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Sample records for glass ionomer adhesive

  1. Bond strength of a composite resin to glass ionomer cements using different adhesive systems

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    Ana Carolina de Oliveira BECCI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Glass ionomer cements are often used as a base or cavity lining prior to restorative material. Objective To evaluate the bond strength of a composite resin to different glass ionomer cements, when using a two-step conventional and self-etching adhesive systems. Material and method Three glass ionomer cements (Ketac Molar Easymix, Vitremer and Vitrebond, the composite resin Filtek Z350 XT and the adhesive systems Adper Single Bond 2, Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Easy One were used. As negative control, resin was bonded to cement without using an adhesive system. Holes (4 mm diameter, 2 mm deep prepared in acrilic bloks were filled with the glass ionomer cements (n=12/group. On the surface, an area of 1mm in diameter was delimited, the adhesive system was applied, and a specimen of composite resin with 1 mm height was made. After 24 hours storage (37 °C and 100% humidity, the microshear test was performed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for comparison between groups (α=0.05. Result The adhesive systems significantly improved the bond strenght of composite resin to glass ionomer cements (p≤0.001. There was no significant difference in bond strength when self-etching adhesive systems were compared with the simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive, except for Vitrebond where Clearfil SE Bond determined higher bond strength when compared to Adper Single Bond 2 (p=0.003. Conclusion Self-etching adhesive systems are a good option for establishing the bond between the composite resin and the glass ionomer cement.

  2. Reducing composite restoration polymerization shrinkage stress through resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoum, S J; Mutzelburg, P R; Shumack, T G; Thode, Djg; Martin, F E; Ellakwa, A E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether employing resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives can reduce polymerization contraction stress generated at the interface of restorative composite adhesive systems. Five resin based adhesives (G Bond, Optibond-All-in-One, Optibond-Solo, Optibond-XTR and Scotchbond-Universal) and two resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives (Riva Bond-LC, Fuji Bond-LC) were analysed. Each adhesive was applied to bond restorative composite Filtek-Z250 to opposing acrylic rods secured within a universal testing machine. Stress developed at the interface of each adhesive-restorative composite system (n = 5) was calculated at 5-minute intervals over 6 hours. The resin based adhesive-restorative composite systems (RBA-RCS) demonstrated similar interface stress profiles over 6 hours; initial rapid contraction stress development (0-300 seconds) followed by continued contraction stress development ≤0.02MPa/s (300 seconds - 6 hours). The interface stress profile of the resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesive-restorative composite systems (RMGIBA-RCS) differed substantially to the RBA-RCS in several ways. Firstly, during 0-300 seconds the rate of contraction stress development at the interface of the RMGIBA-RCS was significantly (p adhesives can significantly reduce the magnitude and rate of polymerization contraction stress developed at the interface of adhesive-restorative composite systems. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite to resin-modified glass-ionomer cement using three different resin adhesives vs. glass-ionomer based adhesive

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    Mostafa Sadeghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical success of sandwich technique depends on the strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC bonding to both dentin and resin composite. Therefore, the shear bond strength (SBS of resin composite bonded to RMGIC utilizing different resin adhesives versus a GIC-based adhesive was compared. Materials and methods: In this in vitro study, 84 holes (5×2 mm were prepared in acrylic blocks, randomly divided into seven groups (n=12 and filled with RMGIC (Light-Cured Universal Restorative, GC. In the Group I; no adhesive was applied on the RMGIC. In the Group II, non-etched and Group III was etched with phosphoric acid. In groups II and III, after rinsing, etch-and-rinse adhesive (OptiBond Solo Plus; in the Group IV; a two-step self-etch adhesive (OptiBond XTR and in Group V; a one-step self-etch (OptiBond All-in-One were applied on the cement surfaces. Group VI; a GIC-based adhesive (Fuji Bond LC was painted over the cement surface and cured. Group VII; the GIC-based adhesive was brushed over RMGIC followed by the placement of resin composite and co-cured. Afterward; resin composite (Point 4 cylinders were placed on the treated cement surfaces. The specimens were placed in 100% humidity at 37 ± 1°C and thermo cycled. The shear bond test was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min and calculated in MPa; the specimens were examined to determine mode of failure. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The maximum (24.62±3.70 MPa and minimum (18.15±3.38 MPa SBS mean values were recorded for OptiBond XTR adhesive and the control group, respectively. The pairwise comparisons showed no significant differences between the groups that bonded with different adhesives. The adhesive failure was the most common failure mode observed. Conclusion: This study suggests that GIC-based adhesive could be applied over RMGIC as co-cure technique for sandwich restorations in lieu of employing the resin

  4. Characterization of antibacterial and adhesion properties of chitosan-modified glass ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marrwa A; Neo, Jennifer; Esguerra, Roxanna J; Fawzy, Amr S

    2015-10-01

    The aim is to investigate the effect of modifying the liquid phase of a conventional glass ionomer restorative material with different chitosan volume contents on the antibacterial properties and adhesion to dentin. The liquids of commercially available restorative glass ionomer cements (GIC) were modified with chitosan (CH) solutions at different volume contents (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%). The GIC powders were mixed with the unmodified and the CH-modified liquids at the desired powder/liquid (P/L) ratio. For the characterization of the antibacterial properties, Streptococcus mutans biofilms were formed on GIC discs and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), confocal microscopy, colony forming unit (CFU) count, and cell viability assay (MTS). The unmodified and CH-modified GICs were bonded to dentin surfaces and the micro-tensile bond strength (µTBs) was evaluated and the interface was investigated by SEM. Modification with CH solutions enhanced the antibacterial properties against S. mutans in terms of resistance to biofilm formation, CFU count, and MTS assay. Generally, significant improvement in the antibacterial properties was found with the increase in the CH volume content. Modification with 25% and 50% CH adversely affected the µTBs with predominant cohesive failure in the GIC. However, no difference was found between the control and the 5% and 10% CH-modified specimens. Incorporation of acidic solutions of chitosan in the polyacrylic acid liquid of GIC at v/v ratios of 5-10% improved the antibacterial properties of conventional glass ionomer cement against S. mutans without adversely affecting its bonding to dentin surface. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Effects of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation on orthodontic resin modified glass ionomer adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Danielle Wiggins

    This study examined the effect of varying delayed polymerization times in combination with bracket manipulation on shear bond strength (SBS), degree of conversion (DC), and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score when using a resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) adhesive. Specimens were divided into three groups of clinically relevant delay times (0.5, 2, and 4-min) to simulate the delay that frequently occurs between bracket placement and manipulation and subsequent light curing. Based on an analysis of variance (alpha=.05), the SBS was not significantly different between the three groups. While one of the goals of this study was to be the first study to quantify DC of RMGI using Raman microspectroscopy, several challenges, including weak peak signal with and without fluorescence, were encountered and as a result, DC could not be determined. A significant difference (pbracket with increasing delay time. A Spearman correlation between SBS and ARI indicated no positive association between SBS and ARI measures across delay times. The results of this study suggest that clinically relevant delay times of 0.5, 2, and 4-min do not negatively impact the SBS of a RMGI adhesive. However, with increasing delay time, the results suggest that more adhesive might remain on the bracket during debonding. With more adhesive remaining on the bracket, this could be beneficial in that less adhesive needs to be removed from enamel by grinding at the time of bracket removal when orthodontic treatment is completed.

  6. Microleakage of class V cavities restored with nanofilled resin modified glass ionomer and conventional glass ionomer with self etch adhesive and self etch primer

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    Mansore Mirzaie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Microleakage is a criterion proposed for assessing the success of any restorative material. Complete seal is difficult especially for dentin margins compared to enamel margins. The aim of this study was to assess the microleakage at the enamel and dentin margins of class V cavities restored by two GIs and two self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: This study was done on forty third molars. Class V cavities (3×2×2mm were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of teeth using high speed handpiece with 0.8 mm diamond fissure burr. The occlusal margins of the cavities in the enamel and gingival marginswere placed 1 mm below the CEJ. The teeth were divided into 4 groups and the bondings were cured for 20 sec and the teeth were restored. The specimens were kept in distilled water at the temperature of 37°C for 24 hrs. The teeth were thermo cycled and cut in buccolingual direction using diamond disc under water. The dye penetration was evaluated using a stereomicroscope and the leakage was scored. The scores were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test while the paired comparisons were done using Bonferroni correction. P≤0.05 was regarded as significant results. Results: Microleakage scores were similar at the occlusal and gingival walls of all test groups. At the gingival walls, the least microleakage scores were observed. “Fuji IX + SE bond” group showed significant differences with the “Fuji IX + G bond” and “Nanoglass + G bond” groups (P≤0.05. At the occlusal walls, the least scores were observed in the “Fuji IX+SE bond” specimens which were significantly different from the other groups (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Self-Cure glass ionomers yielded less microleakage scores compared to the different types of light-cures due to the less polymerization shrinkage.

  7. Microleakage after Thermocycling of Three Self-Etch Adhesives under Resin-Modified Glass-Ionomer Cement Restorations

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    Sabine O. Geerts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate microleakage that appeared on Resin-Modified Glass-Ionomer Cement (RMGIC restorations. Sixty class V cavities (h×w×l=2mm×2mm×3mm were cut on thirty extracted third molars, which were randomly allocated to three experimental groups. All the buccal cavities were pretreated with polyacrylic acid, whereas the lingual cavities were treated with three one-step Self-Etch adhesives, respectively, Xeno III (Dentsply Detrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany, iBond exp (Heraeus Kulzer gmbH & Co. KG, Hanau, Germany, and Adper Prompt-L-Pop (3M ESPE AG, Dental products Seefeld, Germany. All cavities were completely filled with RMGIC, teeth were thermocycled for 800 cycles, and leakage was evaluated. Results were expressed as means ± standard deviations (SDs. Microleakage scores were analysed by means of generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs assuming an ordinal logistic link function. All results were considered to be significant at the 5% critical level (<.05. The results showed that bonding RMGIC to dentin with a Self-Etch adhesive rather than using polyacrylic acid did not influence microleakage scores (=.091, except for one tested Self-Etch adhesive, namely, Xeno III (<.0001. Nevertheless, our results did not show any significant difference between the three tested Self-Etch adhesive systems. In conclusion, the pretreatment of dentin with Self-Etch adhesive system, before RMGIC filling, seems to be an alternative to the conventional Dentin Conditioner for the clinicians as suggested by our results (thermocycling and others (microtensile tests.

  8. Adhesion of Streptococcus Mutans to Glass Ionomer, BisCem Cement and Enamel: An In Vitro Study

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    Ezzatollah Jalalian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Considering the adhesion of some microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans to restorative materials and the unrecognized consequences of this phenomenon, and due to the controversies in this regard, it is important to discover the materials to which the lowest adhesion of S. mutans occurs. The objective of this study was to assess the level of adhesion of S. mutans to glass ionomer (GI, BisCem Cement and enamel.Materials and Methods:In this in vitro experimental study, 12 specimens including five GI blocks (GC America Inc., Alsip, IL, USA, five BisCem blocks (Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA and two enamel blocks were exposed to a bacterial suspension (1×106 mg/mL. After incubation for one hour at 37˚C, the swab samples were taken and cultured in blood agar. The S. mutans colonies were counted by unaided vision after 48 hours of incubation. The results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by the Tukey’s test.Results:The number of colonies attributed to enamel, GI, and BisCem blocks was 24±2, 24.2±2.7 and 14.8±1.7 colonies/mm2, respectively. There was no difference between enamel and GI in terms of adhesion of S. mutans (P=0.08 and P>0.001, respectively; however, the difference between these two and BisCem was statistically significant (P= 0.00075 and P<0.001, respectively.Conclusion:Within the limitations of this study, BisCem cement is superior to GI for the cementation of indirect restorations.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA AR-SA A Review of Glass-Ionomer Cements for Clinical Dentistry

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    Sharanbir K. Sidhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an updated review of the published literature on glass-ionomer cements and covers their structure, properties and clinical uses within dentistry, with an emphasis on findings from the last five years or so. Glass-ionomers are shown to set by an acid-base reaction within 2–3 min and to form hard, reasonably strong materials with acceptable appearance. They release fluoride and are bioactive, so that they gradually develop a strong, durable interfacial ion-exchange layer at the interface with the tooth, which is responsible for their adhesion. Modified forms of glass-ionomers, namely resin-modified glass-ionomers and glass carbomer, are also described and their properties and applications covered. Physical properties of the resin-modified glass-ionomers are shown to be good, and comparable with those of conventional glass-ionomers, but biocompatibility is somewhat compromised by the presence of the resin component, 2 hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Properties of glass carbomer appear to be slightly inferior to those of the best modern conventional glass-ionomers, and there is not yet sufficient information to determine how their bioactivity compares, although they have been formulated to enhance this particular feature.

  9. Glass ionomer cement: literature review

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    Sérgio Spezzia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the dental area preventive actions occur in an attempt to avoid the installation of caries, a disease that has an increased prevalence in the population and which is a Public Health problem. Some resources are used for such, such as: performing early diagnosis and the option for conservative treatments of minimal intervention. The glass ionomer cement (CIV, coming from its beneficial characteristics that meet current trends, is closely related to the precepts of Preventive and Minimally Invasive Dentistry and the new preservative techniques recommended. Objective: The objective of the present article was to carry out a literature review study, to determine the characteristics of CIV that has a prominent role in the Minimally Invasive Dentistry profile. Results: The dentist surgeon must be aware of the classification, according to its composition and physical-chemical nature: conventional ionomers; ionomers reinforced by metals; high viscosity and various types of resin modified glass ionomers to correctly choose the CIV that will be used in their clinical interventions, which should occur based on the properties of the material and its clinical indication. Conclusion: It was concluded that the implementation of preventive techniques with CIV in public health care, tend to minimize curative treatments, concurrently valuing the low complexity dental procedures performed in Primary Care, avoiding referrals for treatment of cases of greater complexity at the level Secondary and tertiary care, saving resources.

  10. Glass ionomer cement: literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Spezzia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In the dental area preventive actions occur in an attempt to avoid the installation of caries, a disease that has an increased prevalence in the population and which is a Public Health problem. Some resources are used for such, such as: performing early diagnosis and the option for conservative treatments of minimal intervention. The glass ionomer cement (CIV), coming from its beneficial characteristics that meet current trends, is closely related to the precepts of Preventive a...

  11. Marginal microleakage of resin-modified glass-ionomer and composite resin restorations: Effect of using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives

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    Maryam Khoroushi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous studies have shown that dental adhesives increase the bond strength of resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI restorative materials to dentin. This in vitro study has evaluated the effect of etch-and-rinse and self-etch bonding systems v/s cavity conditioner, and in comparison to similar composite resin restorations on maintaining the marginal sealing of RMGI restorations. Materials and Methods: 98 rectangular cavities (2.5×3×1.5 mm were prepared on buccal and palatal aspects of 49 human maxillary premolars, randomly divided into 7 groups (N=14. The cavities in groups 1, 2 and 3 were restored using a composite resin (APX. The cavities in groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 were restored using a resin-modified glass-ionomer (Fuji II LC. Before restoring, adhesive systems (Optibond FL = OFL, three-step etch-and-rinse; One Step Plus = OSP, two-step etch-and-rinse; Clearfil Protect Bond = CPB, two-step self-etch were used as bonding agents in groups 1-6 as follow: OFL in groups 1 and 4, OSP in groups 2 and 5, and CPB in groups 3 and 6, respectively. The specimens in group 7 were restored with GC cavity conditioner and Fuji II LC. All the specimens were thermo-cycled for 1000 cycles. Microleakage scores were determined using dye penetration method. Statistical analyzes were carried out with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (α=0.05. Results: There were significant differences in microleakage scores at both enamel and dentinal margins between the study groups (P<0.05. The lowest microleakage scores at enamel and dentin margins of RMGI restorations were observed in group 6. Conclusion: Use of two-step self-etch adhesive, prior to restoring cervical cavities with RMGIC, seems to be more efficacious than the conventional cavity conditioner in decreasing marginal microleakage.

  12. A review of glass-ionomers: From conventional glass-ionomer to bioactive glass-ionomer

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    Maryam Khoroushi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials used in the body, especially the materials used in various oral cavity regions should be stable and passive without any interactions with the body tissues or fluids. Dental amalgam, composite resins and dental cements are the materials of choice with such properties. The first attempts to produce active materials, which could interact with the human body tissues and fluids were prompted by the concept that fluoride-releasing materials exert useful effects in the body. The concept of using the "smart" materials in dentistry has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Conventional glass-ionomer (GI cements have a large number of applications in dentistry. They are biocompatible with the dental pulp to some extent. GI is predominantly used as cements in dentistry; however, they have some disadvantages, the most important of which is lack of adequate strength and toughness. In an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of the conventional GI, resin-modified glass-ionomers have been marketed, with hydrophilic monomers, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylated (HEMA. Some recent studies have evaluated GI with bioactive glass in its structure to validate the claims that such a combination will improve tooth bioactivity, regeneration capacity and restoration. There is ever-increasing interest in the application of bioactive materials in the dental field in an attempt to remineralize affected dentin. The aim of this review article is to evaluate these materials and their characteristics and applications.

  13. Phase separation in an ionomer glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Tian, K.V.; Dobó-Nagy, C.

    2015-01-01

    The G338 ionomer glass is a fluoro-alumino-silicate system, which is used as the powder component of glass ionomer cements (GICs) in dental applications. However, despite progress in understanding the nature of this glass, chemical identity of its separated amorphous phases has not yet been...... amorphous phases in G388 are Ca/Na-Al-Si-O, Ca-Al-F and Ca-P-O-F phases, respectively. However, the exact chemical compositions of the three phases still require further exploration. The results of this work are important for understanding the impact of phase separation within ionomer glasses on the setting...... conclusively determined. In this work, we identify these phases by performing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses on both the as-received glass and heat-treated samples. We detected three glass transitions in the as-received G338 glass during DSC upscaning, implying...

  14. Resin-modified and conventional glass ionomer restorations in primary teeth: 8-year results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, V.; Manscher, E.; Teglers, P.T.

    2004-01-01

    clinical trial, cariostatic effects, dental restorations, glass ionomer cement, long-term behaviour, pedodontics, resin-modified glass ionomer......clinical trial, cariostatic effects, dental restorations, glass ionomer cement, long-term behaviour, pedodontics, resin-modified glass ionomer...

  15. Development of antimicrobial optimum glass ionomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angioletto, E.; Tezza, V.B.; Santos, M.J.; Montedo, O.R.K.; Pich, C.T.; Fiori, M.A.; Angioletto, Ev.

    2010-01-01

    The use of glass ionomer for restorations in dentistry for lower income population is a well established practice in public clinics of Brazil. However the average price of this kind of material and its low durability still have a negative impact on public health for being imported and frequently replaced it becomes expensive for the manufacturers and for public agencies. In glass ionomer the main antimicrobial agent is fluoride, which is released gradually. The material used for filling provides an average life of five years and its durability can be increased if the ionomer contains other oligodynamic elements. It was formulated, merged a new optimized glass ionomer which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ion measurement and antimicrobial activity. This new product showed promising results, that pointed structural stability an increase of antimicrobial efficiency. (author)

  16. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  17. Effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement lining and composite layering technique on the adhesive interface of lateral wall

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    Larissa Marinho AZEVEDO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interface integrity can be maintained by setting the composite in a layering technique and using liners. Objective The aim of this in vitro study was to verify the effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC lining and composite layering technique on the bond strength of the dentin/resin adhesive interface of lateral walls of occlusal restorations. Material and Methods Occlusal cavities were prepared in 52 extracted sound human molars, randomly assigned into 4 groups: Group 2H (control – no lining + two horizontal layers; Group 4O: no lining + four oblique layers; Group V-2H: RMGIC lining (Vitrebond + two horizontal layers; and Group V-4O: RMGIC lining (Vitrebond + four oblique layers. Resin composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE was placed after application of an adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE dyed with a fluorescent reagent (Rhodamine B to allow confocal microscopy analysis. The teeth were stored in deionized water at 37oC for 24 hours before being sectioned into 0.8 mm slices. One slice of each tooth was randomly selected for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM analysis. The other slices were sectioned into 0.8 mm x 0.8 mm sticks to microtensile bond strength test (MPa. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Fisher's test. Results There was no statistical difference on bond strength among groups (p>0.05. CLSM analysis showed no significant statistical difference regarding the presence of gap at the interface dentin/resin among groups. Conclusions RMGIC lining and composite layering techniques showed no effect on the microtensile bond strength and gap formation at the adhesive interface of lateral walls of high C-factor occlusal restorations.

  18. Effect of Rebonding on the Bond Strength of Orthodontic Tubes: A Comparison of Light Cure Adhesive and Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement In Vitro

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    Monika Aleksiejunaite

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of different enamel preparation procedures and compare light cure composite (LCC and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI on the bond strength of orthodontic metal tubes rebonded to the enamel. Twenty human molars were divided into two groups (n=10. Tubes were bonded using LCC (Transbond XT in group 1 and RMGI (Fuji Ortho LC in group 2. The tubes in each group were bonded following manufacturers’ instructions (experiment I and then debonded using testing machine. Then, the same brackets were sandblasted and rebonded twice. Before the first rebonding, the enamel was cleaned using carbide bur (experiment II and before second rebonding, it was cleaned using carbide bur and soda blasted (experiment III. Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests showed no significant difference between RMGI and LCC bond strengths in case of normal bonding and rebonding, when enamel was cleaned using carbide bur before rebonding. Enamel soda blasting before rebonding significantly increased RMGI tensile bond strength value compared to LLC (p<0.05. LCC and RMGI (especially RMGI provide sufficient bond strengths for rebonding of molar tubes, when residual adhesive from previous bonding is removed and enamel soda blasted.

  19. Marginal Integrity of Glass Ionomer and All Ceramic Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    North Carolina), scanned by the CEREC Omnicam , and milled by CEREC inLab MC XL system. 15 List of Procedures in Chronological Order 1. The...Fuji II LC, GC America, Alsip, Illinois). Forty lithium disilicate porcelain ceramic inlays will be milled from CEREC Block PC (Sirona, Charlotte...evolution of the CEREC system. Journal of the American Dental Association, 137, 7s-13s. Mount G.J. (1991). Adhesion of glass-ionomer cement in the clinical

  1. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part 1): Glass synthesis and characterisation, and the effects on the cement handling variables and ... acid to form glass ionomer cements, whose properties were investigated at different time points: working and setting times were determined by rheometry; and, ...

  2. Spheroidization of glass powders for glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y W; Yap, A U J; Cheang, P; Kumar, R

    2004-08-01

    Commercial angular glass powders were spheroidized using both the flame spraying and inductively coupled radio frequency plasma spraying techniques. Spherical powders with different particle size distributions were obtained after spheroidization. The effects of spherical glass powders on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) were investigated. Results showed that the particle size distribution of the glass powders had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of GICs. Powders with a bimodal particle size distribution ensured a high packing density of glass ionomer cements, giving relatively high mechanical properties of GICs. GICs prepared by flame-spheroidized powders showed low strength values due to the loss of fine particles during flame spraying, leading to a low packing density and few metal ions reacting with polyacrylic acid to form cross-linking. GICs prepared by the nano-sized powders showed low strength because of the low bulk density of the nano-sized powders and hence low powder/liquid ratio of GICs.

  3. Distribusi Streptococcus mutans pada Tepi Tumpatan Glass Ionomer

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    Abdul Muthalib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries always occurs as a result of the filling not being hermetically. Purposes of this research is to prove whether there is a leak on the border of the tooth enamel and border between the Glass-ionomer filling with the Streptococcus mutans infection with parameter of SMAAPPI (Simplified S. mutans Approximal Plaque Index by Keeni et al, 1981. The subject of the research were 20 patients who came to the Dental Clinic at University of Indonesia with criteria possessing Glass-ionomer filling at the lower jaws. Collection of the samples were dental plaque gathered using a 1.5 mm excavator to scrape one way direction from the enamel, along the border between the enamel and Glass-ionomer filling and Glass-ionomer filling's surface. Isolation with medium transport sem-synthetic Cariostat and TSY20B and identification by using biochemical test. isolated colony strain local Streptococcus mutans from enamel, the border enamel and Glass-ionomer and the surface of the Glass-ionomer. The results were Streptococcus mutans were found from enamel 3006 colonies, on the border between the enamel and Glass-ionomer 143 colonies and on the surface of the Glss-ionomer 7291 colonies. Amoung of Streptococcus mutans colony obtained on the border of the enamel and Glass-ionomer were smaller compared to the surface of the Glass-ionomer and tooth enamel. Concluded that the leak of the filling was not caused by the number of distributed Streptooccus mutans colonies on the side, because the fluoroapatite fastener occurred due to the Glass-ionomer releasing in fluor along the border of the filling.

  4. Tensile bond strength between different glass ionomer cement and composite resin using three adhesive systems Avaliação da resistência de união interfacial entre diferentes cimentos de ionômero de vidro e resina composta, usando três sistemas adesivos

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    Patrícia Dias

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength (TBS among a Composite Resin (Filtek Z250 and six conventional Glass Ionomer Cements, three used for lining (Bioglass F, Vidrion F and Glass Ionomer L.C. and three for restorations (Ketac Fil, Vidrion R and Glass Ionomer type II etched and non etched, using three adhesive systems (Single Bond, Bond 1 and Stae. Thirty-six groups were made, ten samples for each group, totalizing 360 specimens. There were significant differences on TBS among groups. Group 31 (Glass Ionomer Cement type II showed the highest TBS (9.65 MPa in comparison to other tested groups. Group 16 (Glass Ionomer L.C presented the lowest TBS (2.72 MPa in comparison to all the other groups. Therefore, it can be concluded that the acid etching of the Glass Ionomer Cement is not necessary. Foi avaliada, ">in vitro, a resistência de união, por tração, entre uma Resina Composta micro-híbrida (Filtek Z-250 e seis Cimentos de Ionômero de Vidro (CIV convencionais: três utilizados para base/forramento (Bioglass F, Vidrion F e Glass Ionomer Lining Cement e três para restauração (Ketac Fil, Vidrion R e Glass Ionomer Cement type II, sem e com condicionamento ácido ortofosfórico a 37%, usando três sistemas adesivos (Single Bond, Bond 1 e Stae. Foram confeccionados 36 grupos de 10 corpos-de-prova cada, totalizando 360 espécimes. Para análise estatística, foi utilizado o teste de Tukey-Kramer. Dentre os três CIV de base/forramento, os grupos 2 e 5 (Bioglass F apresentaram valores mais altos de adesividade à resina (7,24 e 6,03 MPa respectivamente. Quanto aos três CIV de restauração, todos apresentaram maior resistência de união, superior aos de base/forramento, sendo que o Glass Ionomer Cement type II (Grupo 31 e Vidrion R apresentaram maior força de adesão (9,65 e 7,47 MPa à resina composta. O grupo 16 (Glass Ionomer L.C. mostrou menor adesividade à resina (2,72 MPa. Houve diferenças significantes

  5. Benefits and drawbacks of zinc in glass ionomer bone cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G [Unit of Dental Physical Sciences, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Gentleman, Eileen; Stevens, Molly M [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Farrar, David F, E-mail: d.brauer@qmul.ac.uk [Smith and Nephew Research Centre, York Science Park, Heslington YO10 5DF (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements (GPCs) based on poly(acrylic acid) and fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses are successfully used in a variety of orthopaedic and dental applications; however, they release small amounts of aluminium, which is a neurotoxin and inhibits bone mineralization in vivo. Therefore there has been significant interest in developing aluminium-free glasses containing zinc for forming GPCs because zinc can play a similar structural role in the glass, allowing for glass degradation and subsequent cement setting, and is reported to have beneficial effects on bone formation. We created zinc-containing GPCs and characterized their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Zinc-containing cements showed adhesion to bone close to 1 MPa, which was significantly greater than that of zinc-free cements (<0.05 MPa) and other currently approved biological adhesives. However, zinc-containing cements produced significantly lower metabolic activity in mouse osteoblasts exposed to cell culture medium conditioned with the cements than controls. Results show that although low levels of zinc may be beneficial to cells, zinc concentrations of 400 {mu}M Zn{sup 2+} or more resulted in cell death. In summary, we demonstrate that while zinc-containing GPCs possess excellent mechanical properties, they fail basic biocompatibility tests, produce an acute cytotoxic response in vitro, which may preclude their use in vivo.

  6. Comparison of the Amount of Fluoride Release from Nanofilled Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Conventional and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitha Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate and compare the amount of fluoride release of conventional, resin modified and nanofilled resin modified glass ionomer cements.Materials and Methods: Tablets of glass-ionomer cements were immersed in deionized water and incubated at 37◦C. After 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days, fluoride ion was measured under normal atmospheric conditions by fluoride ion selective electrode. Buffer (TISAB II was used to decomplex the fluoride ion and to provide a constant background ionic strength and to maintain the pH of water between 5.0 and 5.5 as the fluoride electrode is sensitive to changes in pH. Statistical evaluation was carried out by one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance using SPSS 11.0. The significance level was set at p< 0.05.Results: The release of fluoride was highest on day 1 and there was a sudden fall on day 2 in all three groups. Initially fluoride release from conven-tional glass-ionomer cement was highest compared to the other two glass-ionomer cements, but the amount drastically reduced over the period. Although the amount of fluoride release was less than both the resin modified and nanofilled resin modified glass-ionomer cement, the release was sustained consistently for 30 daysConclusion: The cumulative fluoride release of nanofilled resin modified glass ionomer cement was very less compared to the conventional and resin modified glass ionomer cements and Nanofilled resin modified glass ionomer cement released less but steady fluoride as compared to other resin modified glass ionomer cements.

  7. Benefits and drawbacks of zinc in glass ionomer bone cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G; Gentleman, Eileen; Stevens, Molly M; Farrar, David F

    2011-01-01

    Glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements (GPCs) based on poly(acrylic acid) and fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses are successfully used in a variety of orthopaedic and dental applications; however, they release small amounts of aluminium, which is a neurotoxin and inhibits bone mineralization in vivo. Therefore there has been significant interest in developing aluminium-free glasses containing zinc for forming GPCs because zinc can play a similar structural role in the glass, allowing for glass degradation and subsequent cement setting, and is reported to have beneficial effects on bone formation. We created zinc-containing GPCs and characterized their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Zinc-containing cements showed adhesion to bone close to 1 MPa, which was significantly greater than that of zinc-free cements ( 2+ or more resulted in cell death. In summary, we demonstrate that while zinc-containing GPCs possess excellent mechanical properties, they fail basic biocompatibility tests, produce an acute cytotoxic response in vitro, which may preclude their use in vivo.

  8. Thermo-cured glass ionomer cements in restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorseta, Kristina; Glavina, Domagoj

    2017-01-01

    Numerous positive properties of glass ionomer cements including biocompatibility, bioactivity, releasing of fluoride and good adhesion to hard dental tissue even under wet conditions and easy of handling are reasons for their wide use in paediatric and restorative dentistry. Their biggest drawbacks are the weaker mechanical properties. An important step forward in improving GIC's features is thermo-curing with the dental polymerization unit during setting of the material. Due to their slow setting characteristics the GIC is vulnerable to early exposure to moisture. After thermo curing, cements retain all the benefits of GIC with developed better mechanical properties, improved marginal adaptation, increased microhardness and shear bond strength. Adding external energy through thermocuring or ultrasound during the setting of conventional GIC is crucial to achieve faster and better initial mechanical properties. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  9. Influence of citric acid on the surface texture of glass ionomer restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Dappili Swami Ranga; Kumar, Ramachandran Anil; Venkatesan, Sokkalingam Mothilal; Narayan, Gopal Shankar; Duraivel, Dasarathan; Indra, Rajamani

    2014-09-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of G-coat plus surface protective agent over petroleum jelly on the surface texture of conventional Glass ionomer restorative materials. Three chemically cured conventional glass ionomer restorative materials type II, type IX and ketac molar were evaluated in this study. Sixty specimens were made for each restorative material. They were divided into two groups of thirty specimens each. Of the sixty specimens, thirty were coated with G-coat plus (a nano-filler coating) and the rest with petroleum jelly. Thirty samples of both protective coating agents were randomly divided into six groups of five specimens and conditioned in citric acid solutions of differing pH (pH 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7). Each specimen was kept in citric acid for three hours a day, and the rest of time stored in salivary substitute. This procedure was repeated for 8 days. After conditioning, the surface roughness (Ra, μm) of each specimen was measured using a surface profilometer (Taylor & Habson, UK). Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD test at a significance level of 0.05. The surface textures of all the tested glass ionomer restorative materials protected with G-coat plus were not significantly affected by acids at low pH. The surface textures of all the tested glass ionomer restorative materials protected with petroleum jelly coating were significantly affected by acids at low pH. The effects of pH on the surface texture of glass ionomer restoratives are material dependent. Among all the materials tested the surface texture of Type II GIC (Group I) revealed marked deterioration when conditioned in solutions of low pH and was statistically significant. Hence, a protective coating either with G-coat plus or with light polymerized low viscosity unfilled resin adhesives is mandatory for all the glass ionomer restorations to increase the wear resistance of the restorative materials.

  10. Microleakage of conventional, resin-modified, and nano-ionomer glass ionomer cement as primary teeth filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Madyarani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glass ionomer cements are one of many dental materials that widely used in pediatric dentistry due to their advantage of fluoride release and chemical bond to tooth structure. Adherence of the filling material to the cavity walls is one of the most important characteristic that need to be examined its effect on microleakage. Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the microleakage of nano-ionomer glass ionomer cement compared with the conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements. Methods: Standard class V cavities sized 3 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm were made on a total of 21 extracted maxillary primary canine teeth and restored with the conventional, resin-modified, dan nano-ionomer glass ionomer cements. All the teeth were immersed in a 2% methylene blue dye for 4 hours. The depth of dye penetration was assessed using digital microscope after sectioning the teeth labio-palatally. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: All type of glass ionomer material showed microleakage. Conventional glass ionomer cement demonstrated the least microleakage with mean score 1.29. the resin-modified glass ionomer cements (mean score 1.57 and nano-ionomer glass ionomer cement (mean score 2.57. Conclusion: The conventional glassionomer, resin modified glassionomer, and nano-ionomer glassionomer showed micro leakage as filling material in primary teeth cavity. The micro leakage among three types was not significant difference. All three material were comparable in performance and can be used for filling material but still needs a coating material to fill the microleakage.Latar belakang: Semen ionomer kaca adalah salah satu dari banyak bahan gigi yang banyak digunakan dalam praktek kedokteran gigi anak karena bahan tersebut merilis fluoride dan berikatan kimia dengan struktur gigi. Perlekatan bahan tumpatan pada dinding kavitas adalah salah satu karakteristik paling penting yang perlu diteliti efeknya terhadap

  11. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of substituting strontium for calcium in fluoroaluminosilicate glass on the mechanical and ion-releasing properties of high-viscosity glass ionomer cements. Design: An exploratory, laboratory-based study. Setting: Dental biomaterials research laboratory, Dental Physical Sciences Unit, ...

  12. Marginal leakage of two newer glass-ionomer-based sealant materials assessed using micro-CT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Fan, M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test newer glass-ionomer-based materials as sealant materials. One glass-ionomer sealant was light-cured to obtain an early setting reaction. The null-hypothesis tested was: there is no difference in marginal leakage of sealants produced with high-viscosity glass-ionomer, with and

  13. Interfacial Shear Strength and Adhesive Behavior of Silk Ionomer Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghan; Geryak, Ren D; Zhang, Shuaidi; Ma, Ruilong; Calabrese, Rossella; Kaplan, David L; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2017-09-11

    The interfacial shear strength between different layers in multilayered structures of layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules is a crucial mechanical property to ensure their robustness. In this work, we investigated the interfacial shear strength of modified silk fibroin ionomers utilized in LbL shells, an ionic-cationic pair with complementary ionic pairing, (SF)-poly-l-glutamic acid (Glu) and SF-poly-l-lysine (Lys), and a complementary pair with partially screened Coulombic interactions due to the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments and SF-Glu/SF-Lys[PEG] pair. Shearing and adhesive behavior between these silk ionomer surfaces in the swollen state were probed at different spatial scales and pressure ranges by using functionalized atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips as well as functionalized colloidal probes. The results show that both approaches were consistent in analyzing the interfacial shear strength of LbL silk ionomers at different spatial scales from a nanoscale to a fraction of a micron. Surprisingly, the interfacial shear strength between SF-Glu and SF-Lys[PEG] pair with partially screened ionic pairing was greater than the interfacial shear strength of the SF-Glu and SF-Lys pair with a high density of complementary ionic groups. The difference in interfacial shear strength and adhesive strength is suggested to be predominantly facilitated by the interlayer hydrogen bonding of complementary amino acids and overlap of highly swollen PEG segments.

  14. Coating glass-ionomer cements with a nanofilled resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifacio, C.C.; Werner, A.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a nanofilled resin coat on the flexural strength (FS) and the early wear (after 50 000 and 200 000 cycles) of the glass-ionomer cements Fuji IX GP Extra (FIXE) and Ketac Molar Aplicap (KM). Materials and methods. Specimens were

  15. Mechanical behavior of a bi-layer glass ionomer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifácio, C.C.; de Jager, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A high-viscosity consistency of the glass-ionomer cement (GIC) may lead to poor adaptation into the cavity. The use of a flowable GIC layer seemed to improve its adaptation in approximal restorations in vitro. In this study we assessed the flexural strength of a two-layered GIC, using a

  16. Dental Glass Ionomer Cements as Permanent Filling Materials? – Properties, Limitations and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lohbauer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are clinically attractive dental materials that have certain unique properties that make them useful as restorative and luting materials. This includes adhesion to moist tooth structures and base metals, anticariogenic properties due to release of fluoride, thermal compatibility with tooth enamel, biocompatibility and low toxicity. The use of GICs in a mechanically loaded situation, however, has been hampered by their low mechanical performance. Poor mechanical properties, such as low fracture strength, toughness and wear, limit their extensive use in dentistry as a filling material in stress-bearing applications. In the posterior dental region, glass ionomer cements are mostly used as a temporary filling material. The requirement to strengthen those cements has lead to an ever increasing research effort into reinforcement or strengthening concepts.

  17. Evaluation of microtensile bond strength of total-etch, self-etch, and glass ionomer adhesive to human dentin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the microtensile bond strength of Single Bond, AdheSE, and Fuji Bond LC to human dentin. Fifteen non-carious third molars were selected for the study. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups of five teeth each. Each group was given a different bonding treatment. Group I was treated with Single Bond (3M, ESPE, group II with AdheSE (Ivoclar, Vivadent, and group III was treated with Fuji Bond LC (GC America. A T-band metal matrix was placed and composite resin bonded on to the tooth surface using appropriate bonding agents. The composite resin was packed in increments and light cured. Each tooth was sectioned to obtain 1 mm x 1 mm beams of dentin-resin samples. Tensile bond testing was done using a universal testing machine (Instron at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results: The mean bond strength of Single Bond (35.5 MPa was significantly higher than that of AdheSE (32.8 MPa and Fuji Bond LC (32.6 MPa. The difference between the microtensile bond strength values of AdheSE and Fuji Bond LC was statistically insignificant. Inference: Though the bond strength of AdheSE and Fuji Bond LC was above 30 MPa, it was less than that of Single Bond as evaluated by testing of microtensile bond strength.

  18. Kekuatan perlekatan geser semen ionomer kaca terhadap dentin dan NiCr alloy (Shear bond strenght of glass ionomer cement in dentin and NiCr alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Leonita

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements were used broadly in restorative dentistry. That’s why researchers always try to invent new form of glass ionomer cement. The newest invention was the paste-paste formulation. Shear bond strenght of powder-liquid glass ionomer cement and paste-paste glass ionomer cement in dentin and NiCr alloy was tested to 4 groups of samples. Each group consisted contain 6 samples that were shaped into cylinder with 4 mm of diameter and 5 mm of height. Group A was dentin with powder-liquid glass ionomer cement, group B was dentin with paste-paste glass ionomer cement, group C was alloy with powder-liquid glass ionomer cement, and group D was alloy with paste-paste glass ionomer cement. Each sample in each group was tested with Autograph. The datas were analyzed statistically using T-test with level of signficance 0.05. The result showed that powder-liquid glass ionomer cement shear bond strenght was 211 N and paste-paste glass ionomer cement was 166.92 N. That showed that powder-liquid glass ionomer cement had a better shear bond strenght.

  19. The influence of particle size and fluorine content of aluminosilicate glass on the glass ionomer cement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caluwé, T; Vercruysse, C W J; Fraeyman, S; Verbeeck, R M H

    2014-09-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are clinically accepted dental restorative materials mainly due to their direct chemical adhesion to both enamel and dentin and their ability to release fluoride. However, their mechanical properties are inferior compared to those of amalgam and composite. The aim of this study is to investigate if combinations of nano- and macrogranular glass with different compositions in a glass ionomer cement can improve the mechanical and physical properties. Glasses with the composition 4.5 SiO2-3 Al2O3-1.5 P2O5-(5-x) CaO-x CaF2 (x=0 and x=2) were prepared. Of each type of glass, particles with a median size of about 0.73 μm and 6.02 μm were made. The results show that the setting time of GIC decreases when macrogranular glass particles are replaced by nanogranular glass particles, whereas the compressive strength and Young's modulus, measured after 24 h setting, increase. The effects are more pronounced when the nanogranular glass particles contain fluoride. After thermocycling, compressive strength decreases for nearly all formulations, the effect being most pronounced for cements containing nanogranular glass particles. Hence, the strength of the GIC seems mainly determined by the macrogranular glass particles. Cumulative F--release decreases when the macrogranular glass particles with fluoride are replaced by nanogranular glass particles with(out) fluoride. The present study thus shows that replacing macro- by nanogranular glass particles with different compositions can lead to cements with approximately the same physical properties (e.g. setting time, consistency), but with different physicochemical (e.g. F--release, water-uptake) and initial mechanical properties. On the long term, the mechanical properties are mainly determined by the macrogranular glass particles. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tunnel restorations using glass ionomer or glass cermet: in vitro marginal ridge fracture and microleakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, R; Munshi, A K

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal ridge fracture resistance and microleakage following restorations of partial tunnel preparations using glass ionomer and glass cermet cements. Sixty eight sound premolars were selected for this study and were divided randomly into six groups. A standardized partial tunnel preparation was done on all the teeth except specimens belonging to Group I. The partial tunnel preparations of Groups III & V were restored with glass ionomer and that of Groups IV & VI were restored with glass cermet. The teeth belonging to Groups I, II, III & IV were subjected to marginal ridge fracture resistance testing. The teeth of Groups V & VI were tested for microleakage after immersing them in 5% methylene blue solution for 4 hours. The results indicated that the teeth restored with glass cermet were marginally better than that with glass ionomer in terms of marginal ridge fracture resistance. Both the materials failed to reinforce the marginal ridge to the level of an intact tooth. The microleakage which occurred around both the materials were statistically insignificant, but on comparison glass ionomer showed better results. Hence, glass ionomer is preferred as a restorative material for partial tunnel preparations because of additional inherent advantages like superior esthetics and fluoride leachability.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage Between Nano-Ionomer, Giomer and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement in Class V Cavities- CLSM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollu, Indira Priyadarshini; Hari, Archana; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Velagula, Lakshmi Deepa; Bolla, Nagesh; Varri, Sujana; Kasaraneni, Srikanth; Nalli, Siva Venkata Malathi

    2016-05-01

    Marginal integrity of adhesive restorative materials provides better sealing ability for enamel and dentin and plays an important role in success of restoration in Class V cavities. Restorative material with good marginal adaptation improves the longevity of restorations. Aim of this study was to evaluate microleakage in Class V cavities which were restored with Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC), Giomer and Nano-Ionomer. This in-vitro study was performed on 60 human maxillary and mandibular premolars which were extracted for orthodontic reasons. A standard wedge shaped defect was prepared on the buccal surfaces of teeth with the gingival margin placed near Cemento Enamel Junction (CEJ). Teeth were divided into three groups of 20 each and restored with RMGIC, Giomer and Nano-Ionomer and were subjected to thermocycling. Teeth were then immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B dye for 48 hours. They were sectioned longitudinally from the middle of cavity into mesial and distal parts. The sections were observed under Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) to evaluate microleakage. Depth of dye penetration was measured in millimeters. The data was analysed using the Kruskal Wallis test. Pair wise comparison was done with Mann Whitney U Test. A p-valueNano-Ionomer showed less microleakage which was statistically significant when compared to Giomer (p=0.0050). Statistically no significant difference was found between Nano Ionomer and RMGIC (p=0.3550). There was statistically significant difference between RMGIC and Giomer (p=0.0450). Nano-Ionomer and RMGIC showed significantly less leakage and better adaptation than Giomer and there was no statistically significant difference between Nano-Ionomer and RMGIC.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadiki, Josna Vinutha; Jampanapalli, Sharada Reddy; Konda, Suhasini; Inguva, Hema Chandrika; Chimata, Vamsi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate is a widely used antimicrobial agent. Adding chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds to filling materials, such as composite resins, acrylic resins, and glass ionomer cements increases the antibacterial property of restorative materials. This study includes antibacterial property of glass ionomer restorative cements with chlorhexidine gluconate. The primary objective of our study was to compare the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine gluconate on strains of mutans streptococci. Two glass ionomers (Fuji II Conventional and Fuji IX) were used. Chlorhexidine gluconate was mixed with glass ionomer cements, and antimicrobial properties against mutans streptococci were assessed by agar diffusion. The tested bacterial strain was inhibited and the antimicrobial properties decreased with time. The highest amount of antimicrobial activity with mean inhibitory zone was found in Fuji II with chlorhexidine gluconate followed by Fuji IX with chlorhexidine gluconate, Fuji II without chlorhexidine gluconate, and Fuji IX without chlorhexidine gluconate. The results of the study confirmed that the addition of 5% chlorhexidine gluconate to Fuji II and Fuji IX glass ionomer cements resulted in a restorative material that had increased antimicrobial properties over the conventional glass ionomer cements alone for Streptococcus mutans. How to cite this article: Yadiki JV, Jampanapalli SR , Konda S, Inguva HC, Chimata VK. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):99-103.

  3. Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealanTs placed as parT of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealanTs placed as parT of proximal aTraumaTic. resToraTive ... absTracT. Objective: To evaluate after two years, the survival rate of glass ionomer cement (gic) ... or symptoms of periodontal disease, and clinically the ..... saliva contamination on the bond of dentine resin-.

  4. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  5. Glass-ionomer cements as restorative and preventive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hien

    2010-07-01

    This article focuses on glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and its role in the clinical management of caries. It begins with a brief description of GIC, the mechanism of fluoride release and ion exchange, the interaction between GIC and the external environment, and finally the ion exchange between GIC and the tooth at the internal interface. The importance of GIC, as a tool, in caries management, in minimal intervention dentistry (MI), and Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) also will be highlighted. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Surface properties and bond strength measurements of N-vinylcaprolactam (NVC)-containing glass-ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Chee, Winston W; Brantley, William A; Schricker, Scott R

    2011-03-01

    N-vinylcaprolactam (NVC)-containing glass ionomers are promising dental restorative materials with improved mechanical properties; however, little information is available on other physical characteristics of these types of modified glass ionomers, especially their surface properties. Understanding the surface characteristics and behavior of glass ionomers is important for understanding their clinical behavior and predictability as dental restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of NVC-containing terpolymers on the surface properties and bond strength to dentin of GIC (glass-ionomer cement), and to evaluate the effect of NVC-containing terpolymer as a dentin conditioner. The terpolymer of acrylic acid (AA)-itaconic acid (IA)-N-vinylcaprolactam (NVC) with a molar ratio of 8:1:1 (AA:IA:NVC) was synthesized by free radical polymerization and characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesized terpolymer was used in glass-ionomer cement formulations (Fuji IX GP). Ten disc-shaped specimens (12 × 1 mm) were mixed and fabricated at room temperature. Surface properties (wettability) of modified cements were studied by contact angle measurements as a function of time. Work of adhesion values of different surfaces were also determined. The effect of NVC-modified polyacid on the bond strength of glass-ionomer cement to dentin was investigated. The mean data obtained from contact angle and bonding strength measurements were subjected to t test and 2-way ANOVA (α=.05). NVC-modified glass-ionomer cements showed significantly (Pcement also showed significantly higher values for shear bond strength to dentin (8.7 ±0.15 MPa after 1 month) when compared to the control group (8.4 ±0.13 MPa after 1 month). NVC-containing terpolymers may enhance the surface properties of GICs and increase their bond strength to the dentin. Furthermore, NVC-containing polyelectrolytes are

  7. Evaluation of stainless steel crowns cemented with glass-ionomer and resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yucel; Simsek, Sera; Dalmis, Anya; Gurbuz, Taskin; Kocogullari, M Elcin

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate in vitro and in vivo conditions of stainless steel crowns (SSC) cemented using one luting glass-ionomer cement (Aqua Meron) and one luting resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (Vitremer). In the in vitro part of this study, retentive properties of SSCs cemented using Aqua Meron and Vitremer on extracted primary first molars were tested. In addition, two specimens of each group were used to evaluate the tooth hard tissue-cement, within the cement itself, cement-SSC, and tooth hard tissue-cement-SSC under scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the in vivo part of this study, 152 SSCs were placed on the first or second primary molars of 86 children, and cemented using either Aqua Meron or Vitremer. The crowns were examined for retention. In addition, the clinical views of the crowns were recorded with an intraoral camera. No significant difference was found between the mean retentive forces of Aqua Meron and Vitremer (P> 0.05). SSCs cemented with Aqua Meron and Vitremer had an average lifespan of 26.44 and 24.07 months respectively. Only one (0.66%) of 152 SSCs was lost from the Aqua Meron group during post-cementation periods. Nineteen of the 152 SSCs (12.5%) had dents or perforations.

  8. Comparison of invitro cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of glass ionomer cement type IX on human lymphocytes before and after electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, Mithra N.; Brijesh; Shetty, Shilpa S.; Hegde, Nidarsh D.; Suchetha Kumari; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements are widely used in dentistry as an adhesive restorative materials. However, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies using these materials are inconclusive in literature. The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of glass ionomer cement type IX available commercially before and after irradiation. Glass ionomer cement type IX was obtained commercially. Samples were prepared as per the ISO standard size of 25x2x2 mm using polytetrafluoroethylene teflon mould and divided into two groups - non irradiated and irradiated groups. The samples in radiated category were exposed to 10 KGy of electron beam irradiation at Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, Mangalore, India. For hemolysis assay, the samples were immersed in phosphate buffer saline and incubated at 370℃ for 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days. 200 μL of 24 hr material extract was mixed with human peripheral blood lymphocyte tested for comet assay by single cell DNA comet assay and apoptosis by DNA diffusion assay. Hemolytic activity of non irradiated Glass ionomer cement type IX after 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days was 78.18±10.13, 32.57±12.28, 38.56±4.68 respectively whereas hemolytic activity of irradiated Glass ionomer cement type IX after 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days was 58.90±2.28, 35.04±1.09 and 34.26±7.71 respectively. The irradiation of Glass ionomer cement type IX with 10 KGy dose of electron beam irradiation did not show significant increase in the frequency of DNA damage when compared to that of the nonirradiated group. Apoptotic index did not show much difference between non-irradiated and irradiated groups. Taken together, we conclude that some components of glass ionomer cements show both genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. (author)

  9. Clinical evaluation of glass ionomer-silver cermet restorations in primary molars: one year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, T W; Richardson, A S

    1990-03-01

    Using the half mouth technique, 33 silver amalgam (Dispersalloy) and 40 glass ionomer (Ketec silver) restorations were placed in the primary molars of children aged five to seven years. After one year, 73 restorations were evaluated. The amalgam restorations rated 90-100 per cent alpha for anatomic form and margins with no recurrent caries or fractures. The glass ionomer restorations rated 35 to 55 per cent alpha for anatomic form and margins with 40 per cent being replaced due to fracture of the material. Within the guidelines of this study, glass ionomer silver cermet was not a suitable material for the restoration of interproximal cavities in primary molars.

  10. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Ricardo PEREIRA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs and resinmodified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05. The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148. The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. CONCLUSIONS: Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values.

  11. Comparison of Caries Prevention With Glass Ionomer and Composite Resin Fissure Sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Akbay Oba

    2009-11-01

    Conclusion: Under field conditions in which moisture control was not effective, a high-viscosity and less technique-sensitive glass ionomer material can be used as an effective sealant material, rather than resin.

  12. Glass-ionomer-silver-cermet interim Class I restorations for permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P; Killian, C M

    1992-11-01

    Glass-ionomer-silver-cermet cement has proved to be a worthy alternative to silver amalgam for restoring certain Class I lesions in primary teeth. Such restorations are now known to last up to 8 years without need for repair or replacement. Cermet cement has also been used for interim restoration of permanent teeth in special cases, with ideal results. The procedure for placing a glass-ionomer-silver-cermet cement Class I restoration is described.

  13. Properties of New Glass Ionomer Restorative Materials Marketed for Stress Bearing Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-22

    REPORT TYPE 22/03/2018 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prope1iies of New Glass-Ionomer Restorative Materials Marketed for Stress -Bearing Areas 6...Adobe Professional 7 .0 INTRODUCTION Equia Forte is a new GIC which is marketed for posterior stress bearing restorations due to its newer...research on this and other newer glass ionomer systems being indicated for use in class II posterior stress - bearing preparations. OBJECTIVE The

  14. Influence of citric acid on the surface texture of glass ionomer restorative materials

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Dappili Swami Ranga; Kumar, Ramachandran Anil; Venkatesan, Sokkalingam Mothilal; Narayan, Gopal Shankar; Duraivel, Dasarathan; Indra, Rajamani

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study determined the effectiveness of G-coat plus surface protective agent over petroleum jelly on the surface texture of conventional Glass ionomer restorative materials. Materials and Methods: Three chemically cured conventional glass ionomer restorative materials type II, type IX and ketac molar were evaluated in this study. Sixty specimens were made for each restorative material. They were divided into two groups of thirty specimens each. Of the sixty specimens, thirty were...

  15. How mobile are protons in the structure of dental glass ionomer cements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Jacobsen, Johan; Lehnhoff, Benedict

    2015-01-01

    The development of dental materials with improved properties and increased longevity can save costs and minimize discomfort for patients. Due to their good biocompatibility, glass ionomer cements are an interesting restorative option. However, these cements have limited mechanical strength...... the hydrogen mobility within these cements. Our findings suggest that the lower mechanical strength in glass ionomer cements results not only from the presence of pores, but also from the increased hydrogen mobility within the material. The relationship between microstructure, hydrogen mobility and strength...

  16. DEHYDRATION AND REHYDRATION OF AN ION-LEACHABLE GLASS USED IN GLASS-IONOMER CEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Klos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of the ionomer glass known as G338 have been heated at 240°C for 24 hours, after which they lost 1.19 % (Standard deviation 0.16% of their original mass. This loss was attributed to removal of water, as both molecular water and the product of reaction of silanol groups to form siloxane bridges. Exposing samples of glass either to air at ambient humidity or to air at 95% relative humidity showed a degree of rehydration, but mass uptake did not approach the original mass loss in either case. It is suggested that this is because of the relatively difficulty in forming new silanol groups from the siloxane bridges. Glass-ionomer cements prepared from these glass samples with aqueous poly(acrylic acid solution had different properties, depending on the glass used. Dehydrated glass gave cements which set faster but were weaker than those formed by as-received glass. The role of silanol groups in influencing reaction rate and promoting strength development is discussed.

  17. Effect of incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on mechanical properties of conventional glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Aghaee, Mohammadamin; Hasani, Elham; Safa, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the physical properties of conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GICs) compared to GICs supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofiller particles at 5% (w/w). In this in vitro study, ZnO nanoparticles of different morphologies (nanospherical, nanorod, and nanoflower) were incorporated to glass ionomer powder. The samples were subjected to the flexural strength ( n = 20) and surface hardness test ( n = 12) using a universal testing machine and a Vickers hardness machine, respectively. Surface analysis and crystal structure of samples were performed with scanning electron microscope and X-radiation diffraction, respectively. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Shapiro-Wilk, and Tukey's tests ( P glass ionomer containing nanoparticles was not significantly different from the control group ( P > 0.05). The surface hardness of the glass ionomer containing nanospherical or nanoflower ZnO was significantly lower than the control group ( P glass ionomer containing nanorod ZnO was not significantly different from the control group ( P = 0.868). Incorporation of nanospherical and nanoflower ZnO to glass ionomer decreased their surface hardness, without any changes on their flexural strength. Incorporation of nanorod ZnO particles caused no effect on the mechanical properties.

  18. A Twofold Comparison between Dual Cure Resin Modified Cement and Glass Ionomer Cement for Orthodontic Band Cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Hanaa El; Elhiny, Omnia; Salem, Ghada; Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Attia, Mazen

    2016-12-15

    To test the solubility of dual cure resin modified resin cement in a food simulating solution and the shear bond strength compared to conventional Glass ionomer cement. The materials tested were self-adhesive dual cure resin modified cement and Glass Ionomer (GIC). Twenty Teflon moulds were divided into two groups of tens. The first group was injected and packed with the modified resin cement, the second group was packed with GIC. To test the solubility, each mould was weighed before and after being placed in an analytical reagent for 30 days. The solubility was measured as the difference between the initial and final drying mass. To measure the Shear bond strength, 20 freshly extracted wisdom teeth were equally divided into two groups and embedded in self-cure acrylic resin. Four mm sections of stainless steel bands were cemented to the exposed buccal surfaces of teeth under a constant load of 500 g. Shear bond strength was measured using a computer controlled materials testing machine and the load required to deband the samples was recorded in Newtons. GIC showed significantly higher mean weight loss and an insignificant lower Shear bond strength, compared to dual cure resin Cement. It was found that dual cure resin modified cement was less soluble than glass ionomer cement and of comparable bond strength rendering it more useful clinically for orthodontic band cementation.

  19. Development of antimicrobial optimum glass ionomer; Desenvolvimento de ionomero de vidro antimicrobiano otimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angioletto, E.; Tezza, V.B.; Santos, M.J.; Montedo, O.R.K.; Pich, C.T.; Fiori, M.A. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil); Angioletto, Ev. [Biorosam Biotecnologia Ltda., SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of glass ionomer for restorations in dentistry for lower income population is a well established practice in public clinics of Brazil. However the average price of this kind of material and its low durability still have a negative impact on public health for being imported and frequently replaced it becomes expensive for the manufacturers and for public agencies. In glass ionomer the main antimicrobial agent is fluoride, which is released gradually. The material used for filling provides an average life of five years and its durability can be increased if the ionomer contains other oligodynamic elements. It was formulated, merged a new optimized glass ionomer which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ion measurement and antimicrobial activity. This new product showed promising results, that pointed structural stability an increase of antimicrobial efficiency. (author)

  20. Influência da aplicação de flúor sobre a rugosidade superficial do ionômero de vidro Vitremer e adesão microbiana a este material Influence of the application of fluoride on the superficial roughness of Vitremer glass ionomer cement and microbial adhesion to this material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise PEDRINI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os cimentos ionoméricos representam importante opção de material restaurador em Odontologia e sua adesão à estrutura dental, diminuindo a infiltração marginal, somada à liberação de flúor, inibindo o metabolismo de microrganismos acidogênicos e favorecendo a remineralização dental, podem diminuir a ocorrência de cárie secundária. A aplicação tópica de géis acidulados ou neutros contendo flúor tem sido largamente utilizada em Odontologia. No entanto, este procedimento pode afetar a integridade dos materiais restauradores, aumentando sua rugosidade e a retenção de placa bacteriana. Dessa forma, o presente estudo avaliou o período de tempo no qual o cimento ionomérico Vitremer mantém sua capacidade inibitória sobre Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 e a adesão dos mesmos sobre a superfície do material, bem como a influência da aplicação tópica de flúor acidulado e neutro sobre esses parâmetros microbiológicos e as características superficiais daquele material. Verificou-se que a atividade antimicrobiana do cimento ionomérico Vitremer se mantém por aproximadamente quatro dias e não é recuperada com o uso de flúor gel acidulado ou neutro. Observou-se, também, que Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 adere ao material restaurador testado sendo que a aplicação tópica de flúor não influenciou esta adesão. As características superficiais desses materiais não se alteraram com a aplicação dos géis.Glass ionomer cements are important options in restorative and preventive dentistry due to their adhesion to the tooth surface and to fluoride release, which can decrease the risk of recurrent caries. The topical use of acidulated and neutral fluoride gels has been frequent in dentistry. However, this procedure can adversely affect the surface of restorative materials, increasing their roughness and the retention of dental plaque. Thus, this study evaluated the period in which Vitremer glass ionomer cement maintains

  1. Studies on the Potential of Waste Soda Lime Silica Glass in Glass Ionomer Cement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. W. Francis Thoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GIC are produced through acid base reaction between calcium-fluoroaluminosilicate glass powder and polyacrylic acid (PAA. Soda lime silica glasses (SLS, mainly composed of silica (SiO2, have been utilized in this study as the source of SiO2 for synthesis of Ca-fluoroaluminosilicate glass. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of SLS waste glass in producing GIC. Two glasses, GWX 1 (analytical grade SiO2 and GWX 2 (replacing SiO2 with waste SLS, were synthesized and then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX. Synthesized glasses were then used to produce GIC, in which the properties were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and compressive test (from 1 to 28 days. XRD results showed that amorphous glass was produced by using SLS waste glass (GWX 2, which is similar to glass produced using analytical grade SiO2 (GWX 1. Results from FT-IR showed that the setting reaction of GWX 2 cements is slower compared to cement GWX 1. Compressive strengths for GWX 1 cements reached up to 76 MPa at 28 days, whereas GWX 2 cements showed a slightly higher value, which is 80 MPa.

  2. Coating glass-ionomer cements with a nanofilled resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Werner, Arie; Kleverlaan, Cornelis Johanes

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a nanofilled resin coat on the flexural strength (FS) and the early wear (after 50,000 and 200,000 cycles) of the glass-ionomer cements Fuji IX GP Extra (FIXE) and Ketac Molar Aplicap (KM). Specimens were prepared and half of them were coated with G-Coat plus. The uncoated specimens were used as controls. Flexural strength (n = 10) was evaluated after 24 h using a 3-point bending test on a universal testing machine (ISO 9917-2). Wear (n = 20) was evaluated after 50,000 and 200,000 cycles using the ACTA wear machine. One-way, two-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests were used to analyze differences in FS and wear. For FIXE the coat significantly increased the FS and the wear along the two time spans. KM did not show a significant difference in FS with the coat. Improvements in wear were observed only after 50,000 cycles. Based on these laboratory results, it is concluded that G-coat Plus is indicated in association with GP IX Extra with the aim to improve the mechanical properties of the former. However, this study is limited to a short-term observation.

  3. [Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite to glass ionomer cement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ya-Bing; Zang, Guang-Xiang; Sun, Hong-Chen; Wang, Cheng-Kun

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the mechanical character, microleakage and mineralizing potential of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP)-added glass ionomer cement(GIC). 8% nano-HAP were incorporated into GIC as composite, and pure GIC as control. Both types of material were used to make 20 cylinders respectively in order to detect three-point flexural strength and compressive strength. Class V cavities were prepared in 120 molars extracted for orthodontic treatment, then were filled by two kinds of material. The microleakage at the composite-dentine interface was observed with confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) after stained with 1% rhodamin-B-isothiocyanate for 24 hours. Class V cavities were prepared in the molars of 4 healthy dogs, filled with composite, and the same molars in the other side were filled with GIC as control. The teeth were extracted to observe the mineralizing property with polarimetric microscope in 8 weeks after filling. Three-point flexural strength and compressive of nano-HAP-added GIC were increased compared with pure GIC (P nano-HAP-added GIC, while there was no hydroxyapatite crystals formed at the interface of tooth and pure GIC. 8% nano-HAP-added GIC can tightly fill tooth and have mineralizing potential, and can be used as liner or filling material for prevention.

  4. Mechanical performance of encapsulated restorative glass-ionomer cements for use with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Gustavo Fabián; Cabral, Ricardo Juan; Mazzola, Ignacio; Lascano, Laura Brain; Frencken, Jo E

    2013-01-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach was suggested to be a suitable method to treat enamel and dentine carious lesions in patients with disabilities. The use of a restorative glass-ionomer with optimal mechanical properties is, therefore, very important. To test the null-hypotheses that no difference in diametral tensile, compressive and flexural strengths exists between: (1) The EQUIA system and (2) The Chemfil Rock (encapsulated glass-ionomers; test materials) and the Fuji 9 Gold Label and the Ketac Molar Easymix (hand-mixed conventional glass-ionomers; control materials); (3) The EQUIA system and Chemfil Rock. Specimens for testing flexural (n = 240) and diametral tensile (n=80) strengths were prepared according to standardized specifications; the compressive strength (n=80) was measured using a tooth-model of a class II ART restoration. ANOVA and Tukey B tests were used to test for significant differences between dependent and independent variables. The EQUIA system and Chemfil Rock had significantly higher mean scores for all the three strength variables than the Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix (α=0.05). The EQUIA system had significant higher mean scores for diametral tensile and flexural strengths than the Chemfil Rock (α=0.05). The two encapsulated high-viscosity glass-ionomers had significantly higher test values for diametral tensile, flexural and compressive strengths than the commonly used hand-mixed high-viscosity glass-ionomers.

  5. Effect of insertion method on knoop hardness of high viscous glass ionomer cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raggio, D.P.; Bonifácio, C.C.; Bönecker, M.; Imparato, J.C.P.; de Gee, A.J.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the Knoop hardness of three high viscous glass ionomer cements: G1 - Ketac Molar; G2 - Ketac Molar Easymix (3M ESPE) and G3 - Magic Glass ART (Vigodent). As a parallel goal, three different methods for insertion of Ketac Molar Easymix were tested: G4 -

  6. Fluoride release and recharge behavior of a nano-filled resin-modified glass ionomer compared with that of other fluoride releasing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumita B; Oxman, Joe D; Falsafi, Afshin; Ton, Tiffany T

    2011-12-01

    To compare the long-term fluoride release kinetics of a novel nano-filled two-paste resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI), Ketac Nano (KN) with that of two powder-liquid resin-modified glass-ionomers, Fuji II LC (FLC) and Vitremer (VT) and one conventional glass-ionomer, Fuji IX (FIX). Fluoride release was measured in vitro using ion-selective electrodes. Kinetic analysis was done using regression analysis and compared with existing models for GIs and compomers. In a separate experiment the samples of KN and two conventional glass-ionomers, FIX and Ketac Molar (KM) were subjected to a treatment with external fluoride source (Oral-B Neutra-Foam) after 3 months of fluoride release and the recharge behavior studied for an additional 7-day period. The cumulative amount of fluoride released from KN, VT and FLC and the release profiles were statistically similar but greater than that for FIX at P coating of KN with its primer and of DY with its adhesive did not significantly alter the fluoride release behavior of the respective materials. The overall rate for KN was significantly higher than for the compomer DY. DY showed a linear rate of release vs. t and no burst effect as expected for compomers. The nanoionomer KN showed fluoride recharge behavior similar to the conventional glass ionomers FIX and KM. Thus, it was concluded that the new RMGI KN exhibits fluoride ion release behavior similar to typical conventional and RMGIs and that the primer does not impede the release of fluoride.

  7. Comparative evaluation of fluoride release and recharge of pre-reacted glass ionomer composite and nano-ionomeric glass ionomer with daily fluoride exposure: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Mungara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This in vitro study was designed to investigate the effects of daily fluoride exposures on fluoride release and recharge by prereacted glass ionomer (PRG composite and nano-ionomeric glass ionomer. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two specimens (36 of each material were prepared and by placing the restorative materials into Teflon mold. Each specimen was subjected to one of three daily treatments (n = 12: (1 No fluoride treatment (control; (2 application of a fluoride dentifrice (1,000 ppm once daily; and (3 the same regimen as (2, plus immersion in a 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF mouth rinse (225 ppm immediately following the dentifrice application. Specimens were suspended in a storage vial containing 10 ml demineralizing solution for 6 h and transferred to a new test tube containing 10 ml remineralizing solution for 18 h. Fluoride treatments of the specimens were completed every day prior to their immersion in the demineralizing solution. Media solutions were buffered with equal volumes of total ionic strength adjustment buffer (TISAB II; fluoride levels were measured using a digital ion analyzer and fluoride electrode throughout the 21 day duration of the experiment. Results: Nano-ionomeric glass ionomer showed a better amount of fluoride release than PRG composite irrespective of the fluoride treatment supplementation (P < 0.01. Additional fluoride supplementation improved fluoride release and recharge ability for both the materials when compared to their respective control groups. The fluoride recharge for both materials did not show any sustained pattern of release. Conclusion: Nano-ionomeric glass ionomer demonstrated a greater ability to release and recharge compared with that of PRG composite.

  8. Comparative efficacy of nanofilled and microfilled resin-modified glass ionomer as pits and fissure sealant in permanent molar teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzuma Akhter Zakaria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacy of nanofilled and microfilled resin- modified glass ionomer as pits and fissure sealants in permanent molar teeth. Ninety six teeth having fissure at the occlusal surface were randomly divided into two groups: Group I: Treated by nanofilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealant and Group II: Treated by microfilled resin- modified glass ionomer sealants. Clinical assessment was performed by modified Ryge´s criteria by means of retention, color match, marginal adaptation at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up visit. Chi-square test was used for testing differences between the two groups; a value of p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The results revealed that at 12 months observation period, nanofilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealant showed better retention, color stability and marginal adaptation than that of microfilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealants. Furthermore, the differences between two groups in respect to marginal adaptation and color match were statistically significant (p<0.05. It can be concluded that nanofilled resin-modified glass ionomer sealant could be a better alternative to microfilled resin- modified glass ionomer sealant.

  9. Initial sliding wear kinetics of two types of glass ionomer cement: a tribological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villat, Cyril; Ponthiaux, Pierre; Pradelle-Plasse, Nelly; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Colon, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the initial wear kinetics of two different types of glass ionomer cement used in dentistry (the conventional glass ionomer cement and the resin-modified glass ionomer cement) under sliding friction after 28-day storing in distilled water or Ringer's solution. Sliding friction was applied through a pin-on-disk tribometer, in sphere-on-plane contact conditions, under 5 N normal load and 120 rotations per minute. The test lasted 7500 cycles and replicas were performed at 2500, 5000 and 7500 cycles. A profilometer was used to evaluate the wear volume. Data were analysed using Student's t-test at a significant level of 5%. There is no statistical significant difference between the results obtained for a given material with the maturation media (P > 0.05). However, for a given maturation medium, there are significant statistical differences between the data obtained for the two materials at each measurement (P glass ionomer cement weakens the tribological behaviour of this material.

  10. Initial Sliding Wear Kinetics of Two Types of Glass Ionomer Cement: A Tribological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Villat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the initial wear kinetics of two different types of glass ionomer cement used in dentistry (the conventional glass ionomer cement and the resin-modified glass ionomer cement under sliding friction after 28-day storing in distilled water or Ringer’s solution. Sliding friction was applied through a pin-on-disk tribometer, in sphere-on-plane contact conditions, under 5 N normal load and 120 rotations per minute. The test lasted 7500 cycles and replicas were performed at 2500, 5000 and 7500 cycles. A profilometer was used to evaluate the wear volume. Data were analysed using Student’s t-test at a significant level of 5%. There is no statistical significant difference between the results obtained for a given material with the maturation media (P>0.05. However, for a given maturation medium, there are significant statistical differences between the data obtained for the two materials at each measurement (P<0.0001. The wear rates of both materials decrease continuously during the running-in period between 0 and 2500 cycles. After 2500 cycles, the wear rate becomes constant and equal for both materials. The resin matrix contained in the resin-modified glass ionomer cement weakens the tribological behaviour of this material.

  11. The crushing truth about glass ionomer restoratives: exposing the standard of the standard.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-03-01

    The compressive fracture strength (CFS) test is the only strength test for glass ionomers (GIs) in ISO 9917-1: 2003. The CFS test was the subject of much controversy in 1990 and has been challenged over its appropriateness and reproducibility and the study aimed to revisit the suitability of the CFS test for GIs.

  12. Mechanical performance of encapsulated restorative glass-ionomer cements for use with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, G.F.; Cabral, R.J.; Mazzola, I.; Lascano, L.B.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach was suggested to be a suitable method to treat enamel and dentine carious lesions in patients with disabilities. The use of a restorative glass-ionomer with optimal mechanical properties is, therefore, very important. OBJECTIVE: To test the

  13. Shear bond strengths of three glass ionomer cements to enamel and dentine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, T.S.; van Amerongen, W.E.; de Gee, A.; Bönecker, M.; Sampaio, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The shear bond strength of three glass ionomer cements (GIC) to enamel and dentine was evaluated. Study Design: Sound permanent human molars (n=12) were grinded perpendicular to their axial axes, exposing smooth, flat enamel and dentine surfaces. The teeth were embedded in resin and

  14. Low-cost glass ionomer cement as ART sealant in permanent molars: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesse, D.; Bonifácio, C.C.; Guglielmi, C. de Almeida Brandao; da Franca, C.; Mendes, F.M.; Raggio, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials are normally performed with well-known brands of glass ionomer cement (GIC), but the cost of these materials is high for public healthcare in less-affluent communities. Given the need to research cheaper materials, it seems pertinent to investigate the retention rate of a low-cost

  15. Bond Strength of Silorane- and Methacrylate-Based Composites to Resin-Modified Glass Ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    genre was given the name of resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGI) (Antonucci et al., 1988). The addition of resin improved many of the drawbacks of...entire surface for 15 seconds then gentle air was used to create an even film over the sample. This layer was cured for 10 seconds using the Bluephase

  16. Influence of Salvadora persica (miswak) extract on physical and antimicrobial properties of glass ionomer cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Tatari, A.; de Soet, J.J.; de Gee, A.J.; Abou Shelib, M.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate physical and antimicrobial properties of Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) combined with Salvadora Persica Extract (SPE). METHODS: SPE was added to GIC (Fuji IX) in concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% w/w. The compressive strength and diametral tensile strength were measured at 1 h, 24 h

  17. Physical-mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifacio, C.C.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Raggio, D.P.; Werner, A.; de Carvalho, R.C.R.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Background:  This study evaluated mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) used for atraumatic restorative treatment. Wear resistance, Knoop hardness (Kh), flexural (Fs) and compressive strength (Cs) were evaluated. The GICs used were Riva Self Cure (RVA), Fuji IX (FIX), Hi Dense (HD),

  18. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by eluates from orthodontic glass ionomer cements in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Angelieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of some orthodontic glass ionomer cements commercially available by means of the single cell gel (comet assay. For this purpose, five commercial orthodontic glass ionomer cements (Vidrion C®, Meron®, Optiband®, Multicure® and Ultra Band Lok® were tested in murine fibroblasts in vitro. For this purpose, eluates from each cement were prepared according manufactures instructions at 0, 2, 4, 8, 18, 32 and 64 days of immersion in artificial saliva at 37 °C. All orthodontic glass ionomer cements failed to induce cytotoxicity to murine fibroblasts for all periods evaluated in this study. However, Vidrion C® was able to induce genotoxicity after 64 days of exposure to eluates. Meron® also demonstrated genotoxicity as depicted by increasing DNA damage on 2nd day. Multicure® demonstrated genotoxicity on 32nd day and Ultra band Lok on 18th, 32nd days of exposure. Taken together, our results demonstrated that orthodontic cements derived from resin-modified glass ionomer composite (Multicure® and compomer (Ultra Band Lok® cause genetic damage in mammalian cells in vitro.

  19. Comparative study of resin sealant and resin modified glass ionomer as pit and fissure sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Malek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the marginal integrity of resin modified glass ionomer cement with that of resin sealant, in vitro. Forty artificial pit and fissure cavities were prepared in occlusal surface of extracted premolar teeth by using ¼ round carbide bur. Cavities were condensed with artificial organic debris followed by cleaning with prophylaxis pumice brush and paste and then separated into two treatment groups. In Group A, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin sealant and in Group B, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant. These specimens were subjected to thermo-cycling followed by dye penetration test. The remaining 5 cavities from each group were analyzed for debris score by the SEM. The results of the microleakage test showed that the efficacy of preventing microleakage of samples sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant was higher than the samples sealed by resin sealant. However, no significant differences were found. It can be concluded that use of resin modified glass ionomer sealant is a good alternative for sealing pits and fissures.

  20. Addition of bioactive glass to glass ionomer cements: Effect on the physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caluwé, T; Vercruysse, C W J; Ladik, I; Convents, R; Declercq, H; Martens, L C; Verbeeck, R M H

    2017-04-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are a subject of research because of their inferior mechanical properties, despite their advantages such as fluoride release and direct bonding to bone and teeth. Recent research aims to improve the bioactivity of the GICs and thereby improve mechanical properties on the long term. In this study, two types of bioactive glasses (BAG) (45S5F and CF9) are combined with GICs to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility of the BAG-GIC combinations. The effect of the addition of Al 3+ to the BAG composition and the use of smaller BAG particles on the BAG-GIC properties was also investigated. Conventional aluminosilicate glass (ASG) and (modified) BAG were synthesized by the melt method. BAG-GIC were investigated on setting time, compressive strength and bioactivity. Surface changes were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS and PO 4 3- -and Ca 2+ uptake in SBF. Biocompatibility of selected BAG-GICs was determined by a direct toxicity assay. The addition of BAG improves the bioactivity of the GIC, which can be observed by the formation of an apatite (Ap) layer, especially in CF9-containing GICs. More BAG leads to more bioactivity but decreases strength. The addition of Al 3+ to the BAG composition improves strength, but decreases bioactivity. BAGs with smaller particle sizes have no effect on bioactivity and decrease strength. The formation of an Ap layer seems beneficial to the biocompatibility of the BAG-GICs. Bioactive GICs may have several advantages over conventional GICs, such as remineralization of demineralized tissue, adhesion and proliferation of bone- and dental cells, allowing integration in surrounding tissue. CF9 BAG-GIC combinations containing maximum 10mol% Al 3+ are most promising, when added in ≤20wt% to a GIC. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of a reinforced glass-ionomer cermet for the restoration of primary molars: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, N M; Murray, J J; McCabe, J F

    1995-09-09

    The development of adhesive restorative materials has led to more conservative cavity design with greater reliance being placed upon the bond of a material with tooth tissue for retention of the restoration. Glass-ionomer cements may offer particular advantages but have yet to achieve the durability reported for amalgam. This study reports on the results of a 2.5-year prospective clinical trial comparing the durability of two glass-ionomer cements, a conventional material (Ketac Fil) and a metal reinforced cermet (Ketac Silver) in the restoration of Class II lesions in primary molars. Forty-six pairs of restorations were assessed in 37 children. The failure rate of Ketac Fil, 23%, was significantly lower than that of Ketac Silver, 41% (P < 0.05). The median survival time of the Ketac Fil restorations was significantly greater, 25.3 months, than that of the Ketac Silver restorations, 20.3 months (P < 0.05). These values may be an underestimate of the true longevity of both restoration types as many of the restorations survived intact at the censor date. Neither the age of the child nor the tooth restored influenced the durability of the restoration. The deterioration in both marginal integrity and anatomic form of the Ketac Silver restorations was significantly greater than the Ketac Fil restorations (P < 0.05). The durability of Ketac Silver was such that it cannot be recommended for use in restoring carious primary molars.

  2. Do Dental Resin Composites Accumulate More Oral Biofilms and Plaque than Amalgam and Glass Ionomer Materials?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A long-time drawback of dental composites is that they accumulate more biofilms and plaques than amalgam and glass ionomer restorative materials. It would be highly desirable to develop a new composite with reduced biofilm growth, while avoiding the non-esthetics of amalgam and low strength of glass ionomer. The objectives of this study were to: (1 develop a protein-repellent composite with reduced biofilms matching amalgam and glass ionomer for the first time; and (2 investigate their protein adsorption, biofilms, and mechanical properties. Five materials were tested: A new composite containing 3% of protein-repellent 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC; the composite with 0% MPC as control; commercial composite control; dental amalgam; resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU, and lactic acid production. Composite with 3% MPC had flexural strength similar to those with 0% MPC and commercial composite control (p > 0.1, and much greater than RMGI (p < 0.05. Composite with 3% MPC had protein adsorption that was only 1/10 that of control composites (p < 0.05. Composite with 3% MPC had biofilm CFU and lactic acid much lower than control composites (p < 0.05. Biofilm growth, metabolic activity and lactic acid on the new composite with 3% MPC were reduced to the low level of amalgam and RMGI (p > 0.1. In conclusion, a new protein-repellent dental resin composite reduced oral biofilm growth and acid production to the low levels of non-esthetic amalgam and RMGI for the first time. The long-held conclusion that dental composites accumulate more biofilms than amalgam and glass ionomer is no longer true. The novel composite is promising to finally overcome the major biofilm-accumulation drawback of dental composites in order to reduce biofilm acids and secondary caries.

  3. A Histopathologic Study on Pulp Response to Glass Ionomer Cements in Human Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghavamnasiri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Despite the wide range of new dental materials, there is still a need for biomaterials demonstrating high biocompatibility, antimicrobial effects and ideal mechanical properties.Purpose: The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the pulpal response to a conventional glass ionomer, a resin modified glass ionomer and a calcium hydroxide in human teeth.Materials and Methods: Fifty five deep class V cavities were prepared in premolars of 31 patients and were divided into 3 groups based on application of the following liners:resin modified glass ionomer (Vivaglass Liner, conventional glass ionomer (ChembondSuperior and calcium hydroxide (Dycal. After applying varnish, teeth were filled with amalgam. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to time intervals of 7, 30 and 60 days. Teeth were then extracted and their crowns were fixed in formalin. Each sample was assessed microscopically for odontoblastic changes,inflammatory cell infiltration, reactionary dentin formation, remaining dentinal thickness and presence of microorganisms. Statistical analysis including Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney was carried out for comparison of mean ranks. (P=0.05.Results: In the Vivaglass Liner group, pulpal response was significantly higher on day 7 as compared to days 30 and 60 (P0.05. There was no correlation between pulpal responses with micro-organisms and remaining dentin thickness (P>0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, light-cured glass ionomer as well as the other tested lining materials were determined to be biologically compatible with vital pulps in deep cavities of sound human teeth.

  4. Long-term dentin retention of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijken, J.W.V. van; Pallesen, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical long-term retention to dentin of seven adhesive systems.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical long-term retention to dentin of seven adhesive systems....

  5. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  6. Lateral-access Class II restoration using resin-modified glass-ionomer or silver-cermet cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1995-02-01

    Direct-access preparation of a carious proximal surface is perhaps the most conservative approach to restoration. Physical properties and handling characteristics of silver amalgam and of resin composite and lack of fluoride ion release make these materials unsuitable for direct buccal- or lingual-access proximal restoration. Insufficient strengths and radiolucency of self-hardening glass-ionomer cements preclude their use for Class II restorations. However, glass-ionomer silver-cermet cement and some resin-modified glass-ionomer materials are proving useful for non-stress-bearing Class II restorations and may have applications in preventive dentistry. This article describes lateral-access Class II restoration with modified glass-ionomer cements. Emphasis is placed on careful handling of materials, maintenance of an ideal operative field, and conservation of tooth structure.

  7. Post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, A.U.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin using a digital microhardness tester. Change in hardness of these materials over a period of 6 months was compared to that of conventional glass ionomer cements and a composite resin. With the exception of the composite resin, all materials showed a significant increase in hardness over 24 h after their initial set. Dual-cure resin-modified glass ionomer cements showed decreased hardness with increased storage time in saline at 37 o C. Results suggest that the addition of resins to glass ionomer cements does not improve initial hardness and does not negate the acid-base reaction of conventional cements. Resin addition may, however, lead to increased water sorption and decreased hardness. (author)

  8. Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Resin Composites with Resin Modified Glass Ionomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha NA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There are controversial reports regarding physical and mechanical properties of resin composites and glass ionomer cements. Some revealed higher strength and hardness for resin composites while others showed a comparable value for glass ionomer cements. Evaluation of mechanical properties of different types of resin composites in comparison with resin modified glass ionomers is not widely studied. Objectives: To measure and compare the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of three resin composites and two resins modified glass ionomer cements before and after ageing. Materials and Methods: Three resin composites, i.e. Filtek Supreme XTE (3M ESPE, Ice (SDI, Gradia (GC, and two resins modified glass ionomers, i.e. Fuji II LC (GC and Riva Light Cure (SDI, were selected. Ten barshaped specimens were prepared for each material and cured using LED curing light. After 24 hours storage in distilled water at 37oC, the specimens were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=5. The first group was tested as a baseline and the second group was restored at 37oC for another 29 days. Flexural strength was performed by four-point bending test using universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min, and the maximum load at failure was recorded. The specimen’s halves were used for evaluating Vickers hardness, using a Digital Hardness Tester (300 g/15 sec and the Vickers hardness number (VHN was recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey’s and student’s t-test. Results: After 24 hours of immersion, the highest hardness number was found for Filtek Supreme and Ice and the highest flexural strength was obtained for Gradia. After 30 days of storage, hardness of Fuji II LC and Gradia showed a significant decrease; flexural strength of Ice and Fuji II LC revealed a significant increase while Gradia and Filtek Supreme showed a significant decrease. Conclusions: Resin modified glass ionomers showed

  9. "Effect of nano-filled surface coating agent on fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement: An in vitro trial"

    OpenAIRE

    S Tiwari; B Nandlal

    2013-01-01

    Context: To overcome the drawbacks of glass ionomer cement of sensitivity to initial desiccation and moisture contamination the use of surface coating agent is recommended. The search in this area led to invent of use of nanofillers in surface coating agent, but its effect on fluoride release is not clear. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement with and without surface coating agent. Settings and Design: This in vitro ...

  10. Antibacterial properties of copper iodide-doped glass ionomer-based materials and effect of copper iodide nanoparticles on collagen degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renné, Walter G; Lindner, Amanda; Mennito, Anthony S; Agee, Kelli A; Pashley, David H; Willett, Daniel; Sentelle, David; Defee, Michael; Schmidt, Michael; Sabatini, Camila

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial properties and micro-hardness of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-coated copper iodide (CuI) nanoparticles incorporated into glass ionomer-based materials, and the effect of PAA-CuI on collagen degradation. PAA-CuI nanoparticles were incorporated into glass ionomer (GI), Ionofil Molar AC, and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), Vitrebond, at 0.263 wt%. The antibacterial properties against Streptococcus mutans (n = 6/group) and surface micro-hardness (n = 5/group) were evaluated. Twenty dentin beams were completely demineralized in 10 wt% phosphoric acid and equally divided in two groups (n = 10/group) for incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF) or SBF containing 1 mg/ml PAA-CuI. The amount of dry mass loss and hydroxyproline (HYP) released were quantified. Kruskal-Wallis, Student's t test, two-way ANOVA, and Mann-Whitney were used to analyze the antibacterial, micro-hardness, dry mass, and HYP release data, respectively (p glass ionomer matrix yielded significant reduction (99.999 %) in the concentration of bacteria relative to the control groups. While micro-hardness values of PAA-CuI-doped GI were no different from its control, PAA-CuI-doped RMGI demonstrated significantly higher values than its control. A significant decrease in dry mass weight was shown only for the control beams (10.53 %, p = 0.04). Significantly less HYP was released from beams incubated in PAA-CuI relative to the control beams (p glass ionomer-based materials as they greatly enhance their antibacterial properties and reduce collagen degradation without an adverse effect on their mechanical properties. The use of copper-doped glass ionomer-based materials under composite restorations may contribute to an increased longevity of adhesive restorations, because of their enhanced antibacterial properties and reduced collagen degradation.

  11. Fluoride release and surface roughness of a new glass ionomer cement: glass carbomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Condeixa de França LOPES

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study analyzed the fluoride release/recharge and surface roughness of glass carbomer compared to other encapsulated glass ionomer cements (GICs. Material and method The GICs tested were Glass Fill® (GC-GCP Dental, Riva Self Cure® (RS-SDI, Riva Light Cure® (RL-SDI, Equia Fil® (EF-GC Europe. The composite resin Luna® (LU-SDI was used as control. Five samples of each material were prepared and kept in a humidifier for 24 hours (37 °C, 100% relative humidity. Fluoride release was measured in two times: before (T1: days 1, 2, 7, 14 and after topical application of fluoride (T2: days 15, 16, 21 and 28. The surface roughness was also measured in both times (T1: days 1 and 14; T2: days 15 and 28. All samples were submitted to a single topical application of acidulated fluoride phosphate (Fluor Care - FGM. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures and Tukey's post-test (p <0.05 were used in the statistical analysis. Result Equia Fil presented the highest fluoride release in both evaluation periods, with a higher release in T1 (p <0.05. The other materials tested, including glass carbomer presented similar release in both periods (T1 and T2. Regarding surface roughness, no significant differences were observed in the interaction between the material × time factors (T1 and T2 (p=0.966. Conclusion The GICs tested presented fluoride release and recharge ability and showed no surface roughness increase by topical application of fluoride.

  12. Heat transfer properties and thermal cure of glass-ionomer dental cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavic, Lidia; Gorseta, Kristina; Glavina, Domagoj; Czarnecka, Beata; Nicholson, John W

    2015-10-01

    Under clinical conditions, conventional glass-ionomer dental cements can be cured by application of heat from dental cure lamps, which causes acceleration in the setting. In order for this to be successful, such heat must be able to spread sufficiently through the cement to enhance cure, but not transmit heat so effectively that the underlying dental pulp of the tooth is damaged. The current study was aimed at measuring heat transfer properties of modern restorative glass-ionomers to determine the extent to which they meet these twin requirements. Three commercial glass ionomer cements (Ionofil Molar, Ketac Molar and Equia™ Fill) were used in association with three different light emitting diode cure lamps designed for clinical use. In addition, for each cement, one set of specimens was allowed to cure without application of a lamp. Temperature changes were measured at three different depths (2, 3 and 4 mm) after cure times of 20, 40 and 60 s. The difference among the tested groups was evaluated by ANOVA (P heat irradiation, but much greater temperature increases when exposed to the cure lamp. However, temperature rises did not exceed 12.9 °C. Application of the cure lamp led to the establishment of a temperature gradient throughout each specimen. Differences were typically significant (P heating effect. Because the thermal conductivity of glass-ionomers is low, temperature rises at 4 mm depths were much lower than at 2 mm. At no time did the temperature rise sufficiently to cause concern about potential damage to the pulp.

  13. Effect of G-Coat Plus on the mechanical properties of glass-ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, R; Taha, N A; Azar, M R; Burrow, M F

    2013-12-01

    Although various mechanical properties of tooth-coloured materials have been described, little data have been published on the effect of ageing and G-Coat Plus on the hardness and strength of the glass-ionomer cements (GICs). Specimens were prepared from one polyacid-modified resin composite (PAMRC; Freedom, SDI), one resin-modified glass-ionomer cement; (RM-GIC; Fuji II LC, GC), and one conventional glass-ionomer cement; (GIC; Fuji IX, GC). GIC and RM-GIC were tested both with and without applying G-Coat Plus (GC). Specimens were conditioned in 37 °C distilled water for either 24 hours, four and eight weeks. Half the specimens were subjected to a shear punch test using a universal testing machine; the remaining half was subjected to Vickers Hardness test. Data analysis showed that the hardness and shear punch values were material dependent. The hardness and shear punch of the PAMRC was the highest and GIC the lowest. Applying the G-Coat Plus was associated with a significant decrease in the hardness of the materials but increase in the shear punch strength after four and eight weeks. The mechanical properties of the restorative materials were affected by applying G-Coat Plus and distilled water immersion over time. The PAMRC was significantly stronger and harder than the RM-GIC or GIC. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  14. Bond strength of orthodontic light-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiang Yu; Chen, Chien Hsiu; Li, Chuan Li; Tsai, Hung Huey; Chou, Ta Hsiung; Wang, Wei Nan

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bond strengths and debonded interfaces achieved with light-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and conventional light-cured composite resin. In addition, the effects of acid etching and water contamination were examined. One hundred human premolars were randomly divided into five equal groups. The mini Dyna-lock upper premolar bracket was selected for testing. The first four groups were treated with light-cured RMGIC with or without 15 per cent phosphoric acid-etching treatment and with or without water contamination preceding bracket bonding. The control samples were treated with the conventional light-cured Transbond composite resin under acid etching and without water contamination. Subsequently, the brackets were debonded by tensile force using an Instron machine. The modified adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were assigned to the bracket base of the debonded interfaces using a scanning electron microscope. The bond strength and modified ARI scores were determined and analysed statistically by one-way analysis of variance and chi-square test. Under all four conditions, the bond strength of the light-cure RMGIC was equal to or higher than that of the conventional composite resin. The highest bond strength was achieved when using RMGIC with acid etching but without water contamination. The modified ARI scores were 2 for Fuji Ortho LC and 3 for Transbond. No enamel detachment was found in any group. Fifteen per cent phosphoric acid etching without moistening the enamel of Fuji Ortho LC provided the more favourable bond strength. Enamel surfaces, with or without water contamination and with or without acid etching, had the same or a greater bond strength than Transbond.

  15. Mechanical, antibacterial and bond strength properties of nano-titanium-enriched glass ionomer cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene GARCIA-CONTRERAS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles (NPs has become a significant area of research in Dentistry. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the physical, antibacterial activity and bond strength properties of conventional base, core build and restorative of glass ionomer cement (GIC compared to GIC supplemented with titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanopowder at 3% and 5% (w/w. Material and Methods Vickers microhardness was estimated with diamond indenter. Compressive and flexural strengths were analyzed in a universal testing machine. Specimens were bonded to enamel and dentine, and tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine. Specimens were incubated with S. mutans suspension for evaluating antibacterial activity. Surface analysis of restorative conventional and modified GIC was performed with SEM and EDS. The analyses were carried out with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA (post-hoc, Tukey test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann Whitney. Results Conventional GIC and GIC modified with TiO2 nanopowder for the base/liner cement and core build showed no differences for mechanical, antibacterial, and shear bond properties (p>0.05. In contrast, the supplementation of TiO2 NPs to restorative GIC significantly improved Vickers microhardness (p<0.05, flexural and compressive strength (p<0.05, and antibacterial activity (p<0.001, without interfering with adhesion to enamel and dentin. Conclusion GIC supplemented with TiO2 NPs (FX-II is a promising material for restoration because of its potential antibacterial activity and durable restoration to withstand the mastication force.

  16. A study of the interactions between glass-ionomer cement and S. sanguis biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengtrakool, Chanotai

    Glass-ionomer cements (GIC) have been used for dental procedures for many years and more recently in other medical applications such as bone cements, for bone reconstruction and also as drug release agents. The postulated caries-preventive activities of GIC are thought to result from their sealing ability, remineralization potential and antibacterial effects. Extensive 'in vitro' investigations have attempted to quantify these effects. In this study, an artificial mouth model, simulating 'in vivo' conditions at the tooth surface, was used to achieve a better understanding of the interaction of oral bacteria with the cements. This study investigated the interaction of Streptococcus sanguis, a common mouth commensal, with two glass-ionomer formulations (one containing fluoride and the other without fluoride ion) with particular reference to bacterial growth, changes in surface roughness and hardness of the glass-ionomer cement with respect to time. Restorative materials with rough surfaces will promote bacterial accumulation 'in vivo' and plaque formation is one factor in surface degradation. The constant depth film fermenter (CDFF) permits the examination of these phenomena and was used to investigate glass-ionomer/S. sanguis biofilm interaction over periods up to 14 days. In conjunction with these studies, surface roughness was measured using a 3-dimension laser profilometer and the surface hardness evaluated using a micro-indenter. Fluoride release from the cement was measured over 84 days. The results showed that autoclaving the CDFF prior to bacterial innoculate did not appear to affect the long-term fluoride release of the GIC. Laser profilometry revealed that the initial roughness and surface area of the GICs was significantly greater than the hydroxyapatite control. S. sanguis viable counts were significantly reduced for both glass-ionomer formulations in the shortterm, the greater reduction being with fluoride-GIC. S. sanguis biofilms produced similar

  17. Marginal ridge fracture resistance, microleakage and pulpal response to glass ionomer/glass cermet partial tunnel restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, N T; Munshi, A K; Shetty, T R

    1997-01-01

    Sixty sound premolars which were to be extracted for orthodontic treatment purposes were restored either with glass ionomer cement or glass cermet cements after partial tunnel preparation, and prior to the extraction after a time interval of 30 and 60 days respectively. The teeth were then subjected to marginal ridge fracture resistance, microleakage study using dye penetration and histological evaluation of the pulpal response to these materials. Both the materials exhibited increase in marginal ridge fracture resistance at 60 days, with minimal degree of microleakage and were biologically compatible with the dental pulp.

  18. Confocal microscopic observation of structural changes in glass-ionomer cements and tooth interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T F; Pagliari, D; Sidhu, S K; Naasan, M A

    1998-03-01

    This study aimed to develop techniques to allow dynamic imaging of a cavity before, during and after placement of glass-ionomer restorative materials. Cavities were cut in recently extracted third molars and the teeth longitudinally sectioned. Each hemisected tooth surface was placed in green modelling compound at 90 to the optical axis of the microscope. The cavity surface was imaged using a video rate confocal microscope in conjunction with an internally focusable microscope objective. The sample on the stage was pushed up to the objective lens which 'clamped' the cover glass onto it. Water, glycerine or oil was placed below the coverglass, with oil above. Internal tooth structures were imaged by changing the internal focus of the objective. The restorative material was then placed into the cavity. Video images were stored either onto video tape or digitally, using a frame grabber, computer and mass memory storage. Software controls produced time-lapse recordings of the interface over time. Preliminary experiments have examined the placement and early maturation of conventional glass-ionomer cements and a syringeable resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Initial contact of the cement matrix and glass particles was visible as the plastic material rolled past the enamel and dentine, before making a bond. Evidence for water movement from the dentine into the cement has also been seen. After curing, the early dimensional changes in the cements due to water flux were apparent using the time-lapse facility. This new technique enables examination of developing tooth/restoration interfaces and the tracking of movement in materials.

  19. Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Najeeb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1–100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties.

  20. Effects of incorporation of nano-fluorapatite or nano-fluorohydroxyapatite on a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Zhu, Jiajun; Gu, Xiaoxia; Wen, Wenjian; Li, Qingshan; Fischer-Brandies, Helge; Wang, Huiming; Mehl, Christian

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the fluoride release properties and the effect on bond strength of two experimental adhesive cements. Synthesized particles of nano-fluorapatite (nano-FA) or nano-fluorohydroxyapatite (nano-FHA) were incorporated into a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC) and characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Blocks with six different concentrations of nano-FA or nano-FHA were manufactured and their fluoride release properties evaluated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The unaltered glass ionomer cement Fuji Ortho LC (GC, control) and the two experimental cements with the highest fluoride release capacities (nano-FA+Fuji Ortho LC (GFA) and nano-FHA+Fuji Ortho LC (GFHA)) were used to bond composite blocks and orthodontic brackets to human enamel. After 24 h water storage all specimens were debonded, measuring the micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) and the shear bond strength (SBS), respectively. The optimal concentration of added nano-FA and nano-FHA for maximum fluoride release was 25 wt.%, which nearly tripled fluoride release after 70 days compared with the control group. GC exhibited a significantly higher SBS than GFHA/GFA, with GFHA and GFA not differing significantly (P>0.05). The μTBS of GC and GFA were significantly higher than that of GFHA (P≤0.05). The results seem to indicate that the fluoride release properties of Fuji Ortho LC are improved by incorporating nano-FA or nano-FHA, simultaneously maintaining a clinically sufficient bond strength when nano-FA was added. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Class II glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations and their effect on interproximal growth of mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J H; Farrell, J E; Brown, L R

    1990-02-01

    The release of fluoride from glass ionomer materials is one of the most important features of this newly implemented material, and the remineralization effects of this phenomenon have been documented (Hicks and Silverstone 1986). This paper examines the effects of glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations on the plaque levels of interproximal mutans streptococci. Fifteen patients with Class II lesions in primary molars were selected for study. Interproximal plaque samples were obtained from each of the lesion sites and from one caries-free site approximal to a primary molar. One lesion was restored with composite resin to serve as a treated control to the glass ionomer/silver cermet (Ketac Silver, ESPE/Premier Sales Corp., Norristown, Pennsylvania) test site. A sound (unaltered) interproximal site served as the untreated control site. Plaque samples were collected before and at one week, one month, and three months post-treatment. Samples were serially diluted to enable colony counts of mutans streptococci. One week post-treatment counts showed that the glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations significantly reduced (P less than 0.05) the approximal plaque levels of mutans streptococci. Conversely, the untreated and treated control sites did not exhibit reductions in approximal plaque levels of mutans streptococci. These results indicate that glass ionomer restorations may be inhibitory to the growth of mutans streptococci in dental plaque approximal to this restorative material in the primary dentition.

  2. Clinical and SEM assessment of ART high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants after 8-13 years in 4 teeth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Resin composite sealants are retained longer than low-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants. Nevertheless, a systematic review showed that there is no evidence that resin composite sealants are superior to low-viscosity glass-ionomers in preventing dentine carious lesion development. This

  3. Clinical evaluation of glass-ionomer cement restorations Avaliação clínica de restaurações de cimento de ionômero de vidro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin John Tyas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article mentions the general structure, properties and clinical performance of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements, focusing on adhesion, caries inhibition effect and recommendations of their use.Este artigo menciona a estrutura geral, propriedades e performance clínica de cimentos de ionômero de vidro convencionais e modificados por resina, enfocando propriedades como adesão, efeito anti-cariogênico e recomendações de uso.

  4. Leakage Testing for Different Adhesive Systems and Composites to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-16

    Nov 16, 2015 ... resin composite, the fifth group – two‑stage SE adhesive applied and cavities filled with ... KEYWORDS: Adhesives, composite, evaluation, leakage ... the glass ionomers. ... systems are realized in one or two clinical step(s).[5].

  5. Aluminum-free glass-ionomer bone cements with enhanced bioactivity and biodegradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Filipa O.; Pires, Ricardo A., E-mail: rpires@dep.uminho.pt; Reis, Rui L.

    2013-04-01

    Al-free glasses of general composition 0.340SiO{sub 2}:0.300ZnO:(0.250-a-b)CaO:aSrO:bMgO:0.050Na{sub 2}O:0.060P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (a, b = 0.000 or 0.125) were synthesized by melt quenching and their ability to form glass-ionomer cements was evaluated using poly(acrylic acid) and water. We evaluated the influence of the poly(acrylic acid) molecular weight and glass particle size in the cement mechanical performance. Higher compressive strength (25 ± 5 MPa) and higher compressive elastic modulus (492 ± 17 MPa) were achieved with a poly(acrylic acid) of 50 kDa and glass particle sizes between 63 and 125 μm. Cements prepared with glass formulation a = 0.125 and b = 0.000 were analyzed after immersion in simulated body fluid; they presented a surface morphology consistent with a calcium phosphate coating and a Ca/P ratio of 1.55 (similar to calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite). Addition of starch to the cement formulation induced partial degradability after 8 weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer saline containing α-amylase. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the inclusion of starch increased the cement porosity from 35% to 42%. We were able to produce partially degradable Al-free glass-ionomer bone cements with mechanical performance, bioactivity and biodegradability suitable to be applied on non-load bearing sites and with the appropriate physical characteristics for osteointegration upon partial degradation. Zn release studies (concentrations between 413 μM and 887 μM) evidenced the necessity to tune the cement formulations to reduce the Zn concentration in the surrounding environment. Highlights: ► We developed partially degradable, bioactive, Al-free glass-ionomer cements (GICs). ► Enhanced mechanical behavior was achieved using 63–125 μm glass particle size range. ► The highest mechanical resistance was obtained using poly(acrylic acid) of 50 kDa. ► Biodegradation was successfully tuned to start 8 weeks after GIC preparation. ► Zn

  6. Aluminum-free glass-ionomer bone cements with enhanced bioactivity and biodegradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Filipa O.; Pires, Ricardo A.; Reis, Rui L.

    2013-01-01

    Al-free glasses of general composition 0.340SiO 2 :0.300ZnO:(0.250-a-b)CaO:aSrO:bMgO:0.050Na 2 O:0.060P 2 O 5 (a, b = 0.000 or 0.125) were synthesized by melt quenching and their ability to form glass-ionomer cements was evaluated using poly(acrylic acid) and water. We evaluated the influence of the poly(acrylic acid) molecular weight and glass particle size in the cement mechanical performance. Higher compressive strength (25 ± 5 MPa) and higher compressive elastic modulus (492 ± 17 MPa) were achieved with a poly(acrylic acid) of 50 kDa and glass particle sizes between 63 and 125 μm. Cements prepared with glass formulation a = 0.125 and b = 0.000 were analyzed after immersion in simulated body fluid; they presented a surface morphology consistent with a calcium phosphate coating and a Ca/P ratio of 1.55 (similar to calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite). Addition of starch to the cement formulation induced partial degradability after 8 weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer saline containing α-amylase. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the inclusion of starch increased the cement porosity from 35% to 42%. We were able to produce partially degradable Al-free glass-ionomer bone cements with mechanical performance, bioactivity and biodegradability suitable to be applied on non-load bearing sites and with the appropriate physical characteristics for osteointegration upon partial degradation. Zn release studies (concentrations between 413 μM and 887 μM) evidenced the necessity to tune the cement formulations to reduce the Zn concentration in the surrounding environment. Highlights: ► We developed partially degradable, bioactive, Al-free glass-ionomer cements (GICs). ► Enhanced mechanical behavior was achieved using 63–125 μm glass particle size range. ► The highest mechanical resistance was obtained using poly(acrylic acid) of 50 kDa. ► Biodegradation was successfully tuned to start 8 weeks after GIC preparation. ► Zn release should be

  7. Retention of a resin-based sealant and a glass ionomer used as a fissure sealant: A comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam P

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based sealants is a proven method of preventing occlusal caries. Retention of the sealant is very essential for its efficiency. This study evaluated the retention of glass ionomer used as a fissure sealant when compared to a self-cure resin-based sealant. One hundred and seven children between the ages of 6-9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Two permanent first molars on one side of the mouth were sealed with Delton, a resin-based sealant, and the contralateral two permanent first molars were sealed with Fuji VII glass ionomer cement. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen′s criteria. At the end of the study period, the retention of the resin sealant was seen to be superior to that of the glass ionomer sealant.

  8. Analysis of the interface zone between the glass ionomer and enamel and dentin of primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojan B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoring carious teeth is one of the major dental treatment needs of young children. Conventional glassionomer materials are frequently used as filling materials in contemporary pediatric dentistry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the restorative and prophylactic efficacy of the newly marketed glass ionomer, Fuji Triage (GC, Tokyo, Japan, through morphological analysis of the interface zone between the material and the enamel and the dentin of primary molars and to determine the extent of the ion exchange at the interface zone. The sample consisted of 5 extracted intact first primary molars in which glassionomer had been used as filling material after standard class I cavity preparation. The material was placed according to the manufacturer's instructions and teeth were placed into dionised water prior to experiment. Six sections of each tooth had been examined using scanning electron microscopic and electron dispersive spectroscopic techniques (SEM/EDS. The parameters for evaluation included: morphological characteristics of the interface zone and the extent of the ion exchange between the material and the tooth structures Results were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. SEM/EDS analysis revealed the presence of the chemical bonding between the glass ionomer and the enamel and dentin, 5 and 15 μm in width, respectively. Ion exchange has not been detected in the enamel at the EDS sensitivity level. Strontium and fluor penetration has been detected in dentin. The ion exchange and chemical bonding formation justify the usage of the conventional glass ionomer materials for restorative procedures in primary molars.

  9. [Bonding of visible light cured composite resins to glass ionomer and Cermet cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaboura, A; Vougiouklakis, G

    1990-04-01

    The "sandwich" technique involves combination of composite resins to etched glassionomer cements, is used today in restorative dentistry. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the bond strength between several composite resins and glass ionomer or cerment cements. Cylindrical specimens of the cements Ketac-Silver, Ionobond and GC-Lining Ce-ment were inserted in a mold and their flat free surfaces were etched for 30". Cylindrical plastic tubes were set upon each one of these surfaces and filled with the Composite resins Durafill, Brilliant Lux, Estilux posterior, Estilux posterior CVS and Herculite XR. Half of the specimens transferred in tap water for 24 hours and the others after thermocycling in the first month, kept for 4 months. Shear bond strengths were determined in Monsanto Testing Machine and some fractured surfaces were examined under SEM. The results of this investigation indicate that this technique produces bond strengths between composite resins and glassioners and the combination type of resin and type of cement, affects the values of the strength. Glass cermeet--small particle resin provides the most effective strength and glass ionomer--microfill resins the least. Storage time and thermocycling don't significantly effect the bond strength. SEM examination showed that all fracture failures were obtained in the cement while the opposite resin surfaces were covered with particles of the cements.

  10. Influence of an alloy addition on the physical and clinical behaviour of glass ionomer cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abour, Mohamed Abour Bashir

    These in vitro studies compared the various properties of an experimental high powder liquid content glass ionomer cement (EXPT) with those of a metal addition GIC (Hi-Dense) and disperse phase amalgam (Dispersalloy). Bi-axial, four point flexural and compressive tests were used to evaluate strength. Six groups of ten specimens were constructed for each test for each material and allowed to set in an oven at 37°C for 60 minutes. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C until testing at one day, one week, one, three, six months and year. It was found that the strength of Hi-Dense increased and then maintained over extended time, whereas the strength of EXPT showed a declined at 3 months. The bond strengths of the materials to both enamel and dentine were also evaluated. Ten groups of ten teeth, five for each surface for each glass ionomer materials, were prepared. Teeth were aligned leaving the enamel and dentine surfaces exposed. The mixed material was condensed into a cylinder placed on the appropriate surface. These specimens were also stored in distilled water at 37°C. It was found that Hi-Dense had a higher bond strength to enamel that increased with time. The bond strength to dentine was maintained over the test period. The erosion rate of the materials was evaluated using the lactic acid erosion test. Three groups of six specimens for each material were constructed and tested after one hour, one day and at six months. Each specimen was subjected to an impinging jet of lactic acid solution. The erosion rate was determined by weight loss and dimensional change. It was found that Hi-Dense had a high erosion resistance which was slightly better than the experimental material. The microleakage, around restorations prepared, using the glass ionomer materials, was evaluated after cyclical loading the restoration-tooth complex. It was found that there was less leakage around Hi-Dense than EXPT at both the cervical and occlusal margins. In a clinical

  11. Glass ionomer application for vocal fold augmentation: Histopathological analysis on rabbit vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Sule; Tuzuner, Arzu; Callıoglu, Elif Ersoy; Yumusak, Nihat; Arslan, Necmi; Baltacı, Bülent

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as an injection material for vocal fold augmentation and to evaluate the biocompatibility of the material. Ten adult New Zealand rabbits were used. Under general anesthesia, 0.1-cc GIC was injected to one vocal fold and the augmentation of vocal fold was observed. No injection was applied to the opposite side, which was accepted as the control group. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months and the laryngeal specimens were histopathologically evaluated. The injected and the noninjected control vocal folds were analyzed. The GIC particles were observed in histological sections on the injected side, and no foreign body giant cells, granulomatous inflammation, necrosis, or marked chronic inflammation were detected around the glass ionomer particles. Mild inflammatory reactions were noticed in only two specimens. The noninjected sides of vocal folds were completely normal. The findings of this study suggest that GIC is biocompatible and may be further investigated as an alternative injection material for augmentation of the vocal fold. Further studies are required to examine the viscoelastic properties of GIC and the long-term effects in experimental studies. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation on the glass ionomer used in dental restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, F.M.; Santos, A.; Fernandes, M.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on glass ionomer, a material used in dental restorations. Glass ionomer is used to mitigate the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, seen when the teeth are restored within in the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to X-radiation beams from 6 MV from a linear accelerator, VARIAN 2100C model. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence techniques to compare the chemical composition before and after the irradiation. Sample dose measurements were performed employing Geiger-Mueller detectors and the ionization chamber in order to verify any residual radiation in the samples. The samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry by a HPGe detector. These tests were performed to determine small changes in the composition in the samples due to the radiation interaction. The results of this study may encourage the development of new research for alternative materials in dental restorations that can contribute to improve the quality of life of those patients with tumors of the mouth. (author)

  13. INTERACTION OF FLUORIDE COMPLEXES DERIVED FROM GLASS-IONOMER CEMENTS WITH HYDROXYAPATITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis S. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study has been undertaken of the interaction of complexed fluoride extracted from glass-ionomer dental cements with synthetic hydroxyapatite powder. Extracts were prepared from two commercial glass-ionomers (Fuji IX and ChemFlex under both neutral and acidic conditions. They were analysed by ICP-OES and by fluoride-ion selective electrode with and without added TISAB to decomplex the fluoride. The pH of the acid extracts was 4, conditions under which fluoride complexes with protons as HF or HF2-, it also complexes with aluminium, which was found to be present in higher amounts in the acid extracts. Fluoride was found to be almost completely complexed in acid extracts, but not in neutral extracts, which contained free fluoride ions. Exposure of these extracts to synthetic hydroxyapatite powder showed that fluoride was taken up rapidly (within 5 minutes, whether or not it was complexed. SEM (EDAX study of recovered hydroxyapatite showed only minute traces of aluminium taken up under all conditions. This showed that aluminium interacts hardly at all with hydroxyapatite, and hence is probably not involved in the remineralisation process.

  14. Microleakage under orthodontic bands cemented with nano-hydroxyapatite-modified glass ionomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enan, Enas T; Hammad, Shaza M

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the in vivo effect of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) modification of banding glass-ionomer cement on microleakage under orthodontic bands. Eighty noncarious premolars scheduled for extraction in 20 orthodontic patients were randomly divided into four groups. Grouping was based on the ratio of nano-HA (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% by weight) added to the luting glass-ionomer cement (GIC) Ketac-Cem, which was used for cementation of prefabricated micro-etched orthodontic bands. Dye penetration method was used for microleakage evaluation at the cement-band and cement-enamel interfaces. Statistical evaluation was performed with a Kruskal-Wallis test and a Mann-Whitney U-test, and a Bonferroni-adjusted significance level was calculated. Bands cemented with conventional GIC showed the highest microleakage scores in comparison to those cemented with nano-HA-modified GIC. No significant difference was found between teeth banded with 10% and 15% modified GIC. Modification of the banding GIC with 15% nano-HA revealed a positive effect on reducing microleakage around orthodontic bands.

  15. [The effects of Ketac Molar Aplicap glass-ionomer material on growth of cariogenic bacteria contained in the dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płuciennik-Stronias, Małgorzata; Sakowska, Danuta; Paul-Stalmaszczyk, Małgorzata; Bołtacz-Rzepkowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    In the aging population, the prevalence of root caries has been observed, which is a characteristic feature of the elderly people. The most important element used in caries prevention is fluoride, which is derived from the air, diet or fluoride-containing preparations and materials, e.g. glass-ionomer restorations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Ketac Molar Aplicap glass-ionomer on the growth of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, one of the species most frequently found in the carietic focus of the tooth root. The study was carried out in 15 patients with good oral hygiene, in whom 35 fillings from Ketac Molar Aplicap conventional glass-ionomer material were performed. After 6 months, three-day dental plaque from these fillings and from the tooth enamel of the control group was examined. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.554) in the amounts of Lactobacillus sp. between the study and control group were revealed. Lack of inhibiting effect of glass-ionomer material on the growth of the dental plaque with Lactobacillus sp. after the time of observation is implied.

  16. Improving the standard of the standard for glass ionomers: an alternative to the compressive fracture strength test for consideration?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, Adam H

    2012-03-01

    Three strength tests (compressive, three point flexure and biaxial) were performed on three glass ionomer (GI) restoratives to assess the most appropriate methodology in terms of validity and reliability. The influence of mixing induced variability on the data sets generated were eliminated by using encapsulated GIs.

  17. Caries-preventive effect of a one-time application of composite resin and glass ionomer sealants after 5 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beiruti, N.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Taifour, D.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present trial was to (1) compare the caries-preventive effect of glass ionomer sealants, placed according to the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) procedure, with composite resin sealants over time and (2) investigate the caries-preventive effect after complete disappearance of

  18. Six-year success rates of occlusal amalgam and glass-ionomer restorations placed using three minimal intervention approaches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandari, G.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2003-01-01

    The present randomised clinical trial was aimed at comparing three minimally invasive restorative treatment approaches for managing dental caries in occlusal surfaces using a non-gamma-2 amalgam and a low-viscosity glass-ionomer as the restorative material. The treatment approaches tested in

  19. The Effect of Resin-modified Glass-ionomer Cement Base and Bulk-fill Resin Composite on Cuspal Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, K V; Wong, R H; Palamara, J; Burrow, M F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated cuspal deformation in teeth restored with different types of adhesive materials with and without a base. Mesio-occluso-distal slot cavities of moderately large dimension were prepared on extracted maxillary premolars (n=24). Teeth were assigned to one of four groups and restored with either a sonic-activated bulk-fill resin composite (RC) (SonicFill), or a conventional nanohybrid RC (Herculite Ultra). The base materials used were a flowable nanofilled RC (Premise Flowable) and a high-viscosity resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Riva Light-Cure HV). Cuspal deflection was measured with two direct current differential transformers, each contacting a buccal and palatal cusp. Cuspal movements were recorded during and after restoration placement. Data for the buccal and palatal cusp deflections were combined to give the net cuspal deflection. Data varied widely. All teeth experienced net inward cuspal movement. No statistically significant differences in cuspal deflection were found among the four test groups. The use of a flowable RC or an RMGIC in closed-laminate restorations produced the same degree of cuspal movement as restorations filled with only a conventional nanohybrid or bulk-fill RC.

  20. The effect of a nanofilled resin-based coating on water absorption by teeth restored with glass ionomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Amanda D; Hatch, Robert H; Benson, Jarred H; Blen, Bernard J; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2014-04-01

    A nanofilled, resin-based light-cured coating (G-Coat Plus, GC America, Alsip, Ill.) may reduce water absorption by glass ionomers. The authors investigated this possibility by measuring cuspal flexure caused by swelling of glass ionomer-restored teeth. The authors cut large mesio-occlusodistal slots (4-millimeter wide, 4-mm deep) in 12 extracted premolars and restored them with a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP Extra, GC America). Six teeth were coated, and the other six were uncoated controls. The authors digitized the teeth in three dimensions by using an optical scanner after preparation and restoration and during an eight-week storage in water. They calculated cuspal flexure and analyzed the results by using an analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests (significance level .05). They used dye penetration along the interface to verify bonding. Inward cuspal flexure indicated restoration shrinkage. Coated restorations had significantly higher flexure (mean [standard deviation], -11.9 [3.5] micrometers) than did restorations without coating (-7.3 [1.5] μm). Flexure in both groups decreased significantly (P < .05) during water storage and, after eight weeks, it changed to expansion for uncoated control restorations. Dye penetration along the interfaces was not significant, which ruled out debonding as the cause of cuspal relaxation. Teeth restored with glass ionomer cement exhibited shrinkage, as seen by inward cuspal flexure. The effect of the protective coating on water absorption was evident in the slower shrinkage compensation. The study results show that teeth restored with glass ionomers exhibited setting shrinkage that deformed tooth cusps. Water absorption compensated for the shrinkage. Although the coating may be beneficial for reducing water absorption, it also slows the shrinkage compensation rate (that is, the rate that hygroscopic expansion compensates for cuspal flexure from shrinkage).

  1. Microleakage of Glass Ionomer-based Provisional Cement in CAD/CAM-Fabricated Interim Crowns: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ra'fat I; Al-Harethi, Naji

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the marginal microleakage of glass ionomer-based provisional cement with resin-based provisional cement and zinc oxide non-eugenol (ZONE) provisional cement in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-fabricated interim restorations. Fifteen intact human premolars were prepared in a standardized manner for complete coverage of crown restorations. Interim crowns for the prepared teeth were then fabricated using CAD/CAM, and the specimens were randomized into three groups of provisional cementing agents (n = 5 each): Glass ionomer-based provisional cement (GC Fuji TEMP LT™), bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)/ triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin-based cement (UltraTemp® REZ), and ZONE cement (TempBond NE). After 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37°C, the specimens were thermocycled and then stored again for 24 hours in distilled water at room temperature. Next, the specimens were placed in freshly prepared 2% aqueous methylene blue dye for 24 hours and then embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin blocks and sectioned in buccolingual and mesiodistal directions to assess dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. The results were statistically analyzed using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Dunn's post hoc test with a Bonferroni correction test was used to compute multiple pairwise comparisons that identified differences among groups; the level of significance was set at p provisional cement demonstrated the lowest microleakage scores, which were statistically different from those of the glass ionomer-based provisional cement and the ZONE cement. The provisional cementing agents exhibited different sealing abilities. The Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin-based provisional cement exhibited the most effective favorable sealing properties against dye penetration compared with the glass ionomer-based provisional cement and conventional ZONE cement. Newly introduced glass

  2. Occlusal glass ionomer cermet, resin sandwich and amalgam restorations: a 2-year clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidums, A; Wilkie, R; Smales, R

    1993-08-01

    This study compared the clinical behavior of a glass ionomer silver cermet (Ketac-Silver), a posterior resin composite (Visio-Molar) used with the "sandwich" technique, and a high-copper amalgam (Dispersalloy) for restoring conventional Class I occlusal cavity preparations. Two dentists placed 116 restorations in the posterior permanent teeth of 35 adults treated at a dental hospital. Restorations were assessed at 6-month intervals over 2 years for bulk loss of material and occlusal wear, surface voids, roughness and cracking, surface and marginal staining, and marginal fracture. Losses of material and surface voids were obvious with the cermet material, with surface crazing or cracking being present in 33% of the restorations. The cermet cannot be recommended as a long-term permanent restorative material if the restorations are likely to be subjected to heavy occlusal stresses and abrasive wear.

  3. The effects of shelf life on the compressive strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajong, K. H.; Damiyanti, M.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    Resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) is a restoration material composed of powder and liquid whose stability is affected by its shelf life. This is an issue that has not been taken into consideration by customers or sellers. To observe the effects of shelf life on the compressive strength of RMGIC, 30 cylindrical (d = 4mm and t = 6mm) specimens of RMGIC (Fuji II LC, GC, Tokyo, Japan) were divided into three groups with different storage times and their compressive strength was tested with a universal testing machine. Results were statistically analyzed with the one-way ANOVA test. There were significant differences (p<0.05) between the three groups of RMGIC. There is a decrease in the compressive strength value along with the duration of storage time.

  4. Incorporation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate into a glass-ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaoui, S A; Burrow, M F; Tyas, M J; Dashper, S G; Eakins, D; Reynolds, E C

    2003-11-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) nanocomplexes have been shown to prevent demineralization and promote remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions in animal and in situ caries models. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of incorporating CPP-ACP into a self-cured glass-ionomer cement (GIC). Incorporation of 1.56% w/w CPP-ACP into the GIC significantly increased microtensile bond strength (33%) and compressive strength (23%) and significantly enhanced the release of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions at neutral and acidic pH. MALDI mass spectrometry also showed casein phosphopeptides from the CPP-ACP nanocomplexes to be released. The release of CPP-ACP and fluoride from the CPP-ACP-containing GIC was associated with enhanced protection of the adjacent dentin during acid challenge in vitro.

  5. Dental glass ionomer cement reinforced by cellulose microfibers and cellulose nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rafael M.; Pereira, Fabiano V.; Mota, Felipe A.P.; Watanabe, Evandro; Soares, Suelleng M.C.S.; Santos, Maria Helena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate if the addition of cellulose microfibers (CmF) or cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) would improve the mechanical properties of a commercial dental glass ionomer cement (GIC). Different amounts of CmF and CNC were previously prepared and then added to reinforce the GIC matrix while it was being manipulated. Test specimens with various concentrations of CmF or CNC in their total masses were fabricated and submitted to mechanical tests (to evaluate their compressive and diametral tensile strength, modulus, surface microhardness and wear resistance) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The incorporation of CmF in the GIC matrix did not greatly improve the mechanical properties of GIC. However, the addition of a small amount of CNC in the GIC led to significant improvements in all of the mechanical properties evaluated: compressive strength (increased up to 110% compared with the control group), elastic modulus increased by 161%, diametral tensile strength increased by 53%, and the mass loss decreased from 10.95 to 3.87%. Because the composites presented a considerable increase in mechanical properties, the modification of the conventional GIC with CNC can represent a new and promising dental restorative material. - Highlights: • Cellulose microfibers (CmF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were prepared. • The CmF and CNC were incorporated in commercial dental glass ionomer cement (GIC). • Small amount of CNC improved significantly all the mechanical properties evaluated. • Modified GIC with CNC can represent a new and promising dental restorative material.

  6. Translationally controlled tumor protein supplemented chitosan modified glass ionomer cement promotes osteoblast proliferation and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangsuwan, Jiraporn; Wanichpakorn, Supreya; Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) supplemented in a novel glass ionomer cement (BIO-GIC) on normal human osteoblasts (NHost cells). BIO-GIC was a glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified by adding chitosan and albumin to promote the release of TCTP. NHost cells were seeded on specimens of GIC, GIC + TCTP, BIO-GIC and BIO-GIC + TCTP. Cell proliferation was determined by BrdU assay. It was found that BIO-GIC + TCTP had significantly higher proliferation of cells than other specimens. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and osteopontin (OPN) gene expressions assessed by quantitative real time PCR and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were used to determine cell differentiation. Bone cell function was investigated by calcium deposition using alizarin assay. Both BMP-2 and OPN gene expressions of cells cultured on specimens with added TCTP increased gradually up-regulation after day 1 and reached the highest on day 3 then down-regulation on day 7. The ALP activity of cells cultured on BIO-GIC + TCTP for 7 days and calcium content after 14 days were significantly higher than other groups. BIO-GIC + TCTP can promote osteoblast cells proliferation, differentiation and function. - Highlights: • Developed a new GIC by supplementing TCTP in BIO-GIC (GIC with chitosan and albumin) • BIO-GIC + TCTP released a higher amount of TCTP than GIC + TCTP. • BIO-GIC + TCTP promoted cell proliferation higher than other specimens and control. • BIO-GIC + TCTP promoted osteoblasts differentiation and function

  7. Translationally controlled tumor protein supplemented chitosan modified glass ionomer cement promotes osteoblast proliferation and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangsuwan, Jiraporn [Department of Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics Research, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Department of Oral Biology and Occlusion, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Wanichpakorn, Supreya; Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn [Department of Oral Biology and Occlusion, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand)

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) supplemented in a novel glass ionomer cement (BIO-GIC) on normal human osteoblasts (NHost cells). BIO-GIC was a glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified by adding chitosan and albumin to promote the release of TCTP. NHost cells were seeded on specimens of GIC, GIC + TCTP, BIO-GIC and BIO-GIC + TCTP. Cell proliferation was determined by BrdU assay. It was found that BIO-GIC + TCTP had significantly higher proliferation of cells than other specimens. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and osteopontin (OPN) gene expressions assessed by quantitative real time PCR and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were used to determine cell differentiation. Bone cell function was investigated by calcium deposition using alizarin assay. Both BMP-2 and OPN gene expressions of cells cultured on specimens with added TCTP increased gradually up-regulation after day 1 and reached the highest on day 3 then down-regulation on day 7. The ALP activity of cells cultured on BIO-GIC + TCTP for 7 days and calcium content after 14 days were significantly higher than other groups. BIO-GIC + TCTP can promote osteoblast cells proliferation, differentiation and function. - Highlights: • Developed a new GIC by supplementing TCTP in BIO-GIC (GIC with chitosan and albumin) • BIO-GIC + TCTP released a higher amount of TCTP than GIC + TCTP. • BIO-GIC + TCTP promoted cell proliferation higher than other specimens and control. • BIO-GIC + TCTP promoted osteoblasts differentiation and function.

  8. Glass ionomer ART sealants in Chinese school children-6-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Christopher J; Lo, Edward C M; Hu, Deyu

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate longitudinally ART sealants placed in Chinese school children under field conditions. 191 ART sealants were placed in 140 children, aged 11-14 years, by five assistant dentists in four secondary schools in Deyang, Sichuan Province, China. Teeth selected for sealing were those with pits and fissures that were deep or showing early enamel caries. Teeth were excluded if there was obvious cavitation extending into dentine. Standard instruments and procedures for ART sealants were used. The material used was a high-viscosity glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, 3MESPE) that was inserted into the pits and fissures with the "press-finger" technique. The status of the sealants was evaluated annually over 6 years after placement by the same examiner who was not involved in the placement of the sealants using explorers, mouth-mirrors and an intra-oral fibre-optic light. No missing sealants were replaced during the study. 107 sealants (56% of the original) were examined after 6 years. The cumulative survival rates of the sealants (partially or fully retained) after 2, 4 and 6 years were 79%, 68% and 59%, respectively. Caries prevention lagged the fall in sealant survival but remained high throughout the study period, being over 90% in the first 4 years and 85% after 6 years. ART sealants placed under field conditions in Chinese schoolchildren have a high retention rate. Missing sealants should be replaced to maintain their preventive efficacy. The sealing of pits and fissures can be an effective caries preventive approach. Resin-based sealants have the disadvantage in that they require an optimal level of moisture control during placement. In children and in outreach situations glass ionomer ART sealants, which are more moisture tolerant, can offer a viable alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Therapeutic ion-releasing bioactive glass ionomer cements with improved mechanical strength and radiopacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian eFuchs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses (BG are used to regenerate bone, as they degrade and release therapeutic ions. Glass ionomer cements (GIC are used in dentistry, can be delivered by injection and set in situ by a reaction between an acid-degradable glass and a polymeric acid. Our aim was to combine the advantages of BG and GIC, and we investigated the use of alkali-free BG (SiO2-CaO-CaF2-MgO with 0 to 50% of calcium replaced by strontium, as the beneficial effects of strontium on bone formation are well documented. When mixing BG and poly(vinyl phosphonic-co-acrylic acid, ions were released fast (up to 90% within 15 minutes at pH 1, which resulted in GIC setting, as followed by infrared spectroscopy. GIC mixed well and set to hard cements (compressive strength up to 35 MPa, staying hard when in contact with aqueous solution. This is in contrast to GIC prepared with poly(acrylic acid, which were shown previously to become soft in contact with water. Strontium release from GIC increased linearly with strontium for calcium substitution, allowing for tailoring of strontium release depending on clinical requirements. Furthermore, strontium substitution increased GIC radiopacity. GIC passed ISO10993 cytotoxicity test, making them promising candidates for use as injectable bone cements.

  10. Morphological analysis of ionomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the progress made during the period of April 1st, 1989 and March 31st, 1990. Topics covered are: SANS of Telechelic Ionomers, SANS of Sulfonated Polyurethanes, Effect of Matrix Polarity and Ambient Aging on the Morphology of Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Adhesive Sphere Model for Analysis of SAXS Data from Ionomers, Comparison of Structure-Property Relationships in Carboxylated and Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Development of a Liquid-like Hard Sphere Model for Deformed Ionomer Samples, and Polymer Synthesis for Proposed Research

  11. Characterization of the calcium-fluoroaluminosilicate glass prepared by a non-hydrolytic sol-gel route for future dental application as glass ionomer cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cestari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements are widely employed in dentistry due to their physical, biological and mainly anti-caries properties. Glass ionomers consist of an aluminosilicate glass matrix modified with other elements, and they contain large quantities of fluorine. In this study, we report on the preparation of calcium-fluoroaluminosilicate glasses by a nonhydrolytic sol-gel route as an alternative approach to obtaining alumina-silica matrices. The glass powders were prepared via the non-hydrolytic sol-gel method, by mixing AlCl3, SiCl4, CaF2, AlF3, NaF, and AlPO4. The powders were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA/DSC, photoluminescence (PL, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR27Al-29Si, and X ray diffraction (XRD. TG/DTA/DSC analyses revealed a constant mass loss due to structural changes during the heating process, which was confirmed by NMR and PL. A stable aluminosilicate matrix with potential future application as a glass ionomer base was obtained.

  12. [The effects of topical fluoridation of Ketac Molar Aplicap glass-ionomer material on the growth of cariogenic bacteria contained in the dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płuciennik-Stronias, Małgorzata; Zarzycka, Beata; Bołtacz-Rzepkowska, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a bacterial disease. The most important element used in caries prevention is fluoride, which is derived from the air, diet or fluoride-containing preparations and materials, e.g. glass-ionomer restorations. Modern fluoride-containing restorative materials are capable of releasing fluoride to the environment. Fluoride can be also accumulated in glass-ionomer cements, thus an attempt was made to saturate these materials with fluoride. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of topical fluoridation of Ketac Molar Aplicap glass-ionomer cement on the growth of Lactobacillus spp. in the dental plaque. The study was carried out in 15 patients with good oral hygiene, in whom 35 fillings with conventional glass-ionomer material, Ketac Molar Aplicap, were performed. After 6 months, three-day dental plaque from these fillings was examined. Next, fluoride was rubbed on the glass-ionomer surface and the examination of three-day dental plaque was repeated. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.143) in the amounts of Lactobacillus spp. in the plaque collected prior to and after topical fluoridation were revealed. Fluoride rubbed in the conventional glass-ionomer cement, Ketac Molar Aplicap, did not affect the amount of Lactobacillus spp. in the dental plaque growing on this material.

  13. Durability of cermet ionomer cement conditioned in different media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Din, I M

    1992-01-01

    The glass ionomer cement has exhibited significant adhesion to hard tooth structures, and good cariostatic properties. The sintering of the silver alloy powder and glass ionomer cement "cermet cement" has provided additional improvement in the physical properties of the restorative material. These were flexural resistance, wear resistance, increased radio-opacity, hardness and porosity. The improvement in the physical properties of the cermet glass cements has provided an extension in their clinical use as core build up, lining for inlays, amalgam and composite restoratives, fissure filling, restoration of primary teeth, class II tunnel preparation, treatment of root caries and repair of defective metal margins in crown and inlays.

  14. Effect of mechanical load cycling on the microleakage of three different glass ionomer restorations in class V cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Baharan Ranjbar Omidi; Ladan Madani; Aida Mirnejad Joybari; Ensyeh Rashvand; Sonia Oveisi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Microleakage is an important problem with direct restorations and familiarity with contributing factors is of utmost importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of three glass ionomer restorations in class V cavities.   Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, class V cavity preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/ palatal surfaces of 30 human premolars (60 cavities). The specimens were divided into three group (n=10, 20 cavities). Re...

  15. Evaluation of Marginal Microgaps of Two Glass-ionomer Cements (GIC in Dogs and Sheep in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Figurová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the marginal microgaps of two ionomer cements: Kavitan Plus (Spofa Dental and Vitremer (3M ESPE in dog and sheep dentition in vivo. Dentitions of sheep and dogs were restored in vivo with a conventional, glass polyalkenoic, chemically activated cement Kavitan Plus with hydrophilic properties capable and with a resinmodified glass-ionomer cement Vitremer with light-induced polymerization and autopolymerization reaction of methyl metacrylate group. The parameters of glass-ionomers were evaluated in 6 groups of animals, 2 animals in each, at various time intervals (after 1, 4 and 6 months in dogs and 3, 6 and 9 months in sheep, starting from the beginning of the experiment. The restorative materials were placed to buccal surfaces of permanent teeth. At the intervals specified, under general injection anaesthesia, throughout the experiment we extracted 24 teeth from sheep and 30 from dogs. When processing the samples of dog's teeth two samples were damaged. One month after the placement, Kavitan plus restorations became loose only in one case in dogs (80% successfulness. In sheep two Kavitan Plus restorations became loose after 9 months (50% successfulness. During the experiment we observed neither cracks nor marginal discoloration in both Kavitan Plus and Vitremer restorations. Statistically significant (P = 0.04 differences were observed in the dentin of dogs receiving glass-ionomer Vitremer restorations which exhibited lower marginal microgaps. The remaining results were non- significant (ANOVA test. Fluoride ions released from GIC support the treatment of dental hard tissues. These materials could be used as definitive restorations of class A - D cavities in dogs and dental cervical caries in sheep as well as underlying layers ofcomposite and amalgam materials.

  16. Effect of two prophylaxis methods on marginal gap of Cl Vresin-modified glass-ionomer restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Daneshpooy, Mehdi; Abed Kahnamoii, Mehdi; Davoodi, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effect of two prophylaxis techniques on the marginal gap of CI V resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations. Methods. Standard Cl V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 48 sound bovine mandibular incisors in this in vitro study. After restoration of the cavities with GC Fuji II LC resin-modified glass-ionomer, the samples were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 16. In group 1, the prophylactic procedures were carried out with rubber cup and pumice powder and in group 2 with air-powder polishing device (APD). In group 3 (control), the samples did not undergo any prophylactic procedures. Then the marginal gaps were measured. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare marginal gaps at the occlusal and gingival margins between the groups. Post hoc Tukey test was used for two-by-two comparisons. Statistical significance was set at P marginal gaps in terms of prophylactic techniques (P marginal gaps in the APD group compared to the pumice and rubber cup group, which in turn exhibited significantly larger marginal gaps compared to the control group (P marginal gaps were significant in terms of the margin type (P margins compared to the occlusal margins (P marginal gaps of Cl V resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations.

  17. Influence of HEMA content on the mechanical and bonding properties of experimental HEMA-added glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nam Lim

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of incrementally added uncured HEMA in experimental HEMA-added glass ionomer cement (HAGICs on the mechanical and shear bond strength (SBS of these materials. Increasing contents of uncured HEMA (10-50 wt.% were added to a commercial glass ionomer cement liquid (Fuji II, GC, Japan, and the compressive and diametral tensile strengths of the resulting HAGICs were measured. The SBS to non-precious alloy, precious alloy, enamel and dentin was also determined after these surfaces were subjected to either airborne-particle abrasion (Aa or SiC abrasive paper grinding (Sp. Both strength properties of the HAGICs first increased and then decreased as the HEMA content increased, with a maximum value obtained when the HEMA content was 20% for the compressive strength and 40% for the tensile strength. The SBS was influenced by the HEMA content, the surface treatment, and the type of bonding surface (p<0.05. These results suggest that addition of an appropriate amount of HEMA to glass ionomer cement would increase diametral tensile strength as well as bond strength to alloys and teeth. These results also confirm that the optimal HEMA content ranged from 20 to 40% within the limitations of this experimental condition.

  18. Comparative evaluation of different periods of enamel microabrasion on the microleakage of class V resin-modified glass ionomer and compomer restorations: An In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Disha; Mahajan, Mrinalini

    2017-01-01

    The design of the class V cavity presents a clinical challenge in the field of adhesive dentistry as the margin placement is partially in enamel and partly in dentin, and the trouble associated with this design is the microleakage at the dentinal margin. When these restorations undergo microabrasion due to cosmetic reasons, this trouble aggravates to the significant levels. The aim of this study was the measurement of microleakage of class V glass ionomer restorations over two different periods of enamel microabrasion. This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 120 class V cavities which had been prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 60 sound human premolars. One-half of the cavities were restored with the resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC) (60 cavities) and another half with the compomer (60 cavities). Finishing and polishing were performed. Then, the teeth were classified into six groups (n = 20). Microabrasion treatment was performed with Opaluster (Ultradent Product Inc., South Jordan, UT, USA) for 0 (control no treatment), 60 and 120 s. Then, teeth were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C, immersed in rhodamine B solution (24 h), and sectioned longitudinally in buccolingual direction. Dye penetration was examined with stereomicroscope (×10). Microleakage scores were statistically analyzed. The mean occlusal margin scores and gingival margin scores were compared between all the groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. There was a significant difference between Group 1a, Group 2a, Group 1b, Group 2b, Group 1c, and Group 2c. Statistical analysis used in this study was Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. The least microleakage scores were observed in occlusal margins of control groups (without microabrasion). Moreover, in both restorations, the microleakage scores in occlusal margins were higher than gingival

  19. Comparative evaluation of different periods of enamel microabrasion on the microleakage of class V resin-modified glass ionomer and compomer restorations: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The design of the class V cavity presents a clinical challenge in the field of adhesive dentistry as the margin placement is partially in enamel and partly in dentin, and the trouble associated with this design is the microleakage at the dentinal margin. When these restorations undergo microabrasion due to cosmetic reasons, this trouble aggravates to the significant levels. Aims: The aim of this study was the measurement of microleakage of class V glass ionomer restorations over two different periods of enamel microabrasion. Settings and Design: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 120 class V cavities which had been prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 60 sound human premolars. One-half of the cavities were restored with the resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC (60 cavities and another half with the compomer (60 cavities. Finishing and polishing were performed. Subjects and Methods: Then, the teeth were classified into six groups (n = 20. Microabrasion treatment was performed with Opaluster (Ultradent Product Inc., South Jordan, UT, USA for 0 (control no treatment, 60 and 120 s. Then, teeth were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C, immersed in rhodamine B solution (24 h, and sectioned longitudinally in buccolingual direction. Dye penetration was examined with stereomicroscope (×10. Microleakage scores were statistically analyzed. The mean occlusal margin scores and gingival margin scores were compared between all the groups using the Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. There was a significant difference between Group 1a, Group 2a, Group 1b, Group 2b, Group 1c, and Group 2c. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis used in this study was Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. Results: The least microleakage scores were observed in occlusal margins of control groups (without

  20. Class II glass ionomer cermet tunnel, resin sandwich and amalgam restorations over 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, R; Lidums, A; Smales, R

    1993-08-01

    This study compared the clinical behavior of a glass ionomer (polyalkenoate) silver cermet, a posterior resin composite used with the "tunnel" technique, a posterior resin composite used with the "closed sandwich" technique, and a high-copper amalgam for restoring small, proximal surface carious lesions. Two dentists placed 86 restorations in the posterior permanent teeth of 26 adults treated at a dental hospital. Restorations were assessed at 6-month intervals over 2 years for gingivitis adjacent to them, the tightness of proximal contacts, occlusal wear, surface voids, roughness and cracking, surface and marginal staining, and marginal fracture. Small filling defects, surface voids and occlusal wear were obvious with the cermet material, with surface crazing and cracking present in 48% of the tunnel restorations. Two of the posterior resin composites, but none of the amalgam restorations, also failed. The cermet cannot be recommended as a long-term permanent restorative material in situations where it is likely to be subjected to heavy occlusal stresses and abrasive wear.

  1. Surface roughness of glass ionomer cements indicated for uncooperative patients according to surface protection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Edoardo; Bossù, Maurizio; Giovannetti, Agostino; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Even today, use of Glass Ionomer Cements (GIC) as restorative material is indicated for uncooperative patients. The study aimed at estimating the surface roughness of different GICs using or not their proprietary surface coatings and at observing the interfaces between cement and coating through SEM. Forty specimens have been obtained and divided into 4 groups: Fuji IX (IX), Fuji IX/G-Coat Plus (IXC), Vitremer (V), Vitremer/Finishing Gloss (VFG). Samples were obtained using silicone moulds to simulate class I restorations. All specimens were processed for profilometric evaluation. The statistical differences of surface roughness between groups were assessed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (One-Way ANOVA) (p<0.05). The Two-Way Analysis of Variance (Two-Way ANOVA) was used to evaluate the influence of two factors: restoration material and presence of coating. Coated restoration specimens (IXC and VFG) were sectioned perpendicular to the restoration surface and processed for SEM evaluation. No statistical differences in roughness could be noticed between groups or factors. Following microscopic observation, interfaces between restoration material and coating were better for group IXC than for group VFG. When specimens are obtained simulating normal clinical procedures, the presence of surface protection does not significantly improve the surface roughness of GICs.

  2. Cytotoxic effects of glass ionomer cements on human dental pulp stem cells correlate with fluoride release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjevac, Tatjana; Milovanovic, Marija; Volarevic, Vladislav; Lukic, Miodrag L; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Markovic, Dejan; Zdravkovic, Nebojsa; Tesic, Zivoslav; Lukic, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are commonly used as restorative materials. Responses to GICs differ among cell types and it is therefore of importance to thoroughly investigate the influence of these restorative materials on pulp stem cells that are potential source for dental tissue regeneration. Eight biomaterials were tested: Fuji I, Fuji II, Fuji VIII, Fuji IX, Fuji Plus, Fuji Triage, Vitrebond and Composit. We compared their cytotoxic activity on human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and correlated this activity with the content of Fluoride, Aluminium and Strontium ions in their eluates. Elution samples of biomaterials were prepared in sterile tissue culture medium and the medium was tested for toxicity by an assay of cell survival/proliferation (MTT test) and apoptosis (Annexin V FITC Detection Kit). Concentrations of Fluoride, Aluminium and Strontium ions were tested by appropriate methods in the same eluates. Cell survival ranged between 79.62% (Fuji Triage) to 1.5% (Fuji Plus) and most dead DPSCs were in the stage of late apoptosis. Fluoride release correlated with cytotoxicity of GICs, while Aluminium and Strontium ions, present in significant amount in eluates of tested GICs did not. Fuji Plus, Vitrebond and Fuji VIII, which released fluoride in higher quantities than other GICs, were highly toxic to human DPSCs. Opposite, low levels of released fluoride correlated to low cytotoxic effect of Composit, Fuji I and Fuji Triage.

  3. Clinical performance of a glass ionomer restorative system: a 6-year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgan, Sevil; Kutuk, Zeynep Bilge; Ergin, Esra; Oztas, Sema Seval; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a glass ionomer (GI) restorative system in the restoration of posterior teeth compared with a micro-filled hybrid posterior composite. A total of 140 (80 Cl1 and 60 Cl2) lesions in 59 patients were restored with a GI system (Equia) or a micro hybrid composite (Gradia Direct). Restorations were evaluated at baseline and yearly during 6 years according to the modified-USPHS criteria. Negative replicas at each recall were observed under SEM to evaluate surface characteristics. Data were analyzed with Cohcran's Q and McNemar's tests (p evaluated in 47 patients with a recall rate of 79.6% at 6 years. Significant differences were found in marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration for both restorative materials for Cl1 and Cl2 restorations (p  0.05). A significant decrease in color match was observed in Equia restorations (p performance after 6 years. SEM evaluations were in accordance with the clinical findings. Both materials showed a good clinical performance for the restoration of posterior teeth during the 6-year evaluation. The clinical effectiveness of Equia and Gradia Direct Posterior was acceptable in Cl1 and Cl2 cavities subsequent to 6-year evaluation.

  4. Low-cost glass ionomer cement as ART sealant in permanent molars: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela HESSE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are normally performed with well-known brands of glass ionomer cement (GIC, but the cost of these materials is high for public healthcare in less-affluent communities. Given the need to research cheaper materials, it seems pertinent to investigate the retention rate of a low-cost GIC applied as atraumatic restorative treatment (ART sealants in two centers in Brazil. Four hundred and thirty-seven 6-to-8-year-old schoolchildren were selected in two cities in Brazil. The children were randomly divided into two groups, according to the tested GIC applied in the first permanent molars. The retention rate was evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the log-rank test were performed. The variables were tested for association with sealant longevity, using logistic regression analyses (α = 5%. The retention rate of sealants after 12 months was 19.1%. The high-cost GIC brand presented a 2-fold-more-likely-to-survive rate than the low-cost brand (p < 0.001. Significant difference was also found between the cities where the treatments were performed, in that Barueri presented a higher sealant survival rate than Recife (p < 0.001. The retention rate of a low-cost GIC sealant brand was markedly lower than that of a well-known GIC sealant brand.

  5. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of selected conventional glass ionomer cements on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczuk-Kolada, Grażyna; Łuczaj-Cepowicz, Elżbieta; Pawińska, Małgorzata; Hołownia, Adam

    2017-10-01

    Dentistry materials are the most frequently used substitutes of human tissues. Therefore, an assessment of dental filling materials should cover not only their chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics, but also their cytotoxicity. To compare the cytotoxic effects of 13 conventional glass ionomer cements on human gingival fibroblasts. The assessment was conducted using the MTT test. Six samples were prepared for each material. Culture plates with cells and inserts with the materials were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2, and 95% humidity for 24 h. Then the inserts were removed, 1 mL of MTT was added in the amount of 0.5 mg/1 mL of the medium, and the samples were incubated in the described conditions without light for 2 h. The optical density was measured with an absorption spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 560 nm. The cytotoxic effects of the Argion Molar was significantly stronger than the Fuji Triage (p = 0.007), Chemfil Molar (p cements from the low cytotoxicity group were significantly more toxic vs materials whose presence resulted in fibroblast growth (p < 0.001). The research conducted indicates that, although the materials studied may belong to the same group, they are characterized by low, yet not uniform, cytotoxicity on human gingival fibroblasts. The toxic effects should not be assigned to a relevant group of materials, but each dentistry product should be evaluated individually.

  6. Evaluation of dentin hypersensitivity treatment with glass ionomer cements: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Matos MADRUGA

    Full Text Available Abstract A randomized, double-blind, split-mouth clinical trial was performed compared the desensitizing efficacy of the resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC ClinproTM XT (3M ESPE, Minnesota, USA and the conventional GIC Vidrion R (SS White, Gloucester, UK in a 6-month follow-up. Subjects were required to have at least two teeth with dentin hypersensitivity. Teeth were divided at random into 2 groups, one group received Clinpro XT and the other conventional GIC Vidrion R. Treatments were assessed by tactile and air blast tests using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS at baseline, after 20 minutes, and at 7, 15, 21, 30, 90 and 180 days post-treatment. Twenty subjects (152 teeth were included. Both tests (tactile and air blast showed a significant reduction of dentin hypersensitivity immediately after the application of Vidrion R and Clinpro XT (20 min. VAS scores obtained along the 6-month follow-up were statistically lower when compared to initial rates (p 0.05. Both cements provided satisfactory results in long-term dental sensitivity reduction.

  7. Surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements: effects of finishing/polishing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, A U J; Ong, S B; Yap, W Y; Tan, W S; Yeo, J C

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements after immediate and delayed finishing with different finishing/polishing systems. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of 64 freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (GC) and Photac-Fil Quick (3M-ESPE) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with 8-fluted tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups of 16 teeth. Half of the teeth in each group were finished immediately, while the remaining half were finished after one-week storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The following finishing/polishing systems were employed: (a) Robot Carbides; (b) Super-Snap system; (c) OneGloss and (d) CompoSite Polishers. The mean surface roughness (microm; n=8) in vertical (RaV) and horizontal (RaH) axis was measured using a profilometer. Data was subjected to ANOVA/Scheffe's tests and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Ra values were generally lower in both vertical and horizontal axis with delayed finishing/polishing. Although significant differences in RaV and RaH values were observed among several systems with immediate finishing/polishing, only one (Fuji II LC: RaH - Super-Snap < Robot Carbides) was observed with delayed finishing.

  8. EFEKTIFITAS PENCEGAHAN KARIES DENGAN A TRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT DAN TUMPATAN GLASS IONOMER CEMENT DALAM PENGENDALIAN KARIES DI BEBERAPA NEGARA

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    Magdarina Destri Agtini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide caries is still mainly problem in oral and dental diseases. In developing countries 30%-90% of 12-years old children do not get oral and dental treatment. In Indonesia, several programs have been implemented to improve oral and dental health status for all age groups. How over, a few reports/National dental health profile showed that mean DMF-T tend to increase, year 1970 DMF-T=0,70, 1980 DMF-T= 2,30, 1990 DMF-T=2,70, and National Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 DMFT=4,8. In National Health Research 2007, it was revealed 29,8% of active caries found in 12-years old children. If the active caries are not managed further complication will occure that may cause teeth extraction. An early teeth extraction can influence mastication and general health. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART is a preventive and restorative approach for managing carious lesions ofthe teeth. It constitutes of hand instruments only (no electric drills used for widening cavity openings and for excavating soft decayed tissue from within the cavity, followed by the application of an adhesive dental material, usually a high-viscosity glass-ionomer (GIC filling material, into the cavity and over the adjacent pits and fissures. ART-GIC consepts are minimally invasive, inhibit further progression ofdental caries., preventive, as well as curative. Effectiveness of ART-GIC can be determined by successrate of ART-GIC fillings (F and effect of ART-GIC on both Decayed (D and Performance Treatment Index (PTI. Several studies showed that success rate ART-GIC are varies, around 71%-85%. There is no significant difference of success rate ART-GIC between dentis and dental nurses. The highest rate of Fluor release occurred on the first day after ART-GIC filling. Further more ART-GIC also inhibit new caries, as well as inhibit increased DMF-T. The increasing of F, may influence improvement of PTI (PTI around 50%-52%. Additional can improve dental health services. It is suggested

  9. Do light cured ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants perform better than resin-composite sealants: a 4-year randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Chen, X.; Fan, M.W.; Mulder, J.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hypotheses tested were: the cumulative survival rates of dentin caries lesion-free pits and fissures of ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants with light-curing (high-intensity LED) and glass-carbomer sealants are higher than those of conventional ART sealants and

  10. In vitro mechanical stimulation facilitates stress dissipation and sealing ability at the conventional glass ionomer cement-dentin interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; Cabello, Inmaculada; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the induced changes in the chemical and mechanical performance at the glass-ionomer cement-dentin interface after mechanical load application. A conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) (Ketac Bond), and a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Vitrebond Plus) were used. Bonded interfaces were stored in simulated body fluid, and then tested or submitted to the mechanical loading challenge. Different loading waveforms were applied: No cycling, 24 h cycled in sine or loaded in sustained hold waveforms. The cement-dentin interface was evaluated using a nano-dynamic mechanical analysis, estimating the complex modulus and tan δ. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging, Raman analysis and dye assisted confocal microscopy evaluation (CLSM) were also performed. The complex modulus was lower and tan delta was higher at interfaces promoted with the GIC if compared to the RMGIC unloaded. The conventional GIC attained evident reduction of nanoleakage. Mechanical loading favored remineralization and promoted higher complex modulus and lower tan delta values at interfaces with RMGIC, where porosity, micropermeability and nanoleakage were more abundant. Mechanical stimuli diminished the resistance to deformation and increased the stored energy at the GIC-dentin interface. The conventional GIC induced less porosity and nanoleakage than RMGIC. The RMGIC increased nanoleakage at the porous interface, and dye sorption appeared within the cement. Both cements created amorphous and crystalline apatites at the interface depending on the type of mechanical loading. Remineralization, lower stress concentration and resistance to deformation after mechanical loading improved the sealing of the GIC-dentin interface. In vitro oral function will favor high levels of accumulated energy and permits micropermeability at the RMGIC-dentin interface which will become remineralized. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of Coca-Cola and fruit juices on the surface hardness of glass-ionomers and 'compomers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliping-McKenzie, M; Linden, R W A; Nicholson, J W

    2004-11-01

    The interaction of tooth-coloured dental restorative materials (a conventional glass-ionomer, two resin-modified glass-ionomers and two compomers) with acidic beverages has been studied with the aim of investigating how long-term contact affects solution pH and specimen surface hardness. For each material (ChemFil Superior, ChemFlex, Vitremer Core Build-Up/Restorative, Fuji II LC, Dyract AP and F2000) disc-shaped specimens were prepared and stored in sets of six in the following storage media: 0.9% NaCl (control), Coca-Cola, apple juice and orange juice. After time intervals of 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 4 months, 6 months and 1 year, solution pH and Vickers Hardness Number were determined for each individual specimen. Differences were analysed by anova followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis. All materials were found to reduce the pH of the 0.9% NaCl, but to increase the pH of the acidic beverages. The conventional glass-ionomers dissolved completely in apple juice and orange juice, but survived in Coca-Cola, albeit with a significantly reduced hardness after 1 year. The other materials survived in apple juice and orange juice, but showed greater reductions in surface hardness in these beverages than in Coca-Cola. Fruit juices were thus shown to pose a greater erosive threat to tooth coloured materials than Coca-Cola, a finding which is similar to those concerning dentine and enamel towards these drinks.

  12. Biaxial Flexural Strength of High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomer Cements Heat-Cured with an LED Lamp during Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fabián Molina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ketac Molar Easymix, ChemFil Rock, and the EQUIA system were divided into three treatment groups (n=30: without heating (Group 1, heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 30 s while setting (Group 2, and heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 60 s while setting (Group 3. Samples were stored for 48 hours in distilled water at 37°C until tested. BFS was tested, using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA test with the Bonferroni correction (α=0.05. Heating the glass-ionomer cements with an LED curing light of 1400 mW/cm2 during setting for 30 s increased the BFS value of all GICs. No statistically significant difference in mean BFS scores was found between the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock at 30 s and 60 s. The mean BFS value was statistically significantly higher for the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock than for Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix at all exposure times.

  13. Durability of adhesive glass-metal connections for structural applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lancker, B.; Dispersyn, J.; De Corte, W.; Belis, J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of adhesive bonds for structural glass-metal connections in the building envelope has increased in recent years. Despite the multiple advantages compared to more traditional bolted connections, long-term behaviour and durability of the adhesives have to be investigated accurately. Because,

  14. Research gaps identified during systematic reviews of clinical trials: glass-ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickenautsch, Steffen

    2012-06-29

    To report the results of an audit concerning research gaps in clinical trials that were accepted for appraisal in authored and published systematic reviews regarding the application of glass-ionomer cements (GIC) in dental practice Information concerning research gaps in trial precision was extracted, following a framework that included classification of the research gap reasons: 'imprecision of information (results)', 'biased information', 'inconsistency or unknown consistency' and 'not the right information', as well as research gap characterization using PICOS elements: population (P), intervention (I), comparison (C), outcomes (O) and setting (S). Internal trial validity assessment was based on the understanding that successful control for systematic error cannot be assured on the basis of inclusion of adequate methods alone, but also requires empirical evidence about whether such attempt was successful. A comprehensive and interconnected coverage of GIC-related clinical topics was established. The most common reasons found for gaps in trial precision were lack of sufficient trials and lack of sufficient large sample size. Only a few research gaps were ascribed to 'Lack of information' caused by focus on mainly surrogate trial outcomes. According to the chosen assessment criteria, a lack of adequate randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding/masking in trials covering all reviewed GIC topics was noted (selection- and detection/performance bias risk). Trial results appear to be less affected by loss-to-follow-up (attrition bias risk). This audit represents an adjunct of the systematic review articles it has covered. Its results do not change the systematic review's conclusions but highlight existing research gaps concerning the precision and internal validity of reviewed trials in detail. These gaps should be addressed in future GIC-related clinical research.

  15. Research gaps identified during systematic reviews of clinical trials: glass-ionomer cements

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    Mickenautsch Steffen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report the results of an audit concerning research gaps in clinical trials that were accepted for appraisal in authored and published systematic reviews regarding the application of glass-ionomer cements (GIC in dental practice Methods Information concerning research gaps in trial precision was extracted, following a framework that included classification of the research gap reasons: ‘imprecision of information (results’, ‘biased information’, ‘inconsistency or unknown consistency’ and ‘not the right information’, as well as research gap characterization using PICOS elements: population (P, intervention (I, comparison (C, outcomes (O and setting (S. Internal trial validity assessment was based on the understanding that successful control for systematic error cannot be assured on the basis of inclusion of adequate methods alone, but also requires empirical evidence about whether such attempt was successful. Results A comprehensive and interconnected coverage of GIC-related clinical topics was established. The most common reasons found for gaps in trial precision were lack of sufficient trials and lack of sufficient large sample size. Only a few research gaps were ascribed to ‘Lack of information’ caused by focus on mainly surrogate trial outcomes. According to the chosen assessment criteria, a lack of adequate randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding/masking in trials covering all reviewed GIC topics was noted (selection- and detection/performance bias risk. Trial results appear to be less affected by loss-to-follow-up (attrition bias risk. Conclusion This audit represents an adjunct of the systematic review articles it has covered. Its results do not change the systematic review’s conclusions but highlight existing research gaps concerning the precision and internal validity of reviewed trials in detail. These gaps should be addressed in future GIC-related clinical research.

  16. Marginal Gaps between 2 Calcium Silicate and Glass Ionomer Cements and Apical Root Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biočanin, Vladimir; Antonijević, Đorđe; Poštić, Srđan; Ilić, Dragan; Vuković, Zorica; Milić, Marija; Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Brković, Božidar; Đurić, Marija

    2018-01-12

    The outcome of periapical surgery has been directly improved with the introduction of novel material formulations. The aim of the study was to compare the retrograde obturation quality of the following materials: calcium silicate (Biodentine; Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA+; Cerkamed Company, Stalowa Wola, Poland), and glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX; GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Materials' wettability was calculated concerning the contact angles of the cements measured using a glycerol drop. Cements' porosity was determined using mercury intrusion porosimetry and micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging. Extracted upper human incisors were retrofilled, and μCT analysis was applied to calculate the volume of the gap between the retrograde filling material and root canal dentin. Experiments were performed before and after soaking the materials in simulated body fluid (SBF). No statistically significant differences were found among the contact angles of the studied materials after being soaked in SBF. The material with the lowest nanoporosity (Fuji IX: 2.99% and 4.17% before and after SBF, respectively) showed the highest values of microporosity (4.2% and 3.1% before and after SBF, respectively). Biodentine had the lowest value of microporosity (1.2% and 0.8% before and after SBF, respectively) and the lowest value of microgap to the root canal wall ([10 ± 30] × 10 -3  mm 3 ). Biodentine and MTA possess certain advantages over Fuji IX for hermetic obturation of retrograde root canals. Biodentine shows a tendency toward the lowest marginal gap at the cement-to-dentin interface. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The hardness and chemical changes in demineralized primary dentin treated by fluoride and glass ionomer cement

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    Gisele Fernandes DIAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoride plays an important role in the control of dental caries. Aim To evaluate the chemical exchange between restoration of glass ionomer cement of high viscosity (GIC and primary dentin with application of sodium fluoride (NaF 2% through changes in hardness from uptake of calcium, phosphate and fluoride. Material and method Class I cavities were prepared in 40 sound primary molars, and the sample was divided into two groups (n=20 according to dentin condition: sound (1 and demineralized (2. Sub-groups (n=10 were formed to investigate the isolated action of the GIC or the association with NaF (F. This in vitro study examined the chemical exchange under two conditions, sound and demineralized dentin (pH cycling, to simulate the occurrence of mineral loss for the caries lesion. G1 and G2 received GIC restoration only; groups G1F and G2F received NaF before GIC restoration. The specimens were prepared for Knoop hardness test and micro-Raman spectroscopy. A two-way ANOVA test (α = 0.05 was used for statistical analysis. Micro-Raman data were qualitatively described. Result Increased hardness was observed in all the sites of direct contact with GIC in sound and demineralized dentin for all groups (p0.05. In the evaluation of micro-Raman, direct contact between GIC and dentin for sound and demineralized dentin resulted in increased peaks of phosphate. Conclusion The exchange between GIC and demineralized dentin may induce changes of mechanical properties of the substrate, and uptake of mineral ions (phosphate occurs without the influence of NaF.

  18. Improvement of the mechanical, tribological and antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cements by fluorinated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Yan, Zhuanjun; Duan, Youxin; Zhang, Junyan; Liu, Bin

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical properties, wear resistance and antibacterial properties of conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs) by fluorinated graphene (FG), under the premise of not influencing their solubility and fluoride ion releasing property. FG with bright white color was prepared using graphene oxide by a hydrothermal reaction. Experimental modified GICs was prepared by adding FG to the traditional GICs powder with four different weight ratios (0.5wt%, 1wt%, 2wt% and 4wt%) using mechanical blending. Compressive and flexural strength of each experimental and control group materials were investigated using a universal testing machine. The Vickers microhardness of all the specimens was measured by a Vicker microhardness tester. For tribological properties of the composites, specimens of each group were investigated by high-speed reciprocating friction tester. Fluoride ion releasing was measured by fluoride ion selective electrode methods. The antibacterial effect of GICs/FG composites on selected bacteria (Staphylococci aureus and Streptococcus mutans) was tested with pellicle sticking method. The prepared GICs/FG composites with white color were successfully fabricated. Increase of Vickers microhardness and compressive strength and decrease of friction coefficient of the GICs/FG composites were achieved compared to unreinforced materials. The colony count against S. aureus and S. mutans decreased with the increase of the content of FG. And the antibacterial rate of S. mutans can be up to 85.27% when the FG content was 4wt%. Additionally, fluoride ion releasing property and solubility did not show significant differences between unreinforced and FG reinforced GICs. Adding FG to traditional GICs could not only improve mechanical and tribological properties of the composites, but also improve their antibacterial properties. In addition, the GICs/FG composites had no negative effect on the color, solubility and fluoride ion releasing

  19. Release profile of synthesized coumarin derivatives as a novel antibacterial agent from glass ionomer cement (GIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Fatimah Suhaily Abdul; Osman, Hasnah; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2017-12-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are widely used as dental restorative materials due to their aesthetics features and fluoride content. However, a capability of fluoride content in GIC to inhibit bacteria growth in an oral environment was insufficient for a long term which may lead to secondary caries. Therefore, two types of synthesized coumarin derivatives were incorporated with GIC to act as new antibacterial agent. However prior to the antibacterial evaluation, this study investigated the release profile of GIC incorporated with 3-Acetylcoumarin (GIC-1) and hydrazinyl thiosemicarbazide of coumarin derivatives (GIC-2) at three different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 wt% up to 30 days. At early incubation period, GIC-1 revealed a higher release profile at 0.5 % fabrication that reached almost 45 % of cumulative release for 8 hours observational. Meanwhile, a slightly different output was obtained for GIC-2 in which 1.0 % fabrication of coumarin gave a better release in the initial hour. However, the pattern was replaced by 0.5 % substitution after 4 hours incubation time. A substitution of 1.5 % coumarin seems to be low in releasing activity for all materials. Conversely, in a longer period 1.0 % fabrication was discovered to be the highest coumarin release among others fabrications for both materials. Filler particle size and porosity of the materials were considered to be the main factor that may affect the coumarin release. Nonetheless, both synthesized coumarin derivatives can be incorporated with GIC as their release profile look very promising. Ultimately, the coumarin derivatives could improve the properties of GIC.

  20. Effects of instrumentation time on microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U J; Yeo, Egwin J C; Yap, W Y; Ong, Debbie S B; Tan, Jane W S

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of instrumentation time on the microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). Class V cavities were prepared on buccal and lingual/ palatal surfaces of 64 freshly extracted non-carious premolars. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (FT [GC]) and Photac-Fil Quick (PF [3M-ESPE]). The restored teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 32 teeth. Finishing/polishing was done immediately after light-polymerization in one group and was delayed for one week in the other group. The following finishing/polishing systems were evaluated: (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) SuperSnap (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Polishers (CS). The sample size for each instrumentation time, material and finishing/polishing system combination was 8. Storage medium for both immediate and delayed instrumentation groups was distilled water at 37 degrees C during the hiatus period. The teeth were subsequently subjected to dye penetration testing (0.5% basic fushcin), sectioned and scored. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at significance level 0.05. For PF, significant difference in enamel leakage was observed between immediate and delayed instrumentation with SS and CS. Significant differences in dentin leakage were also observed between the two instrumentation times for SS. For FT, significant differences in leakage between instrumentation times were observed only in dentin and with RC. Where significant differences in dye penetration scores existed, delayed finishing/polishing resulted in less microleakage.

  1. Surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements: effects of finishing/polishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U J; Tan, W S; Yeo, J C; Yap, W Y; Ong, S B

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the surface texture of two resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs) in the vertical and horizontal axis after treatment with different finishing/polishing systems. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (GC) and Photac-Fil Quick (ESPE) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with 8-flute tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finished/polished with (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Points (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. The mean surface roughness (microm) in vertical (RaV) and horizontal (RaH) axis was measured using a profilometer. Data was subjected to ANOVA/Scheffe's tests and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Mean RaV ranged from 0.59-1.31 and 0.83-1.52, while mean RaH ranged from 0.80-1.43 and 0.85-1.58 for Fuji II LC and Photac-Fil, respectively. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Fuji II LC: RaV-RC, SS

  2. Ion irradiation effect on metallic condensate adhesion to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.V.; Upit, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    The ion irradiation effect on metallic condensate adhesion to glass is investigated. It has been found that in case of indium ion deposition the condensate adhesion to glass cleavages being in contact with atmosphere grows up to the level corresponding to a juvenile surface while in case of argon ion irradiation - exceeds it. It is shown that the observed adhesion growth is determined mainly by the surfwce modification comparising charge accumulation on surface, destruction of a subsurface layer and an interlayer formation in the condensate-substrate interface. The role of these factors in the course of various metals deposition is considered

  3. Micropipette Deflection Measurements of Agar-Glass Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parg, Richard; Shelton, Erin; Dutcher, John

    Micropipette deflection experiments were used to study the adhesive strength at an agar-glass interface. Agar is a hydrogel commonly used in biological research; however, many of the mechanical properties of this hydrogel are not well characterized. By measuring the peak force required to slide an agar puck supported by a Teflon ring across a clean glass slide, we are able to compare the adhesive strength of 1 % w/w and 1.5 % w/w agar. On average, the force required to break the agar-glass interface was approximately a factor of 2 larger for 1.5 % w/w agar than for 1 % w/w agar. We discuss this result within the context of a simple model of agar adhesion. Additional experiments were performed to measure the kinetic friction between agar and glass to obtain insight into its dependence on agar concentration.

  4. In vitro evaluation of marginal microleakage of class II bonded amalgam restorations using a dentin adhesive and a glass ionomer cement Avaliação in vitro da microinfiltração marginal em restaurações de amálgama tipo classe II usando adesivo dentinário e cimento de ionômero de vidro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmêr Silvestre PEREIRA JÚNIOR

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effectiveness of the dentin bonding system All Bond 2 associated with Resinomer (Bisco, and of Vitrebond (3M glass ionomer cement fresh-mixed, both used in the bonded amalgam technique, to prevent short-term microleakage in class II cavities restored with Dispersalloy (Dentsply, an admixed alloy. The control group utilized the Copalite (Cooley & Cooley varnish. Forty five sound human extracted premolars were used. Class II cavity preparations were made on the mesial and distal surfaces of non-carious teeth, with the gingival margins wall established 1mm under the cementum enamel junction. The specimens were divided randomly into three groups with thirty cavities in each group. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours and were thermocyled through 500 cycles in distilled water between 5°C and 55°C with a dwell time of 15 seconds. The apices and roots of the teeth were sealed. They were placed in a 37°C bath of 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours. The teeth were washed in tap water for 24 hours and cut. The microleakage scores per restoration were averaged and three values of various test groups were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn test at a significance level of p O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a efetividade na prevenção da microinfiltração do sistema adesivo All Bond 2 associado ao Resinomer (Bisco, e do cimento de ionômero de vidro Vitrebond (3M, sem polimerização, em amálgama adesivo classe II, restauradas com Dispersalloy (Dentsply. No grupo controle utilizou-se o verniz cavitário Copalite (Cooley & Cooley. Para tanto, 45 pré-molares humanos íntegros e extraídos, com finalidade ortodôntica, receberam cavidades classe II, sendo uma na face mesial e outra na face distal de cada dente, com a parede cervical localizada a 1mm além da junção cemento-esmalte, sendo 30 cavidades em cada grupo. Após as restaurações os dentes foram estocados

  5. "Effect of nano-filled surface coating agent on fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement: an in vitro trial".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Nandlal, B

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of glass ionomer cement of sensitivity to initial desiccation and moisture contamination the use of surface coating agent is recommended. The search in this area led to invent of use of nanofillers in surface coating agent, but its effect on fluoride release is not clear. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement with and without surface coating agent. This in vitro study comprised of total 80 samples (40 samples of each with and without surface coating). Specimens were prepared, G coat plus was applied and light cured. Fluoride release of the sample was measured every 24 h for 7 days and weekly from 7th to 21 st day using Sension4 pH/ISE/MV Meter. Descriptive Statistics, Repeated Measure ANOVA, Paired Sample t-test, Independent Sample t-test, Scheffe post hoc test. Mean values clearly reveal a significant decrease in the fluoride release from day 1 to day 21 for both groups. Non-coated group released significantly more fluoride than surface coated group (Pagent will reduce the amount of fluoride released into oral environment as compared to non-coated group and at the same time releasing fluoride into surrounding cavity walls to create zones of inhibition into the cavity floor to help internal remineralization.

  6. Effects of aging and HEMA content on the translucency, fluorescence, and opalescence properties of experimental HEMA-added glass ionomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Yu, Bin; Zhao, Guang-Feng; Lim, Jin Ik

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the translucency, fluorescence, and opalescence of experimental 10-50% 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-added glass ionomers (HAGIs) after 5,000 cycles of thermocycling were determined and compared with those of commercial resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs). Changes in the translucency (TP), fluorescence (FL), and opalescence (OP) parameters were in the range of -3.5 to 0.2, -2.3 to 0.3 and -2.6 to 9.1 units respectively for HAGIs; and -0.9 to 0.3, -0.7 to 0.6, and 1.1 to 2.3 units respectively for RMGIs. Changes in the TP, FL, and OP of HAGIs were influenced by the HEMA content and powder shade, and were generally larger than those of RMGIs. Since the changes in TP, FL, and OP of experimental HAGIs were influenced by the HEMA content, there arises a need to determine the optimal HEMA ratio to attain high stability for these optical properties. In addition, results of this study showed that apart from optimal HEMA ratio, future studies should include other aspects and factors that contribute to age-dependent changes in optical properties.

  7. Modified glass ionomer and orthodontic band: An interim alternative for the treatment of molar incisor hypomineralization. A case report.

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    Carla Orellana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH is a developmental condition resulting in defects in the enamel characterized by demarcated opacities mainly affecting first permanent molars and occasionally permanent incisors in 1 of every 6 children worldwide. Affected molars have greater susceptibility to post eruptive breakdown, extensive caries and, in severe cases, are difficult to restore. When the MIH-affected molar presents severe crown destruction, it is necessary to perform an intermediate restoration to preserve the remaining dental structure in order to maintain occlusion, proper hygiene and periodontal health. The case of an 11-year-old patient with severe MIH is reported. The patient had extensive crown destruction by caries in tooth 1.6 without clinical or radiographic signs of pulp pathology. After an initial preventive intervention, enamel without dentin support and carious dentin were removed from tooth 1.6. Subsequently, crown restoration was performed with resin-modified glass ionomer, followed by the cementation of an orthodontic band. After 18 months of follow-up, the patient reported no pain or discomfort. The restoration was preserved intact, maintaining occlusal functionality, pulp and gingival health. Conclusion: The interim treatment, cementing an orthodontic band over a tooth restored with glass ionomer seems to favor retention and compressive strength, keeping the MIH-affected molar asymptomatic for at least 18 months. Further studies evaluating this treatment option in similar clinical situations are recommended.

  8. Comparison of Microleakage of Glass Ionomer Restoration in Primary Teeth Prepared by Er: YAG Laser and the Conventional Method

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    M. Ghandehari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the main criteria in evaluating the restorative materials is the degree of microleakage. The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of glass ionomer restored cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser or turbine and bur.Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted caries-free deciduous posterior teeth were selected for this study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups for cavity preparation. Cavities in group one were prepared by high speed turbine and bur. In the second group, Er:YAG laser with a 3W output power, 300 mJ energy and 10 Hz frequency was used. Cavities were restored with GC Fuji II LC. After thermocycling, the samples were immersed into 0.5% methylene blue solution. They were sectioned for examination under optic microscope.Results: The Wilcoxon signed ranks test showed no significant difference between microleakage of the laser group and the conventional group (P>0.05.Conclusion: Er:YAG laser with its advantages in pediatric dentistry may be suggested as an alternative device for cavity preparation.Key Words: Er:YAG laser, Glass ionomer, Microleakage

  9. The behaviour of composites, glass ionomers and compomers in erosive conditions – in vitro study

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    Borş Andreea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of erosive conditions on the wear resistance of aesthetic direct restorative materials. Methods: Six dental filling materials were tested: two composites (Filtek Z550 and X-tra fil, two compomers (Dyract Extra and Twinky Star and two glass ionomers (Ketac Molar and Fuji II LC. Twenty disks (10mm×2mm of each material were prepared (n=120 and kept in artificial saliva at 37˚C for 24 hours. Specimens were cycled in acidic soft drink (Coca-Cola 5×/day, for 5’, over 30 days. Initial surface roughness ISR (Ra-μm and final surface roughness FSR were measured using a profilometer. The wear rate was calculated as difference of final minus the initial roughness (ΔSR=FSR-ISR. For statistical analysis t-test and one-way ANOVA test were used by GraphPad Prism version 5.03 statistical software. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The erosive wear rates (mean±SD, μm after exposure to acidic beverage were: 0.30±0.03 (Ketac Molar, 0.28±0.04 (Fuji II LC, 0.27±0.00 (Filtek Z550, 0.23±0.01 (X-tra fil, 0.20±0.00 (Twinky Star and 0.14±0.01 Dyract Extra, respectively. There were significant differences between the tested materials (p<0.05. Conclusions: Dental filling materials had different behaviour under the same erosive condition, however all investigated aesthetic restorative materials showed surface degradation. These findings suggest that erosive wear resistance of tooth coloured restoratives could influence their longevity in intraoral acidic conditions. Acknowledgements: The study was supported by the Internal Research Grant no. 5/30.01.2013 of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tirgu Mureş.

  10. A preliminary clinical trial using flowable glass-ionomer cement as a liner in proximal-ART restorations: the operator effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifácio, C.C.; Hesse, D.; Bönecker, M.; van Loveren, C.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Raggio, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    .Objectives: This in vivo study was carried out to assess the influence of the operator experience on the survival rate of proximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique to insert the glass-ionomer cement (GIC). Study Design: Forty five proximal cavities in primary molars were restored in a

  11. Two-year survival rates of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment restorations in relation to glass ionomer cements and postrestoration meals consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; Opinya, G.N.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Mwalili, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 glass ionomer cement (GIC) brands and the postrestoration meal consumed on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Methods: A total of 804 proximal restorations were placed in primary

  12. Characterization of Incorporation the Glass Waste in Adhesive Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, D. P.; Azevedo, A. R. G.; Hespanhol, R. L.; Alexandre, J.

    Ehe search for reuse generated waste in urban centers, intending to preserve natural resources, has remained fairly constant, both in context of preventing exploitation of resources as the emplacement of waste on the environment. Glass waste glass created a serious environmental problem, mainly because of inconsistency of its flows. Ehe use of this product as a mineral additive, finely ground, cement replacement and aggregate is a promising direction for recycling. This work aims to study the influence of glass waste from cutting process in adhesive mortar, replacing part of cement. Ehe glass powder is used replacing Portland cement at 10, 15 and 20% by mass. Ehe produced mortars will be evaluated its performance in fresh and hardened states through tests performed in laboratory. Ehe selected feature is indicated by producers of additive and researchers to present good results when used as adhesive mortar.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of different food media on the marginal integrity of class v compomer, conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, Shiji

    2015-03-01

    Cervical lesions of anterior and posterior teeth are a common finding in routine dental practice. They are of much concern to the patient, if present in esthetically sensitive regions. Adhesive tooth-colored restorative materials are generally recommended for treating such lesions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effect of various food media (lime juice, tea, coffee, and Coca-Cola) on the marginal integrity of Class V compomer (Dyract(®)), conventional glass-ionomer (Fuji II) and resin-modified glass-ionomer (Fuji II LC improved) restorations along their cemental and enamel margins with saline as control media. After restoration of prepared Class V cavities in human premolars with the three different materials (n = 8), they were immersed in the test media for 7 days and then stained with methylene blue dye. Buccolingual sections were prepared and examined under stereomicroscope and scores (0-2) were given. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance in SPSS version 16.0. P Coca-Cola) compared to saline. Enamel margins showed more marginal adaptation than cemental margins.

  14. Influence of Porous Spherical-Shaped Hydroxyapatite on Mechanical Strength and Bioactive Function of Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement

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    Szu-Yu Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ionomer-cement (GIC is helpful in Minimal Intervention Dentistry because it releases fluoride ions and is highly biocompatible. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms by which hydroxyapatite (HAp improves the mechanical strength and bioactive functioning of GIC when these materials are combined to make apatite ionomer cement (AIC. A conventional GIC powder was mixed with porous, spherical-HAp particles (HApS, crystalline HAp (HAp200 or one of two types of cellulose. The micro-compressive strengths of the additive particles were measured, and various specimens were evaluated with regard to their compressive strengths (CS, fluoride release concentrations (fluoride electrode and multi-element release concentrations. The AIC was found to release higher concentrations of fluoride (1.2 times and strontium ions (1.5 times compared to the control GIC. It was detected the more release of calcium originated from HApS than HAp200 in AIC. The CS of the AIC incorporating an optimum level of HAp was also significantly higher than that of the GIC. These results suggest that adding HAp can increase the release concentration of ions required for remineralization while maintaining the CS of the GIC. This effect does not result from a physical phenomenon, but rather from chemical reactions between the HAp and polyacrylic acid of GIC.

  15. Clinical attachment level gain and bone regeneration around a glass ionomer restoration on root surface wall of periodontal pocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biniraj, K. R.; Sagir, Mohammed; Sunil, M. M.; Janardhanan, Mahija

    2012-01-01

    A case describing perio-restorative management of an accidental trauma in the mid portion of root on an upper left canine tooth following an ostectomy surgery is presented here. The traumatized root area was undergoing fast resorption and a chronic periodontal abscess had developed in relation to the lesion. The article illustrates the clinical and radiographic photo series of a periodontal flap surgery done to gain access into a subgingival region for the placement of Glass ionomer restoration on the root and its periodic follow up. The clinical condition of the area suggests 8 mm clinical attachment gain over the restoration and the review radiographs at definite intervals up to 18 months revealed evidence of consistent bone regeneration around the restoration. The article also highlights the various other possibilities, where this restorative material can be effectively used in conjunction with periodontal surgical procedures. PMID:23162344

  16. Effect of salivary pH on diametral tensile strength of glass ionomer cement coated with coating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahdillah; Triaminingsih, S.; Eriwati, Y. K.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of salivary pH to diametral tensile strength of glass ionomer cement (GIC) coated with a coating agent. GIC specimens coated with varnish and nano-filled coating agent were stored in artificial saliva at pH values of 4.5, 5.5, and 7 for 24 h at 37°C, then the diametral tensile strength was tested by universal testing machine. Results showed that there was no significant difference in the diametral tensile strength of the GIC coated with varnish and nano-filled coating agent with decreasing of salivary pH (p salivary pH does not affect the diametral tensile strength of GIC coated by varnish or nano-filled coating agent

  17. SEALING ABILITY OF MINERAL TRIOXIDE AGGREGATE, CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CEMENT, AND GLASS IONOMER CEMENT IN THE REPAIR OF FURCATION PERFORATIONS

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    Prabath Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro sealing ability of three repair materials. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Group A, calcium phosphate cement (CPC; Group B, and light cured glass ionomer cement (GIC; Group C when used to repair the perforation created in the pulpal floor of fifty extracted human permanent molars. Materials and methods: Preparation of access openings and furcation perforations were done, and the teeth divided into five experimental groups (A, B, C including two controls (D, E with ten samples in each group randomly. Following the repair procedure, the pulp chambers and access openings were filled with composite resin and immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 48 hours. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the linear dye penetration measured under a stereo­microscope. Results: The comparison of the linear length of micro-leakage (mm among the experimental groups revealed no significant difference (p = 0.332. On calculating the percentage of depth of leakage to the total length of the perforation, it was observed that the mean leakage was 35.5% in Group A, 53.6% in Group B and the highest, 87.5% in Group C. The mean of leakage percentage was statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.003. The results indicated that the dye penetration used as furcation perforation repair material was least with mineral trioxide aggregate. Comparing the depth of penetration of dye, 50% of the Group A samples showed less than 25% of depth penetration. While 40% of Group B cases had more than 50% dye penetration. In our study, all Group C teeth had ≥ 50% dye penetration. Conclusions: The present study indicated that GIC had the greatest dye penetration followed by CPC and MTA. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium phosphate cement had comparatively better sealing ability than glass ionomer cement.

  18. Effect of various amounts of nanosilver incorporation on the mechanical properties of resin modified glass-ionomer cement

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    Roza Haghgoo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Metallic nano-particles show exclusive biological, chemical and physical characteristic. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of various amounts of nanosilver incorporation (0 (as control, 20, 40, 80, 120, 200 ppm on the mechanical Properties ( compressive and flexural strength of resin modified Glass ionomer Cement.   Materials and Methods: Based on ISO 4049 and ISO 9971 for polyalkenoid cements, 90 cases in each group were prepared for the flexural and compressive strength. Specimens in 6 groups with different amounts of nanosilver (20, 40, 80, 120 and 200 ppm and control (Fuji II LC improved, stored in distilled water at 37 ° C for 1 day and 30 days. Flexural strength, using a three-point bending method, Modulus of elasticity and the compressive strength were measured by universal testing machine (Zwick with crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey post HOC test.   Results: The flexural strength and modulus of various amounts of nanosilver incorporation of resin modified glass-ionomer cement were not significantly different (P>0.05. The compressive strength of incorporating of20 ppm compared with control (P=0.01, 40 ppm (P=0.02 and 80 ppm compared with control (P<0.001 were increased. The flexural strength and compressive strength of Fuji II LC, containing nanosilver particles were increased after 1 day and 1 month significantly (P<0.001.   Conclusion: Incorporation of 20 to 80 ppm nanosilver into Fuji II LC had increased mechanical properties compared to the original cement.

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of Different Mouthrinses on the Color Stability of One Type of Glass Ionomer, Compomer and Giomer

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    Shaghayegh Razavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four commercially available mouthrinses on the color stability of one type of glass ionomer, giomer and compomer. Method: 60 disc-shaped specimens, 180 in total (7*2mm, fabricated from each of the following materials: A resin modified glass ionomer Fuji II LC (GC International Corp, a giomer Beautifil II (SHOFU INC and a compomer Ionosit (DMG. All specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37˚C for 24 hours in an incubator. The initial colour value (L*,a*,b* were recorded with spectrophotometer according to CIELAB scale. After baseline evaluation, the specimens were divided into five subgroups, according to the testing and control storage solutions (n=12. Randomly selected specimens from each material were immersed in 20 ml of the treatment solutions (Oral-B Pro Expert, Listerine, Colgate Plax, Irasha at 37˚c for 24 hours. Each specimen was then subjected to second color measurement. The collected data was statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD at a significance level of 0.05. Results: All samples displayed color changes after immersion in the mouthrinses. The observed color difference showed that mouthrinses have a significant effect on the color shift of tested materials. A significant interaction was found between the materials and the mouthrinses. Overall, discoloration with all mouthrinses was significant when compared to the control specimens stored in artificial saliva. Oral-B induced the highest level of discoloration (ΔE*= 11.62 in Compomer and the least discoloration was found with Irsha (ΔE*= 1.47 in RMGI. Conclusions: All tested restorative materials showed a color shift after immersion in mouthrinses, amongst which compomer displayed the highest change. Discolorations were clinically perceptible in most of the cases. Thus it can be concluded that daily use of mouthrinses increases the stainability of tested materials.

  20. Comparison of Elastic Modulus and Compressive Strength of Ariadent and Harvard Polycarboxylate Cement and Vitremer Resin Modified Glass Ionomer

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    Ahmadian Khoshemehr Leila

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Luting agents are used to attach indirect restoration into or on the tooth. Poor mechanical properties of cement may be a cause of fracture of this layer and lead to caries and restoration removal. The purpose of this study was to compare the elastic modulus and compressive strength of Ariadent (A Poly and Harvard polycarboxylate (H Poly cements and Vitremer resin modified glass ionomer (RGl.Materials & Methods: In this experimental study 15 specimens were prepared form each experimental cement in Laboratory of Tehran Oil Refining Company. The cylindrical specimens were compressed in Instron machine after 24 hours. Elastic modulus and compressive strength were calculated from stress/strain curve of each specimen. One way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis and P values<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.Results: The mean elastic modulus and mean compressive strength were 2.2 GPa and 87.8MPa in H poly, 2.4 GPa and 56.5 MPa in A Poly, and 0.8GPa and 105.6 MPa in RGI, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that compressive strength and elastic modulus of both polycarboxylate cements were significantly different from hybrid ionomer (P<0.05, but the difference between elastic modulus of two types of polycarboxilate cements was not statistically significant. Compressive strength of two polycarboxilate cements were significantly different (P<0.05. Conclusion: An ideal lutting agent must have the best mechanical properties. Between the tested luttins RGl cement had the lowest elastic modulus and the highest compressive strength, but the A poly cement had the highest elastic modulus and the lowest compressive strength. Therefore none of them was the best.

  1. A comparative study of retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements with stainless steel crowns - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath Reddy, M H; Subba Reddy, V V; Basappa, N

    2010-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to compare the retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements using Instron universal testing machine. Thirty preformed and pretrimmed stainless steel crowns were used for cementation on 30 extracted human primary molars which were divided into three groups of 10 teeth in each group. Then the teeth were stored in artificial saliva and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. A load was applied on to the crown and was gradually increased till the crown showed dislodgement, and then the readings were recorded using Instron recorder and analyzed for statistical significance. The surface area of crown was measured by graphical method. The retentive strength was expressed in terms of kg/cm 2 , which was calculated by the equation load divided by area. Retentive strengths of zinc phosphate (ranged from a minimum of 16.93 to amaximum of 28.13 kg/cm 2 with mean of 21.28 kg/cm 2 ) and glass ionomer cement (minimum of 13.69 - 28.15 kg/cm 2 with mean of 20.69 kg/cm 2 ) were greater than that of polycarboxylate cement (minimum of 13.26 - 22.69 kg/cm 2 with mean of 16.79 kg/cm 2 ). Negligible difference (0.59 kg/cm 2 ) of retentive strength was observed between zinc phosphate (21.28 kg/cm 2 ) and glass ionomer cements (20.69 kg/cm 2 ). Glass ionomer cements can be recommended for cementation of stainless steel crowns because of its advantages and the retentive strength was almost similar to that of zinc phosphate cement.

  2. A comparative study of retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements with stainless steel crowns - An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Reddy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study was conducted to compare the retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements using Instron universal testing machine. Thirty preformed and pretrimmed stainless steel crowns were used for cementation on 30 extracted human primary molars which were divided into three groups of 10 teeth in each group. Then the teeth were stored in artificial saliva and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. A load was applied on to the crown and was gradually increased till the crown showed dislodgement, and then the readings were recorded using Instron recorder and analyzed for statistical significance. The surface area of crown was measured by graphical method. The retentive strength was expressed in terms of kg/cm 2 , which was calculated by the equation load divided by area. Retentive strengths of zinc phosphate (ranged from a minimum of 16.93 to amaximum of 28.13 kg/cm 2 with mean of 21.28 kg/cm 2 and glass ionomer cement (minimum of 13.69 - 28.15 kg/cm 2 with mean of 20.69 kg/cm 2 were greater than that of polycarboxylate cement (minimum of 13.26 - 22.69 kg/cm 2 with mean of 16.79 kg/cm 2 . Negligible difference (0.59 kg/cm 2 of retentive strength was observed between zinc phosphate (21.28 kg/cm 2 and glass ionomer cements (20.69 kg/cm 2 . Glass ionomer cements can be recommended for cementation of stainless steel crowns because of its advantages and the retentive strength was almost similar to that of zinc phosphate cement.

  3. On the study of oil paint adhesion on optically transparent glass: Conservation of reverse paintings on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayle, M.; Waugh, D.G.; Colston, B.J.; Lawrence, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adhesion characteristics analysed with respect to reverse paintings on glass. • Physical properties of surfaces and pigments found to affect cohesion and adhesion. • Environmental effects on pigment adhesion to glass have been documented. • Vermillion pigment hardest compared to other pigments, especially with adhesives. • Wettability used to assess adhesion properties relating to reverse paintings on glass. - Abstract: Reverse painting on glass is a technique which consists of applying a cold paint layer on the reverse-side of glass. The main challenge facing these artworks is the fragile adhesion of the pictorial layer – a simple movement can modify the appearance of the painting. This paper details a study into the adhesion parameters of pigments on glass and the comparison between different pigments. The relationships between the binder (linseed oil) with pigments and the glass with or without the use of an adhesive are studied. Physical analyses by surface characterisation have been carried out to better understand the influence of the pigment. The use of a sessile drop device, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a surface 3D profiler and a pencil hardness scratch tester were necessary to establish a comparison of the pictorial layer adhesion. A comparison of the effect of two adhesives, namely ox gall and gum arabic, has shown that the adhesion is not only linked to the physical parameters but that possible chemical reactions can influence the results. Finally, a treatment based on humidity-extreme storage has shown the weakness of some pictorial layers.

  4. On the study of oil paint adhesion on optically transparent glass: Conservation of reverse paintings on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, M. [Historic and Ancient Materials Group, School of Chemistry, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Waugh, D.G., E-mail: d.waugh@chester.ac.uk [Laser Engineering and Manufacturing Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Chester, Thornton Science Park, Ince, Chester CH2 4NU (United Kingdom); Colston, B.J. [Historic and Ancient Materials Group, School of Chemistry, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Lawrence, J. [Laser Engineering and Manufacturing Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Chester, Thornton Science Park, Ince, Chester CH2 4NU (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Adhesion characteristics analysed with respect to reverse paintings on glass. • Physical properties of surfaces and pigments found to affect cohesion and adhesion. • Environmental effects on pigment adhesion to glass have been documented. • Vermillion pigment hardest compared to other pigments, especially with adhesives. • Wettability used to assess adhesion properties relating to reverse paintings on glass. - Abstract: Reverse painting on glass is a technique which consists of applying a cold paint layer on the reverse-side of glass. The main challenge facing these artworks is the fragile adhesion of the pictorial layer – a simple movement can modify the appearance of the painting. This paper details a study into the adhesion parameters of pigments on glass and the comparison between different pigments. The relationships between the binder (linseed oil) with pigments and the glass with or without the use of an adhesive are studied. Physical analyses by surface characterisation have been carried out to better understand the influence of the pigment. The use of a sessile drop device, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a surface 3D profiler and a pencil hardness scratch tester were necessary to establish a comparison of the pictorial layer adhesion. A comparison of the effect of two adhesives, namely ox gall and gum arabic, has shown that the adhesion is not only linked to the physical parameters but that possible chemical reactions can influence the results. Finally, a treatment based on humidity-extreme storage has shown the weakness of some pictorial layers.

  5. A comparative study of retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements with stainless steel crowns--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, R; Basappa, N; Reddy, V V

    1998-03-01

    This study was conducted on 30 extracted human primary molars to assess the retentive strengths of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements. The teeth were embedded in resin blocks and were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The occlusal surfaces of all teeth were reduced uniformly by 1.0 to 1.5 mm. All mesial, distal undercuts were removed and sharp angles rounded. This was followed by cementing pretrimmed and precontoured stainless steel crowns on each tooth with hand pressure and storing in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Retentive strength was tested using Instron Universal Testing Machine. The load was applied starting from a zero reading and gradually increased until the cemented stainless steel crowns showed signs of movement and then the readings were recorded. It was found that retentive strengths of zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements were statistically better (P cement. Negligible difference (0. 59 kg/cm2) was however observed between zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements.

  6. In vitro Evaluation of Effect of Dental Bleaching on the Shear Bond Strength of Sapphire Orthodontics Brackets Bonded with Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab M Kadhom

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to assess the effect of various types of bleaching agents on the shear bond strength of sapphire brackets bonded to human maxillary premolar teeth using resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC and to determine the site of bond failure. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted maxillary human premolars were selected and assigned into three equal groups, ten teeth in each. The first group was the control (unbleached group; the second group comprised teeth bleached with hydrogen peroxide group (HP 37.5% (in-office bleaching while the third group included teeth bleached with carbamide peroxide group (CP 16% (at-home bleaching. The teeth in the experimental groups were bleached and stored in water one day then bonded with sapphire brackets using RMGIC with the control group and left another day. De-bonding was performed using Instron universal testing machine. To determine the site of bond failure, both the enamel surface and bracket base of each tooth were examined under magnifying lens (20X of a stereomicroscope. Results: Results showed statistically highly significant difference in the shear bond strengths between control group and both of bleaching groups being low in the control group. Score III was the predominant site of bond failure in all groups. Conclusions: RMGIC provides adequate bond strength when bonding the sapphire brackets to bleached enamel; this bonding was strong enough to resist both the mechanical and masticatory forces. Most of the adhesive remained on the brackets, so it reduced the time required for removal of the bonding material’s remnants during enamel finishing and polishing.

  7. Kekuatan Geser Semen Ionomer Kaca Modifikasi Sebagai Pelekat Braket Begg Logam Dengan dan Tanpa Etsa

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    Dyah Karunia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adhesive of composite resin has been used for direct bonding of a bracket system of bracket fixed orthodontic treatment by etching. The disadvantage of etching is enamel loss and difficult procedure. Modified glass ionomer cement has been suggested as a bracket bonding system without etching. The chemical bonding without etching can reduce enamel loss and make the procedure more efficient. The purpose of this study was to determine the shear bond strength of modified glass ionomer cement as metal Begg bracket bonding system with and without etching. The subject of this study consisted of two groups which had 15 intact extracted permanent human upper bicuspids for each group. Group I was etched with ortho phosphate acid (37% for 20 seconds and bonded with modified glass ionomer cement. Group II was untreated and bonded with the same adhesive. The shear bond strength was measured with Pearson Pankee Equipment, and bond failure location was observed under stereo microscope. To differentiate the effects with and without etching, t test was performed, while to observe the location of bond failures, chi-square test was conducted. The results of this study indicated that the shear bond strength of modified glass ionomer cement as bonding system metal Begg Brackets with etching was significantly higher (p<0.001 than without etching. Without etching, bond failure occurred between enamel and bonding agent. With etching, the bond failure was mostly found within the adhesive.

  8. Microleakage comparison of glass-ionomer and white mineral trioxide aggregate used as a coronal barrier in nonvital bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Shahmoradi, Kaveh; Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Zand, Vahid; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Mokhtari, Hadi; Salemmilani, Amin; Doosti, Sirvan

    2011-11-01

    There is some evidence that the pH at the root surface is reduced by intracoronal placement of bleaching pastes, which is known to enhance osteoclastic activity. Therefore, it is recommended that a protective barrier be used over the canal filling to prevent leakage of bleaching agents. Glass-ionomer (GI) is commonly used as a coronal barrier before nonvital bleaching. Because mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) creates high alkalinity after mixing with water, using MTA as a protective barrier over the canal filling may not only prevent leakage of bleaching agents and microorganisms, but may prevent cervical resorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate sealing ability of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) as a coronal barrier before nonvital bleaching. Root canals of one hundred thirty human maxillary incisors were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha without sealer. Gutta-percha was removed up to 3 mm below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). The teeth were randomly divided into six experimental groups of 20 teeth each and two control groups of 5. In three experimental groups, WMTA was packed into the canal to the level of CEJ. In the remaining experimental groups, glass-ionomer (GI) was used as a coronal barrier. After a 24-hour incubation period, one of the following three bleaching agents was placed in the access cavity of each of the WMTA or GI groups. These three bleaching agents were 30% hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate mixed with 30% hydrogen peroxide, and sodium perborate mixed with distilled water. The bleaching agents were replaced every 3 days for three times. In the positive controls, no coronal barrier was used. In the negative controls, all the tooth surfaces were covered by two layers of nail varnish. Microleakage was evaluated using protein leakage test. Statistical analyses were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The experimental groups showed minimum leakage which was not significantly more than tha in the

  9. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO

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    Dong-Ae KIM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol% of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05 and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials.

  10. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Ae, KIM; Hany, ABO-MOSALLAM; Hye-Young, LEE; Jung-Hwan, LEE; Hae-Won, KIM; Hae-Hyoung, LEE

    2015-01-01

    Some weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements. Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitro rat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC. Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs. Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials. PMID:26398508

  11. Morphological Changes Of The Root Surface And Fracture Resistance After Treatment Of Root Fracture By CO2 Laser And Glass Ionomer Or Mineral Trioxide Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Y. A.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.; Ghaith, M. E.

    2009-09-01

    This in vitro study evaluates the morphological changes of the root surface and fracture resistance after treatment of root cracks by CO2 laser and glass Ionomer or mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA). Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth with similar dimension were selected. Crowns were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction, and the lengths of the roots were adjusted to 13 mm. A longitudinal groove with a dimension of 1×5 mm2 and a depth of 1.5 mm was prepared by a high speed fissure bur on the labial surface of the root. The roots were divided into 5 groups: the 10 root grooves in group 1 were remained unfilled and were used as a control group. The 10 root grooves in group 2 were filled with glass Ionomer, 10 root grooves in group 3 were filled with MTA, the 10 root grooves in group 4 were filled with glass Ionomer and irradiated by CO2 laser and the 10 root grooves in group 5 were filled with MTA and irradiated with CO2 laser. Scanning electron microscopy was performed for two samples in each group. Tests for fracture strength were performed using a universal testing machine and a round tip of a diameter of 4 mm. The force was applied vertically with a constant speed of 1 mm min 1. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. Results were evaluated statistically with ANOVA and Turkey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) tests. SEM micrographs revealed that the melted masses and the plate-like crystals formed a tight Chemical bond between the cementum and glass Ionomer and melted masses and globular like structure between cementum and MTA. The mean fracture resistance was the maximum fracture resistance in group 5 (810.8 N). Glass Ionomer and MTA with the help of CO2 laser can be an alternative to the treatment of tooth crack or fracture. CO2 laser increase the resistance of the teeth to fracture.

  12. Novel Nanotechnology of TiO2 Improves Physical-Chemical and Biological Properties of Glass Ionomer Cement

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    Daniela Dellosso Cibim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the performance of glass ionomer cement (GIC added with TiO2 nanotubes. TiO2 nanotubes [3%, 5%, and 7% (w/w] were incorporated into GIC’s (Ketac Molar EasyMix™ powder component, whereas unblended powder was used as control. Physical-chemical-biological analysis included energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, surface roughness (SR, Knoop hardness (SH, fluoride-releasing analysis, cytotoxicity, cell morphology, and extracellular matrix (ECM composition. Parametric or nonparametric ANOVA were used for statistical comparisons (α≤0.05. Data analysis revealed that EDS only detected Ti at the 5% and 7% groups and that GIC’s physical-chemical properties were significantly improved by the addition of 5% TiO2 as compared to 3% and GIC alone. Furthermore, regardless of TiO2 concentration, no significant effect was found on SR, whereas GIC-containing 7% TiO2 presented decreased SH values. Fluoride release lasted longer for the 5% and 7% TiO2 groups, and cell morphology/spreading and ECM composition were found to be positively affected by TiO2 at 5%. In conclusion, in the current study, nanotechnology incorporated in GIC affected ECM composition and was important for the superior microhardness and fluoride release, suggesting its potential for higher stress-bearing site restorations.

  13. The sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid and the glass ionomer cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Maria Aparecida

    2003-01-01

    The main of our study was to check the sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure, in vitro, with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid at 37% and the glass ionomer cement (CIV, Fuji IX GC).The proposal was to check the structural morphologic changes in the laser irradiation upon the enamel surface to watch the pits and fissure sealing with the glass ionomer cement use after the laser irradiation and to verify the efficiency of the 'double conditioning' (phosphoric acid + Nd: YAG). At the same time we watch the evolution of the temperature in the pulp chamber's inside. Our desire was to achieve a therapeutic alternative technic to prevent the dental caries. The Nd: YAG laser parameters were the same: 79 mJ of energy per pulse; frequency of 5 Hz; mean power of 0,4 W; optical fiber on contact of 320 μm diameter; fluency of 99,52 J/ cm 2 , assuming that the only differential was the time of the laser application on the enamel surface. The samples were prepared with this way: Laser Nd: YAG (53 second) + acid + CIV (Fuji IX); Laser Nd: YAG (53 s); Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s) + acid + CIV; Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s); Acid + CIV; Control. Through the scanning electron microscopy (MEV) we noticed fusion and resolidification regions due to the laser irradiation and a better adaptation of the glass ionomer cement when we did the 'double conditioning'. Concerning the temperature increase we can conclude that the echeloned period was the best recommended because the temperature was found in a pattern that would not cause any damage to the dental pulp. For future studies we suggest a longer relaxing time between the laser irradiation, a comparative study of this method with other lasers, the use of other sealing materials and the study with the permanent teeth. (author)

  14. Strength and wear resistance of a dental glass-ionomer cement with a novel nanofilled resin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbauer, Ulrich; Krämer, Norbert; Siedschlag, Gustavo; Schubert, Edward W; Lauerer, Brigitte; Müller, Frank A; Petschelt, Anselm; Ebert, Johannes

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of different resin coating protocols on the fracture strength and wear resistance of a commercial glass-ionomer cement (GIC). A new restorative concept [Equia (GC Europe)] has been introduced as a system application consisting of a condensable GIC (Fuji IX GP Extra) and a novel nanofilled resin coating material (G-Coat Plus). Four-point fracture strength (FS, 2 x 2 x 25 mm, 14-day storage, distilled water, 37 degrees C) were produced and measured from three experimental protocols: no coating GIC (Group 1), GIC coating before water contamination (Group 2), GIC coating after water contamination (Group 3). The strength data were analyzed using Weibull statistics. Three-body wear resistance (Group 1 vs. Group 2) was measured after each 10,000 wear cycles up to a total of 200,000 cycles using the ACTA method. GIC microstructure and interfaces between GIC and coating materials were investigated under SEM and CLSM. The highest FS of 26.1 MPa and the most homogenous behavior (m = 7.7) has been observed in Group 2. The coated and uncoated GIC showed similar wear resistance until 90,000 cycles. After 200,000 wear cycles, the coated version showed significantly higher wear rate (ANOVA, P< 0.05). The coating protocol has been shown to determine the GIC fracture strength. Coating after water contamination and air drying is leading to surface crack formation thus significantly reducing the FS. The resin coating showed a proper sealing of GIC surface porosities and cracks. In terms of wear, the coating did not improve the wear resistance of the underlying cement as similar or higher wear rates have been measured for Group 1 versus Group 2.

  15. Marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of 2 zirconia crown systems luted with glass ionomer and MDP-based cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Isil; Turker, Begum; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and phosphate monomer-containing resin cement (MDP-RC) under 2 zirconia crown systems (Cercon and DC-Zirkon). Forty human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic zirconia crowns with a 1 mm circumferential finish line and a 1.5 mm occlusal reduction. The crowns (n = 10 per group) from each zirconia system were randomly divided into 2 groups and cemented either with GIC (Vivaglass CEM) or MDP-RC (Panavia F 2.0) cement. The cemented crowns were thermocycled 5000 times (5°-55°C). The crowns were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally. Specimens were examined under optical microscope (100X). Data were analyzed using Student t-test and chi-square tests (α = 0.05). Mean marginal gap values for Cercon (85 ± 11.4 μm) were significantly higher than for DC-Zircon (75.3 ± 13.2 μm) (P = 0.018). The mean cement thickness values of GIC (81.7 ± 13.9 μm) and MDP-RC (78.5 ± 12.5 μm) were not significantly different (P = 0.447). Microleakage scores did not demonstrate significant difference between GIC (P = 0.385) and MDP-RC (P = 0.631) under Cercon or DC-Zircon. Considering the cement thickness values and microleakage scores obtained, both zirconia crown systems could be cemented in combination with either GIC or MDP-RC.

  16. Doxycycline-containing glass ionomer cement for arresting residual caries: an in vitro study and a pilot trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Cristiane; Kreling, Paula Fernanda; Pereira, Jesse Augusto; de Paula, Andreia Bolzan; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In a previous study, we demonstrated that the incorporation of doxycycline hyclate (DOX) into resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) inhibited important cariogenic microorganisms, without modifying its biological and mechanical characteristics. In this study, we keep focused on the effect of that experimental material as a potential therapy for arresting residual caries by analyzing other in vitro properties and conducting a pilot clinical trial assessing the in vivo effect of DOX-containing RMGIC on residual mutans streptococci after partial carious removal in primary molars. Specimens of the groups RMGIC (control); RMGIC + 1.5% DOX; RMGIC + 3% DOX; and RMGIC + 4.5% DOX were made to evaluate the effect of DOX incorporation on surface microhardness and fluoride release of RMGIC and against biofilm of Streptococcus mutans. Clinical intervention consisted of partial caries removal comparing RMGIC and RMGIC + 4.5% DOX as lining materials. After 3 months, clinical and microbiologic evaluations were performed. Data were submitted to ANOVA/Tukey or Wilcoxon/Mann-Whitney set as α=0.05. Fluoride release and surface microhardness was not influenced by the incorporation of DOX (p>0.05). There was a significant reduction of S. mutans biofilm over the material surface with the increase of DOX concentration. After clinical trial, the remaining dentin was hard and dry. Additionally, mutans streptococci were completely eliminated after 3 months of treatment with RMGIC + 4.5% DOX. The incorporation of DOX provided better antibiofilm effect, without jeopardizing fluoride release and surface microhardness of RMGIC. This combination also improved the in vivo shortterm microbiological effect of RMGIC after partial caries removal. PMID:29742263

  17. Doxycycline-containing glass ionomer cement for arresting residual caries: an in vitro study and a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Aline Rogéria Freire de; Duque, Cristiane; Kreling, Paula Fernanda; Pereira, Jesse Augusto; Paula, Andreia Bolzan de; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2018-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that the incorporation of doxycycline hyclate (DOX) into resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) inhibited important cariogenic microorganisms, without modifying its biological and mechanical characteristics. In this study, we keep focused on the effect of that experimental material as a potential therapy for arresting residual caries by analyzing other in vitro properties and conducting a pilot clinical trial assessing the in vivo effect of DOX-containing RMGIC on residual mutans streptococci after partial carious removal in primary molars. Specimens of the groups RMGIC (control); RMGIC + 1.5% DOX; RMGIC + 3% DOX; and RMGIC + 4.5% DOX were made to evaluate the effect of DOX incorporation on surface microhardness and fluoride release of RMGIC and against biofilm of Streptococcus mutans. Clinical intervention consisted of partial caries removal comparing RMGIC and RMGIC + 4.5% DOX as lining materials. After 3 months, clinical and microbiologic evaluations were performed. Data were submitted to ANOVA/Tukey or Wilcoxon/Mann-Whitney set as α=0.05. Fluoride release and surface microhardness was not influenced by the incorporation of DOX (p>0.05). There was a significant reduction of S. mutans biofilm over the material surface with the increase of DOX concentration. After clinical trial, the remaining dentin was hard and dry. Additionally, mutans streptococci were completely eliminated after 3 months of treatment with RMGIC + 4.5% DOX. The incorporation of DOX provided better antibiofilm effect, without jeopardizing fluoride release and surface microhardness of RMGIC. This combination also improved the in vivo shortterm microbiological effect of RMGIC after partial caries removal.

  18. Randomized clinical trial of encapsulated and hand-mixed glass-ionomer ART restorations: one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Maria Cristina Carvalho de Almendra; Fagundes, Ticiane Cestari; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Cardia, Guilherme Saintive; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima

    2018-01-18

    This prospective, randomized, split-mouth clinical trial evaluated the clinical performance of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC; Riva Self-Cure, SDI), supplied in capsules or in powder/liquid kits and placed in Class I cavities in permanent molars by the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach. A total of 80 restorations were randomly placed in 40 patients aged 11-15 years. Each patient received one restoration with each type of GIC. The restorations were evaluated after periods of 15 days (baseline), 6 months, and 1 year, according to ART criteria. Wilcoxon matched pairs, multivariate logistic regression, and Gehan-Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. Patients were evaluated after 15 days (n=40), 6 months (n=34), and 1 year (n=29). Encapsulated GICs showed significantly superior clinical performance compared with hand-mixed GICs at baseline (p=0.017), 6 months (p=0.001), and 1 year (p=0.026). For hand-mixed GIC, a statistically significant difference was only observed over the period of baseline to 1 year (p=0.001). Encapsulated GIC presented statistically significant differences for the following periods: 6 months to 1 year (p=0.028) and baseline to 1 year (p=0.002). Encapsulated GIC presented superior cumulative survival rate than hand-mixed GIC over one year. Importantly, both GICs exhibited decreased survival over time. Encapsulated GIC promoted better ART performance, with an annual failure rate of 24%; in contrast, hand-mixed GIC demonstrated a failure rate of 42%.

  19. Influence of power density on the setting behaviour of light-cured glass-ionomer cements monitored by ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, Motoka; Yasuda, Genta; Chikako, Takubo; Tamura, Yukie; Yoshida, Takeshi; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2009-07-01

    To monitor the influence of the power density of the curing unit on the setting behaviour of light-cured glass-ionomer cements (LCGICs) using ultrasound measurements. The ultrasound equipment comprised a pulser-receiver, transducers and an oscilloscope. The LCGICs used were Fuji II LC, Fuji II LC EM and Fuji Filling LC. The cements were mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions and then inserted into a transparent mould. The specimens were placed on the sample stage and cured with power densities of 0 (no irradiation), 200 or 600 mW/cm(2). The transit time through the cement disk was divided by the specimen thickness and then the longitudinal ultrasound velocity (V) within the material was obtained. Analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significantly Different test were used to compare the V values between the set cements. When the LCGICs were light-irradiated, each curve displayed an initial plateau at approximately 1500 m/s and then rapidly increased to a second plateau at approximately 2600 m/s. The rate of increase of V was retarded when the cements were light-irradiated with a power density of 200 mW/cm(2) than with a power density of 600 mW/cm(2). Although sonic echoes were detected from the beginning of the measurements, the rates of increase of the sonic velocity were relatively slow when the cement was not light-irradiated. The ultrasound device monitored the setting processes of LCGICs accurately based on the longitudinal V. The polymerization behaviour of LCGICs was shown to be affected by the power density of the curing unit.

  20. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashper, Stuart G; Catmull, Deanne V; Liu, Sze-Wei; Myroforidis, Helen; Zalizniak, Ilya; Palamara, Joseph E A; Huq, N Laila; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm) formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge.

  1. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G Dashper

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GIC are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge.

  2. Bond strength of resin modified glass ionomer cement to primary dentin after cutting with different bur types and dentin conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Di Nicoló

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different bur types and acid etching protocols on the shear bond strength (SBS of a resin modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC to primary dentin. Forty-eight clinically sound human primary molars were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (n=12. In G1, the lingual surface of the teeth was cut with a carbide bur until a 2.0-mm-diameter dentin area was exposed, followed by the application of RM-GIC (Vitremer - 3M/ESPE prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens of G2, received the same treatment of G1, however the dentin was conditioned with phosphoric acid. In groups G3 and G4 the same procedures of G1 and G2 were conducted respectively, nevertheless dentin cutting was made with a diamond bur. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24h, and then tested in a universal testing machine. SBS. data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA (= 5% and indicated that SBS values of RM-GIC bonded to primary dentin cut with different burs were not statistically different, but the specimens that were conditioned with phosphoric acid presented SBS values significantly higher that those without conditioning. To observe micromorphologic characteristics of the effects of dentin surface cut by diamond or carbide rotary instruments and conditioners treatment, some specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Smear layer was present in all specimens regardless of the type of rotary instrument used for dentin cutting, and specimens etched with phosphoric acid presented more effective removal of smear layer. It was concluded that SBS of a RM-GIC to primary dentin was affected by the acid conditioning but the bur type had no influence.

  3. Sol-gel-derived bioactive glass nanoparticle-incorporated glass ionomer cement with or without chitosan for enhanced mechanical and biomineralization properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ae; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Jun, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hae-Won; Eltohamy, Mohamed; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the mechanical and in vitro biological properties (in immortalized human dental pulp stem cells (ihDPSCs)) of bioactive glass nanoparticle (BGN)-incorporated glass ionomer cement (GIC) with or without chitosan as a binder. After the BGNs were synthesized and characterized, three experimental GICs and a control (conventional GIC) that differed in the additive incorporated into a commercial GIC liquid (Hy-bond, Shofu, Japan) were produced: BG5 (5wt% of BGNs), CL0.5 (0.5wt% of chitosan), and BG5+CL0.5 (5wt% of BGNs and 0.5wt% of chitosan). After the net setting time was determined, weight change and bioactivity were analyzed in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C. Mechanical properties (compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus) were measured according to the incubation time (up to 28 days) in SBF. Cytotoxicity (1day) and biomineralization (14 days), assessed by alizarin red staining, were investigated using an extract from GIC and ihDPSCs. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test; pproperties were increased in the BGN-incorporated GICs compared to those in the control (pproperties such as compressive, diametral tensile and flexural strength as well as in vitro biomineralization properties in ihDPSCs without cytotoxicity. Therefore, the developed BGN-incorporated GIC is a promising restorative dental material, although further in vivo investigation is needed before clinical application. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of different thermo-light polymerization on flexural strength of two glass ionomer cements and a glass carbomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorseta, Kristina; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Glavina, Domagoj; Lynch, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Whether polymerization lights can be used for heating glass ionomer cements (GICs) or glass carbomer (GCP) to improve their mechanical properties is not well established. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of thermo-light polymerization on the flexural strength (FS) of 2 GICs (Fuji IX GP Fast, Ketac Molar) and a GCP. Specimens (n=10) were prepared in stainless steel molds (2×2×25 mm), compressed, exposed to 3 polymerization lights (500, 1000, 1200 mW/cm 2 ) for 2 cycles of 40 seconds on each side, and stored in petroleum jelly (37°C, 24 hours). Significant FS differences were detected among groups after different thermo-light polymerization regimens (F=50.926, df=11, Pthermo-light polymerization with power outputs of 1000 (127.1 ±25.8 MPa) and 1200 mW/cm 2 (117.4 ±18.5 MPa), with no significance difference between them (P=.98), compared with 500 mW/cm 2 (24.1 ±1.7 MPa). For Ketac Molar, compared with autopolymerization setting (15.5 ±3.1 MPa), a significant increase in mean FS (∼2.5 times) was only observed in specimens treated with 1200 mW/cm 2 polymerization light (P=.03). For Fuji IX GP Fast, only the light with 1000 mW/cm 2 output significantly increased the FS (98.9 ±23.4 MPa, PThermo-light polymerization accelerated the development of FS in the tested GICs, potentially protecting against saliva contamination during the first 3 to 4 minutes after mixing GIC. Thermo-light polymerization of the glass carbomer with power outputs of 1000 and 1200 mW/cm 2 also substantially increased FS. The clinical advantages of the findings should be validated by in vivo studies. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of a nano-filled resin coating on the 3-year clinical performance of a conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Vu Thi Kieu; Tyas, Martin J; Ngo, Hien C; Phuong, Lam Hoai; Khanh, Ngo Dong

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the study was to compare the clinical performance of the conventional high-powder/liquid ratio glass-ionomer cement (GIC) Fuji IX GP Extra (F IX), Fuji IX GP Extra with a low-viscosity nano-filled resin coating, G-Coat Plus (F IX+GCP), and a resin composite, Solare (S), as a comparison material. Moderate-depth occlusal cavities in the first permanent molars of 91 11-12-year-old children (1-4 restorations per child) were restored with either F IX (87 restorations), F IX+GCP (84 restorations) or S (83 restorations). Direct clinical assessment, photographic assessment and assessment of stone casts of the restorations were carried out at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years. The colour match with the tooth of the GIC restorations improved over the 3 years of the study. Marginal staining and marginal adaptation were minimal for all restorations; three restorations exhibited secondary caries at 3 years. From the assessment of the casts, at 2 years, there was significantly less wear of the F IX GP Extra+GCP restorations than the F IX GP Extra restorations (P G-Coat Plus showed acceptable clinical performance in occlusal cavities in children, the application of G-Coat Plus gave some protection against wear. The application of G-Coat Plus to Fuji IX GP Extra glass-ionomer cement may be beneficial in reducing wear in occlusal cavities.

  6. Clinical performance of a glass ionomer sealant protected with two different resin-based agents over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, A T; Tunc, E S; Bayrak, Ş

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of two different resin coating materials on the clinical performance of a conventional glass ionomer sealant. Permanent first mandibular molars of 60 children aged 6-9 years were sealed with Fuji VII. In each child, G-Coat Plus coating agent was applied to molars on one side and Heliobond coating agent to molars on the opposite side of the mouth. Clinical evaluations were carried out at 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after sealant and coating application. At 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after sealant and coating application, total sealant retention rates were 88%, 40%, 19%, 15% and 9% for molars coated with G-Coat Plus, and 93%, 47%, 17%, 15% and 7% for those coated with Heliobond. The differences between the two coating agents were not statistically significant (p>0.05). No incidence of caries was observed in either group during the two-year evaluation period. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare differences in retention rates and caries incidence by coating agent. Although retention rates of Fuji VII were relatively low and similar for both resin coating agents tested, dental caries were not observed in either group during the 24-month study period. In children with a high risk of caries and partially erupted molars, the use of a glass ionomer sealant with a resin-based coating agent should be encouraged.

  7. Resistance to fracture of endodontically treated premolars restored with glass ionomer cement or acid etch composite resin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ranga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Due to the weakness of endodontically treated posterior teeth requires more strengthened restoration to withstand occlusal forces. The purpose of the present study was to determine and compare the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated maxillary 1 st premolars restored with different materials in mesio-occluso-distal (MOD cavity preparations. Materials and Methods: MOD cavity preparations in 80 endodontically treated maxillary 1 st premolars were restored using four different methods. Fiber rings were filled with stone plaster and the teeth were placed into the plaster up to the level of cemento-enamel junction. The teeth were grouped according to restorative method, mounted in an Instrom T.T. machine, and the buccal walls subjected to a slowly increasing compressive force until fracture occurred. Result: The force of fracture of the walls of each tooth was recorded and the results in the various groups compared. All teeth fractured in a similar manner irrespective of the restorative method used. Conclusion: The resistance to the fracture of the teeth was the same when they were stored with glass ionomer cement as a base over which composite resin was placed. When the entire cavities were filled with glass ionomer cement, the resistance to fracture of the teeth decreased significantly compared with the acid etch resin technique.

  8. Assessment of micro-leakage for light-cure glass ionomer and pro-root mineral trioxide aggregate as coronal barriers in intracoronal bleaching of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zare Jahromi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical root resorption is one of the most important complications of intra coronal bleaching. A way of preventing this type of resorption is using a coronal barrier under the bleaching materials. The aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of glass ionomer cement and Pro Root Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA as a coronal barrier in intra coronal bleaching. Materials &Methods: In this study, 40 single-root maxillary anterior teeth were endodontically prepared and divided into two experimental groups (n= 15 and two positive and negative control groups (n=5. In the experimental groups, gutta percha was removed up to 3 mm below the cemento enamel junction (CEJ.RMGI and MTA were placed over gutta percha up to the level of CEJ. After a 24-hour incubation period, the bleaching agent (a mixture of sodium perborate and 30% hydrogen peroxide was placed in the access cavities. The bleaching agents were replaced every 3 days over 9 days. Then, the access cavity was filled with 2% methylene blue for 48 hours. All samples were longitudinally sectioned and the dye penetration range was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests (α=0.05. Results: Leakage mean indicated that there was a significant difference between these two groups and leakage was less in ProRoot than glass ionomer. Conclusion: It seems that the MTA can provide a better coronal seal during the bleaching.

  9. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of glass-ionomer cement containing chlorhexidine for Atraumatic Restorative Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Cristiane; Aida, Kelly Limi; Pereira, Jesse Augusto; Teixeira, Gláucia Schuindt; Caldo-Teixeira, Angela Scarparo; Perrone, Luciana Rodrigues; Caiaffa, Karina Sampaio; Negrini, Thais de Cássia; de Castilho, Aline Rogéria Freire; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Addition of chlorhexidine has enhanced the antimicrobial effect of glass ionomer cement (GIC) indicated to Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART); however, the impact of this mixture on the properties of these materials and on the longevity of restorations must be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of incorporating chlorhexidine (CHX) in the in vitro biological and chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and in vivo clinical/ microbiological follow-up of the ART with GIC containing or not CHX. Material and Methods: For in vitro studies, groups were divided into GIC, GIC with 1.25% CHX, and GIC with 2.5% CHX. Antimicrobial activity of GIC was analyzed using agar diffusion and anti-biofilm assays. Cytotoxic effects, compressive tensile strength, microhardness and fluoride (F) release were also evaluated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 36 children that received ART either with GIC or GIC with CHX. Saliva and biofilm were collected for mutans streptococci (MS) counts and the survival rate of restorations was checked after 7 days, 3 months and one year after ART. ANOVA/Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis/ Mann-Whitney tests were performed for in vitro tests and in vivo microbiological analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank tests were applied to estimate survival percentages of restorations (p<0.05). Results: Incorporation of 1.25% and 2.5% CHX improved the antimicrobial/anti-biofilm activity of GIC, without affecting F release and mechanical characteristics, but 2.5% CHX was cytotoxic. Survival rate of restorations using GIC with 1.25% CHX was similar to GIC. A significant reduction of MS levels was observed for KM+CHX group in children saliva and biofilm 7 days after treatment. Conclusions: The incorporation of 1.25% CHX increased the in vitro antimicrobial activity, without changing chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and odontoblast-like cell viability. This combination improved the in vivo short

  10. Comparison between effectiveness of a low-viscosity glass ionomer and a resin-based glutaraldehyde containing primer in treating dentine hypersensitivity--a 25.2-month evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, R.N.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The null-hypothesis tested was; there is no difference in effectiveness between a new low-viscosity glass ionomer and a resin-based glutaraldehyde containing primer in treating hypersensitive teeth after 2 years. METHODS: Using a split-mouth design, hypersensitive teeth in 14 adult

  11. Fracture frequency and longevity of fractured resin composite, polyacid-modified resin composite, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement class IV restorations: an up to 14 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture frequency and longevity of fractured class IV resin composite (RC), polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer; PMRC), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) restorations in a longitudinal long-term follow-up. Eighty-five class IV RC (43...

  12. The effect of salivary pH on diametral tensile strength of resin modified glass ionomer cement coated with coating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayanti, D.; Triaminingsih, S.; Eriwati, Y. K.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of artificial saliva with different acidities on the diametral tensile strength of Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) coated with varnish and nanofilled coating agent. The specimens coated with coating agents were immersed in artificial saliva with pH of 4.5, 5.5, and 7 for 24 hours in an incubatorat 37°C. The diametral tensile strength of the specimens was tested with Universal Testing Machine. There were no significant differences on the diametral tensile strength of all specimens that were put into groups based on the acidity of the saliva and the type of coating agent (p>0.05). Both varnish and nanofilled coating agent stayed on the RMGIC in the acidic condition that simulated the true condition of oral cavity in people with high caries risk for the 24 hours of maturation.

  13. Retentive [correction of Preventive] efficacy of glass ionomer, zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate luting cements in preformed stainless steel crowns: a comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinda, V I S; Grewal, N

    2002-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of three luting cements, namely, glass ionomer, zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate in retainng the preformed stainless steel crowns in-vivo. Twenty subjects, with an indication for restoration of three primary molars with stainless steel crowns, were selected. Sixty teeth were taken up for the study, and twenty crowns were cemented with each of the three luting cements. After an eight month follow up the crowns were assessed for their presence/ absence or "rocking". Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. The results have shown no significant difference in retentivity of stainless steel crowns with the use of either of the three luting agents.

  14. A Comparative Study of the Addition Effect of Diopside and Silica Sulfuric Acid Nanoparticles on Mechanical Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezazadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to study the effects of adding  diopside (CaMgSi2O6 as well as silica sulfuric acid nanoparticles to ceramic part of glass ionomer cement (GIC in order to improve its mechanical properties. To do this, firstly, diopside (DIO nanoparticles with chemical formula of CaMgSi2O6 were synthesized using sol-gel process and then, the structural and morphological properties of synthesized diopside nanoparticles were investigated. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and particle size analyzing (PSA confirmed that synthesized diopside are nanoparticles and agglomerated. Besides, the result of X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses approved the purity of diopside nanoparticles compounds. Silica sulfuric acid (SSA nanoparticles are also prepared by chemical modification of silica nanoparticles by means of chlorosulfonic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR technique was used to find about the presence of the (SO3H groups on the surface of silica sulfuric acid nanoparticles. Furthermore, various amounts (0.1, 3 and 5 wt.% of diopside and silica sulfuric acid nanoparticles were added to the ceramic part of GIC (Fuji II GIC commercial type to produce glass ionomer cement nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of the produced nanocomposites were measured using the compressive strength, three-point flexural strength and diametral tensile strength methods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique confirmed the presence of the (SO3H groups on the surface of silica nanoparticles. The compressive strength, three-point flexural strength and diametral tensile strength were 42.5, 15.4 and 6 MPa, respectively, without addition. Although adding 1% silica solfonic acid improved nanocomposite mchanical properties by almost 122%, but maximum increase in nanocomposite mechanical properties was observed in the nanocomposites with 3% diposid, in which 160% increase was seen in the mechanical properties.

  15. The effect of CO2 laser irradiation plus fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement or composite resin restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S R; Moraes, M; Youssef, M N; De Souza-Zaroni, W C; Hanashiro, F S; Brugnera Junior, A; Nobre-dos-Santos, M

    2016-01-01

    Although the cariostatic effects of CO 2 laser on the root surface have been shown, there is scarce information regarding its effects on root secondary caries. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the association of CO 2 laser and a fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to composite-resin or glass-ionomer-cement restorations. Dental blocks of human roots were divided into two groups: composite resin (CR) or glass ionomer cement (GIC). Subsequently, the blocks were divided into four subgroups (n  =  10): C, non-fluoride dentifrice; FD, fluoride dentifrice; L, CO 2 laser with an energy density of 6.0 J cm −2   +  non-fluoride dentifrice; and L  +  FD, CO 2 laser  +  fluoride dentifrice. The blocks were subjected to pH cycling to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. Dental demineralization around the restorations was quantified by microhardness analysis. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey–Kramer test (p  ⩽  0.05). As for mineral loss, it can be observed that all the groups that were treated with a fluoride dentifrice and laser, used alone or not, were statistically similar and superior to the RC–C group. It was concluded that CO 2 laser irradiation and a fluoride dentifrice used alone or combined with each other are efficient surface treatments for preventing secondary root caries, regardless of the restorative material used. (paper)

  16. Superhydrophobic Zr-based metallic glass surface with high adhesive force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Xia, Ting; Heng, Liping; Liu, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Micro/nano hierarchical structures were constructed on Zr35Ti30Be26.75Cu8.25 metallic glass surface by silicon moulding and subsequently chemical etching. The as-formed surface exhibited both superhydrophobicity and high adhesive force towards water. The superhydrophobicity is rationalized based on the modified Cassie-Baxter model [A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546 (1944)]. The origin of the robust adhesion is described in terms of intermolecular capillary forces. The present results not only provide a method to fabricate superhydrophobic metallic glasses surface but also explore an important industrial application as dry adhesives and transport of liquid microdroplets.

  17. Adhesion mapping of chemically modified and poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogikalmath, G; Stuart, J K; Pungor, A; Hlady, V

    1999-08-01

    Two-dimensional mapping of the adhesion pull-off forces was used to study the origin of surface heterogeneity in the grafted poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layer. The variance of the pull-off forces measured over the μm-sized regions after each chemical step of modifying glass surfaces was taken to be a measure of the surface chemical heterogeneity. The attachment of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPS) to glass decreased the pull-off forces relative to the clean glass and made the surface more uniform. The subsequent hydrolysis of the terminal epoxide groups resulted in a larger surface heterogeneity which was modeled by two populations of the terminal hydroxyl groups, each with its own distribution of adhesion forces and force variance. The activation of the hydroxyls with carbonyldiimmidazole (CDI) healed the surface and lowered its adhesion, however, the force variance remained rather large. Finally, the grafting of the α,ω-diamino poly(ethyleneoxide) chains to the CDI-activated glass largely eliminated adhesion except at a few discrete regions. The adhesion on the PEO grafted layer followed the Poisson distribution of the pull-off forces. With the exception of the glass surface, a correlation between the water contact angles and the mean pull-off forces measured with the Si(3)N(4) tip surfaces was found for all modified glass surfaces.

  18. Development of a novel bioactive glass for air-abrasion to selectively remove orthodontic adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ayam A; Hill, Robert G; Fleming, Padhraig S; Patel, Mangala P

    2018-05-01

    To develop a novel, bioactive glass for removing residual orthodontic adhesive via air-abrasion, following bracket debonding, and to evaluate its effectiveness against a proprietary bioactive glass 45S5(Sylc™)-air-abrasion, and a slow-speed tungsten carbide (TC) bur. Three glasses were prepared and their bioactivity was proved. One novel glass (QMAT3) was selected due to its appropriate hardness, lower than that of enamel/45S5(Sylc™). Sixty extracted human premolars were randomly assigned to adhesive removal using: (a) QMAT3-air-abrasion, (b) 45S5(Sylc™)-air-abrasion, and (c) TC bur, which were further subdivided (n = 10) based on the adhesive used (Transbond XT™ or Fuji Ortho LC™). Enamel roughness was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and non-contact profilometry before bracket bonding, after removing residual adhesive following bracket debonding and after polishing. QMAT3 formed apatite faster (6 h) than 45S5(Sylc™) (24 h) in Tris solution. QMAT3-air-abrasion gave the lowest enamel roughness (Ra) after removing the adhesives. SEM images showed a pitted, roughened enamel surface in the TC bur group and to a lesser extent with 45S5(Sylc™), while a virtually smooth surface without any damage was observed in the QMAT3-air-abrasion group. The time taken for adhesive removal with QMAT3 was comparable to 45S5(Sylc™) but was twice as long with the TC bur. QMAT3-air-abrasion is a promising technique for selective removal of adhesives without inducing tangible enamel damage. A novel bioactive glass has been developed as an alternative to the use of TC burs for orthodontic adhesive removal.

  19. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

  20. Misfit and microleakage of implant-supported crown copings obtained by laser sintering and casting techniques, luted with glass-ionomer, resin cements and acrylic/urethane-based agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Oyagüe, Raquel; Lynch, Christopher D; Turrión, Andrés S; López-Lozano, José F; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Suárez-García, María-Jesús

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the marginal misfit and microleakage of cement-retained implant-supported crown copings. Single crown structures were constructed with: (1) laser-sintered Co-Cr (LS); (2) vacuum-cast Co-Cr (CC) and (3) vacuum-cast Ni-Cr-Ti (CN). Samples of each alloy group were randomly luted in standard fashion onto machined titanium abutments using: (1) GC Fuji PLUS (FP); (2) Clearfil Esthetic Cement (CEC); (3) RelyX Unicem 2 Automix (RXU) and (4) DentoTemp (DT) (n=15 each). After 60 days of water ageing, vertical discrepancy was SEM-measured and cement microleakage was scored using a digital microscope. Misfit data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons tests. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests were run for microleakage analysis (α=0.05). Regardless of the cement type, LS samples exhibited the best fit, whilst CC and CN performed equally well. Despite the framework alloy and manufacturing technique, FP and DT provide comparably better fit and greater microleakage scores than did CEC and RXU, which showed no differences. DMLS of Co-Cr may be a reliable alternative to the casting of base metal alloys to obtain well-fitted implant-supported crowns, although all the groups tested were within the clinically acceptable range of vertical discrepancy. No strong correlations were found between misfit and microleakage. Notwithstanding the framework alloy, definitive resin-modified glass-ionomer (FP) and temporary acrylic/urethane-based (DT) cements demonstrated comparably better marginal fit and greater microleakage scores than did 10-methacryloxydecyl-dihydrogen phosphate-based (CEC) and self-adhesive (RXU) dual-cure resin agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Bond strengths of absorbable polylactic acid root canal post with three different adhesives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Cheng, Can; Hu, Jia; Liu, He; Sun, Zhi-hui

    2015-12-18

    To find absorbable adhesives with suitable bonding properties for the absorbable polylactic acid root canal post. To test and compare the bond strengths of absorbable polylactic acid root canal post with three different adhesives. The absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts were used to restore the extracted teeth, using 3 different adhesives: cyanoacrylates, fibrin sealant and glass ionomer cement. The teeth were prepared into slices for micro-push-out test. The bond strength was statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The specimens were examined using microscope and the failure mode was divided into four categories: cohesive failure between absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and adhesives, cohesive failure between dentin and adhesives, failure within the adhesives and failure within the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts. The bond strength of cyanoacrylates [(16.83 ± 6.97) MPa] and glass ionomer cement [(12.10 ± 5.09) MPa] were significantly higher than fibrin sealant [(1.17 ± 0.50) MPa], Padhesives was 25.0%, the cohesive failure between the dentin and the adhesives was 16.7%, the failure within the adhesives was 33.3%, and the failure within the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts was 25.0%. In the group of fibrin sealant, the cohesive failure between the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and the adhesives was 66.7%, the cohesive failure between the dentin and the adhesives was 22.2%, the failure within the adhesives was 11.1%. In the group of glass ionomer cement, the cohesive failure between the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and the adhesives was 87.5%, the failure within the adhesives was 12.5%. The major failure mode in fibrin sealant and glass ionomer cement was the cohesive failure between the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and the adhesives. No major failure modes were found in the group of cyanoacrylates. The bond strength of fibrin sealant is low, which cannot meet the requirement of

  2. Preparation of starch-g-polyacrylamide and its utilization as an adhesive for wood, paper and glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Ayana, Y.M.; Abou Zeid, N.Y.; Asran, A.Sh.; Aly, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Starch- based adhesives are capable of wetting polar surfaces such as cellulose, penetrating pores, and forming strong bonds through mechanical and physical bonds. This paper studies the modification of starch by grafting with acrylamide, and the relation between modification and adhesion properties. Six formulae are prepared from modified and unmodified starch, and evaluated as adhesives for wood, glass, carton, and paper. Study of the factors affecting the adhesive bond is performed. Promising results are obtained. The adhesive formulae I-VI can be used successfully as paper and carton adhesives. Formulae I, TI and III can be used as wood adhesives. Excellent value for shear strength using formula No. I, comparable with other known thermoplastic and thermoset adhesives., formula I also can be used as glass adhesive, but in narrow applications and in absence of water

  3. Morphological analysis of ionomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) investigations were carried out on amorphous and semi-crystalline ionomers (Ni- neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers, polyurethane ionomer). Ionomers with semicrystalline matrices (three-phase materials) were also studied with SAXS (poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) ionomer). Ethylene oxide units were incorporated into the backbone of sulfonated polyurethane ionomers in an attempt to induce aggregate dissociation. Small-angle neutron scattering was used to study the effect of ionic aggregation on ionomer chain dimensions in telechelic and model polyurethane ionomers. Studies have been completed on carboxylated and sulfonated model polyurethane ionomers in order to determine the effect of the pendant ionic group on ionomer structure- property relationships (mechanical properties)

  4. Microstructural and mechanical development and characterization of glass ionomer cements; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao microestrutural e mecanica de cimentos de ionomero de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, W.P.; Barbosa, R.C.; Castanha, E.M.M.; Barbosa, E. F.; Fook, M.V.L., E-mail: waldeniafreire@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-07-01

    Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are widely used in dentistry, indicated as a restorative material, cement for orthopedic and dental prostheses. However, there is need for development of new bone cements as alternative or replacement to current polymethylmethacrylate cements. Thus the aim of this research was develop of an experimental GIC and the mechanical and microstructural characterization of this composite; as a control group it was used a commercial GIC called Vidrion R (SS WHITE). These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The mechanical properties of the composites were measured by Vickers microhardness testing, flexural strength and compression. These cements were characterized as a semicrystalline; in FTIR spectra observed characteristic bands of these materials and microstructural studies of experimental GIC revealed that there was no proper interaction of the inorganic particles in the polymer matrix, whereas in the control group this interaction was effective resulting in greater homogeneity among its constituent phases. Experimental cement showed a higher value of microhardness in the control group, however, flexural strength of cement experimental cement was lower than the control group, and this behavior can possibly be attributed to inadequate interaction particle / matrix. In tests of compressive strength, experimental GIC showed resistance similar to that shown for control group after variation in the processing conditions of the material. (author)

  5. Effects of blue diode laser (445 nm) and LED (430-480 nm) radiant heat treatments on dental glass ionomer restoratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Strakas, Dimitrios; Gerasimou, Paris; Sfeikos, Thrasyvoulos; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two radiant heat treatments on water sorption, solubility and surface roughness of three conventional glass ionomer cements by using a blue diode laser (445 nm) and a light emitting diode (LED) unit (430-480 nm). Thirty disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each tested GIC (Equia Fil, Ketac Universal Aplicap and Riva Self Cure). The experimental groups (n = 10) of the study were as follows: Group 1 was the control group, in Group 2 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit and in Group 3 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a blue light diode laser. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests at a level of significance of a = 0.05. Radiant heat treatments with both laser and LED devices significantly decreased water sorption and solubility (p tested GICs. Blue diode laser treatment was seemed to be more effective compared to LED treatment for some of the tested materials. There were no changes in surface roughness of the GICs after the treatments (p > 0.05). Among the tested materials there were differences in water sorption and solubility (p 0.05). The use of the blue diode laser for this radiant heat treatment was harmless for the surface of the tested GICs and may be advantageous for the longevity of their restorations.

  6. Effects of the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on mechanical properties of luting and lining glass ionomer cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Bagheri, Hossein; Rangrazi, Abdolrasoul; Mojtaba Zebarjad, Seyed

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into glass ionomer cements (GICs) has attracted interest due to its remineralization of teeth and its antibacterial effects. However, it should be investigated to ensure that the incorporation of CPP-ACP does not have significant adverse effects on its mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of CPP-ACP on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC. The first step was to synthesize the CPP-ACP. Then the CPP-ACP at concentrations of 1%, 1.56% and 2% of CPP-ACP was added into a luting and lining GIC. GIC without CPP-ACP was used as a control group. The results revealed that the incorporation of CPP-ACP up to 1.56%(w/w) increased the flexural strength (29%), diametral tensile strength (36%) and microhardness (18%), followed by a reduction in these mechanical properties at 2%(w/w) CPP-ACP. The wear rate was significantly decreased (23%) in 1.56%(w/w) concentration of CPP-ACP and it was increased in 2%(w/w). Accordingly, the addition of 1.56%(w/w) CPP-ACP into luting and lining GIC had no adverse effect on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC and could be used in clinical practice.

  7. Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement or resin-based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Machado Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU (colony forming units in the saliva and plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with a glass ionomer cement - GIC (Fuji Ortho or a resin-based composite - RC (Concise. Twenty male and female patients, aged 12 to 20 years, participated in the study. Saliva was collected before and after placement of appliances. Plaque was collected from areas adjacent to brackets and saliva was again collected on the 15th, 30th, and 45th day after placement. On the 30th day, 0.4% stannous fluoride gel was applied for 4 minutes. No significant modification in the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU in saliva was observed after placement of the fixed orthodontic appliances. On the 15th day, the percentage of Streptococcus mutans CFU in plaque was statistically lower in sites adjacent to GIC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.365 than in those adjacent to RC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.935. No evidence was found of a contribution of GIC to the reduction of CFU in plaque after the 15th day. Topical application of stannous fluoride gel on the 30th day reduced the number of CFU in saliva, but not in plaque. This study suggests that the antimicrobial activity of GIC occurs only in the initial phase and is not responsible for a long-term anticariogenic property.

  8. Effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss and color of surface reaction type pre-reacted glass-ionomer filled resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Miyazaki, Masashi; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss and color of different shades of surface reaction type pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filled nano-hybrid resin composite. Resin disks of 15 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness and final polish with 1000-grit SiC paper, super fine cut diamond (FG) point, silicon (MFR) point and Super-Snap mini-disk red (SNAP) were made with Beautifil II shades: A2, A20, Inc). One week after curing, the surface roughness, gloss and color were measured. Data was analyzed with ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD with alpha= 0.05 For all shades, the order of roughness (Ra) ranked according to groups of 1000-grit SiC > FG > MFR > SNAP with significant differences among all groups. For all shades, the order of gloss ranked according to groups of SNAP > MFR > FG > 1000-grit SiC with significant differences among the groups except for between MFR and FG without significant difference. The influence of the surface roughness on color differed among the polishing groups and shades. However, the values of the color differences (deltaE*ab) between the polishing groups of all shades were imperceptible to the naked eye.

  9. In vitro quantitative evaluation of marginal microleakage in class II restorations confected with a glass ionomer cement and two composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIJELLA Maria Fernanda Borro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated, in vitro, marginal microleakage in class II restorations confected with the glass ionomer cement Vitremer and with the composite resins Ariston pHc and P-60. The aims of the study were to assess the effect of thermocycling on those materials and to evaluate two methods utilized in the analysis of dye penetration. Sixty premolars divided in three groups were utilized; the teeth had proximal cavities whose cervical walls were located 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction. Half of the test specimens from each group underwent thermocycling; the other half remained in deionized water, at 37ºC. The specimens were immersed, for 24 hours, in a basic 0.5% fuchsin solution at 37ºC. For the analysis of microleakage, the specimens were sectioned in a mesio-distal direction, and the observation was carried out with the software Imagetools. The results were evaluated through the 2-way ANOVA and through the Tukey?s test. All groups presented marginal microleakage. The smallest values were obtained with Vitremer, followed by those obtained with the composite resins P-60 and Ariston pHc. There was no statistically significant difference caused by thermocycling, and the method of maximum infiltration was the best for detecting the extension of microleakage.

  10. Adhesion mapping of chemically modified and poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted glass surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jogikalmath, G.; Stuart, J.K.; Pungor, A.; Hlady, V.

    1999-01-01

    Two-dimensional mapping of the adhesion pull-off forces was used to study the origin of surface heterogeneity in the grafted poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layer. The variance of the pull-off forces measured over the μm-sized regions after each chemical step of modifying glass surfaces was taken to be a measure of the surface chemical heterogeneity. The attachment of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPS) to glass decreased the pull-off forces relative to the clean glass and made the surface mo...

  11. Avaliação clínica de um cimento de ionômero de vidro utilizado como selante oclusal: a clinical evaluation Use of a glass ionomer cement as an occlusal sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cheque BERNARDO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sabendo-se do papel do flúor na Odontologia Preventiva, cada vez mais procuram-se materiais restauradores com propriedades de liberação deste íon. Dentre os selantes oclusais, grande expectativa existe em relação aos cimentos de ionômero de vidro, particularmente os fotopolimerizáveis, por possuírem melhores propriedades. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar um destes cimentos, Vitremer (3M, aplicado em: combinação ou não com um adesivo. A avaliação foi realizada em 159 dentes, 6 e 12 meses após a aplicação do selante, observando-se sua retenção e a presença ou ausência de lesão de cárie. Concluiu-se que a técnica modificada, com adesivo, propiciou significativamente melhor retenção após 6 e 12 meses que a técnica convencional, não havendo diferença entre molares e pré-molares. Apenas um dente do grupo sem adesivo desenvolveu lesão de cárie após a perda do material.Since fluoride’s properties are widely known in the field of Preventive Dentistry, fluoride-releasing materials have been extensively investigated. Among the occlusal sealants, there is great expectation regarding the results that can be achieved with light-curing glass-ionomer cements due to their excellent properties. The aim of this study was to assess the use of one of these cements, Vitremer (3M as an occlusal sealant. The material was applied using two different techniques; either associated or not with an adhesive system. After 6 and 12 months of observation, an evaluation was performed in 159 teeth to verify its retention as well as the presence of caries lesions. The technique that included the adhesive system showed better retention than the conventional one. Total retention was 84.9% for the experimental technique and 37.2% for the conventional technique after 12 months. There was no difference between bicuspids and molars regarding retention. Caries lesion was observed in a single tooth, for which a total loss of material was observed

  12. Studying the Adhesion Force and Glass Transition of Thin Polystyrene Films by Atomic Force Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Hua; Qian, Xiaoqin; Guan, Li

    2018-01-01

    microscopy (AFM)-based forcedistance curve to study the relaxation dynamics and the film thickness dependence of glass transition temperature (T-g) for normal thin polystyrene (PS) films supported on silicon substrate. The adhesion force (F-ad) between AFM tip and normal thin PS film surfaces...

  13. Adhesion improvement of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester composites by gliding arc discharge treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Sørensen, Bent F.; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A gliding arc is a plasma that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and applied for plasma surface treatment for adhesion improvement. In the present work, glass-fibre-reinforced polyester plates were treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding arc discharge with an air flow to improve...

  14. Bioactivity and properties of a dental adhesive functionalized with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) and bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Marta; Hohlfeld, Lisa; Thanh, Loan Tao; Biehl, Ralf; Lühmann, Nicole; Mohn, Dirk; Wiegand, Annette

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of infiltrating a commercial adhesive with nanosized bioactive glass (BG-Bi) particles or methacryl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) on material properties and bioactivity. An acetone-based dental adhesive (Solobond Plus adhesive, VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany) was infiltrated with nanosized bioactive glass particles (0.1 or 1wt%), or with monofunctional or multifunctional POSS particles (10 or 20wt%). Unfilled adhesive served as control. Dispersion and hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles were studied by dynamic light scattering. Set specimens were immersed for 28days in artificial saliva at 37°C, and surfaces were mapped for the formation of calcium phospate (Ca/P) precipitates (scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Viscosity (rheometry) and the structural characteristic of the networks were studied, such as degree of conversion (FTIR spectroscopy), sol fraction and water sorption. POSS particles showed a good dispersion of the particles for both types of particles being smaller than 3nm, while the bioactive glass particles had a strong tendency to agglomerate. All nanoparticles induced the formation of Ca/P precipitates. The viscosity of the adhesive was not or only slightly increased by POSS particle addition but strongly increased by the bioactive glass particles. The degree of conversion, water sorption and sol fraction showed a maintained or improved network structure and properties when filled with BG-Bi and multifunctional POSS, however, less polymerization was found when loading a monofunctional POSS. Multifunctional POSS may be incorporated into dental adhesives to provide a bioactive potential without changing material properties adversely. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A completely transparent, adhesively bonded soda-lime glass block masonry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oikonomopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pioneering, all transparent, self-supporting glass block facade is presented in this paper. Previously realized examples utilize embedded metal components in order to obtain the desired structural performance despite the fact that these elements greatly affect the facade’s overall transparency level. Undeniably, the oxymoron ‘transparency and strength’ remains the prime concern in such applications. In this paper, a new, innovative structural system for glass block facades is described, which demonstrably meets both criteria. The structure is exclusively constructed by monolithic glass blocks, bonded with a colourless, UV-curing adhesive, obtaining thus a maximum transparency. In addition, the desired structural performance is achieved solely through the masonry system, without any opaque substructure. Differing from previous realized projects, solid soda-lime glass blocks are used rather than borosilicate ones. This article provides an overview of the integrated architectural and structural design and discusses the choice of materials. The structural verification of the system is demonstrated. The results show that the adhesively bonded glass block structure has the required self-structural behaviour, but only if strict tolerances are met in the geometry of the glass blocks.

  16. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days. Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05. Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001. For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  17. Effects of Topical Fluoride on the Marginal Microleakage of Composite Resin and Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Restorations in Primary Molars: An In-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topical fluoride may deteriorate dental restorations. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of topical fluoride on the marginal microleakage of composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI restorations in primary molars. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 primary molars were randomly divided into six groups of 10 based on the type of the restoration materials and before/after the application of fluoride gel, including FC (fluoride + composite, CF (composite + fluoride, C (composite, FG (fluoride + RMGI, GF (RMGI + fluoride, and G (RMGI. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface, so that the gingival margins were located in cementum. After storing, thermocycling, and immersing the specimens in basic fuchsin, they were sectioned buccolingually and evaluated in terms of dye penetration. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 18 using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test at the significance level of 0.05. Results: No significant difference was observed between the three composite groups in terms of microleakage (P>0.05. In the RMGI groups, GF showed a significantly higher microleakage compared to G (P=0.029. However, no significant difference was observed between the other groups in this regard (P>0.05. Moreover, comparison of composite and RMGI groups (matched in terms of fluoride application indicated that microleakage was significantly higher in FG than FC (P=0.024, as well as in GF than CF (P=0.002. However, no significant difference was observed between groups C and G in this regard (P=0.268. Conclusion: According to the results, the marginal seal of composite restorations in the primary molars were not affected by the acidic fluoride gel. On the other hand, applying the acidic fluoride gel was associated with a higher microleakage in the cavities restored with RMGI.

  18. Influence of resin-modified glass ionomer and topical fluoride on levels of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and biofilm adjacent to metallic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cristina Damião ANDRUCIOLI

    Full Text Available Abstract Decalcification of enamel during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment remains a problem. White spot lesions are observed in nearly 50% of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The use of fluoride-containing orthodontic materials has shown inconclusive results on their ability to reduce decalcification. The aims of this investigation were to compare the levels of Streptococcus mutans (SM in saliva and biofilm adjacent to orthodontic brackets retained with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC (Fuji ORTHO LC and a light cured composite resin (Transbond XT, and to analyze the influence of topical application of the 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF on SM counts. In a parallel study design, two groups (n=14/15 were used with random allocation and high salivary SM counts before treatment. Biofilm was collected from areas adjacent to the brackets on teeth 13, 22, 33, and 41. Both saliva and biofilm were collected on the 7th, 21st, 35th, and 49th days after appliance placement. Topical fluoride application was carried out on the 35th day. Bonding with RMGIC did not alter SM counts in saliva or biofilm adjacent to the brackets. On the other hand, the biofilm adjacent to brackets retained with composite resin showed a significant increase in SM counts along the trial period. Topical application of 1.23% APF did not reduce salivary or biofilm SM counts regardless of the bonding material. In conclusion, fluoride topical application did not show efficacy in reducing SM. The use of RMGIC as bonding materials allowed a better control of SM cfu counts in dental biofilm hindering the significant increase of these microorganisms along the trial period, which was observed in the biofilm adjacent to the composite material.

  19. Effectiveness of a resin-modified glass ionomer liner in reducing hypersensitivity in posterior restorations: a study from the practitioners engaged in applied research and learning network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, Brad; Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Barna, Julie Ann; Matthews, Abigail G; Vena, Donald; Craig, Ronald G; Curro, Frederick A; Thompson, Van P

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this randomized comparative effectiveness study conducted by members of the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network were to determine whether using a resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) liner reduces postoperative hypersensitivity (POH) in dentin-bonded Class I and Class II resin-based composite (RBC) restorations, as well as to identify other factors (putative risk factors) associated with increased POH. PEARL Network practitioner-investigators (P-Is) (n = 28) were trained to assess sensitivity determination, enamel and dentin caries activity rankings, evaluation for sleep bruxism, and materials and techniques used. The P-Is enrolled 341 participants who had hypersensitive posterior lesions. Participants were randomly assigned to receive an RBC restoration with or without an RMGI liner before P-Is applied a one-step, self-etching bonding agent. P-Is conducted sensitivity evaluations at baseline, at one and four weeks after treatment, and at all visits according to patient-reported outcomes. P-Is collected complete data regarding 347 restorations (339 participants) at baseline, with 341 (98 percent) (333 participants) recalled at four weeks. Treatment groups were balanced across baseline characteristics and measures. RBC restorations with or without an RMGI liner had the same one-week and four-week POH outcomes, as measured clinically (by means of cold or air stimulation) and according to patient-reported outcomes. Use of an RMGI liner did not reduce clinically measured or patient-reported POH in moderate-depth Class I and Class II restorations. Cold and air clinical stimulation findings were similar between groups. Practical Implications. The time, effort and expense involved in placing an RMGI liner in these moderate-depth RBC restorations may be unnecessary, as the representative liner used did not improve hypersensitivity outcomes.

  20. A comparative evaluation of the retention of metallic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement under different enamel preparations: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For orthodontists, the ideal bonding material should be less moisture-sensitive and should release fluoride, thereby reducing unfavorable iatrogenic decalcification. Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cements (RMGICs, due to their ability to bond in the presence of saliva and blood can be a very good bonding agent for orthodontic attachments especially in the areas of mouth, which are difficult to access. Moreover, their fluoride releasing property makes them an ideal bonding agent for patients with poor oral hygiene. However, their immediate bond strength is said to be too low to immediately ligate the initial wire, which could increase the total number of appointments. The effect of sandblasting and the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL on the immediate bond failure of RMGIC clinically have not been reported in the literature until the date. This investigation intended to assess the effect of sandblasting (of the bracket base and enamel and NaOCL on the rate of bond failure (with immediate ligation at 30 min of Fuji Ortho LC and its comparison with that of conventional light cured composite resin over a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods: 400 sample teeth were further divided into 4 groups of 100 each and bonded as follows: (1 Group 1: Normal metallic brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (2 Group 2: Sandblasted bracket base and enamel surface, brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (3 Group 3: Deproteinized enamel surface using sodium hypochlorite and brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (4 Group 4: Normal metallic bracket bonded with Transbond XT after etching enamel with 37% phosphoric acid. This group served as control group. Results and Conclusion: Results showed that sandblasting the bracket base and enamel, can significantly reduce the bond failure rate of RMGIC.

  1. Retention of oral microorganisms on conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements Retenção de microrganismos bucais em cimentos de ionômero de vidro convencionais e modificados por resina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise PEDRINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries are a worldwide public and socioeconomic problem. The placement of restorations can lead to the development of environmental conditions favorable to microbial colonization, especially on the tooth/restoration interface, which is a predisposing factor for secondary caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial retention on conventional (Chelon-Fil and Vidrion R and resin-modified (Vitremer and Fuji II LC glass-ionomer cements, in situ, using a hybrid composite resin (Z100 as a control. Twelve volunteers wore Hawley appliances with specimens made of all tested filling materials for 7 days. The specimens were then removed from the appliances and transferred to tubes containing 2.0 ml of Ringer-PRAS. Microorganisms from the samples were inoculated onto blood agar and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and incubated under anaerobiosis (90% N2, 10% CO2, at 37°C, for 10 and 2 days, respectively. The resin-modified glass-ionomer cements and the composite resin retained the same levels of microorganisms on their surfaces. The resin-modified glass-ionomers retained less mutans streptococci than the composite resin and conventional glass-ionomer cements. The conventional glass-ionomer cements retained less mutans streptococci than the composite resin, but that difference was not statistically significant.A cárie secundária representa problema de saúde pública e socioeconômico no mundo. A restauração de dentes acometidos por cárie pode criar condições favoráveis à proliferação microbiana na superfície do material restaurador ou na interface dente/restauração, criando ambiente propício para o estabelecimento de cárie secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade de retenção de placa bacteriana em cimentos de ionômero de vidro convencionais (Chelon-Fil e Vidrion R e modificados por resina (Vitremer e Fuji II LC e de resina composta híbrida (Z100, utilizada como controle. Nos testes de reten

  2. Effect of Different Fillers on Adhesive Wear Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Feyzullahoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric composites are used for different aims as substitute of traditional materials such as metals; due to their improved strength at small specific weight. The fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composite material consists of polymeric matrix and reinforcing material. Polymeric materials are commonly reinforced with synthetic fibers such as glass and carbon. The glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP composites are used with different filler materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different filler materials on adhesive wear behavior of GFRP. In this experimental study; polymetilmetacrilat (PMMA, Glass beads (GB and Glass sand (GS were used as filling material in GFRP composite samples. The adhesive wear behaviors of samples were carried out using ball on disc type tribometer. The friction force and coefficient of friction were measured during the test. The volume loss and wear rate values of samples were calculated according to test results. Barcol hardness values of samples were measured. The densities of samples were measured. Results show that the wear resistance of GB filled GFRP composite samples was much more than non-filled and PMMA filled GFRP composite samples.

  3. Effect of silane coupling agent on interfacial adhesion of copper/glass fabric/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langroudi, A. E.; Yousefi, A. A.; Kabiri, Kourosh

    2003-01-01

    The effect of silane coupling agent on the peel strength of copper/prep reg/copper composites was investigated. The composite consisted of one or two sheets of prepress covered by two copper plates. The prep reg was prepared by hand dry-lay-up technique using an epoxy resin and an electrical resistant glass fabric (e-glass style 2165). 4,4'-methylene dianiline. An aromatic amine, was used as curing agent. curing times for prep reg and composite at 120 d ig C and 170 d ig C were 15 min and 1 h, respectively. γ-aminopropyl trimethoxy silane was used as coupling agent. The effect of aminopropyl trimethoxy silane on the adhesion of epoxy/glass and epoxy/copper interfaces was investigated by two methods. In the first method, the surface of the glass fabric and/or the copper plates were treated by aminopropyl trimethoxy silane. In the second method, aminopropyl trimethoxy silane was directly added to epoxy resin. In addition, the effect of additional resin on the adhesion strength was also studied by the latter method

  4. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Declan T; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A

    2016-10-25

    were involved in study selection, validity assessment and data extraction without blinding to the authors, adhesives used or results obtained. All disagreements were resolved by discussion. Five RCTs and three CCTs were identified as meeting the review's inclusion criteria. All the included trials were of split-mouth design. Four trials compared chemically cured zinc phosphate and chemically cured glass ionomer; three trials compared chemically cured glass ionomer cement with light cured compomer; one trial compared chemically cured glass ionomer with a chemically cured glass phosphonate. Data analysis was often inappropriate within the studies meeting the inclusion criteria. There is insufficient high quality evidence with regard to the most effective adhesive for attaching orthodontic bands to molar teeth. Further RCTs are required.

  5. The effect of dentine pre-treatment using bioglass and/or polyacrylic acid on the interfacial characteristics of resin-modified glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Timothy; Moscardó, Agustin Pascual; Luzi, Arlinda; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Banerjee, Avijit

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of load-cycle aging and/or 6 months artificial saliva (AS) storage on bond durability and interfacial ultramorphology of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) applied onto dentine air-abraded using Bioglass 45S5 (BAG) with/without polyacrylic acid (PAA) conditioning. RMGIC (Ionolux, VOCO) was applied onto human dentine specimens prepared with silicon-carbide abrasive paper or air-abraded with BAG with or without the use of PAA conditioning. Half of bonded-teeth were submitted to load cycling (150,000 cycles) and half immersed in deionised water for 24 h. They were cut into matchsticks and submitted immediately to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing or 6 months in AS immersion and subsequently μTBS tested. Results were analysed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). Fractographic analysis was performed using FE-SEM, while further RMGIC-bonded specimens were surveyed for interfacial ultramorphology characterisation (dye-assisted nanoleakage) using confocal microscopy. RMGIC applied onto dentine air-abraded with BAG regardless PAA showed no significant μTBS reduction after 6 months of AS storage and/or load cycling (p > 0.05). RMGIC-dentine interface showed no sign of degradation/nanoleakage after both aging regimens. Conversely, interfaces created in PAA-conditioned SiC-abraded specimens showed significant reduction in μTBS (p air-abrasion might be a suitable strategy to enhance the bonding performance and durability of RMGIC applied to dentine. The use of PAA conditioner in smear layer-covered dentine may increase the risk of degradation at the bonding interface. A combined dentine pre-treatment using bioglass followed by PAA may increase the bond strength and maintain it stable over time. Conversely, the use of PAA conditioning alone may offer no significant contribute to the immediate and prolonged bonding performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lap shear strength of selected adhesives (epoxy, varnish, B-stage glass cloth) in liquid nitrogen and at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, K.J.; Fitzpatrick, C.M.

    1976-12-01

    The adhesives included several epoxy resins, a varnish, and a B-stage glass cloth (a partially cured resin in a fiberglass cloth matrix). Several parameters critical to bond strength were varied: adhesive and adherend differences, surface preparation, coupling agents, glass cloth, epoxy thickness, fillers, and bonding pressure and temperature. The highest lap shear strengths were obtained with the B-shear glass cloth at both liquid nitrogen and room temperatures with values of approximately 20 MPa (3000 psi) and approximately 25.5 MPa (3700 psi) respectively

  7. EFFECT OF INTERFACIAL ADHESION ON CRYSTALLIZATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY (ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/GLASS BEAD COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yuchun; YU Zhongzhen; ZHU Jin; LI Ge; ZHU Shanguang

    1996-01-01

    The interfacial adhesion between poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and glass bead was investigated by scanning electron microscope and parallel-plate rheometer. Effect of interfacial adhesion on the crystallization and mechanical properties of PET/glass bead composites was also studied by differential scanning calorimeter and mechanical testers.The results obtained indicate that the glass bead has a heterogeneous nucleation effect on the PET crystallization. Although better interfacial adhesion is advantageous to the increase of the tensile strength of the composite, yet it is unfavorable to the crystallization of PET. It should be pointed out that the crystallization rate of filled PET is always higher than that of pure PET, regardless of the state of interfacial adhesion.

  8. Investigation of factors affecting adhesion of 99Tcm labelled colloids to glass vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, A.T.; Murray, T.; Hilditch, T.E.; Whateley, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    Factors which may possibly influence the adhesion of 99 Tc m labelled colloid to glass vials were investigated. Of five colloids studied, two protein-free tin colloids were affected most by the problem, some 12-18% being lost by adhesion to the glass vial when the colloid was left resting on the bench, or 60-87% when it was rotated for a period of 4 h. The proportion of activity which adhered to the vial was dependent on the time the product had been contained within it, whether on the bench or rotated. Two of the colloids, both of which contained protein, were affected only slightly by the problem, one being a tin colloid and the other a sulphur colloid. An antimony sulphide colloid, which contained no added protein, was virtually unaffected by the problem. The degree of adhesion was not related to the pH of the product, or to the temperature at which the product was stored, nor to the tendency of the colloidal particles to grow in size upon vigorous agitation. (author)

  9. Adhesive dental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlu, N.

    2005-01-01

    Two main classes of material are involved, the glass-ionomer cements and the composite resins. This investigation describes the way they are bonded to the tooth and highlights their differences. Glass ionomers develop a zone of interaction with the tooth as they age which ultimately gives an extremely strong bond, and results in excellent retention rates. By contrast, bonding of composite resins is more complicated and possibly less effective, though these materials have better wear resistance and better aesthetics than glass ionomers. Assessment of bond durability is difficult. This is because a dental restorative can fail by a number of mechanisms apart from de bonding: for example, through wear or fracture

  10. Determination of work of adhesion of gelatin hydrogels on a glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Avinash A.; Singh, Arun K.

    2018-04-01

    In this article, work of adhesion (w adh ) of soft gelatin hydrogels on a smooth glass substrate is determined experimentally using the wedge adhesion test. The results showed that w adh decreases with the increase in gelatin concentration in the hydrogels but the same is found to be independent of thickness of hydrogel specimen. These results are used further for establishing a scaling law between w adh and mesh size (ξ) of the three dimensional structure present in the hydrogel as w adh ∼ ξ 8.6. Finite element analysis is also carried out for validating the fracture stability of wedge test in view of analytical prediction. At the end, practical significance of the present study is also discussed.

  11. PECVD low-permittivity organosilicate glass coatings: Adhesion, fracture and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Youbo; Xiang Yong [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tsui, Ting Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanotechnology Institute, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vlassak, Joost J. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)], E-mail: vlassak@esag.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    The structure and mechanical behavior of organosilicate glass (OSG) coatings have been analyzed as a function of composition and UV irradiation time. A decrease in the OSG carbon content results in more networking bonds and increased connectivity; UV irradiation increases the connectivity by severing weak terminal bonds and stabilizes the network through local bond rearrangements. These structure modifications lead to a significant improvement in the stiffness, hardness, and fracture energy of these coatings. The networking bond density and mean connectivity number correlate well with the mechanical behavior of the OSG films, although network bond density weighted by bond energy is a more appropriate measure. The adhesion energy of silicon nitride to OSG is significantly higher than the cohesive energy of the OSG as a result of interface densification and crack-tip shielding. Subcritical fracture measurements in aqueous environments show that the detrimental effect of water on adhesion surpasses the effect of network connectivity.

  12. Probing the chemistry of adhesion between a 316L substrate and spin-on-glass coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampert, Felix; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Kasama, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen silsesquioxane ([HSiO3/2]n) based "spin-on-glass" has been deposited on 316L substrate and cured in Ar/H2 gas atmosphere at 600 ºC to form a continuous surface coating with sub-micrometer thickness. The coating functionality depends primarily on the adhesion to the substrate, which...... is largely affected by the chemical interaction at the interface between the coating and the substrate. We have investigated this interface by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The analysis identified a 5-10 nm thick interaction zone containing signals from O, Si, Cr....... In agreement with computational thermodynamics, it is proposed that the spin-on-glass forms a chemically bonded silicate-rich interaction zone with the substrate. It was further suggested that this zone is composed of a corundum-type oxide at the substrate surface, followed by an olivine-structure intermediate...

  13. The Load-Bearing Capacity of Timber-Glass Composite I-Beams Made with Polyurethane Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, Konrad

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses the issue of composite timber-glass I-beams, which are an interesting alternative for load-bearing beams of ceilings and roofs. The reasoning behind the use of timber-glass I-beams is the combination of the best features of both materials - this enables the creation of particularly safe beams with regard to structural stability and post-breakage load capacity. Due to the significant differences between the bonding surfaces of timber and glass, a study on the adhesion of various adhesives to both surfaces is presented at the beginning of the paper. After examination, two adhesives were selected for offering the best performance when used with composite beams. The beams were investigated using a four-point bending test under quasi-static loading.

  14. Glial cell adhesion and protein adsorption on SAM coated semiconductor and glass surfaces of a microfluidic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Cox, Jimmy D.; Follstaedt, Susan C.; Curry, Mark S.; Skirboll, Steven K.; Gourley, Paul L.

    2001-05-01

    The development of microsystems that merge biological materials with microfabricated structures is highly dependent on the successful interfacial interactions between these innately incompatible materials. Surface passivation of semiconductor and glass surfaces with thin organic films can attenuate the adhesion of proteins and cells that lead to biofilm formation and biofouling of fluidic structures. We have examined the adhesion of glial cells and serum albumin proteins to microfabricated glass and semiconductor surfaces coated with self-assembled monolayers of octadecyltrimethoxysilane and N-(triethoxysilylpropyl)-O- polyethylene oxide urethane, to evaluate the biocompatibility and surface passivation those coatings provide.

  15. Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Adhesion URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001493.htm Adhesion To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue that form between two ...

  16. Acid Neutralizing Ability and Shear Bond Strength Using Orthodontic Adhesives Containing Three Different Types of Bioactive Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Yi Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the acid neutralizing ability and shear bond strength (SBS of three different types of orthodontic adhesives containing bioactive glasses (BAGs. 45S5, 45S5F and S53P4 BAGs were prepared using the melting technique and ground to fine particles. Orthodontic adhesives containing three types of BAGs were prepared as follows: 52.5% 45S5 BAG + 17.5% glass (45S5_A; 61.25% 45S5 BAG + 8.75% glass (45S5_B; 52.5% 45S5F BAG + 17.5% glass (45S5F_A; 61.25% 45S5F BAG + 8.75% glass (45S5F_B; 52.5% S53P4 BAG + 17.5% glass (S53P4_A; 61.25% S53P4 BAG + 8.75% glass (S53P4_B; and 70.0% glass (BAG_0. To evaluate the acid neutralizing properties, specimens were immersed in lactic acid solution, and pH changes were measured. SBS was measured with a universal testing machine. For all of the BAG-containing adhesives, the one with 61.25% of BAG showed a significantly greater increase of pH than the one with 52.5% of BAG (p < 0.05. Groups with 61.25% of BAG showed lower SBS than samples with 52.5% of BAG. 45S5F_A showed no significant difference of SBS compared to BAG_0 (p > 0.05. The adhesive containing 61.25% of 45S5F BAG exhibited clinically acceptable SBS and acid neutralizing properties. Therefore, this composition is a suitable candidate to prevent white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment.

  17. Water-cooled non-thermal gliding arc for adhesion improvement of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Sørensen, Bent F.; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A non-equilibrium quenched plasma is prepared using a gliding-arc discharge generated between diverging electrodes and extended by a gas flow. It can be operated at atmospheric pressure and applied to plasma surface treatment to improve adhesion properties of material surfaces. In this work, glass......-fibre-reinforced polyester plates were treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding-arc discharge with air flow to improve adhesion with a vinylester adhesive. The electrodes were water-cooled so as to operate the gliding arc continually. The treatment improved wettability and increased the density of oxygen...

  18. Influence of shear on microbial adhesion to PEO-brushes and glass by convective-diffusion and sedimentation in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, A; Boks, NP; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Norde, W

    2005-01-01

    Microbial adhesion to surfaces often occurs despite high wall shear rates acting on the adhering microorganisms. In this paper, we compare the wall shear rates needed to prevent microbial adhesion to bare glass and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-brush coated glass in a parallel plate flow chamber.

  19. Effect of surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber-reinforced composite post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, Amr M; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. Seventy-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared to receive a glass fiber post (Reblida). The posts were divided into five groups according to the surface treatment: Gr C (control; no treatment), Gr S (silanization for 60 s), Gr AP (airborne-particle abrasion), Gr HF (etching with 9 % hydrofluoric acid for 1 min), and Gr M10 (etching with CH2Cl2 for 10 min). Dual-cure self-adhesive luting agent (Rely X Unicem) was applied to each group for testing the adhesion using micropush-out test. Failure types were examined with stereomicroscope and surface morphology of the posts was characterized using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties of posts were assessed using a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 probability level. Groups treated with M10 showed significantly higher bond strength than those obtained with other surface treatments (P C > S > AP > HF. Most failure modes were adhesive type of failures between dentin and luting agent (48.2%). SEM analysis revealed that the fiber post surfaces were modified after surface treatments. The surface treatments did not compromise the flexural properties of fiber posts. Application of M10 to the fiber post surfaces enhanced the adhesion to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

  20. Microleakage of adhesive and nonadhesive luting cements for stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Mesbahi, Maryam; Rezvani, Gita; Rahimi, Mehran

    2011-01-01

    This study's purpose was to compare the ability of 5 luting cements to reduce microleakage at stainless steel crown (SSC) margins on primary molar teeth. Standard preparations were performed on 100 extracted primary molar teeth for SSC restoration. After fitting SSCs, samples were randomly divided into 5 groups of 20 teeth each, which were cemented with nonadhesive cement consisting of polycarboxylate (PC) or zinc phosphate (ZP), or with adhesive cement consisting of glass ionomer (GIC), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), or RMGIC with a bonding agent (RMGIC+DBA). After aging and thermocycling, the specimens were placed in 1% methylene blue, sectioned, and evaluated under a digital microscope. The data were compared between groups with the t test, analysis of variance, and the least significant difference test. Microleakage with adhesive cements was significantly lower than with nonadhesive cements (Pcements were statistically significant at Pcement showed the greatest microleakage. Adhesive cements were more effective in reducing microleakage in stainless steel crowns than nonadhesive cements. Use of a bonding agent with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement yielded better results than using the latter alone.

  1. Compressive strength of glass ionomer cements using different specimen dimensions Resistência à compressão de cimentos de ionômero de vidro utilizando-se diferentes tamanhos de corpos-de-prova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mallmann

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compressive strength of two glass ionomer cements, a conventional one (Vitro Fil® - DFL and a resin-modified material (Vitro Fil LC® - DFL, using two test specimen dimensions: One with 6 mm in height and 4 mm in diameter and the other with 12 mm in height and 6 mm in diameter, according to the ISO 7489:1986 specification and the ANSI/ADA Specification No. 66 for Dental Glass Ionomer Cement, respectively. Ten specimens were fabricated with each material and for each size, in a total of 40 specimens. They were stored in distilled water for 24 hours and then subjected to a compressive strength test in a universal testing machine (EMIC, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (5%. Mean compressive strength values (MPa were: 54.00 ± 6.6 and 105.10 ± 17.3 for the 12 mm x 6 mm sample using Vitro Fil and Vitro Fil LC, respectively, and 46.00 ± 3.8 and 91.10 ± 8.2 for the 6 mm x 4 mm sample using Vitro Fil and Vitro Fil LC, respectively. The resin-modified glass ionomer cement obtained the best results, irrespective of specimen dimensions. For both glass ionomer materials, the 12 mm x 6 mm matrix led to higher compressive strength results than the 6 mm x 4 mm matrix. A higher variability in results was observed when the glass ionomer cements were used in the larger matrices.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência à compressão de dois cimentos de ionômero de vidro, um convencional (Vitro Fil® - DFL e outro modificado por resina (Vitro Fil LC® - DFL, utilizando-se dois tamanhos de amostras: uma com 6 mm de altura e 4 mm de diâmetro e outra com 12 mm de altura e 6 mm de diâmetro, seguindo-se a especificação 7489:1986 da ISO e a especificação n. 66 da ANSI/ADA para Cimento Dental de Ionômero de Vidro, respectivamente. Foram confeccionados 10 corpos-de-prova (CP de cada material para cada tamanho de amostra, totalizando

  2. Influence of different adhesive systems on the pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; Andrade, Andréa Mello de; Machuca, Melissa Fernanda Garcia; da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; da Silva, Ricardo Virgolino C; Veronezi, Maria Cecília

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost - Angelus-Brazil) cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC - 3M/ESPE) associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP) Plus - 3M/ESPE), using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10): G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE) + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost - Angelus) + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin - Angelus) + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf) and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 +/- 7.123; G2- 37.752 +/-13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; a=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (pAdhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1). The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength.

  3. Influence of different adhesive systems on the pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mendonça da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost - Angelus-Brazil cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC - 3M/ESPE associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP Plus - 3M/ESPE, using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10: G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost - Angelus + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin - Angelus + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 ± 7.123; G2- 37.752 ±13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; a=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the groups. Adhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1. The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength.

  4. Wear and superficial roughness of glass ionomer cements used as sealants, after simulated toothbrushing Desgaste e rugosidade superficial de cimentos de ionômero de vidro utilizados como selantes, após escovação simulada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rios

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the properties (wear and roughness of glass ionomer cements that could influence their indication as pit and fissure sealants. The utilized materials were Fuji Plus, Ketac-Molar and Vitremer (in two different proportions: 1:1 and ¼:1. The resin-based sealant Delton was used as control. By means of an electronic balance (precision of 10-4 g, wear was measured in function of weight loss after simulated toothbrushing. Superficial roughness was determined by means of a surface roughness-measuring apparatus. The results revealed that diluted Vitremer and Fuji Plus were less resistant to toothbrushing abrasion and had the greatest increase in superficial roughness.Although in clinical situations luting or diluted ionomer cements are often utilized as alternatives to resin-based sealants, the resultsof this study revealed that the properties of those cements are worse than those of restorative ionomers, whichpresented results similar to those of the evaluated resin sealant.O presente estudo foi conduzido in vitro com o intuito de constatar as propriedades (desgaste e rugosidade dos CIV, as quais influenciam na sua indicação como material selador de fossas e fissuras. Os materiais empregados foram Fuji Plus, Ketac-Molar e Vitremer (duas proporções: 1:1 e ¼:1. O selante Delton foi controle. A determinação do desgaste foi obtida através da quantidade de massa perdida após a escovação e a rugosidade através da análise quantitativa da superfície. Os resultados mostraram que o Vitremer diluído e o Fuji Plus apresentaram maior grau de desgaste e maior aumento de rugosidade. Apesar de clinicamente se encontrar um maior uso dos ionômeros de vidro cimentantes ou diluídos como forma alternativa para material selador; este trabalho permitiu concluir que estes possuem propriedades bastante inferiores quando comparados aos ionômeros restauradores que, por sua vez, possuem resultados semelhantes

  5. Effect of Water-Glass Coating on HA and HA-TCP Samples for MSCs Adhesion, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Bajpai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca-P and silicon based materials have become very popular as bone tissue engineering materials. In this study, water-glass (also known as sodium silicate glass was coated on sintered hydroxyapatite (HA and HA-TCP (TCP stands for tricalcium phosphate samples and subsequently heat-treated at 600°C for 2 hrs. X-rays diffraction showed the presence of β- and α-TCP phases along with HA in the HA-TCP samples. Samples without coating, with water-glass coating, and heat-treated after water-glass coating were used to observe the adhesion and proliferation response of bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Cell culture was carried out for 4 hrs, 1 day, and 7 days. Interestingly, all samples showed similar response for cell adhesion and proliferation up to 7-day culture but fibronectin, E-cadherin, and osteogenic differentiation related genes (osteocalcin and osteopontin were significantly induced in heat-treated water-glass coated HA-TCP samples. A water-glass coating on Ca-P samples was not found to influence the cell proliferation response significantly but activated some extracellular matrix genes and induced osteogenic differentiation in the MSCs.

  6. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. Results: No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives. PMID:25628694

  7. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eshghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives.Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12. Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05. Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation.No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987. There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1. Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918. However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion.Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives.

  8. The role of Sr2+ on the structure and reactivity of SrO-CaO-ZnO-SiO2 ionomer glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Daniel; Towler, Mark R; Watts, Sally; Hill, Robert G; Wren, Anthony W; Clarkin, Owen M

    2008-02-01

    The suitability of Glass Polyalkenoate Cements (GPCs) for use in orthopaedics is retarded by the presence in the glass phase of aluminium, a neurotoxin. Unfortunately, the aluminium ion plays an integral role in the setting process of GPCs and its absence is likely to hinder cement formation. However, the authors have previously shown that aluminium free GPCs may be formulated based on calcium zinc silicate glasses and these novel materials exhibit significant potential as hard tissue biomaterials. To further improve their potential, and given that Strontium (Sr) based drugs have had success in the treatment of osteoporosis, the authors have substituted Calcium (Ca) with Sr in the glass phase of a series of aluminium free GPCs. However to date little data exists on the effect SrO has on the structure and reactivity of SrO-CaO-ZnO-SiO(2) glasses. The objective of this work was to characterise the effect of the Ca/Sr substitution on the structure of such glasses, and evaluate the subsequent reactivity of these glasses with an aqueous solution of Polyacrylic acid (PAA). To this end (29)Si MAS-NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, and network connectivity calculations, were used to characterize the structure of four strontium calcium zinc silicate glasses. Following glass characterization, GPCs were produced from each glass using a 40 wt% solution of PAA (powder:liquid = 2:1.5). The working times and setting times of the GPCs were recorded as per International standard ISO9917. The results acquired as part of this research indicate that the substitution of Ca for Sr in the glasses examined did not appear to significantly affect the structure of the glasses investigated. However it was noted that increasing the amount of Ca substituted for Sr did result in a concomitant increase in setting times, a feature that may be attributable to the higher basicity of SrO over CaO.

  9. Evaluation of glass ionomer sealants placed according to the ART approach in a community with high caries experience: 1-year follow-up Avaliação de selantes ionoméricos realizados pela técnica do ART em comunidade com alta experiência de cárie: 1 ano de acompanhamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Falavinha Vieira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the retention rates and effect on occlusal caries incidence of two glass ionomers used as sealants, placed according to the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART approach, in a high caries-risk community. A total of 150 newly erupted first molars of 42 schoolchildren, between 6-8 years of age were selected. The teeth were divided into two groups: experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 76 teeth were sealed using Vidrion R-SS White (conventional GIC and in the control group, 74 teeth were sealed using ChemFlex-Dentsply (high-viscosity conventional GIC. The sealants were applied by one operator following the "press finger technique", described in the ART-WHO manual. Two calibrated independent examiners carried out the evaluation according to the ART criteria. The intra and inter-examiner agreements were 0.84 and 0.81, respectively. Data were submitted to Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o índice de retenção e o efeito na incidência de cárie oclusal de dois selantes ionoméricos realizados pela técnica do Tratamento Restaurador Atraumático (ART em comunidades com alto índice de cárie. Foram selecionados 150 primeiros molares recém-erupcionados de 42 escolares, entre 6-8 anos de idade. Os dentes foram divididos em dois grupos: experimental e controle. No grupo experimental 76 dentes foram selados com Vidrion R-SSWhite (CIV-convencional e no grupo controle, 74 dentes foram selados com ChemFlex-Dentsply (CIV-alta viscosidade. Os selantes foram realizados por apenas um operador pela técnica da "pressão digital", descrita no manual de ART da OMS. Dois avaliadores independentes e calibrados segundo os critérios do ART realizaram a avaliação. A concordância intra e inter-examinadores foi de 0,84 e 0,81, respectivamente. Os resultados foram submetidos aos testes Mann-Whitney e Q-quadrado (p<0,05. Após um ano, 136 (90,7% selante foram

  10. Physical Property Investigation of Contemporary Glass lonomer and Resin Modified Glass lonomer Restorative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    selected physical properties of nine contemporary and recently-marketed glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and four resin-modified glass-ionomer cement {RMGIC...stainless steel molds. Testing was completed on a universal testing machine unt il failure. Knoop Hardness was obtained using fai led fracture toughness...address caries, function, biocompatibility, and minimal environmental impact. 2·3 Glass-ionomer cements were invented and developed by Wilson and Kent

  11. Role of pH Changes on Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Release and on the Fibrin Architecture of Platelet-rich Fibrin When Layered with Biodentine, Glass Ionomer Cement, and Intermediate Restorative Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaguri, Harish; Suresh, Nandini; Surendran, Smitha; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Chitra, Selvarajan

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of pH that is due to setting reaction of Biodentine, glass ionomer cement (GIC), and intermediate restorative material (IRM) on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) release and on the fibrin architecture of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). PRF was obtained from 8 volunteers and layered over the freshly prepared GIC, IRM, and Biodentine mixtures. TGF-β1 release was estimated by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and fibrin structure of PRF was analyzed by using scanning electron microscope at 1 and 5 hours. Biodentine, GIC, and IRM increased the TGF-β1 release in comparison with that of control group (PRF alone) at both 1 and 5 hours. Biodentine released significantly more TGF-β1 than GIC and IRM at 1 hour. At 5 hours both GIC and Biodentine released significantly more TGF-β1 than IRM. The fibrin architecture of the Biodentine group was similar to that of control group at both 1 and 5 hours. In GIC and IRM groups the fibrillar structure of fibrin was collapsed, ill-defined, and cloudy with very thick fibers and irregularly reduced porosities. Biodentine induces larger amount of TGF-β1 release and also maintains the integrity of fibrin structure when compared with GIC and IRM when layered over PRF. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of ageing on glass and resin bonding of dental glass-ceramic veneer adhesion to zirconia: A fracture mechanics analysis and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Gee, C; Li, K C

    2018-04-26

    Adhesion plays a major role in the bonding of dental materials. In this study the adhesion of two glass-ceramic systems (IPS e.max and VITABLOCS) to a zirconia sintered substrate using a glass (for IPS e.max) and resin (VITABLOCS) before and after exposure to ageing for 14 days in distilled water at 37 °C are compared using two interfacial fracture mechanics tests, the 3 point bend Schwickerath (Kosyfaki and Swain, 2014; Schneider and Swain, 2015) and 4 point bend (Charalambides et al., 1989) approaches. Both tests result in stable crack extension from which the strain energy release rate (G, N/m or J/m 2 ) can be determined. In the case of the 3 PB test the Work of Fracture was also determined. In addition, the Schwickerath test enables determination of the critical stress for the onset of cracking to occur, which forms the basis of the ISO (ISO9693-2:2016) adhesion test for porcelain ceramic adhesion to zirconia. For the aged samples there was a significant reduction in the resin-bonded strengths (Schwickerath) and strain energy release rate (both 3 and 4 PB tests), which was not evident for the glass bonded specimens. Critical examination of the force-displacement curves showed that ageing of the resin resulted in a major change in the form of the curves, which may be interpreted in terms of a reduction in the critical stress to initiate cracking and also in the development of an R-curve. The extent of the reduction in strain energy release rate following ageing was greater for the Schwickerath test than the Charalambides test. The results are discussed in terms of; the basic mechanics of these two tests, the deterioration of the resin bonding following moisture exposure and the different dimensions of the specimens. These in-vitro results raise concerns regarding resin bonding to zirconia. The present study uses a novel approach to investigate the role of ageing or environmental degradation on the adhesive bonding of two dental ceramics to zirconia

  13. Ceramic Surface Treatment with a Single-component Primer: Resin Adhesion to Glass Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Mayara; Prochnow, Catina; Marchionatti, Ana Maria Estivalete; Baldissara, Paolo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Wandscher, Vinicius Felipe

    2018-04-19

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of composite cement bonded to two machined glass ceramics and its durability, comparing conventional surface conditioning (hydrofluoric acid + silane) to a one-step primer (Monobond Etch & Prime). Machined slices of lithium disilicate ceramic (LDC) (IPS e.max CAD) and feldspathic ceramic (FC) (VITA Mark II) glass ceramics were divided into two groups (n = 10) according to two factors: 1. surface treatment: HF+S (ca 5% hydrofluoric acid [IPS Ceramic Etching GEL] + silane coupling agent [SIL; Monobond Plus]) or MEP (single-component ceramic conditioner; Monobond Etch & Prime); 2. storage condition: baseline (without aging; tested 24 h after cementing) or aged (70 days of water storage + 12,000 thermal cycles). Composite cement (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to starch matrices on the treated ceramic surfaces and photoactivated. A μSBS test was performed (0.5 mm/min) and the failure pattern was determined. Contact angle and micromorphological analyses were also performed. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test (α = 5%). For both ceramic materials, HF+S resulted in higher mean μSBS (MPa) at baseline (LDC: HF+S 21.2 ± 2.2 > MEP 10.4 ± 2.4; FC: HF+S 19.6 ± 4.3 > MEP 13.5 ± 5.4) and after aging (LDC: HF+S 14.64 ± 2.31 > MEP 9 ± 3.4; FC HF+S: 14.73 ± 3.33 > MEP 11.1 ± 3.3). HF+S resulted in a statistically significant decrease in mean μSBS after aging (p = 0.0001), while MEP yielded no significant reduction. The main failure type was adhesive between composite cement and ceramic. HF+S resuted in the lowest contact angle. Hydrofluoric acid + silane resulted in higher mean μSBS than Monobond Etch & Prime for both ceramics; however, Monobond Etch & Prime had stable bonding after aging.

  14. Solubility and fluoride release in ionomers and compomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, S M; Abate, P F; Blank, A; Baglieto, M F; Macchi, R L

    1999-03-01

    The degree of solubility and the fluoride release of glass-ionomer cements and "compomers" were determined as a function of time. Three conventional glass-ionomer cements, three hybrid ionomers, and two compomers were included in the study. Disk-shaped specimens were prepared and immersed in a lactic acid solution. Solubility was evaluated from determinations of loss of mass as a function of time. To evaluate fluoride release, similar specimens were immersed in 50 mL of deionized water to which 50 mL of buffer solution was added. A fluoride ion detector was used to read the concentration of fluoride ion in the overall solution at different times after immersion. Material and time factors had a significant influence on results. The compomers showed less corrosion and fluoride release than the ionomers. Some correlation was found between solubility and fluoride leakage values. Components of both the ionomers and compomers that were studied can dissolve in water. The materials leak fluoride ions in amounts that differ according to the characteristics of the individual products.

  15. Surface hardness of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in antiseptic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Yuliati

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid ionomer cement or resin modified glass ionomer cement is a developed form of conventional glass ionomer cement. This hybrid ionomer cement can be eroded if in direct contact with acid solution which will affect surface hardness. The aim of this study is to learn surface hardness of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in methyl salicylate 0.06% (pH 3.6 and povidon iodine 1% (pH 2.9 solution. Sample of hybrid ionomer cement with 5 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness was immersed in sterile aquadest solution (control, methyl salicylate pH 3.6, povidon iodine pH 2.9 for 1 minute, 7 and 14 minutes. Surface hardness was measured with Micro Vickers Hardness Tester. The obtained data was analyzed statistically with ANOVA followed by LSD test. The result of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in sterile aquadest, methyl salicylate 0.06% pH 3.6 and povidon iodine 1% pH 2.9 for one minute, showed no significant difference; while immersion for 7 and 14 minutes showed a significant difference. The conclusion states that hybrid ionomer cement after 14 minutes immersion in povidon iodine 1% pH 2.9 has the lowest surface hardness.

  16. [Effect of saliva contamination on microleakage around class-5 cavities restored with three different types of adhesive materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, Gianina; Stoleriu, Simona; Andrian, S; Dia, V; Căruntu, Irina Draga

    2004-01-01

    The recent improvement of adhesive materials should decrease the risk related to saliva contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of saliva contamination on the microleakage within class V cavities restored with three different types of materials: conventional glass ionomer cement, composite resin and compomer. 30 human extracted teeth were randomly divided in 3 equal groups. In each group, class V cavities were prepared on both facial and lingual surfaces (but joint for glass ionomer cement and bevelled incisal margin for composite resin and compomer). The lingual cavities were contaminated with saliva prior to restoration, while the facial cavities were not contaminated, serving as control. After water storage for 24 hours, teeth were immersed in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. The axial sections were viewed under an optical microscope and the extent of dye penetration along cervical, axial and incisal margins was measured in millimetres. Statistic analysis showed that under salivary contamination, microleakage increased along the cervical margin of restoration for all three tested materials. Saliva contamination resulted in microleakage within the axial wall of the cavity only for the conventional glass ionomer cement. These data indicate that composite resin and compomer used together with new adhesives seem to be less sensitive to saliva contamination compared to conventional materials. However, under saliva contamination, cervical microleakage cannot be completely prevented and proper isolation should still be mandatory.

  17. Blends of polyester ionomers with polar polymers: Interactions, reactions, and compatibilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy Lamar

    .e., 2 to 5 wt%) resulted in significant enhancement in the impact strength and a dramatic improvement in the tensile properties compared to uncompatibilized blends of nylon 6,6 (N66) with poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). This behavior was attributed to an increase in the interfacial adhesion between the phase-separated domains due to strong interactions between the polyester ionomer and N66. The placement of the ionomer compatibilizer at the N66/PBT interface was facilitated by pre-extrusion of the polyester ionomer with PBT, prior to extrusion with N66.

  18. Surface adhesion study of La2O3 thin film on Si and glass substrate for micro-flexography printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S.; Yusof, M. S.; Embong, Z.; Maksud, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Adhesive property can be described as an interchangeably with some ink and substance which was applied to one surface of two separate items that bonded together. Lanthanum oxide (La2O3) has been used as a rare earth metal candidate as depositing agent or printing ink. This metal deposit was embedded on Silica (Si) wafer and glass substrate using Magnetron Sputtering technique. The choose of Lanthanum oxide as a target is due to its wide application in producing electronic devices such as thin film battery and printed circuit board. The La2O3 deposited on the surface of Si wafer and glass substrate was then analyzed using Angle Resolve X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). The position for each synthetic component in the narrow scan of Lanthanum (La) 3d and O 1s are referred to the electron binding energy (eV). This research will focus on 3 narrow scan regions which are C 1s, O 1s and La 3d. Further discussion of the spectrum evaluation will be discussed in detail. Here, it is proposed that from the adhesive and surface chemical properties of La is the best on glass substrate which suitable as an alternative medium for micro-flexography printing technique in printing multiple fine solid lines at nano scale. Hence, this paper will describe the capability of this particular metal as rare earth metal in a practice of micro-flexography printing.

  19. Effect of adhesive luting on the fracture resistance of zirconia compared to that of composite resin and lithium disilicate glass ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Jin Lim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adhesive luting on the fracture resistance of zirconia compared to that of a composite resin and a lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Materials and Methods The specimens (dimension: 2 mm × 2 mm × 25 mm of the composite resin, lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP were prepared. These were then divided into nine groups: three non-luting groups, three non-adhesive luting groups, and three adhesive luting groups, for each restorative material. In the non-luting groups, specimens were placed on the bovine tooth without any luting agents. In the non-adhesive luting groups, only zinc phosphate cement was used for luting the specimen to the bovine tooth. In the adhesive luting groups, specimens were pretreated, and the adhesive luting procedure was performed using a self-adhesive resin cement. For all the groups, a flexural test was performed using universal testing machine, in which the fracture resistance was measured by recording the force at which the specimen was fractured. Results The fracture resistance after adhesive luting increased by approximately 29% in the case of the composite resin, 26% in the case of the lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and only 2% in the case of Y-TZP as compared to non-adhesive luting. Conclusions The fracture resistance of Y-TZP did not increased significantly after adhesive luting as compared to that of the composite resin and the lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

  20. Plasma treatment of carbon fibres and glass-fibre-reinforced polyesters at atmospheric pressure for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is useful for adhesion improvement, because cleaning, roughening and addition of polar functional groups can be expected at the surfaces. Its possible applications in the wind energy industry include plasma treatment of fibres and fibre-reinforced polymer...... composites before assembling them to build wind turbine blades. In the present work, unsized carbon fibres are continuously treated using a dielectric barrier discharge plasma in helium at atmospheric pressure, and carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite plates are manufactured for the mechanical test....... The plasma treatment improved fracture toughness, indicating that adhesion between the fibres and the epoxy was enhanced by the treatment. In addition, glass-fibre-reinforced polyester plates are treated using a gliding arc and an ultrasound enhanced dielectric barrier discharge, improving the wettability...

  1. The sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid and the glass ionomer cement; Selamento de fossulas e fissura de segundo molar deciduo inferior com laser de Nd: YAG, acido fosforico e cimento de ionomero de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Maria Aparecida

    2003-07-01

    The main of our study was to check the sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure, in vitro, with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid at 37% and the glass ionomer cement (CIV, Fuji IX GC).The proposal was to check the structural morphologic changes in the laser irradiation upon the enamel surface to watch the pits and fissure sealing with the glass ionomer cement use after the laser irradiation and to verify the efficiency of the 'double conditioning' (phosphoric acid + Nd: YAG). At the same time we watch the evolution of the temperature in the pulp chamber's inside. Our desire was to achieve a therapeutic alternative technic to prevent the dental caries. The Nd: YAG laser parameters were the same: 79 mJ of energy per pulse; frequency of 5 Hz; mean power of 0,4 W; optical fiber on contact of 320 {mu}m diameter; fluency of 99,52 J/ cm{sup 2}, assuming that the only differential was the time of the laser application on the enamel surface. The samples were prepared with this way: Laser Nd: YAG (53 second) + acid + CIV (Fuji IX); Laser Nd: YAG (53 s); Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s) + acid + CIV; Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s); Acid + CIV; Control. Through the scanning electron microscopy (MEV) we noticed fusion and resolidification regions due to the laser irradiation and a better adaptation of the glass ionomer cement when we did the 'double conditioning'. Concerning the temperature increase we can conclude that the echeloned period was the best recommended because the temperature was found in a pattern that would not cause any damage to the dental pulp. For future studies we suggest a longer relaxing time between the laser irradiation, a comparative study of this method with other lasers, the use of other sealing materials and the study with the permanent teeth. (author)

  2. The sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid and the glass ionomer cement; Selamento de fossulas e fissura de segundo molar deciduo inferior com laser de Nd: YAG, acido fosforico e cimento de ionomero de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Maria Aparecida

    2003-07-01

    The main of our study was to check the sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure, in vitro, with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid at 37% and the glass ionomer cement (CIV, Fuji IX GC).The proposal was to check the structural morphologic changes in the laser irradiation upon the enamel surface to watch the pits and fissure sealing with the glass ionomer cement use after the laser irradiation and to verify the efficiency of the 'double conditioning' (phosphoric acid + Nd: YAG). At the same time we watch the evolution of the temperature in the pulp chamber's inside. Our desire was to achieve a therapeutic alternative technic to prevent the dental caries. The Nd: YAG laser parameters were the same: 79 mJ of energy per pulse; frequency of 5 Hz; mean power of 0,4 W; optical fiber on contact of 320 {mu}m diameter; fluency of 99,52 J/ cm{sup 2}, assuming that the only differential was the time of the laser application on the enamel surface. The samples were prepared with this way: Laser Nd: YAG (53 second) + acid + CIV (Fuji IX); Laser Nd: YAG (53 s); Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s) + acid + CIV; Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s); Acid + CIV; Control. Through the scanning electron microscopy (MEV) we noticed fusion and resolidification regions due to the laser irradiation and a better adaptation of the glass ionomer cement when we did the 'double conditioning'. Concerning the temperature increase we can conclude that the echeloned period was the best recommended because the temperature was found in a pattern that would not cause any damage to the dental pulp. For future studies we suggest a longer relaxing time between the laser irradiation, a comparative study of this method with other lasers, the use of other sealing materials and the study with the permanent teeth. (author)

  3. Ultrasound enhanced plasma treatment of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester in atmospheric pressure air for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    2011-01-01

    A glass-fibre-reinforced polyester (GFRP) plate was treated with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure in air for adhesion improvement. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation using a high-power gas-jet generator during the treatment were investigated. The optical emission...... damage of the GFRP plates. The polar component of the surface energy of the polyester plate was 21 mJ/m2 before the treatment, increased markedly to 52 mJ/m2 after 2-s plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, and further increased slightly after longer treatments. In addition, the polar component...

  4. Comparison of enamel discoloration associated with bonding with three different orthodontic adhesives and cleaning-up with four different procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cui; Zhao, Zhihe; Zhao, Qing; Du, Xi; Ye, Jun; Wei, Xing

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare whether there was any difference in the enamel discoloration after staining when three orthodontic adhesives and four enamel clean-up methods were tested. Three types of orthodontic adhesives were used: chemically cured resin, light-cured resin and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. A total of 120 human extracted premolars were included. 10 teeth of each orthodontic adhesive were randomly cleaned-up with one of four different procedures and stained in coffee for seven days: (1) carbide bur (TC); (2) carbide bur; Sof-Lex polishers (TC+SL); (3) carbide bur and one gloss polishers (TC+OG); and (4) carbide bur and PoGo polishers (TC+PG). Color measurements were made with Crystaleye dental spectrophotometer at baseline and after storage in a coffee solution one week. Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analyses (P0.05). The resin-modified glass-ionomer cement groups showed the lowest color differences and chemically cured resin groups showed the highest ΔE* values among all the orthodontic adhesives (P<0.05). The color change of enamel surface was affected by the type of adhesive materials and cleanup procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded with Resin-modified Glass-ionomer Cement to Bleached Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Khosravanifard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Bleaching can considerably reduce shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic brackets bonded with composite adhesives. Application of antioxidants is a method to reverse the negative effect of bleaching on compositeto-enamel bond. However, the efficacy of antioxidants in increasing the SBS of brackets bonded using resin-modified glassionomer cement (RMGIC has not been studied, which was the aim of this study. Materials and methods. Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary first premolars were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office Bleaching, SDI. Sodium ascorbate 10% was applied to the experimental specimens (n=25. All the specimens were etched with 37% phosphoric acid (Ivoclar/Vivadent and bonded using RMGIC (Fuji Ortho LC, GC. The specimens were subjected to incubation (37°C, 24h and thermocycling (1000 cycles, 5-55°C, dwell time = 1 min. The SBS was measured at 0.5 mm/min debonding crosshead speed. The adhesive remnant index (ARI was scored under ×10 magnification. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, one- and independent-samples t-test, and Fisher’s exact test (α=0.05. Results. The mean SBS of experimental and control groups were 11.97 ± 4.49 and 7.7 ± 3.19 MPa, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.000 by t-test. SBS of both control (P=0.014 and experimental (P=0.000 groups were significantly higher than the minimum acceptable SBS of 6 MPa, according to one-sample t-test. Conclusion. Application of ascorbic acid can guarantee a strong bond when RMGIC is to be used. However, RMGIC might tolerate the negative effect of bleaching with minimum SA treatments (or perhaps without treatments, which deserves further studies.

  6. Effect of plasma treatment (He/CH4) on glass surface for the reduction of powder flux adhesion in the spray drying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlan, Nadiah; Zamri, Nazirah Wahidah Mohd; Maskat, Mohd Yusof; Hoong, Chin Oi; Theng, Lau Yen; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2018-04-01

    A 50Hz glow discharge He/CH4 plasma was generated and applied for the modification of glass surface to reduce powder adhesion on the wall of spray dryer. The hydrophobicity of the glass samples determined by the water droplet contact angle and adhesion weight on glass, dependent on the CH4 flow rate and plasma exposure time. There was a peak that appeared at 1470 cm-1 on the surface of treated glass indicating the presence of CH3 groups from ATR-FTIR data. Surface morphology analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed changes of roughness in the surface-treated glass. The presence of alkyl group (CH3) that deposited on the glass surface is one of the factors that contribute to the increase in the surface roughness. The surface roughness will reflect the value of contact angle where hydrophobic surface are rougher compared to hydrophilic surface. The plasma treatment could enhance the value of the contact angle and thus reduced the adhesion on the spray dryer glass surface.

  7. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X F; Yoshida, K; Gu, N

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C and B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R a and R y values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane coupler

  8. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, X F [Department of Prosthodontics, The Stomatological Hospital Affiliated Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yoshida, K [Division of Applied Prosthodontics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Gu, N, E-mail: mengsoar@nju.edu.c [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C and B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R{sub a} and R{sub y} values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane

  9. Characterizing the adhesion of motile and nonmotile Escherichia coli to a glass surface using a parallel-plate flow chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClaine, Jennifer W; Ford, Roseanne M

    2002-04-20

    A parallel-plate flow chamber was used to measure the attachment and detachment rates of Escherichia coli to a glass surface at various fluid velocities. The effect of flagella on adhesion was investigated by performing experiments with several E. coli strains: AW405 (motile); HCB136 (nonmotile mutant with paralyzed flagella); and HCB137 (nonmotile mutant without flagella). We compared the total attachment rates and the fraction of bacteria retained on the surface to determine how the presence and movement of the flagella influence transport to the surface and adhesion strength in this dynamic system. At the lower fluid velocities, there was no significant difference in the total attachment rates for the three bacterial strains; nonmotile strains settled at a rate that was of the same order of magnitude as the diffusion rate of the motile strain. At the highest fluid velocity, the effect of settling was minimized to better illustrate the importance of motility, and the attachment rates of both nonmotile strains were approximately five times slower than that of the motile bacteria. Thus, different processes controlled the attachment rate depending on the parameter regime in which the experiment was performed. The fractions of motile bacteria retained on the glass surface increased with increasing velocity, whereas the opposite trend was found for the nonmotile strains. This suggests that the rotation of the flagella enables cells to detach from the surface (at the lower fluid velocities) and strengthens adhesion (at higher fluid velocities), whereas nonmotile cells detach as a result of shear. There was no significant difference in the initial attachment rates of the two nonmotile species, which suggests that merely the presence of flagella was not important in this stage of biofilm development. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. About a possibility of increasing the adhesion strength between mineral glass and polymeric binder under radio-frequency induction plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miftakhov, I S; Trofimov, A V; Nagmutdinova, A I; Voznesensky, E F; Sharifullin, F S; Krasina, I V; Rakhmatullina, G R

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigated influences of radio-frequency induction plasma treatment on the surface of sheet mineral glasses for household purpose. Discussion for casting the most suitable treatment modes and theirs substantiation is shown. During the investigation the most productive plasma treatment modes for applied binders have been found. It is shown that the durability of adhesive joints between mineral glass and polymeric binder under low-temperature plasma treatment increase to 65%. (paper)

  11. In vitro activity of zinc oxide-eugenol and glass ionomer cements on Candida albicans Atividade in vitro dos cimentos de óxido de zinco e eugenol e ionômero de vidro sobre Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Aguiar Cassanho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of glass ionomer (GIC and zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE cements against Candida albicans. Standardized GIC and ZOE specimens were maintained in contact with C. albicans suspension (1 ´ 10(6 cells/ml at 37°C for 24 h, 48 h or 7 days. A control group without any testing cement was included. After the incubation period, aliquots of 0.1 ml were plated on Sabouraud's agar, and then the number of colonies was counted. The results were expressed as values of logarithms of colony-forming units per milliliter (log CFU/mL and were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. After 48 h of incubation, the ZOE group presented no growth of C. albicans. GIC and control groups presented similar mean values at all tested periods. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that, under the experimental conditions, ZOE cement was more effective in vitro against C. albicans than GIC.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a atividade antimicrobiana dos cimentos de ionômero de vidro (CIV e óxido de zinco e eugenol (OZE sobre Candida albicans. Corpos-de-prova padronizados de CIV e OZE foram mantidos em contato com suspensão (1 ´ 10(6 células/ml de C. albicans a 37°C por 24 horas, 48 horas ou 7 dias. Um grupo controle sem nenhum cimento teste foi incluído. Após o período de incubação, alíquotas de 0,1 ml foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud e o número de colônias foi contado. Os resultados foram expressos em logaritmos de valores de unidades formadoras de colônias por ml (log UFC/mL e analisados estatisticamente pelo teste ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis. Após 48 horas de incubação, o grupo OZE não apresentou crescimento de C. albicans. Os grupos CIV e controle apresentaram médias similares em todos os períodos testados. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, pode ser concluído que, sob as condições experimentais testadas, o cimento OZE apresentou-se mais efetivo in

  12. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of glass fibre composite for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Mortensen, H.; Stenum, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Glass-fibre-reinforced polyester composite plates were treated with an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge. Synthetic air was used as the treatment gas. The water contact angle dropped markedly from 84 to 22° after a 2-s treatment, and decreased to 0° when the composite plates were...

  13. A completely transparent, adhesively bonded soda-lime glass block masonry system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; Baardolf, G.

    2014-01-01

    A pioneering, all transparent, self-supporting glass block facade is presented in this paper. Previously realized examples utilize embedded metal components in order to obtain the desired structural performance despite the fact that these elements greatly affect the facade’s overall transparency

  14. Ionomers for Ion-Conducting Energy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Ralph

    For ionic actuators and battery separators, it is vital to utilize single-ion conducting ionomers that avoid the detrimental polarization of other ions. Single-ion conducting ionomers are synthesized based on DFT calculations, with low glass transition temperatures (facile dynamics) to prepare ion-conducting membranes for battery separators that conduct Li+ or Na+. Characterization by X-ray scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, FTIR, NMR and linear viscoelasticity collectively develop a coherent picture of ionic aggregation and both counterion and polymer dynamics. 7Li NMR diffusion measurements find that diffusion is faster than expected by conductivity using the Nernst-Einstein equation, which means that the majority of Li diffusion occurs by ion pairs moving with the polymer segmental motion. Segmental motion only contributes to ionic conduction in the rare event that one of these ion pairs has an extra Li (a positive triple ion). This leads us to a new metric for ion-conducting soft materials, the product of the cation number density p0 and their diffusion coefficient D; p0D is the diffusive flux of lithium ions. This new metric has a maximum at intermediate ion content that corresponds to the overlap of ion pair polarizability volumes. At higher ion contents, the ion pairs interact strongly and form larger aggregation states that retard segmental motion of both mobile ion pairs and triple ions.

  15. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandall, N A; Millett, D T; Mattick, C R; Hickman, J; Macfarlane, T V; Worthington, H V

    2003-01-01

    Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. To evaluate the effectiveness of different orthodontic adhesives for bonding. Electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Date of most recent searches: August 2002 (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2002). Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing two different adhesive groups. Participants were patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The interventions were adhesives that bonded stainless steel brackets to all teeth except the molars. The primary outcome was debond or bracket failure. Data were recorded on decalcification as a secondary outcome, if present. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were extracted in duplicate by pairs of reviewers (Nicky Mandall (NM) and Rye Mattick (CRM); Declan Millett (DTM) and Joy Hickman (JH2)). Since the data were not presented in a form that was amenable to meta-analysis, the results of the review are presented in narrative form only. Three trials satisfied the inclusion criteria. A chemical cured composite was compared with a light cure composite (one trial), a conventional glass ionomer cement (one trial) and a polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer) (one trial). The quality of the trial reports was generally poor. It is difficult to draw any conclusions from this review, however, suggestions are made for methods of improving future research involving

  16. Classification review of dental adhesive systems: from the IV generation to the universal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofan, Eshrak; Sofan, Afrah; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Romeo, Umberto; Migliau, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Summary Adhesive dentistry has undergone great progress in the last decades. In light of minimal-invasive dentistry, this new approach promotes a more conservative cavity design, which relies on the effectiveness of current enamel-dentine adhesives. Adhesive dentistry began in 1955 by Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching. With changing technologies, dental adhesives have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4th and 5th generation) to self-etch (6th, 7th and 8th generation) systems. Currently, bonding to dental substrates is based on three different strategies: 1) etch-and-rinse, 2) self-etch and 3) resin-modified glass-ionomer approach as possessing the unique properties of self-adherence to the tooth tissue. More recently, a new family of dentin adhesives has been introduced (universal or multi-mode adhesives), which may be used either as etch-and-rinse or as self-etch adhesives. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the current knowledge for each adhesive system according to their classification that have been advocated by many authorities in most operative/restorative procedures. As noted by several valuable studies that have contributed to understanding of bonding to various substrates helps clinicians to choose the appropriate dentin bonding agents for optimal clinical outcomes. PMID:28736601

  17. Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  18. Adhesive systems: important aspects related to their composition and clinical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Honorato Silva e Souza Junior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This literature review article addresses the types and the main components of different etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems available in the market, and relates them to their function, possible chemical interactions and infuence of handling characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images are presented to characterize the interface between adhesives and dentin. Adhesive systems have been recently classifed according to their adhesion approaches in etch-and-rinse, self-etch and glass ionomer. The etch-and-rinse systems require a specifc acid-etch procedure and may be performed in two or three steps. Self-etch systems employ acidic monomers that demineralize and impregnate dental substrates almost at the same time. These systems are separated in one or two steps. Some advantages and defciencies were noted for etch-and-rinse and self-etch approaches, mainly for the simplifed ones due to some chemical associations and interactions. The SEM micrographs illustrate different relationships between adhesive systems and dental structures, particularly dentin. The knowledge of composition, characteristics and mechanisms of adhesion of each adhesive system is of fundamental importance to permit the adoption of ideal bonding strategies under clinical conditions.

  19. Compressive and diametral tensile strength of glass ionomer cements Resistência à compressão e à tração diametral de cimentos de ionômero de vidro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bresciani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare, in different periods of time, the compressive and diametral tensile strength of a traditional high viscous glass ionomer cement: Fuji IX (GC Corporation, with two new Brazilian GIC's: Vitro-Molar (DFL and Bioglass R (Biodinamica, all indicated for the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART technique. Fifteen disk specimens (6.0mm diameter x 3.0mm height for the diametral tensile strength (DTS test and fifteen cylindrical specimens (6.0mm diameter x 12.0mm height for the compressive strength (CS test were made of each GIC. Specimens were stored in deionized water at 37º C and 100% of humidity in a stove until testing. Five specimens of each GIC were submitted to CS and DTS test in each period, namely 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days. The specimens were tested in a testing machine (Emic at a crosshead speed of 1.0mm/min for CS and 0.5mm/min for the DTS test until failure occurred. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (alpha=0.05. The mean CS values ranged from 42.03 to 155.47MPa and means DTS from 5.54 to 13.72 MPa, with test periods from 1h to 7 days. The CS and DTS tests showed no statistically significant difference between Fuji IX and Vitro Molar, except for CS test at 1-hour period. Bioglass R had lowest mean value for CS of the cements tested. In DTS test Bioglass R presented no statistically significant differences when compared with all others tested GICs at 1-hour period and Bioglass R presented no difference at 24-hour and 7-day periods when compared to Vitro-Molar. Further studies to investigate other physical properties such as fracture toughness and wear resistance, as well as chemical composition and biocompatibility, are now needed to better understand the properties of these new Brazilian GIC's.Comparou-se a Resistência à Compressão (RC e à Tração Diametral (TD de um cimento de ionômero de vidro de alta viscosidade [Fuji IX (GC Corporation] e de dois novos cimentos

  20. Effect of two-step and one-step surface conditioning of glass ceramic on adhesion strength of orthodontic bracket and effect of thermo-cycling on adhesion strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Moshabab A; AlShahrani, Ibrahim; Alaqeel, Samer M; Durgesh, Bangalore H; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar

    2018-08-01

    The adhesion strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to dental glass ceramics was evaluated after ceramic surface was treated with two-step and one-step surface conditioning systems, and subjecting to thermo-cycling. A total of forty specimens were fabricated from silica based glass ceramic (lithium disilicate) by duplicating the buccal surface of maxillary first premolar. The specimens were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (n = 20), group one specimens were treated with two-step surface conditioning system (IPS ceramic etching gel™ and Monobond plus™) and group two specimens were treated with one-step surface conditioning system (Monobond etch and prime™). The surface roughness of the specimens after treatment with two-step and one-step surface conditioning system was measured using non-contact surface profilometer. Ten randomly selected specimens from each group were subjected to thermo-cycling and the remaining ten served as baseline. The shear bond strength of the specimens was measured using universal material testing machine. The adhesive remnant index score was calculated, and the results of surface roughness and bond strength were tabulated and subjected to analysis of variance and post hoc tukey's test at a significance level of p step conditioning system had higher surface roughness and bond strength than one-step conditioning system. The majority of the specimens treated with both two-step and one-step conditioned specimens showed adhesive failure after subjecting thermo-cycling. Traditional two-step conditioning provides better bond strength. The clinical importance of the study is that, the silane promoted adhesion significantly reduces on exposure to thermo-cycling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PENGARUH PERBEDAAN DURASI APLIKASI KONDISIONER TERHADAP GAMBARAN PENETRASI SEMEN IONOMER KACA PADA DENTIN SULUNG (Evaluasi Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanty Ariany

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether different durations of conditioner application influenced glass ionomer cement penetration in dentin primary teeth. The conditioner being used was 10% polyacrylic acid. Samples in this study were 40 non-carious primary mandibular incisors. Samples were divided into 4 groups (10 samples each: group A, withoud conditioner, group B, with 10 seconds of conditioner application, group C, with 20 seconds of conditioner application, and group D with 30 seconds of conditioner application. Penetration of glass ionomer cement was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM with 200x magnification. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test showed significant difference between groups. Longer conditioner application resulted in longer glass ionomer penetration in dentin of primary teeth.

  2. Understanding the Thermal Properties of Precursor-Ionomers to Optimize Fabrication Processes for Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Trabia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs are one of many smart materials and have ionomer bases with a noble metal plated on the surface. The ionomer is usually Nafion, but recently Aquivion has been shown to be a promising alternative. Ionomers are available in the form of precursor pellets. This is an un-activated form that is able to melt, unlike the activated form. However, there is little study on the thermal characteristics of these precursor ionomers. This lack of knowledge causes issues when trying to fabricate ionomer shapes using methods such as extrusion, hot-pressing, and more recently, injection molding and 3D printing. To understand the two precursor-ionomers, a set of tests were conducted to measure the thermal degradation temperature, viscosity, melting temperature, and glass transition. The results have shown that the precursor Aquivion has a higher melting temperature (240 °C than precursor Nafion (200 °C and a larger glass transition range (32–65°C compared with 21–45 °C. The two have the same thermal degradation temperature (~400 °C. Precursor Aquivion is more viscous than precursor Nafion as temperature increases. Based on the results gathered, it seems that the precursor Aquivion is more stable as temperature increases, facilitating the manufacturing processes. This paper presents the data collected to assist researchers in thermal-based fabrication processes.

  3. Effect of a self-adhesive coating on the load-bearing capacity of tooth-coloured restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, R; Palamara, Jea; Mese, A; Manton, D J

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of tooth-coloured restorative materials with and without applying a self-adhesive coating for up to 6 months. Specimens were prepared from three resin composites (RC), two resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RM-GIC) and two conventional glass-ionomer cements (CGIC). All materials were tested both with and without applying G-Coat Plus (GCP). Specimens were conditioned in 37 °C distilled deionized water for 24 h, and 1, 3 and 6 months. The specimens were strength tested using a four-point bend test jig in a universal testing machine. The broken specimen's halves were used for Vickers hardness testing. Representative specimens were examined under an environmental scanning electron microscope. Data analysis showed that regardless of time and materials, generally the surface coating was associated with a significant increase in the flexural strength of the materials. Applying the GCP decreased the hardness of almost all materials significantly (P < 0.05) and effect of time intervals on hardness was material dependent. The load-bearing capacity of the restorative materials was affected by applying self-adhesive coating and ageing. The CGIC had significantly higher hardness but lower flexural strength than the RM-GIC and RC. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Rheology and Morphology of PP/ionomer/clay Nancomposites Depending on Selective Dispersion of Organoclays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Doohyun; Ock, Hyun Geun; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Seung Jong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, structural developments of polypropylene / ionomer / clay ternary composites were investigated depending on the dispersion and localization of clay. The changes in physical properties were observed adding organoclays 1-10wt% to 90% polypropylene and 10% ionomer blends. The organoclays were localized inside of the dispersed phase under the composition of 3wt%, however, over that composition, clay particles formed stiff network structure in the dispersed phase and additional clays were localized at the interface between two phases. According to the developments of microstructure, the interaction of ternary composites changed from polypropylene-ionomer to polypropylene- ionomer and ionomer-clay which affected rheological properties. The storage modulus (G') of the composites was similar to the blends when clays were localized inside of dispersed phase but increased when clays were localized at interface. Also, the fractured morphology of the composites showed phase boundary and growing radius of dispersed phase depending on addition of fillers when clays were found inside. However, when fillers found at the interface between blends, the radius of the dispersed phase decreased and compatibilized morphology were observed. The interfacial interaction of the ternary composite was quantified depending on the structural development of dispersed phase and localization of clay particles by the rheological properties. The interaction of composites at solid state which was measured through peel adhesion strength increased by growth of interfacial interaction of each component. Furthermore, the crystallinity of the composites was decreased when the clay particles were localized at the interface.

  5. Rheology and Morphology of PP/ionomer/clay Nancomposites Depending on Selective Dispersion of Organoclays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Doohyun; Ock, Hyun Geun; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Seung Jong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, structural developments of polypropylene / ionomer / clay ternary composites were investigated depending on the dispersion and localization of clay. The changes in physical properties were observed adding organoclays 1-10wt% to 90% polypropylene and 10% ionomer blends. The organoclays were localized inside of the dispersed phase under the composition of 3wt%, however, over that composition, clay particles formed stiff network structure in the dispersed phase and additional clays were localized at the interface between two phases. According to the developments of microstructure, the interaction of ternary composites changed from polypropylene-ionomer to polypropylene- ionomer and ionomer-clay which affected rheological properties. The storage modulus (G') of the composites was similar to the blends when clays were localized inside of dispersed phase but increased when clays were localized at interface. Also, the fractured morphology of the composites showed phase boundary and growing radius of dispersed phase depending on addition of fillers when clays were found inside. However, when fillers found at the interface between blends, the radius of the dispersed phase decreased and compatibilized morphology were observed. The interfacial interaction of the ternary composite was quantified depending on the structural development of dispersed phase and localization of clay particles by the rheological properties. The interaction of composites at solid state which was measured through peel adhesion strength increased by growth of interfacial interaction of each component. Furthermore, the crystallinity of the composites was decreased when the clay particles were localized at the interface.

  6. The Influences of Overlap Length, Bond Line Thickness and Pretreatmant on the Mechanical Properties of Adhesives : Focussing on Bonding Glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, J.; Kwakernaak, A.; Poulis, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences of overlap length, bond line thickness and pretreatment on the mechanical properties of adhesive bonds. In order to determine the bond strength, lap shear tests were performed. The researched adhesives are a 2 component epoxy and MS polymer. The smallest overlap

  7. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in conventional glass ionomer cements and triclosan incorporated glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Somani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The aim of the following study is to comparatively evaluate the microleakage of triclosan incorporated GIC with conventional restorative GIC. Materials and Methods: Triclosan in powder form was added to conventional GIC to formulate a concentration of 2.5%. Class five cavities were prepared in non-carious extracted molars and were respectively restored with conventional restorative GIC and triclosan incorporated GIC. Samples were kept in 10% methylene blue dye. Ground sections were obtained and were observed under a binocular microscope for dye penetration. Result: No significant difference was found in the microleakage of two groups. Conclusion: Triclosan incorporated GIC can be considered as an alternative to GIC with enhanced antibacterial property.

  8. Morphologies of precise polyethylene-based acid copolymers and ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, C. Francisco

    Acid copolymers and ionomers are polymers that contain a small fraction of covalently bound acidic or ionic groups, respectively. For the specific case of polyethylene (PE), acid and ionic pendants enhance many of the physical properties such as toughness, adhesion and rheological properties. These improved properties result from microphase separated aggregates of the polar pendants in the non-polar PE matrix. Despite the widespread industrial use of these materials, rigorous chemical structure---morphology---property relationships remain elusive due to the inevitable structural heterogeneities in the historically-available acid copolymers and ionomers. Recently, precise acid copolymers and ionomers were successfully synthesized by acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization. These precise materials are linear, high molecular weight PEs with pendant acid or ionic functional groups separated by a precisely controlled number of carbon atoms. The morphologies of nine precise acid copolymers and eleven precise ionomers were investigated by X-ray scattering, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For comparison, the morphologies of linear PEs with pseudo-random placement of the pendant groups were also studied. Previous studies of precise copolymers with acrylic acid (AA) found that the microstructural precision produces a new morphology in which PE crystals drive the acid aggregates into layers perpendicular to the chain axes and presumably at the interface between crystalline and amorphous phases. In this dissertation, a second new morphology for acid copolymers is identified in which the aggregates arrange on cubic lattices. The fist report of a cubic morphology was observed at room and elevated temperatures for a copolymer functionalized with two phosphonic acid (PA) groups on every 21st carbon atom. The cubic lattice has been identified as face-centered cubic (FCC). Overall, three morphology types have been

  9. Are nano-composites and nano-ionomers suitable for orthodontic bracket bonding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Yagci, Ahmet; Uysal, Banu; Akdogan, Gülsen

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test nano-composite (Filtek Supreme Plus Universal) and a newly introduced nano-ionomer (Ketac N100 Light Curing Nano-Ionomer) restorative to determine their shear bond strength (SBS) and failure site locations in comparison with a conventional light-cure orthodontic bonding adhesive (Transbond XT). Sixty freshly extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were arbitrarily divided into three equal groups. The brackets were bonded to the teeth in each group with different composites, according to the manufacturers' instructions. The SBS values of the brackets were recorded in Megapascals (MPa) using a universal testing machine. Adhesive remnant index scores were determined after failure of the brackets. The data were analysed using analysis of variance, Tukey honestly significant difference, and chi-square tests. The results demonstrated that group 1 (Transbond XT, mean: 12.60 +/- 4.48 MPa) had a higher SBS than that of group 2 (nano-composite, mean: 8.33 +/- 5.16 MPa; P nano-ionomer, mean: 6.14 +/- 2.12 MPa; P Nano-composites and nano-ionomers may be suitable for bonding since they fulfil the previously suggested SBS ranges for clinical acceptability, but they are inferior to a conventional orthodontic composite.

  10. SUSTENTAÇÃO DE ESMALTE COM IONÔMEROS DE VIDRO E RESINA COMPOSTA: EFEITO NA RESISTÊNCIA À FRATURA DAS CÚSPIDES DE DENTES RESTAURADOS SUPPORTING ENAMEL WITH GLASS IONOMER CEMENT AND COMPOSITE RESIN: EFFECT ON FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF CUSPS OF RESTORED TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Stefano SECCO

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo determinou a resistência e o tipo de fratura do esmalte suportado pelos materiais restauradores ionômeros de vidro convencional e modificado por resina e resina composta, bem como a influência dessa técnica restauradora na resistência das cúspides dos dentes. A remoção da estrutura dental para o preparo de cavidades tipo classe II e a presença de esmalte socavado diminuiram significativamente a resistência das cúspides dos dentes em relação ao dente hígido (p This study determined the resistance to fracture and its pattern for enamel supported with conventional and modified glass ionomer cements, and composite resin restorative materials, as well as the influence of these restorative techniques on cuspal strength of teeth. Removal of dental structure by class II cavity preparations and unsupported enamel had decreased significantly the cuspal strength in relation to healthy teeth (p < 0.01. Restorative materials used to support enamel reduced the fracture rate of restored cusps, but did not increase the fracture resistance values statistically. All tested groups presented alterations in the fracture pattern

  11. Compression properties and dissolution of bioactive glass S53P4 and n-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive-composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Jussi; Hiltunen, Markus; Hupa, Leena; Pulkkinen, Jaakko; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-09-28

    Bioactive glass (BG)-containing fiber-reinforced composite implants, typically screw-retained, have started to be used clinically. In this study, we tested the mechanical strength of composites formed by a potential implant adhesive of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue and BG S53P4 particles. Water immersion for 3, 10 or 30 days had no adverse effect on the compression strength. When cyanoacrylate glue-BG-composites were subjected to simulated body fluid immersion, the average pH rose to 7.52 (SD 0.066) from the original value of 7.35 after 7 days, and this pH increment was smaller compared to BG particle-group or fibrin glue-BG-composite group. Based on these results n-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate glue, by potentially producing a strong adhesion, might be considered a possible alternative for fixation of BG S53P4 containing composite implants. However, the mechanical and solubility properties of the cyanoacrylate glue may not encourage the use of this tissue adhesive with BG particles.

  12. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandall, Nicky A; Hickman, Joy; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mattick, Rye Cr; Millett, Declan T; Worthington, Helen V

    2018-04-09

    duplicate by pairs of review authors. Since the data were not presented in a form that was amenable to meta-analysis, the results of the review are presented in narrative form only. Three trials satisfied the inclusion criteria. A chemical cured composite was compared with a light cured composite (one trial), a conventional glass ionomer cement (one trial) and a polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer) (one trial). The quality of the trial reports was generally poor. There is no clear evidence on which to make a clinical decision of the type of orthodontic adhesive to use.

  13. The effect of pressure changes during simulated diving on the pull out strength of glass fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal Nitin Gulve

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Dentist should consider using resin reinforced glass ionomer or resin cement, for the cementation of glass fiber post, for the patients such as divers, who are likely to be exposed to pressure cycling.

  14. Poly(acrylamide) films at the solvent-induced glass transition: Adhesion, tribology, and the influence of crosslinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Ramakrishna, S.N.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Espinos-Marzal, R.M.; Spencer, N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive and nanotribological properties of end-grafted poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) films with various degrees of crosslinking, and in the presence of solvents over a broad spectrum of quality, were investigated by means of colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy. The solvent consisted of a mixture of

  15. Interfacial evaluation of endodontically treated teeth restored with selected adhesive materials and glass fiber posts: An SEM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Özdemir

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Coronal regions in the root canals showed the best resin tag formation regardless of the different adhesive systems used, and the RelyX ARC group with an etch-and-rinse mechanism exhibited the best resin tag formation of all root canal regions among all groups in the current study.

  16. Comparison of three and four point bending evaluation of two adhesive bonding systems for glass-ceramic zirconia bi-layered ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, C; Weddell, J N; Swain, M V

    2017-09-01

    To quantify the adhesion of two bonding approaches of zirconia to more aesthetic glass-ceramic materials using the Schwickerath (ISO 9693-2:2016) three point bend (3PB) [1] test to determine the fracture initiation strength and strain energy release rate associated with stable crack extension with this test and the Charalamabides et al. (1989) [2] four point bend (4PB) test. Two glass-ceramic materials (VITABLOCS Triluxe forte, Vita Zahnfabrik, Germany and IPS.emax CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) were bonded to sintered zirconia (VITA InCeram YZ). The former was resin bonded using a dual-cure composite resin (Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray Medical Inc., Osaka, Japan) following etching and silane conditioning, while the IPS.emax CAD was glass bonded (IPS e.max CAD Crystall/Connect) during crystallization of the IPS.emax CAD. Specimens (30) of the appropriate dimensions were fabricated for the Schwickerath 3PB and 4PB tests. Strength values were determined from crack initiation while strain energy release rate values were determined from the minima in the force-displacement curves with the 3PB test (Schneider and Swain, 2015) [3] and for 4PB test from the plateau region of stable crack extension. Strength values for the resin and glass bonded glass ceramics to zirconia were 22.20±6.72MPa and 27.02±3.49MPa respectively. The strain energy release rates for the two methods used were very similar and for the glass bonding, (4PB) 15.14±5.06N/m (or J/m 2 ) and (3PB) 16.83±3.91N/m and resin bonding (4PB) 8.34±1.93N/m and (3PB) 8.44±2.81N/m respectively. The differences in strength and strain energy release rate for the two bonding approaches were statistically significant (pceramics to zirconia. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nature and properties of ionomer assemblies. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Ignác

    2005-12-30

    The principle subject in the current paper is to summarize and characterize the ionomers based on polymers and copolymers such as polystyrene (PSt), polyisoprene (PIP), polybutadiene (PB), poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (PSt-PIB-PSt), poly(butadiene-styrene) (PB-PSt), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene adipate) (PBA), poly(butylene succinate) (PBSi), poly(dimethylcarbosiloxanes), polyurethane, etc. The self-assembly of ionomers, models concerning ionomer morphologies, physical and rheological properties of ionomer phase and percolation behavior of ionomers were discussed. The ionomer phase materials and dispersions have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small-angle X-ray catering (SAXS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), etc. The wide range of compositions, molecular architectures, and morphologies present in ionomeric disperse systems are of great interest. The research is particularly devoted to the potential application of these materials and an understanding of the fundamental principles of the ionomers. They are extremely complex systems, sensitive to changes in structure and composition, and therefore not easily amenable to modeling and to the derivation of general patterns of behavior. The reviewed data indicate that a large number of parameters are important in influencing multiplet formation and clustering in random ionomers. Among these are the ion content, size of the polyion and counterion, dielectric constant of the host, T(g) of the polymer, rigidity or persistence length of the backbone, position of the ion pair relative to the backbone, steric constraints, amount and nature of added additive (plasticizer), thermal history, etc.

  18. Oxygen reduction at platimun/ionomer interface: effects of phase separation of ionomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlistunoff, Jerzy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the interface between platinum and recast ionomers (Nafion EW 1100 and 950 and 6F-40) was studied at different temperatures (20--80{sup o}C) and humidities (10--100%) employing smooth Pt and Pt-black-covered ultramicroelectrodes. ORR was strongly inhibited on smooth electrodes. The inhibition increased with the reduction time, temperature and humidity, but was absent for Nafion EW 1100 in contact with liquid water. It was attributed to the hydrophobic component of ionomer blocking both active sites and oxygen transport. It was postulated that the dynamic changes in interfacial phase separation of ionomer are facilitated by the attractive interactions between the hydrophobic component of ionomer and bare platinum and between oxide-covered Pt and the hydrophilic component of ionomer. These interactions were also proposed to be responsible for the differences in ORR voltammetry for films prepared and equilibrated under different conditions. The decrease in ORR inhibition, Nafion EW 950> Nafion EW 1100> 6F-40, was correlated with physical and molecular properties of the ionomers. The lack of inhibition for Pt-black-covered electrodes was attributed to the more random distribution of ionomer chains and the high activation barriers for the ionomer restructuring at rough interfaces.

  19. Effects of a glass-ionomer cement on the remineralization of occlusal caries: an in situ study Efeito de um cimento de ionômero de vidro sobre a remineralização de cárie na superfície oclusal: estudo in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Tostes Amaral

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the remineralization of demineralized enamel of pits and fissures of human third molars sealed with a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX, GC Corporation - Japan or with a Bis-GMA sealant (Delton - Dentsply. Ten volunteers participated in this in situ study that consisted of two thirty-day periods using intra-oral devices, with a week’s interval in between. Four experimental treatment procedures and one control were randomly assigned to the volunteers’ specimens: Group I, no treatment, control; Group II, artificial caries process; Group III, same treatment as Group II, but sealed with Delton (Dentsply; Group IV, same treatment as Group II, but sealed with Fuji IX (GC Corporation - Japan; Group V, same treatment as Group II and no sealing. Groups I and II were not submitted to the oral environment and served as controls. After a period of 30 days in the oral environment, the specimens were removed from the devices, embedded in acrylic resin, ground flat and polished. Then, Knoop hardness tests were performed, with a 25 g static load applied for 15 seconds. The measurements were made from the base of the fissure up to an opening of 600 µm, pre-established between the inclines of the cusps. Three indentations were then made, located at 25, 75, and 125 µm in depth from the outer enamel margin and 100 µm apart from each other (Micromet 2003. The Brieger F and Bonferroni’s tests were applied to the measurements. It was concluded that sealing with the glass ionomer cement Fuji IX was capable of making the enamel of pits and fissures more resistant by increasing the value of Knoop hardness.Esta pesquisa avaliou a remineralização do esmalte de fóssulas e fissuras de terceiros molares humanos previamente desmineralizados e selados com um cimento de ionômero de vidro (Fuji IX, GC Corporation - Japão ou com um selante de Bis-GMA (Delton-Dentsply. Dez voluntários participaram deste estudo in situ que consistiu de dois per

  20. The anti-adherence effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on the adhesion of early settlers in dental plaque to saliva-coated glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Fathilah Abdul; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abd

    2003-12-01

    The aqueous extracts of Piper betle and Psidium guajava were prepared and tested for their anti-adherence effect on the adhesion of early plaque settlers (Strep. mitis, Strep. sanguinis and Actinomyces sp.). The saliva-coated glass surfaces were used to simulate the pellicle-coated enamel surface in the oral cavity. Our results showed that the anti-adherence activities of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts towards the bacteria were different between the bacterial species. Psidium guajava was shown to have a slightly greater anti-adherence effect on Strep. sanguinis by 5.5% and Actinomyces sp. by 10% and a significantly higher effect on Strep. mitis (70%) compared to Piper betle. The three bacterial species are known to be highly hydrophobic, and that hydrophobic bonding seemed to be an important factor in their adherence activities. It is therefore suggested that the plant extracts, in expressing their anti-adherence activities, could have altered the hydrophobic nature of the bonding between the bacteria and the saliva-coated glass surfaces.

  1. The effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste on the surface roughness of nano-ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisja, D. H.; Indrani, D. J.; Herda, E.

    2017-08-01

    Nanotechnology developments in dentistry have resulted in the development of nano-ionomer, a new restorative material. The surface roughness of restorative materials can increase bacteria adhesion and lead to poor oral hygiene. Abrasive agents in toothpaste can alter tooth and restorative material surfaces. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate, and calcium carbonate toothpaste on surface roughness of nano-ionomer. Eighteen nano-ionomer specimens were brushed with Aquabidest (doubledistilled water), nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing lasted 30 minutes, and the roughness value (Ra) was measured after each 10 minute segment using a surface roughness tester. The data was analyzed using repeated ANOVA and one-way ANOVA test. The value of nano-ionomer surface roughness increased significantly (p<0.05) after 20 minutes of brushing with the nano calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing with calcium carbonate toothpaste leaves nano-ionomer surfaces more rugged than brushing with nano calcium carbonate toothpaste.

  2. Influence of Adhesives and Methods of Enamel Pretreatment on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Sanja; Jurišić, Gordan; Jurić, Hrvoje

    2015-12-01

    The objective of present study was to examine influence of adhesives and methods of enamel pretreatment on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. The adhesives used were resin-reinforced glass ionomer cements-GIC (Fuji Ortho LC) and composite resin (Transbond XT). The experimental sample consisted of 80 extracted human first premolars. The sample was divided into four equal groups, and the metal brackets were bonded with different enamel pretreatments by using two adhesives: group A-10% polyacrylic acid; Fuji Ortho LC, group B-37% phosphoric acid; Fuji Ortho LC, group C-self etching primer; Transbond XT, group D-37% phosphoric acid, primer; Transbond XT. SBS of brackets was measured. After debonding of brackets, the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was evaluated. After the statistical analysis of the collected data was performed (ANOVA; Sheffe post-hoc test), the results showed that significantly lower SBS of the group B was found in relation to the groups C (p=0.031) and D (p=0.026). The results of ARI were similar in all testing groups and it was not possible to determine any statistically significant difference of the ARI (Chi- square test) between all four experimental groups. The conclusion is that the use of composite resins material with appropriate enamel pretreatment according to manufacturer's recommendation is the "gold standard" for brackets bonding for fixed orthodontic appliances.

  3. Evaluation of internal adaptation of dental adhesive restorations using micro-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh-Hyun Kwon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The internal adaptation of composite restorations with or without resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC was analyzed non-destructively using Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT. Materials and Methods Thirty intact human teeth were used. The specimens were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, the cavities were etched with 10% phosphoric acid for 15 sec. Composite resin was filled into the cavity without adhesive. In group 1, light cured glass ionomer cement (GIC, Fuji II LC, GC was applied as a base. The cavities were then etched, bonded, light cured and filled with composites. In group 2, the cavities were then etched, bonded, light cured and filled with composites without base application. They were immersed in a 25% silver nitrate solution. Micro-CT was performed before and after mechanical loading. One-way ANOVA with Duncan analysis was used to compare the internal adaptation between the groups before or after loading. A paired t-test was used to compare internal adaptation before and after mechanical loading. All statistical inferences were made within the 95% confidence interval. Results The silver nitrate solution successfully penetrated into the dentinal tubules from the pulp spaces, and infiltrated into the gap between restoration and pulpal floor. Group 2 showed a lower adaptation than the control group and group 1 (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between the control group and group 1. For all groups, there was a significant difference between before and after mechanical loading (p < 0.05. Conclusions The internal adaptation before and after loading was better when composites were bonded to tooth using adhesive than composites based with RMGIC.

  4. Effect of metal ion species on mechanical relaxation of ethylene-co-methacrylic acid based ionomers; Ethylene-metakuriru san ionomer no rikigaku kanwa ni oyobosu kinzoku ion shu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, X; Araki, O; Takigawa, T; Masuda, T [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Takahashi, M [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-12-15

    Dynamic viscoelasticity of ethylene-co-methacrylic acid (EMAA) based ionomers containing Zn or Na as well as EMAA was investigated. The film samples used for viscoelasticity measurements were molded at 195{degree}C. Two kinds of specimens, quenched and slowly cooled samples after molding, were prepared for each polymer specimen. For the quenched samples, the effect of aging on dynamic viscoelasticity was also examined. The temperature dispersion curves of dynamic storage modulus (E{prime}) of the ionomers obtained by quenching showed a large decrease around 35{degree}C due to the glass transition of EMAA ionomers. The ionomers prepared by slow cooling showed a high value of E{prime} in the high temperature region, compared with the quenched samples. This may be due to the difference in the degree of ionic cluster formation in the ionomers. The values of E{prime} at low temperatures increased with aging time for the quenched samples, which originates from the equilibration of the glassy state by aging. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Influence of antimicrobial solutions in the decontamination and adhesion of glass-fiber posts to root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARAGUSHIKU, Gisele Aihara; BACK, Eduardo Donato Eing Engelke; TOMAZINHO, Paulo Henrique; BARATTO, Flares; FURUSE, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength. Material and Methods Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4). Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15): irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 test (α=0.05). Results The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p>0.05). Higher values were observed with CHX (pcontaminated root canals both in reducing the bacterial contamination and in improving the glass-fiber post bonding. PMID:26398518

  6. Influence of antimicrobial solutions in the decontamination and adhesion of glass-fiber posts to root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Aihara HARAGUSHIKU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength.Material and Methods Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4. Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15: irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 test (α=0.05.Results The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p>0.05. Higher values were observed with CHX (p<0.05. SEM showed formation of resin tags in all groups.Conclusion CHX showed better results for the irrigation of contaminated root canals both in reducing the bacterial contamination and in improving the glass-fiber post bonding.

  7. Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) and the testing of three different adhesives for bonding bovine teeth with optical poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshuhn, K; Berg, I; Tinner, D; Kunz, C; Bornstein, M M; Steineck, M; Hille, K; Goldblum, D

    2014-07-01

    Preparation of the lamina during osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) design is complex, and its longevity and watertightness important. To date, only acrylic bone cements have been used for bonding the optical cylinder to the tooth dentine. Our aim was to evaluate different dental adhesives for OOKP preparation. Specimens of bovine teeth were produced by preparing 1.5-mm thick dentine slices with holes having a diameter of 3.5 mm. Each group (n=10 per group) was luted with either classic poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, universal resin cement or glass ionomer cement. All specimens underwent force measurement using a uniaxial traction machine. The highest mean force required to break the bond was measured for PMMA bone cement (128.2 N) followed by universal resin cement (127.9 N), with no statistically significant difference. Glass ionomer cement showed significantly lower force resistance (78.1 N). Excellent bonding strength combined with easy application was found for universal resin cement, and thus, it is a potential alternative to acrylic bone cement in OOKP preparation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Adhesion analysis between metal supplies and composites materials reinforce with glass fiber; Analise de adesao antre materiais metalicos e materiais compositos reforcados com fibra e vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oushiro, Karol B.; Costa, Anahi P. da; Botelho, Edson C. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia], e-mail: kaoushiro@hotmail.com; Costa, Michelle L. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia; Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (AMR/IAE/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    The appearance of defects, mainly thinning caused by corrosion, is unavoidable in pipeline transport of fluids. Many repair techniques have been developed, among them, has been highlighting the pipeline repair with composite that is to involve the passage of the corroded pipeline with composite material. The study of these techniques is of great interest for the branch industry, since the efficiency of repair will depend on good adhesion between the repair composite and steel pipe. In this work, the bond strength between fiber glass/epoxy composite bonded to a steel tubing used in petrochemical plants was evaluated by mechanical testing of lap shear (ASTM D1002). These samples were conditioned using 2000 thermal shock cycles, and the mechanical results of the conditioned and non-conditioned samples were compared. With this, we observed that the polymer composites can be successfully used for repair of metallic pipes with petrochemical application, because when exposed to sudden temperature changes their mechanical properties (shear) remained practically unchanged. (author)

  9. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  10. Ionomer Dynamics: Insights from Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runt, James

    2015-03-01

    Ionomers (polymers containing ionic functionality) have been traditionally used as packaging materials and in molding applications, and are now of increasing interest as candidate single ion conductors for energy storage devices, in energy conversion, and for other electroactive materials applications. The focus of this presentation is on the insight that broadband dielectric (impedance) spectroscopy brings to our understanding of ion and polymer dynamics of this family of materials. As an example of our recent work on relatively conductive ionomers, the first portion of the presentation will focus on anion conducting polyphosphazene ionomers, in which polymer bound cations are quaternized with either short alkyl or short ether oxygen chains. The low Tg, amorphous nature, and cation-solvating backbone distinguish polyphosphazenes as promising materials for ion conduction, the iodide variants being of particular interest in solar cells. In the second part of this overview, the first findings on the molecular dynamics of linear precise polyethylene-based ionomers containing 1-methylimidazolium bromide pendants on exactly every 9th, 15th, or 21st carbon atom will be summarized. In order to develop a robust interpretation of the dynamics of these materials, it is imperative to develop a thorough understanding of microphase separation (e.g. ion aggregation), and each of the above studies is complimented by multiangle X-ray scattering experiments. Supported by the NSF Polymers Program and DOE Basic Energy Sciences.

  11. Grau de infiltração marginal de duas técnicas restauradoras com cimento de ionômero de vidro em molares decíduos: estudo comparativo " in vitro Microleakage between two filling restorative techniques using glass ionomer cement in primary molars: comparative "in vitro " study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Floriani Kramer

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A técnica do condicionamento ácido e o desenvolvimento e aprimoramento de novos materiais restauradores com características adesivas têm levado a mudanças importantes nas concepções e nos princípios da dentística operatória e restauradora. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a microinfiltração marginal em cavidades proximais de molares decíduos restaurados com cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina (Vitremer, 3M comparando duas diferentes técnicas: a técnica convencional (conforme recomendações do fabricante e a técnica de hibridização (ácido fosfórico-37% e sistema adesivo Scotchbond Multi-Uso, 3M . Foram utilizados 20 molares decíduos hígidos, onde foram preparadas cavidades proximais. A amostra foi dividida aleatoriamente em 2 grupos. No grupo 1 foi utilizado a técnica convencional e no grupo 2 a técnica com condicionamento ácido e aplicação de sistema adesivo. Os dentes foram submetidos ao processo de ciclagem térmica, impermeabilizados, mantendo uma área de 2mm² na margem cervical da restauração e imersos em solução de azul de metileno a 0,5%, por 72 horas. A seguir, foram seccionados e avaliados por um único examinador, que estabeleceu o grau de microinfiltração. Os dados obtidos revelaram que as duas técnicas utilizadas apresentaram microinfiltração marginal em diferentes graus, e que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre elas.This study evaluate the marginal microleakage in deciduous molars cavities restored with ionomer cement modified by resin (Vitremer, 3 M comparing two different techniques: the conventional (according to manufacturer instructions and with the hybridization technique (acid phosphoric 37% and adhesive system Scotchbond Multi Pourpose , 3M. Proximal cavities were prepared in 20 sound deciduous molars, right after extraction. The samples were randomly divided in two groups. Group 1 consisted in teeth prepared with the conventional technique and

  12. Fluoride release/recharging ability and bond strength of glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-17

    Aug 17, 2015 ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer - ... Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of different glass ... Glass ionomer cements (GICs) have often been used as the ... with nano‑fluoride‑/hydroxyapatite or resin‑modified.

  13. Avaliação da microinfiltração marginal e profundidade de penetração dos cimentos de ionômero de vidro utilizados como selantes oclusais Evaluation of marginal microleakage and depth of penetration of glass ionomer cements used as occlusal sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Lourdes Calvo Fracasso

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: the aim of this study was to conduct an in vitro comparison of marginal microleakage (MM and the depth of penetration (DP of glass ionomer cements (GIC and a resin sealant (RS into occlusal pit and fissures. METHODS: for that purpose, 60 intact third molars were equally distributed to 5 groups: G1 - 37% phosphoric acid / Delton; G2 - 40% polyacrylic acid / Ketac-Molar / nail varnish; G3 - Fuji Plus conditioner / Fuji Plus/ nail varnish; G4 -37% phosphoric acid / Vitremer / Finishing gloss; G5 -37% phosphoric acid / Vitremer prepared with a 1:4 ratio of powder / Finishing gloss. The teeth were submitted to a thermal treatment corresponding to 300 cycles (15 sec, 5/55(0C, followed by complete coating with nail varnish, except for 1mm beyond the contour of the sealant. Afterwards, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours. Thereafter, the teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction and microscopically analyzed (150x magnification by means of predetermined scores. The results were subject to the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: there was no statistical difference between the materials tested in relation to the DP, being that all groups displayed nearly complete filling of the fissures. No sealant material was able to prevent dye penetration; however, the GICs provided better results of MM, with significant difference when compared to the RS. CONCLUSION: all materials investigated presented a satisfactory degree of penetration into the fissures; however, the glass ionomer cements displayed better performance in the marginal microleakage test compared to the resin sealant.OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar in vitro a microinfiltração marginal (MM e o grau de profundidade de penetração (DP de cimentos de ionômero de vidro (CIV e um selante resinoso (SR em fossas e fissuras oclusais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: para tanto, 60 terceiros molares hígidos foram igualmente distribuídos em 5 grupos: G1- ácido fosf

  14. A Solvent-Vapor Approach toward the Control of Block Ionomer Morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineart, Kenneth P.; Lee, Byeongdu; Spontak, Richard J.

    2016-04-26

    Sulfonated block ionomers possess advantageous properties for a wide range of diverse applications such as desalination membranes, fuel cells, electroactive media, and photovoltaic devices. Unfortunately, their inherently high incompatibilities and glass transition temperatures e ff ectively prevent the use of thermal annealing, routinely employed to re fi ne the morphologies of nonionic block copolymers. An alternative approach is therefore required to promote morphological equilibration in block ionomers. The present study explores the morphological characteristics of midblock- sulfonated pentablock ionomers (SBIs) di ff ering in their degree of sulfonation (DOS) and cast from solution followed by solvent-vapor annealing (SVA). Transmission electron microscopy con fi rms that fi lms deposited from di ff erent solvent systems form nonequilibrium morphologies due to solvent-regulated self-assembly and drying. A series of SVA tests performed with solvents varying in polarity reveals that exposing cast fi lms to tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapor for at least 2 h constitutes the most e ff ective SVA protocol, yielding the anticipated equilibrium morphology. That is, three SBI grades subjected to THF-SVA self-assemble into well-ordered lamellae wherein the increase in DOS is accompanied by an increase in lamellar periodicity, as measured by small-angle X-ray scattering.

  15. Bracket bond strength and cariostatic potential of an experimental resin adhesive system containing Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masanori; Nakagaki, Susumu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Kohda, Naohisa; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2012-09-01

    To determine if a new experimental resin-based material containing Portland cement (PC) can help prevent enamel caries while providing adequate shear bond strength (SBS). Brackets were bonded to human premolars with experimental resin-based adhesive pastes composed of three weight rations of resin and PC powder (PC 30, 7:3; PC 50, 5:5; PC 70, 3:7; n  =  7). Self-etching primer (SEP) adhesive (Transbond Plus) and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) adhesive (Fuji Ortho FC Automix) were used for comparison. All of the bonded teeth were subjected to alternating immersion in demineralizing (pH 4.55) and remineralizing (pH 6.8) solutions for 14 days. The SBS for each sample was examined, and the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was calculated. The hardness and elastic modulus of the enamel were determined by a nanoindenter at 20 equidistant depths from the external surface at 100 µm from the bracket edge. Data were compared by one-way analysis of variance and a chi-square test. PC 50 and PC 70 showed significantly greater SBS than Fuji Ortho FC Automix, although Transbond Plus showed significantly greater SBS than other bonding systems. No significant difference in the ARI category was observed among the five groups. For specimens bonded with PC 50 and PC 70, the hardness and elastic modulus values in most locations were equivalent to those of Fuji Ortho FC Automix. Experimental resin-based bonding material containing PC provides adequate SBS and a caries-preventive effect equivalent to that of the RMGIC adhesive system.

  16. Marginal Integrity of Glass Ionomer and All Ceramic Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    that would be expected with daily food and beverage intake. And no toothbrush or flossing abrasion occurred. Future studies could incorporate... management of dental caries. Quintessence International, 33(6), 427-432. 65. Frencken J.E., Peters M.C., Manton D.J., Leal S.C., Gordan V.V., Eden E...2012). Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: Report of a FDI task group. International Dental Journal, 62(5), 223

  17. Streptococcus mutans-induced secondary caries adjacent to glass ionomer cement, composite resin and amalgam restorations in vitro Cárie secundária adjacente a restaurações de cimento de ionômero de vidro, resina composta e amálgama induzida por Streptococcus mutans in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gama-Teixeira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define, in vitro, the potential to inhibit secondary caries of restorative materials currently used in dental practice. Standard cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of fifty extracted human third molars. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups, each one restored with one of the following materials: glass ionomer cement (GIC; amalgam; light-cured composite resin; ion-releasing composite; and light-cured, fluoride-containing composite resin. The teeth were thermocycled, sterilized with gamma irradiation, exposed to a cariogenic challenge using a bacterial system using Streptococcus mutans, and then prepared for microscopic observation. The following parameters were measured in each lesion formed: extension, depth, and caries inhibition area. The outer lesions developed showed an intact surface layer and had a rectangular shape. Wall lesions were not observed inside the cavities. After Analysis of Variance and Component of Variance Models Analysis, it was observed that the GIC group had the smallest lesions and the greatest number of caries inhibition areas. The lesions developed around Amalgam and Ariston pHc restorations had an intermediate size and the largest lesions were observed around Z-100 and Heliomolar restorations. It may be concluded that the restorative materials GIC, amalgam and ion-releasing composites may reduce secondary caries formation.O objetivo deste estudo foi definir, in vitro, o potencial de materiais restauradores, usados rotineiramente na prática clínica, na inibição da cárie secundária. Cavidades padronizadas foram preparadas nas faces vestibulares e linguais de 50 terceiros molares humanos extraídos. Os dentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos, cada um restaurado com um dos seguintes materiais: cimento de ionômero de vidro (CIV; amálgama; resina composta fotopolimerizável; compósito que libera íons, e resina composta fotopolimeriz

  18. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  19. Denture Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Denture Adhesives Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Wearers Reporting Problems to the FDA Background Denture adhesives are pastes, powders or adhesive pads that may ...

  20. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-04

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.

  1. Size-exclusion chromatography of perfluorosulfonated ionomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, T H; Slater, L A; Galipo, R C; Koestner, R J

    2011-08-26

    A size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) method in N,N-dimethylformamide containing 0.1 M LiNO(3) is shown to be suitable for the determination of molar mass distributions of three classes of perfluorosulfonated ionomers, including Nafion(®). Autoclaving sample preparation is optimized to prepare molecular solutions free of aggregates, and a solvent exchange method concentrates the autoclaved samples to enable the use of molar-mass-sensitive detection. Calibration curves obtained from light scattering and viscometry detection suggest minor variation in the specific refractive index increment across the molecular size distributions, which introduces inaccuracies in the calculation of local absolute molar masses and intrinsic viscosities. Conformation plots that combine apparent molar masses from light scattering detection with apparent intrinsic viscosities from viscometry detection partially compensate for the variations in refractive index increment. The conformation plots are consistent with compact polymer conformations, and they provide Mark-Houwink-Sakurada constants that can be used to calculate molar mass distributions without molar-mass-sensitive detection. Unperturbed dimensions and characteristic ratios calculated from viscosity-molar mass relationships indicate unusually free rotation of the perfluoroalkane backbones and may suggest limitations to applying two-parameter excluded volume theories for these ionomers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards Extrusion of Ionomers to Process Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Sanchez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available While Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC membranes are currently prepared by film casting, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of extrusion, a solvent-free alternative process. Thanks to water-soluble process-aid plasticizers, duly selected, it was possible to extrude acidic and alkaline polysulfone ionomers. Additionally, the feasibility to extrude composites was demonstrated. The impact of the plasticizers on the melt viscosity was investigated. Following the extrusion, the plasticizers were fully removed in water. The extrusion was found to impact neither on the ionomer chains, nor on the performances of the membrane. This environmentally friendly process was successfully validated for a variety of high performance ionomers.

  3. Tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts luted with different cements Resistência à tração de pinos de fibra de vidro cimentados com diferentes materiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Bonfante

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper selection of the luting agent is fundamental to avoid failure due to lack of retention in post-retained crowns. The objective of this study was to investigate the tensile bond strength and failure mode of glass fiber posts luted with different cements. Glass fiber posts were luted in 40 mandibular premolars, divided into 4 groups (n = 10: Group 1 - resin-modified glass ionomer RelyX Luting; Group 2 - resin-modified glass ionomer Fuji Plus; Group 3 - resin cement RelyX ARC; Group 4 - resin cement Enforce. Specimens were assessed by tensile strength testing and light microscopy analysis for observation of failure mode. The tensile bond strength values of each group were compared by ANOVA and Tukey test. The significance level was set at 5%. The failure modes were described as percentages. The following tensile strength values were obtained: Group 1 - 247.6 N; Group 2 - 256.7 N; Group 3 - 502.1 N; Group 4 - 477.3 N. There was no statistically significant difference between Groups 1 and 2 or between Groups 3 and 4, yet the resin cements presented significantly higher tensile bond strength values than those presented by the glass ionomer cements. Group 1 displayed 70% of cohesive failures, whereas Groups 2, 3 and 4 exhibited 70% to 80% of adhesive failures at the dentin-cement interface. We concluded that resin cements and glass ionomer cements are able to provide clinically sufficient retention of glass fiber posts, and that glass ionomer cements may be especially indicated when the application of adhesive techniques is difficult.A seleção adequada do agente cimentante é essencial para evitar falhas por perda de retenção em coroas retidas por núcleos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a resistência à tração e o tipo de falha de pinos de fibra de vidro cimentados com diferentes materiais. Cimentaram-se pinos de fibra de vidro em 40 pré-molares inferiores, divididos em 4 grupos (n = 10: Grupo 1 - ionômero de vidro modificado

  4. Protein adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  5. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT-ionomer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.; Lafont, U.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 0-3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT-Zn ionomer and PZT-EMAA composites were prepared by melt

  6. Adhesives for bonded molar tubes during fixed brace treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Declan T; Mandall, Nicky A; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2017-02-23

    date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials of participants with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) with molar tubes, bonded to first or second permanent molars. Trials which compared any type of adhesive used to bond molar tubes (stainless steel or titanium) with any other adhesive, were included.Trials were also included where:(1) a tube was bonded to a molar tooth on one side of an arch and a band cemented to the same tooth type on the opposite side of the same arch;(2) molar tubes had been allocated to one tooth type in one patient group and molar bands to the same tooth type in another patient group. The selection of papers, decision about eligibility and data extraction were carried out independently and in duplicate without blinding to the authors, adhesives used or results obtained. All disagreements were resolved by discussion. Two trials (n = 190), at low risk of bias, were included in the review and both presented data on first time failure at the tooth level. Pooling of the data showed a statistically significant difference in favour of molar bands, with a hazard ratio of 2.92 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.80 to 4.72). No statistically significant heterogeneity was shown between the two studies. Data on first time failure at the patient level were also available and showed statistically different difference in favour of molar bands (risk ratio 2.30; 95% CI 1.56 to 3.41) (risk of event for molar tubes = 57%; risk of event for molar bands 25%).One trial presented data on decalcification again showing a statistically significant difference in favour of molar bands. No other adverse events identified. From the two well-designed and low risk of bias trials included in this review it was shown that the failure of molar tubes bonded with either a chemically-cured or light-cured adhesive was considerably higher than that of molar bands cemented with glass ionomer cement. One trial indicated that there was less

  7. ICP-MS/MS-Based Ionomics: A Validated Methodology to Investigate the Biological Variability of the Human Ionome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konz, Tobias; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Dayon, Loïc; Bowman, Gene; Oikonomidi, Aikaterini; Popp, Julius; Rezzi, Serge

    2017-05-05

    We here describe the development, validation and application of a quantitative methodology for the simultaneous determination of 29 elements in human serum using state-of-the-art inductively coupled plasma triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). This new methodology offers high-throughput elemental profiling using simple dilution of minimal quantity of serum samples. We report the outcomes of the validation procedure including limits of detection/quantification, linearity of calibration curves, precision, recovery and measurement uncertainty. ICP-MS/MS-based ionomics was used to analyze human serum of 120 older adults. Following a metabolomic data mining approach, the generated ionome profiles were subjected to principal component analysis revealing gender and age-specific differences. The ionome of female individuals was marked by higher levels of calcium, phosphorus, copper and copper to zinc ratio, while iron concentration was lower with respect to male subjects. Age was associated with lower concentrations of zinc. These findings were complemented with additional readouts to interpret micronutrient status including ceruloplasmin, ferritin and inorganic phosphate. Our data supports a gender-specific compartmentalization of the ionome that may reflect different bone remodelling in female individuals. Our ICP-MS/MS methodology enriches the panel of validated "Omics" approaches to study molecular relationships between the exposome and the ionome in relation with nutrition and health.

  8. Inhibition of enamel demineralization and bond-strength properties of bioactive glass containing 4-META/MMA-TBB-based resin adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Naohisa; Iijima, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Kyotaro; Toshima, Hirokazu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the enamel demineralization-prevention ability and shear bond strength (SBS) properties of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride/methyl methacrylate-tri-n-butyl borane (4-META/MMA-TBB)-based resin containing various amounts (0-50%) of bioactive glass (BG). Disk-shaped specimens were immersed in distilled water and ions released were analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy. Samples were also immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.6) to estimate acid-neutralizing ability. Brackets were bonded to human premolars with BG-containing resins and the bonded teeth were alternately immersed in demineralizing (pH 4.55) and remineralizing (pH 6.8) solutions for 14 d. The enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation testing at twenty equidistant distances from the external surface. The SBS for each sample was examined. The amounts of ions released [calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), silicon (Si), and boron (B)] and the acid-neutralizing ability increased with increasing BG content. After alternating immersion, the specimens bonded with the BG-containing resin with high BG content were harder than those in the other groups in some locations 1-18.5 μm from the enamel surface. Bioactive glass-containing (10-40%) resin had bond strength equivalent to the control specimen. Thus, the SBS obtained for BG-containing resin (6.5-9.2 MPa) was clinically acceptable, suggesting that this material has the ability to prevent enamel demineralization. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. Design and Characterization of a Sensorized Microfluidic Cell-Culture System with Electro-Thermal Micro-Pumps and Sensors for Cell Adhesion, Oxygen, and pH on a Glass Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Bonk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We combined a multi-sensor glass-chip with a microfluidic channel grid for the characterization of cellular behavior. The grid was imprinted in poly-dimethyl-siloxane. Mouse-embryonal/fetal calvaria fibroblasts (MC3T3-E1 were used as a model system. Thin-film platinum (Pt sensors for respiration (amperometric oxygen electrode, acidification (potentiometric pH electrodes and cell adhesion (interdigitated-electrodes structures, IDES allowed us to monitor cell-physiological parameters as well as the cell-spreading behavior. Two on-chip electro-thermal micro-pumps (ETμPs permitted the induction of medium flow in the system, e.g., for medium mixing and drug delivery. The glass-wafer technology ensured the microscopic observability of the on-chip cell culture. Connecting Pt structures were passivated by a 1.2 μm layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4. Thin Si3N4 layers (20 nm or 60 nm were used as the sensitive material of the pH electrodes. These electrodes showed a linear behavior in the pH range from 4 to 9, with a sensitivity of up to 39 mV per pH step. The oxygen sensors were circular Pt electrodes with a sensor area of 78.5 μm2. Their sensitivity was 100 pA per 1% oxygen increase in the range from 0% to 21% oxygen (air saturated. Two different IDES geometries with 30- and 50-μm finger spacings showed comparable sensitivities in detecting the proliferation rate of MC3T3 cells. These cells were cultured for 11 days in vitro to test the biocompatibility, microfluidics and electric sensors of our system under standard laboratory conditions.

  10. Cellular Adhesion and Adhesion Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    SELLER, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, cell adhesion and cell adhesion molecules have been shown to be important for many normal biological processes, including embryonic cell migration, immune system functions and wound healing. It has also been shown that they contribute to the pathogenesis of a large number of common human disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and tumor cell metastasis in cancer. In this review, the basic mechanisms of cellular adhesion and the structural and functional features of adhes...

  11. Adhesion science

    CERN Document Server

    Comyn, John

    1997-01-01

    The use of adhesives is widespread and growing, and there are few modern artefacts, from the simple cereal packet, to the jumbo jet, that are without this means of joining. Adhesion Science provides an illuminating account of the science underlying the use of adhesives, a branch of chemical technology which is fundamental to the science of coatings and composite materials and to the performance of all types of bonded structures. This book guides the reader through the essential basic polymer science, and the chemistry of adhesives in use at present. It discusses surface preparation for adhesive bonding, and the use of primers and coupling agents. There is a detailed chapter on contact angles and what can be predicted from them. A simple guide on stress distribution joints and how this relates to testing is included. It also examines the interaction of adhesives and the environment, including an analysis of the resistance of joints to water, oxygen and ultra-violet light. Adhesion Science provides a comprehens...

  12. Push-out bond strengths of different dental cements used to cement glass fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Lins do Valle, Accácio; Ghizoni, Janaina Salomon; Lorenzoni, Fábio César; Ramos, Marcelo Barbosa; Barbosa, Marcelo Ramos; Dos Reis Só, Marcus Vinícius

    2013-08-01

    Since the introduction of glass fiber posts, irreversible vertical root fractures have become a rare occurrence; however, adhesive failure has become the primary failure mode. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts cemented with different luting agents on 3 segments of the root. Eighty human maxillary canines with similar root lengths were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10) according to the cement assessed (Rely X luting, Luting and Lining, Ketac Cem, Rely X ARC, Biscem, Duo-link, Rely X U100, and Variolink II). After standardized post space preparation, the root dentin was pretreated for dual-polymerizing resin cements and untreated for the other cements. The mixed luting cement paste was inserted into post spaces with a spiral file and applied to the post surface that was seated into the canal. After 7 days, the teeth were sectioned perpendicular to their long axis into 1-mm-thick sections. The push-out test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until extrusion of the post occurred. The results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and the all pairwise multiple comparison procedures (Tukey test) (α=.05). ANOVA showed that the type of interaction between cement and root location significantly influenced the push-out strength (Pcements and glass ionomer cements showed significantly higher values compared to dual-polymerizing resin cements. In all root segments, dual-polymerizing resin cements provided significantly lower bond strength. Significant differences among root segments were found only for Duo-link cement. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutron reflectivity studies of ionomer blends

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrys, B J; Bucknall, D G; Vesely, D; Braiewa, R; Weiss, R A

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a neutron reflectivity study of the interfacial width between lithium- and zinc-sulphonated deuterated polystyrene with polycarbonate (PC). Both systems are partially miscible and exhibit an upper critical solution temperature behaviour. The interdiffusion in these systems was measured by annealing at a temperature above the glass-transition temperature of both polymers. The interfacial profiles obtained for these systems were described by symmetric Gaussian interfaces. No significant diffusion was observed. (orig.)

  14. Adhesion and multi-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Adhesion is a multidisciplinary science relevant to many practical fields. The main application of adhesion is bonding by adhesives. This technique is widely used in the industrial world and more specifically in the advanced technical domains. Adhesion is also involved in multi-component materials such as coatings, multilayer materials, polymer blends, composite materials... The multidisciplinary aspect of adhesion is well demonstrated by considering the wide variety of concepts, models and theories proposed for its description. An example of the adhesion between a fiber and a matrix in a composite material will lead to a general model relating the molecular properties of the interface to its capacity of stress transfer and hence to the macroscopic mechanical properties of the composite. This relationship is valid whatever the fiber (glass, carbon, polymeric) or the polymer matrix (thermoplastics, thermosetting). Any deviation from this model can be attributed to the existence of an interfacial zone or interphase exhibiting properties, mainly mechanical properties, different from the bulk matrix. Two examples are examined: the first one deals with the creation of a trans crystalline interphase in a semi-crystalline thermoplastic matrix and the second one is concerned with the formation of a pseudo glassy interphase in an elastomer matrix. These examples stress the need for complementary approaches in the understanding of adhesion phenomena at different levels of knowledge, from molecular to macroscopic. They also show how important it is to understand the mechanisms of formation of inter phases in order to be able to master the performance of multicomponent materials. (Author)

  15. Control and characterization of textured, hydrophobic ionomer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyuan

    Polymer thin films are of increasing interest in many industrial and technological applications. Superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces have attracted a lot of attention for their application in self-cleaning, anti-sticking coatings, stain resistance, or anti-contamination surfaces in diverse technologies, including medical, transportation, textiles, electronics and paints. This thesis focuses on the preparation of nanometer to micrometer-size particle textured surfaces which are desirable for super water repellency. Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by rapid evaporation of the solvent from a dilute polymer solution cast onto silica. The effect of the solvent used to spin coat the film, the molecular weight of the ionomer, and the rate of solvent evaporation were investigated. The nano-particle or micron-particle textured ionomer surfaces were prepared by either spin coating or solution casting ionomer solutions at controlled evaporation rates. The surface morphologies were consistent with a spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets if molecular mobility was retained for sufficient time. The SPS particles or particle aggregates were robust and resisted deformation even after annealing at 120°C for one week. The water contact angles on as-prepared surfaces were relatively low, ~ 90° since the polar groups in ionomer reduce the surface hydrophobicity. After chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, the surface contact angles increased to ~ 109° on smooth surfaces and ~140° on the textured surfaces. Water droplets stuck to these surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by spraying coating ionomer solutions and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane onto textured surfaces. The

  16. Genome-Wide RNAi Ionomics Screen Reveals New Genes and Regulation of Human Trace Element Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Hasan, Nesrin M.; Zhang, Yan; Seravalli, Javier; Lin, Jie; Avanesov, Andrei; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements are essential for human metabolism and dysregulation of their homeostasis is associated with numerous disorders. Here we characterize mechanisms that regulate trace elements in human cells by designing and performing a genome-wide high-throughput siRNA/ionomics screen, and examining top hits in cellular and biochemical assays. The screen reveals high stability of the ionomes, especially the zinc ionome, and yields known regulators and novel candidates. We further uncover fundam...

  17. Morphological and physical behavior of styrenic, phosphonium-containing ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Rick; Stokes, Kristoffer

    2010-03-01

    Despite many years of effort, a clear understanding of the factors controlling morphology in Nafion and other ionomers has not been achieved. The increasing need for fuel cell technology continues to drive efforts to develop materials having better performance characteristics even though fundamental structure-property relationships remain unclarified. Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) present several benefits over proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, including cost of manufacture (less expensive catalysts) and a significantly shorter path to commercialization. Here we present the most recent findings from our efforts to examine structure-morphology-property relationships for a series of model cationic ionomers. A series of statistical copolymers of styrene and p-vinylbenzyl-trimethyl-phosphonium chloride have been prepared via RAFT polymerization, allowing us to investigate the effect of ion content on physical behavior. Chemical, physical, and morphological characterization has been undertaken using NMR, TGA, DSC, SAXS, and TEM.

  18. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  19. Adhesion molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Preedy, Victor R

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the structure and classification of adhesion molecules in relation to signaling pathways and gene expression. It discusses immunohistochemical localization, neutrophil migration, and junctional, functional, and inflammatory adhesion molecules in pathologies such as leukocyte decompression sickness and ischemia reperfusion injury. Highlighting the medical applications of current research, chapters cover diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome; hypoxia; kidney disease; smoking, atrial fibrillation, and heart disease, the brain and dementia; and tumor proliferation. Finally, it looks at molecular imaging and bioinformatics, high-throughput technologies, and chemotherapy.

  20. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    , which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters...

  1. Lignin-Furfural Based Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Dongre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignin recovered from the hot-water extract of sugar maple (Acer saccharum is used in this study to synthesize adhesive blends to replace phenol-formaldehyde (PF resin. Untreated lignin is characterized by lignin content and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. The molecular weight distribution of the lignin and the blends are characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC. The effect of pH (0.3, 0.65 and 1, ex situ furfural, and curing conditions on the tensile properties of adhesive reinforced glass fibers is determined and compared to the reinforcement level of commercially available PF resin. The adhesive blend prepared at pH = 0.65 with no added furfural exhibits the highest tensile properties and meets 90% of the PF tensile strength.

  2. Improved natural rubber composites reinforced with a complex filler network of biobased nanoparticles and ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobased rubber composites are renewable and sustainable. Significant improvement in modulus of rubber composite reinforced with hydrophilic filler was achieved with the inclusion of ionomers. Soy particles aided with ionomer, carboxylated styrene-butadiene (CSB), formed a strong complex filler netw...

  3. Non-linear Shear and Uniaxial Extensional Rheology of Polyether-Ester-Sulfonate Copolymer Ionomer Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabbir, Aamir; Huang, Qian; P. Baeza, Guilhem

    2017-01-01

    We present unique nonlinear shear and extensional rheology data of unentan-gled amorphous polyester ionomers based on polyethers and sulphonated phthalates with sodium/ lithium counterions. Previous linear viscoelastic (LVE) measurements1 showed significant elasticity in these ionomers due...

  4. Micropatterning on glass with deep UV

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Nicolas CARPI, Matthieu PIEL, Ammar Azioune & Jenny Fink ### Abstract This protocol describes a method to print micropatterns on glass with extra-cellular matrix proteins to promote cell adhesion. The non-adhesive part is made with polylysine grafted polyethyleneglycol (PLL-g-PEG). This technique is reproducible, cheap, fast and can achieve high resolution (~1 µm). ### Introduction This protocol explains how to make high resolution adhesive micropattens of protein...

  5. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength and microleakage of conventional glass ionomer cement, resin modified glass ionomer cement and compomer: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, C Vishnu; Varma, Balagopal; Jayanthi

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the tensile bond strength and microleakage of Fuji IX GP, Fuji II LC, and compoglass and to compare bond strength with degree of microleakage exhibited by the same materials. Occlusal surfaces of 96 noncarious primary teeth were ground perpendicular to long axis of the tooth. Preparations were distributed into three groups consisting of Fuji IX GP, Fuji II LC and Compoglass. Specimens were tested for tensile bond strength by mounting them on Instron Universal Testing Machine. Ninety-six primary molars were treated with Fuji IX GP, Fuji II LC, and compoglass on box-only prepared proximal surface. Samples were thermocycled, stained with dye, sectioned, and scored for microleakage under stereomicroscope. ANOVA and Bonferrani correction test were done for comparisons. Pearson Chi-square test and regression analysis were done to assess the association between the parameters. Compoglass showed highest tensile strength and Fuji II LC showed least microleakage. There was a significant difference between the three groups in tensile strength and microleakage levels. The correlation between tensile strength and microleakage level in each group showed that there was a significant negative correlation only in Group 3. Fuji II LC and compoglass can be advocated in primary teeth because of their superior physical properties when compared with Fuji IX GP.

  6. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength and microleakage of conventional glass ionomer cement, resin modified glass ionomer cement and compomer: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Vishnu Rekha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the tensile bond strength and microleakage of Fuji IX GP, Fuji II LC, and compoglass and to compare bond strength with degree of microleakage exhibited by the same materials. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 96 noncarious primary teeth were ground perpendicular to long axis of the tooth. Preparations were distributed into three groups consisting of Fuji IX GP, Fuji II LC and Compoglass. Specimens were tested for tensile bond strength by mounting them on Instron Universal Testing Machine. Ninety-six primary molars were treated with Fuji IX GP, Fuji II LC, and compoglass on box-only prepared proximal surface. Samples were thermocycled, stained with dye, sectioned, and scored for microleakage under stereomicroscope. ANOVA and Bonferrani correction test were done for comparisons. Pearson Chi-square test and regression analysis were done to assess the association between the parameters. Results: Compoglass showed highest tensile strength and Fuji II LC showed least microleakage. There was a significant difference between the three groups in tensile strength and microleakage levels. The correlation between tensile strength and microleakage level in each group showed that there was a significant negative correlation only in Group 3. Conclusion: Fuji II LC and compoglass can be advocated in primary teeth because of their superior physical properties when compared with Fuji IX GP.

  7. Influence of dentinal regions on bond strengths of different adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, F; Unlü, N; Sengun, A

    2003-06-01

    This in vitro study assessed comparatively the shear bond strengths of three composite resins, 3M Valux Plus (3MVP), Herculite (H), Clearfil AP-X (CAP-X), a polyacid modified composite resin Dyract (D), and a resin modified glass-ionomer materials Vitremer (V), to cervical and buccal dentine regions of extracted human molar teeth. Four different bonding systems, 3M ScotchBond Multipurpose (SB), Clearfil Liner Bond 2 (LB2), Opti Bond (OB), and Prime & Bond 2.1 (PB 2.1) were used with the manufacturer's respective composite and compomer materials. One hundred freshly extracted mandibular molar teeth were selected for this study. Flat buccal dentine surfaces were created on 50 teeth and cylindrical rods of the five materials were bonded to the dentine surfaces. For assessment of cervical bond strengths, the materials were bonded to mesial and distal enamel bordered occlusal dentinal surfaces of the remaining 50 teeth. The five groups of restorative procedures were applied as follows; Group 1: SB + 3MVP, Group 2: LB2 + CAP-X, Group 3: OB + H, Group 4: PB2.1 + D, Group 5: Vitremer primer (VP) VP + V. Each restorative procedure thus had 20 specimens (10 buccal + 10 cervical). After 24 h of water storage (37 degrees C), the specimens were tested on a Universal Testing machine in shear with a cross head speed of 0.5 mm min-1. The bond strength values were calculated in MPa and the results were evaluated statistically using Kruskal-Wallis one-way/anova and Mann-Whitney U-tests. It was found that the bond strengths of SB + 3MVP, LB2 + CAP-X and VP + V to buccal dentine surfaces were significantly stronger (P 0.05). Vitremer was found the least successful adhesive material in terms of shear bond strength on both buccal and occluso-cervical dentine surfaces.

  8. [Comparative investigation of compressive resistance of glass-cermet cements used as a core material in post-core systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, E; Cetiner, S; Koçak, F

    1989-09-01

    In post-core applications, addition to the cast designs restorations that are performed on fabrication posts with restorative materials are being used. To improve the physical properties of glass-ionomer cements that are popular today, glass-cermet cements have been introduced and those materials have been proposed to be an alternative restorative material in post-core applications. In this study, the compressive resistance of Ketac-Silver as a core material was investigated comparatively with amalgam and composite resins.

  9. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Eason, Eric V; Christensen, David L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2015-01-06

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress σmax to the area A: σmax ∝ A(-1/4). We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: σmax ∝ A(-1/50). Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm(2) of adhesive per hand. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface tension driven shaping of adhesive microfluidic channel walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janting, Jakob; Storm, Elisabeth K.; Geschke, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    , line height and distance, and temperature. Focus of the work has been on predicting the equilibrium geometries with FEM simulations using as input measured adhesive wetting angles, different adhesive line distances and height. The studied substrates are glass microscope slides, PEEK and PMMA...

  11. Glass sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  12. Electrochromic Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-31

    this glass and that dipole-dipole correlations contribute to the "ferroelectric-like" character of this amorphous system. The TeO2 -W03 glasses can only...shows the dielectric constant and Fig. I(b) glass from pure TeO2 ot pure WO. In addition, glass the tan 8 of the WO glass as a function of temperature... glasses containing WO, in various glass forming nitworks of LifO-B1O0, Na:O-BzO,, and TeO2 were prepared from reagent grade oxides at 800 C - 9SO C in

  13. Enhanced ionic diffusion in ionomer-filled nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahyarov, Elshad, E-mail: elshad.allakhyarov@case.edu [Institut für Theoretische Physik II: Weiche Materie, Heinrich-Heine Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätstrasse 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7202 (United States); Theoretical Department, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVTAN), 13/19 Izhorskaya Street, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); International Research Centre, Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan); Taylor, Philip L. [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Löwen, Hartmut [Institut für Theoretische Physik II: Weiche Materie, Heinrich-Heine Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätstrasse 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    Coarse-grained simulations in the united-atom-model approximation are used to investigate confinement-induced morphological changes in Nafion-like ionomers. The system we study models a cylindrical pore in a hydrophobic matrix of supporting material with pore diameters that vary from 0.7 to 3.96 nm. Simulation results indicate a strong dependence of the equilibrium ionomer structures both on the pore diameter and on the sulfonate concentration in the pore. In the case of larger pores, the ionic clustering has the shape of a branched wire-like network oriented parallel to the pore axis. In the case of narrow pores, the ionic clusters occupy the pore center and exhibit strong density modulations both along the pore axis and across the pore diameter. The calculated diffusion coefficients for the ions indicate a sharp increase within the narrow pores. This finding is explained by ballistic-type ionic motion at shorter times and by the collective motion of ions in hydrophilic clusters. The influence of the hydrophobic walls on the distribution of ions and solvent molecules is discussed.

  14. Enhanced ionic diffusion in ionomer-filled nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Coarse-grained simulations in the united-atom-model approximation are used to investigate confinement-induced morphological changes in Nafion-like ionomers. The system we study models a cylindrical pore in a hydrophobic matrix of supporting material with pore diameters that vary from 0.7 to 3.96 nm. Simulation results indicate a strong dependence of the equilibrium ionomer structures both on the pore diameter and on the sulfonate concentration in the pore. In the case of larger pores, the ionic clustering has the shape of a branched wire-like network oriented parallel to the pore axis. In the case of narrow pores, the ionic clusters occupy the pore center and exhibit strong density modulations both along the pore axis and across the pore diameter. The calculated diffusion coefficients for the ions indicate a sharp increase within the narrow pores. This finding is explained by ballistic-type ionic motion at shorter times and by the collective motion of ions in hydrophilic clusters. The influence of the hydrophobic walls on the distribution of ions and solvent molecules is discussed

  15. Adsorption behavior of perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer on highly graphitized carbon nanofibers and their thermal stabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    A systematic adsorption study of perfluorinated sulfonic acid Nafion® ionomer on ribbon type highly graphitized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was carried out using 19 fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Based on the values obtained for the equilibrium constant (Keq., derived from Langmuir....... The ionomer is probably adsorbed via the polar sulfonic group on hydrophilic Vulcan, whereas, it is adsorbed primarily via hydrophobic -CF2- backbone on the highly hydrophobic pristine CNFs. Ionomer adsorption behavior is gradually altered from apolar to polar group adsorption for the acid modified CNFs...

  16. Forces involved in bacterial adhesion to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, N.P.; Norde, W.; Meil, H.C.; Busscher, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, the hydrodynamic shear forces to prevent bacterial adhesion (F-prev) and to detach adhering bacteria (F-det) were evaluated for hydrophilic glass, hydrophobic, dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS)-coated glass and six different bacterial strains, in order to test the

  17. Effect of adhesive system application for cavities prepared with erbium, chromium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser on rat dental pulp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Mayo; Suzuki, Masaya; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effects of adhesive systems under study applied for a laser-cut cavity using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser on rat dental pulp at 24 h and 14 days postoperatively. Group 1, laser-cut cavities were treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; group 2, pretreated with a phosphoric-acid, and then treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; group 3, pretreated with a phosphoric-acid and sodium-hypochlorite, and then treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; and group 4, treated with an all-in-one adhesive. A flowable resin composite was used as filling material for each cavity treated with each group. A glass-ionomer-cement was used as a control. The following items were evaluated: pulp-tissue-disorganization (PTD), inflammatory-cell-infiltration (ICI), tertiary-dentin-formation (TDF), and bacterial-penetration (BP). The results were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. No significant differences were observed among the experimental groups for all parameters after 24 h and 14 days (P > 0.05). The majority of the specimens showed PTD with edema formation after 24 h; however, all the specimens demonstrated pulpal healing with TDF after 14 days. On the parameter of TDF, all groups showed significant differences between the two postoperative periods (P < 0.01). On the parameter of ICI, a significant difference was found between the two postoperative periods in group 4 (P < 0.05). No specimens showed BP. The pretreatment on the cavity prepared with the laser using phosphoric-acid or sodium-hypochlorite did not affect the dental pulp healing of rat tooth.

  18. Influence of different conditioning methods on the shear bond strength of novel light-curing nano-ionomer restorative to enamel and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Yonca; Ozel, Emre; Attar, Nuray; Ozge Bicer, Ceren

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate shear bond strength (SBS) between a light-curing nano-ionomer restorative and enamel or dentin after acid etching, after erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser etching, or after combined treatment. Forty third molars were selected, the crowns were sectioned, and 80 tooth slabs were obtained. The specimens were assigned to two groups, which were divided into four subgroups(n = 10). Group 1 [enamel (e)], treated with 37% phosphoric acid (A) + Ketac nano-primer (K); group 2 [dentin (d)], (A) + (K); group 3(e), Er:YAG laser etching (L) + (A) + (K); group 4(d), (L) + (A) + (K); group 5(e), (L) + (K); group 6(d), (L) + (K); group 7(e), (K); group 8(d), (K). The SBS of the specimens was measured with a universal test machine (1 mm/min). Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc Duncan test (p 0.05). Group 7 exhibited higher SBS values than those of groups 3 and 5 (p 0.05). No difference was observed between groups 2 and 4 (p > 0.05). However, group 2 presented higher SBSs than did group 6 (p adhesion of the light-curing nano-ionomer restorative to both enamel and dentin.

  19. Wafer-scale fabrication of glass-FEP-glass microfluidic devices for lipid bilayer experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bomer, Johan G.; Prokofyev, A.V.; van den Berg, Albert; le Gac, Severine

    2014-01-01

    We report a wafer-scale fabrication process for the production of glass-FEP-glass microdevices using UV-curable adhesive (NOA81) as gluing material, which is applied using a novel "spin & roll" approach. Devices are characterized for the uniformity of the gluing layer, presence of glue in the

  20. Nano carbon supported platinum catalyst interaction behavior with perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and their interface structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    2016-01-01

    behavior of Nafion ionomer on platinized carbon nano fibers (CNFs), carbon nano tubes (CNTs) and amorphous carbon (Vulcan). The interaction is affected by the catalyst surface oxygen groups as well as porosity. Comparisons between the carbon supports and platinized equivalents are carried out. It reveals......The interaction between perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and supported platinum catalyst is essential. It directly influences platinum accessibility, stability of carbon support and platinum, proton conductivity and electron conductivity in an electrode. In this study, we compare the adsorption...... that the platinization step modifies the surface nature of the carbon supports in terms of specific surface area, crystallinity and especially porosity; therefore, ionomer adsorption over carbon is not always representative for the ionomer adsorption over carbon supported catalyst, though indicative. Moreover...

  1. [Phase transition in polymer blends and structure of ionomers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The main thrust of the program in the past 3 years are summarized: SAXS instrumentation development; structure and dynamics of macro- and supra-molecules, phase transitions in polymer blends and solutions, structure of ionomers, and fractals and anisotropic systems.

  2. Employing Ionomer Membrane Technology to Extract Water from Brine, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Paragon Space Development Corporation proposes the use of an microporous-ionomer membrane pair to improve the robustness and effectiveness of membrane-based water...

  3. Anti-adhesive properties of fish tropomyosins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Bernbom, Nete; Gram, Lone

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We have recently found that preconditioning of stainless steel surfaces with an aqueous fish muscle extract can significantly impede bacterial adhesion. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the primary components associated with this bacteria-repelling effect. Methods...... to the formation of a proteinaceous conditioning film composed primarily of fish tropomyosins. These fibrous proteins formed a considerable anti-adhesive conditioning layer on and reduced bacterial adhesion to several different materials including polystyrene, vinyl plastic, stainless steel and glass. The protein...... the importance of substratum's physiochemical properties and exposure time with regards to protein adsorption/elution efficiency and subsequent bacterial adhesion. Significance and Impact of the Study: Fish tropomyosin-coatings could potentially offer a nontoxic and relatively inexpensive measure of reducing...

  4. Observation of ionomer in catalyst ink of polymer electrolyte fuel cell using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shinichi; Shimanuki, Junichi; Mashio, Tetsuya; Ohma, Atsushi; Tohma, Hajime; Ishihara, Ayumi; Ito, Yoshiko; Nishino, Yuri; Miyazawa, Atsuo

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing the catalyst layer structure is one of the key issues for improving performance despite lower platinum loading. The catalyst ink, consisting of platinum-loaded carbon particles and ionomer dispersed in an aqueous solvent, is a key factor for controlling the structure of the catalyst layer because the catalyst layer is prepared in a wet coating process. For that purpose, we visualized the nanostructure of the ionomer in the catalyst ink by cryogenic electron microscopy, especially cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). By cryo-TEM, it was revealed that ionomer molecules formed rod-like aggregates macro-homogeneously in the solvent, and a similar morphology was observed in a carbon-particle-containing solvent. In contrast, ionomer aggregates in the catalyst ink containing platinum nanoparticles loaded on carbon particles were denser in the vicinity of the platinum-loaded carbon particles. That can be attributed to strong interaction between platinum nanoparticles and sulfonic acid groups in the ionomer. It also implies that a good understanding of ionomer morphology in the catalyst ink can play an important role in controlling the catalyst layer microstructure for reducing platinum loading.

  5. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT–ionomer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, N K; Lafont, U; Van der Zwaag, S; Groen, W A

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic–polymer composites with 0–3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT–Zn ionomer and PZT–EMAA composites were prepared by melt extrusion followed by hot pressing. The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The results show that PZT–Zn ionomer composites have better piezoelectric properties compared to PZT–EMAA composites. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. The PZT–Zn ionomer composites were found to have excellent fatigue resistance even at strain levels of 4%. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing. (paper)

  6. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT-ionomer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, N. K.; Lafont, U.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

    2014-05-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 0-3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT-Zn ionomer and PZT-EMAA composites were prepared by melt extrusion followed by hot pressing. The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The results show that PZT-Zn ionomer composites have better piezoelectric properties compared to PZT-EMAA composites. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. The PZT-Zn ionomer composites were found to have excellent fatigue resistance even at strain levels of 4%. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing.

  7. A water-responsive shape memory ionomer with permanent shape reconfiguration ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yongkang; Zhang, Jiwen; Tian, Ran; Chen, Xin

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a water-responsive shape memory ionomer with high toughness was fabricated by cross-linking hyaluronic acid sodium (HAS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) through coordination interactions. The strong Fe3+-carboxyl (from HAS) coordination interactions served as main physical cross-linking points for the performance of water-responsive shape memory, which associated with the flexibility of PVA chain producing excellent mechanical properties of this ionomer. The optimized ionomer was not only able to recover to its original shape within just 22 s by exposing to water, but exhibited high tensile strength up to 35.4 MPa and 4 times higher tractility than the ionomer without PVA. Moreover, the ionomers can be repeatedly programed to various new permanent shapes on demand due to the reversible physical interactions, which still performed complete and fast geometric recovery under stimuli even after 4 cycles of reprograming with 3 different shapes. The excellent shape memory and strong mechanical behaviors make our ionomers significant and promising smart materials for variety of applications.

  8. Glass consistency and glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  9. Conformation of Single Pentablock Ionomer Chains in Dilute Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, Dipak [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Perahia, Dvora [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Grest, Gary S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The conformation of single chain pentablock ionomers (A-B-C-B-A) containing randomly sulfonated polystyrene in the center block, tethered to poly-ethylene-r-propylene end-capped by poly-t-butyl styrene is studied in dilute solutions by molecular dynamics simulations. Multi-block copolymers offer a means to tailor several properties into one molecule, taking advantage of their rich phase diagram together with unique properties of specific blocks. For this pentablock the ionic block facilitates transport while the A and B components are incorporated for mechanical stability. The present study investigates the confirmation of a single chain of pentablock ionomer of molecular weight Mw ~ 50,000 g/mol and sulfonated polystyrene of the same molecular weight as that of the center block for six sulfonation fractions f from f=0.0-0.55. For the sulfonated systems Na+ counterions are included. Results for the equilibrium conformation of the chains and the three blocks in water and 1:1 mixture of cyclohexane and n-heptane are compared to simulations in implicit poor solvents with dielectric constants ε =1.0 and 77.73. In water, the pentablock is collapsed with sulfonated groups on the outer surface. As the sulfonation fraction f increases, the ionic, center block is increasingly segregated from the hydrophobic regions. In the 1:1 mixture of cyclohexane and heptane both the flexible and end blocks are swollen while the center ionic block is collasped for f>0, while for f=0 all blocks are swollen. In both implicit poor solvents the pentablock is collapsed into a nearly spherical shape for all f. The sodium counterions are dispersed widely throughout the simulation cell for both water and ε =77.73 whereas for ε =1.0 the counterions are largely condensed on the collapsed pentablock.

  10. Bacterial adhesion capacity on food service contact surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Rok; Okanovič, Denis; Dražič, Goran; Abram, Anže; Oder, Martina; Jevšnik, Mojca; Bohinc, Klemen

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the adhesion of E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus on food contact materials, such as polyethylene terephthalate, silicone, aluminium, Teflon and glass. Surface roughness, streaming potential and contact angle were measured. Bacterial properties by contact angle and specific charge density were characterised. The bacterial adhesion analysis using staining method and scanning electron microscopy showed the lowest adhesion on smooth aluminium and hydrophobic Teflon for most of the bacteria. However, our study indicates that hydrophobic bacteria with high specific charge density attach to those surfaces more intensively. In food services, safety could be increased by selecting material with low adhesion to prevent cross contamination.

  11. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  12. Colloidal glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Colloidal glasses. Glassy state is attained when system fails to reach equilibrium due to crowding of constituent particles. In molecular glasses, glassy state is reached by rapidly lowering the temperature. In colloidal glasses, glassy state is reached by increasing the ...

  13. Restorative glass: reversible, discreet restoration using structural glass components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faidra Oikonomopoulou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of structural glass as the principal material in restoration and conservation practices is a distinguishable, yet discreet approach. The transparency of glass allows the simultaneous perception of the monument at both its original and present condition, preserving its historical and aesthetical integrity. Concurrently, the material’s unique mechanical properties enable the structural consolidation of the monument. As a proof of concept, the restoration of Lichtenberg Castle is proposed. Solid cast glass units are suggested to complete the missing parts, in respect to the existing construction technique and aesthetics of the original masonry. Aiming for a reversible system, the glass units are interlocking, ensuring the overall stability without necessitating permanent, adhesive connections. This results in an elegant and reversible intervention.

  14. Adhesion in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive book will provide both fundamental and applied aspects of adhesion pertaining to microelectronics in a single and easily accessible source. Among the topics to be covered include; Various theories or mechanisms of adhesionSurface (physical or chemical) characterization of materials as it pertains to adhesionSurface cleaning as it pertains to adhesionWays to improve adhesionUnraveling of interfacial interactions using an array of pertinent techniquesCharacterization of interfaces / interphasesPolymer-polymer adhesionMetal-polymer adhesion  (metallized polymers)Polymer adhesi

  15. Reflections about Adhesive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    de Freitas Borges, Marciano; Diesel, Pâmela Gutheil; Corrêa, Fernanda Gomez; Bernardi, Eledana; Fernandes Montagner, Anelise; Skupien, Jovito Adiel; Susin, Alexandre Henrique

    2010-01-01

    The adhesive systems are responsible for an efficient union between teeth and resin, resulting in a longevity restoration. They are organic molecules di or multifunctional that contain reactive groups that interact with dentin and with the resin monomer of composite resin. The adhesive systems are characterized by wet adhesion, which is a result of presence of hidrophylics radicals in their compositions, to promote a better bond and the best properties of the adhesion. Adhesive systems may us...

  16. Silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    Vitrification of liquid high-level radioactive wastes has received the greatest attention, world-wide, compared to any other HLW solidification process. The waste form is a borosilicate-based glass. The production of phosphate-based glass has been abandoned in the western world. Only in the Soviet Union are phosphate-based glasses still being developed. Vitrification techniques, equipment and processes and their remote operation have been developed and studied for almost thirty years and have reached a high degree of technical maturity. Industrial demonstration of the vitrification process has been in progress since 1978. This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e., borosilicate glasses

  17. Glass ionomer-silver cermet Class II tunnel-restorations for primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1988-01-01

    Tunnel preparations preserve the anatomical marginal ridge and minimize the loss of healthy tooth structure adjacent to the carious lesion. When the practitioner has developed proficiency in restoring class II carious lesions with tunnel restorations, less treatment time is required than with traditional class II preparations. The technique for restoring a primary first molar with a class II carious lesion, using a tunnel preparation and Ketac-Silver restorative material is described.

  18. Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealants placed as part of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ... Results: The two-year cumulative survival of the sealants was 10.9%, and the survival of the sealants was not significantly affected by the GIC material brand and the toothisolation method used. However, slightly more sealants survived ...

  19. Are encapsulated anterior glass-ionomer restoratives better than their hand-mixed equivalents?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, Adam H

    2009-02-01

    The performance of encapsulated anterior GI restoratives were compared with their hand-mixed equivalents for the range of powder to liquid mixing ratios routinely encountered clinically. The clinically induced variability of powder to liquid mixing variations of an anhydrous GI restorative formulation was also compared with conventional GI restorative formulations that contained a polyalkenoic acidic liquid.

  20. Rubber contact mechanics: adhesion, friction and leakage of seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Dorogin, L; Tahir, M; Stöckelhuber, K W; Heinrich, G; Espallargas, N; Persson, B N J

    2017-12-13

    We study the adhesion, friction and leak rate of seals for four different elastomers: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Ethylene Propylene Diene (EPDM), Polyepichlorohydrin (GECO) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Adhesion between smooth clean glass balls and all the elastomers is studied both in the dry state and in water. In water, adhesion is observed for the NBR and PDMS elastomers, but not for the EPDM and GECO elastomers, which we attribute to the differences in surface energy and dewetting. The leakage of water is studied with rubber square-ring seals squeezed against sandblasted glass surfaces. Here we observe a strongly non-linear dependence of the leak rate on the water pressure ΔP for the elastomers exhibiting adhesion in water, while the leak rate depends nearly linearly on ΔP for the other elastomers. We attribute the non-linearity to some adhesion-related phenomena, such as dewetting or the (time-dependent) formation of gas bubbles, which blocks fluid flow channels. Finally, rubber friction is studied at low sliding speeds using smooth glass and sandblasted glass as substrates, both in the dry state and in water. The measured friction coefficients are compared to theory, and the origin of the frictional shear stress acting in the area of real contact is discussed. The NBR rubber, which exhibits the strongest adhesion both in the dry state and in water, also shows the highest friction both in the dry state and in water.

  1. The Mechanisms of Adhesion of Enteromorpha Clathrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-24

    extracellular polymer was responsible for adhesion to a substrate (21,23,26,39,40,42,59,62,63,74,78, 86,91). The adhesion of Chlorella vulgaris may also depend...marine Chlorella vulgaris to glass. Can. J. Microbiol. 21:1025-1031. 88. Van Baalen, C., 1962. Studies on marine blue-green .4 algae. Bot. Mar. 4:129...also been observed with the unicellular green alga, Chlorella (68). Other negatively charged groups that could be present are phosphatidic groups (46

  2. Preparation and Properties of Cassava Starch-based Wood Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A biodegradable, environmentally friendly starch-based wood adhesive with cassava starch as a raw material and butyl acrylate (BA as a co-monomer was synthesized. Results revealed that this cassava starch-based wood adhesive (SWA was more stable than corn starch-based wood adhesive, and its bonding performance was close to that of commercial PVAc emulsion, even after 90 days of storage. Further analysis found that the improved stability of the adhesive could be attributed to its low minimum film forming temperature (MFFT and glass transition temperature (Tg of cassava starch. Moreover, the amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs emitted by the cassava starch-based wood adhesive were much lower than the Chinese national standard control criteria. Therefore, cassava SWA might be a potential alternative to traditional petrochemical-based wood adhesives.

  3. Probing bacterial adhesion at the single-cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Müller, Torsten; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    be considered. We have developed a simple and versatile method to make single-cell bacterial probes for measuring single cell adhesion by force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A single-cell probe was readily made by picking up a bacterial cell from a glass surface by approaching a tipless AFM...... cantilever coated with the commercial cell adhesive CellTakTM. We applied the method to study adhesion of living cells to abiotic surfaces at the single-cell level. Immobilisation of single bacterial cells to the cantilever was stable for several hours, and viability was confirmed by Live/Dead staining...... on the adhesion force, we explored the bond formation and adhesive strength of four different bacterial strains towards three abiotic substrates with variable hydrophobicity and surface roughness. The adhesion force and final rupture length were dependent on bacterial strains, surfaces properties, and time...

  4. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  5. Chapter 9:Wood Adhesion and Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2013-01-01

    The recorded history of bonding wood dates back at least 3000 years to the Egyptians (Skeist and Miron 1990, River 1994a), and adhesive bonding goes back to early mankind (Keimel 2003). Although wood and paper bonding are the largest applications for adhesives, some of the fundamental aspects leading to good bonds are not fully understood. Better understanding of these...

  6. Ionome changes in Xylella fastidiosa-infected Nicotiana tabacum correlate with virulence and discriminate between subspecies of bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Sefick, S A; Parker, J K; Arnold, T; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of ionomes has been used to uncover the basis of nutrient utilization and environmental adaptation of plants. Here, ionomic profiles were used to understand the phenotypic response of a plant to infection by genetically diverse isolates of Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen. In this study, X. fastidiosa isolates were used to infect a common model host (Nicotiana tabacum 'SR1'), and leaf and sap concentrations of eleven elements together with plant colonization and symptoms were assessed. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that changes in the ionome were significantly correlated with symptom severity and bacterial populations in host petioles. Moreover, plant ionome modification by infection could be used to differentiate the X. fastidiosa subspecies with which the plant was infected. This report establishes host ionome modification as a phenotypic response to infection.

  7. Phosphate stresses affect ionome and metabolome in tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhaotang; Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Yinfei

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the response of tea plants to P stress, we conducted the ionomic and metabolomic analysis by ICP-OES, GC-MS and LC-MS. The results demonstrated that P was antagonistic with S, and was cooperative with Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe under P-deficiency. However, P was antagonistic with Mn, Fe and S, and was cooperative with Cu and Zn under P-excess. Moreover, P-deficiency or excess reduced the syntheses of flavonoids and phosphorylated metabolites. P-deficiency decreased the amount of glutamate and increased the content of glutamine, while P-excess decreased the content of glutamine. Besides, P-deficiency increased three organic acids and decreased three organic acids. P-excess increased the contents of malic acid, oxalic acid, ribonic acid and etc. involved in primary metabolism, but decreased the contents of p-coumaric acid, indoleacrylic acid, related to secondary metabolism. Furthermore, the contents of Mn and Zn were found to be positively related to the amounts of myricetin and quercetin, and the content of Mn to be positively related to the amount of arabinose. The results implied that the P stresses severely disturbed the metabolism of minerals and metabolites in tea plants, which influenced the yield and quality of tea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. In silico ionomics segregates parasitic from free-living eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greganova, Eva; Steinmann, Michael; Mäser, Pascal; Fankhauser, Niklaus

    2013-01-01

    Ion transporters are fundamental to life. Due to their ancient origin and conservation in sequence, ion transporters are also particularly well suited for comparative genomics of distantly related species. Here, we perform genome-wide ion transporter profiling as a basis for comparative genomics of eukaryotes. From a given predicted proteome, we identify all bona fide ion channels, ion porters, and ion pumps. Concentrating on unicellular eukaryotes (n = 37), we demonstrate that clustering of species according to their repertoire of ion transporters segregates obligate endoparasites (n = 23) on the one hand, from free-living species and facultative parasites (n = 14) on the other hand. This surprising finding indicates strong convergent evolution of the parasites regarding the acquisition and homeostasis of inorganic ions. Random forest classification identifies transporters of ammonia, plus transporters of iron and other transition metals, as the most informative for distinguishing the obligate parasites. Thus, in silico ionomics further underscores the importance of iron in infection biology and suggests access to host sources of nitrogen and transition metals to be selective forces in the evolution of parasitism. This finding is in agreement with the phenomenon of iron withholding as a primordial antimicrobial strategy of infected mammals.

  9. THz Properties of Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübling, E.; Gomell, L.; Sommer, S.; Winkel, A.; Kahlmeyer, M.; Böhm, S.; Koch, M.

    2018-06-01

    We determined the THz properties of 12 different adhesives which are mainly used for industrial purposes. The adhesives applied can be classified according to their chemical structure: epoxy resins, acrylic resins, and polyurethane based materials. This work represents a basis for future studies, which will concentrate on aging effects, including the absorption of water of adhesive joints. Thus, the dielectric properties of the unaged adhesives are investigated and the results of these measurements are described herein.

  10. Apparatus for Removing Remaining Adhesives of Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Sik; Kim, Tae Kuk; Hong, Dae Seok; Ji, Young Yong; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2010-01-01

    A Large amount of ventilation filter was used at radiation areas not only in nuclear power plants but also in nuclear facilities. These spent ventilation filters are generated as radioactive waste and composed of a steel frame, glass fiber media and aluminum separator. When treated, the spent filter is separated into filter media for air purification and frame. After separation, while the filter media is collected using steel drum for reducing internal exposure, the filter frame is treated further to remove adhesives for recycling the frame as many as possible in order to reduce waste and cost and improve working conditions. Usually, the adhesives are separated from the filter frame manually. As a result, a lot of time and labor is required. So, the objective of this study is to develop a motor-driven apparatus for removing adhesives efficiently

  11. Cosmos & Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1996-01-01

    The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne....

  12. Glass Glimpsed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology.......Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology....

  13. Sealing ability of cermet ionomer cement as a retrograde filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktener, B O; Pehlivan, Y

    1993-03-01

    An in vitro dye leakage study was performed to compare the sealing ability of high copper amalgam with cavity varnish and cermet ionomer cement with and without varnish when used as retrofilling materials. The root canals of 54 maxillary anterior teeth were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha and sealer. The apical 3 mm of the roots were resected and apical class I cavity preparations were made. The roots were then randomly divided into three groups and retrofilled with one of the experimental materials. After 72 h of immersion in India ink, the roots were cleared and evaluated for leakage with a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis indicated that the cermet ionomer cement with varnish group had significantly less leakage than the amalgam group (P cermet ionomer cement without varnish group (P 0.05).

  14. Mixed hydrocarbon/fluoropolymer membrane/ionomer MEAs for durability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Mahlon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cynthia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fenton, James [FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER

    2010-01-01

    The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Commercial viability depends on improving the durability of the fuel cell components to increase the system reliability. The aim of this work is to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation via mixed membrane/ionomer MEA experiments. The challenges of mixed MEA fabrication due to the incompatibility of the membrane and the electrode are addressed. OCV accelerated testing experiment (AST) were performed. Development of in situ diagnostics and unique experiments to characterize the performance and properties of the ionomer in the electrode as a function of time is reported. These measurements, along with extensive ex situ and post-mortem characterization, can delineate the degradation mechanisms in order to develop more durable fuel cells and fuel cell components.

  15. Microscopy studies on pronton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes with different ionomer contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Shuang; Solterbeck, Claus Henning; Odgaard, Madeleine

    2009-01-01

    of the electrode was well displayed in the topography and phase images. The particle and pore size (Z) distributions showed the most frequent values at 30-40 nm and 20-30 nm, respectively. The particle size corresponds to the size of the carbon support for the platinum catalyst. Catalyst agglomeration was observed......Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes with different ionomer contents were studied with various microscopic techniques. The morphology and surface potential were examined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM), respectively. The particulate nature...... in high ionomer content electrodes. The surface potential images showed distinct difference to the topography images. The overall grain size was seen to increase, the pore volume to decrease, the surface roughness to decrease, and the surface potential variation to increase with the increase of ionomer...

  16. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  17. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    . As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  18. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  19. Lithium Polymer Electrolytes Based On PMMA / PEG And Penetrant Diffusion In Kraton Penta-Block Ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan

    The study of diffusion in polymeric material is critical to many research fields and applications, such as polymer morphology, protective coatings (paints and varnishes), separation membranes, transport phenomena, polymer electrolytes, polymer melt, and controlled release of drugs from polymer carriers [1-9]. However, it is still a challenge to understand, predict and control the diffusion of molecules and ions of different sizes in polymers [2]. This work studied the medium to long range diffusion of species (i.e., ions and molecules) in solid polymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEG/PMMA) for Li-based batteries, and polymeric permselective membranes via pulsed-field gradient NMR and a.c. impedance. Over the past decades polymer electrolytes have attracted much attention because of their promising technological application as an ion-conducting medium in solid-state batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic displays, and chemical sensors [10, 11]. However, despite numerous studies related to ionic transport in these electrolytes the understanding of the migration mechanism is still far from being complete, and progress in the field remains largely empirical [10, 12-15]. Among various candidates for solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) material, the miscible polymer pair, poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEO/PMMA), is an attractive one, because there is a huge difference in mobility between PEO and PMMA in their blends, and PEO chains remain exceptionally mobile in the blend even at temperature below the glass transition temperature of the blend [ 16]. Thus the mechanical strength and dimensional stability is maintained by PMMA component, while the chain motions or rearrangements of the PEO component virtually contribute to the ion transport [17]. The current work prepared two types of SPE based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) /PMMA (40/60 by weight) for Li-based batteries: lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide) (Li

  20. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of the Enamel Caries Which Were Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-18

    Jan 18, 2016 ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow. INTRODUCTION ..... in relation to brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement or a resin adhesive. Angle Orthod 1999;69:65‑70. 6. Derks A ...

  2. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus...... the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had...

  3. Proton and deuteron NMR study of PTFE ionomer membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, G; Pak, Y S [Dept. of Materials Science, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1992-02-01

    Proton and deuteron NMR have been conducted to investigate the ionic motion in perfluorinated ionomer membranes from Dow Chemical (XUS) and DuPont (Nafion{sup R}). Two proton relaxation peaks were found in the XUS specimen absorbed with H{sub 2}O. The major (narrow) peak presented a spin-lattice relaxation time (T{sub 1}) of 107 ms while the minor (broader) one gave much longer T{sub 1}. While the former was attributed to the water molecules involved in restricted motion, the latter was expected to be associated with the protons located in the vicinity of the sulfonate groups. Similar to the previous results from the others, only a single peak was detected in Nafion{sup R} in {sup 1}H spectra, indicating that the protons in the different environments were engaging rapid exchange within NMR time scale. In contrast to the inverse proportion dependence of the linewidth on the water sorption in Nafion{sup R}, the major line of the XUS membrane exhibited insensitive linewidth dependence on the variation of H{sub 2}O concentration. The difference was attributed to the existence of narrow breaths of the pores in XUS sample, such that free water contribution to the enhancement of proton mobility was limited. The {sup 2}H spectra of Nafion{sup R} were found to possess a doublet, due to nuclear quadrupolar interaction. Dow (XUS) membrane treated in at 100% relative humidity (RH) D{sub 2}O presented a single peak with the linewidth insensitive to the amount of heavy water absorbed. An additional rise emerged on the ''shoulder'' of this single peak when treated at 33% RH. It is concluded that XUS membrane does not provide strong hydrogen bonding to eliminate the rapid motion average over the nuclear quadrupole interaction. (orig.).

  4. GLASS BOX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The goals of this effort were to develop Glass Box capabilities to allow for the capturing of analyst activities and the associated data resources, track and log the results of automated processing...

  5. A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chary, Sathya; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Geckos utilize a robust reversible adhesive to repeatedly attach and detach from a variety of vertical and inverted surfaces, using structurally anisotropic micro- and nano-scale fibrillar structures. These fibers, when suitably articulated, are able to control the real area of contact and thereby generate high-to-low van der Waals forces. Key characteristics of the natural system include highly anisotropic adhesion and shear forces for controllable attachment, a high adhesion to initial preload force ratio (μ′) of 8–16, lack of inter-fiber self-adhesion, and operation over more than 30 000 cycles without loss of adhesion performance. A highly reusable synthetic adhesive has been developed using tilted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) half-cylinder micron-scale fibers, retaining up to 77% of the initial value over 10 000 repeated test cycles against a flat glass puck. In comparison with other gecko-inspired adhesives tested over 10 000 cycles or more thus far, this paper reports the highest value of μ′, along with a large shear force of ∼78 kPa, approaching the 88–226 kPa range of gecko toes. The anisotropic adhesion forces are close to theoretical estimates from the Kendall peel model, quantitatively showing how lateral shearing articulation in a manner similar to the gecko may be used to obtain adhesion anisotropy with synthetic fibers using a combination of tilt angle and anisotropic fiber geometry. (paper)

  6. A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Sathya; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly

    2013-02-01

    Geckos utilize a robust reversible adhesive to repeatedly attach and detach from a variety of vertical and inverted surfaces, using structurally anisotropic micro- and nano-scale fibrillar structures. These fibers, when suitably articulated, are able to control the real area of contact and thereby generate high-to-low van der Waals forces. Key characteristics of the natural system include highly anisotropic adhesion and shear forces for controllable attachment, a high adhesion to initial preload force ratio (μ‧) of 8-16, lack of inter-fiber self-adhesion, and operation over more than 30 000 cycles without loss of adhesion performance. A highly reusable synthetic adhesive has been developed using tilted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) half-cylinder micron-scale fibers, retaining up to 77% of the initial value over 10 000 repeated test cycles against a flat glass puck. In comparison with other gecko-inspired adhesives tested over 10 000 cycles or more thus far, this paper reports the highest value of μ‧, along with a large shear force of ˜78 kPa, approaching the 88-226 kPa range of gecko toes. The anisotropic adhesion forces are close to theoretical estimates from the Kendall peel model, quantitatively showing how lateral shearing articulation in a manner similar to the gecko may be used to obtain adhesion anisotropy with synthetic fibers using a combination of tilt angle and anisotropic fiber geometry.

  7. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  8. Wafer-scale fabrication of glass-FEP-glass microfluidic devices for lipid bilayer experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomer, Johan G; Prokofyev, Alexander V; van den Berg, Albert; Le Gac, Séverine

    2014-12-07

    We report a wafer-scale fabrication process for the production of glass-FEP-glass microdevices using UV-curable adhesive (NOA81) as gluing material, which is applied using a novel "spin & roll" approach. Devices are characterized for the uniformity of the gluing layer, presence of glue in the microchannels, and alignment precision. Experiments on lipid bilayers with electrophysiological recordings using a model pore-forming polypeptide are demonstrated.

  9. Gecko-Inspired Electrospun Flexible Fiber Arrays for Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, Johnny F.

    The ability of geckos to adhere to vertical solid surfaces comes from their remarkable feet with millions of projections terminating in nanometer spatulae. We present a simple yet robust method for fabricating directionally sensitive dry adhesives. By using electrospun nylon 6 nanofiber arrays, we create gecko-inspired dry adhesives, that are electrically insulating, and that show shear adhesion strength of 27 N/cm2 on a glass slide. This measured value is 270% that reported of gecko feet and 97-fold above normal adhesion strength of the same arrays. The data indicate a strong shear binding-on and easy normal lifting-off. This anisotropic strength distribution is attributed to an enhanced shear adhesion strength with decreasing fiber diameter (d) and an optimum performance of nanofiber arrays in the shear direction over a specific range of thicknesses. With use of electrospinning, we report the fabrication of nylon 6 nanofiber arrays that show a friction coefficient (mu) of 11.5. These arrays possess significant shear adhesion strength and low normal adhesion strength. Increasing the applied normal load considerably enhances the shear adhesion strength and mu, irrespective of d and fiber arrays thickness (T). Fiber bending stiffness and fiber surface roughness are considerably decreased with diminishing d while fiber packing density is noticeably increased. These enhancements are proposed to considerably upsurge the shear adhesion strength between nanofiber arrays and a glass slide. The latter upsurge is mainly attributed to a sizeable proliferation in van der Waals (vdW) forces. These nanofiber arrays can be alternatively bound-on and lifted-off over a glass slide with a trivial decrease in the initial mu and adhesion strength. By using selective coating technique, we have also created hierarchical structures having closely packed nanofibers with d of 50 nm. We determine the effects of applied normal load, fiber surface roughness, loading angle, d, T, and repeated

  10. Interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomers and surface treatment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Dhiman, Rajnish; Borghei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between high surface area nano-carbon catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acid (Nafion®) ionomer was studied 19 fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (19F-NMR). The method was developed and improved for more...

  11. Friction and wear behavior of glasses and ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Adhesion, friction, and wear behavior of glasses and ionic solids are reviewed. These materials are shown to behave in a manner similar to other solids with respect to adhesion. Their friction characteristics are shown to be sensitive to environmental constituents and surface films. This sensitivity can be related to a reduction in adhesive bonding and the changes in surficial mechanical behavior associated with Rehbinder and Joffe effects. Both friction and wear properties of ionic crystalline solids are highly anisotropic. With metals in contact with ionic solids the fracture strength of the ionic solid and the shear strength in the metal and those properties that determine these will dictate which of the materials undergoes adhesive wear. The chemical activity of the metal plays an important role in the nature and strength of the adhesive interfacial bond that develops between the metal and a glass or ionic solid.

  12. Gliding arc discharge — Application for adhesion improvement of fibre reinforced polyester composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Teodoru, Steluta; Leipold, Frank

    2008-01-01

    production, and surface treatment. However, the application for adhesion improvement of structural materials has been rarely reported. In the present work, glass fibre reinforced polyester plates were treated using atmospheric pressure gliding arcs with high speed air flow for adhesion improvement...

  13. Fast-Curing Epoxy and Acrylate Adhesive Development for Adverse Marine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    the bulk properties of the adhesive. Water contact can reduce the glass transition temperature, induce cracks , or initiate hydrolysis in which the...were the same as above except they were painted with gloss black enamel paint and allowed to dry 24 h prior to application of any adhesives

  14. Energetics of bacterial adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Zehnder, A.J.B.

    1990-01-01

    For the description of bacterial adhesion phenomena two different physico-chemical approaches are available. The first one, based on a surface Gibbs energy balance, assumes intimate contact between the interacting surfaces. The second approach, based on colloid chemical theories (DLVO theory), allows for two types of adhesion: 1) secondary minimum adhesion, which is often weak and reversible, and 2) irreversible primary minimum adhesion. In the secondary minimum adhesion a thin water film remains present between the interacting surface. The merits of both approaches are discussed in this paper. In addition, the methods available to measure the physico-chemical surface characteristics of bacteria and the influence of adsorbing (in)organic compounds, extracellular polymers and cell surface appendages on adhesion are summarized. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 50 refs

  15. Radiation-curable adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation-curable adhesives may be classified into two broad categories. In the first category, adhesive bonding occurs as a direct result of irradiation. The second category includes pressure-sensitive and hot-melt adhesives, which are composed of linear or lightly cross-linked polymers prepared by a radiation-induced polymerization reaction. This chapter is mainly concerned with radiation-curable adhesives of the first category. The various adhesive types are discussed and adhesive performance is examined, particularly in relation to the chemistry and chemical technology which underlies the individual materials. A description of a limited number of representative applications is included as is an outline of recent developments of curing and dispensing equipment. 268 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs

  16. The adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-Min; Hong, Guang; Dilinuer, Maimaitishawuti; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Wang, Xin-Zhi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To examine the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of modern denture adhesives in vitro. Three cream-type denture adhesives (Poligrip S, Corect Cream, Liodent Cream; PGS, CRC, LDC) and three powder-type denture adhesives (Poligrip Powder, New Faston, Zanfton; PGP, FSN, ZFN) were used in this study. The initial viscosity was measured using a controlled-stress rheometer. The adhesive strength was measured according to ISO-10873 recommended procedures. All data were analyzed independently by one-way analysis of variance combined with a Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at a 5% level of significance. The initial viscosity of all the cream-type denture adhesives was lower than the powder-type adhesives. Before immersion in water, all the powder-type adhesives exhibited higher adhesive strength than the cream-type adhesives. However, the adhesive strength of cream-type denture adhesives increased significantly and exceeded the powder-type denture adhesives after immersion in water. For powder-type adhesives, the adhesive strength significantly decreased after immersion in water for 60 min, while the adhesive strength of the cream-type adhesives significantly decreased after immersion in water for 180 min. Cream-type denture adhesives have lower initial viscosity and higher adhesive strength than powder type adhesives, which may offer better manipulation properties and greater efficacy during application.

  17. Characterization of adhesive of polyurethane from castor oil by FTIR, TGA and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Elaine C.; Santana, Simone S. de M.; Nascimento, Eduardo M. do; Claro Neto, Salvador; Lepienski, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Castor oil polyurethanes are an alternative to adhesives that emanate volatile compounds. This adhesive come from a renewable source and has very low toxicity. In this work the microstructural and thermal characterization is presented. This material is partially crystalline. The mass loss start at 240 deg C and the glass transition temperature is 60 deg C. Then the adhesive is adequate to be employed at temperatures lower than 60 deg C. (author)

  18. Synaptic Cell Adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Missler, Markus; Südhof, Thomas C.; Biederer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Chemical synapses are asymmetric intercellular junctions that mediate synaptic transmission. Synaptic junctions are organized by trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules bridging the synaptic cleft. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules not only connect pre- and postsynaptic compartments, but also mediate trans-synaptic recognition and signaling processes that are essential for the establishment, specification, and plasticity of synapses. A growing number of synaptic cell adhesion molecules that inc...

  19. Análise da dureza de um novo material restaurador para ART: Glass Carbomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Condeixa de França LOPES

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo Este estudo avaliou a microdureza de dois materiais ionoméricos – Glass Carbomer (GC-GCP Dental e Riva Light Cure (RL-SDI ‒ em combinação com quatro unidades fotopolimerizadoras (Carbo LED lamp, GCP-Dental; Demi LED curing light, Kerr; Poli Wireless, Kavo; Radii Plus, SDI. Material e método Foram confeccionados 80 corpos de prova seguindo a orientação dos fabricantes, sendo 40 para cada material ionomérico e, para cada 10 corpos de prova, uma das unidades fotopolimerizadoras foi utilizada. Após sete dias de armazenamento em água destilada e temperatura ambiente, os 80 corpos de prova foram submetidos ao teste de microdureza Vickers (microdurômetro HMV 2T. Cinco indentações foram realizadas em cada corpo de prova (centro, extremidades direita e esquerda, e superior e inferior. O ensaio foi realizado sob uma carga de 100 gramas, com tempo de penetração de dez segundos. Resultado Independentemente da unidade fotopolimerizadora, o Riva Light Cure (RL-SDI apresentou menor microdureza que o material Glass Carbomer (GC-GCP-Dental. A microdureza do Glass Carbomer (GC-GCP-Dental foi influenciada pelo tipo de unidade fotopolimerizadora utilizada como fonte de calor. A análise de variância e o Teste de Tuckey (p<0,05 mostraram que a interação dos fatores ‘material’ vs. ‘unidade fotopolimerizadora’ (p<0,001 e os fatores principais ‘material’ (p<0,001 e ‘unidade fotopolimerizadora’ (p=0,002 foram estatisticamente significantes. Conclusão O material ionomérico Glass Cabomer (GCP- Dental apresentou valor de microdureza significativamente superior quando comparado com o cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina Riva Light Cure (SDI, independentemente da unidade fotopolimerizadora utilizada.

  20. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  1. Strength scaling of adhesive joints in polymer–matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios; Jacobsen, Torben K.

    2009-01-01

    The fracture of adhesive joints between two glass-fibre laminates was studied by testing double cantilever beam test specimens loaded by uneven bending moments. A large-scale fracture process zone, consisting of a crack tip and a fibre bridging zone, developed. The mixed mode fracture resistance...

  2. [Phase transition in polymer blends and structure of ionomers and copolymers]. [Annual report, April 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The main thrust of the program in the past 3 years are summarized: SAXS instrumentation development; structure and dynamics of macro- and supra-molecules, phase transitions in polymer blends and solutions, structure of ionomers, and fractals and anisotropic systems.

  3. Glass compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, P W

    1985-05-30

    A fluoride glass for use in the production of optical fibres has an enhanced D/H ratio, preferably such that OD:OH is at least 9:1. In the example, such a glass is prepared by treating with D/sub 2/O a melt comprising 51.53 mole per cent ZrF/sub 4/, 20.47 mole per cent BaF/sub 2/, 5.27 mole per cent LaF/sub 3/, 3.24 mole per cent AlF/sub 3/, and 19.49 mole per cent LiF.

  4. In-vitro transdentinal diffusion of monomers from adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzeys, Eveline; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Coppens, Lieve; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Godderis, Lode; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L

    2018-06-01

    Biocompatibility of adhesives is important since adhesives may be applied on dentin near the pulp. Accurate knowledge of the quantity of monomers reaching the pulp is important to determine potential side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the transdentinal diffusion of residual monomers from dental adhesive systems using an in-vitro pulp chamber model. Dentin disks with a thickness of 300 µm were produced from human third molars. These disks were fixed between two open-ended glass tubes, representing an in-vitro pulp chamber. The etch-and-rinse adhesive OptiBond FL and the self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE Bond were applied to the dentin side of the disks, while on in the pulpal side, the glass tube was filled with 600 µL water. The transdentinal diffusion of different monomers was quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The monomers HEMA, CQ, BisGMA, GPDM, 10-MDP and UDMA eluted from the dental materials and were able to diffuse through the dentin disks to a certain extent. Compounds with a lower molecular weight (uncured group: HEMA 7850 nmol and CQ 78.2 nmol) were more likely to elute and diffuse compared to monomers with a higher molecular weight (uncured group: BisGMA 0.42 nmol). When the adhesives were left uncured, diffusion was up to 10 times higher compared to the cured conditions. This in-vitro research resulted in the quantification of various monomers able to diffuse through dentin and therefore contributes to a more detailed understanding about the potential exposure of the dental pulp to monomers from dental adhesives. Biocompatibility of adhesives is important since adhesives may be applied on dentin near the pulp, where tubular density and diameter are greatest. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  6. Adhesive compositions and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott D.; Sendijarevic, Vahid; O'Connor, James

    2017-12-05

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesive compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesives derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure:. In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive polyurethane compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  7. Soy protein adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2010-01-01

    In the quest to manufacture and use building materials that are more environmentally friendly, soy adhesives can be an important component. Trees fix and store carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. After the trees are harvested, machinery converts the wood into strands, which are then bonded together with adhesives to form strandboard, used in constructing long-lasting...

  8. Comparison of retention and demineralization inhibition potential of adhesive banding cements in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, A R; Mahantesh, T; Ahuja, Vipin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of banding cements in terms of retentive capability and demineralization inhibition potential. We included 48 non-carious primary mandibular second molar teeth. Preformed stainless steel bands were adapted onto the teeth. All teeth were randomly assigned to four groups: Group I (Adaptation of bands without cementation), Group II (Cementation of bands using conventional Glass Ionomer Cement), Group III (Cementation of bands using Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cement), Group IV (Cementation of bands using Resin cement), and placed in artificial saliva. Each day, specimens were taken from artificial saliva and suspended in an artificial caries solution for 35 minutes, every 8 hours. At the end of 3 months, retention of bands was estimated using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure was recorded and specimens were sectioned and examined under polarized microscope for demineralized lesions. The mean retention value was highest with resin cement, followed by RMGIC, GIC, and Control group respectively. The RMGIC group showed more favorable modes of failures. All the experimental groups showed significant demineralization inhibition potential. RMGIC is the preferable banding cement and can be used effectively to cement bands in primary dentition.

  9. Highly water-dispersible, mixed ionic-electronic conducting, polymer acid-doped polyanilines as ionomers for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Arun; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-06-28

    Highly water-dispersible polymer acid-doped polyanilines have been synthesized and evaluated as an alternative for expensive Nafion ionomers in the anode of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). These polymers as ionomers lead to higher performance in single cell DMFC compared to Nafion ionomers due to mixed ionic-electronic conduction, water dispersibility, and co-catalytic activity. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. Adhesive Bioactive Coatings Inspired by Sea Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Sónia J; Vale, Ana C; Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F; Alves, Natália M

    2016-01-19

    Inspired by nature, in particular by the marine mussels adhesive proteins (MAPs) and by the tough brick-and-mortar nacre-like structure, novel multilayered films are prepared in the present work. Organic-inorganic multilayered films, with an architecture similar to nacre based on bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG), chitosan, and hyaluronic acid modified with catechol groups, which are the main components responsible for the outstanding adhesion in MAPs, are developed for the first time. The biomimetic conjugate is prepared by carbodiimide chemistry and analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The buildup of the multilayered films is monitored with a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and their topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy. The mechanical properties reveal that the films containing catechol groups and BG present an enhanced adhesion. Moreover, the bioactivity of the films upon immersion in a simulated body fluid solution is evaluated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the constructed films promote the formation of bonelike apatite in vitro. Such multifunctional mussel inspired LbL films, which combine enhanced adhesion and bioactivity, could be potentially used as coatings of a variety of implants for orthopedic applications.

  11. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapoval, S. Yu.

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of ~10 N cm-2: sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  12. Physics of adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerberich, W W; Cordill, M J

    2006-01-01

    Adhesion physics was relegated to the lowest echelons of academic pursuit until the advent of three seemingly disconnected events. The first, atomic force microscopy (AFM), eventually allowed fine-scale measurement of adhesive point contacts. The second, large-scale computational materials science, now permits both hierarchical studies of a few thousand atoms from first principles or of billions of atoms with less precise interatomic potentials. The third is a microelectronics industry push towards the nanoscale which has provided the driving force for requiring a better understanding of adhesion physics. In the present contribution, an attempt is made at conjoining these separate events into an updating of how theoretical and experimental approaches are providing new understanding of adhesion physics. While all material couples are briefly considered, the emphasis is on metal/semiconductor and metal/ceramic interfaces. Here, adhesion energies typically range from 1 to 100 J m -2 where the larger value is considered a practical work of adhesion. Experimental emphasis is on thin-film de-adhesion for 10 to 1000 nm thick films. For comparison, theoretical approaches from first principles quantum mechanics to embedded atom methods used in multi-scale modelling are utilized

  13. An Internally Heated Shape Memory Polymer Dry Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Eisenhaure

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A conductive epoxy-based shape memory polymer (SMP is demonstrated using carbon black (CB as a dopant for the purpose of creating an SMP dry adhesive system which can internally generate the heat required for activation. The electrical and mechanical properties of the CB/SMP blends for varying dopant concentrations are characterized. A composite adhesive is created to minimize surface contact resistance to conductive tape acting as electrodes, while maintaining bulk resistivity required for heat generation due to current flow. The final adhesive can function on flat or curved surfaces. As a demonstration, a 25 mm wide by 45 mm long dry adhesive strip is shown to heat evenly from an applied voltage, and can easily hold a mass in excess of 6 kg when bonded to a spherical concave glass surface using light pressure at 75 °C.

  14. Glass: Rotary Electric Glass Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    Compared to conventional gas-fired furnaces, the new rotary electric furnace will increase energy efficiency while significantly reducing air emissions, product turnaround time, and labor costs. As this informative new fact sheet explains, the thousand different types of glass optical blanks produced for the photonics industry are used for lasers, telescopes, cameras, lights, and many other products.

  15. EB curable laminating adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Asao; Kobayashi, Masahide; Gotoh, Sakiko

    1992-01-01

    New developed solvent free EB curable laminating adhesives have two liquid components, A with hydroxy and acryloyl group, B with isocyanate and acryloyl group in a molecule. These EB laminating adhesives do not need any aging process, which is a big advantage, and are very suitable for environment, safety, and health because of no heating process and solvent free formulas. And we have made basic research about the relation of peel strength or heat seal strength versus Tg of cured film, elongation at break, elastic modulus, and so on. Basic specifications of the new developed adhesives are shown. (author)

  16. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure: Studies of zinc-neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.S.; Yarusso, D.J.; Pan, H.K.D.; Cooper, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements were performed on a series of zinc-neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers and the local structure around the zinc atom was determined. An interference effect in the EXAFS signal between sulfur and oxygen atoms was found to be significant in these materials. A model for the local structure in the zinc-neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers is proposed which suggests a highly ordered tetrahedral coordination of oxygen around the zinc atoms at a distance of 1.97 +- 0.02 A. In addition there are four sulfur atoms and four oxygen atoms at a distance of 3.15 +- 0.05 A. No zinc-zinc coordination within 5 A was detected in this study

  17. Nitrate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, I.A.; Vinogradov, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental evidence on behaviour of nitrate glasses is reviewed in terms of relationships between the presence of water in vitrescent nitrate systems and the properties of the systems. The glasses considered belong to systems of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 - Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; Hg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; NaNO 3 -Mg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; M-Zn(NO 3 ) 3 , where M is a mixture of 20% mass NaNO 3 and 80% mass Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , and Zn is a rare earth ion. Nitrate glass is shown to be a product of dehydration. Vitrification may be regarded as a resusl of formation of molecular complexes in the chain due to hydrogen bonds of two types, i.e. water-water, or water-nicrate group. Chain formation, along with low melting points of the nitrates, hinder crystallization of nitrate melts. Provided there is enough water, this results in vitrification

  18. Optical adhesive property study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  19. The Bacterial Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa Affects the Leaf Ionome of Plant Hosts during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Leonardo; Parker, Jennifer K.; Oliver, Jonathan E.; Granger, Shea; Brannen, Phillip M.; van Santen, Edzard; Cobine, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that lives inside the host xylem vessels, where it forms biofilm believed to be responsible for disrupting the passage of water and nutrients. Here, Nicotiana tabacum was infected with X. fastidiosa, and the spatial and temporal changes in the whole-leaf ionome (i.e. the mineral and trace element composition) were measured as the host plant transitioned from healthy to diseased physiological status. The elemental composition of leaves was used as an indicator of the physiological changes in the host at a specific time and relative position during plant development. Bacterial infection was found to cause significant increases in concentrations of calcium prior to the appearance of symptoms and decreases in concentrations of phosphorous after symptoms appeared. Field-collected leaves from multiple varieties of grape, blueberry, and pecan plants grown in different locations over a four-year period in the Southeastern US showed the same alterations in Ca and P. This descriptive ionomics approach characterizes the existence of a mineral element-based response to X. fastidiosa using a model system suitable for further manipulation to uncover additional details of the role of mineral elements during plant-pathogen interactions. This is the first report on the dynamics of changes in the ionome of the host plant throughout the process of infection by a pathogen. PMID:23667547

  20. Hydration and Proton Conductivity of Ionomers: The Model Case of Sulfonated Aromatic Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauth, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.knauth@univ-amu.fr [Madirel (UMR 7246), CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille (France); Di Vona, Maria Luisa [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy)

    2014-11-06

    The hydration of proton-conducting ionomers is described in terms of a simplified model, where only osmotic and elastic contributions to the Gibbs free energy of hydration are considered. Although only two physically meaningful parameters are used – the deformation parameter, inversely proportional to the elastic modulus of the ionomer, and the free volume parameter – simulated hydration isotherms are in good agreement with the experiment. The proton mobility u inside the electrolyte solution of the ionomer is calculated from the proton conductivity determined at various hydration numbers. Its variation with the proton concentration c reveals the percolation threshold of hydrated nanometric channels and the tortuosity of the membrane. Above the percolation threshold, a power law u ~ c{sup −3} is observed, in agreement with the “universal” law for 3-dimensional percolation. The proton conductivity σ shows at 100°C a maximum of 0.2 S/cm at a hydration number ~90. The σ = f(c) plot allows to predict, which hydration conditions are necessary for a desired area specific resistance.

  1. Ionomer design for augmented charge transport in novel ionic polymer transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Andrew J; Akle, Barbar J; Long, Timothy E; Leo, Donald J

    2009-01-01

    Ionic polymer transducers are devices that display electromechanical transduction and are projected to have extensive applications as actuators and sensors. This study employs novel, highly branched sulfonated polysulfones (sBPS) as part of an investigation into the contribution of polymer topology to electromechanical transduction. Specifically, the ionomers are combined with an ionic liquid to determine the optimal ratio and method for maximizing ionic conductivity, where charge transport is essential to device performance. Two uptake methods are assessed for introduction of ionic liquid into the central ionomeric membrane. The effects of casting membranes in the presence of ionic liquid and swelling preformed membranes in ionic liquid on film stability and ionic conductivity are examined. Membranes cast from a solution of the ionomer and ionic liquid allow for direct targeting of the component ratio and a single-step process for membrane formation. Swelling conditions for preformed neat membranes combine time, temperature, and the presence of organic co-diluents to achieve the maximum stable uptake of ionic liquid. Comparison of optimal conditions for the various methods reveals that swelling with co-diluents achieves ionic conductivity of the imbibed membrane per uptake higher than the levels achieved with the casting process for highly sulfonated sBPS. However, for less sulfonated sBPS the casting process successfully produced membranes with ionic conductivities unreachable with the co-diluent process. Both methods will enable the production of high performance ionic polymer transducers constructed from novel sBPS ionomers and ionic liquids

  2. Genome-Wide RNAi Ionomics Screen Reveals New Genes and Regulation of Human Trace Element Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Hasan, Nesrin M.; Zhang, Yan; Seravalli, Javier; Lin, Jie; Avanesov, Andrei; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements are essential for human metabolism and dysregulation of their homeostasis is associated with numerous disorders. Here we characterize mechanisms that regulate trace elements in human cells by designing and performing a genome-wide high-throughput siRNA/ionomics screen, and examining top hits in cellular and biochemical assays. The screen reveals high stability of the ionomes, especially the zinc ionome, and yields known regulators and novel candidates. We further uncover fundamental differences in the regulation of different trace elements. Specifically, selenium levels are controlled through the selenocysteine machinery and expression of abundant selenoproteins; copper balance is affected by lipid metabolism and requires machinery involved in protein trafficking and posttranslational modifications; and the iron levels are influenced by iron import and expression of the iron/heme-containing enzymes. Our approach can be applied to a variety of disease models and/or nutritional conditions, and the generated dataset opens new directions for studies of human trace element metabolism. PMID:24522796

  3. The bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa affects the leaf ionome of plant hosts during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo De La Fuente

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that lives inside the host xylem vessels, where it forms biofilm believed to be responsible for disrupting the passage of water and nutrients. Here, Nicotiana tabacum was infected with X. fastidiosa, and the spatial and temporal changes in the whole-leaf ionome (i.e. the mineral and trace element composition were measured as the host plant transitioned from healthy to diseased physiological status. The elemental composition of leaves was used as an indicator of the physiological changes in the host at a specific time and relative position during plant development. Bacterial infection was found to cause significant increases in concentrations of calcium prior to the appearance of symptoms and decreases in concentrations of phosphorous after symptoms appeared. Field-collected leaves from multiple varieties of grape, blueberry, and pecan plants grown in different locations over a four-year period in the Southeastern US showed the same alterations in Ca and P. This descriptive ionomics approach characterizes the existence of a mineral element-based response to X. fastidiosa using a model system suitable for further manipulation to uncover additional details of the role of mineral elements during plant-pathogen interactions. This is the first report on the dynamics of changes in the ionome of the host plant throughout the process of infection by a pathogen.

  4. Hydration and proton conductivity of ionomers: the model case of Sulfonated Aromatic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eKnauth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The hydration of proton-conducting ionomers is described in terms of a simplified model, where only osmotic and elastic contributions to the Gibbs free energy of hydration are considered. Although only two physically meaningful parameters are used - the deformation parameter, inversely proportional to the elastic modulus of the ionomer, and the free volume parameter – simulated hydration isotherms are in good agreement with the experiment. The proton mobility u inside the electrolyte solution of the ionomer is calculated from the proton conductivity determined at various hydration numbers. Its variation with the proton concentration c reveals the percolation threshold of hydrated nanometric channels and the tortuosity of the membrane. Above the percolation threshold, a power law u ~ c-3 is observed, in agreement with the universal law for 3-dimensional percolation. The proton conductivity  shows at 100°C a maximum of 0.2 S/cm at a hydration number ~90. The  = f(c plot allows to predict which hydration conditions are necessary for a desired area specific resistance.

  5. Response of fiber Bragg gratings bonded on a glass/epoxy laminate subjected to static loadings

    KAUST Repository

    Mulle, Matthieu; Moussawi, Ali; Lubineau, Gilles; Durand, Samuel; Falandry, Didier; Olivier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    measurements. Here, two adhesives were investigated, one with low viscosity and the other with high viscosity for bonding FBGs on glass/epoxy sandwich skins. First, instrumented elementary specimens were tested under tension. FBG strain results were analyzed

  6. Bioinspired pressure actuated adhesive system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paretkar, D.R.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Schneider, A.S.; Martina, D.; Creton, C.; Arzt, E.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a dry synthetic adhesive system inspired by gecko feet adhesion that can switch reversibly from adhesion to non-adhesion with applied pressure as external stimulus. Micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with pillars of 30 µm length and 10 µm diameter were fabricated using

  7. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  8. Cohesion and Adhesion with Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2016-01-01

    With increasing interest in bio-based adhesives, research on proteins has expanded because historically they have been used by both nature and humans as adhesives. A wide variety of proteins have been used as wood adhesives. Ancient Egyptians most likely used collagens tobond veneer to wood furniture, then came casein (milk), blood, fish scales, and soy adhesives, with...

  9. Quantitative measurement of changes in adhesion force involving focal adhesion kinase during cell attachment, spread, and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-C.; Su, H.-W.; Lee, C.-C.; Tang, M.-J.; Su, F.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a critical protein for the regulation of integrin-mediated cellular functions and it can enhance cell motility in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induction. We utilized optical trapping and cytodetachment techniques to measure the adhesion force between pico-Newton and nano-Newton (nN) for quantitatively investigating the effects of FAK on adhesion force during initial binding (5 s), beginning of spreading (30 min), spreadout (12 h), and migration (induced by HGF) in MDCK cells with overexpressed FAK (FAK-WT), FAK-related non-kinase (FRNK), as well as normal control cells. Optical tweezers was used to measure the initial binding force between a trapped cell and glass coverslide or between a trapped bead and a seeded cell. In cytodetachment, the commercial atomic force microscope probe with an appropriate spring constant was used as a cyto-detacher to evaluate the change of adhesion force between different FAK expression levels of cells in spreading, spreadout, and migrating status. The results demonstrated that FAK-WT significantly increased the adhesion forces as compared to FRNK cells throughout all the different stages of cell adhesion. For cells in HGF-induced migration, the adhesion force decreased to almost the same level (∼600 nN) regardless of FAK levels indicating that FAK facilitates cells to undergo migration by reducing the adhesion force. Our results suggest FAK plays a role of enhancing cell adhesive ability in the binding and spreading, but an appropriate level of adhesion force is required for HGF-induced cell migration

  10. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahn, J; Menon, C

    2013-01-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm 2 . (paper)

  11. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  12. Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli is stimulated by synergistic interactions and co-adhesion mechanisms with adherence-proficient bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castonguay, MH; van der Schaaf, S; Koester, W; Krooneman, J; Harmsen, H; Landini, P; van der Meer, W.

    Laboratory strains of Escherichia coli do not show significant ability to attach to solid surfaces and to form biofilms. We compared the adhesion properties of the E. coli PHL565 laboratory strain to eight environmental E. coli isolates: only four isolates displayed adhesion properties to glass

  13. Mechanisms of Probe Tack Adhesion of Model Acrylic Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakrout, Hamed; Creton, Costantino; Ahn, Dongchan; Shull, Kenneth R.

    1997-03-01

    The adhesion mechanisms of model acrylate homopolymers and copolymers are studied with an instrumented probe tack test. A video camera positioned under the transparent glass substrate records the bonding and debonding process while the force displacement curve is acquired. This setup allows to couple the observation of the cavitation and fibrillation mechanisms, occurring during the debonding of the film from the stainless steel probe, with the mechanical measurement of stress and strain. The transitions between different debonding mechanisms are critically dicussed in terms of the bulk and surface properties of the adhesive and its molecular structure.

  14. Güncel bir cam iyonomer restoratif sistemin 36-aylık klinik performansının değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Kütük, Zeynep Bilge; Gürgan, Sevil; Yalçın Çakır, Filiz; Ergin, Esra; Öztaş, Sema Seval

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the 36 month clinical performance of a current glass-ionomer restorative system by comparing with a micro-filled resin composite, on Class II cavities.Materials and Methods: Sixty cavities in 26 patients were randomly divided into two groups according to the restorative systems used (n=30); the cavities in Group 1 were restored with a glass-ionomer restorative system (EQUIA/GC); packable glass-ionomer (Fuji IX GP EXTRA/GC)+self-adhesive nano-filled coating (G-Coat PLUS...

  15. Improving electromechanical output of IPMC by high surface area Pd-Pt electrodes and tailored ionomer membrane thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljar Palmre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempt to improve the electromechanical performance of ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs by developing high surface area Pd-Pt electrodes and tailoring the ionomer membrane thickness. With proper electroless plating techniques, a high dispersion of palladium particles is achieved deep in the ionomer membrane, thereby increasing notably the interfacial surface area of electrodes. The membrane thickness is increased using 0.5 and 1 mm thick ionomer films. For comparison, IPMCs with the same ionomer membranes, but conventional Pt electrodes, are also prepared and studied. The electromechanical, mechanoelectrical, electrochemical and mechanical properties of different IPMCs are characterized and discussed. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDS is used to investigate the distribution of deposited electrode metals in the cross section of Pd-Pt IPMCs. Our experiments demonstrate that IPMCs assembled with millimeter thick ionomer membranes and newly developed Pd-Pt electrodes are superior in mechanoelectrical transduction, and show significantly higher blocking force compared to conventional type of IPMCs. The blocking forces of more than 0.3 N were measured at 4V DC input, exceeding the force output of typical Nafion® 117-based Pt IPMCs more than two orders of magnitude. The newly designed Pd-Pt IPMCs can be useful in more demanding applications, e.g., in biomimetic underwater robotics, where high stress and drag forces are encountered.

  16. Attachment of MEM piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor dies using different adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Vesna B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives comparison and discussion of adhesives used for attachment of silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor dies. Special attention is paid on low pressure sensor dies because of their extreme sensitivity on stresses, which can arise from packaging procedure and applied materials. Commercially available adhesives “Scotch Weld 2214 Hi-Temp” from “3M Co.” and “DM2700P/H848” from “DIEMAT”, USA, were compared. First of them is aluminum filled epoxy adhesive and second is low melting temperature (LMT glass paste. Comparing test results for low pressure sensor chips we found that LMT glass (glass frit is better adhesive for this application. Applying LMT glass paste minimizes internal stresses caused by disagreement of coefficients of thermal expansions between sensor die and housing material. Also, it minimizes stresses introduced during applying external loads in the process of pressure measuring. Regarding the measurements, for the sensors installed with filled epoxy paste, resistor for compensation of temperature offset change had negative values in all cases, which means that linear temperature compensation, of sensors installed this way, would be impossible. In the sensors installed with LMT glass paste, all results, without exception, were in their common limits (values, which give the possibility of passive temperature compensation. Furthermore, LMT glass attachment can broaden temperature operating range of MEM silicon pressure sensors towards higher values, up to 120 ºC.

  17. Arachnids secrete a fluid over their adhesive pads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Peattie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many arachnids possess adhesive pads on their feet that help them climb smooth surfaces and capture prey. Spider and gecko adhesives have converged on a branched, hairy structure, which theoretically allows them to adhere solely by dry (solid-solid intermolecular interactions. Indeed, the consensus in the literature is that spiders and their smooth-padded relatives, the solifugids, adhere without the aid of a secretion. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the adhesive contact zone of living spiders, solifugids and mites using interference reflection microscopy, which allows the detection of thin liquid films. Like insects, all the arachnids we studied left behind hydrophobic fluid footprints on glass (mean refractive index: 1.48-1.50; contact angle: 3.7-11.2°. Fluid was not always secreted continuously, suggesting that pads can function in both wet and dry modes. We measured the attachment forces of single adhesive setae from tarantulas (Grammostola rosea by attaching them to a bending beam with a known spring constant and filming the resulting deflection. Individual spider setae showed a lower static friction at rest (26%±2.8 SE of the peak friction than single gecko setae (Thecadactylus rapicauda; 96%±1.7 SE. This may be explained by the fact that spider setae continued to release fluid after isolation from the animal, lubricating the contact zone. SIGNIFICANCE: This finding implies that tarsal secretions occur within all major groups of terrestrial arthropods with adhesive pads. The presence of liquid in an adhesive contact zone has important consequences for attachment performance, improving adhesion to rough surfaces and introducing rate-dependent effects. Our results leave geckos and anoles as the only known representatives of truly dry adhesive pads in nature. Engineers seeking biological inspiration for synthetic adhesives should consider whether model species with fluid secretions are appropriate to their

  18. Geckos as Springs: Mechanics Explain Across-Species Scaling of Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Casey A; Imburgia, Michael J; Bartlett, Michael D; King, Daniel R; Crosby, Alfred J; Irschick, Duncan J

    2015-01-01

    One of the central controversies regarding the evolution of adhesion concerns how adhesive force scales as animals change in size, either among or within species. A widely held view is that as animals become larger, the primary mechanism that enables them to climb is increasing pad area. However, prior studies show that much of the variation in maximum adhesive force remains unexplained, even when area is accounted for. We tested the hypothesis that maximum adhesive force among pad-bearing gecko species is not solely dictated by toepad area, but also depends on the ratio of toepad area to gecko adhesive system compliance in the loading direction, where compliance (C) is the change in extension (Δ) relative to a change in force (F) while loading a gecko's adhesive system (C = dΔ/dF). Geckos are well-known for their ability to climb on a range of vertical and overhanging surfaces, and range in mass from several grams to over 300 grams, yet little is understood of the factors that enable adhesion to scale with body size. We examined the maximum adhesive force of six gecko species that vary in body size (~2-100 g). We also examined changes between juveniles and adults within a single species (Phelsuma grandis). We found that maximum adhesive force and toepad area increased with increasing gecko size, and that as gecko species become larger, their adhesive systems become significantly less compliant. Additionally, our hypothesis was supported, as the best predictor of maximum adhesive force was not toepad area or compliance alone, but the ratio of toepad area to compliance. We verified this result using a synthetic "model gecko" system comprised of synthetic adhesive pads attached to a glass substrate and a synthetic tendon (mechanical spring) of finite stiffness. Our data indicate that increases in toepad area as geckos become larger cannot fully account for increased adhesive abilities, and decreased compliance must be included to explain the scaling of adhesion in

  19. The effect of casting conditions on the biaxial flexural strength of glass-ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A; Shareef, M Y; Walsh, J M; Hatton, P V; van Noort, R; Hill, R G

    1998-11-01

    To assess the effect of mould and glass casting temperatures on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of two different types of castable glass-ceramic, using existing laboratory equipment and techniques. Two castable glass-ceramic materials were evaluated. One glass (LG3) is based on SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-CaO-CaF2, and is similar in composition to glasses used in the manufacture of glass-ionomer cements. The other glass (SG3) is based on SiO2-K2O-Na2O-CaO-CaF2, and is a canasite-based material. Both materials were used to produce discs of 12 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness using the same lost-wax casting process as used for metal castings. Mould temperatures of between 500 degrees C and 1000 degrees C and glass casting temperatures of between 1100 degrees C and 1450 degrees C were evaluated. The cast discs were cerammed and the biaxial flexural strength determined with a Lloyd 2000 R tester. A significant difference was found for the BFS in the range of mould temperatures evaluated, with the optimum investment mould temperature being 590 degrees C for LG3 and 610 degrees C for SG3 (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.019, respectively). No significant differences were seen between any of the glass casting temperatures evaluated. The mould temperature for castable glass-ceramic materials produced using the lost-wax casting process can have a significant effect on BFS. The optimum mould temperature may differ slightly depending on the type of material being used. The glass casting temperature of these materials does not appear to have a significant effect on BFS.

  20. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  1. Improved degree of conversion of model self-etching adhesives through their interaction with dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of the chemical interaction between model self-etching adhesives and dentin with the degree of conversion (DC) of the adhesives. Methods The model self-etching adhesives contained bis[2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (2MP) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with a mass ratio of 1/1, and 0-40% water contents, respectively. The adhesives were applied either onto the prepared dentin surface or unreactive substrates (such as glass slides), agitated for 15s, then light-cured for 40s. The DCs of the adhesives were determined using micro-Raman spectral and mapping analysis. Results The DCs of the adhesives cured on the dentin substrate were found to be significantly higher than those on the unreactive glass substrate. Moreover, the DCs of the adhesives displayed a decreasing trend as the distance from the dentin surface became greater. The chemical interaction of the acidic 2MP/HEMA adhesives with the mineral apatite in dentin was proposed to play a significant role for the observations. The chemical interaction could be validated by the spectral comparison in the phosphate regions of 1100 cm−1 and 960 cm−1 in the Raman spectra. The results also revealed a notable influence of water content on the DC of adhesives. The DCs of the adhesive at 10% water content exhibited the highest DC level for both substrates. Conclusions Interaction with dentin dramatically improved the degree of conversion of self-etching adhesives. Our ability to chemically characterize the a/d interface including in situ detection of the DC distribution is very important in understanding self-etching adhesive bonding under in vivo conditions. PMID:22024375

  2. Improved degree of conversion of model self-etching adhesives through their interaction with dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of the chemical interaction between model self-etching adhesives and dentine with the degree of conversion (DC) of the adhesives. The model self-etching adhesives contained bis[2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (2MP) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with a mass ratio of 1/1, and 0-40% water contents, respectively. The adhesives were applied either onto the prepared dentine surface or unreactive substrates (such as glass slides), agitated for 15s, then light-cured for 40s. The DCs of the adhesives were determined using micro-Raman spectral and mapping analysis. The DCs of the adhesives cured on the dentine substrate were found to be significantly higher than those on the unreactive glass substrate. Moreover, the DCs of the adhesives displayed a decreasing trend as the distance from the dentine surface became greater. The chemical interaction of the acidic 2MP/HEMA adhesives with the mineral apatite in dentine was proposed to play a significant role for the observations. The chemical interaction could be validated by the spectral comparison in the phosphate regions of 1100 cm(-1) and 960 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. The results also revealed a notable influence of water content on the DC of adhesives. The DCs of the adhesive at 10% water content exhibited the highest DC level for both substrates. Interaction with dentine dramatically improved the degree of conversion of self-etching adhesives. Our ability to chemically characterise the a/d interface including in situ detection of the DC distribution is very important in understanding self-etching adhesive bonding under in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reversible adhesion switching of porous fibrillar adhesive pads by humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Longjian; Kovalev, Alexander; Dening, Kirstin; Eichler-Volf, Anna; Eickmeier, Henning; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk; Steinhart, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-01-01

    We report reversible adhesion switching on porous fibrillar polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) adhesive pads by humidity changes. Adhesion at a relative humidity of 90% was more than nine times higher than at a relative humidity of 2%. On nonporous fibrillar adhesive pads of the same material, adhesion increased only by a factor of ~3.3. The switching performance remained unchanged in at least 10 successive high/low humidity cycles. Main origin of enhanced adhesion at high humidity is the humidity-induced decrease in the elastic modulus of the polar component P2VP rather than capillary force. The presence of spongelike continuous internal pore systems with walls consisting of P2VP significantly leveraged this effect. Fibrillar adhesive pads on which adhesion is switchable by humidity changes may be used for preconcentration of airborne particulates, pollutants, and germs combined with triggered surface cleaning.

  4. Adherence performances of pressure sensitive adhesives on a model viscoelastic synthetic film: a tool for the understanding of adhesion on the human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvoise, Julien; Burlot, Delphine; Marin, Gérard; Derail, Christophe

    2009-02-23

    This work deals with the rheological behavior and adherence properties of pressure sensitive adhesive formulations dedicated to medical applications. We have developed a specific viscoelastic substrate which mimics adhesion on human skin to measure the adherence properties of PSAs when they are stuck on the human skin. By comparing peeling results of PSAs, dedicated to medical applications, stuck on human skin and on this viscoelastic substrate we show that this substrate, based on a blend of natural proteins, presents a better representation of the interactions occurring at the skin/adhesive interface than conventional substrates used for peel test (i.e. glass and steel).

  5. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  6. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  7. Adhesion of Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis on a Planar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lee, Ida [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Joy, David Charles [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion of spores of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and spherical silica particles on surfaces was experimentally and theoretically investigated in this study. Topography analysis via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy indicates that Bt spores are rod shaped, {approx}1.3 {mu}m in length and {approx}0.8 {mu}m in diameter. The adhesion force of Bt spores and silica particles on gold-coated glass was measured at various relative humidity (RH) levels by AFM. It was expected that the adhesion force would vary with RH because the individual force components contributing to the adhesion force depend on RH. The adhesion force between a particle and a planar surface in atmospheric environments was modeled as the contribution of three major force components: capillary, van der Waals, and electrostatic interaction forces. Adhesion force measurements for Bt spore (silica particle) and the gold surface system were comparable with calculations. Modeling results show that there is a critical RH value, which depends on the hydrophobicity of the materials involved, below which the water meniscus does not form and the contribution of the capillary force is zero. As RH increases, the van der Waals force decreases while the capillary force increases to a maximum value.

  8. Fabrication of biomimetic dry-adhesion structures through nanosphere lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, P. C.; Chang, N. W.; Suen, Y.; Yang, S. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Components with surface nanostructures suitable for biomimetic dry adhesion have a great potential in applications such as gecko tape, climbing robots, and skin patches. In this study, a nanosphere lithography technique with self-assembly nanospheres was developed to achieve effective and efficient fabrication of dry-adhesion structures. Self-assembled monolayer nanospheres with high regularity were obtained through tilted dip-coating. Reactive-ion etching of the self-assembled nanospheres was used to fabricate nanostructures of different shapes and aspect ratios by varying the etching time. Thereafter, nickel molds with inverse nanostructures were replicated using the electroforming process. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanostructures were fabricated through a gas-assisted hot-embossing method. The pulling test was performed to measure the shear adhesion on the glass substrate of a sample, and the static contact angle was measured to verify the hydrophobic property of the structure. The enhancement of the structure indicates that the adhesion force increased from 1.2 to 4.05 N/cm2 and the contact angle increased from 118.6° to 135.2°. This columnar structure can effectively enhance the adhesion ability of PDMS, demonstrating the potential of using nanosphere lithography for the fabrication of adhesive structures.

  9. Surface characterization of the cement for retention of implant supported dental prostheses: In vitro evaluation of cement roughness and surface free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajkovic, Denis; Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar; Kisic, Danilo; Zelic, Ksenija; Djuric, Marija; Rakocevic, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface free energy and surface roughness influence bacterial adhesion. • Bacterial colonization causes periimplantitis and implant loss. • Zinc-based, glass-ionomers and resin-cements were investigated. • Glass-ionomers-cements present the lowest values of surface free energy and roughness. • Glass-ionomer-cements surface properties result with reduced bacterial adhesion. - Abstract: Background: Material surface free energy and surface roughness strongly influence the bacterial adhesion in oral cavity. The aim of this study was to analyze these two parameters in various commercial luting agents used for cementation of implant restorations. Materials and methods: Zinc-based, glass-ionomers, resin modified glass-ionomer and resin-cements were investigated. Contact angle and surface free energy were measured by contact angle analyzer using Image J software program. Materials’ average roughness and fractal dimension were calculated based on Atomic Force Microscope topography images. Results: Zinc phosphate cements presented significantly higher total surface free energy and significantly lower dispersive component of surface free energy compared to other groups, while resin-cements showed significantly lower polar component than other groups. The surface roughness and fractal dimension values were statistically the highest in the zinc phosphate cements and the lowest for the glass-ionomers cements. Conclusion: Glass-ionomers-cements presented lower values of surface free energy and surface roughness than zinc phosphate and resin cements, indicating that their surfaces are less prone to biofilm adhesion. Practical implications: Within limitations of an in vitro trial, our results indicate that glass-ionomers-cements could be the cements of choice for fixation of cement retained implant restorations due to superior surface properties compared to zinc phosphate and resin cements, which may result in reduced plaque formation

  10. Surface characterization of the cement for retention of implant supported dental prostheses: In vitro evaluation of cement roughness and surface free energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brajkovic, Denis [Clinic for Dentistry, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Svetozara Markovica 69, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia); Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr. Subotica 4/2, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Kisic, Danilo [Laboratory for Atomic Physics, Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Zelic, Ksenija; Djuric, Marija [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr. Subotica 4/2, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rakocevic, Zlatko, E-mail: zlatkora@vinca.rs [Laboratory for Atomic Physics, Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface free energy and surface roughness influence bacterial adhesion. • Bacterial colonization causes periimplantitis and implant loss. • Zinc-based, glass-ionomers and resin-cements were investigated. • Glass-ionomers-cements present the lowest values of surface free energy and roughness. • Glass-ionomer-cements surface properties result with reduced bacterial adhesion. - Abstract: Background: Material surface free energy and surface roughness strongly influence the bacterial adhesion in oral cavity. The aim of this study was to analyze these two parameters in various commercial luting agents used for cementation of implant restorations. Materials and methods: Zinc-based, glass-ionomers, resin modified glass-ionomer and resin-cements were investigated. Contact angle and surface free energy were measured by contact angle analyzer using Image J software program. Materials’ average roughness and fractal dimension were calculated based on Atomic Force Microscope topography images. Results: Zinc phosphate cements presented significantly higher total surface free energy and significantly lower dispersive component of surface free energy compared to other groups, while resin-cements showed significantly lower polar component than other groups. The surface roughness and fractal dimension values were statistically the highest in the zinc phosphate cements and the lowest for the glass-ionomers cements. Conclusion: Glass-ionomers-cements presented lower values of surface free energy and surface roughness than zinc phosphate and resin cements, indicating that their surfaces are less prone to biofilm adhesion. Practical implications: Within limitations of an in vitro trial, our results indicate that glass-ionomers-cements could be the cements of choice for fixation of cement retained implant restorations due to superior surface properties compared to zinc phosphate and resin cements, which may result in reduced plaque formation

  11. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  12. Morphological and physical characterization of poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) block copolymers and ionomers thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Daniel Webster, III

    Poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) block copolymers made by living cationic polymerization using a difunctional initiator and the sequential monomer addition technique were analyzed using curve-resolution software in conjunction with high-resolution GPC. Fractional precipitation and selective solvent extraction were applied to a representative sample in order to confirm the identity of contaminating species. The latter were found to be low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymer, diblock copolymer, and higher molecular weight segmented block copolymers formed by intermolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution linking reactions occurring late in the polymerization of the styrene outer blocks. Solvent-cast films of poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) (PS-PIB-PS) block copolymers and block ionomers were analyzed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four block copolymer samples with center block molecular weights of 52,000 g/mol and PS volume fractions (o sbPS) ranging from 0.17 to 0.31 were studied. All samples exhibited hexagonally packed cylinders of PS within the PIB matrix. Cylinder spacing was in the range 32 to 36 nm for most samples, while cylinder diameters varied from 14 to 21 nm. Porod analysis of the scattering data indicated the presence of isolated phase mixing and sharp phase boundaries. PS-PIB-PS block copolymers and ionomers therefrom were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile testing. The study encompassed five block copolymer samples with similar PIB center blocks with molecular weights of approx52,000 g/mol and PS weight fractions ranging from 0.127 to 0.337. Ionomers were prepared from two of these materials by lightly sulfonating the PS outer blocks. Sulfonation levels varied from 1.7 to 4.7 mol % and the sodium and potassium neutralized forms were compared to the parent block copolymers. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the block copolymer films indicated the existence

  13. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard Petersen, H.; Almdal, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nanotech, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kusano, Y.; Broendsted, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant. (Author)

  14. Glass/ceramic coatings for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsia, Antoni P [Pinole, CA; Saiz, Eduardo [Berkeley, CA; Gomez-Vega, Jose M [Nagoya, JP; Marshall, Sally J [Larkspur, CA; Marshall, Grayson W [Larkspur, CA

    2011-09-06

    Glass coatings on metals including Ti, Ti6A14V and CrCo were prepared for use as implants. The composition of the glasses was tailored to match the thermal expansion of the substrate metal. By controlling the firing atmosphere, time, and temperature, it was possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25-150 .mu.m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate. The optimum firing temperatures ranged between 800 and 840.degree. C. at times up to 1 min in air or 15 min in N.sub.2. The same basic technique was used to create multilayered coatings with concentration gradients of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and SiO.sub.2.

  15. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  16. an Adhesive Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mojtaba Taghizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-in-adhesive transdermal drug delivery systems  TDDSs containing stimulants, termed as energetic substances, such as caffeine and pantothenic acid, were studied. Caffeine is a white crystalline substance and a stimulant to central nervous system. In humans, caffeine acts as a central nervous system stimulant, temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness. Pantothenic acid, also recognized as vitamin B5, is a water-soluble vitamin. For many animals, pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient. Animals require pantothenic acid to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates and fats. For this purpose caffeine and pantothenic acid were  used  as  drug  components with  6.32%  and  1.12%  loadings,  in  different functional and non-functional acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs of 52.89%, respectively. Ethylene glycol as a chemical enhancer was used in all TDDSs with 39.67%. The effect of PSAs  type on  in vitro  release and adhesion properties  (peel strength and tack values from drug delivery devices were evaluated. It was found that TDDS containing -COOH functional PSA showed  the  lowest steady state fux. The adhesion properties of the samples were improved by addition of functional acrylic PSA in formulations.

  17. Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, Edith; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2013-01-01

    During inflammation, leukocytes play a key role in maintaining tissue homeostasis through elimination of pathogens and removal of damaged tissue. Leukocytes migrate to the site of inflammation by crawling over and through the blood vessel wall, into the tissue. Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (ie,

  18. Adhesive tape exfoliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Single-crystal graphite can be cleaved by the use of an adhesive tape. This was also the initial route for obtaining graphene, a one-layer thick graphite slab. In this letter a few simple and fun considerations are presented in an attempt to shed some light on why this procedure is successful...

  19. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported