modes of CO2 and to predict the gain. Agreement between the prediction and experiment is good.

  1. High-current electron accelerator for gas-laser pumping

    Badaliants, G R; Mamikonian, V A; Nersisian, G Ts; Papanian, V O


    A high-current source of pulsed electron beams has been developed for the pumping of UV gas lasers. The parameters of the device are: energy of 0.3-0.7 MeV pulse duration of 30 ns and current density (in a high-pressure laser chamber) of 40-100 A/sq cm. The principal feature of the device is the use of a rectangular cold cathode with incomplete discharge along the surface of the high-permittivity dielectric. Cathodes made of stainless steel, copper, and graphite were investigated.

  2. Multi-photon microscope driven by novel green laser pump

    Marti, Dominik; Djurhuus, Martin; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.


    Multi-photon microscopy is extensively used in research due to its superior possibilities when compared to other microscopy modalities. The technique also has the possibility to advance diagnostics in clinical applications, due to its capabilities complementing existing technology in a multimodal system. However, translation is hindered due to the high cost, high training demand and large footprint of a standard setup. We show in this article that minification of the setup, while also reducing cost and complexity, is indeed possible without compromising on image quality, by using a novel diode laser replacing the commonly used conventional solid state laser as the pump for the femtosecond system driving the imaging.

  3. Diode-pumped two micron solid-state lasers

    Elder, I.F.


    This thesis presents an investigation of diode-pumped two micron solid-state lasers, concentrating on a comparison of the cw room temperature operation of Tm:YAP, Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho:YLF. Dopant concentrations in YAP were 4.2% thulium and 0.28% holmium; in YLF they were 6% thulium and 0.4% holmium. Thermal modelling was carried out in order to provide an insight into the thermal lensing and population distributions in these materials. Laser operation was achieved utilising an end-pumping geometry with a simple two mirror standing wave resonator. The pump source for these experiments was a 3 W laser diode. Maximum output power was achieved with Tm:YAP, generating 730 mW of laser output, representing 42% conversion efficiency in terms of absorbed pump power. Upper bounds on the conversion efficiency of Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho:YLF laser crystal of 14% and 30% were obtained, with corresponding output powers of 270 and 660 mW. In all three cases, the output beam was TEM 00 in nature. Visible upconversion fluorescence bands in the green and red were identified in Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho:YLF, with additional blue emission from the latter, all assigned to transitions on holmium. The principal upconversion mechanisms in these materials all involved the holmium first excited state. Upconversion in Tm:YAP was negligible. The spectral output of Tm:YAP consisted of a comb of lines in the range 1.965 to 2.020 μm. For both the double-doped crystals, the laser output was multilongitudinal mode on a single transition, wavelength 2.120 μm in YAP, 2.065 μm in YLF. In the time domain the output of Tm:YAP was dominated by large amplitude spiking, unlike both of the double-doped laser crystals. The long lifetime of the thulium upper laser level (4.4 ms) provided very weak damping of the spiking. Excitation sharing between thulium and holmium, with a measured characteristic lifetime in YAP of 11.9 μs and YLF of 14.8 μs, provided strong damping of any spiking behaviour. (author)

  4. Strengthened glass for high average power laser applications

    Cerqua, K.A.; Lindquist, A.; Jacobs, S.D.; Lambropoulos, J.


    Recent advancements in high repetition rate and high average power laser systems have put increasing demands on the development of improved solid state laser materials with high thermal loading capabilities. The authors have developed a process for strengthening a commercially available Nd doped phosphate glass utilizing an ion-exchange process. Results of thermal loading fracture tests on moderate size (160 x 15 x 8 mm) glass slabs have shown a 6-fold improvement in power loading capabilities for strengthened samples over unstrengthened slabs. Fractographic analysis of post-fracture samples has given insight into the mechanism of fracture in both unstrengthened and strengthened samples. Additional stress analysis calculations have supported these findings. In addition to processing the glass' surface during strengthening in a manner which preserves its post-treatment optical quality, the authors have developed an in-house optical fabrication technique utilizing acid polishing to minimize subsurface damage in samples prior to exchange treatment. Finally, extension of the strengthening process to alternate geometries of laser glass has produced encouraging results, which may expand the potential or strengthened glass in laser systems, making it an exciting prospect for many applications

  5. Gradient heating protocol for a diode-pumped alkali laser

    Cai, He; Wang, You; Han, Juhong; Yu, Hang; Rong, Kepeng; Wang, Shunyan; An, Guofei; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Yu, Qiang


    A diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) has gained rapid development in the recent years. Until now, the structure with single heater has been widely utilized to adjust the temperature of an alkali vapor cell in most of the literatures about DPALs. However, for an end-pumped DPAL using single heater, most pump energy is absorbed by the gain media near the entrance cell window because of the large absorption cross section of atomic alkali. As a result, the temperature in the pumping area around the entrance window will go up rapidly, especially in a case of high pumping density. The temperature rise would bring about some negative influences such as thermal effects and variations in population density. In addition, light scattering and window contamination aroused by the chemical reaction between the alkali vapor and the buffer gas will also affect the output performance of a DPAL system. To find a solution to these problems, we propose a gradient heating approach in which several heaters are tandem-set along the optical axis to anneal an alkali vapor cell. The temperature at the entrance window is adjusted to be lower than that of the other side. By using this novel scheme, one can not only achieve a homogeneous absorption of the pump energy along the cell axis, but also decrease the possibility of the window damage in a DPAL configuration. The theoretical simulation of the laser output features has been carried out for a configuration of multiple heaters. Additionally, the DPAL output performance under different gradient temperatures is also discussed in this paper. The conclusions might be helpful for development of a high-powered and high-beam-quality DPAL.

  6. Uses of laser optical pumping to produce polarized ion beams

    Anderson, L.W.


    Laser optical pumping can be used to produce polarized alkali atom beams or polarized alkali vapor targets. Polarized alkali atom beams can be converted into polarized alkali ion beams, and polarized alkali vapor targets can be used to produce polarized H - or 3 He - ion beams. In this paper the authors discuss how the polarized alkali atom beams and polarized alkali vapor targets are used to produce polarized ion beams with emphasis on the production of polarized negative ion beams

  7. LED-pumped Alexandrite laser oscillator and amplifier

    Pichon, Pierre; Blanchot, Jean-Philippe; Balembois, François; Druon, Frédéric; Georges, Patrick


    In this paper, we report the first LED-pumped transition-metal-doped laser oscillator and amplifier based on an alexandrite crystal (Cr3+:BeAl2O4). A Ce:YAG luminescent concentrator illuminated by blue LEDs is used to reach higher pump powers than with LEDs alone. The luminescent 200-mm-long-composit luminescent concentrator involving 2240 LEDs can delivers up to 268 mJ for a peak irradiance of 8.5 kW/cm2. In oscillator configuration, an LED-pumped alexandrite laser delivering an energy of 2.9 mJ at 748 nm in free running operation is demonstrated. In the cavity, we measured a double pass small signal gain of 1.28, in good agreement with numerical simulations. As amplifier, the system demonstrated to boost a CW Ti:sapphire laser by a factor of 4 at 750 nm in 8 passes with a large tuning range from 710 nm to 800 nm.

  8. Efficient high power operation of erbium 3 µm fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm

    Jackson, S.D.; King, T.A.; Pollnau, Markus


    Efficient CW operation of a 2.71 um Er,Pr:ZBLAN double-clad fibre laser pumped with a single diode laser operating at a wavelength of 975 nm is described. A maximum output power of 0.5 W and a slope efficiency of 25% (with respect to the launched pump power) were obtained. Threshold pump powers of <

  9. Theoretical simulations of protective thin film Fabry-Pérot filters for integrated optical elements of diode pumped alkali lasers (DPAL

    L. Quarrie


    Full Text Available The lifetime of Diode-Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs is limited by damage initiated by reaction of the glass envelope of its gain medium with rubidium vapor. Rubidium is absorbed into the glass and the rubidium cations diffuse through the glass structure, breaking bridging Si-O bonds. A damage-resistant thin film was developed enhancing high-optical transmission at natural rubidium resonance input and output laser beam wavelengths of 780 nm and 795 nm, while protecting the optical windows of the gain cell in a DPAL. The methodology developed here can be readily modified for simulation of expected transmission performance at input pump and output laser wavelengths using different combination of thin film materials in a DPAL. High coupling efficiency of the light through the gas cell was accomplished by matching the air-glass and glass-gas interfaces at the appropriate wavelengths using a dielectric stack of high and low index of refraction materials selected to work at the laser energies and protected from the alkali metal vapor in the gain cell. Thin films as oxides of aluminum, zirconium, tantalum, and silicon were selected allowing the creation of Fabry-Perot optical filters on the optical windows achieving close to 100% laser transmission in a solid optic combination of window and highly reflective mirror. This approach allows for the development of a new whole solid optic laser.

  10. Design windows of laser fusion power plants and conceptual design of laser-diode pumped slab laser

    Kozaki, Y.; Eguchi, T.; Izawa, Y.


    An analysis of the design space available to laser fusion power plants has been carried out, in terms of design key parameters such as target gain, laser energy and laser repetition rate, the number of fusion react ion chambers, and plant size. The design windows of economically attractive laser fusion plants is identified with the constraints of key design parameters and the cost conditions. Especially, for achieving high repetition rate lasers, we have proposed and designed a diode-pumped solid-state laser driver which consists of water-cooled zig-zag path slab amplifiers. (author)

  11. 100 TW CPA Nd: Glass laser for fast ignition research

    Fujita, H.; Daido, H.; Jitsuno, T.


    A 100 TW chirped pulse amplification (CPA) Nd:glass laser has been developed to investigate the fast ignition concept. The ultrashort-pulse (60 TW, 42 J, 0.7 ps) was focused on plane targets, plane targets with preformed plasma, and high density compressed plasmas produced by the GEKKO-XII (12 beam, 20 kJ) laser. Focus intensity of >10 19 W/cm 2 has been achieved. (author)

  12. Bismuth silicate glass: A new choice for 2 μm fiber lasers

    Ding, Jia; Zhao, Guoying; Tian, Ying; Chen, Wei; Hu, Lili


    We report on a new Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ co-doped bismuth silicate glass: SiO2-Bi2O3-R2O (R = Li, Na, K) for 2 μm fiber lasers. Bi2O3 was introduced into alkali silicate glass to optimize 2 μm emission properties. Physical, chemical and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ co-doped SiO2-Bi2O3-R2O (SBR) glass were presented. The Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ co-doped SBR glass shows excellent thermal stability (ΔT = 162 °C), an intense 2.0 μm emission pumped by 980 nm LD with a lifetime of 1.33 ms and width of 168 nm, large maximum emission cross section of Ho3+ (5.3 × 10-21 cm2), thus large σemτ product (7.049 × 10-24 cm2 s), which suggest its application in 2 μm fiber lasers.

  13. Ultrafast laser pump/x-ray probe experiments

    Larsson, J.; Judd, E.; Schuck, P.J.


    In an ongoing project aimed at probing solids using x-rays obtained at the ALS synchrotron with a sub-picosecond time resolution following interactions with a 100 fs laser pulse, the authors have successfully performed pump-probe experiments limited by the temporal duration of ALS-pulse. They observe a drop in the diffraction efficiency following laser heating. They can attribute this to a disordering of the crystal. Studies with higher temporal resolution are required to determine the mechanism. The authors have also incorporated a low-jitter streakcamera as a diagnostic for observing time-dependant x-ray diffraction. The streakcamera triggered by a photoconductive switch was operated at kHz repetition rates. Using UV-pulses, the authors obtain a temporal response of 2 ps when averaging 5000 laser pulses. They demonstrate the ability to detect monochromatized x-ray radiation from a bend-magnet with the streak camera by measuring the pulse duration of a x-ray pulse to 70 ps. In conclusion, the authors show a rapid disordering of an InSb crystal. The resolution was determined by the duration of the ALS pulse. They also demonstrate that they can detect x-ray radiation from a synchrotron source with a temporal resolution of 2ps, by using an ultrafast x-ray streak camera. Their set-up will allow them to pursue laser pump/x-ray probe experiments to monitor structural changes in materials with ultrafast time resolution

  14. Amplified spontaneous emission and thermal management on a high average-power diode-pumped solid-state laser - the Lucia laser system

    Albach, D.


    The development of the laser triggered the birth of numerous fields in both scientific and industrial domains. High intensity laser pulses are a unique tool for light/matter interaction studies and applications. However, current flash-pumped glass-based systems are inherently limited in repetition-rate and efficiency. Development within recent years in the field of semiconductor lasers and gain media drew special attention to a new class of lasers, the so-called Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL). DPSSLs are highly efficient lasers and are candidates of choice for compact, high average-power systems required for industrial applications but also as high-power pump sources for ultra-high intense lasers. The work described in this thesis takes place in the context of the 1 kilowatt average-power DPSSL program Lucia, currently under construction at the 'Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Laser Intenses' (LULI) at the Ecole Polytechnique, France. Generation of sub-10 nanosecond long pulses with energies of up to 100 joules at repetition rates of 10 hertz are mainly limited by Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) and thermal effects. These limitations are the central themes of this work. Their impact is discussed within the context of a first Lucia milestone, set around 10 joules. The developed laser system is shown in detail from the oscillator level to the end of the amplification line. A comprehensive discussion of the impact of ASE and thermal effects is completed by related experimental benchmarks. The validated models are used to predict the performances of the laser system, finally resulting in a first activation of the laser system at an energy level of 7 joules in a single-shot regime and 6.6 joules at repetition rates up to 2 hertz. Limitations and further scaling approaches are discussed, followed by an outlook for the further development. (author) [fr

  15. Update on diode-pumped solid-state laser experiments for inertial fusion energy

    Marshall, C.; Smith, L.; Payne, S.


    The authors have completed the initial phase of the diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) experimental program to validate the expected pumping dynamics and extraction cross-sections of Yb 3+ -doped Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F (Yb:S-FAP) crystals. Yb:S-FAP crystals up to 25 x 25 x 175 mm in size have been grown for this purpose which have acceptable loss characteristics ( 2 ). The saturation fluence for pumping has been measured to be 2.2 J/cm 2 using three different methods based on either the spatial, temporal, or energy transmission properties of a Yb:S-FAP rod. The small signal gain under saturated pumping conditions was measured. These measurements imply an emission cross section of 6.0 x 10 -20 cm 2 that falls within error bars of the previously reported value of 7.3 x 10 -20 cm 2 , obtained from purely spectroscopic techniques. The effects of radiation trapping on the emission lifetime have been quantified. The long lifetime of Yb:S-FAP has beneficial effects for diode-pumped amplifier designs, relative to materials with equivalent cross sections but shorter lifetimes, in that less peak pump intensity is required (thus lower diode costs) and that lower spontaneous emission rates lead to a reduction in amplified spontaneous emission. Consequently, up to 1.7 J/cm 3 of stored energy density was achieved in a 6x6x44 mm Yb:S-FAP amplifier rod; this stored energy density is large relative to typical flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass values of 0.3 to 0.5 J/cm 3 . A 2.4 kW peak power InGaAs diode array has been fabricated by Beach, Emanuel, and co-workers which meets the central wavelength, bandwidth, and energy specifications for the author's immediate experiments. These results further increase their optimism of being able to produce a ∼ 10% efficient diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy

  16. The obtaining of giant laser pulses by optical pumping

    Briquet, Georges


    From coherent pumping studies a laser of short pulse duration was developed. Further study of laser effects in organic substances was envisaged. The first part of the work yielded awaited results, and led to the development of a single mode emitter (due to the small dimensions of the cavity). The principles of laser action were enumerated and the relative parameters defined. Various methods of obtaining pulses were discussed; the reasons behind the particular choice mode were given. A theoretical study was then made leading to the establishment of the fundamental equations defining the pulse formation process. An important part of the test deals with technical implications and the experimental results, which have arisen. The conclusion reviews possible applications. (author) [fr

  17. Surface plasmon resonance assisted rapid laser joining of glass

    Zolotovskaya, Svetlana A.; Tang, Guang; Abdolvand, Amin, E-mail: [School of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, Zengbo [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)


    Rapid and strong joining of clear glass to glass containing randomly distributed embedded spherical silver nanoparticles upon nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation (∼40 ns and repetition rate of 100 kHz) at 532 nm is demonstrated. The embedded silver nanoparticles were ∼30–40 nm in diameter, contained in a thin surface layer of ∼10 μm. A joint strength of 12.5 MPa was achieved for a laser fluence of only ∼0.13 J/cm{sup 2} and scanning speed of 10 mm/s. The bonding mechanism is discussed in terms of absorption of the laser energy by nanoparticles and the transfer of the accumulated localised heat to the surrounding glass leading to the local melting and formation of a strong bond. The presented technique is scalable and overcomes a number of serious challenges for a widespread adoption of laser-assisted rapid joining of glass substrates, enabling applications in the manufacture of microelectronic devices, sensors, micro-fluidic, and medical devices.

  18. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Bragg Waveguides in GLS Chalcogenide Glass

    McMillen Ben


    Full Text Available We present work on the fabrication of Bragg waveguides in gallium-lanthanum-sulfide chalcogenide glass using an ultrafast laser. Waveguides were written with a single pass while modulating the writing beam. The spatial and temporal profile of the writing beam was ontrolled during waveguide fabrication in order to control the shape and size of the waveguide cross-section.

  19. High-power pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers

    Marshall, Larry R.; Hays, A. D.; Kaz, Alex; Kasinski, Jeff; Burnham, R. L.


    The operation of both pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers are presented. The pulsed laser produced 1.0 mJ with pulsewidths of 90 psec at 20 Hz. The CW pumped laser produced 6 W output at 1.064 microns and 3 W output at 532 nm.

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet Ar2*laser pumped by a high-intensity laser

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Kaku, Masanori; Higashiguchi, Takeshi


    We observed a small-signal gain of Ar 2 * emission at 126 nm by use of an Ar-filled hollow fiber to guide the ultrashort-pulse high-intensity laser propagation. The small signal gain coefficient was measured to be 0.05 cm -1 at 126 nm. Kinetic analysis revealed that the electrons produced by the high-intensity laser through an optical-field ionization process initiated the Ar 2 * production process. This laser scheme could be combined with high harmonic radiation of the pump laser in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), leading to the production of amplified ultrashort VUV pulses. (author)

  1. Development of laser diode-pumped high average power solid-state laser for the pumping of Ti:sapphire CPA system

    Maruyama, Yoichiro; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Harayama, Sayaka; Oba, Masaki; Matoba, Tohru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Laser diode pumped all solid state, high repetition frequency (PRF) and high energy Nd:YAG laser using zigzag slab crystals has been developed for the pumping source of Ti:sapphire CPA system. The pumping laser installs two main amplifiers which compose ring type amplifier configuration. The maximum amplification gain of the amplifier system is 140 and the condition of saturated amplification is achieved with this high gain. The average power of fundamental laser radiation is 250 W at the PRF of 200 Hz and the pulse duration is around 20 ns. The average power of second harmonic is 105 W at the PRF of 170 Hz and the pulse duration is about 16 ns. The beam profile of the second harmonic is near top hat and will be suitable for the pumping of Ti:sapphire laser crystal. The wall plug efficiency of the laser is 2.0 %. (author)

  2. Red laser-diode pumped 806 nm Tm3+: ZBLAN fibre laser

    Juárez-Hernández, M.; Mejía, E. B.


    A Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) fibre laser operating CW at 806 nm when diode-pumped at 687 nm is described for the first time. This device is based on the 3F4  →  3H6 transition, and is suitable for first telecom window and sensing applications. A slope efficiency of 50.3% and low threshold pump-power of 11.6 mW were obtained. Maximum output power of 15 mW for 40 mW coupled pump was achieved.

  3. High temperature semiconductor diode laser pumps for high energy laser applications

    Campbell, Jenna; Semenic, Tadej; Guinn, Keith; Leisher, Paul O.; Bhunia, Avijit; Mashanovitch, Milan; Renner, Daniel


    Existing thermal management technologies for diode laser pumps place a significant load on the size, weight and power consumption of High Power Solid State and Fiber Laser systems, thus making current laser systems very large, heavy, and inefficient in many important practical applications. To mitigate this thermal management burden, it is desirable for diode pumps to operate efficiently at high heat sink temperatures. In this work, we have developed a scalable cooling architecture, based on jet-impingement technology with industrial coolant, for efficient cooling of diode laser bars. We have demonstrated 60% electrical-to-optical efficiency from a 9xx nm two-bar laser stack operating with propylene-glycolwater coolant, at 50 °C coolant temperature. To our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency achieved from a diode stack using 50 °C industrial fluid coolant. The output power is greater than 100 W per bar. Stacks with additional laser bars are currently in development, as this cooler architecture is scalable to a 1 kW system. This work will enable compact and robust fiber-coupled diode pump modules for high energy laser applications.

  4. Vibrational relaxation induced population inversions in laser pumped polyatomic molecules

    Shamah, I.; Flynn, G.; Columbia Univ., New York


    Conditions for population inversion in laser pumped polyatomic molecules are described. For systems which exhibit metastable vibrational population distributions, large, long lived inversions are possible even when the vibrational modes are strongly coupled by rapid collisional vibration-vibration (V-V) energy transfer. Overtone states of a hot mode are found to invert with respect to fundamental levels of a cold mode even at V-V steady state. Inversion persists for a V-T/R relaxation time. A gain of 4 m -1 for the 2ν 3 → ν 2 transition in CH 3 F (lambda approx. 15.9 μ) was found assuming a spontaneous emission lifetime of 10 s for this transition. General equations are derived which can be used to determine the magnitude of population inversion in any laser pumped, vibrationally metastable, polyatomic molecule. A discussion of factors controlling the population maxima of different vibrational states in optically pumped, V-V equilibrated metastable polyatomics is also given. (orig./WL)

  5. Remote Fiber Laser Cutting System for Dismantling Glass Melter - 13071

    Mitsui, Takashi; Miura, Noriaki [IHI Corporation, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Oowaki, Katsura; Kawaguchi, Isao [IHI Inspection and Instrumentation Co., Ltd, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Miura, Yasuhiko; Ino, Tooru [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-Mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)


    Since 2008, the equipment for dismantling the used glass melter has been developed in High-level Liquid Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). Due to the high radioactivity of the glass melter, the equipment requires a fully-remote operation in the vitrification cell. The remote fiber laser cutting system was adopted as one of the major pieces of equipment. An output power of fiber laser is typically higher than other types of laser and so can provide high-cutting performance. The fiber laser can cut thick stainless steel and Inconel, which are parts of the glass melter such as casings, electrodes and nozzles. As a result, it can make the whole of the dismantling work efficiently done for a shorter period. Various conditions of the cutting test have been evaluated in the process of developing the remote fiber cutting system. In addition, the expected remote operations of the power manipulator with the laser torch have been fully verified and optimized using 3D simulations. (authors)

  6. Microanalysis of tool steel and glass with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Loebe, Klaus; Uhl, Arnold; Lucht, Hartmut


    A laser microscope system for the microanalytical characterization of complex materials is described. The universal measuring principle of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in combination with echelle optics permits a fast simultaneous multielement analysis with a possible spatial resolution below 10 pm. The developed system features completely UV-transparent optics for the laser-microscope coupling and the emission beam path and enables parallel signal detection within the wavelength range of 200-800 nm with a spectral resolution of a few picometers. Investigations of glass defects and tool steels were performed. The characterization of a glass defect in a tumbler by a micro-LIBS line scan, with use of a 266-nm diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser for excitation, is possible by simple comparison of plasma spectra of the defect and the surrounding area. Variations in the main elemental composition as well as impurities by trace elements are detected at the same time. Through measurement of the calibration samples with the known concentration of the corresponding element, a correlation between the intensity of spectral lines and the element concentration was also achieved. The change of elemental composition at the transient stellite solder of tool steels has been determined by an area scan. The two-dimensional pictures show abrupt changes of the element distribution along the solder edge and allow fundamental researches of dynamic modifications (e.g., diffusion) in steel.

  7. Diode-pumped continuous-wave eye-safe Nd:YAG laser at 1415 nm.

    Lee, Hee Chul; Byeon, Sung Ug; Lukashev, Alexei


    We describe the output performance of the 1415 nm emission in Nd:YAG in a plane-concave cavity under traditional pumping into the 4F5/2 level (808 nm) and direct in-band pumping into the 4F3/2 level (885 nm). An end-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielded maximum cw output power of 6.3 W and 4.2 W at 885 nm and 808 nm laser diode (LD) pumping, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of a LD-pumped 1415 nm laser.

  8. Solar-pumped fiber laser with transverse-excitation geometry

    Masuda, Taizo; Iyoda, Mitsuhiro; Yasumatu, Yuta; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kiyoto; Endo, Masamori


    In this paper, we demonstrate an extremely low-concentrated solar-pumped laser (SPL) that uses a transversely excited fiber laser geometry. To eliminate the need for precise solar tracking with an aggressive cooling system and to considerably increase the number of laser applications, low-concentration factors in SPLs are highly desired. We investigate the intrinsic low-loss property of SiO2 optical fibers; this property can be used to compensate for the extremely low gain coefficient of the weakly-pumped active medium by sunlight. As part of the experimental setup, a 40-m long Nd3+-doped SiO2 fiber coil was packed in a ring-shaped chamber filled with a sensitizer solution; this solution functioned as a down-shifter. The dichroic top window of the chamber transmitted a wide range of sunlight and reflected the down-shifted photons, confining them to the highly-reflective chamber until they were absorbed by the Nd3+ ions in the active fiber. We demonstrated a lasing threshold that is 10 times the concentration of natural sunlight and two orders of magnitude smaller than that of conventional SPLs.

  9. Single-mode Brillouin fiber laser passively stabilized at resonance frequency with self-injection locked pump laser

    Spirin, V V; Lopez-Mercado, C A; Megret, P; Fotiadi, A A


    We demonstrate a single-mode Brillouin fiber ring laser, which is passively stabilized at pump resonance frequency by using self-injection locking of semiconductor pump laser. Resonance condition for Stokes radiation is achieved by length fitting of Brillouin laser cavity. The laser generate single-frequency Stokes wave with linewidth less than 0.5 kHz using approximately 17-m length cavity

  10. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.


    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

  11. Diode-Pumped Thulium (Tm)/Holmium (Ho) Composite Fiber 2.1-Micrometers Laser


    Schematic of the 800-nm diode pumped Tm/Ho composite fiber laser 8 Under quasi-continuous wave (Q- CW ) pumping conditions of 1-ms duration and a...Fig. 9 (Top) Schematic of the 800-nm diode -pumped Tm/Ho composite fiber laser with outcoupler. (Left) Q- CW laser performance of the Tm/Ho composite...ARL-TR-7452 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Diode -Pumped Thulium (Tm)/Holmium (Ho) Composite Fiber 2.1-μm Laser by G

  12. Numerical analysis of laser ablation and damage in glass with multiple picosecond laser pulses.

    Sun, Mingying; Eppelt, Urs; Russ, Simone; Hartmann, Claudia; Siebert, Christof; Zhu, Jianqiang; Schulz, Wolfgang


    This study presents a novel numerical model for laser ablation and laser damage in glass including beam propagation and nonlinear absorption of multiple incident ultrashort laser pulses. The laser ablation and damage in the glass cutting process with a picosecond pulsed laser was studied. The numerical results were in good agreement with our experimental observations, thereby revealing the damage mechanism induced by laser ablation. Beam propagation effects such as interference, diffraction and refraction, play a major role in the evolution of the crater structure and the damage region. There are three different damage regions, a thin layer and two different kinds of spikes. Moreover, the electronic damage mechanism was verified and distinguished from heat modification using the experimental results with different pulse spatial overlaps.

  13. Excitonic bistabilities, instabilities and chaos in laser-pumped semiconductor

    Nguyen Ba An; Nguyen Trung Dan; Hoang Xuan Nguyen


    The Hurwitz criteria are used for a stability analysis of the steady state excitonic optical bistability curves in a semiconductor pumped by an external laser resonant with the exciton level. Besides the middle branch of the bistability curves which is unstable in the sense of the linear stability theory, we have found other domains of instability in the upper and lower branches of the steady state curves. Numerical results show that a possible route to chaos in the photon-exciton system is period-doubling self-oscillation process. The influence of the presence of free carriers that coexist with the excitons is also discussed. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs

  14. Runaway electron beam control for longitudinally pumped metal vapor lasers

    Kolbychev, G. V.; Kolbycheva, P. D.


    Physics and techniques for producing of the pulsed runaway electron beams are considered. The main obstacle for increasing electron energies in the beams is revealed to be a self- breakdown of the e-gun's gas-filled diode. Two methods to suppress the self-breakdown and enhance the volumetric discharge producing the e-beam are offered and examined. Each of them provides 1.5 fold increase of the ceiling potential on the gun. The methods also give the ways to control several guns simultaneously. Resulting in the possibility of realizing the powerful longitudinal pumping of metal-vapor lasers on self-terminated transitions of atoms or ions.

  15. High-power fiber-coupled pump lasers for fiber lasers

    Kasai, Yohei; Aizawa, Takuya; Tanaka, Daiichiro


    We present high-power fiber-coupled pump modules utilized effectively for ultra-high power single-mode (SM) fiber lasers. Maximum output power of 392 W was achieved at 23 A for 915 nm pump, and 394 W for 976 nm pump. Fiber core diameter is 118 μm and case temperature is 25deg. C. Polarization multiplexing technique was newly applied to our optical system. High-reliability of the laser diodes (LD) at high-power operation has been demonstrated by aging tests. Advanced package structure was developed that manages uncoupled light around input end of the fiber. 800 hours continuous drive with uncoupled light power of 100 W has been achieved.

  16. Solar-pumped electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer lasers

    Harries, W. L.; Wilson, J. W.


    The possibility of using solar-pumped lasers as solar energy converters is examined. The absorbing media considered are halogens or halogen compounds, which are dissociated to yield excited atoms, which then hand over energy to a molecular lasing medium. Estimates of the temperature effects for a Br2-CO2-He system with He as the cooling gas are given. High temperatures can cause the lower energy levels of the CO2 laser transition to be filled. The inverted populations are calculated and lasing should be possible. However, the efficiency is less than 0.001. Examination of other halogen-molecular lasant combinations (where the rate coefficients are known) indicate efficiencies in all cases of less than 0.005.

  17. Nuclear-pumped lasers for large-scale applications

    Anderson, R.E.; Leonard, E.M.; Shea, R.F.; Berggren, R.R.


    Efficient initiation of large-volume chemical lasers may be achieved by neutron induced reactions which produce charged particles in the final state. When a burst mode nuclear reactor is used as the neutron source, both a sufficiently intense neutron flux and a sufficiently short initiation pulse may be possible. Proof-of-principle experiments are planned to demonstrate lasing in a direct nuclear-pumped large-volume system; to study the effects of various neutron absorbing materials on laser performance; to study the effects of long initiation pulse lengths; to demonstrate the performance of large-scale optics and the beam quality that may be obtained; and to assess the performance of alternative designs of burst systems that increase the neutron output and burst repetition rate. 21 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Improving Lifetime of Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping 2-Micron Solid State Lasers

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    Operating high power laser diode arrays in long pulse regime of about 1 msec, which is required for pumping 2-micron thulium and holmium-based lasers, greatly limits their useful lifetime. This paper describes performance of laser diode arrays operating in long pulse mode and presents experimental data on the active region temperature and pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling that are the primary cause of their premature failure and rapid degradation. This paper will then offer a viable approach for determining the optimum design and operational parameters leading to the maximum attainable lifetime.

  19. Comparing laser induced plasmas formed in diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers.

    Markosyan, Aram H


    Lasing on the D 1 transition (6 2 P 1/2 → 6 2 S 1/2 ) of cesium can be reached in both diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers. The first uses D 2 transition (6 2 S 1/2 → 6 2 P 3/2 ) for pumping, whereas the second is pumped by photoexcitation of ground state Cs-Ar collisional pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically-excited CsAr molecules (excimers). Despite lasing on the same D 1 transition, differences in pumping schemes enables chemical pathways and characteristic timescales unique for each system. We investigate unavoidable plasma formation during operation of both systems side by side in Ar/C 2 H 6 /Cs.

  20. Modeling of a solar-pumped iodine laser

    Wilson, J. W.; Lee, J. H.


    The direct conversion in space of solar radiation into laser radiation for power transmission to earth, satellites, or deep space probes shows promise as a reasonably simple technology and may have cost advantage in deployment and greater reliability compared to other methods of space power generation and transmission. The main candidates for solar pumping are the gas dynamic, photochemical, and direct photoexcited lasers. Here consideration is given to the photochemical reaction of alkyliodides which predominantly excite the I(2P1/2) state which then lases at 1.315 microns. The iodine ground state is eventually lost to reconstituting the gas or in the formation of molecular iodine. The rates at which the gas is required to be recycled through the laser system are modest. The side exposure at 100-fold solar concentration of a 100-m long tube with a 1 sq m cross section is estimated to provide 20 kW of continuous laser output. Scaling laws and optimum operating conditions of this system are discussed.

  1. Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier

    Sethian, J.D.; Obenschain, S.P.; Gerber, K.A.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Sullivan, C.A.; Webster, W.; Deniz, A.V.; Lehecka, T.; McGeoch, M.W.; Altes, R.A.; Corcoran, P.A.; Smith, I.D.; Barr, O.C.


    Nike is a recently completed multi-kilojoule krypton fluoride (KrF) laser that has been built to study the physics of direct drive inertial confinement fusion. This paper describes in detail both the pulsed power and optical performance of the largest amplifier in the Nike laser, the 60 cm amplifier. This is a double pass, double sided, electron beam-pumped system that amplifies the laser beam from an input of 50 J to an output of up to 5 kJ. It has an optical aperture of 60 cm x 60 cm and a gain length of 200 cm. The two electron beams are 60 cm high x 200 cm wide, have a voltage of 640 kV, a current of 540 kA, and a flat top power pulse duration of 250 ns. A 2 kG magnetic field is used to guide the beams and prevent self-pinching. Each electron beam is produced by its own Marx/pulse forming line system. The amplifier has been fully integrated into the Nike system and is used on a daily basis for laser-target experiments. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. An actively mode-locked Ho: YAG solid laser pumped by a Tm: YLF laser

    Yao, B Q; Cui, Z; Wang, J; Duan, X M; Dai, T Y; Du, Y Q; Yuan, J H; Liu, W


    A continuous wave mode-locked (CWML) Ho: YAG laser based on an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) pumped by a 1.9 μm Tm: YLF laser is demonstrated. This is the first time a report on an active CWML Ho: YAG laser has been published. A maximum output power of 1.04 W at 2097.25 nm in the CWML regime is obtained at a pump power of 13.2 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 13.3%. The mode-locked pulse repetition frequency is 82.76 MHz and the single pulse energy is 12.57 nJ. The mode-locked pulse width is 102 ps measured through a no-background second harmonic autocorrelation with KTP as the nonlinear crystal. Furthermore, the M 2 factor is calculated to be 1.146. (letter)

  3. Measurement of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.


    A series of experiments was performed in which a suitably tuned CO2 laser, frequency doubled by a Tl3AsSe37 crystal, was brought into resonance with a P-line or two R-lines in the fundamental vibration spectrum of CO. Cooling or heating produced by absorption in CO was measured in a gas-thermometer arrangement. P-line cooling and R-line heating could be demonstrated, measured, and compared. The experiments were continued with CO mixed with N2 added in partial pressures from 9 to 200 Torr. It was found that an efficient collisional resonance energy transfer from CO to N2 existed which increased the cooling effects by one to two orders of magnitude over those in pure CO. Temperature reductions in the order of tens of degrees Kelvin were obtained by a single pulse in the core of the irradiated volume. These measurements followed predicted values rather closely, and it is expected that increase of pulse energies and durations will enhance the heat pump effects. The experiments confirm the feasibility of quasi-isentropic engines which convert laser power into work without the need for heat rejection. Of more immediate potential interest is the possibility of remotely powered heat pumps for cryogenic use, such applications are discussed to the extent possible at the present stage.

  4. Laser direct fabrication of silver conductors on glass boards

    Li Xiangyou; Zeng Xiaoyan; Li Huiling; Qi Xiaojing


    Laser micro-cladding has been used to fabricate metal conductors, according to a designed electronic circuit, directly onto glass boards which had been coated with a silver-containing electronic paste. The electronic pastes, composed of silver powders, inorganic binders and organic medium, thus formed the conductive metal pattern (i.e. electric circuit) along the path of the laser allowing the rest of the layer to be removed subsequently by an organic solvent. Firing in a furnace at 600 deg. C resulted in conductive lines with resistivity of about 10 -5 Ω cm and with adhesive strength of the order of magnitude of megapascals

  5. Field-glass range finder with a semiconductor laser

    Iwanejko, Leszek; Jankiewicz, Zdzislaw; Jarocki, Roman; Marczak, Jan


    This paper presents the project of a laboratory model of a field-glasses range-finger. The optical transmitter of the device contains a commercial pulse semiconductor laser which generates IR wavelength around 905 nm. Some of the technical parameters of this device are: a maximum range of up to 3 km; an accuracy of +/- 5 m, divergence of a laser beam of 1 mrad; a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Dichroic elements of the receiver ensure a capability of an optimization of a field of view, without the worsening of luminance and size of an observation field.

  6. Automated characterization of glass microspheres used for laser fusion experiments

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Izawa, Yasukazu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.


    In laser fusion experiments glass microspheres of 100 to 1000 μm in diameter and 1 to 20 μm in wall thickness are most commonly used as fuel containers. The glass microspheres should be characterized precisely to meet stringent experimental requirements. Much time is consumed to characterize and select good quality spheres among thousands of spheres. We have developed an automated system to characterize and select glass microspheres. The system consists of charger, quadrupole rail, image processing and X-Y stage control with micro-computer. Total processing time primarily depends on the time required for image analysis, which should be compromised with the accuracy of characterization. The time for simple characterization requires about 10 sec. at present. (author)

  7. Laser-excited fluorescence spectroscopy of oxide glasses

    Weber, M.J.


    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing was applied to investigate the local fields and interactions of paramagnetic ions in oxide glasses. Studies included the site dependence of energy levels, radiative and nonradiative transition probabilities, homogeneous line broadening, and ion--ion energy transfer of rare earth ions. These results and the experimental techniques are reviewed briefly; the use of paramagnetic ions other than the rare earths is also considered. Recently, laser-excited fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate modifications in the local structure of lithium borate glass caused by compositional changes and phase separation and the site dependence of nonradiative relaxation of paramagnetic ions by multiphonon processes. These results and their implications are discussed. 6 figures

  8. Effect Of Laser CO2 Parameters In Marking Of Glass

    Khanafi-Benghalem, Nafissa; Boudoukha, Hassina; Benghalem, Kamel


    Currently many techniques of marking are exploited in a great number of sectors, on various materials (cardboard, textile, wood, leather, plastic, metal, ceramics and glass). The printing is done on supports of great or small dimension for all geometrical forms (plane, round, conical and ovalised). We can print colour as much than we wish. The marking technology for the identification of the glass parts knows a remarkable development carried by the new needs for the industrialists using transparent materials such as the optical, chemical, pharmaceutical sectors, the luxury and drink industries or publicity and decoration (neon signs, advertising mirrors). The objective of our work consists particularly in engraving on glass the measurement scales forming a whole of ordered graduation which the goal is to carry out reading systems of measuring apparatus about 1/10 μm of precision. We used as tool for marking the laser CO 2 . Our choice is justified by the flexibility of the laser, the permanent lifespan of the graduations carried out and the guarantee of the facility of reading incidentally the precision and the accuracy of the measuring apparatus. The study parameters of the laser beam are the velocity (400, 600, 800, 1000 m/s.), the power (25, 75 and 80% of 25W) and the numbers pass (one, two and three pass). The optical observations results obtained suggest that the highest and the average power used remain the favourable parameters for the quality of the graduations carried out.

  9. High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier

    Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Vechkanov, N N; Guryanov, Aleksei N


    We report cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier configurations. Through fibre design optimisation, we have achieved a record-high laser slope efficiency, 40 % with respect to absorbed pump power (λ = 976 nm), and an output power of 7.5 W. The erbium-doped fibre amplifier efficiency reaches 32 %.

  10. Development of high-power optically-pumped far-infrared lasers for plasma diagnostics

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Mitsuishi, Akiyoshi; Fujita, Shigeru; Tsunawaki, Yoshiaki.


    The activities for developing an over 0.1-MW optically-pumped 385-μm D 2 O laser and a CW optically-pumped 382.9-μm CH 2 F 2 laser as local oscillator for measurement of ion temperature in Tokamaks are described. (author)

  11. Laser Demonstration and Performance Characterization of an Optically Pumped Alkali Laser System


    ground state 2S1/2 on the D1 line. An example of this is shown in Figure 1 from Krupke’s original paper for the rubidium transitions. In addition to...any of the alkali’s listed in Table 1 can be used in a three-level laser system to create a DPAL system. However, for practical applications...Figure 39, the pump energy per pulse is 3 mJ, providing a pump intensity of ≅ 2 x 106 W/cm2, much higher than the saturation intensity of Isat = (hν

  12. High-average-power diode-pumped Yb: YAG lasers

    Avizonis, P V; Beach, R; Bibeau, C M; Emanuel, M A; Harris, D G; Honea, E C; Monroe, R S; Payne, S A; Skidmore, J A; Sutton, S B


    A scaleable diode end-pumping technology for high-average-power slab and rod lasers has been under development for the past several years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This technology has particular application to high average power Yb:YAG lasers that utilize a rod configured gain element. Previously, this rod configured approach has achieved average output powers in a single 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter Yb:YAG rod of 430 W cw and 280 W q-switched. High beam quality (M(sup 2)= 2.4) q-switched operation has also been demonstrated at over 180 W of average output power. More recently, using a dual rod configuration consisting of two, 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter laser rods with birefringence compensation, we have achieved 1080 W of cw output with an M(sup 2) value of 13.5 at an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 27.5%. With the same dual rod laser operated in a q-switched mode, we have also demonstrated 532 W of average power with an M(sup 2) and lt; 2.5 at 17% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. These q-switched results were obtained at a 10 kHz repetition rate and resulted in 77 nsec pulse durations. These improved levels of operational performance have been achieved as a result of technology advancements made in several areas that will be covered in this manuscript. These enhancements to our architecture include: (1) Hollow lens ducts that enable the use of advanced cavity architectures permitting birefringence compensation and the ability to run in large aperture-filling near-diffraction-limited modes. (2) Compound laser rods with flanged-nonabsorbing-endcaps fabricated by diffusion bonding. (3) Techniques for suppressing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and parasitics in the polished barrel rods

  13. Laser ablation of silicate glasses doped with transuranic actinides

    Gibson, J.K.; Haire, R.G.


    Direct sampling laser ablation plasma mass spectrometry (DS-LAMS) was applied to silica glasses doped with 237 Np, 242 Pu or 241 Am using a unique instrument recently installed into a transuranic glovebox. The primary goal was to assess the utility of mass spectrometry of directly ablated ions for facile evaluation of actinide (An) constituents of silicate glass immobilization matrices used for encapsulation of radionuclides. The instrument and general procedures have been described elsewhere. Three high-purity silicate glasses prepared by a sol-gel process (SG) and one conventional high-temperature (HT; melting point ∼ 1,450 C) borosilicate glass were studied. These glasses comprised the following constituents, with compositions expressed in mass percentages: Np-HT ∼ 30% SiO 2 + 6% B 2 O 3 + 3% BaO + 13% Al 2 O 3 + 10% PbO + 30% La 2 O 3 + 8% 237 NpO 2 ; Np-SG ∼ 70% SiO 2 + 30% 237 NpO 2 ; Pu-SG ∼ 70% SiO 2 + 30% 242 PuO 2 ; Am-SG ∼ 85% SiO 2 + 15% 241 AmO 2

  14. The effects of Nd2O3 concentration in the laser emission of TeO2-ZnO glasses

    Moreira, L. M.; Anjos, V.; Bell, M. J. V.; Ramos, C. A. R.; Kassab, L. R. P.; Doualan, D. J. L.; Camy, P.; Moncorgé, R.


    The present work reports the modification introduced by different Nd2O3 concentration on optical properties and the laser operation of Nd3+ doped (TeO2-ZnO) bulk tellurite glass. The spectroscopic data are analyzed within the Judd Ofelt formalism framework and the results are compared to the fluorescence lifetime and emission measurements to derive values for the quantum efficiency and the stimulated emission cross section of the considered 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 infrared laser transition around 1062.5 nm. Continuous-wave laser action is achieved with this bulk tellurite glass by pumping the sample inside a standard plan-concave mirror laser cavity with different output couplers. It is possible to observe coherent emission only for the lower concentration (0.5%(wt.) of Nd2 O3). Also laser action could only be observed for this sample with threshold pump power of 73 mW associated with a laser slope efficiency of 8% for an output coupler transmission of 4% indicating that TeO2-ZnO are potential materials for laser action. The results presented in this work together with those previously reported with higher concentration (1.0% (wt) of Nd2O3) determine the adequate Nd2O3 concentration for laser action and guide the correct experimental procedure for TeO2-ZnO glasses preparation.

  15. High-efficiency diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG ceramic laser

    Zhou, Binbin; Wei, Z.Y.; Zou, Y.W.


    A highly efficient diode-end-pumped femtosecond Yb:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser was demonstrated. Pumped by a 968 nm fiber-coupled diode laser, 1.9 W mode-locked output power at a repetition rate of 64.27 MHz was obtained with 3.5 W absorbed pump power, corresponding to a slope...... efficiency of 76%. Our measurement showed that the pulse duration was 418 fs with the central wavelength of 1048 nm....

  16. High-brightness fiber-coupled pump laser development

    Price, Kirk; Karlsen, Scott; Leisher, Paul; Martinsen, Robert


    We report on the continued development of high brightness laser diode modules at nLIGHT Photonics. These modules, based on nLIGHT's PearlTM product platform, demonstrate excellence in output power, brightness, wavelength stabilization, and long wavelength performance. This system, based on 14 single emitters, is designed to couple diode laser light into a 105 μm fiber at an excitation NA of under 0.14. We demonstrate over 100W of optical power at 9xx nm with a diode brightness exceeding 20 MW/cm2-str with an operating efficiency of approximately 50%. Additional results show over 70W of optical coupled at 8xx nm. Record brilliance at wavelengths 14xx nm and longer will also be demonstrated, with over 15 W of optical power with a beam quality of 7.5 mm-mrad. These results of high brightness, high efficiency, and wavelength stabilization demonstrate the pump technology required for next generation solid state and fiber lasers.

  17. Single-mode pulsed dye laser pumped by using a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a long pulse width

    Yi, J H; Moon, H J; Rho, S P; Han, J M; Rhee, Y J; Lee, J M


    The lasing characteristics of a single-mode dye laser pumped by using a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) with a high repetition rate is described. A 45-mm-long Nd:YAG rod was pumped by three CW diode arrays and it was acousto-optically Q-switched. A KTP crystal was used for intracavity frequency doubling. The pulse width of the laser ranged from 90 ns to 200 ns, depending on the diode current and the Q-switching frequency. The single-mode dye laser had a grazing incidence configuration. The pulse width of the dye laser was reduced to about 1/8 of the pumping laser pulse width. The effects of the DPSSL Q-switching frequency, the driving current, and the cavity loss on the dye laser pulse width were investigated by using a simple plane-parallel cavity. From the measured pulse width of the dye laser as a function of the reflectivity of the dye laser output coupler, we found that the cavity loss due to the frequency selection elements and the output coupler should be less than 70 % in order to avoid a drast...

  18. Single-mode pulsed dye laser pumped by using a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a long pulse width

    Yi, Jong Hoon; Kim, Jin Tae; Moon, Hee Jong; Rho, Si Pyo; Han, Jae Min; Rhee, Yong Joo; Lee, Jong Min


    The lasing characteristics of a single-mode dye laser pumped by using a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) with a high repetition rate is described. A 45-mm-long Nd:YAG rod was pumped by three CW diode arrays and it was acousto-optically Q-switched. A KTP crystal was used for intracavity frequency doubling. The pulse width of the laser ranged from 90 ns to 200 ns, depending on the diode current and the Q-switching frequency. The single-mode dye laser had a grazing incidence configuration. The pulse width of the dye laser was reduced to about 1/8 of the pumping laser pulse width. The effects of the DPSSL Q-switching frequency, the driving current, and the cavity loss on the dye laser pulse width were investigated by using a simple plane-parallel cavity. From the measured pulse width of the dye laser as a function of the reflectivity of the dye laser output coupler, we found that the cavity loss due to the frequency selection elements and the output coupler should be less than 70 % in order to avoid a drastically reduced pulse width

  19. A One-Square-Millimeter Compact Hollow Structure for Microfluidic Pumping on an All-Glass Chip

    Xing Yue (Larry Peng


    Full Text Available A micro surface tension pump is a new type of low-cost, built-in, all-glass, microfluidic pump on a glass microchip fabricated by one-step glass etching. However, geometric minimization and optimization for practical use are challenging. Here, we report a one-square-millimeter, built-in, all-glass pump controlled by two-way digital gas pressure. The pump consists simply of two joint chambers and a piston between two gas control channels. It does not require pre-perfusion for initialization, and can immediately begin to run when a liquid enters its inlet channel. It is also more reliable than conventional micro pumps for practical use due to its ability to restart after the formation of a blocking bubble, which can serve as a valuable troubleshooting procedure. Its volumetric pump output was 0.5–0.7 nL·s−1 under a pump head pressure of 300 Pa.

  20. Experimental study of solar pumped laser for magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle

    Yabe, T; Okamoto, Y; Ohkubo, T; Uchida, S; Yoshida, K; Bagheri, B; Funatsu, T; Mabuti, A; Oyama, A; Nakagawa, K; Oishi, T; Daito, K; Nakatsuka, M; Yoshida, M; Motokoshi, S; Sato, Y; Baasandash, C; Nakayama, N; Yanagaidani, K


    24.4 W of laser output has been obtained by sun-pumped, Cr-codoped Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic. The water-cooled laser rod was pumped with a Fresnel lens focusing the natural sunlight. By using the advantages of the Fresnel lenses, the maximum output for unit area of sunlight was 18.7 W/m 2 . Direct concentrated solar illumination was used to pump a 9mm-diameter, 100mm length rod of Cr:Nd:YAG, which was obtained 9%-14% slope efficiency for the laser output. We have analyzed the Cr:YAG laser medium and found it to be an excellent high-power laser candidate for direct solar-pumping schemes which enhances the laser output about 1.8 times more than Nd:YAG

  1. Highly scalable, resonantly cladding-pumped, Er-doped fiber laser with record efficiency.

    Dubinskii, M; Zhang, J; Ter-Mikirtychev, V


    We report the performance of a resonantly cladding-pumped, Yb-free, Er-doped fiber laser. We believe this is the first reported resonantly cladding-pumped fiber-Bragg-grating-based, Er-doped, large-mode-area (LMA) fiber laser. The laser, pumped by fiber-coupled InGaAsP/InP laser diode modules at 1,532.5 nm, delivers approximately 48 W of cw output at 1,590 nm. It is believed to be the highest power ever reported from a Yb-free Er-doped LMA fiber. This fully integrated laser also has the optical-to-optical efficiency of approximately 57%, to the best of our knowledge, the highest efficiency reported for cladding-pumped unidirectionally emitting Er-doped laser.

  2. Low-concentrated solar-pumped laser via transverse excitation fiber-laser geometry.

    Masuda, Taizo; Iyoda, Mitsuhiro; Yasumatsu, Yuta; Endo, Masamori


    We demonstrate an extremely low-concentrated solar-pumped laser (SPL) using a fiber laser with transverse excitation geometry. A low concentration factor is highly desired in SPLs to eliminate the need for precise solar tracking and to considerably increase the practical applications of SPL technology. In this Letter, we have exploited the intrinsic low-loss property of silica fibers to compensate for the extremely low gain coefficient of the weakly pumped active medium. A 40 m long Nd 3+ -doped fiber coil is packed in a ring-shaped chamber filled with a sensitizer solution. We demonstrated a lasing threshold that is 15 times the concentration of natural sunlight and two orders of magnitude smaller than those of conventional SPLs.

  3. Cryogenic Yb:YAG laser pumped by VBG-stabilized narrowband laser diode at 969 nm

    Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Horáčková, Lucie; Navrátil, Petr; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš


    Roč. 128, č. 12 (2016), s. 1328-1331 ISSN 1041-1135 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA ČR GA14-01660S Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Diode-pumped * cryogenic * volume Bragg grating * Yb doped * solid state lasers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.375, year: 2016

  4. Energy Efficiency of an Intracavity Coupled, Laser-Driven Linear Accelerator Pumped by an External Laser

    Neil Na, Y.C.; Siemann, R.H.; SLAC; Byer, R.L.; Stanford U., Phys. Dept.


    We calculate the optimum energy efficiency of a laser-driven linear accelerator by adopting a simple linear model. In the case of single bunch operation, the energy efficiency can be enhanced by incorporating the accelerator into a cavity that is pumped by an external laser. In the case of multiple bunch operation, the intracavity configuration is less advantageous because the strong wakefield generated by the electron beam is also recycled. Finally, the calculation indicates that the luminosity of a linear collider based on such a structure is comparably small if high efficiency is desired

  5. Low-power photolytically pumped lasers: Final technical report

    Messing, I.; Lorents, D.C.; Eckstrom, D.J.


    We have carried out an extensive series of measurements of the time-resolved Xe 2 * emission spectra following optical pumping by a short-pulse F 2 laser at 157.6 nm. Most measurements were performed using a gated Optical Multichannel Analyzer detector; we also made measurements using a scanning monochromator fitted with a photomultiplier and using a boxcar integrator for time resolution. The two sets of results agree well and show that both the singlet and triplet emission bands are broader than expected and have center wavelengths closer together than expected. Measurements were performed both at room temperature and at elevated (140 0 C) and reduced (-27 0 C) temperatures. The broad bandwidth of the individual spectral bands was unexpected and conflicted with a previous spectral measurement using optical pumping by the Xe* resonance line from a microwave discharge lamp. Therefore, we also performed a series of spectral measurements using this type of optical pumping. We achieved good agreement with some previous results in the literature, but not with the result in question. We conclude that the present results are reliable. The results presented in this report provide the first definitive measurement of the individual excimer emissions from each of the Xe 2 (0/sub u/ + ) and Xe 2 (1/sub u/) states. From these measurements and the known ground state potential, we derived a 1/sub u/ potential that reproduces the emission band very well. However, the 1/sub u/ potential is in substantial disagreement with the recent 1/sub u/ potential derived by the Toronto group. 13 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Development of Faraday rotators for high power glass laser systems

    Yoshida, Kunio; Kato, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.


    As a new approach to nuclear fusion, laser-induced fusion has been recently highlighted. It is no exaggeration to say that the future success of this technique depends on the development of high power laser as the energy driver. Faraday rotators are used as photo-diodes to prevent amplifiers and oscillator assemblies from the possibility to be broken by reversely transmitting light. The authors were able to increase the isolation ratio by about 10 times as compared with conventional one by employing the large performance index, disc type Faraday glass, FR-5. In this paper, first, Faraday glasses which are the composing element of Faraday rotators and the optical characteristics of dielectric thin-film polarizers are described, and next, the design of a magnetic coil and its resulting coil characteristics are reported. Then the dominant causes limiting the isolation ratio of Faraday rotators are investigated, and it is clarified that the residual strain in Faraday glasses and the non-uniformity of magnetic field affect predominantly. The measured results are as follows: The magnetic flux densities required to rotate by 45 deg the polarizing plane of the light transmitted through the Faraday rotators A and B are both 27 kG; and the isolation ratios over the whole effective plane are 36 and 32 dB, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Aluminosilicate glass thin films elaborated by pulsed laser deposition

    Carlier, Thibault [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Saitzek, Sébastien [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Méar, François O., E-mail: [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Blach, Jean-François; Ferri, Anthony [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Huvé, Marielle; Montagne, Lionel [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France)


    Highlights: • Successfully deposition of a glassy thin film by PLD. • A good homogeneity and stoichiometry of the coating. • Influence of the deposition temperature on the glassy thin-film structure. - Abstract: In the present work, we report the elaboration of aluminosilicate glass thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition at various temperatures deposition. The amorphous nature of glass thin films was highlighted by Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and no nanocristallites were observed in the glassy matrix. Chemical analysis, obtained with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, showed a good transfer and homogeneous elementary distribution with of chemical species from the target to the film a. Structural studies performed by Infrared Spectroscopy showed that the substrate temperature plays an important role on the bonding configuration of the layers. A slight shift of Si-O modes to larger wavenumber was observed with the synthesis temperature, assigned to a more strained sub-oxide network. Finally, optical properties of thins film measured by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry are similar to those of the bulk aluminosilicate glass, which indicate a good deposition of aluminosilicate bulk glass.

  8. Compact corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab 1319 nm/1338 nm laser

    Liu, H; Gong, M; Wushouer, X; Gao, S


    A corner-pumped type is a new pumping type in the diode-pumped solid-state lasers, which has the advantages of high pump efficiency and favorable pump uniformity. A corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab continuous-wave 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength laser is first demonstrated in this paper. When the cavity length is 25 mm, the maximal output power is up to 7.62 W with a slope efficiency of 16.6% and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 17%. The corresponding spectral line widths of 1319 nm laser and 1338 nm laser are 0.11 and 0.1 nm, respectively. The short-term instability of the output power is better than 1% when the pumping power is 39.5 W. The experimental results show that a corner-pumped type is a kind of feasible schedules in the design of diode-pumped solid-state 1.3 μm lasers with low or medium output powers

  9. Manipulating the wavelength-drift of a Tm laser for resonance enhancement in an intra-cavity pumped Ho laser.

    Huang, Haizhou; Huang, Jianhong; Liu, Huagang; Li, Jinhui; Lin, Zixiong; Ge, Yan; Dai, Shutao; Deng, Jing; Lin, Wenxiong


    We demonstrate an enhancement mechanism and thermal model for intra-cavity pumped lasers, where resonance enhancement in intra-cavity pumped Ho laser was achieved by manipulating the wavelength-drift nature of the Tm laser for the first time. Optical conversion efficiency of 37.5% from an absorbed 785 nm diode laser to a Ho laser was obtained with a maximum output power of 7.51 W at 2122 nm, which is comparable to the conversion efficiency in 1.9 μm LD pumped Ho lasers. Meanwhile, more severe thermal effects in the Ho-doped gain medium than the Tm-doped one at high power operation were verified based on the built thermal model. This work benefits the design or evaluation of intra-cavity pumped lasers, and the resonance enhancement originated from the difference in reabsorption loss between stark levels at the lasing manifolds of quasi-three-level rare-earth ions has great interest to improve the existing intra-cavity pumped lasers or explore novel lasers.

  10. Continued advances in high brightness fiber-coupled laser modules for efficient pumping of fiber and solid-state lasers

    Hemenway, M.; Chen, Z.; Urbanek, W.; Dawson, D.; Bao, L.; Kanskar, M.; DeVito, M.; Martinsen, R.


    Both the fibber laser and diode-pumped solid-state laser market continue to drive advances in pump diode module brightness. We report on the continued progress by nLIGHT to develop and deliver the highest brightness diode-laser pumps using single-emitter technology. Continued advances in multimode laser diode technology [13] and fiber-coupling techniques have enabled higher emitter counts in the element packages, enabling us to demonstrate 305 W into 105 μm - 0.16 NA. This brightness improvement is achieved by leveraging our prior-reported package re-optimization, allowing an increase in the emitter count from two rows of nine emitters to two rows of twelve emitters. Leveraging the two rows off twelve emitter architecture,, product development has commenced on a 400 W into 200 μm - 00.16 NA package. Additionally, the advances in pump technology intended for CW Yb-doped fiber laser pumping has been leveraged to develop the highest brightness 793 nm pump modules for 2 μm Thulium fiber laser pumping, generating 150 W into 200 μm - 0.18 NA and 100 W into 105 μm - 0.15 NA. Lastly, renewed interest in direct diode materials processing led us to experiment with wavelength multiplexing our existing state of the art 200 W, 105 μm - 00.15 NA package into a combined output of 395 WW into 105 μm - 0.16 NA.

  11. Ho3+-doped AlF3-TeO2-based glass fibers for 2.1 µm laser applications

    Wang, S. B.; Jia, Z. X.; Yao, C. F.; Ohishi, Y.; Qin, G. S.; Qin, W. P.


    Ho3+-doped AlF3-TeO2-based glass fibers based on AlF3-BaF2-CaF2-YF3-SrF2-MgF2-TeO2 glasses are fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. The glass rod including a core and a thick cladding layer is prepared by using a suction method, where the thick cladding layer is used to protect the core from the effect of surface crystallization during the fiber drawing. By inserting the glass rod into a glass tube, the glass fibers with relatively low loss (~2.3 dB m-1 @ 1560 nm) are prepared. By using a 38 cm long Ho3+-doped AlF3-TeO2-based glass fiber as the gain medium and a 1965 nm fiber laser as the pump source, 2065 nm lasing is obtained for a threshold pump power of ~220 mW. With further increasing the pump power to ~325 mW, the unsaturated output power of the 2065 nm laser is about 82 mW and the corresponding slope efficiency is up to 68.8%. The effects of the gain fiber length on the lasing threshold, the slope efficiency, and the operating wavelength are also investigated. Our experimental results show that Ho3+-doped AlF3-TeO2-based glass fibers are promising gain media for 2.1 µm laser applications.

  12. Laser bioengineering of glass-titanium implants surface

    Lusquiños, F.; Arias-González, F.; Penide, J.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pascual, M. J.; Durán, A.; Pou, J.


    Osseointegration is the mean challenge when surgical treatments fight against load-bearing bone diseases. Absolute bone replacement by a synthetic implant has to be completed not only from the mechanics point of view, but also from a biological approach. Suitable strength, resilience and stress distribution of titanium alloy implants are spoiled by the lack of optimal biological characteristics. The inert quality of extra low interstitial titanium alloy, which make it the most attractive metallic alloy for biomedical applications, oppose to an ideal surface with bone cell affinity, and capable to stimulate bone attachment bone growth. Diverse laser treatments have been proven as effective tools to modify surface properties, such as wettability in contact to physiological fluids, or osteoblast guided and slightly enhanced attachment. The laser surface cladding can go beyond by providing titanium alloy surfaces with osteoconduction and osteoinduction properties. In this research work, the laser radiation is used to produce bioactive glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates. Specific silicate bioactive glass compositions has been investigated to achieve suitable surface tension and viscosity temperature behavior during processing, and to provide with the required release of bone growth gene up regulation agents in the course of resorption mediated by physiological fluids. The produced coatings and interfaces, the surface osteoconduction properties, and the chemical species release in simulated physiological fluid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hot stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X ray fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  13. Effects of Nanodiamond Abrasive Friability in Experimental MR Fluids with Phosphate Laser Glass LHG-8 and Other Optical Glasses

    DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; Wilson, J.P.; Spencer, K.E.; Jacobs, S.D.


    Research is currently being conducted to better understand the role that nanodiamond abrasives play in the removal process of Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF). The following presents removal rate data for a set of six optical glasses that were spotted (not polished out) with four different MR fluids, as well as texturing/smoothing data for phosphate laser glass LHG-8.

  14. Subcritical crack growth in a phosphate laser glass

    Crichton, S.N.; Tomozawa, M.; Hayden, J.S.; Suratwala, T.I.; Campbell, J.H.


    The rate of subcritical crack growth in a metaphosphate Nd-doped laser glass was measured using the double-cleavage-drilled compression (DCDC) method. The crack velocity is reported as a function of stress intensity at temperatures ranging from 296 to 573 K and in nitrogen with water vapor pressures ranging from 40 Pa (0.3 mmHg) to 4.7 x 10{sup 4} Pa (355 mmHg). The measured crack velocities follow region I, II, and III behavior similar to that reported for silicate glasses. A chemical and mass-transport-limited reaction rate model explains the behavior of the data except at high temperatures and high water vapor pressures where crack tip blunting is observed. Blunting is characterized to reinitiate slow crack growth at higher stresses. A dynamic crack tip blunting mechanism is proposed to explain the deviation from the reaction rate model.

  15. Diode-pumped cw Tm3+:YAlO3 laser

    Borodin, N I; Kryukov, P V; Shestakov, A V; Popov, A V; Ushakov, S N


    The output parameters of a Tm 3+ :YAlO 3 laser pumped by laser diodes in the spectral region 802-810 nm are studied. The output cw power exceeded 10 W for the total efficiency above 30%. The laser wavelength varies in the range from 1946 to 1985 nm and is determined by the pump power and resonator losses in this spectral region. The efficiency of cross relaxation process during the population of the 3 F 4 laser level is measured. (lasers)

  16. D2O laser pumped by an injection-locked CO2 laser for ion-temperature measurements

    Okada, Tatsuo; Ohga, Tetsuaki; Yokoo, Masakazu; Muraoka, Katsunori; Akazaki, Masanori.


    The cooperative Thomson scattering method is one of the various new techniques proposed for measuring the temperature of ions in nuclear fusion critical plasma, for which a high-performance FIR laser pumped by an injection-locked CO 2 laser is required. This report deals with D 2 O laser with a wavelength of 385 μm which is pumped by injection-locked single-mole TEA CO 2 laser composed of a driver laser and an output-stage laser. A small-sized automatic pre-ionization type laser is employed for the driver. The resonator of the driver laser consists of a plane grating of littrow arrangement and ZnSe plane output mirrors with reflection factor of 50 %. An aperture and ZnSe etalon are inserted in the resonator to produce single transverse- and longitudinal-mode oscillation, respectively. The output-stage laser is also of the automatic pre-ionization type. Theoretically, an injection power of 0.1 pW/mm 3 is required for a CO 2 laser. Single-mode oscillation of several hundred nW/mm 3 can be produced by the CO 2 laser used in this study. Tuning of the output-stage laser is easily controlled by the driver laser. High stability of the injection-locked operation is demonstrated. CO 2 laser beam is introduced into the D 2 O laser through a KCl window to excite D 2 O laser beam in the axial direction. Input and output characteristics of the D 2 O laser are shown. Also presented are typical pulse shapes from the D 2 O laser pumped by a free-running CO 2 laser pulse or by an injection-locked single-mode CO 2 laser pulse. (Nogami, K.)

  17. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove


    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  18. Theoretical analyses of an injection-locked diode-pumped rubidium vapor laser.

    Cai, He; Gao, Chunqing; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Shunyan; Yu, Hang; Rong, Kepeng; An, Guofei; Han, Juhong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, You


    Diode-pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) have drawn much attention since they were proposed in 2001. The narrow-linewidth DPAL can be potentially applied in the fields of coherent communication, laser radar, and atomic spectroscopy. In this study, we propose a novel protocol to narrow the width of one kind of DPAL, diode-pumped rubidium vapor laser (DPRVL), by use of an injection locking technique. A kinetic model is first set up for an injection-locked DPRVL with the end-pumped configuration. The laser tunable duration is also analyzed for a continuous wave (CW) injection-locked DPRVL system. Then, the influences of the pump power, power of a master laser, and reflectance of an output coupler on the output performance are theoretically analyzed. The study should be useful for design of a narrow-linewidth DPAL with the relatively high output.

  19. Localization of the pumping reflector for a Nd:YAG laser

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Kim, Chul Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    For the first year plan of this program, the pumping reflectors, which are gold plated reflectors and ceramic diffuse reflectors, of the Nd:YAG laser have been localized. The laser output performances with these reflectors have been investigated. Developed reflectors can be applied successfully to our commercialized Nd:YAG laser which was worked in previous project. We designed the optical pumping system with GaAlAs diode laser bar to improve the pumping efficiency. Moreover, we investigated a simple pumping technique without changing the fleshlamp, which makes the Nd:YAG laser operate in a cw, a pulsed, and a mixed of the two mode. We expert many new applications of this diversification of output pulse shapes in industry and in medicine. 38 figs, 9 tabs, 18 refs. (Author).

  20. Theoretical study on the thermal and optical features of a diode side-pumped alkali laser

    Han, Juhong; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Hongyuan; Cai, He; An, Guofei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, You


    As one of the most hopeful candidates to achieve high power performances, a diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) has attracted a lot of attention in the last decade. Comparing with a diode end-pumped alkali laser (DEPAL), a diode side-pumped alkali laser (DSPAL) has great potentiality to realize an even-higher output of alkali lasers. However, there are few related researching studies concern DSPAL. In this paper, we introduce a theoretical model to investigate the physical features of a double-directions side-pumped alkali laser. The distributions of the population density, temperature, and absorption power at the cross section of a vapor cell are systematically studied. The analyses should be valuable for design of a steady high-powered DPAL.

  1. Pump radiation distribution in multi-element first cladding laser fibres

    Mel'kumov, Mikhail A; Bufetov, Igor' A; Bubnov, M M; Shubin, Aleksei V; Semenov, S L; Dianov, Evgenii M


    Pump radiation transfer is studied experimentally in multi-element first cladding laser fibres. A model of this process is proposed, which is in good agreement with experimental results. An all-fibre single-mode cw ytterbium laser based on a three-element first cladding fibre with an output power of 100W is fabricated. (lasers)

  2. Kilowatt average power 100 J-level diode pumped solid state laser

    Mason, P.; Divoký, Martin; Ertel, K.; Pilař, Jan; Butcher, T.; Hanuš, Martin; Banerjee, S.; Phillips, J.; Smith, J.; De Vido, M.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Edwards, C.; Mocek, Tomáš; Collier, J.


    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2017), s. 438-439 ISSN 2334-2536 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1602; GA MŠk LM2015086 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diode-pumped * solid state * laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 7.727, year: 2016

  3. Cladding glass ceramic for use in high powered lasers

    Marker, Alexander J.; Campbell, John H.


    A Cu-doped/Fe-doped low expansion glass ceramic composition comprising in Wt. %: SiO{sub 2} 50--65; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 18--27; P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 0--10; Li{sub 2}O 2--6; Na{sub 2}O 0--2; K{sub 2}O 0--2; B{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1; MgO 0--4; ZnO 0--5; CaO 0--4; BaO 0--5; TiO{sub 2} 1--3; ZrO{sub 3} 1--3; As{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; CuO 0--3; and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1 wherein the total amount of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is 80--89 wt. %, and said glass ceramic contains as a dopant 0.1--3 wt. % CuO, 0.1--1 wt. % Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or a combined CuO+Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} amount of 0.1--4 wt. %. The glass ceramic composition is suitable for use as a cladding material for solid laser energy storage mediums as well as for use in beam attenuators for measuring laser energy level and beam blocks or beam dumps used for absorbing excess or unused laser energy.

  4. Investigation of diode-laser pumped thulium-doped fluoride lasers; Investigacao de lasers de floureto dopados com tulio e bombeados por diodo-laser

    Matos, Paulo Sergio Fabris de


    Tunable lasers emitting around 2.3 mum region are important in many areas, like gas detection, remote sensing and medical applications. Thulium has a large emission spectra around 2.3 mum with demonstrated tuning range of 2.2-2.45 mum using the YLF host. For efficient pump absorption, a high concentration sensitizer like ytterbium can be used. We demonstrate quasi-cw operation of the Yb:Tm:YLF laser, pumped at 960 nm with a 20 W diode bar achieving the highest output power reported so far of 620 mW. Simultaneous pumping of the 2.3 mm Yb:Tm:YLF laser at 685 nm and 960 nm is demonstrated, showing higher slope efficiency than 960 nm alone. Numerical simulations and analytical models show the best ratio of pump power between both wavelengths. (author)

  5. Diode laser pumped solid state laser. Part IV. ; Noise analysis. Handotai laser reiki kotai laser. 4. ; Noise kaiseki

    Sakurai, H.; Seno, T.; Tanabe, Y. (Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Concerning the second harmonic generation(SHG) of diode laser pumped solid state laser using a nonlinear optical material, the researches are carried out to pracitically apply to the optical pickup. Therefore, the reduction of output optical noise has become the important researching subject. The theoretical and experimental analyses of noise generating mechanism were carried out for the system in which Nd;YAG as the laser diode and KTP (KTiOPO {sub 4}) as the nonlinear optical crystal were used. The following findings for the noise generating mechanism could be obtained: The competitive interaction between the polarization modes was dominant noise mechanism in the high frequency range from 1 to 20MHz and the noise could be removed sufficiently by using the QWP(quarter wave plate). On the other hand, the noise observed in the low frequency range from 100 to 200kHz depended on the resonance length, agreed qualitatively with the theoretical analysis of the noise to the competitive longitudinal modes and agreed quantitatively with the noise generating frequency range. 10 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 885-nm laser diode array pumped ceramic Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier system

    Yu, Anthony W.; Li, Steven X.; Stephen, Mark A.; Seas, Antonios; Troupaki, Elisavet; Vasilyev, Aleksey; Conley, Heather; Filemyr, Tim; Kirchner, Cynthia; Rosanova, Alberto


    The objective of this effort is to develop more reliable, higher efficiency diode pumped Nd:YAG laser systems for space applications by leveraging technology investments from the DoD and other commercial industries. Our goal is to design, build, test and demonstrate the effectiveness of combining 885 nm laser pump diodes and the use of ceramic Nd:YAG for future flight missions. The significant reduction in thermal loading on the gain medium by the use of 885 nm pump lasers will improve system efficiency.

  7. Photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation pumped by a gain-switched CW fiber laser

    Larsen, Casper; Noordegraaf, Danny; Hansen, Kim P.


    Supercontinuum generation in photonics crystal fibers (PCFs) pumped by CW lasers yields high spectral power density and average power. However, such systems require very high pump power and long nonlinear fibers. By on/off modulating the pump diodes of the fiber laser, the relaxation oscillations...... of the laser can be exploited to enhance the broadening process. The physics behind the supercontinuum generation is investigated by sweeping the fiber length, the zero dispersion wavelength, and the fiber nonlinearity. We show that by applying gain-switching a high average output power of up to 30 W can...

  8. Study of a low power dissipation, miniature laser-pumped rubidium frequency standard

    Liu Guo-Bin; Zhao Feng; Gu Si-Hong


    This paper studies a miniature low power consumption laser-pumped atom vapour cell clock scheme. Pumping 87Rb with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode pump and locking the laser frequency on a Doppler-broadened spectral line,it records a 5×10-11τ-1/2 (τ<500 s) frequency stability with a table-top system in a primary experiment.The study reveals that the evaluated scheme is at the level of 2.7 watts power consumption,90 cm3 volume and 10-12τ- 1/2 short-term frequency stability.

  9. Investigation on Er{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} co-doped silicate glass for ~2 µm fiber lasers

    Liu, Xueqiang; Huang, Feifei; Cheng, Jimeng; Fan, Xiaokang; Gao, Song [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Junjie [College of Materials Science and Technology, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Hu, Lili [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Chen, Danping, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)


    A stable Er{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} co-doped lead silicate glass is developed. Luminescent properties are recorded under pumping with 808 and 1550 nm lasers. Energy-transfer mechanism and efficiency are analyzed. Energy-transfer efficiency from Er{sup 3+}:{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} to Ho{sup 3+}:{sup 5}I{sub 7} reaches 93.8% at 3 mol% Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping concentration. Strong luminescence is detected when pumped at 1550 nm because of efficient energy transfer from Er{sup 3+}:{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} to Ho{sup 3+}:{sup 5}I{sub 7}. Peak gain coefficient at 2056 nm is detected as 1.62 cm{sup −1}. The excellent luminescent property and high stability indicate that Er{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} co-doped lead silicate glass can be applied in 2 µm fiber lasers. - Highlights: • Er{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} co-doped silicate glasses with high stability are prepared. • Strong luminescence is detected under pump of 1550 nm lasers owing to efficient energy transfer from Er{sup 3+} to Ho{sup 3+}. • Transfer efficiency is calculated to be 93.8% when Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping concentration is up to 3 mol%. • Gain coefficient peaks at 2056 nm to be 1.62 cm{sup −1}.

  10. Effect of pump-beam conditions on dual polarization oscillations in a microchip Nd:GdVO{sub 4} laser

    Lin, C-C; Jiang, I-M [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Ko, J-Y; Tsai, K-T; Cheng, Y-T; Ho, M-C, E-mail: [Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (China)


    This study investigated the input-output characteristics of a laser-diode-end-pumped microchip Nd:GdVO{sub 4} laser under different pump-beam focusing conditions by varying the magnifications of the microscope objective lenses and pump-beam positions on a chip. Dual-polarization oscillations were generated in the entire pump region using pumping conditions associated with different temperature gradients.

  11. Theoretical model and simulations for a cw exciplex pumped alkali laser.

    Huang, Wei; Tan, Rongqing; Li, Zhiyong; Lu, Xiaochuan


    The Exciplex Pumped Alkali Laser (XPAL) system, which is similar to DPAL (Diode Pumped Alkali vapor Laser), has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapor, Ar, with and without ethane. Unlike DPAL, it uses the broadband absorption blue satellite of the alkali D2 line, created by naturally occuring collision pairs. For example, Cs-Ar collision pairs have an absorption width which is as wide as the one of commercial semiconductor diode lasers. A continuous wave XPAL four-level theoretical model is presented in this paper. More factors are considered, such as the spectral dependence of pumped laser absorption for broadband pumping and the longitudinal population variation. Some intra-cavity details, such as longitudinal distributions of pumped laser and alkali laser, can also be solved well. The predictions of optical-to-optical efficiency as a function of temperature and pumped laser intensity are presented. The model predicts that there is an optimum value of temperature or pumped laser intensity. The analysis of the influence of cell length on optical-to-optical efficiency shows that a better performance can be achieved when using longer cell. The prediction of influence of Ar concentration and reflectivity of output coupler shows that higher optical-to-optical efficiency could be achieved if lower reflectivity of output coupler and higher Ar concentration are used. The optical-to-optical efficiency as high as 84% achieved by optimizing configuration with the pumped intensity of 5 × 10⁷ W/cm² presented shows that broadband pumped four-level XPAL system has a potential of high optical-to-optical efficiency.

  12. A 1J LD pumped Nd:YAG pulsed laser system

    Yi, Xue-bin; Wang, Bin; Yang, Feng; Li, Jing; Liu, Ya-Ping; Li, Hui-Jun; Wang, Yu; Chen, Ren


    A 1J LD pumped Nd;YAG pulsed laser was designed. The laser uses an oscillation and two-staged amplification structure, and applies diode bar integrated array as side-pump. The TEC temperature control device combing liquid cooling system is organized to control the temperature of the laser system. This study also analyzed the theoretical threshold of working material, the effect of thermal lens and the basic principle of laser amplification. The results showed that the laser system can achieve 1J, 25Hz pulse laser output, and the laser pulse can be output at two width: 6-7ns and 10ns, respectively, and the original beam angle is 1.2mrad. The laser system is characterized by small size, light weight, as well as good stability, which make it being applied in varied fields such as photovoltaic radar platform and etc

  13. Efficient laser performance of a cryogenic Yb:YAG laser pumped by fiber coupled 940 and 969 nm laser diodes

    Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Miura, Taisuke; Těsnohlídková, L.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš


    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2015), "015002-1"-"015002-6" ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA ČR GA14-01660S Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cryogenic laser s * absorption * bandwidth * emission cross-section * absorption cross-section * diode pumping Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2015

  14. 1-kilowatt CW all-fiber laser oscillator pumped with wavelength-beam-combined diode stacks.

    Xiao, Y; Brunet, F; Kanskar, M; Faucher, M; Wetter, A; Holehouse, N


    We have demonstrated a monolithic cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped single all-fiber laser oscillator generating 1 kW of CW signal power at 1080 nm with 71% slope efficiency and near diffraction-limited beam quality. Fiber components were highly integrated on "spliceless" passive fibers to promote laser efficiency and alleviate non-linear effects. The laser was pumped through a 7:1 pump combiner with seven 200-W 91x nm fiber-pigtailed wavelength-beam-combined diode-stack modules. The signal power of such a single all-fiber laser oscillator showed no evidence of roll-over, and the highest output was limited only by available pump power.

  15. High Speed Pump-Probe Apparatus for Observation of Transitional Effects in Ultrafast Laser Micromachining Processes

    Ilya Alexeev


    Full Text Available A pump-probe experimental approach has been shown to be a very efficient tool for the observation and analysis of various laser matter interaction effects. In those setups, synchronized laser pulses are used to create an event (pump and to simultaneously observe it (probe. In general, the physical effects that can be investigated with such an apparatus are restricted by the temporal resolution of the probe pulse and the observation window. The latter can be greatly extended by adjusting the pump-probe time delay under the assumption that the interaction process remains fairly reproducible. Unfortunately, this assumption becomes invalid in the case of high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser material processing, where the irradiation history strongly affects the ongoing interaction process. In this contribution, the authors present an extension of the pump-probe setup that allows to investigate transitional and dynamic effects present during ultrafast laser machining performed at high pulse repetition frequencies.

  16. Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens.

    Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Yabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Kunio; Uchida, Shigeaki; Funatsu, Takayuki; Bagheri, Behgol; Oishi, Takehiro; Daito, Kazuya; Ishioka, Manabu; Nakayama, Yuichirou; Yasunaga, Norihito; Kido, Kouichirou; Sato, Yuji; Baasandash, Choijil; Kato, Kiyoshi; Yanagitani, Takagimi; Okamoto, Yoshiaki


    A solar-pumped 100 W class laser that features high efficiency and low cost owing to the use of a Fresnel lens and a chromium codoped neodymium YAG ceramic laser medium was developed. A laser output of about 80 W was achieved with combination of a 4 m(2) Fresnel lens and a pumping cavity as a secondary power concentrator. This output corresponds to 4.3% of conversion efficiency from solar power into laser, and the maximum output from a unit area of Fresnel lens was 20 W/m(2), which is 2.8 times larger than previous results with mirror-type concentrator.

  17. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser with double anti-misalignment corner cubes pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser

    Wang, Y. P.; Dai, T. Y.; Wu, J.; Ju, Y. L.; Yao, B. Q.


    We report the acousto-optically Q-switched Ho:YAG laser with double anti-misalignment corner cubes pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser. In the continuous-wave operation of Ho:YAG laser, the maximum s-polarized output power of 3.2 W at 2090.3 nm was obtained under the absorbed pump power of 12.9 W by rotating the fast axis of quarter-wave plate to change the output transmission of laser cavity. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was 24.8% and the slope efficiency was 55.7%. When one of the corner cubes was rotated to 11.8° around vertical direction or 6.7° around horizontal direction, the laser could still operate stably. For the Q-switched operation, the pulse energy of Ho:YAG laser was 9.9 mJ with a pulse width of 53 ns at the repetition rate of 100 Hz, resulting in a peak power of 186.8 kW. The beam quality factor M2 of Ho:YAG laser was 1.3.

  18. Comparative study of diode-pumped alkali vapor laser and exciplex-pumped alkali laser systems and selection principal of parameters

    Huang, Wei; Tan, Rongqing; Li, Zhiyong; Han, Gaoce; Li, Hui


    A theoretical model based on common pump structure is proposed to analyze the output characteristics of a diode-pumped alkali vapor laser (DPAL) and XPAL (exciplex-pumped alkali laser). Cs-DPAL and Cs-Ar XPAL systems are used as examples. The model predicts that an optical-to-optical efficiency approaching 80% can be achieved for continuous-wave four- and five-level XPAL systems with broadband pumping, which is several times the pumped linewidth for DPAL. Operation parameters including pumped intensity, temperature, cell's length, mixed gas concentration, pumped linewidth, and output coupler are analyzed for DPAL and XPAL systems based on the kinetic model. In addition, the predictions of selection principal of temperature and cell's length are also presented. The concept of the equivalent "alkali areal density" is proposed. The result shows that the output characteristics with the same alkali areal density but different temperatures turn out to be equal for either the DPAL or the XPAL system. It is the areal density that reflects the potential of DPAL or XPAL systems directly. A more detailed analysis of similar influences of cavity parameters with the same areal density is also presented.

  19. Efficient diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 slab laser in different generation regimes

    Zinov'ev, A P; Antipov, Oleg L; Novikov, A A


    A diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO 4 slab laser with the grazing-incidence bounce geometry of the cavity is studied experimentally. Upon continuous pumping different lasing regimes are realised, namely, cw, passive and active Q-switching and passive mode-locking. The resonator parameters are optimised to achieve the maximum cw output power (∼17 W) and high-quality beam (M 2 ∼ 1.3). (lasers)

  20. Study of mode locking in a microwave-pumped diode laser close to the generation threshold

    Bagaev, Sergei N; Zakharyash, Valerii F; Kashirsky, Aleksandr V; Klementyev, Vasilii M; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Pivtsov, V S


    Active mode locking is studied in a diode laser with a three-mirror resonator upon the microwave modulation of the pump current. The mode-locking region with the minimal width of the spectrum of intermode beats is found, when the microwave frequency is close to the intermode frequency of an external resonator. This region is shown to be located close to the threshold pump current. (lasers, active media)

  1. Microsecond pulsed optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Q-switched fiber laser

    Klein, M.E.; Adel, P.; Auerbach, M.; Fallnich, C.; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.


    We report on what is to our knowledge the first optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by microsecond pulses from a wavelength-tunable solid-state laser. The singly resonant OPO (SRO) is based on a periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal and pumped with 2.1-ms-long pulses from an actively Q-switched

  2. 2.3 µm laser potential of TeO2 based glasses

    Denker, B. I.; Dorofeev, V. V.; Galagan, B. I.; Motorin, S. E.; Sverchkov, S. E.


    Tm3+ doped TeO2-based well-dehydrated glasses were synthesized and investigated. The analysis of their spectral and relaxation properties have showed that these glasses can be a suitable host for bulk and fiber lasers emitting at ~2.3 µm wavelength (3H4-3H5 Tm3+ transition). Laser action in the bulk glass sample was demonstrated.

  3. Solid state pump lasers with high power and high repetition rate

    Oba, Masaki; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi


    We built a laser diode pumped solid state green laser (LDPSSGL) rated at high repetition rate. Two laser heads are placed in one cavity with a rotator in between to design to avoid thermal lensing and thermal birefringence effect. Although average green laser power higher than 10 W was obtained at 1 kHz repetition rate with pulse width of 20-30 nsec, the beam quality was so much deteriorated that energy efficiency was as low as 2 %. Learning from this experience that high power oscillator causes a lot of thermal distortion not only in the laser rod but also in the Q-switch device, we proceeded to built a oscillator/amplifier system. A low power oscillator has a slab type crystal in the cavity. As a result spatial distribution of laser power was extremely improved. As we expect that the high repetition rate solid state laser should be CW operated Q-switch type laser from the view point of lifetime of diode lasers, a conventional arc lamp pumped CW Q-switch green YAG laser of which the repetition rate is changeable from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and the pulse width is 250-570 nsec was also tested to obtain pumping characteristics of a dye laser as a function of power, pulse width etc., and dye laser pulse width of 100-130 nsec were obtained. (author)

  4. Optimisation of the parameters of a pump chamber for solid-state lasers with diode pumping by the optical boiler method

    Kiyko, V V; Kislov, V I; Ofitserov, E N; Suzdal' tsev, A G [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A pump chamber of the optical boiler type for solid-state lasers with transverse laser diode pumping is studied theoretically and experimentally. The pump chamber parameters are optimised using the geometrical optics approximation for the pump radiation. According to calculations, the integral absorption coefficient of the active element at a wavelength of 808 nm is 0.75 – 0.8 and the relative inhomogeneity of the pump radiation distribution over the active element volume is 17% – 19%. The developed pump chamber was used in a Nd:YAG laser. The maximum cw output power at a wavelength of 1064 nm was ∼480 W at the optical efficiency up to 19.6%, which agrees with theoretical estimates. (lasers)

  5. Improvement of laser irradiation uniformity in GEKKO XII glass laser system

    Miyanaga, Noriaki; Matsuoka, Shinichi; Ando, Akinobu; Amano, Shinji; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kanabe, Tadashi; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Nakai, Sadao


    The uniform laser irradiation is one of key issues in the direct drive laser fusion research. The several key technologies for the uniform laser irradiation are reported. This paper includes the uniformity performance as a result of the introduction of the random phase plate, the partially coherent light and the beam smoothing by spectral dispersion into the New Gekko XI glass laser system. Finally the authors summarize the overall irradiation uniformity on the spherical target surface by considering the power imbalance effect. The technologies developed for the beam smoothing and the power balance control enable them to achieve the irradiation nonuniformities of around 1% level for a foot pulse and of a few % for a main drive pulse, respectively

  6. 2.4 μm diode-pumped Dy2+:CaF2 laser

    Švejkar, Richard; Papashvili, Alexander G.; Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Batygov, Sergei H.; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.


    In this work, a cryogenic cooled, longitudinal diode-pumped Dy2+ :CaF2 laser was investigated for the first time. The temperature dependence of the spectroscopy and the laser properties of Dy2+ :CaF2 are presented. The tested Dy2+ :CaF2 crystal was a longitudinal pump in a near-IR region (926 nm) by laser diode radiation. The maximal mean output power and slope efficiency at 78 K during the pulse regime of the laser were 57.5 mW and 7%, respectively. Furthermore, the CW regime was successfully tested and a maximum output power of 0.37 W was obtained for the absorbed pumping power 5.7 W. The emission laser wavelength was 2367 nm.

  7. Mode structure of delay-coupled semiconductor lasers: influence of the pump current

    Erzgraeber, Hartmut; Krauskopf, Bernd; Lenstra, Daan


    We consider two identical, mutually delay-coupled semiconductor lasers and show that their compound laser modes (CLMs)-the basic continuous wave solutions-depend rather sensitively on the pump current of the lasers. Specifically, we show with figures and accompanying animations how the underlying CLM structure and the associated locking region, where both lasers operate stably with the same frequency, change as a function of the pump current. Our results provide a natural transition between rather different CLM structures that have been reported in the literature. Moreover, we demonstrate how the locking region as well as the different types of instabilities at its boundary depend on the pump current. This is of fundamental interest for the dynamics of coupled lasers and their possible application

  8. Short-pulse generation in a diode-end-pumped solid-state laser

    Ngcobo, S


    Full Text Available , Development of High Average Power Picosecond Laser Systems, Opto- Electronic Devices, (2002). INTRODUCTION A Nd:YVO4 modelocked laser has been constructed using a resonator designed according to the theoretical parameters. The laser produced pulses... theoretical PQSML,th of 2.08W. Short-Pulse Generation in a Diode-End-Pumped Solid-State Laser S. Ngcobo1,2, C. Bollig1 and H. Von Bergmann2 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2Laser Research Center, University...

  9. Simulation of Temperature Field Distribution for Cutting the Temperated Glass by Ultraviolet Laser

    Yang, B. J.; He, Y. C.; Dai, F.; Lin, X. C.


    The finite element software ANSYS was adopted to simulate the temperature field distribution for laser cutting tempered glass, and the influence of different process parameters, including laser power, glass thickness and cutting speed, on temperature field distribution was studied in detail. The results show that the laser power has a greater influence on temperature field distribution than other paremeters, and when the laser power gets to 60W, the highest temperature reaches 749°C, which is higher than the glass softening temperature. It reflects the material near the laser spot is melted and the molten slag is removed by the high-energy water beam quickly. Finally, through the water guided laser cutting tempered glass experiment the FEM theoretical analysis was verified.

  10. Pulsed and cw laser oscillations in LiF:F-2 color center crystal under laser diode pumping.

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Vassiliev, Sergey V; Konjushkin, Vasily A; Gapontsev, Valentin P


    Continuous-wave laser oscillations in LiF:F-2 crystal optically pumped by a laser diode at 970 nm were demonstrated for what is believed to be the first time. The slope efficiency of 14% and conversion efficiency of 5.5% were achieved for 80 micros pump pulse duration and 5 Hz pulse repetition rate. An efficiency twice as low was measured at a 6.25 kHz pulse repetition rate (50% off-duty factor) and in cw mode of laser operation.

  11. Basic studies on laser-assisted phacoemulsification using diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Hausladen, Florian; Wurm, Holger; Stock, Karl


    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of a novel diode-pumped Er:YAG laser for phacoemulsification in basic experimental investigations. An appropriate experimental setup was created, including a translation stage for sample movement, a sample holder, a water spray for sample humidification and a surgical microscope with a CCD camera for video documentation. The analysis of the laser cuts and histological sections was done by light microscopy. As samples porcine eye lenses hardened by formalin were used. In ablation experiments with different spot diameters and radiant powers and a constant repetition rate νr = 200 Hz the maximum ablation depths of (4.346 +/- 0.044) mm have reached at (Ø = 480 μm, Φ = 24.15 W) with a maximum extend of thermal damage of (0.165 +/- 0.030) mm. The average ablation efficiency is 0.241 mm3/J. With a spot diameter of 308 μm the maximum ablation depth is (4.238 +/- 0.040) mm at 24.65 W with a mean ablation efficiency of 0.293 mm3/J. The extend of the thermally damaged region is (0.171 +/- 0.024) mm at this laser power. Using a sapphire cylinder with a diameter of 412 μm (length 38.5 mm) in direct tissue contact with water spray for sample humidification the ablation depth reaches (1.017 +/- 0.074) mm at 4.93 W and (1.840 +/- 0.092) mm at 9.87 W with a mean efficiency of 0.261 mm3/J. A thermal damage zone of (0.064 +/-0.024) mm at 9.87 W was measured. Additionally, at this high power, a progressive contamination and destruction of the cylinder end facet was observed. In conclusion, the investigations show that the diode-pumped Er:YAG laser has considerable potential for cataract surgery.

  12. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Chen, Kevin, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Liu, Lei; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)


    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications.

  13. Laser Machining and In Vitro Assessment of Wollastonite-Tricalcium Phosphate Eutectic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

    Daniel Sola


    Full Text Available Bioactivity and ingrowth of ceramic implants is commonly enhanced by a suitable interconnected porous network. In this work, the laser machining of CaSiO3‒Ca3(PO42 biocompatible eutectic glass-ceramics and glasses was studied. For this purpose, 300 µm diameter craters were machined by using pulsed laser radiation at 532 nm with a pulsewidth in the nanosecond range. Machined samples were soaked in simulated body fluid for 2 months to assess the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the laser machined areas. The samples were manufactured by the laser floating zone technique using a CO2 laser. Morphology, composition and microstructure of the machined samples were described by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and micro-Raman Spectroscopy.

  14. Efficient quasi-three-level Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm pumped by a tunable external cavity tapered diode laser

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    Using a tunable external cavity tapered diode laser (ECDL) pumped quasi-three-level Nd:YAG laser, a fivefold reduction in threshold and twofold increase in slope efficiency is demonstrated when compared to a traditional broad area diode laser pump source. A TEM00 power of 800 mW with 65% slope...... efficiency is obtained, the highest reported TEM00 power from any 946 nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by a single emitter diode laser pump source. A quantum efficiency of 0.85 has been estimated from experimental data using a simple quasi-three-level model. The reported value is in good agreement with published...

  15. Femtosecond laser direct writing of gratings and waveguides in high quantum efficiency erbium-doped Baccarat glass

    Vishnubhatla, K C; Kumar, R Sai Santosh; Rao, D Narayana; Rao, S Venugopal; Osellame, R; Ramponi, R; Bhaktha, S N B; Mattarelli, M; Montagna, M; Turrell, S; Chiappini, A; Chiasera, A; Ferrari, M; Righini, G C


    The femtosecond laser direct writing technique was employed to inscribe gratings and waveguides in high quantum efficiency erbium-doped Baccarat glass. Using the butt coupling technique, a systematic study of waveguide loss with respect to input pulse energy and writing speed was performed to achieve the best waveguide with low propagation loss (PL). By pumping at 980 nm, we observed signal enhancement in these active waveguides in the telecom spectral region. The refractive index change was smooth and we estimated it to be ∼10 -3 . The high quantum efficiency (∼80%) and a best PL of ∼0.9 dB cm -1 combined with signal enhancement makes Baccarat glass a potential candidate for application in photonics.

  16. Optimization of end-pumped, actively Q-switched quasi-III-level lasers.

    Jabczynski, Jan K; Gorajek, Lukasz; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kaskow, Mateusz; Zendzian, Waldemar


    The new model of end-pumped quasi-III-level laser considering transient pumping processes, ground-state-depletion and up-conversion effects was developed. The model consists of two parts: pumping stage and Q-switched part, which can be separated in a case of active Q-switching regime. For pumping stage the semi-analytical model was developed, enabling the calculations for final occupation of upper laser level for given pump power and duration, spatial profile of pump beam, length and dopant level of gain medium. For quasi-stationary inversion, the optimization procedure of Q-switching regime based on Lagrange multiplier technique was developed. The new approach for optimization of CW regime of quasi-three-level lasers was developed to optimize the Q-switched lasers operating with high repetition rates. Both methods of optimizations enable calculation of optimal absorbance of gain medium and output losses for given pump rate. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Solid-state laser pumping with a planar compound parabolic concentrator.

    Panteli, D V; Pani, B M; Beli, L Z


    A novel solid-state laser-pumping scheme is proposed that combines a reflective lamp chamber and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) as a light guide. The CPC is made of a transparent material of high refractive index, and light is guided by the total internal reflection, with drastically reduced reflection losses. Material is chosen so that the absorption losses are minimized in the pumping wavelength range. The lamp chamber is designed with the principles of nonimaging optics, which ensures that the radiation is efficiently transferred from the lamp to the input aperture of the CPC. The pumping efficiency was first estimated theoretically, which gave us enough justification for the more accurate calculations with ray tracing. Single as well as multiple pumping cavities are discussed. New pumping geometry results in significantly increased pumping efficiency compared with conventional geometries. Also the lamp and the laser rod are separated, leading to reduced thermal load. We found that the proposed pumping method is also applicable to diode-pumped lasers.

  18. A simple equilibrium theoretical model and predictions for a continuous wave exciplex pumped alkali laser

    Carroll, David L; Verdeyen, Joseph T


    The exciplex pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapour, Ar, with and without ethane, by pumping Cs-Ar atomic collision pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically excited CsAr molecules (exciplexes or excimers). The blue satellites of the alkali D 2 lines provide an advantageous pathway for optically pumping atomic alkali lasers on the principal series (resonance) transitions with broad linewidth (>2 nm) semiconductor diode lasers. The development of a simple theoretical analysis of continuous-wave XPAL systems is presented along with predictions as a function of temperature and pump intensity. The model predicts that an optical-to-optical efficiency in the range of 40-50% can be achieved for XPAL.

  19. Spatial modification of laser beam under the influence of Λ-type strong pump

    Lee, Won Kyu; Noh, Young Chul; Jeon, Jin Ho; Lee, Jai Hyung; Chang, Joon Sung


    The laser beam propagating through the resonant medium undergo severe deformation because of nonlinear interaction such as self-focusing, self-defocusing, etc. When strong pump beam coexists with the probe beam, propagation characteristics can be changed. We use samarium (Sm) vapor as the nonlinear medium. Probe laser is tuned around 4f 6 6s 27 F 0 -> 4f 6 ( 7 F)6s6p( 1 P 0 ) transition line of Sm (561.601 nm) and the pump laser is tuned around 4f 6 6s 27 F 1 -> 4f 6 ( 7 F)6s6p( 1 P 0 ) transition line of Sm (572.019 nm). The probe and the pump beams are Λ-type configuration. The transmission of the probe beam is changed as the intensity and the detuning of the pump beam are varied. The degree of self-focusing is also modified. (author)


    P. A. Loiko


    Full Text Available An experimental setup was developed for thermal lensing measurements in the anisotropic diode-pumped laser crystals. The studied crystal is placed into the stable two-mirror laser cavity operating at the fundamental transversal mode. The output beam radius is measured with respect to the pump intensity for different meridional planes (all these planes contain the light propagation direction. These dependencies are fitted using the ABCD matrix method in order to obtain the sensitivity factors showing the change of the optical power of thermal lens due to variation of the pump intensity. The difference of the sensitivity factors for two mutually orthogonal principal meridional planes describes the thermal lens astigmatism degree. By means of this approach, thermal lensing was characterized in the diode-pumped monoclinic Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO42 laser crystal at the wavelength of 1.067 μm for light polarization E || Nm.

  1. A Phase-Controlled Optical Parametric Amplifier Pumped by Two Phase-Distorted Laser Beams

    Hong-Yan, Ren; Lie-Jia, Qian; Peng, Yuan; He-Yuan, Zhu; Dian-Yuan, Fan


    We theoretically study the phase characteristic of optical parametric amplification (OPA) or chirped pulse OPA (OPCPA) pumped by two phase-distorted laser beams. In the two-beam-pumped optical parametric amplification (TBOPA), due to spatial walk-off, both of the pump phase distortions will be partly transferred to signal in a single crystal so as to degrade the signal beam-quality, which will be more serious in high-energy OPCPA. An OPA configuration with a walkoff-compensated crystal pair is demonstrated for reducing the signal phase distortion experienced in the first stage and ensuring the signal phase independent of two pump phase distortions through the second crystal, hence maintaining the signal beam-quality. Such a TBOPA is similar to the conventional quantum laser amplifier by means of eliminating its sensitivity to the phase and number of the pump beams

  2. Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika


    For the first time a single-pass frequency doubled DBR-tapered diode laser suitable for pumping Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 110 mW (CW) and 82 mW (mode-locked) respectively at 1.2 W...... of pump power. This corresponds to a reduction in optical conversion efficiencies to 75% of the values achieved with a commercial diode pumped solid-state laser. However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2....... The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser when pumped with our diode laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20 fs can therefore be expected....

  3. Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses.

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika; Le, Tuan; Stingl, Andreas; Hasler, Karl-Heinz; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Andersen, Peter E; Petersen, Paul Michael


    For the first time a single-pass frequency doubled DBR-tapered diode laser suitable for pumping Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 110 mW (CW) and 82 mW (mode-locked) respectively at 1.2 W of pump power. This corresponds to a reduction in optical conversion efficiencies to 75% of the values achieved with a commercial diode pumped solid-state laser. However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2. The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser when pumped with our diode laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20 fs can therefore be expected.

  4. Discrete excitation of mode pulses using a diode-pumped solid-state digital laser

    Ngcobo, Sandile


    Full Text Available In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate novel method of generating discrete excitation of on-demand Lagaurre-Gaussian (LG) mode pulses, in a diode pumped solid-state digital laser. The digital laser comprises of an intra-cavity spatial light...

  5. 5.4W cladding-pumped Nd:YAG silica fiber laser

    Yoo, S.; Webb, A.S.; Standish, R.J.; May-Smith, T.C.; Sahu, J.K.


    We report on the spectroscopy and laser characteristics of Nd-doped fiber, fabricated by rod-in-tube from Nd:YAG as a core material with silica cladding. A cladding-pumped CW laser operation at 1058nm with 52% slope-efficiency is demonstrated.

  6. Cladding-pumped Yb-doped fiber laser with vortex output beam

    Lin, Di; Clarkson, William


    A simple technique for selectively generating a donut-shaped LP11 mode with vortex phase front in a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser is reported. The laser yielded 36W of output with a slope efficiency of 74%.

  7. The future of diode pumped solid state lasers and their applicability to the automotive industry

    Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Hackel, L.


    The largest commercial application of high power lasers is for cutting and welding. Their ability to increase productivity by introducing processing flexibility and integrated automation into the fabrication process is well demonstrated. This paper addresses the potential importance of recent developments in laser technology to further impact their use within the automotive industry. The laser technology we will concentrate upon is diode laser technology and diode-pumped solid-state laser technology. We will review present device performance and cost and make projections for the future in these areas. Semiconductor laser arrays have matured dramatically over the last several years. They are lasers of unparalleled efficiency (greater than 50%), reliability (greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation), and offer the potential of dramatic cost reductions (less than a dollar per watt). They can be used directly in many applications or can be used to pump solid-state lasers. When used as solid-state laser pump arrays, they simultaneously improve overall laser efficiency, reduce size, and improve reliability.

  8. Elemental redistribution behavior in tellurite glass induced by high repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation

    Teng, Yu; Zhou, Jiajia; Khisro, Said Nasir; Zhou, Shifeng; Qiu, Jianrong


    Highlights: • Abnormal elements redistribution behavior was observed in tellurite glass. • The refractive index and Raman intensity distribution changed significantly. • The relative glass composition remained unchanged while the glass density changed. • First time report on the abnormal element redistribution behavior in glass. • The glass network structure determines the elemental redistribution behavior. - Abstract: The success in the fabrication of micro-structures in glassy materials using femtosecond laser irradiation has proved its potential applications in the construction of three-dimensional micro-optical components or devices. In this paper, we report the elemental redistribution behavior in tellurite glass after the irradiation of high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses. The relative glass composition remained unchanged while the glass density changed significantly, which is quite different from previously reported results about the high repetition rate femtosecond laser induced elemental redistribution in silicate glasses. The involved mechanism is discussed with the conclusion that the glass network structure plays the key role to determine the elemental redistribution. This observation not only helps to understand the interaction process of femtosecond laser with glassy materials, but also has potential applications in the fabrication of micro-optical devices

  9. Diode-pumped mode-locked femtosecond Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser.

    Ma, J; Xie, G Q; Gao, W L; Yuan, P; Qian, L J; Yu, H H; Zhang, H J; Wang, J Y


    A diode-end-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Tm-doped calcium lithium niobium gallium garnet (Tm:CLNGG) disordered crystal laser was demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. With a 790 nm laser diode pumping, stable CW mode-locking operation was obtained by using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. The disordered crystal laser generated mode-locked pulses as short as 479 fs, with an average output power of 288 mW, and repetition rate of 99 MHz in 2 μm spectral region. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  10. Amplified spontaneous emission of an end-pumped cesium vapor laser

    An, Guofei; Wang, You; Cai, He; Han, Juhong; Wang, Shunyan; Rong, Kepeng; Yu, Hang; Xue, Liangping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Jie


    Diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) provide a significant potential for construction of high-powered lasers. A series of models have been established to analyze the DPAL’s kinetic process and most of them are based on the algorithms in which the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) effect has not been considered. However, ASE is harmful in realization of a high-powered DPAL since the gain is very high. Usually, ASE becomes serious when the volume of the gain medium is large and the pump power is high. Basically, the conclusions we obtained in this study can be extended to other kinds of laser configurations. (paper)

  11. An electro-optical timing diagnostic for pump-probe experiments at the free-electron laser in Hamburg FLASH

    Azima, Armin


    Femtosecond pump-probe experiments have extensively been used to follow atomic and molecular motion in time. The very intense extreme ultraviolet XUV light of the Free electron LASer in Hamburg FLASH facility allows to investigate fundamental processes such as direct one or few photon inner shell ionizations. A supplementary Ti:Sapphire near infrared femtosecond laser system allows to perform two-color pump-probe experiments with FLASH involving intense laser fields of hugely different photon energies. Within this work a bunch arrival measurement system has been built, which assists these two-color pump-probe experiments to reduce the temporal jitter of FLASH and to increase the temporal resolution. The diagnostic is based upon an electro-optical detection scheme and measures the relative arrival time between the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond pulse and the electron bunch, which generates the self-amplified by stimulated emission SASE XUV pulse in the undulator section of FLASH. Key feature of the diagnostic is a 150 m long glass fiber pulse transport line, which inflicts non-linear dispersion. A dispersion control system to compensate for this higher order dispersion has been developed including the control and programming of a spatial light phase modulator. It was possible to transport a 90 fs FWHM short near infrared femtosecond laser pulse Fourier limited by the dispersion compensated glass fiber. The electro-optical signal induced by the FLASH electron bunch was generated, characterized and optimized. The signal features beside the designated bunch arrival timing capability the additional possibility to measure the longitudinal electron bunch density distribution of an arbitrary bunch of FLASH in a single shot with a temporal resolution of below 100 fs RMS. Timing and bunch analysis capabilities of the developed diagnostic have been cross-checked with other comparable diagnostics at FLASH like the transversal deflecting cavity structure named LOLA. Finally, the

  12. An electro-optical timing diagnostic for pump-probe experiments at the free-electron laser in Hamburg FLASH

    Azima, Armin


    Femtosecond pump-probe experiments have extensively been used to follow atomic and molecular motion in time. The very intense extreme ultraviolet XUV light of the Free electron LASer in Hamburg FLASH facility allows to investigate fundamental processes such as direct one or few photon inner shell ionizations. A supplementary Ti:Sapphire near infrared femtosecond laser system allows to perform two-color pump-probe experiments with FLASH involving intense laser fields of hugely different photon energies. Within this work a bunch arrival measurement system has been built, which assists these two-color pump-probe experiments to reduce the temporal jitter of FLASH and to increase the temporal resolution. The diagnostic is based upon an electro-optical detection scheme and measures the relative arrival time between the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond pulse and the electron bunch, which generates the self-amplified by stimulated emission SASE XUV pulse in the undulator section of FLASH. Key feature of the diagnostic is a 150 m long glass fiber pulse transport line, which inflicts non-linear dispersion. A dispersion control system to compensate for this higher order dispersion has been developed including the control and programming of a spatial light phase modulator. It was possible to transport a 90 fs FWHM short near infrared femtosecond laser pulse Fourier limited by the dispersion compensated glass fiber. The electro-optical signal induced by the FLASH electron bunch was generated, characterized and optimized. The signal features beside the designated bunch arrival timing capability the additional possibility to measure the longitudinal electron bunch density distribution of an arbitrary bunch of FLASH in a single shot with a temporal resolution of below 100 fs RMS. Timing and bunch analysis capabilities of the developed diagnostic have been cross-checked with other comparable diagnostics at FLASH like the transversal deflecting cavity structure named LOLA. Finally, the

  13. A Simple Approach for Enhancing the Output Performance of Solar-Pumped Solid-State Lasers

    Dawei Liang


    Full Text Available A simple truncated fused silica elliptical cavity is proposed to enhance the output performance of solar-pumped solid-state lasers. The imaging property of the truncated elliptical cavity ensures an enhanced absorption distribution within an Nd:YAG rod. Optimum pumping parameters are found through ZEMAX nonsequential ray-tracing and LASCAD laser cavity analyses. Compared with the output laser performance of a 3D-compound parabolic concentrator-2D-compound parabolic concentrator (3D-CPC-2D-CPC cavity, the truncated cavity provides 11% more multimode and 72.7% more TEM00 laser powers. A laser beam of high beam quality can be produced efficiently. The standard tracking error for multimode laser power is also reduced to only 4.0% by the truncated cavity.

  14. Pulse forming networks for fast pumping of high power electron-beam-controlled CO2 lasers

    Riepe, K.B.


    The transverse electric discharge is a widely used technique for pumping CO 2 lasers at high pressures for the generation, simply and efficiently, of very high power laser pulses. The development of the electron-beam-controlled discharge has allowed the application of the transverse discharge to large aperture, very high energy systems. LASL is now in the process of assembly and checkout of a CO 2 laser which is designed to generate a one nanosecond pulse containing 10 kilojoules, for use in laser fusion experiments. The front end of this laser consists of a set of preamplifiers and a mode locked oscillator with electro-optic single pulse switchout. The final amplifier stage consists of four parallel modules, each one consisting of a two-sided electron gun, and two 35 x 35 x 200 cm gas pumping regions operating at a pressure of 1800 torr with a 3/ 1 / 4 /1 (He/N 2 /CO 2 ) laser mix. (auth)

  15. Spherical distribution structure of the semiconductor laser diode stack for pumping

    Zhao Tianzhuo; Yu Jin; Liu Yang; Zhang Xue; Ma Yunfeng; Fan Zhongwei


    A semiconductor laser diode stack is used for pumping and 8 semiconductor laser diode arrays of the stack are put on a sphere, and the output of every bar is specially off-axis compressed to realize high coupling efficiency. The output beam of this semiconductor laser diode stack is shaped by a hollow duct to the laser active medium. The efficiency of the hollow light pipe, which is used for semiconductor laser diode stack coupling, is analyzed by geometric optics and ray tracing. Geometric optics analysis diagnoses the reasons for coupling loss and guides the design of the structure. Ray tracing analyzes the relation between the structural parameters and the output characteristics of this pumping system, and guides parameter optimization. Simulation and analysis results show that putting the semiconductor laser diode arrays on a spherical surface can increase coupling efficiency, reduce the optimum duct length and improve the output energy field distribution. (semiconductor devices)

  16. Intensity Noise Transfer Through a Diode-pumped Titanium Sapphire Laser System

    Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin


    higher RIN than a setup with only a single nonlinear crystal. The Ti:S is shown to have a cut-off frequency around 500 kHz, which means that noise structures of the pump laser above this frequency are strongly suppressed. Finally, the majority of the Ti:S noise seems to originate from the laser itself......In this paper, we investigate the noise performance and transfer in a titanium sapphire (Ti:S) laser system. This system consists of a DBR tapered diode laser, which is frequency doubled in two cascaded nonlinear crystals and used to pump the Ti:S laser oscillator. This investigation includes...... electrical noise characterizations of the utilized power supplies, the optical noise of the fundamental light, the second harmonic light, and finally the optical noise of the femtosecond pulses emitted by the Ti:S laser. Noise features originating from the electric power supply are evident throughout...

  17. [Glass Development Laser (GDL) Facility upgrade.] LLE Review. Quarterly report, October-December 1984. Volume 21

    Kim, H.


    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the upgrade of the GDL (Glass Development) system, theoretical advances in the laser fusion effort, improved target fabrication capabilities, x-ray laser research, developments in the picosecond optics research of the LLE advanced technology program, and on the National Laser Users Facility activities for October-December 1984. 56 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Resonantly diode-pumped continuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm.

    Chang, N W H; Simakov, N; Hosken, D J; Munch, J; Ottaway, D J; Veitch, P J


    We describe an efficient Er:YAG laser that is resonantly pumped using continuous-wave (CW) laser diodes at 1470 nm. For CW lasing, it emits 6.1 W at 1645 nm with a slope efficiency of 36%, the highest efficiency reported for an Er:YAG laser that is pumped in this manner. In Q-switched operation, the laser produces diffraction-limited pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at 2 kHz PRF. To our knowledge this is the first Q-switched Er:YAG laser resonantly pumped by CW laser diodes.

  19. A High-Energy, 100 Hz, Picosecond Laser for OPCPA Pumping

    Hongpeng Su


    Full Text Available A high-energy diode-pumped picosecond laser system centered at 1064 nm for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA pumping was demonstrated. The laser system was based on a master oscillator power amplifier configuration, which contained an Nd:YVO4 mode-locked seed laser, an LD-pumped Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier, and two double-pass amplifiers. A reflecting volume Bragg grating with a 0.1 nm reflective bandwidth was used in the regenerative amplifier for spectrum narrowing and pulse broadening to suit the pulse duration of the optical parametric amplifier (OPA process. Laser pulses with an energy of 316.5 mJ and a pulse duration of 50 ps were obtained at a 100 Hz repetition rate. A top-hat beam distribution and a 0.53% energy stability (RMS were achieved in this system.

  20. Laser properties of an improved average-power Nd-doped phosphate glass

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.


    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties (expansion, conduction, fracture toughness, and Young's modulus), and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime

  1. Closely spaced mirror pair for reshaping and homogenizing pump beams in laser amplifiers

    Bass, I.L.


    Channeling a laser beam by multiple reflections between two closely-spaced, parallel or nearly parallel mirrors, serves to reshape and homogenize the beam at the output gap between the mirrors. Application of this device to improve the spatial overlap of a copper laser pump beam with the signal beam in a dye laser amplifier is described. This technique has been applied to the AVLIS program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  2. Diode-pumped Tm:YAP/YVO4 intracavity Raman laser

    Zhao, Jiaqun; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Guodong; Cheng, Ping; Xu, Feng


    The laser performance based on YVO 4 Raman conversion in a diode-pumped actively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser is demonstrated for the first time. With an incident diode power of 10.9 W and a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz, the average output powers for the first Stokes laser at 2.4 μm is about 270 mW. (paper)

  3. A diode-end-pumped Nd:GYSGG continuous wave laser at 1104 nm

    Shen, B J; Kang, H X; Zhang, C G; Chen, P; Gao, R L; Liang, J; Gao, H J; Zhang, Q L; Sun, D L; Yin, S T; Luo, J Q


    The continuous wave (CW) laser performance of Nd:GYSGG at 1104 nm is investigated for the first time, to our knowledge. A CW laser output power of 4.7 W is obtained when the pump power of the 808 nm fiber coupled laser diode is 19.1 W, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 24.6% and slope efficiency of 37%. (paper)

  4. Effects of various polishing media and techniques on the surface finish and behavior of laser glasses

    Landingham, R.L.; Casey, A.W.; Lindahl, R.O.


    The advance of high-power laser technology is dependent on the rate of advancement in laser glass forming and surface preparation. The threshold damage of glass surfaces continues to be a weak link in the overall advancement of laser technology. Methods were developed and used in the evaluation of existing glass surface preparation techniques. Modified procedures were evaluated to reduce surface contamination and subsurface defects. Polishing rates were monitored under controlled polishing conditions (purity, pH, particle size distribution, particle concentration, etc.). Future work at LLL for this ongoing investigation is described

  5. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.


    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL's). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL's which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL's are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications

  6. High-fidelity modelling of an exciplex pumped alkali laser with radiative transport

    Palla, Andrew D; Carroll, David L; Verdeyen, Joseph T; Heaven, Michael C


    The exciplex-pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapour, Ar, and ethane by pumping Cs-Ar atomic collision pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically excited CsAr molecules (exciplexes or excimers). Because of the addition of atomic collision pairs and exciplex states, modelling of the XPAL system is far more complicated than the modelling of the classic diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL). In this paper, we discuss BLAZE-V time-dependent multi-dimensional modelling of this new laser system including radiative transport and parasitic loss effects. A two-dimensional, time-dependent baseline simulation of a pulsed XPAL is presented and compared to data. Good agreement is achieved on a laser pulse full width at half-maximum and laser pulse rise time. Parametric simulations of pulsed XPAL system configurations similar to that of the baseline case, given both four- and five-level laser operation, are presented in which good agreement is obtained with outcoupled laser energy as a function of absorbed pump energy data. The potential impact of parasitic losses on modelled system configurations is discussed.

  7. High-fidelity modelling of an exciplex pumped alkali laser with radiative transport

    Palla, Andrew D; Carroll, David L; Verdeyen, Joseph T [CU Aerospace, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Heaven, Michael C, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)


    The exciplex-pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapour, Ar, and ethane by pumping Cs-Ar atomic collision pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically excited CsAr molecules (exciplexes or excimers). Because of the addition of atomic collision pairs and exciplex states, modelling of the XPAL system is far more complicated than the modelling of the classic diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL). In this paper, we discuss BLAZE-V time-dependent multi-dimensional modelling of this new laser system including radiative transport and parasitic loss effects. A two-dimensional, time-dependent baseline simulation of a pulsed XPAL is presented and compared to data. Good agreement is achieved on a laser pulse full width at half-maximum and laser pulse rise time. Parametric simulations of pulsed XPAL system configurations similar to that of the baseline case, given both four- and five-level laser operation, are presented in which good agreement is obtained with outcoupled laser energy as a function of absorbed pump energy data. The potential impact of parasitic losses on modelled system configurations is discussed.


    D. A. Arkhipov


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Thermophysical and optical techniques of parameter regulation for diode pumped solid-state laser are studied as applied to space laser communication and laser ranging lines. Methods. The investigations are carried out on the base of the original design of diode pumped solid-state laser module that includes the following: Nd:YAG slab element, diode pumped by 400W QCW produced by NORTHROP GRUMMAN; two-pass unstable resonator with rotation of the laser beam aperture about its axis through 1800; the output mirror of the resonator with a variable reflection coefficient; hyperthermal conductive plates for thermal stabilization of the laser diode generation modes. The presence of thermal conductive plates excludes conventional running water systems applied as cooling systems for solid-state laser components. The diodes temperature stabilization is achieved by applying the algorithm of pulse-width modulation of power of auxiliary electric heaters. To compensate for non-stationary thermal distortions of the slab refractive index, the laser resonator scheme comprises a prism reflector with an apex angle of 1200. Narrow sides of the prism are covered with reflective coating, and its wide side is sprayed with antireflection coating. The beam aperture is turned around its axis through 1800 because of triple reflection of the beam inside the prism. The turning procedure leads to compensating for the output beam phase distortions in view of symmetric character of the aberrations of slab refractive index. To suppress parasitic oscillations inside the slab, dielectric coatings of wide sides of the slab are used. Main Results. We have demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the usage of hyperthermal conductive plates together with the algorithm of pulse-width modulation provides stabilizing of the diode substrate temperature accurate within ± 0.1 °С and smoothing the temperature distribution along the plate surface accurate

  9. Recent progress in diode-pumped mid-infrared vibronic solid-state lasers

    Sorokina, I.T.; Sorokin, E.; Mirov, S.; Schaffers, K.


    Full text: The last few years were marked by the increased interest of researchers towards the new class of transition-metal doped zinc chalcogenides. In particular Cr:ZnSe attracts a lot of attention as broadly tunable continuous-wave (cw), mode-locked and diode-pumped lasers operating around 2.5 mm. This interest is explained by the absence of other comparable tunable room-temperature laser sources in this spectral region. However, another member of the II-VI compounds family Cr:ZnS, has yet remained barely studied as a laser medium. Recently we demonstrated the first continuous-wave room-temperature tunable over more than 280 nm around 2.3 μm Cr 2+ :ZnS laser, pumped with a Co:MgF2 laser and yielding over 100 mW of output power. The most recent result is the development of a compact tunable over 700 nm continuous-wave room-temperature Cr 2+ :ZnS laser, pumped by the diode-pumped Er-fiber laser at 1.6 μm and generating 0.7 W of the linearly polarized radiation. We also demonstrated direct diode-pumping at 1.6 μm of the Cr 2+ :ZnS. Although the Cr:ZnS exhibited lower (relatively to the Cr:ZnSe) efficiency and output power due to the higher passive losses of the available Cr:ZnS samples, the analysis of the spectroscopic and laser data indicates the high potential of Cr:ZnS for compact broadly tunable mid-infrared systems, as well as for high power applications. The physics of the novel diode-pumped laser systems is highly interesting. It comprises the features of the ion-doped dielectric crystalline lasers and semiconductors. For example, we observe in these media, for the first time to our knowledge, a new nonlinear phenomenon, which is analogous to the opto-optical switching process, where the laser output of the diode-pumped continuous-wave Cr:ZnSe and Cr:ZnS lasers around 2.5 μm is modulated by only a few milliwatt of the visible (470-500 nm) and near-infrared radiation (740-770 nm). We present a physical explanation of the observed effect. Refs. 4 (author)

  10. Tm:GGAG crystal for 2μm tunable diode-pumped laser

    Šulc, Jan; Boháček, Pavel; Němec, Michal; Fibrich, Martin; Jelínková, Helena; Trunda, Bohumil; Havlák, Lubomír.; Jurek, Karel; Nikl, Martin


    The spectroscopy properties and wavelength tunability of diode pumped laser based on Tm-doped mixed gadolinium-gallium-aluminium garnet Gd3(GaxAl1-x)5O12 (Tm:GGAG) single crystal were investigated for the first time. The crystal was grown by Czochralski method in a slightly oxidative atmosphere using an iridium crucible. The tested Tm:GGAG sample was cut from the grown crystal boule perpendicularly to growth direction (c-axis). The composition of sample was determined using electron microprobe X-ray elemental analysis. For spectroscopy and laser experiments 3.5mm thick plane-parallel face-polished plate (without AR coatings) with composition Gd2.76Tm0.0736Ga2.67Al2.50O12 (2.67 at.% Tm/Gd) was used. A fiber (core diameter 400 μm, NA= 0.22) coupled laser diode (emission wavelength 786 nm) was used for longitudinal Tm:GGAG pumping. The laser diode was operating in the pulsed regime (10 ms pulse length, 10 Hz repetition rate, maximum power amplitude 18 W). The 145mm long semi-hemispherical laser resonator consisted of a flat pumping mirror (HR @ 1.8- 2.10 μm, HT @ 0.78 μm) and curved (r = 150mm) output coupler with a reflectivity of » 97% @ 1.8- 2.10 µm. The maximum laser output power amplitude 1.14W was obtained at wavelength 2003nm for absorbed pump power amplitude 4.12W. The laser slope efficiency was 37% in respect to absorbed pumping power. Wavelength tuning was accomplished by using 2mm thick MgF2 birefringent filter placed inside the laser resonator at the Brewster angle. The laser was continuously tunable over 180nm in a spectral region from 1856nm to 2036 nm.

  11. Optimum design of a multi-stage dye-laser amplifier pumped with Cu-vapor lasers

    Maeda, Mitsuo; Uchiumi, Michihiro


    A numerical simulation code, based on the one-dimensional photon transport equation, was developed and analyzed to evaluate the performances of Rhodamine 6G dye laser amplifiers pumped with Cu-vapor lasers. The upper singlet-state absorption played an important role to determine the efficiency. The simulation code was applied to optimize a multi-stage amplifier system with a pulsed or a CW dye-laser oscillator. The analytical results gave a useful guideline to design a high-power pulsed dye-laser system for atomic uranium enrichment. (author)

  12. Tensile behavior of laser treated Fe-Si-B metallic glass

    Joshi, Sameehan S.; Samimi, Peyman; Ghamarian, Iman; Katakam, Shravana; Collins, Peter C.; Dahotre, Narendra B., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 1150 Union Circle 305310, Denton, Texas 76203-5017 (United States)


    Fe-Si-B metallic glass foils were treated with a linear laser track using a continuous wave Nd-YAG laser and its effect on the overall tensile behavior was investigated. Microstructure and phase evolutions were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, resistivity measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. Crystallization fraction was estimated via the differential scanning calorimetry technique. Metallic glass foils treated with the lower laser fluences (<0.49 J/mm{sup 2}) experienced structural relaxation, whereas higher laser fluences led to crystallization within the laser treated region. The overall tensile behavior was least impacted by structural relaxation, whereas crystallization severely reduced the ultimate tensile strength of the laser treated metallic glass foils.

  13. A High-Energy Good-Beam-Quality Krypton-Lamp-Pumped Nd:YAG Solid-State Laser with One Pump Cavity

    LIU Xue-Sheng; WANG Zhi-Yong; YAN Xin; CAO Ying-Hua


    We investigate a high-energy good-beam-quality krypton-lamp-pumped pulsed Nd:YAG solid-state laser with one pump cavity.The symmetrical resonator laser is developed and is rated at 80 J with beam parameter product 12mm mrad.The total system electro-optics efficiency of the lamp-pumped YAG laser is as high as 3.3% and the stability of output energy is ±2% with pulse width tunable between 0.1 ms and 10ms.The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and simulation.

  14. Single-mode, All-Solid-State Nd:YAG Laser Pumped UV Converter

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Armstrong, Darrell, J.; Edwards, William C.; Singh, Upendra N.


    In this paper, the status of a high-energy, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser pumped nonlinear optics based UV converter development is discussed. The high-energy UV transmitter technology is being developed for ozone sensing applications from space based platforms using differential lidar technique. The goal is to generate greater than 200 mJ/pulse with 10-50 Hz PRF at wavelengths of 308 nm and 320 nm. A diode-pumped, all-solid-state and single longitudinal mode Nd:YAG laser designed to provide conductively cooled operation at 1064 nm has been built and tested. Currently, this pump laser provides an output pulse energy of >1 J/pulse at 50 Hz PRF and a pulsewidth of 22 ns with an electrical-to-optical system efficiency of greater than 7% and a M(sup 2) value of UV converter arrangement basically consists of an IR Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) and a Sum Frequency Generator (SFG) setups that are pumped by 532 nm wavelength obtained via Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). In this paper, the operation of an inter cavity SFG with CW laser seeding scheme generating 320 nm wavelength is presented. Efforts are underway to improve conversion efficiency of this mJ class UV converter by modifying the spatial beam profile of the pump laser.

  15. Ultraviolet SO lasers optically pumped by a tunable, line-narrowed KrF laser

    Stuart, B.C.D.


    The feasibility of an ultraviolet energy storage laser based on the long-lived sulfur monoxide A 3 π-χ 3 Σ - electronic transition was investigated, and an ultraviolet laser based on the short-lived SO(B 3 Σ - -χ 3 Σ - ) transition was demonstrated and modeled. Both were optically pumped by a continuously tunable, line-narrowed KrF laser developed for efficient rotationally resolved excitation of SO. SO was produced by both microwave discharge and excimer laser photolysis of the precursor molecules SO 2 and SOCl 2 , with a maximum SO concentration (10 16 cm -3 ) generated by ArF (193 nm) photodissociation of SO 2 . Laser induced fluorescence of SO was used to study the excitation spectroscopy, vibrational branching ratios, lifetimes and deactivation rates. The radiative lifetime of SO(A 3 π 2 ,v' = 5) was measured to be 6.9 μs and that of SO(B,v' = 1) to be 33 ns. Lifetimes in the highly perturbed SO(B,v' = 2) level ranged from 28--90 ns. Measurements and modeling of the excitation saturation fluence as a function of buffer gas pressure determined what fraction of the ground state SO(X) molecules could be excited to SO(A) or SO(B). No evidence of excited state absorption was seen. Lasing on six new ultraviolet SO(B-X) vibrational bands in the range 262--315 nm was demonstrated. SO(B-X) pulse energies of up to 11 μJ were obtained and the gain coefficient was estimated to be 0.1 cm -1 . A multi-level rate equation model of the SO(B-X) excitation and lasing transitions, including collisional rotational mixing, described the dynamics of the lasing and measured output very well. Modeling showed and experiments confirmed that the maximum possible SO laser gain simply corresponded to saturating the excitation of a single rotational level. Collisional coupling of the rotational levels increased the laser output energy

  16. LD-cladding-pumped 50 pm linewidth Tm 3+ -doped silica fiber laser.

    Yunjun, Zhang; Baoquan, Yao; Youlun, Ju; Hui, Zhou; Yuezhu, Wang


    We report on a Tm(3+)-doped fiber laser source operating at 1936.4 nm with a very narrow linewidth (50 pm) laser output. Up to 2.4 W cw laser power was obtained from an 82 cm long Tm(3+)-doped multimode-core fiber cladding pumped by a 792 nm laser diode (LD). The fiber laser cavity included a high-reflective dichroic and a low-reflective FBG output coupler. The multimode fiber Bragg grating (FBG) transmission spectrum and output laser spectrum were measured. By adjusting the distance between the dichroic and the Tm(3+)-doped fiber end, the multipeak laser spectrum changed to a single-peak laser spectrum.

  17. High-efficiency, 154  W CW, diode-pumped Raman fiber laser with brightness enhancement.

    Glick, Yaakov; Fromzel, Viktor; Zhang, Jun; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay; Dubinskii, Mark


    We demonstrate a high-power, high-efficiency Raman fiber laser pumped directly by laser diode modules at 978 nm. 154 W of CW power were obtained at a wavelength of 1023 nm with an optical to optical efficiency of 65%. A commercial graded-index (GRIN) core fiber acts as the Raman fiber in a power oscillator configuration, which includes spectral selection to prevent generation of the second Stokes. In addition, brightness enhancement of the pump beam by a factor of 8.4 is attained due to the Raman gain distribution profile in the GRIN fiber. To the best of our knowledge this is the highest power and highest efficiency Raman fiber laser demonstrated in any configuration allowing brightness enhancement (i.e., in either cladding-pumped configuration or with GRIN fibers, excluding step-index core pumped), regardless of pumping scheme (i.e., either diode pumped or fiber laser pumped).

  18. A high-power diode-laser-pumped CW Nd:YAG laser using a stable-unstable resonator

    Mudge, M.; Ostermeyer, P.; Veitch, J.; Munch, J.; Hamilton, M.W.


    Full text: The design and operation of a power-scalable diode-laser-pumped CW Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser that uses a stable-unstable resonator with a graded reflectivity mirror as an output coupler is described. We demonstrate control of the thermal lens strength in the unstable plane and weak thermal lensing in the stable plane that is independent of pump power, vital for efficient scalability. This enabled CW operation of the stable-unstable resonator with excellent near- and far-field beam quality

  19. Structural features of silver-doped phosphate glasses in zone of femtosecond laser-induced modification

    Vasileva, A. A.; Nazarov, I. A.; Olshin, P. K.; Povolotskiy, A. V.; Sokolov, I. A.; Manshina, A. A.


    Femtosecond (fs) laser writing of two-dimensional microstructures (waveguides) is demonstrated in bulk phosphate glasses doped with silver ions. Silver-content phosphate and silver-content niobium-phosphate glasses with high concentration of silver oxide 55 mol% were used as samples for fs laser writing. The chemical network structure of the synthesized samples is analyzed through Raman spectroscopy and was found to be strongly sensitive to Nb incorporation. It was found that the direct laser writing process enables not only reorganization of glass network, but also formation of color centers and silver nanoparticles that are revealed in appearance of luminescence signal and plasmon absorption. The process of NPs' formation is more efficient for Nb-phosphate glass, while color centers are preferably formed in phosphate glass.

  20. Solar-Pumped TEM₀₀ Mode Nd:YAG laser.

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana


    Here we show a significant advance in solar-pumped laser beam brightness by utilizing a 1.0 m diameter Fresnel lens and a 3 mm diameter Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. The incoming solar radiation is firstly focused by the Fresnel lens on a solar tracker. A large aspheric lens and a 2D-CPC concentrator are then combined to further compress the concentrated solar radiation along the thin laser rod within a V-shaped pumping cavity. 2.3 W cw TEM₀₀ (M² ≤ 1.1) solar laser power is finally produced, attaining 1.9 W laser beam brightness figure of merit, which is 6.6 times higher than the previous record. For multimode operation, 8.1 W cw laser power is produced, corresponding to 143% enhancement in collection efficiency.

  1. Improving solar-pumped laser efficiency by a ring-array concentrator

    Tibúrcio, Bruno D.; Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Matos, Rodrigo; Vistas, Cláudia R.


    We report here a compact pumping scheme for achieving large improvement in collection and conversion efficiency of a Nd:YAG solar-pumped laser by an innovative ring-array solar concentrator. An aspheric fused silica lens was used to further concentrate the solar radiation from the focal region of the 1.5-m-diameter ring-array concentrator to a 5.0-mm-diameter, 20-mm-length Nd:YAG single-crystal rod within a conical-shaped pump cavity, enabling multipass pumping to the laser rod. 67.3-W continuous-wave solar laser power was numerically calculated, corresponding to 38.2-W / m2 solar laser collection efficiency, being 1.22 and 1.27 times more than the state-of-the-art records by both heliostat-parabolic mirror and Fresnel lens solar laser systems, respectively. 4.0% conversion efficiency and 0.021-W brightness figure of merit were also numerically obtained, corresponding to 1.25 and 1.62 times enhancement over the previous records, respectively. The influence of tracking error on solar laser output power was also analyzed.

  2. Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser

    Ellis, Bryan; Mayer, Marie A.; Shambat, Gary; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Haller, Eugene E.; Vučković, Jelena


    Efficient, low-threshold and compact semiconductor laser sources are under investigation for many applications in high-speed communications, information processing and optical interconnects. The best edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers have thresholds on the order of 100 µA (refs 1,2), but dissipate too much power to be practical for many applications, particularly optical interconnects. Optically pumped photonic-crystal nanocavity lasers represent the state of the art in low-threshold lasers; however, to be practical, techniques to electrically pump these structures must be developed. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser in gallium arsenide pumped by a lateral p-i-n junction formed by ion implantation. Continuous-wave lasing is observed at temperatures up to 150 K. Thresholds of only 181 nA at 50 K and 287 nA at 150 K are observed--the lowest thresholds ever observed in any type of electrically pumped laser.

  3. Stochastic resonance for signal-modulated pump noise in a single-mode laser

    Liangying Zhang; Li Cao; Fahui Zhu


    By adopting the gain-noise model of the single-mode laser in which with bias and periodical signals serve as inputs, combining with the effect of coloured pump noise, we use the linear approximation method to calculate the power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the laser intensity under the condition of pump noise and quantum noise cross-related in the form of δ function. It is found that with the change of pump noise correlation time, both SNR and the output power will occur stochastic resonance (SR). If the bias signal α is very small, changing the intensities of pump noise and quantum noise respectively does not lead to the appearance of SR in the SNR; while α increases to a certain number, SR appears.

  4. Theoretical investigation of output features of a diode-pumped rubidium vapor laser

    Wang, You; Cai, He; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Liangping; Wang, Hongyuan; Han, Juhong


    In the recent years, diode-pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) have been paid many attentions because of their excellent performances. In fact, the characteristics of a DPAL strongly depend on the physical features of buffer gases. In this report, we selected a diode-pumped rubidium vapor laser (DPRVL), which is an important type among three common DPALs, to investigate how the characteristics of a DPRVL are affected by different conditions. The results signify that the population ratio of two excitation energy-levels are close to that corresponding to thermal equilibrium as the pressure of buffer gases and the temperature of a vapor cell become higher. It has been found that quenching of the upper levels cannot be simply ignored especially for the case of weak pump. The conclusions are thought to be helpful for the configuration design of an end-pumped DPAL.

  5. Ge22As20Se58 glass ultrafast laser inscribed waveguides for mid-IR integrated optics

    Morris, James M.; Mackenzie, Mark D.; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg


    Ultrafast laser inscription has been used to produce channel waveguides in Ge22As20Se58 glass (GASIR-1, Umicore N.V). The mode field diameter and waveguide losses at 2.94 mu m were measured along with the waveguide dispersion in the 1 to 4.5 mu m range, which is used to estimate the zero-dispersi...... ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide devices in GASIR-1 for mid-IR integrated optics applications. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.......Ultrafast laser inscription has been used to produce channel waveguides in Ge22As20Se58 glass (GASIR-1, Umicore N.V). The mode field diameter and waveguide losses at 2.94 mu m were measured along with the waveguide dispersion in the 1 to 4.5 mu m range, which is used to estimate the zero......-dispersion wavelength. Z-scan measurements of bulk samples have also been performed to determine the nonlinear refractive index. Finally, midIR supercontinuum generation has been shown when pumping the waveguides with femtosecond pulses centered at 4.6 mu m. Supercontinuum spanning approximately 4 mu m from 2.5 to 6...

  6. A 526 W Diode-Pumped Nd:YAG Ceramic Slab Laser

    Chen Yan-Zhong; Bo Yong; Xu Jian; Xu Yi-Ting; Xu Jia-Lin; Guo Ya-Ding; Yang Feng-Tu; Peng Qin-Jun; Cui Da-Fu; Xu Zu-Yan; Liu Wen-Bin; Jiang Ben-Xue; Kou Hua-Min; Pan Yu-Bai; Jiang Dong-Liang


    A diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser with a high power output is presented. An average power of 526 W is achieved at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 120 Hz and a pulse width of 180 μs from a 93mm × 52mm × 8 mm ceramic slab at a pump power of 1928 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 27.3%. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  7. Towards diode-pumped mid-infrared praseodymium-ytterbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers

    Woodward, R. I.; Hudson, D. D.; Jackson, S. D.


    We explore the potential of a new mid-infrared laser transition in praseodymium-doped fluoride fiber for emission around 3.4 μm, which can be conveniently pumped by 0.975 μm diodes via ytterbium sensitizer co-doping. Optimal cavity designs are determined through spectroscopic measurements and numerical modeling, suggesting that practical diode-pumped watt-level mid-infrared fiber sources beyond 3 μm could be achieved.

  8. Interpreting coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra measured with multimode Nd:YAG pump lasers

    Farrow, R.L.; Rahn, L.A.


    We report comparisons of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements using single-axial-and multiaxial-mode Nd:YAG lasers. Our results demonstrate the validity of a recently proposed convolution expression for unresolved CARS spectra. The results also support the use of a relative delay of several coherence lengths between pump-beam paths for reducing the effects of pump-field statistics on the CARS spectral profile

  9. Intensity and absorbed-power distribution in a cylindrical solar-pumped dye laser

    Williams, M. D.


    The internal intensity and absorbed-power distribution of a simplified hypothetical dye laser of cylindrical geometry is calculated. Total absorbed power is also calculated and compared with laboratory measurements of lasing-threshold energy deposition in a dye cell to determine the suitability of solar radiation as a pump source or, alternatively, what modifications, if any, are necessary to the hypothetical system for solar pumping.

  10. Kinetic analysis of rare gas metastable production and optically pumped Xe lasers

    Demyanov, A. V.; Kochetov, I. V.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Azyazov, V. N.; Heaven, M. C.


    Optically pumped all-rare-gas lasers use metastable rare gas atoms as the lasing species in mixtures with He or Ar buffer gas. The metastables are generated in a glow discharge, and we report model calculations for the optimal production of Ne*, Ar*, Kr* and Xe*. Discharge efficiency was estimated by solving the Boltzmann equation. Laser efficiency, gain and output power of the CW optically pumped Xe laser were assessed as functions of heavier rare gas content, pressure, optical pump intensity and the optical path length. It was found that, for efficient operation the heavier rare gas content has to be of the order of one percent or less, and the total pressure—in the range 0.3-1.5 atm. Output power and specific discharge power increase approximately linearly with pump intensity over the output range from 300-500 W cm-2. Ternary mixtures Xe:Ar:He were found to be the most promising. Total laser efficiency was found to be nearly the same for pumping the 2p8 or 2p9 state, reaching 61%-70% for a pump intensity of ~720 W cm-2 when the Xe fraction was in the range 0.001 ÷ 0.01 and Ar fraction—0.1 ÷ 0.5. However, when the 2p8 state was pumped, the maximum total efficiency occurred at larger pressures than for pumping of the 2p9 state. The discharge power density required to sustain a sufficient Xe* number density was in the range of tens of watts per cubic centimeter for 50% Ar in the mixture.

  11. Scalable pumping approach for extracting the maximum TEM(00) solar laser power.

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Vistas, Cláudia R


    A scalable TEM(00) solar laser pumping approach is composed of four pairs of first-stage Fresnel lens-folding mirror collectors, four fused-silica secondary concentrators with light guides of rectangular cross-section for radiation homogenization, four hollow two-dimensional compound parabolic concentrators for further concentration of uniform radiations from the light guides to a 3 mm diameter, 76 mm length Nd:YAG rod within four V-shaped pumping cavities. An asymmetric resonator ensures an efficient large-mode matching between pump light and oscillating laser light. Laser power of 59.1 W TEM(00) is calculated by ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis, revealing 20 times improvement in brightness figure of merit.

  12. Pump-probe experiments in atoms involving laser and synchrotron radiation: an overview

    Wuilleumier, F J; Meyer, M


    The combined use of laser and synchrotron radiations for atomic photoionization studies started in the early 1980s. The strong potential of these pump-probe experiments to gain information on excited atomic states is illustrated through some exemplary studies. The first series of experiments carried out with the early synchrotron sources, from 1960 to about 1995, are reviewed, including photoionization of unpolarized and polarized excited atoms, and time-resolved laser-synchrotron studies. With the most advanced generation of synchrotron sources, a whole new class of pump-probe experiments benefiting from the high brightness of the new synchrotron beams has been developed since 1996. A detailed review of these studies as well as possible future applications of pump-probe experiments using third generation synchrotron sources and free electron lasers is presented. (topical review)

  13. Sub-100 fs high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator

    Rohrbacher, Andreas; Markovic, Vesna; Pallmann, Wolfgang; Resan, Bojan


    Ti:sapphire oscillators are a proven technology to generate sub-100 fs (even sub-10 fs) pulses in the near infrared and are widely used in many high impact scientific fields. However, the need for a bulky, expensive and complex pump source, typically a frequency-doubled multi-watt neodymium or optically pumped semiconductor laser, represents the main obstacle to more widespread use. The recent development of blue diodes emitting over 1 W has opened up the possibility of directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillators. Beside the lower cost and footprint, a direct diode pumping provides better reliability, higher efficiency and better pointing stability to name a few. The challenges that it poses are lower absorption of Ti:sapphire at available diode wavelengths and lower brightness compared to typical green pump lasers. For practical applications such as bio-medicine and nano-structuring, output powers in excess of 100 mW and sub-100 fs pulses are required. In this paper, we demonstrate a high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator without active cooling. The SESAM modelocking ensures reliable self-starting and robust operation. We will present two configurations emitting 460 mW in 82 fs pulses and 350 mW in 65 fs pulses, both operating at 92 MHz. The maximum obtained pulse energy reaches 5 nJ. A double-sided pumping scheme with two high power blue diode lasers was used for the output power scaling. The cavity design and the experimental results will be discussed in more details.

  14. Efficient enhancement of bismuth NIR luminescence by aluminum and its mechanism in bismuth doped germanate laser glass

    Wang, L.P.; Tan, L.L.; Yue, Yuanzheng


    As a new member of laser glass family, bismuth-doped glasses have received rising interests due to the application of fiber amplifiers and laser sources in the new spectral range for the next-generation optical communication system. For practical application of the glasses, it must be considered ...

  15. Intensity noise properties of Nd:YVO 4 microchip lasers pumped with an amplitude squeezed diode laser

    Becher, C.; Boller, K.-J.


    We report on intensity noise measurements of single-frequency Nd:YVO 4 microchip lasers optically pumped with amplitude squeezed light from an injection-locked diode laser. Calibrated homodyne measurements show a minimum intensity noise of 10.1 dB above the SQL at a frequency of 100 kHz. The measured intensity noise spectra are described with high accuracy by a theoretical model based on the quantum mechanical Langevin rate equations, including classical and quantum noise sources.

  16. UV-VUV laser induced phenomena in SiO2 glass

    Kajihara, Koichi; Ikuta, Yoshiaki; Oto, Masanori; Hirano, Masahiro; Skuja, Linards; Hosono, Hideo


    Creation and annihilation of point defects were studied for SiO 2 glass exposed to ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) lights to improve transparency and radiation toughness of SiO 2 glass to UV-VUV laser light. Topologically disordered structure of SiO 2 glass featured by the distribution of Si-O-Si angle is a critical factor degrading transmittance near the fundamental absorption edge. Doping with terminal functional groups enhances the structural relaxation and reduces the number of strained Si-O-Si bonds by breaking up the glass network without creating the color centers. Transmittance and laser toughness of SiO 2 glass for F 2 laser is greatly improved in fluorine-doped SiO 2 glass, often referred as 'modified silica glass'. Interstitial hydrogenous species are mobile and reactive at ambient temperature, and play an important role in photochemical reactions induced by exposure to UV-VUV laser light. They terminate the dangling-bond type color centers, while enhancing the formation of the oxygen vacancies. These findings are utilized to develop a deep-UV optical fiber transmitting ArF laser photons with low radiation damage

  17. Bistable direction switching in an off-axis pumped continuous wave ruby laser

    Afzal, R. Sohrab; Lawandy, N. M.


    A report is presented of the observation of hysteretic bistable direction switching in a single-mode CW ruby laser system. This effect is only observed when the pump beam which is focused into the ruby rod is misaligned with respect to the rod end faces. At low pump powers, the ruby lases in a mode nearly collinear with the pump axis. At a higher pump power the ruby switches to a mode that is collinear with the rod end faces and preserves the original polarization. The effect is large enough to switch the beam by an angle equal to twice the diffraction angle. The observations show that under steady-state pumping, a CW ruby laser can exhibit bistable operation in its output direction and power. A calculation using the heat equation with two concentric cylinders with one as a heat source (pump laser) and the outer wall of the other held at 77 K, gives an increase in core temperature of about 0.01 K. Therefore, the increase in temperature is not large enough to change the index of refraction to account for such large macroscopic effects.

  18. The elimination of pump depletion in laser-plasma beat-wave accelerators

    Ma Jinxiu; Xu Zhizhan


    The pump depletion is a severe problem which hinders the laser-plasma beat-wave accelerator concept from being practical. Starting with the weak relativistic equation of beat-wave excitation of electron plasma waves, the authors have derived the condition for eliminating the pump depletion in the fame moving with the light pulse for arbitrary pulse shapes. It is shown that the depletion can be eliminated by a phase jump of π at the center of the pump pulse and by the appropriated choice of initial plasma density detuning. The numerical calculation have yielded the dependence of the initial detuning on the pump intensity for square pump pulses, and have supported the methods used in this paper

  19. High pumping-power fiber combiner for double-cladding fiber lasers and amplifiers

    Zheng, Jinkun; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Baoyin; Li, Zhe; Chang, Chang; Li, Gang; Gao, Qi; Ju, Pei; Gao, Wei; She, Shengfei; Wu, Peng; Hou, Chaoqi; Li, Weinan


    A high pumping-power fiber combiner for backward pumping configurations is fabricated and demonstrated by manufacturing process refinement. The pump power handling capability of every pump fiber can extend to 600 W, corresponding to the average pump coupling efficiency of 94.83%. Totally, 2.67-kW output power with the beam quality factor M2 of 1.41 was obtained, using this combiner in the fiber amplifier experimental setup. In addition, the temperature of the splicing region was less than 50.0°C in the designed combiner under the action of circulating cooling water. The experimental results prove that the designed combiner is a promising integrated all-fiber device for multikilowatt continuous-wave fiber laser with excellent beam quality.

  20. Polarised two-photon excitation of quantum well excitons for manipulation of optically pumped terahertz lasers

    Slavcheva, G., E-mail: [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kavokin, A.V., E-mail: [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya 198504 (Russian Federation)


    Optical pumping of excited exciton states in a semiconductor quantum well embedded in a microcavity is a tool for realisation of ultra-compact terahertz (THz) lasers based on stimulated optical transition between excited (2p) and ground (1s) exciton state. We show that the probability of two-photon absorption by a 2p-exciton is strongly dependent on the polarisation of both pumping photons. Five-fold variation of the threshold power for terahertz lasing by switching from circular to co-linear pumping is predicted. We identify photon polarisation configurations for achieving maximum THz photon generation quantum efficiency.

  1. Laser printed graphene on polyimide electrodes for magnetohydrodynamic pumping of saline fluids

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Hristovski, Ilija R.; Marinaro, Giovanni; Mohammed, Hanan; Kosel, Jü rgen


    An efficient, scalable pumping device is reported that avoids moving parts and is fabricated with a cost-effective method. The magnetohydrodynamic pump has electrodes facilely made by laser printing of polyimide. The electrodes exhibit a low sheet resistance of 22.75 Ω/square. The pump is implemented in a channel of 240 mm2 cross-section and has an electrode length of 5 mm. When powered by 7.3 V and 12.43 mA/cm2, it produces 13.02 mm/s flow velocity.

  2. Laser printed graphene on polyimide electrodes for magnetohydrodynamic pumping of saline fluids

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah


    An efficient, scalable pumping device is reported that avoids moving parts and is fabricated with a cost-effective method. The magnetohydrodynamic pump has electrodes facilely made by laser printing of polyimide. The electrodes exhibit a low sheet resistance of 22.75 Ω/square. The pump is implemented in a channel of 240 mm2 cross-section and has an electrode length of 5 mm. When powered by 7.3 V and 12.43 mA/cm2, it produces 13.02 mm/s flow velocity.

  3. Demonstrations of diode-pumped and grating-tuned ZnSe:Cr2+ lasers

    Page, R.H.; Skidmore, J.A.; Schaffers, K.I.; Beach, R.J.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.


    Within the last few years, divalent-transition-metal-doped II-VI material class has been proposed as source of new tunable mid-IR lasers. Cr 2+ is a prime laser candidate on account of its high luminescence quantum yield and the expectation that ESA would be absent. The first ZnSe:Cr 2+ laser demonstrations were conducted in an end-pumped geometry with a tightly focused (0.2 mm spot) MgF 2 -Co 2+ laser beam, for a peak pump intensity well over 100 kW/cm 2 , so laser threshold was easily reached. Grating tuning experiments were done by replacing the cavity high-reflector with a diffraction grating. The diode array was removed and pump beam from a MgF 2 :Co 2+ laser was focused onto the crystal using the same cylindrical lens. Output wavelengths were checked with a monochromator. The long-wavelength limit of operation was 2799 nm. Short-wavelength cutoff was 2134 nm; even though the emission cross section remains substantial, self-absorption inhibits laser operation

  4. The laser control system for the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    Kadantsev, S.G.; Levy, C.D.P.; Mouat, M.M.


    The optically pumped polarized H - ion source at TRIUMF produces up to 100 μΑ dc of 78% polarized beam within an emittance of 1.0 π mm mrad and is now being prepared for an upcoming experiment at TRIUMF that will measure parity violation in pp scattering at 230 MeV. The optical pumping is accomplished by argon laser pumped Ti-sapphire lasers. The laser control system provides monitoring and precision control of the lasers for fast spin reversal up to 200 s -1 . To solve the problems of laser power and frequency stabilization during fast spin flipping, techniques and algorithms have been developed that significantly reduce the variation of laser frequency and power between spin states. The upgraded Faraday rotation system allows synchronous measurement of Rb thickness and polarization while spin flipping. The X Window environment provides both local and remote control to laser operators via a local area network and X window terminals. In this new environment issues such as access authorization, response time, operator interface consistency and ease of use are of particular importance. (author)

  5. Cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser with radially polarized output.

    Lin, Di; Daniel, J M O; Gecevičius, M; Beresna, M; Kazansky, P G; Clarkson, W A


    A simple technique for directly generating a radially polarized output beam from a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser is reported. Our approach is based on the use of a nanograting spatially variant waveplate as an intracavity polarization-controlling element. The laser yielded ~32 W of output power (limited by available pump power) with a radially polarized TM (01)-mode output beam at 1040 nm with a corresponding slope efficiency of 66% and a polarization purity of 95%. The beam-propagation factor (M(2)) was measured to be ~1.9-2.1.

  6. Compact fibre-laser-pumped Ho:YLF oscillator–amplifier system

    Koen, W


    Full Text Available of the amplifier crystal L and the pump spot radius wp ( Ω = 2pi · (1 − cosβ), with β = tan−1(wpL )). Calculating the local population in (3) and iterating (6) and (11) along the length of the amplifier crystal, we obtain the extracted photon densities...-pumped tunable Tm: silica- fibre laser. Appl. Phys. B 79, 559 (2004) 6. E. Lippert, S. Nicolas, G. Arisholm, K. Stenersen, G. Rustad, Mid- infrared laser source with high power and beam quality. Appl. Opt. 45, 3839 (2006) 7. S.A. Payne, L.L. Chase, L...

  7. Diode-Pumped Mode-Locked LiSAF Laser; FINAL



    Under this contract we have developed Cr(sup 3+):LiSrAlF(sub 6) (Cr:LiSAF, LiSAF) mode-locked lasers suitable for generation of polarized electrons for CEBAF. As 670 nm is an excellent wavelength for optical pumping of Cr:LiSAF, we have used a LIGHTWAVE developed 670 nm diode pump module that combines the output of ten diode lasers and yields approximately 2 Watts of optical power. By the use of a diffraction limited pump beam however, it is possible to maintain a small mode size through the length of the crystal and hence extract more power from Cr:LiSAF laser. For this purpose we have developed a 1 Watt, red 660nm laser (LIGHTWAVE model 240R) which serves as an ideal pump for Cr:LiSAF and is a potential replacement of costly and less robust krypton laser. This new system is to compliment LIGHTWAVE Series 240, and is currently being considered for commercialization. Partially developed under this contract is LIGHTWAVEs product model 240 which has already been in our production lines for a few months and is commercially available. This laser produces 2 Watts of output at 532 nm using some of the same technology developed for production of the 660nm red system. It is a potential replacement for argon ion lasers and has better current and cooling requirements and is an excellent pump source for Ti:Al(sub 2)O(sub 3). Also, as a direct result of this contract we now have the capability of commercially developing a mode-locked 100MHz Cr:LiSAF system. Such a laser could be added to our 100 MHz LIGHTWAVE Series 131. The Series 131 lasers provide pico second pulses and were originally developed under another DOE SBIR. Both models of LIGHTWAVE Series 240 lasers, the fiber coupled pump module and the 100MHz LiSAF laser of Series 131 have been partially developed under this contract, and are commercially competitive products

  8. CW lasing of Ho in KLu(WO4)2 in-band pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser.

    Mateos, Xavier; Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Carvajal, Joan Josep; Díaz, Francesc; Aguiló, Magdalena; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin


    We demonstrate continuous wave (CW) room temperature laser operation of the monoclinic Ho(3+)-doped KLu(WO(4))(2) crystal using a diode-pumped Tm(3+):KLu(WO(4))(2) laser for in-band pumping. The slope efficiency achieved amounts to ~55% with respect to the absorbed power and the maximum output power of 648 mW is generated at 2078 nm.

  9. 110 GHz rapid, continous tuning from an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber-amplified DBR diode laser

    Lindsay, I.D.; Adhimoolam, B.; Gross, P.; Klein, M.E.; Boller, Klaus J.


    A singly-resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO) pumped by a fiber-amplified diode laser is described. Tuning of the pump source allowed the OPO output to be tuned continuously, without mode-hops, over 110 GHz in 29 ms. Discontinuous pump tuning over 20 nm in the region of

  10. Passive Q switching of a solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

    Lando, M; Shimony, Y; Noter, Y; Benmair, R M; Yogev, A


    Passive Q switching is a preferable choice for switching the Q factor of a solar-pumped laser because it requires neither a driver nor an electrical power supply. The superior thermal characteristics and durability of Cr(4+):YAG single crystals as passive Q switches for lamp and diode-pumped high-power lasers has been demonstrated. Here we report on an average power of 37 W and a switching efficiency of 80% obtained by use of a solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser Q switched by a Cr(4+):YAG saturable absorber. Concentration of the pumping solar energy on the laser crystal was obtained with a three-stage concentrator, composed of 12 heliostats, a three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and a two-dimensional CPC. The water-cooled passive Q switch also served as the laser rear mirror. Repetition rates of as much as 50 kHz, at pulse durations between 190 and 310 ns (FWHM) were achieved. From the experimental results, the saturated single-pass power absorption of the Cr(4+):YAG device was estimated as 3 ? 1%.

  11. Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified random fiber laser

    Shang, Yaping; Shen, Meili; Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Xu, Xiaojun


    Recently, the concept of random fiber lasers has attracted a great deal of attention for its feature to generate incoherent light without a traditional laser resonator, which is free of mode competition and insure the stationary narrow-band continuous modeless spectrum. In this Letter, we reported the first, to the best of our knowledge, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an amplified 1070 nm random fiber laser (RFL), in order to generate stationary mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser. The experiment realized a watt-level laser output in the mid-IR range and operated relatively stable. The use of the RFL seed source allowed us to take advantage of its respective stable time-domain characteristics. The beam profile, spectrum and time-domain properties of the signal light were measured to analyze the process of frequency down-conversion process under this new pumping condition. The results suggested that the near-infrared (near-IR) signal light `inherited' good beam performances from the pump light. Those would be benefit for further develop about optical parametric process based on different pumping circumstances.

  12. Comparison of fiber lasers based on distributed side-coupled cladding-pumped fibers and double-cladding fibers.

    Huang, Zhihe; Cao, Jianqiu; Guo, Shaofeng; Chen, Jinbao; Xu, Xiaojun


    We compare both analytically and numerically the distributed side-coupled cladding-pumped (DSCCP) fiber lasers and double cladding fiber (DCF) lasers. We show that, through optimization of the coupling and absorbing coefficients, the optical-to-optical efficiency of DSCCP fiber lasers can be made as high as that of DCF lasers. At the same time, DSCCP fiber lasers are better than the DCF lasers in terms of thermal management.

  13. Bragg-Scattering Four-Wave Mixing in Nonlinear Fibers with Intracavity Frequency-Shifted Laser Pumps

    Katarzyna Krupa


    Full Text Available We experimentally study four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fibers using two independent and partially coherent laser pumps and a third coherent signal. We focus our attention on the Bragg-scattering frequency conversion. The two pumps were obtained by amplifying two Intracavity frequency-shifted feedback lasers working in a continuous wave regime.

  14. Characteristics of a laser beam produced by using thermal lensing effect compensation in a fiber-coupled laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser

    Kim, Duck-Lae; Kim, Byung-Tai


    The characteristics of a laser beam produced by using thermal lensing effect compensation in a fiber-coupled laser-diode Nd:YAG ceramic laser were investigated. The thermal lensing effect was compensated for by using a compensator, which was 25 mm away from the laser rod, with a focal length of 30 mm and an effective clear aperture of 22 mm. Using a compensator, the divergence and the beam propagation factor M 2 of the output beam were 5.5 mrad and 2.4, respectively, under a pump power of 12W. The high-frequency components in the compensated laser beam were removed.

  15. A twin optically-pumped far-infrared CH3OH laser for plasma diagnostics

    Yamanaka, M.; Takeda, Y.; Tanigawa, S.; Nishizawa, A.; Noda, N.


    A twin optically-pumped far-infrared CH 3 OH laser has been constructed for use in plasma diagnostics. The anti-symmetric doublet due to the Raman-type resonant two-photon transition is reproducibly observed at 118.8 μm. With the 118.8-μm line, it is obtained from the frequency separation of the anti-symmetric doublet that the CH 3 OH absorption line center is 16 +- 1 MHz higher than the pump 9.7-μm P(36) CO 2 laser line center. It is shown that the Raman-type resonant two-photon transition is useful in order to get several-MHz phase modulation for the far-infrared laser interferometer. Some preliminary performances of this twin laser for the modulated interferometer are described. (author)

  16. A solar simulator-pumped gas laser for the direct conversion of solar energy

    Weaver, W. R.; Lee, J. H.


    Most proposed space power systems are comprised of three general stages, including the collection of the solar radiation, the conversion to a useful form, and the transmission to a receiver. The solar-pumped laser, however, effectively eliminates the middle stage and offers direct photon-to-photon conversion. The laser is especially suited for space-to-space power transmission and communication because of minimal beam spread, low power loss over large distances, and extreme energy densities. A description is presented of the first gas laser pumped by a solar simulator that is scalable to high power levels. The lasant is an iodide C3F7I that as a laser-fusion driver has produced terawatt peak power levels.

  17. Twin optically-pumped far-infrared CH3OH laser for plasma diagnostics

    Yamanaka, M.; Takeda, Y.; Tanigawa, S.; Nishizawa, A.


    A twin optically-pumped far-infrared CH 3 OH laser has been constructed for use in plasma diagnostics. The antisymmetric doublet due to the Raman-type resonant two-photon transition is reproducibly observed at 118.8 microns. With the 118.8-micron line, it is found that CH 3 OH absorption line center is 16 + or - 1 MHz higher than the pump 9.7-micron P(36) CO 2 laser line center. It is shown that the Raman-type resonant two-photon transition is useful in order to get several MHz phase modulation for the far-infrared laser interferometer. Some preliminary performances of this twin laser for the modulated interferometer are described

  18. Computer simulations of rare earth sites in glass: experimental tests and applications to laser materials

    Weber, M.J.


    Computer simulations of the microscopic structure of BeF 2 glasses using molecular dynamics are reviewed and compared with x-ray and neutron diffraction, EXAFS, NMR, and optical measurements. Unique information about the site-to-site variations in the local environments of rare earth ions is obtained using optical selective excitation and laser-induced fluorescence line-narrowing techniques. Applications and limitations of computer simulations to the development of laser glasses and to predictions of other static and dynamic properties of glasses are discussed. 35 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  19. High Efficient LGp0 End Pumped Nd:YAG Laser

    Ngcobo, S


    Full Text Available the slope efficiency of the laser due to the increased in the fundamental mode volume of the laser. The beam shaping is achieved by using an annular binary Diffractive Optical Element whose geometry is in connection with the location of the Laguerre...

  20. Thermally induced diffraction losses for a Gaussian pump beam and optimization of the mode-to-pump ratio in an end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser

    Wang, Y T; Li, W J; Pan, L L; Yu, J T; Zhang, R H


    The analytical model of thermally induced diffraction losses for a Gaussian pump beam are derived as functions of the mode-to-pump ratio and pump power in end-pumped Nd-doped lasers considering the energy transfer upconversion effects. The mode-to-pump ratio is optimized based on it. The results show that the optimum mode-to-pump ratio with the thermally induced diffraction losses is less than 0.65, and it is less than the results in which the thermally induced diffraction losses are neglected. The theoretical model is applied to a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 laser operating at 1342 nm, and the theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results. (paper)

  1. 80-W cw TEM{sub 00} IR beam generation by use of a laser-diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser

    Konno, Susumu; Fujikawa, Shuichi; Yasui, Koji [Mitsubishi Electric Corp. Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Advanced Technology R and D Center


    We have demonstrated high-efficient and high-power operation of a diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser. The laser has a simple and scalable configuration consisting of a diffusive pumping reflector and an advanced cavity configuration for polarization-dependent bifocusing compensation. (author)

  2. Effect of Cr4+ impurities in Nd:Cr:GSGG and Nd:Cr:YAG laser materials on parameters of lasers at solar pumping

    Payziyev, Sh.D.; Bakhramov, S.A.; Shayimov, F.F.; Fayziev, A.Sh.


    The analysis of an effect of Cr 4+ impurity ions, existent in Nd 3+ :Cr 3+ :GSGG and Nd 3+ :Cr 3+ :YAG laser materials on output parameters of solar pumped lasers is carried out by modeling of lasing process at solar pumping. (authors)

  3. Laser cavities with self-pumped phase conjugation by mixing of four waves in an amplifier

    Sillard, Pierre


    The purpose of this research thesis is to characterise a new type of cavities with self-pumped phase conjugation which uses a mixing of four waves degenerated in a solid amplifier. After a definition of phase conjugation and a brief overview of the history of this technique, the author describes and compares the different laser architectures with phase conjugation. He explains benefits and perspectives related to cavities with self-pumped phase conjugation using a mixing of four waves in an amplifier. He develops the necessary formalism for the resolution of the coupled equations of four wave mixing in transient regime for a resonant and saturated non-linearity. He shows how these results can be applied to solid amplifiers, in particularly to the Nd:YAG amplifier which is used in all experiments. In the next part, the author describes the principle and characteristics of cavity with self-pumped phase conjugation injected by another laser. An experiment is performed with two conventional Nd:YAG amplifiers pumped by flash lamps. The excellent performance of the cavity allows the study of cavity without this injection, but self-oscillating is to be envisaged, and a modelling of self-oscillating cavities is proposed and studied. Results are compared with those obtained with two N:YAG amplifiers pumped by flash lamps. Polarisation properties of the self-oscillating cavity are also studied. Finally, the author reports an experimental validation of a cavity with self-pumped phase conjugation all in solid state, pumped by laser diodes (a more efficient pumping) [fr

  4. Design of high-brightness TEM00-mode solar-pumped laser for renewable material processing

    Liang, D.; Almeida, J.


    The conversion of sunlight into laser light by direct solar pumping is of ever-increasing importance because broadband, temporally constant, sunlight is converted into laser light, which can be a source of narrowband, collimated, rapidly pulsed, radiation with the possibility of obtaining extremely high brightness and intensity. Nonlinear processes, such as harmonic generation, might be used to obtain broad wavelength coverage, including the ultraviolet wavelengths, where the solar flux is very weak. The direct excitation of large lasers by sunlight offers the prospect of a drastic reduction in the cost of coherent optical radiation for high average power materials processing. This renewable laser has a large potential for many applications such as high-temperature materials processing, renewable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle and so on. We propose here a scalable TEM00 mode solar laser pumping scheme, which is composed of four firststage 1.13 m diameter Fresnel lenses with its respective folding mirrors mounted on a two-axis automatic solar tracker. Concentrated solar power at the four focal spots of these Fresnel lenses are focused individually along a common 3.5 mm diameter, 70 mm length Nd:YAG rod via four pairs of second-stage fused-silica spherical lenses and third-stage 2D-CPCs (Compound Parabolic Concentrator), sitting just above the laser rod which is also double-pass pumped by four V-shaped pumping cavities. Distilled water cools both the rod and the concentrators. 15.4 W TEM00 solar laser power is numerically calculated, corresponding to 6.7 times enhancement in laser beam brightness.

  5. A diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser with an elliptical cavity mode

    Lipnicki, E.; Dawes, J.M.; Browne, P.G.


    Full text: A cavity consisting of cylindrical mirrors/lenses resulting in an elliptical cavity mode is being applied to a 3-level laser; Tm:YAG which lases near 2μm. This arrangement allows the use of simple pump beam optics but also ensures efficient mode matching with good output beam quality. This cavity has been designed and modelled with experiments under way to explore the advantages of this laser design

  6. Self-Q-switched ytterbium-doped cladding-pumped fibre laser

    Grukh, Dmitrii A; Kurkov, Andrei S; Razdobreev, I M; Fotiadi, A A


    A self-Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fibre laser is described. A samarium-doped fibre is used as a filter for protecting a pump source. A fibre coupler is employed to obtain a nonlinear feedback. The mechanism of pulse formation in the laser is considered, and the dependence of its output pulse on the coupler parameters is studied. (solitons and optical fibers)

  7. High-power extended cavity laser optimized for optical pumping ot Rb

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef


    Roč. 18, č. 9 (2007), N77-N80 ISSN 0957-0233 R&D Pro jects: GA ČR GA102/04/2109; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA AV ČR IAA200650504; GA AV ČR IAA1065303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : laser diode * emission linewidth * diffraction grating * optical pumping * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2007

  8. High-speed off-axis holographic cinematography with a copper-vapor-pumped dye laser.

    Lauterborn, W; Judt, A; Schmitz, E


    A series of coherent light pulses is generated by pumping a dye laser with the pulsed output of a copper-vapor laser at rates of as much as 20 kHz. Holograms are recorded at this pulse rate on a rotating holographic plate. This technique of high-speed holographic cinematography is demonstrated by viewing the bubble filaments that appear in water under the action of a sound field of high intensity.

  9. Lecture-Room Interference Demo Using a Glass Plate and a Laser Beam Focused on It

    Ageev, Leonid A.; Yegorenkov, Vladimir D.


    We describe a simple case of non-localized interference produced with a glass plate and a laser beam focused on it. The proposed setup for observing interference is compact when semiconductor lasers are employed, and it is well suited for demonstration and comparison of interference in reflected and transmitted light in a large lecture-room. This…

  10. Micromachining of glass by the third harmonic of nanosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser

    Ramil, A. [Centro de Investigacions Tecnoloxicas, Universidade da Coruna, E-15403 Ferrol (A Coruna) (Spain)], E-mail:; Lamas, J.; Alvarez, J.C.; Lopez, A.J.; Saavedra, E.; Yanez, A. [Centro de Investigacions Tecnoloxicas, Universidade da Coruna, E-15403 Ferrol (A Coruna) (Spain)


    The ablation processing of glass was performed by using the third harmonic of nanosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser. The objective of this work was the formation of deep holes with a high aspect ratio in soda lime glass; with this purpose different ways to raster the glass surface with the focused laser beam, i.e., single line, parallel lines and orthogonally crossing lines, have been tried and the effect of different parameters as the number of lines and number of scans in the depth and inclination of the sidewalls of the hole has been analyzed. Moreover, to reduce the time consumption in the laser processing of glass plates the relationship between penetration depths and overlapping factor has been studied and an optimum value of scan speed has been obtained for a particular case.

  11. Inspection of float glass using a novel retroreflective laser scanning system

    Holmes, Jonathan D.


    Since 1988, Image Automation has marketed a float glass inspection system using a novel retro-reflective laser scanning system. The (patented) instrument scans a laser beam by use of a polygon through the glass onto a retro-reflective screen, and collects the retro-reflected light off the polygon, such that a stationary image of the moving spot on the screen is produced. The spot image is then analyzed for optical effects introduced by defects within the glass, which typically distort and attenuate the scanned laser beam, by use of suitable detectors. The inspection system processing provides output of defect size, shape and severity, to the factory network for use in rejection or sorting of glass plates to the end customer. This paper briefly describes the principles of operation, the system architecture, and limitations to sensitivity and measurement repeatability. New instruments based on the retro-reflective scanning method have recently been developed. The principles and implementation are described. They include: (1) Simultaneous detection of defects within the glass and defects in a mirror coating on the glass surface using polarized light. (2) A novel distortion detector for very dark glass. (3) Measurement of optical quality (flatness/refractive homogeneity) of the glass using a position sensitive detector.

  12. Fluorescence line-narrowing studies of Nd:glass laser materials

    Riseberg, L.A.; Brecher, C.

    The increasing importance of Nd glass lasers in laser fusion technology has emphasized the inadequacy in the understanding of the optical properties of rare earth ions in glasses. Indeed, it has been difficult to generate models for the performance of these devices, and the selection of host glasses could be done by little more than a trial-and-error approach. The technique of laser-induced fluorescence line-narrowing developed within the last few years provides a new and powerful tool for the study of these systems. In this technique, a laser excites within the inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands a selected subgroup of the ions in the system, namely those whose absorption energy is resonant with the laser. If the excitation does not migrate among the entire collection of ions prior to fluorescence, the fluorescence that is observed is only from the group that was excited and is narrowed. This permits the selective study of classes of ion sites within the ensemble. The concept is indicated schematically. By the use of a tunable laser, such as a dye laser, it is possible to vary the class of sites, defined by energy, that is excited and thereby study the important spectroscopic properties and their variations, unclouded by the averaging that occurs under excitation of the entire system. Furthermore, it is then possible to use the spectroscopic information to infer a description of the variation of the microscopic environment, and a rationalization of the effects of compositional changes. Use of a pulsed dye laser and time-resolved detection permits the study of the dynamics, including, for example, the energy transfer among ions of different energies within the inhomogeneously-broadened spectrum. The goal of this project has been to apply such studies to glasses of interest to glass laser technology, providing information for device modeling, and establishing design criteria for glass selection

  13. Temperature effects on tunable cw Alexandrite lasers under diode end-pumping.

    Kerridge-Johns, William R; Damzen, Michael J


    Diode pumped Alexandrite is a promising route to high power, efficient and inexpensive lasers with a broad (701 nm to 858 nm) gain bandwidth; however, there are challenges with its complex laser dynamics. We present an analytical model applied to experimental red diode end-pumped Alexandrite lasers, which enabled a record 54 % slope efficiency with an output power of 1.2 W. A record lowest lasing wavelength (714 nm) and record tuning range (104 nm) was obtained by optimising the crystal temperature between 8 °C and 105 °C in the vibronic mode. The properties of Alexandrite and the analytical model were examined to understand and give general rules in optimising Alexandrite lasers, along with their fundamental efficiency limits. It was found that the lowest threshold laser wavelength was not necessarily the most efficient, and that higher and lower temperatures were optimal for longer and shorter laser wavelengths, respectively. The pump excited to ground state absorption ratio was measured to decrease from 0.8 to 0.7 by changing the crystal temperature from 10 °C to 90 °C.

  14. Cw and Q-switched Nd:NaLa(MoO4)2 laser noncritical to the temperature drift of the diode pump laser wavelength

    Ushakov, S N; Lis, Denis A; Subbotin, Kirill A; Romanyuk, V A; Shestakov, A V; Ryabochkina, P A; Shestakova, I A; Zharikov, Evgeny V


    Lasing in Nd:NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 crystals is obtained without stabilisation of the diode pump wavelength. A dependence of the cw laser power (at a wavelength of 1059 nm) on the pump diode temperature is found within a range of 10-458C. It is shown that the variations in the diode temperature within this region change the lasing efficiency no more than by 30%. In the passive Q-switching regime, the experiments were performed under both pulsed and cw pumping. Upon pulsed pumping, the laser energy was 16 μJ at the output pulse duration of 11 ns. The laser wavelength was 1059 nm, as well as in the case of cw operation. Upon cw pumping with a power of 1.5 W, laser pulses were obtained with an energy of 15 μJ. (lasers)

  15. Electrically pumped graphene-based Landau-level laser

    Brem, Samuel; Wendler, Florian; Winnerl, Stephan; Malic, Ermin


    Graphene exhibits a nonequidistant Landau quantization with tunable Landau-level (LL) transitions in the technologically desired terahertz spectral range. Here, we present a strategy for an electrically driven terahertz laser based on Landau-quantized graphene as the gain medium. Performing microscopic modeling of the coupled electron, phonon, and photon dynamics in such a laser, we reveal that an inter-LL population inversion can be achieved resulting in the emission of coherent terahertz radiation. The presented paper provides a concrete recipe for the experimental realization of tunable graphene-based terahertz laser systems.

  16. Structural features of silver-doped phosphate glasses in zone of femtosecond laser-induced modification

    Vasileva, A.A., E-mail: [Saint-Petersburg State University, Institute of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nazarov, I.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Olshin, P.K.; Povolotskiy, A.V. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Institute of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sokolov, I.A. [St.Petersburg State Polytechnical University, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); LTD “AtomTjazhMash”, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Manshina, A.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Institute of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Femtosecond (fs) laser writing of two-dimensional microstructures (waveguides) is demonstrated in bulk phosphate glasses doped with silver ions. Silver-content phosphate and silver-content niobium–phosphate glasses with high concentration of silver oxide 55 mol% were used as samples for fs laser writing. The chemical network structure of the synthesized samples is analyzed through Raman spectroscopy and was found to be strongly sensitive to Nb incorporation. It was found that the direct laser writing process enables not only reorganization of glass network, but also formation of color centers and silver nanoparticles that are revealed in appearance of luminescence signal and plasmon absorption. The process of NPs' formation is more efficient for Nb-phosphate glass, while color centers are preferably formed in phosphate glass. - Graphical abstract: Formation of silver NPs on the surface of 0.5Ag{sub 2}O–0.4P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–0,1Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass induced by CW laser irradiation. - Highlights: • The structure of 0.5Ag{sub 2}O–0.1Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–0.4P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 0.55Ag{sub 2}O–0.45P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. • Fs laser writing induces formation of silver NPs in investigated glasses. • Surface plasmon resonance in the absorption spectra confirms the formation of NP. • The possibility of CW laser induced formation of silver NPs on the surface of sample with niobium is shown.

  17. Structural features of silver-doped phosphate glasses in zone of femtosecond laser-induced modification

    Vasileva, A.A.; Nazarov, I.A.; Olshin, P.K.; Povolotskiy, A.V.; Sokolov, I.A.; Manshina, A.A.


    Femtosecond (fs) laser writing of two-dimensional microstructures (waveguides) is demonstrated in bulk phosphate glasses doped with silver ions. Silver-content phosphate and silver-content niobium–phosphate glasses with high concentration of silver oxide 55 mol% were used as samples for fs laser writing. The chemical network structure of the synthesized samples is analyzed through Raman spectroscopy and was found to be strongly sensitive to Nb incorporation. It was found that the direct laser writing process enables not only reorganization of glass network, but also formation of color centers and silver nanoparticles that are revealed in appearance of luminescence signal and plasmon absorption. The process of NPs' formation is more efficient for Nb-phosphate glass, while color centers are preferably formed in phosphate glass. - Graphical abstract: Formation of silver NPs on the surface of 0.5Ag 2 O–0.4P 2 O 5 –0,1Nb 2 O 5 glass induced by CW laser irradiation. - Highlights: • The structure of 0.5Ag 2 O–0.1Nb 2 O 5 –0.4P 2 O 5 and 0.55Ag 2 O–0.45P 2 O 5 glasses was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. • Fs laser writing induces formation of silver NPs in investigated glasses. • Surface plasmon resonance in the absorption spectra confirms the formation of NP. • The possibility of CW laser induced formation of silver NPs on the surface of sample with niobium is shown

  18. Large-area high-power VCSEL pump arrays optimized for high-energy lasers

    Wang, Chad; Geske, Jonathan; Garrett, Henry; Cardellino, Terri; Talantov, Fedor; Berdin, Glen; Millenheft, David; Renner, Daniel; Klemer, Daniel


    Practical, large-area, high-power diode pumps for one micron (Nd, Yb) as well as eye-safer wavelengths (Er, Tm, Ho) are critical to the success of any high energy diode pumped solid state laser. Diode efficiency, brightness, availability and cost will determine how realizable a fielded high energy diode pumped solid state laser will be. 2-D Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays are uniquely positioned to meet these requirements because of their unique properties, such as low divergence circular output beams, reduced wavelength drift with temperature, scalability to large 2-D arrays through low-cost and high-volume semiconductor photolithographic processes, high reliability, no catastrophic optical damage failure, and radiation and vacuum operation tolerance. Data will be presented on the status of FLIR-EOC's VCSEL pump arrays. Analysis of the key aspects of electrical, thermal and mechanical design that are critical to the design of a VCSEL pump array to achieve high power efficient array performance will be presented.

  19. Investigations of Laser Pumped Gas Cell Atomic Frequency Standard

    Volk, C. H; Camparo, J. C; Frueholz, R. P


    Recently it has been suggested that the performance characteristics of a rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standard might be improved by replacing the standard rubidium discharge lamp with a single mode laser diode...

  20. End-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with reduced thermal lensing via the use of a ring-shaped pump beam.

    Lin, Di; Andrew Clarkson, W


    A simple approach for alleviating thermal lensing in end-pumped solid-state lasers using a pump beam with a ring-shaped intensity distribution to decrease the radial temperature gradient is described. This scheme has been implemented in a diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO 4 laser yielding 14 W of TEM 00 output at 1.064 μm with a corresponding slope efficiency of 53% and a beam propagation factor (M 2 ) of 1.08 limited by available pump power. By comparison, the same laser design with a conventional quasi-top-hat pump beam profile of approximately equal radial extent yielded only 9 W of output before the power rolled over due to thermal lensing. Further investigation with the aid of a probe beam revealed that the thermal lens power was ∼30% smaller for the ring-shaped pump beam compared to the quasi-top-hat beam. The implications for further power scaling in end-pumped laser configurations are considered.

  1. Design of LD in-band direct-pumping side surface polished micro-rod Nd:YVO4 laser

    Zhang Wen-Qi; Wang Fei; Liu Qiang; Gong Ma-Li


    To diminish the thermal load, two ways, that is, in-band direct pumping and micro-rod crystal, could be adopted at the same time. The efficiency of LD in-band direct-pumping side surface polished micro-rod Nd:YVO 4 laser is numerically analyzed. By optimizing parameters such as crystal length, laser mode radius, pump beam radius, doping concentration and crystal cross-section size, the overall efficiency can reach over 50%. It is found that with micro-rod crystal implemented in the laser oscillator, high overall efficiency LD in-band direct-pumping Nd:YVO 4 laser could be realized. High efficiency combined with low thermal load makes this laser an outstanding scheme for building high-power Nd:YVO 4 lasers. (paper)

  2. Investigation into diode pumped modelocked Nd based laser oscillators for the CLIC-3 photoinjector system

    Valentine, G.J.; Burns, D.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Danckaert, J.; Desmet, L.


    The photo-injector system envisaged for the proposed CLIC linear e+-e- accelerator at CERN has a demanding set of specifications on output pulse structure, power and timing stability. This paper reports on results obtained with quasi-CW diode pumped laser oscillators with output stabilisation. A

  3. About a fuel for burnup reactor of periodical pulsed nuclear pumped laser

    Volkov, A.I.; Lukin, A.V.; Magda, L.E.; Magda, E.P.; Pogrebov, I.S.; Putnikov, I.S.; Khmelnitsky, D.V.; Scherbakov, A.P.


    A physical scheme of burnup reactor for a Periodic Pulsed Nuclear Pumped Laser was supposed. Calculations of its neutron physical parameters were made. The general layout and construction of basic elements of the reactor are discussed. The requirements for the fuel and fuel elements are established. (author)

  4. New class of compact diode pumped sub 10 fs lasers for biomedical applications

    Le, T.; Mueller, A.; Sumpf, B.


    Diode-pumping Ti: sapphire lasers promises a new approach to low-cost femtosecond light sources. Thus in recent years much effort has been taken just to overcome the quite low power and low beam qualities of available green diodes to obtain output powers of several hundred milliwatts from a fs-la...

  5. Side-pumped Nd:YVO4 cw laser with grazing-incidence small angle configuration

    Camargo, Fabiola de Almeida


    Within the existing variety of laser cavity geometries and gain materials there is one combination that is particularly interesting because of its reduced complexity and high efficiency: the edge-pumped slab-laser using grazing-incidence geometry and a gain media with a very high pump absorption cross-section. In this work we studied a diode side-pumped Nd:YVO 4 cw laser. We describe a single and a multiple bounce laser configurations. We demonstrate 22 W of multimode output power for 35 watts of pump power with a single pass through the gain media. A high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 63% and a slope efficiency of 74% with a very compact and simple Nd:YVO 4 cavity that uses joint stability zones was achieved. The beam quality was M 2 = 26 x 11 in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. With a double pass configuration we achieved 17 watts with a better beam quality of M 2 = 3,4 x 3,7, in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. (author)

  6. Orientation of Ar(3P2) atoms by laser optical pumping

    Giberson, K.W.; Hart, M.W.; Hammond, M.S.; Dunning, F.B.; Walters, G.K.


    A beam of argon metastable atoms with a high degree of electron-spin polarization has been produced by optical pumping using an Oxazine 750 dye laser. The beam is suitable for the study of electron spin and orbital orientation dependences in a variety of collision processes

  7. Rapidly tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber laser

    Klein, M.E.; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.; Auerbach, M.; Wessels, P.; Fallnich, C.


    We report on rapid, all-electronically controlled wavelength tuning of a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an ytterbium fiber laser. The OPO is singly resonant for the signal wave and consists of a 40-mm-long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal in a

  8. Thermal lensing effects in cw-pumped Nd3: YAG laser rods

    Chang, C.

    Thermal lensing effects were investigated in cw-pumped Nd 3+ : YAG laser rods. For identically specified rods very different thermally induced focal lengths were measured. Thus compensation of thermal lensing by applying curved end faces should be done individually for each rod. (orig.) 891 HT/orig. 892 HIS

  9. Diode-end-pumped Tm:GdVO4 laser operating at 1818 and 1915 nm

    Esser, MJD


    Full Text Available wavelengths. We therefore embarked on ac- curately measuring absorption spectra of Tm:GdVO4 laser crystals at both 0.8 (pump band) and at 1.9 µm (emission band). The measurements were conducted with a Cary 5000 spectrometer with resolution set to 1 nm...

  10. Picosecond transient backward stimulated Raman scattering and pumping of femtosecond dye lasers

    Arrivo, Steven M.; Spears, Kenneth G.; Sipior, Jeffrey


    We report studies of transient, backward stimulated, Raman scattering (TBSRS) in solvents with a 10 Hz, 27 ps, 532 nm pump laser. The TBSRS effect was used to create pulses at 545 nm and 630 nm with durations of 2-3 ps and 5-10 μJ of energy. The duration, energy and fluctuations of the Raman pulse were studied as a function of pump energy and focal parameters. A 5 μJ Raman pulse was amplified in either a Raman amplifier or two stage dye amplifier to 1 mJ levels. A 545 nm pulse of 3 ps duration was generated in CCl 4 and was then used to pump a short cavity dye laser (SCDL). The SCDL oscillator and a 5 stage dye amplifier provided a pulse of 700 fs and 400 μJ that was tunable near 590 nm.

  11. Shield gas induced cracks during nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based metallic glass

    Huang, Hu; Noguchi, Jun; Yan, Jiwang [Keio University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Yokohama (Japan)


    Laser processing techniques have been given increasing attentions in the field of metallic glasses (MGs). In this work, effects of two kinds of shield gases, nitrogen and argon, on nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based MG were comparatively investigated. Results showed that compared to argon gas, nitrogen gas remarkably promoted the formation of cracks during laser irradiation. Furthermore, crack formation in nitrogen gas was enhanced by increasing the peak laser power intensity or decreasing the laser scanning speed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the reason for enhanced cracks in nitrogen gas was the formation of ZrN. (orig.)

  12. Shield gas induced cracks during nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based metallic glass

    Huang, Hu; Noguchi, Jun; Yan, Jiwang


    Laser processing techniques have been given increasing attentions in the field of metallic glasses (MGs). In this work, effects of two kinds of shield gases, nitrogen and argon, on nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based MG were comparatively investigated. Results showed that compared to argon gas, nitrogen gas remarkably promoted the formation of cracks during laser irradiation. Furthermore, crack formation in nitrogen gas was enhanced by increasing the peak laser power intensity or decreasing the laser scanning speed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the reason for enhanced cracks in nitrogen gas was the formation of ZrN.

  13. 1018 nm Yb-doped high-power fiber laser pumped by broadband pump sources around 915 nm with output power above 100 W

    Midilli, Yakup; Efunbajo, Oyewole Benjamin; Şimşek, Bartu


    laser were also addressed in this study. Finally, we have tested this system for high power experimentation and obtained 67% maximum optical-to-optical efficiency at an approximately 110 W output power level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first 1018 nm ytterbium-doped all-fiber laser pumped...

  14. PUMPS

    Thornton, J.D.


    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  15. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers: Conception and characterization of a single mode source for Cesium atoms manipulation

    Cocquelin, B.


    Lasers currently used in atomic clocks or inertial sensors are suffering from a lack of power, narrow linewidth or compactness for future spatial missions. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers, which combine the approach of classical solid state lasers and the engineering of semiconductor laser, are considered here as a candidate to a metrological laser source dedicated to the manipulation of Cesium atoms in these instruments. These lasers have demonstrated high power laser emission in a circular single transverse mode, as well as single longitudinal mode emission, favoured by the semiconductor structure and the external cavity design. We study the definition and the characterization of a proper semiconductor structure for the cooling and the detection of Cesium atoms at 852 nm. A compact and robust prototype tunable on the Cesium D2 hyperfine structure is built. The laser frequency is locked to an atomic transition thanks to a saturated absorption setup. The emission spectral properties are investigated, with a particular attention to the laser frequency noise and the laser linewidth. Finally, we describe and model the thermal properties of the semiconductor structure, which enables the simulation of the laser power characteristic. The experimental parameters are optimised to obtain the maximum output power with our structure. Thanks to our analysis, we propose several ways to overcome these limitations, by reducing the structure heating. (authors)

  16. The copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Hackel, R.P.; Warner, B.E.


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program has developed a high-average-power, pulsed, tunable, visible laser system. Testing of this hardware is in progress at industrial scale. The LLNL copper-dye laser system is prototypical of a basic module of a uranium-AVLIS plant. The laser demonstration facility (LDF) system consists of copper vapor lasers arranged in oscillator-amplifier chains providing optical pump power to dye-laser master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains. This system is capable of thousands of watts (average) tunable between 550 and 650 mm. The copper laser system at LLNL consists of 12 chains operating continuously. The copper lasers operate at nominally 4.4 kHz, with 50 ns pulse widths and produce 20 W at near the diffraction limit from oscillators and >250 W from each amplifier. Chains consist of an oscillator and three amplifiers and produce >750 W average, with availabilities >95% (i.e., >8,300 h/y). The total copper laser system power averages ∼9,000 W and has operated at over 10,000 W for extended intervals. The 12 copper laser beams are multiplexed and delivered to the dye laser system where they pump multiple dye laser chains. Each dye chain consists of a master oscillator and three or four power amplifiers. The master oscillator operates at nominally 100 mW with a 50 MHz single mode bandwidth. Amplifiers are designed to efficiently amplify the dye beam with low ASE content and high optical quality. Sustained dye chain powers are up to 1,400 W with dye conversion efficiency >50%, ASE content <5%, and wavefront quality correctable to <λ/10 RMS, using deformable mirrors. Since the timing of the copper laser chains can be offset, the dye laser system is capable of repetition rates which are multiples of 4.4 kHz, up to 26 kHz, limited by the dye pumping system. Development of plant-scale copper and dye laser hardware is progressing in off-line facilities

  17. Anomalous dependence of the lasing parameters of dye solutions on the spectrum of microsecond pump laser pulses

    Tarkovsky, V V; Kurstak, V Yu; Anufrik, S S


    The anomalous dependence of the lasing parameters of ethanol solutions of coumarin, rhodamine, oxazine, and laser dyes of other classes on the spectrum of microsecond pump laser pulses is found. The dependence is determined by the shape of the induced singlet - singlet absorption spectra and absorption spectra of short-lived photoproducts. The elucidation of the influence of these factors makes it possible to choose optimal pump spectra and to enhance the efficiency and stability of microsecond dye lasers. (active media)

  18. 20 W continuous-wave cladding-pumped Nd-doped fiber laser at 910 nm.

    Laroche, M; Cadier, B; Gilles, H; Girard, S; Lablonde, L; Robin, T


    We demonstrate a double-clad fiber laser operating at 910 nm with a record power of 20 W. Laser emission on the three-level scheme is enabled by the combination of a small inner cladding-to-core diameter ratio and a high brightness pump source at 808 nm. A laser conversion efficiency as high as 44% was achieved in CW operating regime by using resonant fiber Bragg reflectors at 910 nm that prevent the lasing at the 1060 nm competing wavelength. Furthermore, in a master oscillator power-amplifier scheme, an amplified power of 14.8 W was achieved at 914 nm in the same fiber.

  19. Femtosecond Laser--Pumped Source of Entangled Photons for Quantum Cryptography Applications

    Pan, D.; Donaldson, W.; Sobolewski, R.


    We present an experimental setup for generation of entangled-photon pairs via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, based on the femtosecond-pulsed laser. Our entangled-photon source utilizes a 76-MHz-repetition-rate, 100-fs-pulse-width, mode-locked, ultrafast femtosecond laser, which can produce, on average, more photon pairs than a cw laser of an equal pump power. The resulting entangled pairs are counted by a pair of high-quantum-efficiency, single-photon, silicon avalanche photodiodes. Our apparatus s intended as an efficient source/receiver system for the quantum communications and quantum cryptography applications

  20. Amplification of UV ultrashort pulse laser in e-beam pumped KrF amplifier

    Tang Xiu Zhang; Gong Kun; Ma Wei Yi; Shan Yu Sheng; Wang Nai Yan


    Experimental investigations were performed for amplification of ultrashort pulse laser with Heaven-I e-beam pumped KrF amplifier in CIAE. A 50 mJ, 420 fs UV ultrashort pulse was amplified to 2-3 J energy, 1.2 ps pulse duration, and 2TW laser power. Experimental technique such as synchronization were describe, some parameters such as nonlinear absorb coefficient were measured in experiment. As a result, it is possible to achieve ultra-strong UV laser with intensity higher than 10 sup 1 sup 9 W/cm sup 2 in recently years

  1. Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode.

    Tsiminis, Georgios; Wang, Yue; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L; Inigo, Anto R; Skabara, Peter J; Samuel, Ifor D W; Turnbull, Graham A


    An organic semiconductor laser, simply fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL), that is pumped with a pulsed InGaN LED is demonstrated. Molecular weight optimization of the polymer gain medium on a nanoimprinted polymer distributed feedback resonator enables the lowest reported UV-NIL laser threshold density of 770 W cm(-2) , establishing the potential for scalable organic laser fabrication compatible with mass-produced LEDs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Amplification of UV ultrashort pulse laser in e-beam pumped KrF amplifier

    Tang Xiuzhang; Zhang Haifeng; Gong Kun; Ma Weiyi; Shan Yusheng; Wang Naiyan


    Experimental investigations were performed for amplification of ultrashort pulse laser with Heaven-I e-beam pumped KrF amplifier in CIAE. A 50 mJ, 420 fs UV ultrashort pulse was amplified to 2-3 J energy, 1.2 ps pulse duration, and 2TW laser power. Experimental technique such as synchronization were describe, some parameters such as nonlinear absorb coefficient were measured in experiment. As a result, it is possible to achieve ultra-strong UV laser with intensity higher than 10 19 W/cm 2 in recently years

  3. High-power diode-side-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled continuous wave 532 nm laser

    Zhang Yuping; Zhang Huiyun; Zhong Kai; Li Xifu; Wang Peng; Yao Jianquan


    An efficient and high-power diode-side-pumped cw 532 nm green laser based on a V-shaped cavity geometry, and capable of generating 22.7 W green radiation with optical conversion efficiency of 8.31%, has been demonstrated. The laser is operated with rms noise amplitude of less than 1% and with M 2 -parameter of about 6.45 at the top of the output power. This laser has the potential for scaling to much higher output power. (authors)

  4. Backward pumping kilowatt Yb3+-doped double-clad fiber laser

    Han, Z. H.; Lin, X. C.; Hou, W.; Yu, H. J.; Zhou, S. Z.; Li, J. M.


    A ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser generating up to 1026 W of continuous-wave output power at 1085 nm with a slope efficiency of 74% by single-ended backward pumping configuration is reported. The core diameter was 20 μm with a low numerical aperture of 0.06, and a good beam quality (BPP < 1.8 mm mrad) is achieved without special mode selection methods. No undesirable roll-over was observed in output power with increasing pump power, and the maximum output power was limited by the available pump power. The instability of maximum output power was better than ±0.6%. Different pumping configurations were also compared in experiment, which shows good agreements with theoretical analyses.

  5. Thermal characterization, crystal field analysis and in-band pumped laser performance of Er doped NaY(WO(4(2 disordered laser crystals.

    María Dolores Serrano

    Full Text Available Undoped and Er-doped NaY(WO42 disordered single crystals have been grown by the Czochralski technique. The specific heat and thermal conductivity (κ of these crystals have been characterized from T = 4 K to 700 K and 360 K, respectively. It is shown that κ exhibits anisotropy characteristic of single crystals as well as a κ(T behavior observed in glasses, with a saturation mean free phonon path of 3.6 Å and 4.5 Å for propagation along a and c crystal axes, respectively. The relative energy positions and irreducible representations of Stark Er(3+ levels up to (4G(7/2 multiplet have been determined by the combination of experimental low (<10 K temperature optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements and simulations with a single-electron Hamiltonian including both free-ion and crystal field interactions. Absorption, emission and gain cross sections of the (4I(13/2↔(4I(15/2 laser related transition have been determined at 77 K. The (4I(13/2 Er(3+ lifetime (τ was measured in the temperature range of 77-300 K, and was found to change from τ (77K ≈ 4.5 ms to τ (300K ≈ 3.5 ms. Laser operation is demonstrated at 77 K and 300 K by resonantly pumping the (4I(13/2 multiplet at λ≈1500 nm with a broadband (FWHM≈20 nm diode laser source perfectly matching the 77 K crystal (4I(15/2 → (4I(13/2 absorption profile. At 77 K as much as 5.5 W of output power were obtained in π-polarized configuration with a slope efficiency versus absorbed pump power of 57%, the free running laser wavelength in air was λ≈1611 nm with the laser output bandwidth of 3.5 nm. The laser emission was tunable over 30.7 nm, from 1590.7 nm to 1621.4 nm, for the same π-polarized configuration.

  6. Development of solar concentrators for high-power solar-pumped lasers.

    Dinh, T H; Ohkubo, T; Yabe, T


    We have developed unique solar concentrators for solar-pumped solid-state lasers to improve both efficiency and laser output power. Natural sunlight is collected by a primary concentrator which is a 2  m×2  m Fresnel lens, and confined by a cone-shaped hybrid concentrator. Such solar power is coupled to a laser rod by a cylinder with coolant surrounding it that is called a liquid light-guide lens (LLGL). Performance of the cylindrical LLGL has been characterized analytically and experimentally. Since a 14 mm diameter LLGL generates efficient and uniform pumping along a Nd:YAG rod that is 6 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length, 120 W cw laser output is achieved with beam quality factor M2 of 137 and overall slope efficiency of 4.3%. The collection efficiency is 30.0  W/m2, which is 1.5 times larger than the previous record. The overall conversion efficiency is more than 3.2%, which can be comparable to a commercial lamp-pumped solid-state laser. The concept of the light-guide lens can be applied for concentrator photovoltaics or other solar energy optics.

  7. High efficiency pump combiner fabricated by CO2 laser splicing system

    Zhu, Gongwen


    High power combiners are of great interest for high power fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers. With the advent of CO2 laser splicing system, power combiners are made possible with low manufacturing cost, low loss, high reliability and high performance. Traditionally fiber optical components are fabricated with flame torch, electrode arc discharge or filament heater. However, these methods can easily leave contamination on the fiber, resulting inconsistent performance or even catching fire in high power operations. The electrodes or filaments also degrade rapidly during the combiner manufacturing process. The rapid degradation will lead to extensive maintenance, making it unpractical or uneconomic for volume production. By contrast, CO2 laser is the cleanest heating source which provides reliable and repeatable process for fabricating fiber optic components including high power combiners. In this paper we present an all fiber end pumped 7x1 pump combiner fabricated by CO2 laser splicing system. The input pump fibers are 105/125 (core/clad diameters in μm) fibers with a core NA of 0.22. The output fiber is a 300/320 fiber with a core NA of 0.22. The average efficiency is 99.4% with all 7 ports more than 99%. The process is contamination-free and highly repeatable. To our best knowledge, this is the first report in the literature on power combiners fabricated by CO2 laser splicing system. It also has the highest reported efficiency of its kind.

  8. Aerosol core nuclear reactor for space-based high energy/power nuclear-pumped lasers

    Prelas, M.A.; Boody, F.P.; Zediker, M.S.


    An aerosol core reactor concept can overcome the efficiency and/or chemical activity problems of other fuel-reactant interface concepts. In the design of a laser using the nuclear energy for a photon-intermediate pumping scheme, several features of the aerosol core reactor concept are attractive. First, the photon-intermediate pumping concept coupled with photon concentration methods and the aerosol fuel can provide the high power densities required to drive high energy/power lasers efficiently (about 25 to 100 kW/cu cm). Secondly, the intermediate photons should have relatively large mean free paths in the aerosol fuel which will allow the concept to scale more favorably. Finally, the aerosol core reactor concept can use materials which should allow the system to operate at high temperatures. An excimer laser pumped by the photons created in the fluorescer driven by a self-critical aerosol core reactor would have reasonable dimensions (finite cylinder of height 245 cm and radius of 245 cm), reasonable laser energy (1 MJ in approximately a 1 millisecond pulse), and reasonable mass (21 kg uranium, 8280 kg moderator, 460 kg fluorescer, 450 kg laser medium, and 3233 kg reflector). 12 references

  9. Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants fabricated by rapid prototyping based on CO(2) laser cladding.

    Comesaña, R; Lusquiños, F; Del Val, J; López-Álvarez, M; Quintero, F; Riveiro, A; Boutinguiza, M; de Carlos, A; Jones, J R; Hill, R G; Pou, J


    Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants were produced by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding without using moulds. CO(2) laser radiation was employed to melt 45S5 and S520 bioactive glass particles and to deposit the material layer by layer following a desired geometry. Controlled thermal input and cooling rate by fine tuning of the processing parameters allowed the production of crack-free fully dense implants. Microstructural characterization revealed chemical composition stability, but crystallization during processing was extensive when 45S5 bioactive glass was used. Improved results were obtained using the S520 bioactive glass, which showed limited surface crystallization due to an expanded sintering window (the difference between the glass transition temperature and crystallization onset temperature). Ion release from the S520 implants in Tris buffer was similar to that of amorphous 45S5 bioactive glass prepared by casting in graphite moulds. Laser processed S520 scaffolds were not cytotoxic in vitro when osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with the dissolution products of the glasses; and the MC3T3-E1 cells attached and spread well when cultured on the surface of the materials. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on processing parameters of glass cutting by nanosecond 532 nm fiber laser

    Wang, Jin; Gao, Fan; Xiong, Baoxing; Zhang, Xiang; Yuan, Xiao


    The processing parameters of soda-lime glass cutting with several nanosecond 532 nm pulsed fiber laser are studied in order to obtain sufficiently large ablation rate and better processing quality. The influences of laser processing parameters on effective cutting speed and cutting quality of 1 2 mm thick soda-lime glass are studied. The experimental results show that larger laser pulse energy will lead to higher effective cutting speed and larger maximum edge collapse of the front side of the glass samples. Compared with that of 1.1 mm thick glass samples, the 2.0 mm thick glass samples is more difficult to cut. With the pulse energy of 51.2 μJ, the maximum edge collapse is more than 200 μm for the 2.0 mm thick glass samples. In order to achieve the high effective cutting speed and good cutting quality at the same time, the dual energy overlapping method is used to obtain the better cutting performance for the 2.0 mm thick glass samples, and the cutting speed of 194 mm/s and the maximum edge collapse of less than 132 μm are realized.

  11. Diode pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 self-Raman laser

    Su Fufang; Zhang Xingyu; Wang Qingpu; Ding Shuanghong; Jia Peng; Li Shutao; Fan Shuzhen; Zhang Chen; Liu Bo


    By using Nd:YVO 4 as the gain medium and the Raman medium simultaneously, the actively Q-switched operation of the self-Raman Nd:YVO 4 laser at 1176 nm was realized. The output characteristics including the average power, pulse energy and pulse width versus the incident pump power and pulse repetition rate were investigated. At a pulse repetition rate of 20 kHz an average power up to 0.57 W was obtained with the incident pump power of 10.2 W, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 5.6% with respect to the diode laser input power. Meanwhile, an analysis of the self-Raman Nd:YVO 4 laser was carried out by using the rate equations. The obtained theoretical results were in agreement with the experimental results on the whole

  12. Diode-side-pumped 131 W, 1319 nm single-wavelength cw Nd:YAG laser.

    Haiyong, Zhu; Ge, Zhang; Chenghui, Huang; Yong, Wei; Lingxiong, Huang; Jing, Chen; Weidong, Chen; Zhenqiang, Chen


    A diode-side-pumped high-power 1319 nm single-wavelength Nd:YAG continuous wave (cw) laser is described. Through reasonable coating design of the cavity mirrors, the 1064 nm strongest line as well as the 1338 nm one have been successfully suppressed. The laser output powers corresponding to four groups of different output couplers operating at 1319 nm single wavelength have been compared. The output coupler with the transmission T=5.3% has the highest output power, and a 131 W cw output power was achieved at the pumping power of 555 W. The optical-optical conversion efficiency is 23.6%, and the slope efficiency is 46%. The output power is higher than the total output power of the dual-wavelength laser operating at 1319 nm and 1338 nm in the experiment.

  13. System of laser pump and synchrotron radiation probe microdiffraction to investigate optical recording process

    Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Fukuyama, Yoshimitsu; Osawa, Hitoshi; Kimura, Shigeru; Ito, Kiminori; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Rie; Hisada, Kazuya; Tsuchino, Akio; Birukawa, Masahiro; Yamada, Noboru; Sekiguchi, Koji; Fujiie, Kazuhiko; Kawakubo, Osamu; Takata, Masaki


    We have developed a system of laser-pump and synchrotron radiation probe microdiffraction to investigate the phase-change process on a nanosecond time scale of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 film embedded in multi-layer structures, which corresponds to real optical recording media. The measurements were achieved by combining (i) the pump-laser system with a pulse width of 300 ps, (ii) a highly brilliant focused microbeam with wide peak-energy width (ΔE/E ∼ 2%) made by focusing helical undulator radiation without monochromatization, and (iii) a precise sample rotation stage to make repetitive measurements. We successfully detected a very weak time-resolved diffraction signal by using this system from 100-nm-thick Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase-change layers. This enabled us to find the dependence of the crystal-amorphous phase change process of the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 layers on laser power.

  14. Diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked femtosecond Yb:YAG ceramic laser

    Zi-Ye, Gao; Jiang-Feng, Zhu; Ke, Wang; Jun-Li, Wang; Zhao-Hua, Wang; Zhi-Yi, Wei


    We experimentally demonstrated a diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked femtosecond laser based on an Yb:YAG ceramic. Stable laser pulses with 97-fs duration, 2.8-nJ pulse energy, and 320-mW average power were obtained. The femtosecond oscillator operated at a central wavelength of 1049 nm and a repetition rate of 115 MHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a Kerr-lens mode-locked operation in a diode-pumped Yb:YAG ceramic laser with sub-100 fs pulse duration. Project supported by the National Major Scientific Instrument Development Project of China (Grant No. 2012YQ120047), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205130), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. JB140502).

  15. Hyperfine spectrum measurement of an optically pumped far-infrared laser with a Michelson interferometer

    Zuo, Z G; Ling, F R; Wang, P; Liu, J S; Yao, J Q; Weng, C X


    In this letter, we present a Michelson interferometer for the hyperfine spectrum measurement of an optically pumped far-infrared laser with a highest frequency resolution of 3–5 GHz. CH 3 OH gas with a purity of 99.9%, is pumped by the CO 2 9P36 and 9R10 laser lines to generate terahertz lasers with frequencies of 2.52 and 3.11 THz, respectively. Moreover, except for the center frequency, which is in good agreement with theoretical work, some additional frequencies on both sides of the center frequency are obtained at a frequency interval of 0.15 THz. Meanwhile, the mechanism behind the observed experimental results is also investigated. (letter)

  16. /sup 3/He functions in tokamak-pumped laser systems

    Jassby, D.L.


    /sup 3/He placed in an annular cell around a tokamak fusion generator can convert moderated fusion neutrons to energetic ions by the /sup 3/He(n,p)T reaction, and thereby excite gaseous lasants mixed with the /sup 3/He while simultaneously breeding tritium. The total /sup 3/He inventory is about 4 kg for large tokamak devices. Special configurations of toroidal-field magnets, neutron moderators and beryllium reflectors are required to permit nearly uniform neutron current into the laser cell with minimal attenuation. The annular laser radiation can be combined into a single output beam at the top of the tokamak.

  17. 3He functions in tokamak-pumped laser systems

    Jassby, D.L.


    3 He placed in an annular cell around a tokamak fusion generator can convert moderated fusion neutrons to energetic ions by the 3 He(n,p)T reaction, and thereby excite gaseous lasants mixed with the 3 He while simultaneously breeding tritium. The total 3 He inventory is about 4 kg for large tokamak devices. Special configurations of toroidal-field magnets, neutron moderators and beryllium reflectors are required to permit nearly uniform neutron current into the laser cell with minimal attenuation. The annular laser radiation can be combined into a single output beam at the top of the tokamak

  18. Laser pumping of ions in a cooler buncher

    Cheal, B., E-mail: [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Baczynska, K. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Billowes, J.; Campbell, P. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Eronen, T. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Forest, D. H. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Kessler, T.; Moore, I. D. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Rueffer, M. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Tordoff, B. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Tungate, G. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Aystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland)


    Optical experiments at the IGISOL isotope separator facility, Jyvaeskylae, have for many years benefited from the introduction of an ion beam cooler. The device, a gas-filled RF quadrupole, reduces the emittance and longitudinal energy spread of the ion beam. Very recently, use has been made of the axial confinement of slowly travelling ions at the end of the cooler to redistribute the electronic populations through efficient laser excitation. Such a technique has proved beneficial to laser spectroscopic measurements and is a precursor to using the method to polarize the ion beam.

  19. Studies of diode-pumped solid-state lasers based on Nd:KGW and Nd:YAG

    Ibrahim, Akram Yousif


    The experimental part of the thesis was dedicated to the studies of diode-pumped solid- state lasers. it includes experiments with end-pumped continuous wave (CW) Nd-doped crystals. In particular, we have concentrated to Nd:KGW, a relatively new and not studied in the literature about the laser materials. We have performed some basics measurements of this material. A fibre bundle coupled laser diode array was used as a pump source. We have investigated two main optical arrangements for the pump, allowing operation in two regimes: 1- Low pump power operation using selected output power from a single of the fibre bundle. 2- high pump power operation using the total output power from the bundle. The main parameters of the cavities we use (e.g. the cavity mode and the pumping spot size), were determined using the matrix approach and the equations for the propagation of the Gaussian beams. The highest output power obtained in this work for Nd:KGW with a transverse electromagnetic (TEM 0 0) single-mode, continuous (CW) operation, was 400 mW for 1700 mW pumping power from the diode laser. We present also data about the performance of a diode pumped Nd:YAG crystal. Our experiment shows that Nd:KGW is a promising material of low and medium pumping power levels. (Author)

  20. Laser printed glass planar lightwave circuits with integrated fiber alignment structures

    Desmet, A.; Radosavljevic, A.; Missinne, J.; Van Thourhout, D.; Van Steenberge, G.


    Femtosecond laser inscription allows straightforward manufacturing of glass planar lightwave circuits such as waveguides, interferometers, directional couplers, resonators and more complex structures. Fiber alignment structures are needed to facilitate communication with the glass planar lightwave circuit. In this study, a technique is described to create optical waveguides and alignment structures in the same laser exposure step. Using an industrial ytterbium-doped 1030 nm fiber laser pulses of 400 fs were focused into glass with a 0.4 NA objective causing permanent alteration of the material. Depending on laser parameters this modification allows direct writing of waveguides or the creation of channels after exposing the irradiated volumes to an etchant such as KOH. Writing of channels and waveguides with different laser powers, frequencies, polarisations, stage translation speeds and scan densities were investigated in fused silica and borosilicate glass. Waveguides with controlled dimensions were created, as well as etched U-grooves with a diameter of 126 μm and a sidewall roughness Ra of 255 nm. Cut back measurements were performed giving a waveguide propagation loss of 1.1 dB/cm in borosilicate glass. A coupling loss of 0.7 dB was measured for a transition between the waveguide and standard single mode fiber at 1550 nm, using index matching liquid. The described technique eliminates active alignment requirements and is useful for many applications such as microfluidic sensing, PLCs, fan-out connectors for multicore fibers and quantum optical networks.

  1. 1.8kW laser diode pumped YAG laser; Shutsuryoku 1.8kW no handotai laser reiki YAG laser



    Toshiba Corporation, as a participant in Ministry of International Trade and Industry`s `photon measurement and processing technology project` since August, 1997, is engaged in the development of an energy-efficient LD (laser diode) pumped semiconductor YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser device to be used for welding and cutting. It is a 5-year project and the goal is a mean output of 10kW and efficiency of 20%. In this article, a simulation program is developed which carries out calculation about element technology items such as the tracking of the beam from the pumping LD and the excitation distribution, temperature distribution, thermal stress distribution, etc., in the YAG rod. An oscillator is constructed, based on the results of the simulation, and it exhibits a world-high class continuous laser performance of a 1.8kW output and 13% efficiency. The record of 13% efficiency is five times higher than that achieved by the conventional lamp-driven YAG laser device. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Simulation of medical Q-switch flash-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Wang Yanlin; Huang Chuyun; Yao Yucheng; Zou Xiaolin, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Physics school, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, China 430068 (China)


    Er: YAG laser, the wavelength is 2940nm, can be absorbed strongly by water. The absorption coefficient is as high as 13000 cm{sup -1}. As the water strong absorption, Erbium laser can bring shallow penetration depth and smaller surrounding tissue injury in most soft tissue and hard tissue. At the same time, the interaction between 2940nm radiation and biological tissue saturated with water is equivalent to instantaneous heating within limited volume, thus resulting in the phenomenon of micro-explosion to removal organization. Different parameters can be set up to cut enamel, dentin, caries and soft tissue. For the development and optimization of laser system, it is a practical choice to use laser modeling to predict the influence of various parameters for laser performance. Aim at the status of low Erbium laser output power, flash-pumped Er: YAG laser performance was simulated to obtain optical output in theory. the rate equation model was obtained and used to predict the change of population densities in various manifolds and use the technology of Q-switch the simulate laser output for different design parameters and results showed that Er: YAG laser output energy can achieve the maximum average output power of 9.8W under the given parameters. The model can be used to find the potential laser systems that meet application requirements.

  3. Pump spot size dependent lasing threshold in organic semiconductor DFB lasers fabricated via nanograting transfer.

    Liu, Xin; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Wang, Ziyao; Wienhold, Tobias; Vannahme, Christoph; Jakobs, Peter-Jürgen; Bacher, Andreas; Muslija, Alban; Mappes, Timo; Lemmer, Uli


    Optically excited organic semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers enable efficient lasing in the visible spectrum. Here, we report on the rapid and parallel fabrication of DFB lasers via transferring a nanograting structure from a flexible mold onto an unstructured film of the organic gain material. This geometrically well-defined structure allows for a systematic investigation of the laser threshold behavior. The laser thresholds for these devices show a strong dependence on the pump spot diameter. This experimental finding is in good qualitative agreement with calculations based on coupled-wave theory. With further investigations on various DFB laser geometries prepared by different routes and based on different organic gain materials, we found that these findings are quite general. This is important for the comparison of threshold values of various devices characterized under different excitation areas.

  4. Pump spot size dependent lasing threshold in organic semiconductor DFB lasers fabricated via nanograting transfer

    Liu, Xin; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Wang, Ziyao


    material. This geometrically well-defined structure allows for a systematic investigation of the laser threshold behavior. The laser thresholds for these devices show a strong dependence on the pump spot diameter. This experimental finding is in good qualitative agreement with calculations based on coupled......Optically excited organic semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers enable efficient lasing in the visible spectrum. Here, we report on the rapid and parallel fabrication of DFB lasers via transferring a nanograting structure from a flexible mold onto an unstructured film of the organic gain......-wave theory. With further investigations on various DFB laser geometries prepared by different routes and based on different organic gain materials, we found that these findings are quite general. This is important for the comparison of threshold values of various devices characterized under different...

  5. Formation of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface using femtosecond laser pulses

    Ahsan, Md. Shamim, E-mail: [Photonics Application Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro (373-1 Guseong-dong), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Electronics and Communication Engineering Discipline, School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Khulna University, Khulna-9208 (Bangladesh); Dewanda, Fadia, E-mail: [Photonics Application Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro (373-1 Guseong-dong), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Man Seop, E-mail: [Photonics Application Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro (373-1 Guseong-dong), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sekita, Hitoshi, E-mail: [Cyber Laser Inc., 7-7 Sinkawasaki, KBIC 101 205, Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 212-0032 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi, E-mail: [Cyber Laser Inc., 7-7 Sinkawasaki, KBIC 101 205, Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 212-0032 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We formed superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by femtosecond laser pulses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Periodic microstructures are printed on the glass surface for superhydrophobicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contact angle of water droplet on the microstructured glass surface is 155 Degree-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transparency of superhydrophobic glass is higher than 77% in visible spectrum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain the formation mechanism of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface. - Abstract: This paper demonstrates the fabrication of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by engineering periodic microgratings with self-formed periodic micro-ripples inside the microgratings using a single beam femtosecond laser. The wetting property of the microstructured surface is improved from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic, presenting a water droplet contact angle ranges from 152 Degree-Sign to 155 Degree-Sign . The microstructured glass surface shows excellent transparency, which is higher than 77% in the visible spectrum. We strongly believe that our proposed technology can achieve superhydrophobic glass surfaces over a large area for applications in diverse fields.

  6. Formation of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface using femtosecond laser pulses

    Ahsan, Md. Shamim; Dewanda, Fadia; Lee, Man Seop; Sekita, Hitoshi; Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi


    Highlights: ► We formed superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by femtosecond laser pulses. ► Periodic microstructures are printed on the glass surface for superhydrophobicity. ► The contact angle of water droplet on the microstructured glass surface is 155°. ► The transparency of superhydrophobic glass is higher than 77% in visible spectrum. ► We explain the formation mechanism of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface. - Abstract: This paper demonstrates the fabrication of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by engineering periodic microgratings with self-formed periodic micro-ripples inside the microgratings using a single beam femtosecond laser. The wetting property of the microstructured surface is improved from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic, presenting a water droplet contact angle ranges from 152° to 155°. The microstructured glass surface shows excellent transparency, which is higher than 77% in the visible spectrum. We strongly believe that our proposed technology can achieve superhydrophobic glass surfaces over a large area for applications in diverse fields.

  7. Ultraviolet-pumped liquid-crystal dye-laser

    Bertolotti, M.; Sbrolli, L.; Scudieri, F.; Papa, T.


    The possibility offered by the orientation properties of liquid crystals as a matrix for dye lasers is shown. In particular, the linear polarization of emitted light can be changed by acting with an external magnetic field on the molecular nematic director. (author)

  8. Preparation of Ho3+/Tm3+ Co-doped Lanthanum Tungsten Germanium Tellurite Glass Fiber and Its Laser Performance for 2.0 μm

    Zhou, Dechun; Bai, Xuemei; Zhou, Hang


    Ho3+/Tm3+ co-doped 50TeO2-25GeO2-3WO3-5La2O3-3Nb2O5-5Li2O-9BaF2 glass fiber is prepared with the rod-tube drawing method of 15 μm core diameter and 125 μm inner cladding diameter applied in the 2.0 μm-infrared laser. The 2.0 μm luminescence properties of the core glass are researched and the fluorescence intensity variation for different Tm3+ doping concentration is systematically analyzed. The results show that the 2.0 μm luminescence of Ho3+ is greatly influenced by the doping concentration ratio of Ho3+ to Tm3+ and that the maximum fluorescence intensity of the core glass can be obtained and its emission cross section can reach 0.933 × 10-21 cm2 when the sensitized proportion of holmium to thulium is 0.3 to 0.7 (mol%). Simultaneously, the maximum phonon energy of the core glass sample is 753 cm-1, which is significantly lower than that of silicate, gallate and germanate glass and the smaller matrix phonon energy can be conductive to the increase 2.0 μm-band emission intensity. The continuous laser with the maximum laser output power of 0.993 W and 2051 nm -wavelength of 31.9%-slope efficiency is output within the 0.5 m glass fiber and the experiment adopts 1560 nm erbium-doped fiber laser(EDFL) as the pump source and the self-built all-fiber laser. Therefore, the glass fiber has excellent laser characteristics and it is suitable for the 2.0 μm-band laser.

  9. Laser annealing of ion implanted silicon by the aid of a Q-switched neodymium glass laser

    Exner, H.; Laemmel, B.; Zscherpe, G.


    Experimental results of laser annealing of arsenic implanted silicon are presented. Different depths of melting are obtained by varying the energy flux density of the Q-switched neodymium glass laser. The annealed samples are studied by the aid of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) combined with ion channeling, and of resistance measurements. Not any defect could be found by RBS and no surface structure could be determined by microscopy

  10. Laser and thermal bleaching of colour centres in sodium borate glasses

    Bukharaev, A A; Yafaev, N R [AN SSSR, Kazan. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.


    The maximum of the additional absorption band in ..gamma..- or UV-irradiated sodium borate glasses shifts to higher energy when the low-energy side of the band is bleached by a helium-neon laser, ..lambda.. = 632.8 nm. Simultaneously the half-width of the additional absorption band decreases. This phenomenon is associated with the fact that because of structural disorder of glasses there is a distribution of ground-state energies of trapped electrons forming the light-sensitive absorption band. The distribution interval of the activation energy for trapped electrons is estimated using the decomposition of the initial thermal bleaching curves into components. For UV irradiated glasses it is aproximately 0.24 eV, and for ..gamma..-irradiated glasses only 0.12 eV. These values correlate with the relative shift maximum of the absorption band at laser bleaching.

  11. Compact, efficient diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 slab continuous-wave 912-nm laser

    Liu Huan; Gong Ma-Li


    A fiber-coupled laser-diode (LD) end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab continuous-wave (CW) 912-nm laser and an LD bar end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab CW 912-nm laser are both demonstrated in this paper. Using the fiber-coupled LD of end-pumped type, a highest CW 912-nm laser output power of 10.17 W is obtained with a high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 24.6% and a slope efficiency of 34.5%. The measured M 2 factors of beam quality in x and y directions are 5.3 and 5.1, respectively. Besides, an LD bar of end-pumped type is used to realize CW 912-nm laser output, which has the advantages of compactness and low cost. When the pump power is 38.8 W, the output power is 8.87 W and the measured M 2 factors of beam quality in x and y directions are 16 and 1.31, respectively. In order to improve the beam quality of the 912-nm laser at x direction, a new quasi-concentric laser resonator will be designed, and an LD bar end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 slab high-power CW 912-nm TEM 00 laser will be realized in the future. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. Diode-pumped, single frequency Nd:YLF laser for 60-beam OMEGA laser pulse-shaping system

    Okishev, A.V.; Seka, W.


    The operational conditions of the OMEGA pulse-shaping system require an extremely reliable and low-maintenance master oscillator. The authors have developed a diode-pumped, single-frequency, pulsed Nd:YLF laser for this application. The laser generates Q-switched pulses of ∼160-ns duration and ∼10-microJ energy content at the 1,053-nm wavelength with low amplitude fluctuations (<0.6% rms) and low temporal jitter (<7 ns rms). Amplitude and frequency feedback stabilization systems have been used for high long-term amplitude and frequency stability

  13. Optimization of reactor power by taking into consideration temperature increase in a reactor pumped 3He-Xe laser

    Cetin, Fuesun


    In nuclear pumped lasers, gas parameters are optimized in a manner such that output power is increased for constructing a high power laser. Since output power increases with the increase of energy deposited in the gas, high output power requires high pumping power. However, the high energy loading results in elevated gas temperature. Temperature increase of this magnitude can detrimentally influence the laser gain and efficiency, since it negatively impacts several important laser kinetic.processes. This fact may cause laser output to abruptly terminate before the peak of the pump pulse [1-3]. A nuclear pumped laser using a volumetric energy source through the 3 He(n, p) 3 H reaction has here been considered. It is assumed that TRIGA Mark II Reactor at Istanbul Technical University is used for nuclear pumping as the neutron source. In the previous papers, the optimal parameters for improving both output power and optical homogeneity were determined [4-5]. Spatial and temporal variations of gas temperature during pumping pulse for maximum peak power (1200 MW) were determined for various operating pressures in Ref. [6]. It was seen that gas temperature reaches up to 1000 0 K near the peak of the pumping pulse for the initial pressures of 1-4 atm. This means that laser output may terminate before the peak of the pump pulse due to overheating of laser gas. Under these conditions, a question arises about a further optimisation taking into consideration gas temperature. This question has been examined in this study. Experimental results (Batyrbekov et al, 1989) showed that temperature rise up to 650 C had no influence on Xe laser characteristics [ 7]. Therefore, It has here been assumed that the lasing will terminate when gas temperature reaches 1000 0 K for a Xe-laser with 3 He buffer gas. Under these conditions optimum reactor power is investigated by taking into consideration lasing duration also. (orig.)

  14. Using acoustic levitation in synchrotron based laser pump hard x-ray probe experiments

    Hu, Bin; Lerch, Jason; Suthar, Kamlesh; Dichiara, Anthony

    Acoustic levitation provides a platform to trap and hold a small amount of material by using standing pressure waves without a container. The technique has a potential to be used for laser pump x-ray probe experiments; x-ray scattering and laser distortion from the container can be avoided, sample consumption can be minimized, and unwanted chemistry that may occur at the container interface can be avoided. The method has been used at synchrotron sources for studying protein and pharmaceutical solutions using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). However, pump-probe experiments require homogeneously excited samples, smaller than the absorption depth of the material that must be held stably at the intersection of both the laser and x-ray beams. We discuss 1) the role of oscillations in acoustic levitation and the optimal acoustic trapping conditions for x-ray/laser experiments, 2) opportunities to automate acoustic levitation for fast sample loading and manipulation, and 3) our experimental results using SAXS to monitor laser induced thermal expansion in gold nanoparticles solution. We also performed Finite Element Analysis to optimize the trapping performance and stability of droplets ranging from 0.4 mm to 2 mm. Our early x-ray/laser demonstrated the potential of the technique for time-resolved X-ray science.

  15. Efficient 10 kW diode-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser

    Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Takada, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Mitsuo; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Nishida, Naoto


    As a tool for high speed and high precision material processing such as cutting and welding, we developed a rod-type all-solid-state laser with an average power of more than 10 kW, an electrical-optical efficiency of more than 20%, and a laser head volume of less than 0.05 m3. We developed a highly efficient diode pumped module, and successfully obtained electrical-optical efficiencies of 22% in CW operation and 26% in QCW operation at multi-kW output powers. We also succeeded to reduce the laser head volume, and obtained the output power of 12 kW with an efficiency of 23%, and laser head volume of 0.045 m3. We transferred the technology to SHIBAURA mechatronics corp., who started to provide the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser system with output power up to 4.5 kW. We are now continuing development for further high power laser equipment.

  16. Pump-probe differencing technique for cavity-enhanced, noise-canceling saturation laser spectroscopy.

    de Vine, Glenn; McClelland, David E; Gray, Malcolm B; Close, John D


    We present an experimental technique that permits mechanical-noise-free, cavity-enhanced frequency measurements of an atomic transition and its hyperfine structure. We employ the 532-nm frequency-doubled output from a Nd:YAG laser and an iodine vapor cell. The cell is placed in a folded ring cavity (FRC) with counterpropagating pump and probe beams. The FRC is locked with the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. Mechanical noise is rejected by differencing the pump and probe signals. In addition, this differenced error signal provides a sensitive measure of differential nonlinearity within the FRC.

  17. Composite polymer/glass edge claddings for new Nova laser disks

    Powell, H.T.; Campbell, J.H.; Edwards, G.


    Large Nd:glass laser disks like those used in Nova require an edge cladding which absorbs at 1 μm. This cladding prevents Fresnel reflections from the edges from causing parasitic oscillations which would otherwise reduce the gain. The original Nova disks had a Cu/sup 2+/-doped phosphate glass cladding which was cast at high temperature around the circumference of the disk. Although the performance of this cladding is excellent, it was expensive to produce. Consequently, in parallel with their efforts to develop Pt inclusion-free laser glass, the authors developed a composite polymer/glass edge cladding that can be applied at greatly reduced cost. Laser disks constructed with the new cladding design show identical performance to the previous Nova disks and have been tested for hundreds of shots without degradation. The new cladding consists of absorbing glass strips which are bonded to the edges of polygonal-rather that elliptical-shaped disks. The bond is made by an --25-μm thick clear epoxy adhesive whose index of refraction matches both the laser and absorbing glass. By blending aromatic and aliphatic epoxy constituents, they achieved an index-of-refraction match within approximately +-0.003 between the epoxy and glass. The epoxy was also chosen based on its damage resistance to flashlamp light and its adhesive strength to glass. The present cladding is a major improvement over a previous experimental cladding utilizing silicone rubber as a coupling agent. Early prototypes constructed without using the presented techniques exhibited failures from both mechanisms. Delamination failures occurred which clearly showed both surface and bulk-mode parasitic oscillation. Requirements on the polymer, disk size, and Nd doping to prevent these problems are presented

  18. Kinetics of the Electric Discharge Pumped Oxygen-Iodine Laser


    of the sustainer pulse is tailored to keep the discharge stable. In January 2007, OSU demonstrated a peak laser power of 0.28 W, using a pulser...controlled avalanche ionization, Applied Physics Letters, 22, p. 670, (1973). (57) Hill. A.E., The next generation of controlled avalanche discharge ...pressure oxygen pulsed discharge . Simple and quick method for temperature determination, J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys. 32, pp. 246-250, (1998). (71

  19. How to optimize ultrashort pulse laser interaction with glass surfaces in cutting regimes?

    Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Zhukov, V.P.; Collins, A.R.; Rostohar, Danijela; Derrien, Thibault; Mocek, Tomáš


    Roč. 336, May (2015), s. 364-374 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser material processing * high power lasers * glass cutting * laser-matter interaction * biwave length irradiation * ambient gas ionization Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2015

  20. A 25kW fiber-coupled diode laser for pumping applications

    Malchus, Joerg; Krause, Volker; Koesters, Arnd; Matthews, David G.


    In this paper we report the development of a new fiber-coupled diode laser for pumping applications capable of generating 25 kW with four wavelengths. The delivery fiber has 2.0 mm core diameter and 0.22 NA resulting in a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 220 mm mrad. To achieve the specifications mentioned above a novel beam transformation technique has been developed combining two high power laser stacks in one common module. After fast axis collimation and beam reformatting a beam with a BPP of 200 mm mrad x 40 mm mrad in the slow and fast-axis is generated. Based on this architecture a customer-specific pump laser with 25 kW optical output power has been developed, in which two modules are polarization multiplexed for each wavelength (980nm, 1020nm, 1040m and 1060nm). After slow-axis collimation these wavelengths are combined using dense wavelength coupling before focusing onto the fiber endface. This new laser is based on a turn-key platform, allowing straight-forward integration into any pump application. The complete system has a footprint of less than 1.4m² and a height of less than 1.8m. The laser diodes are water cooled, achieve a wall-plug efficiency of up to 60%, and have a proven lifetime of <30,000 hours. The new beam transformation techniques open up prospects for the development of pump sources with more than 100kW of optical output power.